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Sample records for antioxidant enzyme levels

  1. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

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    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  2. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semsang, Nuananong, E-mail: nsemsang@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, LiangDeng [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  3. Blood antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    M. Jalali

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disorder with unknown etiology. In recent years, a great number of studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidas (GSH-Px, Super oxide dismotase (SOD in patients with RA compared with the healthy subjects. Methods: In a case-control study sixty rheumatoid arthritis patients 18-75 years old and 60 healthy sex and age-matched controls were selected, Catalase activity was measured by determining the constant rate (k of hydrogen peroxide decomposition. GSH-Px activity of plasma was measured with spectrophotometer by Glutathione oxide generation due to GSH-Px. SOD activity is measured by degree of inhibition effect of SOD in generating super oxide radicals by xanthine and xanthine oxidase. C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor values were determined by agglutination and latex tests. Results: The plasma activity of catalase (p0.05. There was a negative significant relation between C reactive protein and Rheumatoid factor values with the erythrocyte activity of catalase and GSH-Px (p<0.01. Conclusion: These results suggested that oxidative stress plays a very important role in the inflammation and pathogenesis of RA.

  4. Study of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in tobacco chewers and smokers: A pilot study

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    Chundru Venkata Naga Sirisha

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. Therefore an early intervention of tobacco habit and its related oxidative stress would prevent the development of tobacco induced lesions.

  5. Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea

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    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plants. SNAP (50 μM was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt stress negatively affected growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

  6. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

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    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  7. Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers.

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    Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Tauler, Pedro; Martínez, Elisa; Bibiloni, Maria M; Micol, Vicente; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2011-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg/100 ml verbascoside. After the intervention all subjects participated in a swimming session for 30 min maintaining the intensity at about 75-80% of their individual best performance time for a 50-m swim. In lymphocytes, the superoxide dismutase activity increased after exercise, with a higher increase in the PLX group. Swimming increased the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the PLX group. Purified glutathione reductase activity increased after an in vitro incubation with PLX. No effects were observed on the lymphocyte levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, but exercise increased the percentage of high-damaged lymphocytes 2.8 times in the placebo group and 1.5 times in the PLX group. PLX decreased the levels of 17-β-estradiol and testosterone and increased the levels of the sex hormone binding globulin. In conclusion, supplementation with phytoestrogens enhances the glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the superoxide dismutase activity in lymphocytes in response to exercise. PLX also shows direct antioxidant properties, by increasing glutathione reductase enzyme activity in vitro. Supplementation with phytoestrogens also decreases the plasma steroid hormone levels, pointing towards a possible agonistic effect of verbascoside in the hypothalamic regulation of estradiol synthesis.

  8. Toxaphene affects the levels of mRNA transcripts that encode antioxidant enzymes in Hydra.

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    Woo, Seonock; Lee, Aekyung; Won, Hyokyoung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Yum, Seungshic

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated toxaphene-induced acute toxicity in Hydra magnipapillata. The median lethal concentrations of the animals (LC(50)) were determined to be 34.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L and 12.0 mg/L after exposure to toxaphene for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Morphological responses of hydra polyps to a range of toxaphene concentrations suggested that toxaphene negatively affects the nervous system of H. magnipapillata. We used real-time quantitative PCR of RNA extracted from polyps exposed to two concentrations of toxaphene (0.3 mg/L and 3 mg/L) for 24 h to evaluate the differential regulation of levels of transcripts that encode six antioxidant enzymes (CAT, G6PD, GPx, GR, GST and SOD), two proteins involved in detoxification and molecular stress responses (CYP1A and UB), and two proteins involved in neurotransmission and nerve cell differentiation (AChE and Hym-355). Of the genes involved in antioxidant responses, the most striking changes were observed for transcripts that encode GPx, G6PD, SOD, CAT and GST, with no evident change in levels of transcripts encoding GR. Levels of UB and CYP1A transcripts increased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to toxaphene. Given that toxaphene-induced neurotoxicity was not reflected in the level of AChE transcripts and only slight accumulation of Hym-355 transcript was observed only at the higher of the two doses of toxaphene tested, there remains a need to identify transcriptional biomarkers for toxaphene-mediated neurotoxicity in H. magnipapillata. Transcripts that respond to toxaphene exposure could be valuable biomarkers for stress levels in H. magnipapillata and may be useful for monitoring the pollution of aquatic environments.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups and serum levels of anti-oxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis

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    Fernandez-Moreno Mercedes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress play a main role in the initiation and progression of the OA disease and leads to the degeneration of mitochondria. To prevent this, the chondrocytes possess a well-coordinated enzymatic antioxidant system. Besides, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups are associated with the OA disease. Thus, the main goal of this work is to assess the incidence of the mtDNA haplogroups on serum levels of two of the main antioxidant enzymes, Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (Mn-SOD or SOD2 and catalase, and to test the suitability of these two proteins for potential OA-related biomarkers. Methods We analyzed the serum levels of SOD2 and catalase in 73 OA patients and 77 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups J, U and H, by ELISA assay. Knee and hip radiographs were classified according to Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L scoring from Grade 0 to Grade IV. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed to test the effects of clinical variables, including gender, body mass index (BMI, age, smoking status, diagnosis, haplogroups and radiologic K/L grade on serum levels of these enzymes. Results Serum levels of SOD2 appeared statistically increased in OA patients when compared with healthy controls (p Conclusions The increased levels of SOD2 in OA patients indicate an increased oxidative stress OA-related, therefore this antioxidant enzyme could be a suitable candidate biomarker for diagnosis of OA. Mitochondrial haplogroups significantly correlates with serum levels of catalase

  10. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

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    Oranuch Nakchat

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat.

  11. Activity levels and expression of antioxidant enzymes in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in artificially aged rice seed.

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    Yin, Guangkun; Xin, Xia; Song, Chao; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jinmei; Wu, Shuhua; Li, Ruifang; Liu, Xu; Lu, Xinxiong

    2014-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species are the main contributors to seed deterioration. In order to study scavenging systems for reactive oxygen species in aged seed, we performed analyses using western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, high-performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant enzyme activity analyses in artificially aged rice seeds (Oryza sativa L. cv. wanhua no.11). Aging seeds by storing them at 50 °C for 1, 9, or 17 months increased the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide levels and reduced the germination percentage from 99% to 92%, 55%, and 2%, respectively. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) did not change in aged seeds. In contrast, the activity levels of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) were significantly decreased in aged seeds, as were the expression of catalase and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase protein. Transcript accumulation analysis showed that specific expression patterns were complex for each of the antioxidant enzyme types in the rice embryos. Overall, the expression of most genes was down-regulated, along with their protein expression. In addition, the reduction in the amount of ascorbate and glutathione was associated with the reduction in scavenging enzymes activity in aged rice embryos. Our data suggest that the depression of the antioxidant system, especially the reduction in the expression of CAT1, APX1 and MDHAR1, may be responsible for the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in artificially aged seed embryos, leading to a loss of seed vigor.

  12. Change in Free Radical and Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in the Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

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    Ozan, Gonca; Kıbar, Kurtuluş; Erışır, Mine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to determine the changes in oxidative damage and antioxidant parameters in open heart surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in preoperative and early postoperative periods. Methods. A total of three consecutive arterial blood samples were obtained from the patients in the study group, in preoperative, early postoperative, and postoperative periods, respectively. Oxidative damage indicator (MDA) and antioxidant indicators (GPx, GSH, CAT, and SOD) were examined. Results. A statistically significant increase was observed in MDA level in postoperative period compared to preoperative and early postoperative periods. GSH levels and CAT activities increased significantly in early postoperative and postoperative periods. Analyses revealed an increase in GPx and SOD enzyme activities only in the postoperative period. Conclusion. Even though the increase in MDA level was suppressed by the increased GSH level and CAT activity like in early postoperative period, efficiency can be brought for the increases in insufficient significant antioxidant parameters in postoperative period by administering antioxidant supplements to the patients and thus the increase in MDA in postoperative period can be significantly suppressed. PMID:28101295

  13. The relationship between serum level of thyroid hormones, trace elements and antioxidant enzymes in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Nazifi, S; Mansourian, M; Nikahval, B; Razavi, S M

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormones might be able to regulate the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The role of thyroid hormones in metabolic pathways and antioxidant enzyme activities are well known in many species. Nevertheless, there is no report describing probable relationship between thyroid hormones status, erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and serum profiles of trace elements. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between these parameters in Iranian dromedary camels. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 30 clinically healthy Iranian dromedary camels under aseptic conditions during 6 consecutive days of summer. The serum was analyzed for serum profile of thyroid hormones, trace elements, SOD and GPX activity. There were no significant differences in serum thyroid hormones, serum level of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), selenium and antioxidant enzymes in different days (P > 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between SOD and Fe (P < 0.01, r = -493). There was no significant correlation between other parameters. In case of copper deficiency likewise the present study, the copper was used to produce more SOD, so there was a decrease in Fe transportation, and it might be a cause of decrease in Fe amount. On the other hand, a relatively small quantity of Fe is present in tissue myoglobin, catalase, peroxidases, and cytochromes. So it might be another cause of decrease in Fe amount. The explanation for these finding is not possible at this moment and further investigations are needed to interpret these changes.

  14. Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes in Hemocytes from Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Exposed to an Elevated Level of Copper.

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    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Xian, Jian-An; Qian, Kun; Wang, An-Li

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the expression level of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in hemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to copper by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the mRNA expression of Cu, Zn-SOD increased to reach a peak at 6 h, then recovered to its normal level at 48 h. CAT expression level was significantly increased at 12 h and reached a peak at 24 h, but recovered to its normal level later. GPx expression level was significantly increased at 6 h and reached the peak at 12 h. GST expression level was significantly induced from 12 to 24 h and then dropped to its normal level at 48 h. These results indicated that antioxidant enzymes were inducible, possibly for removing excessive reactive oxygen species to protect prawn from oxidative stress.

  15. Effects of supplemental zinc source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers.

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    Liu, Z H; Lu, L; Wang, R L; Lei, H L; Li, S F; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental Zinc (Zn) source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers. Dietary treatments included the Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) and basal diets supplemented with 60, 120, or 180 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate, Zn amino acid chelate with a weak chelation strength of 6.5 quotient of formation (Qf) (11.93% Zn) (Zn-AA W), Zn proteinate with a moderate chelation strength of 30.7 Qf (13.27% Zn) (Zn-Pro M), or Zn proteinate with an extremely strong chelation strength of 944.0 Qf (18.61% Zn) (Zn-Pro S). The results showed that dietary supplemental Zn increased (P enzymes in the abdominal fat and liver of broilers. Dietary Zn source, and an interaction between Zn source and level, had no effects on any measurements. It is concluded that dietary Zn supplementation improved Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability and activities and gene expressions of fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers regardless of Zn source and level, and the addition of 60 mg Zn/kg to the corn-soybean meal basal diet (a total dietary Zn of approximately 90 mg/kg) was appropriate for improving the above aspects of broilers.

  16. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

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    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields.

  17. Oxidative stress determined through the levels of antioxidant enzymes and the effect of N-acetylcysteine in aluminum phosphide poisoning

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    Avinash Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The primary objective of this study was to determine the serum level of antioxidant enzymes and to correlate them with outcome in patients of aluminum phosphide (ALP poisoning and, secondly, to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC given along with supportive treatment of ALP poisoning. Design: We conducted a cohort study in patients of ALP poisoning hospitalized at a tertiary care center of North India. The treatment group and control group were enrolled during the study period of 1 year from May 2011 to April 2012. Interventions: Oxidative stress was evaluated in each subject by estimating the serum levels of the enzymes, viz. catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GR. The treatment group comprised of patients who were given NAC in addition to supportive treatment (magnesium sulfate and vasopressors, if required, while in the control group, only supportive treatment was instituted. The primary endpoint of the study was the survival of the patients. Measurements and Results: The baseline catalase (P = 0.008 and SOD (P < 0.01 levels were higher among survivors than non-survivors. Of the total patients in the study, 31 (67.4% expired and 15 (32.6% survived. Among those who expired, the mean duration of survival was 2.92 ± 0.40 days in the test group and 1.82 ± 0.33 days in the control group (P = 0.043. Conclusions: This study suggests that the baseline level of catalase and SOD have reduced in ALP poisoning, but baseline GR level has not suppressed but is rather increasing with due time, and more so in the treatment group. NAC along with supportive treatment may have improved survival in ALP poisoning.

  18. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

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    Oranuch Nakchat; Nonthaneth Nalinratana; Duangdeun Meksuriyen; Sunanta Pongsamart

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role and mechanism of tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) on normal human skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells under normal and oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods:Tamarind seed coats were extracted with boiling water and then partitioned with ethyl acetate before the cell analysis. Effect of TSCE on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activity including antioxidant protein expression was investigated. Results: TSCE significantly attenuated intracellular ROS in the absence and presence of H2O2 by increasing GSH level. In the absence of H2O2, TSCE significantly enhanced SOD and catalase activity but did not affected on GPx. Meanwhile, TSCE significantly increased the protein expression of SOD and GPx in H2O2-treated cells. Conclusions: TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat.

  19. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice

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    Nor Syahida Aliahmat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old, middle-aged (12 months old, and old (18 months old. Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight, tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg, and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg. The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes

  20. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Oranuch Nakchat; Nonthaneth Nalinratana; Duangdeun Meksuriyen; Sunanta Pongsamart

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role and mechanism of tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) on normal human skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells under normal and oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods: Tamarind seed coats were extracted with boiling water and then partitioned with ethyl acetate before the cell analysis. Effect of TSCE on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glut...

  1. Effect of long term exposure of low doses of lambda- cyhalothrin on the level of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes of the pregnant rats and their offspring

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    Kadir Tukhtaev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lambda- cyhalothrin (LCT is a pyrethroid insecticide class, which is widely used for pest control in agriculture, public health, home and garden. In the present study we investigated the effect of long term exposure of low doses of the LCT on the state of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection of pregnant rats and their offspring. It was revealed, that prolonged exposure of lambda-cyhalothrin leads to the development of oxidative stress in both of pregnant females and their offspring. The highest level of lipid peroxidation detected on 14-21 days of pregnancy, which was accompanied by a reduction in activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the offspring highest level of oxidative stress observed on 7-14 days of lactation. The degree of oxidative stress in offspring decreases as the cessation of receipt of a pesticide or its toxic metabolites in breast milk.

  2. L-carnitine Mediated Reduction in Oxidative Stress and Alteration in Transcript Level of Antioxidant Enzymes in Sheep Embryos Produced In Vitro.

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    Mishra, A; Reddy, I J; Gupta, P S P; Mondal, S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the effect of L-carnitine on oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development, with L-carnitine-mediated alteration if any in transcript level of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2) in oocytes and developing sheep embryos produced in vitro. Different concentrations of L-carnitine (0 mm, 2.5 mm, 5 mm, 7.5 mm and 10 mm) were used in maturation medium. Oocytes matured with 10 mm L-carnitine showed significantly (p carnitine were not significantly different. Maturation rate was not influenced by supplementation of any experimental concentration of L-carnitine. There was a significant (p carnitine-treated oocytes and embryos than control group. Antioxidant effect of L-carnitine was proved by culturing oocytes and embryos with H2O2 in the presence of L-carnitine which could be able to protect oocytes and embryos from H2O2-induced oxidative damage. L-carnitine supplementation significantly (p carnitine supplementation during in vitro maturation reduces oxidative stress-induced embryo toxicity by decreasing intracellular ROS and increasing intracellular GSH that in turn improved developmental potential of oocytes and embryos and alters transcript level of antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Bisphenol A alters n-6 fatty acid composition and decreases antioxidant enzyme levels in rat testes: a LC-QTOF-based metabolomics study.

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    Minjian Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male reproductive toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been widely reported. The testes have proven to be a major target organ of BPA toxicity, so studying testicular metabolite variation holds promise for the discovery of mechanisms linked to the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered doses of BPA at the levels of 0, 50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. We used an unbiased liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF-based metabolomics approach to discover, identify, and analyze the variation of testicular metabolites. Two n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA and arachidonic acid (AA were identified as potential testicular biomarkers. Decreased levels of LA and increased levels of AA as well as AA/LA ratio were observed in the testes of the exposed group. According to these suggestions, testicular antioxidant enzyme levels were detected. Testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD declined significantly in the exposed group compared with that in the non-exposed group, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px as well as catalase (CAT also showed a decreasing trend in BPA treated group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BPA caused testicular n-6 fatty acid composition variation and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. This study emphasizes that metabolomics brings the promise of biomarkers identification for the discovery of mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity.

  4. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels in human erythrocytes exposed to colloidal iron hydroxide in vitro

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    Ferreira A.L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The free form of the iron ion is one of the strongest oxidizing agents in the cellular environment. The effect of iron at different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 µM Fe3+ on the normal human red blood cell (RBC antioxidant system was evaluated in vitro by measuring total (GSH and oxidized (GSSG glutathione levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and reductase (GSH-Rd activities. Membrane lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS. The RBC were incubated with colloidal iron hydroxide and phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.45, at 37oC, for 60 min. For each assay, the results for the control group were: a GSH = 3.52 ± 0.27 µM/g Hb; b GSSG = 0.17 ± 0.03 µM/g Hb; c GSH-Px = 19.60 ± 1.96 IU/g Hb; d GSH-Rd = 3.13 ± 0.17 IU/g Hb; e catalase = 394.9 ± 22.8 IU/g Hb; f SOD = 5981 ± 375 IU/g Hb. The addition of 1 to 100 µM Fe3+ had no effect on the parameters analyzed. No change in TBARS levels was detected at any of the iron concentrations studied. Oxidative stress, measured by GSH kinetics over time, occurs when the RBC are incubated with colloidal iron hydroxide at concentrations higher than 10 µM of Fe3+. Overall, these results show that the intact human RBC is prone to oxidative stress when exposed to Fe3+ and that the RBC has a potent antioxidant system that can minimize the potential damage caused by acute exposure to a colloidal iron hydroxide in vitro.

  5. Physiological and biochemical responses of Suaeda fruticosa to cadmium and copper stresses: growth, nutrient uptake, antioxidant enzymes, phytochelatin, and glutathione levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankaji, I; Caçador, I; Sleimi, N

    2015-09-01

    Environmental pollution by trace metal elements (TMEs) is a serious problem worldwide, increasing in parallel with the development of human technology. The present research aimed to examine the response of halophytic species Suaeda fruticosa to oxidative stress posed by combined abiotic stresses. Plants have been grown for 1 month with an irrigation solution supplemented with 200 mM NaCl and 400 μM Cd(2+) or 400 μM Cu(2+). The level of glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins (PCs), and antioxidant enzyme activities [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT)] as well as lipid peroxidation was studied to see the stress exerted by the TME and the level of tolerance and detoxification strategy adopted by S. fruticosa. Relative growth rate (RGR) decreased under Cd(2+) stress in this species, whereas Cu(2+) did not have any impact on S. fruticosa performance. Cd(2+) or Cu(2+) enhanced malondialdehyde, suggesting reactive oxygen species-induced disruption of membrane integrity and oxidative stress in S. fruticosa. On the other hand, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT, APX, and GPX diminished and mineral nutrition was disturbed by metal stress. S. fruticosa was able to synthesize PCs in response to TME toxicity. However, data indicate that GSH levels underwent a significant decrease in roots and leaves of S. fruticosa stressed by Cd(2+) or Cu(2+). The GSH depletion accompanied by the increase of phytochelatin concentration suggests the involvement of GSH in the synthesis of phytochelatins.

  6. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace element...

  7. Alterations in antioxidants enzymes and Malondialdehyde status in preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Ihim Augustin; Uduji Hellen Ifeoma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was done to determine and evaluate the level of antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA) in preeclamptic women. Method: 100 preeclamptic and 100 healthy pregnant women between the age of 20-32 attending General Hospital Owerri were selected in this study. Fasting veinous blood was collected and was used for the estimation of antioxidant enzymes and malondiadehyde. Result: The result obtained showed that the level of MDA was significantly increased in preeclamptic pregnant women when compared with the healthy control (P<0.05). On the other hand, the level of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was significantly reduced in preeclamptic women when compared with the control(P<0.05). Conclusions: This observation showed that the antioxidants are excessively used to attenuate the cellular changes mediated by free radicals. Hence, the level of antioxidants are depleted.

  8. Effects of Different Levels of Water Stress on Leaf Water Potential, Stomatal Resistance, Protein and Chlorophyll Content and Certain Anti-oxidative Enzymes in Tomato Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hatem Zgallai; Kathy Steppe; Raoul Lemeur

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed in order to investigate the effects of different levels of water stress on leaf water potential (ψw), stomatal resistance (rs), protein content and chlorophyll (Chi) content of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Nikita). Water stress was induced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG 6 000) to the nutrient solution to reduce the osmotic potential (ψs). We investigated the behavior of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), during the development of water stress. Moderate and severe water stress (i.e.ψs= -0.51 and -1.22 MPa, respectively) caused a decrease in ψw for all treated (water-stressed) plants compared with control plants, with the reduction being more pronounced for severely stressed plants. In addition, rs was significantly affected by the induced water stress and a decrease in leaf soluble proteins and Chi content was observed. Whereas CAT activity remained constant, SOD activity was increased in water-stressed plants compared with unstressed plants. These results indicate the possible role of SOD as an anti-oxidant protector system for plants under water stress conditions. Moreover, it suggests the possibility of using this enzyme as an additional screening criterion for detecting water stress in plants.

  9. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Kharazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace elements between fertile and idiopathic infertile men.Methods: Semen specimens were collected from 30 infertile men with proven infertility by an urologist, and 30 fertile men as control donors, with age range between 20-40 years old. Semen analysis was conducted by CASA method. Atomic absorption method was used for measuring of zinc and selenium concentration. Activity assays of SOD and GPX were performed by Randox Kits. Aebi method also was applied for evaluation of catalase activity.Results: There was no difference between the activities of enzymes in fertile men and infertile ones. Also, it wasn't seen any difference in the selenium and zinc levels of seminal plasma. There was no relationship between evaluated items with sperm parameters. Only, in asthenoteratospermic individuals negative correlations were found between GPX and sperm motility, selenium and sperm morphology. Also, in these individuals ,there was a positive correlation between SOD and catalse activity.Conclusion: Measuring activities of SOD, GPx, and catalase and the contents of zinc and selenium of seminal plasma do not appear to be suitable tools for determining the fertility potential of sperm.

  10. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in male infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandekar S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mammalian spermatozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and are very susceptible to attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane lipid peroxide ion. Normally a balance is maintained between the amount of ROS produced and that scavenged. Cellular damage arises when this equilibrium is disturbed. A shift in the levels of ROS towards pro-oxidants in semen and vaginal secretions can induce an oxidative stress on spermatozoa. The aim was to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD and to correlate the same, with the ′water test′, in male infertility. SETTINGS: Experimental study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ejaculates from a total of 83 infertile and fertile healthy individuals were obtained. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels were studied and correlated with water test. RESULTS: The results indicate that (i the antioxidant enzyme catalase showed no significant changes in the various pathological samples, (ii antioxidant enzymes SOD and glutathione peroxidase correlate positively with asthenozoospermic samples and (iii the degree of lipid peroxidation also correlates positively with the poorly swollen sperm tails. The increase in SOD and glutathione peroxidase values, in the pathological cases represents an attempt made to overcome the reactive oxygen species. CONCLUSION: Water test could be used as a preliminary marker test for sperm tail damage by reactive oxygen species, since it correlates very well with lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes.

  11. Relationship between Estradiol and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity of Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests the neuroprotection of estrogen provided by the antioxidant activity of this compound. The main objective of this study was to determine the level of estradiol and its correlation with the activity of antioxidant enzymes, total antioxidant status and ferritin from ischemic stroke subjects. The study population consisted of 30 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 30 controls. There was no significant difference between estradiol in stroke and control group. The activity of superoxide dismutase and level of ferritin was higher in stroke compared with control group (<.05, <.001, resp.. There was no significant correlation between estradiol and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, total antioxidant status, and ferritin in stroke and control groups. We observed inverse correlation between estradiol with superoxide dismutase in males of stroke patients (=−0.54, =.029. Our results supported that endogenous estradiol of elderly men and women of stroke or control group has no antioxidant activity.

  12. Effect of different levels dietary vitamin C on growth performance, muscle composition, antioxidant and enzyme activity of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii

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    Annamalai Asaikkutti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was conducted to examine the effects and interactions of dietary vitamin C levels on the growth performance, antioxidant ability, muscle composition and enzyme activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (M. malcolmsonii. Additional, the vitamins C was dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn M. malcolmsonii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with M. malcolmsonii at the rates of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented vitamin C was fed in M. malcolmsonii for a period of 90 days. In the present investigation revealed that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C shows enhanced (P  0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR were observed in prawn fed different diets. Addition, prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C supplemented diets achieved significant (P  0.05 alterations in prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamin C supplemented diets. Therefore, the present study proposed that 100 mg/kg of vitamin C could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival; growth, antioxidant defense system and production of M. malcolmsonii.

  13. Effect of different levels of alpha tocopherol on performance traits, serum antioxidant enzymes, and trace elements in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica under low ambient temperature

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    Assar Ali Shah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was designed to find the effect of vitamin E supplementation on growth, serum antioxidant enzymes, and some trace elements in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica under low ambient temperature. A total of 180 day-old Japanese quails were randomly divided into four groups and provided with 0 (group A, 50 (group B, 100 (group C, and 150 IU/kg (group D vitamin E (dl-α-tocopherol acetate under an average temperature of 9±0.5 °C for an experimental period of 42 days. The result showed that feed intake per day, body weight, weight gain per day, and feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly between the groups. Serum concentrations of superoxide and glutathione peroxidase were significantly high in birds supplemented with 150 mg/kg of vitamin E. The concentration of aspartate aminotransferase was not significantly affected between the control and treated groups; however, alanine transaminase concentration significantly reduced in group D. Zinc concentration in the blood increased significantly in group D, with no significant effect on copper and manganese between the control and treated groups. Vitamin E at the level of 150 IU/kg of feed improves the blood antioxidant status and zinc concentration, with no effect on the performance traits of quail reared under low ambient temperature.

  14. Effect of different levels of nickel in nutrient solution containing NH4NO3 on lipid peroxidation and activity of some antioxidant enzymes in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanaei Ostovar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is necessary for plants at low concentrations; but excess Ni has toxic effects on plant growth. In this research, the effects of different Ni levels (0, 50, 100 and 200 µM from NiCl2 on leaf antioxidative response of two cucumber cultivars (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Super Dominus and Negin supplied with NH4NO3 as nitrogen source in nutrient solution was investigated. The results showed that by increasing Ni concentration in the nutrient solution and growth period, Ni concentration in the leaves of both cucumber cultivars was increased. This increase was greater at the vegetative growth stage compared with the reproductive stage. Higher levels of malonedialhdeyde (MDA were also produced at the vegetative stage with respect to the reproductive stage. Application of 50 µM Ni significantly reduced MDA concentration, produced from lipid peroxidation, in comparison with the Ni-free control treatment. The effect of Ni on catalase (CAT activity was dependent on the cucumber cultivar and concentration of this element in the growth medium. At the vegetative stage, Ni addition had no significant effect on activity of CAT in Super Dominus cultivar, while significantly reduced leaf activity of CAT in Negin cultivar. At the reproductive stage, Ni addition reduced activity of CAT in comparison with Ni-free treatment, regardless of the cucumber cultivar. Results showed that at the vegetative stage, application of 50 µM Ni to the growth medium resulted in lower activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX in the leaves of both cucumber cultivars. By increasing the Ni level to 100 and 200 µM, the activity of this enzyme was increased. At the reproductive stage, activity of the ascorbate peroxidase (APX in the leaves was dependent on the cultivar and concentration of this element in the medium. According to the results obtained from the present study, in general, the effect of Ni on activity of antioxidant enzymes in cucumber leaves varies with plant cultivar

  15. Investigation of Propolis’ Effect on Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Levels of Hippocampus in Diabetic Rats Induced by Streptozotocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Burcu; Emre, Memet Hanifi; Polat, Alaadin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Propolis is an organic resinous viscous substance collected from flower bud and plant sprig by bees. Propolis has a potential treatment agent for oxidative damage caused by diabetes in hippocampus due to its flavonoid and phenolic content. AIM: In this study effect of propolis on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and anti-oxidative enzyme levels of hippocampus in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved measuring levels of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and TBARs in hippocampus tissue of STZ-induced diabetic rats (Adult Male Sprague Dawley rats) after applying propolis for one month. The subjects of the study were composed of 51 rats randomly assigned to four groups (Control, STZ, P+STZ and STZ+P). For analysis of data, Kruskal Wallis Test was utilized. RESULTS: The findings of the study showed that there were no significant difference in the levels of TBARS, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px of hippocampus across the groups. CONCLUSION: Propolis application in four-week duration does not have effect on TBARS, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px levels of hippocampus of diabetic rats. These findings mean that more time for observing oxidative harms on hippocampus is needed. PMID:27275196

  16. Effects of squalene/squalane on dopamine levels, antioxidant enzyme activity, and fatty acid composition in the striatum of Parkinson's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuto, Hideaki; Yamanushi, Tomoko T; Janjua, Najma; Takayama, Fusako; Mankura, Mitsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Active oxygen has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD); therefore, antioxidants have attracted attention as a potential way to prevent this disease. Squalene, a natural triterpene and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, is known to have active oxygen scavenging activities. Squalane, synthesized by complete hydrogenation of squalene, does not have active oxygen scavenging activities. We examined the effects of oral administration of squalene or squalane on a PD mouse model, which was developed by intracerebroventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Squalene administration 7 days before and 7 days after one 6-OHDA injection prevented a reduction in striatal dopamine (DA) levels, while the same administration of squalane enhanced the levels. Neither squalene nor squalane administration for 7 days changed the levels of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, or superoxide dismutase activities in the striatum. Squalane increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a marker of lipid peroxidation, in the striatum. Both squalane and squalene increased the ratio of linoleic acid/linolenic acid in the striatum. These results suggest that the administration of squalene or squalane induces similar changes in the composition of fatty acids and has no effect on the activities of active oxygen scavenging enzymes in the striatum. However, squalane increases oxidative damage in the striatum and exacerbates the toxicity of 6-OHDA, while squalene prevents it. The effects of squalene or squalane treatment in this model suggest their possible uses and risks in the treatment of PD.

  17. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  18. Cofactor metals and antioxidant enzymes in cisplatin-treated rats: effect of antioxidant intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncuoglu, Suna; Eken, Ayse; Aydin, Ahmet; Ozgunes, Hilal; Orhan, Hilmi

    2015-10-01

    We explored the association between the activities of antioxidant enzymes and their metallic cofactors in rats treated with cisplatin. The antioxidant effects of aminoguanidine, and a combination of vitamins E and C were investigated. Plasma platin was significantly lower than liver and kidney. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase in plasma Se-glutathione peroxidase activity. Activities of Se-glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase have been found to be significantly decreased in liver and kidney compared to controls. Zn levels in these organs were diminished upon cisplatin treatment, while levels of Cu were unaffected. Interestingly, levels of iron, the cofactor of catalase, were found to be significantly increased in liver and kidney. Intervention with aminoguanidine or vitamins was generally prevented cisplatin-caused changes in the activity of enzymes and in the tissue levels of cofactor metals. These observations suggest that relation between activities of enzymes and levels of cofactor metals is multifactorial.

  19. Neonatal morphine administration leads to changes in hippocampal BDNF levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in the adult life of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozisky, J R; Laste, G; de Macedo, I C; Santos, V S; Krolow, R; Noschang, C; Vanzella, C; Bertoldi, K; Lovatel, G A; de Souza, I C C; Siqueira, I R; Dalmaz, C; Caumo, W; Torres, I L S

    2013-03-01

    It is know that repeated exposure to opiates impairs spatial learning and memory and that the hippocampus has important neuromodulatory effects after drug exposure and withdrawal symptoms. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to assess hippocampal levels of BDNF, oxidative stress markers associated with cell viability, and TNF-α in the short, medium and long term after repeated morphine treatment in early life. Newborn male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of morphine (morphine group) or saline (control group), 5 μg in the mid-scapular area, starting on postnatal day 8 (P8), once daily for 7 days, and neurochemical parameters were assessed in the hippocampus on postnatal days 16 (P16), 30 (P30), and 60 (P60). For the first time, we observed that morphine treatment in early life modulates BDNF levels in the medium and long term and also modulates superoxide dismutase activity in the long term. In addition, it was observed effect of treatment and age in TNF-α levels, and no effects in lactate dehydrogenase levels, or cell viability. These findings show that repeated morphine treatment in the neonatal period can lead to long-lasting neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of male rats, and indicate the importance of cellular and intracellular adaptations in the hippocampus after early-life opioid exposure to tolerance, withdrawal and addiction.

  20. A comparison of metal levels and antioxidant enzymes in freshwater snails, Lymnaea natalensis, exposed to sediment and water collected from Wright Dam and Lower Mguza Dam, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwela, A H; Nyathi, C B; Naik, Y S

    2010-10-01

    We compared the bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) with antioxidant enzyme activity in tissues of the snails, Lymnaea natalensis, exposed to elements of two differently polluted dams. 45 snails were exposed to sediment and water collected from Wight Dam (reference) whilst another 45 snails were also exposed to sediment and water collected from Lower Mguza Dam (polluted dam). Except for Fe in sediment and Pb in water, metal concentrations were statistically higher in sediment and water collected from Lower Mguza Dam. Lead, Cd and Zn were two times higher in tissues of snails exposed to Lower Mguza Dam elements. On one hand, superoxide dismutase (SOD), diphosphotriphosphodiaphorase (DTD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly lower whilst malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly higher in tissues of snails exposed to Lower Mguza Dam sediment and water. On the other hand, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPX) activity was significantly elevated in tissues of snails exposed to Lower Mguza Dam sediment and water. Snails exposed to Lower Mguza Dam elements seem to have responded to pollution by increasing CAT and Se-GPX specific activity in an effort to detoxify peroxides produced as a result of metal induced oxidative stress.

  1. Effects of diet containing monosodium glutamate on organ weights, acute blood steroidal sex hor mone levels, lipid profile and er ythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of diet containing monosodium glutamate on visceral organ weights, acute blood steroidal sex hormone levels, serum lipid profile (SLP and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities of Wistar rats. Methods: The Wistar rats were grouped into two groups of six rats each. The ones in Group 1 (control group were placed on water and pelletized standard guinea feed ad libitum, whereas Group 2 was regarded as test group [Wistar rats (WR-monosodium glutamate (MSG group] and the Wistar rats received water, compounded diet of MSG and pelletized standard guinea feed ad libitum. After 33 days of feeding study, rat body weight was obtained. Rats were sacrificed and the incisions were made into the thoracic cavity and blood samples were drawn by cardiac puncture as a terminal event. Plasma was assayed for estradiol and testosterone concentrations, SLP and erythrocyte peroxidase and catalase activities. Visceral organ weights were also measured. Results: WR-MSG exhibited marginal alterations in blood estradiol and testosterone concentrations. Elevation of serum triacylglycerol concentration in WR-MSG was corresponded to 77.7%. Increases in serum concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in WR-MSG were corresponded to 70.6% and 41.0% respectively. Erythrocyte peroxidase and catalase activities showed marginal alterations. Alterations in visceral organs-to-body weights ratios were not profound. Conclusions: Blood testosterone and estradiol concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05 altered, which may not be connected with the low dose of MSG in the diet. Marginal alterations of SLP did not indicate atherogenicity in WR-MSG. The visceral organs were not atrophic or hypertrophic because of the comparatively low dose of MSG consumed by WR-MSG and the duration of the feeding experiment.

  2. Peroxisome proliferation and antioxidant enzymes in transplanted mussels of four basque estuaries with different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbea, Amaia; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2006-06-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of changes in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioavailability on peroxisome proliferation and antioxidant enzymes to assess their potential use as pollution biomarkers. For this, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were sampled in Txatxarramendi and transplanted to Arriluze, Muskiz, and Plentzia (northern Spain), and vice versa. Arriluze was the most heavily polluted site, followed by Plentzia, Txatxarramendi, and Muskiz. Animals transplanted from a polluted station to a cleaner station lost contaminant load in three to six weeks, and when transplanted to a more polluted station, they accumulated PAHs and PCBs accordingly. Peroxisomal acyl-A oxidase (AOX) activity was the highest in animals from Arriluze, and animals transplanted to Arriluze showed increased AOX activity, reaching the levels of native mussels. Mussels from Txatxarramendi showed the lowest peroxisomal volume density (Vvp). Among mussels from Txatxarramendi, only those transplanted to Plentzia showed increased Vvp, whereas animals from Arriluze and Muskiz transplanted to Txatxarramendi after 2 d and six weeks, respectively, had decreased Vvp. Two days after transplant, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly lower in mussels from Arriluze and Muskiz, respectively, than in those from Txatxarramendi and than in animals transplanted to Txatxarramendi from these stations. In conclusion, transplant experiments with mussels are useful to assess the effects of pollution. Peroxisome proliferation, measured as induction of AOX or increased Vvp, shows great potential as a biomarker of pollution to be included in pollution monitoring programs. In the present work, we have demonstrated that peroxisome proliferation is a reversible phenomenon in mussels.

  3. Effect of sprint cycle training on activities of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Apple, F. S.; Sjödin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intermittent sprint cycle training on the level of muscle antioxidant enzyme protection was investigated. Resting muscle biopsies, obtained before and after 6 wk of training and 3, 24, and 72 h after the final session of an additional 1 wk of more frequent training, were analyzed...... for activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Activities of several muscle metabolic enzymes were determined to assess the effectiveness of the training. After the first 6-wk training period, no change in GPX, GR, or SOD...... the level of antioxidant protection in the muscle....

  4. Paradoxical Roles of Antioxidant Enzymes: Basic Mechanisms and Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Gen; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bao, Yongping; Ho, Ye-Shih; Reddi, Amit R; Holmgren, Arne; Arnér, Elias S J

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from aerobic metabolism, as a result of accidental electron leakage as well as regulated enzymatic processes. Because ROS/RNS can induce oxidative injury and act in redox signaling, enzymes metabolizing them will inherently promote either health or disease, depending on the physiological context. It is thus misleading to consider conventionally called antioxidant enzymes to be largely, if not exclusively, health protective. Because such a notion is nonetheless common, we herein attempt to rationalize why this simplistic view should be avoided. First we give an updated summary of physiological phenotypes triggered in mouse models of overexpression or knockout of major antioxidant enzymes. Subsequently, we focus on a series of striking cases that demonstrate "paradoxical" outcomes, i.e., increased fitness upon deletion of antioxidant enzymes or disease triggered by their overexpression. We elaborate mechanisms by which these phenotypes are mediated via chemical, biological, and metabolic interactions of the antioxidant enzymes with their substrates, downstream events, and cellular context. Furthermore, we propose that novel treatments of antioxidant enzyme-related human diseases may be enabled by deliberate targeting of dual roles of the pertaining enzymes. We also discuss the potential of "antioxidant" nutrients and phytochemicals, via regulating the expression or function of antioxidant enzymes, in preventing, treating, or aggravating chronic diseases. We conclude that "paradoxical" roles of antioxidant enzymes in physiology, health, and disease derive from sophisticated molecular mechanisms of redox biology and metabolic homeostasis. Simply viewing antioxidant enzymes as always being beneficial is not only conceptually misleading but also clinically hazardous if such notions underpin medical treatment protocols based on modulation of redox pathways.

  5. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....

  6. Transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes after ionizing irradiation in radiation-resistant and radiation-sensitive mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hardmeier, Rosmarie; Hoeger, Harald; Fang-Kircher, Susanne; Khoschsorur, Ali; Lubec, Gert

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase in radiobiological processes has been described at the enzyme activity level. We irradiated radiation-resistant (RR) and radiation-sensitive (RS) mice and studied antioxidant enzymes at the transcriptional and activity level. In addition, aromatic hydroxylation and lipid peroxidation parameters were determined to study radiation resistance at the oxidation level. RS BALB/c/J Him m...

  7. Antioxidant enzymes as potential targets in cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Enzyme antioxidants: the next stage of pharmacological counterwork to the oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vavaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT, methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extracellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and bioeconomy.

  8. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee

    2016-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress. PMID:28074103

  9. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthinee Anantachoke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  10. Antioxidant enzymes activities in obese Tunisian children

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    Sfar Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxidant stress, expected to increase in obese adults, has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. It results when free radical formation is greatly increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are compromised. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant response to obesity-related stress in healthy children. Methods A hundred and six healthy children (54 obese and 52 controls, aged 6–12 years old, participated in this study. The collected data included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase: SOD, Catalase: CAT and Glutathione peroxidase: GPx. Results The first step antioxidant response, estimated by the SOD activity, was significantly higher in obese children compared with normal-weight controls (p  Conclusions The obesity-related increase of the oxidant stress can be observed even in the childhood period. In addition to the complications of an increased BMI, obesity itself can be considered as an independent risk factor of free radical production resulting in an increased antioxidant response.

  11. Effects of paraquat on lifespan and level of expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in worker bees of Apis mellifera ligustica%百草枯对蜜蜂寿命及抗氧化酶基因表达影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文祥; 王欢; 张飞; 吴小波; 曾志将

    2012-01-01

    本研究用200、400和600 mg/L的百草枯饲喂刚出房的意大利蜜蜂Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola工蜂,检测其对工蜂寿命及抗氧化酶基因Sod 1和Sod 2表达的影响,并以饲喂蔗糖作为对照组.结果表明:随着百草枯浓度的增加,工蜂的寿命极显著下降(P<0.01);抗氧化酶基因Sod 1的相对表达量,随着百草枯浓度的增加而增加,其中对照组Sod 1基因的相对表达量显著低于各百草枯处理组(P <0.05);Sod 2基因的相对表达量,随着百草枯浓度的增加,先增加后减少,其中600 mg/L百草枯处理组Sod 2基因的相对表达量显著低于对照组和低剂量百草枯处理组(P<0.05).%We investigated the effects of paraquat on lifespan and the level of expression of mRNA for the antioxidant enzyme genes Sod 1 and Sod 2 in newly emerged worker bees of Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. Paraquat was given at doses of 200 mg/L, 400 mg/L and 600 mg/L. Bees in the control group were fed sucrose. The results showed that lifespans of honey bees decreased with the increase of paraquat concentration( P < 0. 01) . The relative level of expression of the antioxidant enzyme gene Sod 1 increased linearly with the increase of paraquat concentration and it was significantly lower in the control group than in the paraquat-treated groups ( P < 0. 05). In contrast, the relative level of expression of the antioxidant enzyme gene Sod 2 increased initially but then decreased with the increase of paraquat concentration. The level of expression of this gene was significantly lower in the high-dosage paraquat-treated group (600 mg/L) than that in both the control group and the low-and middle-dosage paraquat-treated groups ( P < 0. 05).

  12. Thioredoxin 1 in Prostate Tissue Is Associated with Gleason Score, Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Dietary Antioxidants

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    Terrence M. Vance

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the US. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in prostate cancer. Methods. In this study, thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1, an enzyme and subcellular indicator of redox status, was measured in prostate biopsy tissue from 55 men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. A pathologist blindly scored levels of Trx 1. The association between Trx 1 and the Gleason score, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, and dietary antioxidant intake was determined using Fisher’s exact test. Results. Trx 1 levels in benign prostate tissue in men with incident prostate cancer were positively associated with the Gleason score (P=0.01 and inversely associated with dietary antioxidant intake (P=0.03. In prostate cancer tissue, Trx 1 levels were associated with erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (P=0.01. No association was found for other erythrocyte enzymes. Greater Gleason score of malignant tissue corresponds to a greater difference in Trx 1 levels between malignant and benign tissue (P=0.04. Conclusion. These results suggest that the redox status of prostate tissue is associated with prostate cancer grade and both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of ginger on anti-oxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Kondeti Ramudu; Mallikarjuna, Korivi; Kesireddy, Nishanth; Sathyavelu Reddy, Kesireddy

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger on oxidative stress markers in the mitochondrial fractions of cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB), hippocampus (HC) and hypothalamus (HT) of diabetic rats. Diabetes exacerbates neuronal injury induced by hyperglycemia mediated oxidative damage. A marked decrease in anti-oxidant marker enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in the diabetic rats. Decreased activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in diabetic rats were augmented on oral administration of ginger. Moreover, ginger administration depleted the MDA level, which was earlier increased in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that ginger exhibit a neuroprotective effect by accelerating brain anti-oxidant defense mechanisms and down regulating the MDA levels to the normal levels in the diabetic rats. Thus, ginger may be used as therapeutic agent in preventing complications in diabetic patients.

  14. Identification and characterization of antioxidant enzyme mRNAs in the rat epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, A; Schlegel, P N

    1997-04-01

    Spermatozoa are highly sensitive to oxidative stress. The epididymis, a natural sperm reservoir, has maturational and storage functions. The epididymis may also protect spermatozoa from oxidative injury by elaborating scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, we have evaluated the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes in the normal rat epididymis and the effects of efferent duct ligation no the expression of these enzymes. Adult rat epididymides were harvested, divided into caput, corpus and cauda and processed for RNA extraction. Additional adult rats were subjected to unilateral efferent duct ligation and the epididymides harvested at 1, 4, 8, 16 or 28 days after the procedure. Antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression was assessed by Northern blot analysis using 32P-labelled DNA probes derived from known cDNA sequences for classical cellular glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX), secretory epididymal glutathione peroxidase (E-GPX), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD), secretory epididymal superoxide dismutase (E-SOD) and catalase. Specific mRNA levels were measured, with gene expression evaluated relative to total RNA, not per organ. Variations in lane loading were controlled by measuring the levels of 28S ribosomal RNA. GSHPx, PHGPX, SOD and catalase mRNA were detected in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. E-GPX mRNA was only detected in the caput, whereas E-SOD mRNA was primarily detected in the corpus. At 28 days after efferent duct ligation, epididymal weight decreased by 34% relative to controls (p < 0.05). With the exception of PHGPX, the relative mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes studied did not change after efferent duct ligation. This study demonstrates that mRNAs for multiple antioxidant enzymes are expressed in the epididymis and that the relative expression of these enzymes remains largely unchanged in response to efferent duct ligation. Taken together, these results suggest

  15. Trace elements and antioxidant enzymes in extremely low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Andrea; Raab, Andrea; Maier, Rolf F; Brätter, Peter; Obladen, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Oxygen radicals are believed to contribute to typical diseases of prematurity, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Our aim was to investigate whether these disorders are associated with disturbances in antioxidant enzyme activities and with low trace elements, which are co-factors of antioxidant enzymes. 209 infants with birthweight less than 1000g were enrolled into a European multicentre randomised erythropoietin (rhEPO) trial; 155 developed one or more of the above mentioned diseases. We analysed Zn, Cu, Fe, Se in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs), superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in RBCs on the 3rd and 68th day of life. Zn, Fe, Se in plasma, and Se in RBCs decreased (p<0.01), and Zn in RBC (p<0.001), CuZn-SOD (p<0.01) and CAT increased (p<0.05), whereas GSH-Px remained unchanged. No differences were observed between the rhEPO and control groups. Antioxidant enzyme activities did not correlate with gestational age. In infants with BPD, IVH, ROP, or NEC, CuZn-SOD and CAT (p<0.05) were higher at day 68 than in infants without these diseases. CuZn-SOD and GSH-Px at 3 days and CuZn-SOD at 68 days correlated positively (p<0.05) with the duration of oxygen treatment. In conclusion, in ELBW infants, trace element concentrations decreased over the first 10 weeks of life. Lower trace element concentrations, did not affect the activities of CuZn-SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT. Typical diseases of prematurity were not associated with decreased antioxidant enzyme activities.

  16. Alternations of salivary antioxidant enzymes in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaieni, S H; Derakhshan, Z; Sariri, R

    2015-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with chronic systemic inflammation. Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of SLE. An increase in free radicals or an impaired antioxidant defense system in SLE causes oxidative stress. Therefore, oxidative damage plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. Variations in antioxidant activity have been previously studied in serum of patients with this disease. However, salivary factors have not been evaluated. Considering that saliva, the noninvasive biological fluid, could be a reflection of the state of health, the purpose of this study was evaluation of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in the saliva of patients with SLE. During the course of the practical part of the project, 30 patients with SLE and 30 healthy controls were selected to donate their saliva samples. After centrifugation of un-stimulated saliva, biological activity of POD, CAT and SOD were evaluated on their appropriate substrates using spectrophotometric methods and the results were statistically analyzed. The results showed that activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were significantly reduced in saliva of SLE patients as compared to controls. The results suggest that antioxidant status was impaired in the saliva of SLE patients, and antioxidant status of saliva could be one of the non-invasive markers for SLE.

  17. Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemipour, H.; Kermanshahi, H.; Golian, A.; Veldkamp, T.

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, an

  18. Evaluating the influence of National Research Council levels of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc using organic (Bioplex) minerals on resulting tissue mineral concentrations, metallothionein, and liver antioxidant enzymes in grower-finisher swine diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowanlock, D W; Mahan, D C; Jolliff, J S; Hill, G M

    2015-03-01

    Graded levels of a trace mineral premix containing an organic (Bioplex) source of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn was evaluated with additional treatments containing organic Zn or Fe. Grower-finisher pigs were fed from 25 to 115 kg BW. The number of pigs in the experiment, the breeding/genetics of the pigs, the management, and the average age of the pigs were previously reported. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design in 7 replicates. Treatments were 1) basal diet without supplemental Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn; 2) basal diet + 2.5 mg/kg Cu, 50 mg/kg Fe, 1.5 mg/kg Mn, and 40 mg/kg Zn (50% NRC); 3) basal diet + 5 mg/kg Cu, 100 mg/kg Fe, 3 mg/kg Mn, and 80 mg/kg Zn (100% NRC); 4) basal diet + 25 mg Zn/kg; 5) basal diet + 50 mg Zn/kg; and 6) basal diet + 50 mg Fe/kg. Selenium and I were added to all diets at 0.3 and 0.14 mg/kg, respectively. Diets were composed of corn-soybean meal, dicalcium phosphate, and limestone with phytase added to enhance mineral availability. Three pigs per pen were bled at 55, 80, and 115 kg BW and plasma was analyzed for microminerals. When the average replicate BW was 115 kg, 3 pigs per pen of an equal gender ratio were killed. The liver, kidney, and heart were removed and analyzed for microminerals. Liver, duodenum, and jejunal metallothionein and the antioxidant enzymes in the liver containing these microminerals were determined. The results demonstrated that plasma minerals were unaffected at the 3 BW intervals. Liver and duodenum metallothionein protein were greater ( dietary micromineral levels increased but jejunum metallothionein did not change as microminerals increased. The activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) was not affected as the levels of the micromineral increased, whereas the activity of Mn SOD increased slightly ( dietary micromineral levels increased and also when Zn was added singly to the diet. Liver, kidney, and heart Cu and Mn concentrations were similar at the various micromineral levels. The

  19. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamgoue, Armelle D.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Tarkang, Protus A.; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844

  20. [The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and on the level of stable NO metabolites in the rat testes and blood plasma at the early stages of streptozotocine-induced diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorid'ko, T M; Kosiakova, H V; Berdyshev, A H; Bazylians'ka, V R; Margitych, V M; Gula, N M

    2012-01-01

    The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine was investigated on the activity of enzymes of antioxidant protection and content of stable metabolites of nitric oxide (NO) in the testes and plasma of rats at the early stages of development of streptozotocine-induced diabetes mellitus. It was shown that the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase is reduced in the plasma and testes of animals with streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg) diabetes (blood glucose 8-10 mmol/L). A significant increase in the amount of nitrite and nitrate anions was revealed in the plasma of rats, while only the level of nitrite was significantly changed in the testes of animals. The per os administration of the NSE aqueous suspension in a dose of 50 mg/kg during 10 days to the rats with induced diabetes contributed to the normalization of catalase activity in the testis, which correlated with a decrease in the amount of TBA-reacting products and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the blood plasma of animals; the use of NSE also contributed to the reduction of nitrite content in the gonads and to normalization of both nitrite and nitrate in the blood plasma of rats. The NSE administration to intact animals caused an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and significantly reduced the content of stable NO metabolites in the blood plasma of animals.

  1. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Radosław; Jabłonowska, Monika; Ściskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and β-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

  2. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Milnerowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and β-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis.

  3. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in endometrium of patients with polyps, myoma, hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma

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    Pajović Snežana B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been proposed as a potential factors involved in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states, including carcinogenesis. In this study, we explored the lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in women diagnosed with different forms of gynecological diseases in order to evaluate the antioxidant status in endometrium of such patients. Methods Endometrial tissues of gynecological patients with different diagnoses were collected and subjected to assays for superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lipid hydroperoxides. Results Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased (50% in average in hyperplastic and adenocarcinoma patients. Activities of both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased 60% and 100% on average, in hyperplastic patients, while in adenocarcinoma patients only glutathione reductase activity was elevated 100%. Catalase activity was significantly decreased in adenocarcinoma patients (47%. Lipid hydroperoxides level was negatively correlated to superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and positively correlated to glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. Conclusions This study provided the first comparison of antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in endometrial tissues of patients with polyps, myoma, hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. The results showed that patients with premalignant (hyperplastic and malignant (adenocarcinoma lesions had enhanced lipid peroxidation and altered uterine antioxidant enzyme activities than patients with benign uterine diseases, polyps and myoma, although the extent of disturbance varied with the diagnosis. Further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed alterations and whether lipid hydroperoxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in uterus of gynecological patients

  4. Higher Plasma Pyridoxal Phosphate Is Associated with Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Critically Ill Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsiang Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patients experience severe stress, inflammation and clinical conditions which may increase the utilization and metabolic turnover of vitamin B-6 and may further increase their oxidative stress and compromise their antioxidant capacity. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between vitamin B-6 status (plasma and erythrocyte PLP oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities in critically ill surgical patients. Thirty-seven patients in surgical intensive care unit of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, were enrolled. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte PLP, serum malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined on the 1st and 7th days of admission. Plasma PLP was positively associated with the mean SOD activity level on day 1 (r=0.42, P<0.05, day 7 (r=0.37, P<0.05, and on changes (Δ (day 7 − day 1 (r=0.56, P<0.01 after adjusting for age, gender, and plasma C-reactive protein concentration. Higher plasma PLP could be an important contributing factor in the elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in critically ill surgical patients.

  5. Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Glutathione Precursor on Antioxidant Enzyme and Cell Survival in Yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Roh, Changhyun; Ryu, Taeho; Park, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Michael A. [Oxiage Cosmeceutical Research Institute, Virginia (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Cells react to such an induced oxidative stress through scavenging the generated reactive oxygen species to reduce oxidative damage. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase are immediately triggered for reactive oxygen species. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, is one of the antioxidants. The effect of NAC as an antioxidant and/or a cell rescue agent was investigated in the present study. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular thiol, which involves in antioxidant defense via direct interaction with ROS or via activities of detoxication enzymes like glutathione peroxidases (GPx). NAC flowed in the cell is converted to cysteine by deacetylation, that is supplied to the depleted GSH by oxidative stress. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity such as GPx and alkaline phosphatase. Cell growth and survivorship and transcriptional level of glutathione gene are analyzed in two yeast strains exposed to combined treatment of NAC with gamma-rays. The effect of NAC on cell growth was measured during 72 hours. The cell growth was hampered by higher concentrations of NAC at stationary phase. NAC, however, didn't affect the cell division at the exponential phase. The survival of the cells decreased with radiation dose. The cell viability of the strain W303-1A was reduced significantly at the low dose (10 and 30 Gy). By comparison, the strain W303-1A was more sensitive to radiation with having a half lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of about 20 Gy. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional expression of antioxidant enzyme gene GPX1 increased after irradiation while the expression of the gene decreased by the combined treatment of NAC with 100 Gy radiation. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge ROS against oxidative stress in vivo. In conclusion, NAC can prevent radiation-induced oxidative

  6. Natural Antioxidants, Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes of Different Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eqbal M.A. Dauqan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant plays a very important role in the body defense system against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. The free radicals also play an important role in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, biochemistry and biotechnology including human physiology. Fats and oils are energy sources that are composed mostly of triacylglycerols. Lipid ptofile are risk indicators of coronary heart disease. Various types of lipoproteins exist, but the two most abundant are Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL and High-density Lipoprotein (HDL. Lipid peroxidation is the introduction of a functional group containing two catenated oxygyen atomsinto unsturated fatty acids in a free radical reaction. Life in oxygen has led to the evolution of biochemical adaptations that exploit the reactivity of Active Oxygen Species (AOS. Antioxidant enzymes are an important protective mechanism ROS. This paper highlight the functions of antioxidants in the blood and selected organs associated with health.

  7. Salt-induced hydrogen peroxide is involved in modulation of antioxidant enzymes in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Xiangqian Li; Jinyao Li; Qian Bao; Fuchun Zhang; Gulinuer Tulaxi; Zhicai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Salt severely restricts cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) growth and production. The present study was undertaken to study the effect of salt-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on antioxidant enzymes in cotton. NaCl treatment or exogenous H2O2 was used to investigate the relationship between H2O2 content and levels of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), as well as the transcriptional levels of corresponding genes. H2O2 content increased within 24 h following 200 mmol L–1 NaCl treatment. Both NaCl-induced and exogenous H2O2 increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes including APX and SOD and upregulated the transcriptional levels of GhcAPX1, GhFeSOD, and GhchlCSD. These increased activities and upregulated transcriptional levels were inhibited when the salt-induced H2O2 was scavenged by NAC. These results indicate that salt-induced H2O2 as a second signaling messenger modulates APX and SOD activities by regulating the transcription levels of corresponding genes, alleviating oxidative stress, and increasing salt tolerance in cotton.

  8. Alterations of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and serum trace elements associated with anemia in bovine tropical theileriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S M; Nazifi, S; Bateni, M; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2011-08-25

    In order to investigate the alterations of erythrocyte protective antioxidant mechanisms, lipid peroxidation and trace elements associated with anemia in bovine tropical theileriosis, an infected group comprised of 50 crossbred Holstein cattle, about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria annulata, were divided into 4 subgroups according to their parasitemia rates (5%) and also 10 healthy cattle as control were selected. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase and serum concentrations of some antioxidant trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese and selenium) were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. The results showed a conspicuous decrease in the activities of SOD, GPX and catalase (P<0.01), and a significant decrease in the serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn and Se in cattle with higher than 1% parasitemia (P<0.05) compared to the control. In addition, remarkable elevations in the MDA level (P<0.01) and serum concentration of iron (P<0.05) were observed in the infected animals. These findings pointed to the occurrence of exacerbating oxidative injuries to erythrocytes during parasitemia. Furthermore, it can be concluded that infection with T. annulata can interfere with protective antioxidant mechanisms of RBCs against oxidative damages, which promote the development of anemia.

  9. The effect of bilirubin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilkaya, A; Yeğin, A; Ozdem, S; Aksu, T A

    1998-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that bilirubin may act as a potent biological chain-breaking antioxidant. To observe the effects of free bilirubin on antioxidant reactions in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes (15 g hemoglobin/dl), we added bilirubin at four different concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/dl). We measured the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and reduced glutathione levels, and some antioxidant enzyme activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and chemiluminescent signals decreased during the incubation. Superoxide dismutase activities also decreased but not as much as in the control group. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities and reduced glutathione levels increased, but catalase activities remained the same as the control group. Our results suggest that bilirubin--in the concentrations we have used--partially prevented the oxidant effects of cumene hydroperoxide.

  10. Antioxidant enzymes responses to cadmium in radish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitória, A P; Lea, P J; Azevedo, R A

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the antioxidant responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) to cadmium (Cd) treatment, seedlings of a tolerant variety were grown in increasing concentrations of CdCl(2), ranging from 0.25-1 mM, for up to 72 h in a hydroponic system. Analysis of Cd uptake indicated that most of the Cd accumulated in the roots, but some was also translocated and accumulated in the leaves, especially at the higher concentrations of Cd used in the experiments. Roots and leaves were analysed for catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. Catalase and glutathione reductase activities increased considerably in the roots and leaves after 24 h exposure to the metal, indicating a direct correlation with Cd accumulation. The analysis of native PAGE enzyme activity staining, revealed several superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in leaves, with the two predominant isoenzymes exhibiting increases in activity in response to Cd treatment. The results suggest that in radish, the activity of antioxidant enzymes responds to Cd treatment. The main response may be via the activation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle for the removal of hydrogen peroxide, or to ensure the availability of glutathione for the synthesis of Cd-binding proteins.

  11. Vaccination with antioxidant enzymes confers protective immunity against challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip T LoVerde

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni, an intravascular parasite, lives in a hostile environment in close contact with host humoral and cellular cytotoxic factors. To establish itself in the host, the parasite has evolved a number of immune evasion mechanisms, such as antioxidant enzymes. Our laboratory has demonstrated that the expression of antioxidant enzymes is developmentally regulated, with the highest levels present in the adult worm, the stage least susceptible to immune elimination, and the lowest levels in the larval stages, the most susceptible to immune elimination. Vaccination of mice with naked DNA constructs containing Cu/Zn cytosolic superoxide dismutase (CT-SOD, signal-peptide containing SOD or glutathione peroxidase (GPX showed significant levels of protection compared to a control group. We have further shown that vaccination with SmCT-SOD but not SmGPX results in elimination of adult worms. Anti-oxidant enzyme vaccine candidates offer an advance over existing vaccine strategies that all seem to target the larval developmental stages in that they target adult worms and thus may have therapeutic as well as prophylactic value. To eliminate the potential for cross-reactivity of SmCT-SOD with human superoxide dismutase, we identified parasite-specific epitope-containing peptides. Our results serve as a basis for developing a subunit vaccine against schistosomiasis.

  12. Antioxidant Activity and Induction of mRNA Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Mangmool, Supachoke; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2015-08-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera, collected in different provinces in Thailand, were determined for the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, major components, and antioxidant activity. The extract and its major active components were investigated for the inhibition of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production and the effects on antioxidant enzymes mRNA expression. The extract, crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, significantly reduced the reactive oxygen species production inducing by H2O2 in HEK-293 cells. Treatment with isoquercetin significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and heme oxygenase 1. These results confirm that M. oleifera leaves are good sources of natural antioxidant with isoquercetin as an active compound.

  13. Endothelial delivery of antioxidant enzymes loaded into non-polymeric magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorny, Michael; Hood, Elizabeth; Levy, Robert J; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2010-08-17

    Antioxidant enzymes have shown promise as a therapy for pathological conditions involving increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However the efficiency of their use for combating oxidative stress is dependent on the ability to achieve therapeutically adequate levels of active enzymes at the site of ROS-mediated injury. Thus, the implementation of antioxidant enzyme therapy requires a strategy enabling both guided delivery to the target site and effective protection of the protein in its active form. To address these requirements we developed magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNP) formed by precipitation of calcium oleate in the presence of magnetite-based ferrofluid (controlled aggregation/precipitation) as a carrier for magnetically guided delivery of therapeutic proteins. We hypothesized that antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), can be protected from proteolytic inactivation by encapsulation in MNP. We also hypothesized that catalase-loaded MNP applied with a high-gradient magnetic field can rescue endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide toxicity in culture. To test these hypotheses, a family of enzyme-loaded MNP formulations were prepared and characterized with respect to their magnetic properties, enzyme entrapment yields and protection capacity. SOD- and catalase-loaded MNP were formed with average sizes ranging from 300 to 400 nm, and a protein loading efficiency of 20-33%. MNP were strongly magnetically responsive (magnetic moment at saturation of 14.3 emu/g) in the absence of magnetic remanence, and exhibited a protracted release of their cargo protein in plasma. Catalase stably associated with MNP was protected from proteolysis and retained 20% of its initial enzymatic activity after 24h of exposure to pronase. Under magnetic guidance catalase-loaded MNP were rapidly taken up by cultured endothelial cells providing increased resistance to oxidative stress (62+/-12% cells rescued from hydrogen peroxide induced

  14. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation as biomarker compounds for potato tuber stored by gamma radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Amina A Aly; Abeer E El-Ansary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the capability of gamma irradiation for inhibiting sprouting of potato tubers.Methods:S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), in addition to lipid peroxidation level were tested in potato tubers stored for 3, 6 and 9 weeks. Gamma irradiation with five treatments (0, 30, 50, 100 and 200 Gy) was used to control germination process of potato tubers. Results: Gamma radiation was able to maintain potato tuber for 6 weeks. The main biomarkers for validity of potato tuber during storage were studying antioxidant enzyme activitiesi.e. The enzymes activities i.e. peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), glutathione-POD, PPO, GST, SOD, CAT enzyme activities as well as lipid peroxidation during storage time. Conclusions: The optimum dose was 50 Gy which prevented the sprouting initiation all over the storage period without casting undesirable rotting for potato tubers. At this dose all antioxidant enzyme activities i.e. POD, PPO, GST, SOD, CAT enzyme activities as well as lipid peroxidation level during storage time recorded the best rates.

  15. Haem Biosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzymes in Circulating Cells of Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Miguel D.; Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Capó, Xavier; Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M.; García-Diz, Luis; Roche, Enrique; Murcia, María A.; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the expression pattern of haem biosynthesis enzymes in circulating cells of patients affected by two types of porphyria (acute intermittent, AIP, and variegate porphyria, VP), together with the antioxidant enzyme pattern in AIP in order to identify a possible situation of oxidative stress. Sixteen and twelve patients affected by AIP and VP, respectively, were analysed with the same numbers of healthy matched controls. Erythrocytes, neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were purified from blood, and RNA and proteins were extracted for quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western-blot analysis, respectively. Porhobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene and protein expression was analysed. Antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression were additionally determined in blood cells, together with protein carbonyl content in plasma. PBMCs isolated from AIP patients presented low mRNA levels of PBGD when compared to controls, while PBMCs isolated from VP patients presented a decrease in PPOX mRNA. PPOX protein content was higher in AIP patients and lower in VP patients, compared to healthy controls. Regarding antioxidant enzymes, PBMCs and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) presented statistically significant higher activity in AIP patients compared to controls, while catalase activity tended to be lower in these patients. No differences were observed regarding antioxidant gene expression in white blood cells. Circulating cells in AIP and VP patients present altered expression of haem biosynthetic enzymes, which could be useful for the differential diagnosis of these two types of porphyria in certain difficult cases. AIP patients present a condition of potential oxidative stress similar to VP patients, evidenced by the post-transcriptional activation of SOD and possible catalase impairment. PMID:27788171

  16. Effect of sound wave stress on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of Dendrobium candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Wei, Jinmin; Wei, Xiaolan; Tang, Kun; Liang, Yilong; Shu, Kunxian; Wang, Bochu

    2008-06-01

    The effect of sound wave stress on important medicinal plant, Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl, was investigated, including the responses on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the activities change of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Results were found that the activities of SOD, CAT, POD and APX enhanced totally in different organs of D. candidum, as leaves, stems and roots, in response to the stress. Furthermore there happened similar shift of antioxidant enzymes activities, which increased in the initial stimulation and decreased afterwards. Data showed SOD, CAT, POD and APX activities ascended to max at day 9, 6, 9 and 12 in leaves, at day 9, 6, 12 and 9 in stems, and at day 12, 6, 9 and 9 in roots, respectively. As a lipid peroxidation parameter, MDA content in different organs increased in the beginning, dropped afterward, and increased again in the late. Anyway the total trend was the rise of MDA level compared to the control. It was interesting that the MDA content appeared the lowest levels almost when the antioxidant enzymes activities were up to the highest. Our results demonstrated the different organs of D. candidum might produce accumulation of active oxygen species (AOS) under initial treatment of sound wave stress. Later AOS might start to reduce due to the enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activities treated by the stress. The data revealed that the antioxidant metabolism was to be important in determining the ability of plants to survive in sound stress, and the up regulation of these enzymes activities would help to reduce the build up of AOS, which could protect plant cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, different cell compartments might activate different defensive system to reduce excessive amount of AOS. Finally the mechanism of this action was also discussed simply.

  17. Cerebral antioxidant enzyme increase associated with learning deficit in type 2 diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suge, Rie; Shimazu, Tomokazu; Hasegawa, Hajime; Inoue, Ikuo; Hayashibe, Hidemasa; Nagasaka, Hironori; Araki, Nobuo; Katayama, Shigehiro; Nomura, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shu-Ichi

    2012-10-24

    In this study, we examined alterations in the enzymatic antioxidant defenses associated with learning deficits induced by type 2 diabetes, and studied the effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone on these learning deficits. Learning ability was assessed by visual discrimination tasks in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, as a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes. Levels of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Cu(2+)-Zn(2+) superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and manganese SOD were measured in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Half the rats received oral pioglitazone (20mg/kg/day) from the early stage of diabetes (22 weeks old) to 27 weeks old. OLETF rats showed learning deficits compared with control, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. GPx levels in the cortex and hippocampus were increased in OLETF rats compared with LETO rats, with an inverse correlation between GPx in the hippocampus and learning score. CuZn-SOD levels were also increased in the hippocampus in OLETF rats. Pioglitazone reduced blood glucose and increased serum adiponectin levels, but had no effect on learning tasks or antioxidant enzymes, except for CuZn-SOD. These results suggest that an oxidative imbalance reflected by increased brain antioxidant enzymes plays an important role in the development of learning deficits in type 2 diabetes. Early pioglitazone administration partly ameliorated diabetic symptoms, but was unable to completely recover cerebral oxidative imbalance and functions. These results suggest that diabetes-induced brain impairment, which results in learning deficits, may have occurred before the appearance of the symptoms of overt diabetes.

  18. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AND FRESH-CUT ARRACACHA QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hêmina Carla Vilela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The arracacha is an alternative of fresh-cut product; however it can be easily degraded after the processing techniques. The objective of this work was to evaluate the useful life of fresh-cut arracacha submitted to two types of cuts and storage, as well as to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The roots were selected, sanitized and submitted to two cut types: cubed and grated. Then they were evaluated at 3 times: 0, 3 and 7 days. The cutting in cubes provided higher quality and lower SOD, CAT and APX activity. However, the grated product presented higher PG activity and lower PPO activity. The microbiological safety and the nutritional value were maintained in both cuts during the whole storage period. The useful life, regarding the physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological aspects, can be established at 7 days under refrigeration for fresh-cut arracacha.

  19. Effects of phosphorus fertilizer supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Taehyun; Oke, Moustapha; Schofield, Andrew; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2005-03-09

    The effects of soil and foliar phosphorus supplementation on the activities and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in tomato fruits were evaluated by determining enzyme activities and isoenzyme analysis. Both protein levels and enzyme activities varied depending on the variety and season. In general, phosphorus supplementation did not alter SOD, POX, and APX activities significantly;however, some treatments showed season- and stage-specific enhancement in activities as noticed with hydrophos and seniphos supplementation. Three different SOD isozymes were observed, and these isozymes showed very similar staining intensities in response to P application and during the three developmental stages studied. Two major isozymes of POX and two different APX isozymes were observed at all the developmental stages. The results suggest that antioxidant enzyme activities may be influenced by the availability of phosphorus, but are subject to considerable variation depending on the developmental stage and the season.

  20. EFFECTS OF SALT CONCENTRATIONS ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY OF GRAIN SORGHUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridvan Temizgul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine salt response of grain sorghum (Sureno plants through antioxidant defense enzymes and to determine their salt resistanceat biochemical level. Sorghum plants were grown in climate chambers for 15 days in 3 replications in Hoagland growth medium under different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mM. At the end of growing period, roots and leaves were separated and the effects of salt stress were assessed spectrophotometrically through antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll and carotenes. Root CAT increased until 100 mM, SOD, APX and GST activities increased with increasing salt concentrations until 150 mM and then they all decreased. Increasing salt concentrations elevated MDA accumulation in sorghum roots. Leaf SOD and APX activities and proline contents increased until 150 mM and CAT, GR and GST activities increased until 100 mM and then they all decreased. Leaf MDA contents also increased with higher salt concentrations. However, increasing salt concentrations decreased chlorophyll contents at 100 mM, carotene contents increased until 150 mM and then decreased. Although ascending antioxidant enzyme activity improved salt resistance of sorghum plants, increasing concentrations were not found to be sufficient. Thus, further studies with higher concentrations should be carried out to elucidate the case.

  1. Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sujatha; K.C. Chitin; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and testicular steroidogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered with lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed using anesthetic ether. Testes, epididymis,seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were removed and weighed. A 10% testicular homogenate was prepared and cen trifuged at 4°C. The supematant was used for various biochemical estimations. Results: The body weight and the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were reduced in lindane-treated rars. There was asignificant decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reduc tase while an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation was observed. The specific activities of testicular steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were decreased. The levels of DNA, RNA and protein were also decreased in lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane induces oxida tive stress and decreases antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats.

  2. miR-17* suppresses tumorigenicity of prostate cancer by inhibiting mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xu

    Full Text Available Aberrant micro RNA (miRNA expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. Recent studies have shown that the miR-17-92 cluster is overexpressed in many types of cancer. The oncogenic function of mature miRNAs encoded by the miR-17-92 cluster has been identified from the 5' arm of six precursors. However, the function of the miRNAs produced from the 3' arm of these precursors remains unknown. The present study demonstrates that miR-17* is able to suppress critical primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, such as manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPX2 and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2. Transfection of miR-17* into prostate cancer PC-3 cells significantly reduces levels of the three antioxidant proteins and activity of the luciferase reporter under the control of miR-17* binding sequences located in the 3'-untranslated regions of the three target genes. Disulfiram (DSF, a dithiolcarbomate drug shown to have an anticancer effect, induces the level of mature miR-17* and cell death in PCa cells, which can be attenuated by transfection of antisense miR-17*. Increasing miR-17* level in PC-3 cells by a Tet-on based conditional expression system markedly suppresses its tumorigencity. These results suggest that miR-17* may suppress tumorigenicity of prostate cancer through inhibition of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Against Drought Stress Effect of Antioxidant Enzymes of Boron

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    Mahmut Doğan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soybean seeds (Glycine max. L., cv., “A3935 were grown under controlled conditions (25±2 C composed of different boron compounds. In the experiment, 5 groups were determined respectively as potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate (1 mg/1, ammonium tetraborate tetrahydrate (1 mg/1, sodium boron hydride (1 mg/1, lithium tetraborate tetrahydrate (100 mg/1, and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (100 mg/1. The doses used in this study were determined according to the results of a preliminary study. Soybean seeds were exposed to different amounts of drought stress based on time (control, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 days. Activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1, glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2, ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11 and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6 measured. According to the results stress+potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate environment has increased the amount of CAT, decreased the amount GR, APX and SOD. Potassium tetraborate 0.1 mg / l dose administration is the most appropriate critical value, and the most important indicator of drought CAT enzyme found to give the best results.

  4. [Intensity of lipid peroxidation processes and activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes during anemia in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantsev, V V; Grishchenko, O V; Pereĭra, A A; Belous, A M

    1996-01-01

    The given report deals with investigation of the level of spontaneous lipid peroxidation (LPO) (as judged by the accumulation of MDA) and activity of antioxidative enzymes (GSH-peroxidase, GSH-reductase) in red blood cells of pregnant women (24-26 weeks) suffering from minor (blood Hb is 95 g/l) and medium (blood Hb is 85-90 g/l) anemias. We have found that as the anemia becomes deeper, the red blood cells of pregnant women demonstrate a linear increase in the level of spontaneous LPO, which rises by 54% during anemia of moderate severity (p < 0.02) as compared with control. At the same time, simultaneously with LPO, the activity of the above glutathione-containing enzymes increases as the anemia progresses, which, apparently, is of the compensatory nature, aimed at the maintenance of the reduced glutathione pool, the latter being an important component of the cell antioxidative system during LPO activation. The authors think the increased activity of the physiological antioxidative system and intensification of the LPO processes to be a natural adaptive process, since lipid hydroperoxides are the activators of synthesis of prostaglandins, which are required in delivery.

  5. [Clinical and pathogenetic significance of antibodies to antioxidative enzymes in patients with Raynaud's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, L N; Gontar', I P; Zborovskaia, I A; Novikova, O V; Emel'ianov, N N

    2010-01-01

    Patients presenting with systemic scleroderma were found to have antibodies to antioxidative enzymes the levels of which increased with activity of the disease. Taking into account the important role of immune disorders in the development of systemic sclerosis, it can be conjectured that antienzyme antibodies may cause dysregulation of enzymatic systems. Serum antibodies were detected by the original modification of indirect enzyme immunoassay using immobilized antigenic forms of enzymes. All patients with high antibody titers presented with class II-IV Raynaud"s syndrome (RS). Pathogenetic mechanisms of RS are complicated and poorly known, it is supposed to be a multifactor pathology associated with disturbances in neural, vascular, mediator, and immune systems. Reperfusion and free oxygen radicals may also contribute to the development of ischemia in RS. The antioxidative system is known to involve a number of enzymes that neutralize pathogenic effects of free oxygen species. Disturbance of equilibrium between aggressive and protective factors under pathological conditions leads to further aggravation of tissue lesions. The presence of antienzyme antibodies in the blood of patients with primary RS may be regarded as an unfavourable prognostic factor preceding a systemic disease of connective tissue.

  6. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qing [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Xiaomei [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Xiaoyu [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Engineering Research Center of Seawater Utilization Technology, Ministry of Education, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yang Hongsheng, E-mail: hshyang@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Liu Baozhong, E-mail: bzliu@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  7. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Kanter; Omer Coskun; Mustafa Budancamanak

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS)and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats.METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals.All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc,twice a week for 60 d). Tn addition, B, C and D groups also received daily J.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand,received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d.Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment.RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased thelipid peroxidation and liver enzymes,and also decreasedthe antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (aloneor combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipidperoxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increasedthe reduced antioxidant enzyme levels.The weight ofrats decreased in group A,and increased in groups B, Cand D.CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the antioxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats.

  8. Markers of inflammation and antioxidant enzyme activities in restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantović Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is often compromised by the need for repeat revascularization, because of restenosis development. Numerous studies have tried to establish the predictive value of different biochemical markers of restenosis, with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of inflammatory and lipid markers, and major antioxidant enzyme activity for the development of in-stent restenosis (ISR following PCI. Serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, lipoprotein(a and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL levels, as well as serum extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD and catalase (CAT activity were determined in 44 patients before stent implantation procedure, and after 6-month follow-up. Results after follow-up revealed that, in patients that developed angiografically confirmed ISR, the increase in serum hs-CRP levels was significanty higher, compared to those without stenosis. Stent implantation induced compensatory increase in serum antioxidant enzyme activities at follow-up, with significantly lower CAT activity in patients with ISR, possibly contributing to stenosis development. No significant changes in circulating levels of ICAM-1, TGF-β, oxLDL and Lp(a were observed between the groups. In conclusion, serum hs-CRP level and CAT activity may be considered as useful biochemical markers for monitoring patients during follow-up after stent implantation.

  9. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AMONG ORPHANS INFECTED WITH INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATHUM THANI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahittikorn, Aongart; Prasertbun, Rapeepan; Mori, Hirotake; Popruk, Supaluk

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections can negatively impact growth and nutrition in children. The infections can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a variety of illnesses. We measured antioxidant enzyme levels in orphan children infected with intestinal parasites to investigate the influence of nutritional status on antioxidant enzymes. This cross sectional study was conducted at an orphanage in Thailand. Stool samples were obtained from each subject and examined for intestinal parasites. Anthropometric measurements, complete blood count and biochemical parameters, including serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels, were obtained from studied subjects. One hundred twenty-eight children were included in the study. Intestinal parasites were found on microscopic examination of the stools in 36.7% (47/128); 18% (23/128) had a mixed parasite infection. Intestinal protozoa were found in 34.4% of subjects and intestinal helminthes were found in 2.3%. The median GPx level in children infected with intestinal parasites (2.3 ng/ml) was significantly lower than in non-infected children (7.7 ng/ml) (p parasites, 2) non-pathogenic parasites and 3) no intestinal parasite infection, GPx levels differed significantly among three groups (2.2 ng/ml, 2.4 ng/ml and 7.7 ng/ml, respectively) (p parasites (107.2 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in underweight children infected with non-pathogenic parasites (68.6 ng/ml) and without intestinal parasite infections (72.2 ng/ml). The present study identified two key findings: low GPx levels in children with intestinal parasitic infections, and the potential impact of malnutrition on some antioxidants.

  10. Role of antioxidant enzymes and small molecular weight antioxidants in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Paulina; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

    2013-10-01

    Cells in aerobic condition are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may induce damage to biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. In normal circumstances, the amount of ROS is counterbalanced by cellular antioxidant defence, with its main components-antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair and small molecular weight antioxidants. An imbalance between the production and neutralization of ROS by antioxidant defence is associated with oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many age-related and degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), affecting the macula-the central part of the retina. The retina is especially prone to oxidative stress due to high oxygen pressure and exposure to UV and blue light promoting ROS generation. Because oxidative stress has an established role in AMD pathogenesis, proper functioning of antioxidant defence may be crucial for the occurrence and progression of this disease. Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in ROS scavenging and changes of their expression or/and activity are reported to be associated with AMD. Therefore, the enzymes in the retina along with their genes may constitute a perspective target in AMD prevention and therapy.

  11. Effects on antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolytes in Halocnemum strobilaceum under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianPeng Gao; Rui Guo; XiangWen Fang; ZhiGang Zhao; GuoHua Chang; YinQuan Chen; Qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The seedlings ofHalocnermum strobilaceum were cultivated in 0.5% hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.0%, 0.9%, 2.7% and 5.4% of NaCl as well as composite salt (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Si4+) for 20 days; all the contents are in weight ratio. Succulent level, inorganic ions (Na+, K+), organics such as betaine, proline, malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) were measured to reveal its salt tolerance mechanism. When the composite salt concentration reaches 5.4%, SOD activity level, and MDA content is five times the control group; when it reaches 2.7%, the succulent level of seedlings, and the content of K+ in roots is nearly two times the NaCl treatment; the dry weight is more than three times the control group; with the NaCl treatment, MDA is three times the contrast; when the salt concentration is 2.7%, POD reaches the maximum. Results indicate that Si4+, K+, and Ca2+ from composite salt in the roots ofH. strobilaceum improved the water-holding capacity. The activities of antioxidant enzyme were raised by the accumulation of proline and betaine, which increased the salt tolerance. The absorption of K+ promoted the high ratio of K+/Na+ and alleviated the damage of cell membranes ofH. strobilaceum, which is associated with osmotic contents such as betaine and proline.

  12. Effects of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah Armagan; Efkan Uz; H. Ramazan Yilmaz; Sedat Soyupek; Taylan Oksay; Nurten Ozcelik

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of melatonin treatment on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the testicular tissue of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty-six male rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group Ⅰ, control, non-diabetic rats (n = 9); group Ⅱ, STZ-induced,Following 8-week melatonin treatment, all rats were anaesthetized and then were killed to remove testes from the scrotum. Results: As compared to group Ⅰ, in rat testicular tissues of group Ⅱ, increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.01) as well as decreased levels of catalase (CAT) (P < 0.01)and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (P > 0.05) were found. In contrast, as compared to group Ⅱ, in rat testicular tissues of group Ⅲ, levels of MDA decreased (but this decrease was not significant, P > 0.05) and SOD (P < 0.01) as well as CAT (P < 0.05) increased. GSH-Px was not influenced by any of the treatment. Melatonin did not significantly affect the elevated glucose concentration of diabetic group. At the end of the study, there was no significant difference between the melatonin-treated group and the untreated group by means of body and testicular weight.Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus increases oxidative stress and melatonin inhibits lipid peroxidation and might regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes of diabetic rat testes.

  13. Prenatal hormones alter antioxidant enzymes and lung histology in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); B.A. Pacheco; A. Albert; W. Sluiter (Wim); P.K. Donahoe; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.J. Schnitzer; D. Tibboel (Dick)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal administration of dexamethasone (Dex) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) synergistically enhances lung maturity, but TRH suppresses the antioxidant enzyme activity. Prenatal hormonal therapy improves alveolar surfactant content and lung compliance in rat

  14. The Relationship between Plasma Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Sex Hormones during the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavilani, H. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: There is increasing evidence for the role of oxidative stress in female reproductive tract. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes during menstrual cycle. In addition, the relationship between activity of antioxidant enzyme and sex hormones was evaluated. Material and Methods: In this study the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity during the menses, follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in twenty women with regular menstrual cycle were studied. Furthermore, the correlation between activity of antioxidant enzymes and estradiol, progesterone, LH, FSH and testosterone were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity during the menses, follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (P>0.05. We found significant correlation, in luteal phase, between superoxide dismutase and FSH (P<0.05، r=0.44 and LH P<0.05،r=0.54. Also it is observed between LH and glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05، r=0.44. Conclusion: Based on the results, there is no significant difference between antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma during menstrual cycle. In other words, physiologic system of women with regular menstrual cycle can protect body against oxidative stress and this is probably performed due to action of FSH and LH hormones. Keywords: Antioxidants; Menstrual cycle; Sex hormones

  15. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions.

  16. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  17. Biomonitoring of air pollution using antioxidative enzyme system in two genera of family Pottiaceae (Bryophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution.

  18. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Carolyn J.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, cellular redox environment gained significant attention as a critical regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress. Cellular redox environment is a balance between production of reactive oxygen species and their removal by antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the hypothesis that mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells. Vector-control and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpressing human pancreatic c...

  19. Antioxidant enzyme activities in different genders and tissues of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ran; ZHANG Shicui; WANG Changfa; PANG Qiuxiang

    2007-01-01

    Information regarding antioxidant enzymes in amphioxus remains lacking, and this study was carried out to examine the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in different genders and tissues of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense.Results show that (1) CuZn-SOD, CAT and GPX activities in the whole amphioxus B. belcheri tsingtauense were basically at the same levels in male and female amphioxus, whereas both T-SOD and Mn-SOD activities in male amphioxus were significantly higher than that in the female (P<0.05); (2) The testis had significantly higher T-SOD and CuZn-SOD activities than the ovary (P<0.05); (3) CuZn-SOD activity was undetectable in the guts of male and female amphioxus; (4) For both male and female amphioxus, the activities of CAT and GPX in the gonads including testis and ovary were the lowest (P<0.05)among the tissues examined; (5) The gut and gill had the same level GPX activities while the gut had a higher CAT activity; (6) There was no clear difference in CAT and GPX activities in the corresponding tissues between male and female amphioxus. The study on SOD, CAT and GPX activities in different genders and tissues of the protochordate provides data for future comparison of amphioxus antioxidant enzymes with those of invertebrates and vertebrates.

  20. Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Enzymes in Normal and Stressed Rat Fed with Palm Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eqbal M.A. Dauqan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of Red Palm Olein (RPO and Palm Olein (PO on lipid profile and antioxidant enzyme in normal and stressed rat. Approach: Thirty six Sprague Dawley male rats which were randomly divided into six groups of 6 rats per group (tree normal groups and three stressed groups were treated with 15% of RPO and PO for four weeks. Results: The results at 4 weeks of treatment showed a decline in Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C level at RPO and PO for normal and stressed groups compared to the control group. The High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C level increased in RPO and PO of the normal and stressed groups. There was significant decreased (p≤0.05 in the TC in RPO normal group for 4 weeks of treatment compared to the control group while the TC in PO was within the normal range and increased in stressed group. After 4 weeks of treatment the study indicated that there was no significant (p≥0.05 effect on antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase in stressed rat liver but there was a significant decreased (p≤0.05 on catalase in stressed rat liver. Conclusion: These results could be due to the high content of vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols and β-carotene in red palm olein.

  1. Studies on antioxidant activity of teasaponins after hydrolyzed by enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Zhao, Sen; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Xiuying; Wang, Yi

    The biological activity of teasaponins and their molecular structure are closely related, and the activity of saponins may be increased with the change of their molecular structure. In this report, teasaponins were hydrolyzed by Aspergillus niger for increasing the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of teasaponins before and after hydrolyzed was tested by DPPH, and the result showed four new teasaponins were produced after hydrolysis, and their antioxidant activity was increased significantly than the original teasaponins before hydrolysis, the radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was partly up to 95 %.

  2. Antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition as related to disease resistance in postharvest loquat fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cai, Yuting; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-11-15

    Two cultivars of loquat fruit were stored at 20°C for 10days to investigate the relationship between disease resistance, and fatty acid composition and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that decay incidence increased with storage time in both cultivars. A significantly lower disease incidence was observed in 'Qingzhong' fruit than in 'Fuyang', suggesting 'Qingzhong' had increased disease resistance. Meanwhile, 'Qingzhong' fruit also had lower levels of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, and lower lipoxygenase activity, but higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and higher activities of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) compared with 'Fuyang'. These results suggest that the higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and the higher activity of CAT and APX have a role in disease resistance of postharvest loquat fruit.

  3. Effect of selenium on growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of wine related yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, M; Martins, L L; Mourato, M P; Baleiras-Couto, M M

    2015-12-01

    The use of supplements in the diet is a common practice to address nutritional deficiencies. Selenium is an essential micronutrient with an antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic role in human and animal health. There is increasing interest in developing nutritional supplements such as yeast cells enriched with selenium. The possibility of producing beverages, namely wine, with selenium-enriched yeasts, led us to investigate the selenium tolerance of six wine related yeasts. The production of such cells may hamper selenium toxicity problems. Above certain concentrations selenium can be toxic inducing oxidative stress and yeast species can show different tolerance. This work aimed at studying selenium tolerance of a diversity of wine related yeasts, thus antioxidant response mechanisms with different concentrations of sodium selenite were evaluated. Viability assays demonstrated that the yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii showed the highest tolerance for the tested levels of 100 µg mL(-1) of sodium selenite. The evaluation of antioxidative enzyme activities showed the best performance for concentrations of 250 and 100 µg mL(-1), respectively for the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii. These results encourage future studies on the possibility to use pre-enriched yeast cells as selenium supplement in wine production.

  4. Effects of alginate on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei

    2014-06-30

    Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (Palginate also provided significantly positive effect on post-thaw boar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (Palginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (Palginate exhibited a dose-related response on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

  5. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from alfalfa and its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Dong, Xiaofang; Tong, Jianming

    2013-11-01

    In this present study, an efficient complex enzyme-assisted extraction technology was developed and optimized to extract polysaccharides from alfalfa using four factors at five levels central composite rotatable response surface design (CCRD). The experimental data was fitted to a second order polynomial equation with high coefficient of determination values (R(2)>0.95). The results of statistical analysis showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects (Penzyme concentration of 2.5%, 2.0%, 3.0% (weight of alfalfa) of cellulase, papain and pectase, extraction temperature 52.7 °C, extraction pH 3.87, ratio of water to raw material 78.92 mL/g and extraction time 2.73 h. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental extraction yield of alfalfa polysaccharides was 5.05 ± 0.02%, which was well matched with the value (5.09%) predicted by the CCRD model. Moreover, evaluation of the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from alfalfa in vitro suggested that the polysaccharides had good antioxidant effect, especially scavenging activity for hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical, which indicated that the polysaccharides from alfalfa may be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.

  6. Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Del Rio, Daniele; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase (SOD-MC) were investigated in vitro. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The ability of the extract to scavenge three specific reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical anion (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))) was also investigated in order to better evaluate its antioxidant properties. Even if the measures of TAC were relatively low, results clearly established an antioxidant potential of SOD-MC that exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity towards O(2)(-), with a IC(50) 12-fold lower than that of H(2)O(2) or HO(). This lets hypothesis that the antioxidant potential of SOD-MC could be mainly due to its high level of SOD. Moreover, for the first time, an ACE inhibitory activity of SOD-MC (IC(50)=2.4±0.1mg/mL) was demonstrated, showing that its use as a functional food ingredient with potential preventive benefits in the context of hypertension may have important public health implications and should be carefully considered.

  7. Effect of sodium fluoride ingestion on malondialdehyde concentration and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-González, José A; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; García-Ortiz, Liliana; Del Carmen Chima-Galán, María; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, César; González-Rubio, Manuel García-Luna Y

    2010-06-11

    Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress.

  8. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Malondialdehyde Concentration and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-González, José A.; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; García-Ortiz, Liliana; del Carmen Chima-Galán, María; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, César; González-Rubio, Manuel García-Luna y

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress. PMID:20640162

  9. Effect of lindane on antioxidant enzymes in epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C. Chitra; R. Sujatha; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the changes induced by lindane on the antioxidant enzymes in epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats, Methods; Adult male rats were orally administered lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed. The epididymis was removed and weighed and sperm were collected for sperm count, motility and biochemical studies. A 1% homogenate of epididymis was prepared and used for biochemical estimations. Results: In lindane-treated rats, there were significant reductions in the epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motility compared with the controls. Significant decreases in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities and significant increases in the H2O2 generation and lipid peroxidation were also observed in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane decreases the levels of antioxidant enzymes in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats thereby inducing oxidative stress.

  10. Curcumin attenuates CFA induced thermal hyperalgesia by modulation of antioxidant enzymes and down regulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajeet Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2015-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species are signaling mediators of nociceptive pathways. Exogenous administrations of antioxidants show anti-hyperalgesic effect. However, very little is known about the role of endogenous antioxidant defense system in pain pathology. Curcumin is a dietary antioxidant which shows ameliorative effect on thermal hypersensitivity, however detailed study is lacking. Present study was aimed to analyze the changes in oxidative stress, modulation of antioxidant enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines in complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammatory hyperalgesia and the effect of curcumin on antioxidant defense system and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Anti-hyperalgesic activity of curcumin was evidenced after 6 h of treatment. Oxidative stress was evidenced in paw skin and spinal cord of hyperalgesic rats by high level of lipid peroxidation. A decrease in activity of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and an increase in level of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in paw skin was observed as compared to normal rats. However, activity of antioxidant enzymes was enhanced in spinal cord. The changes were brought towards normal level after curcumin treatment. The results suggest that modulation of antioxidant defense system is early event in initiation of inflammatory hyperalgesia which might lead to initiation of other signaling pathways mediated by lipid peroxide, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Decrease in oxidative stress and down regulation of these cytokines by curcumin is suggested to be involved in its anti-hyperalgesic effect.

  11. Differential effects of dietary flavonoids on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in female rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S.T.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    1. Gavage administration of the natural flavonoids tangeretin, chrysin, apigenin, naringenin, genistein and quercetin for 2 consecutive weeks to the female rat resulted in differential effects on selected phase 1 and 2 enzymes in liver, colon and heart as well as antioxidant enzymes in red brood...

  12. Involvement of anti-oxidative enzymes, photosynthetic pigments and flavonoid metabolism in the adaptation of Reaumuria soongorica to salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuBing Liu; Bo Cao; MeiLing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Reaumuria soongorica is a short woody shrub widely found in semi-arid areas of China. It can survive severe environ-mental stress including high salinity in its natural habitat. Thus, we investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative enzymes, photosynthetic pigments and flavonoid metabolism in the adaptation of R. soongorica to saline environments. R. soon-gorica was treated with 0, 100, 200 and 400 mM NaCl solutions for 14 days. Soil salt content increased significantly by watering with high content of NaCl solution, and no variation between 8 and 14 days during treatment. The levels of pe-roxidation of lipid membranes (measured by malondialdehyde content) and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) increased under salt stress. Chlorophyll and carotenoid content decreased with increasing salt content. The ratio of Chl a/Chl b and carotenoid/Chl exhibited sig-nificant increase under 400 mM NaCl. However, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contents and key enzyme activities in the flavonoid pathway including phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and Chalcone isomerase (CHI) decreased under salt stress. These findings possibly suggest that R. soongorica has an adaptation protection mechanism against salt-induced oxidative damage by inducing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and maintaining a steady level of carotenoid/Chl.

  13. Antioxidative capacity and enzyme activity in Haematococcus pluvialis cells exposed to superoxide free radicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建国; 张晓丽; 孙延红; 林伟

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of astaxanthin and enzyme activity of reactive oxygen eliminating enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD),catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were studied in three cell types of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to high concentrations of a superoxide anion radical (O2ˉ).The results show that defensive enzymes and astaxanthin-related mechanisms were both active in H.pluvialis during exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as Oˉ2.Astaxanthin reacte...

  14. Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain

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    So-Yeon Shim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide (O2&#8226;-, hydroxyl radical (OH&#8226;, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx, is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application.

  15. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

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    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  16. The relationship between the activates of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells and body mass index in Iranian type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

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    Taheri Ehsaneh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by increased production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione peroxide (GSH-PX in type 2 diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 100 healthy controls. Total antioxidant capacity and fasting serum levels of SOD, GR, and GSH-Px were measured. All data were analyzed using SPSS software compatible with Microsoft Windows. Results The activity levels of SOD were lower in diabetic patients (111.93 ± 354.99 U/g Hb than in healthy controls (1158.53 ± 381.21 U/g Hb, but this was not significant. Activity levels of GSH-PX and GR in diabetics (62.33 ± 36.29 and 7.17 ± 5.51 U/g Hb, respectively were higher than in controls (24.62 ± 11.2 and 3.16 ± 2.95 U/g Hb, respectively. The statistical difference in enzyme activity of both GSH-Px and GR was significant (P Conclusion The increasing production of free radicals and changes in activity levels of antioxidant enzymes in order to scavenge free radicals and/or the effect of diabetes on the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes has an important effect on diabetic complications and insulin resistance. Evaluation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant factors in patients at different stages of the disease, and pharmaceutical and nutritional interventions, can be helpful in reducing oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. There were positive relationship between BMI and the activity of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GR and GPX in both groups.

  17. Gelam Honey Protects against Gamma-Irradiation Damage to Antioxidant Enzymes in Human Diploid Fibroblasts

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    Suzana Makpol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy of gamma rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Gamma-irradiation was shown to down-regulate SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPx1 gene expressions (p < 0.05. Conversely, HDFs treated with Gelam honey alone showed up-regulation of all genes studied. Similarly, SOD, CAT and GPx enzyme activities in HDFs decreased with gamma-irradiation and increased when cells were treated with Gelam honey (p < 0.05. Furthermore, of the three different stages of study treatment, pre-treatment with Gelam honey caused up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT genes expression and increased the activity of SOD and CAT. As a conclusion, Gelam honey modulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes at gene and protein levels in irradiated HDFs indicating its potential as a radioprotectant agent.

  18. Disturbance of Antioxidant Enzymes and Purine Metabolism in the Ejaculate of Men Living in Disadvantaged Areas of Kyzylorda Region

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    Valentihna N. Kislitskaya

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of study, it was put the influence  of negative factors of the Aral Sea region in men’s sperm of reproductive  age gives to disability free-radical processes, that proves changing of ferments of ant oxidative protection Catalase and adenosine deaminase (ADA.  This disturbance in men’s sperm of reproductive age leading to increased level of oxidative stress and impaired activity of  antioxidant enzymes and purine metabolism, responsible for the abnormal transmembrane and intracellular processes, reflecting the degree of imbalance of enzymes.

  19. Effect of Oenanthe Javanica Extract on Antioxidant Enzyme in the Rat Liver

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    Choong-Hyun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oenanthe javanica (O. javanica has been known to have high antioxidant properties via scavenging reactive oxygen species. We examined the effect of O. javanica extract (OJE on antioxidant enzymes in the rat liver. Methods: We examined the effect of the OJE on copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1, manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the rat liver using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups; (1 normal diet fed group (normal-group, (2 diet containing ascorbic acid (AA-fed group (AA-group as a positive control, (3 diet containing OJE-fed group (OJE-group. Results: In this study, no histopathological finding in the rat liver was found in all the experimental groups. Numbers of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx immunoreactive cells and their protein levels were significantly increased in the AA-fed group compared with those in the normal-group. On the other hand, in the OJE-group, numbers of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx immunoreactive cells in the liver were significantly increased by about 190%, 478%, 685%, and 346%, respectively, compared with those in the AA-group. In addition, protein levels of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx in the OJE-group were also significantly much higher than those in the AA-group. Conclusion: OJE significantly increased expressions of SOD1 and SOD2, CAT, and GPx in the liver cells of the rat, and these suggests that significant enhancements of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants by OJE might be a legitimate strategy for decreasing oxidative stresses in the liver.

  20. Effect of Oenanthe Javanica Extract on Antioxidant Enzyme in the Rat Liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choong-Hyun Lee; Joon-Ha Park; Jeong-Hwi Cho; In-Hye Kim; Ji-Hyeon Ahn; Jae-Chul Lee; Bai Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background:Oenanthe javanica (O.javanica) has been known to have high antioxidant properties via scavenging reactive oxygen species.We examined the effect of O.javanica extract (OJE) on antioxidant enzymes in the rat liver.Methods:We examined the effect of the OJE on copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1),manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2),catalase (CAT),and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the rat liver using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis.Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups;(1) normal diet fed group (normal-group),(2) diet containing ascorbic acid (AA)-fed group (AA-group) as a positive control,(3) diet containing OJE-fed group (OJE-group).Results:In this study,no histopathological finding in the rat liver was found in all the experimental groups.Numbers of SOD1,SOD2,CAT,and GPx immunoreactive cells and their protein levels were significantly increased in the AA-fed group compared with those in the normal-group.On the other hand,in the OJE-group,numbers of SOD1,SOD2,CAT,and GPx immunoreactive cells in the liver were significantly increased by about 190%,478%,685%,and 346%,respectively,compared with those in the AA-group.In addition,protein levels of SOD 1,SOD2,CAT,and GPx in the OJE-group were also significantly much higher than those in the AA-group.Conclusion:OJE significantly increased expressions of SOD 1 and SOD2,CAT,and GPx in the liver cells of the rat,and these suggests that significant enhancements of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants by OJE might be a legitimate strategy for decreasing oxidative stresses in the liver.

  1. GLUTATHIONE AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN THE HEPATOPANCREAS OF CRAYFISH PROCAMBARUS CLARKII (GIRARD, 1852 OF LAKE TRASIMENO (ITALY

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    ELIA A. C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant parameters, such as total glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glyoxalases, catalase, and some heavy metals such as, lead, cadmium and chromium were examined in hepatopancreas of both sexes of Procambarus clarkii collected seasonally from Lake Trasimeno, from winter 2002-2003 to autumn 2003. Heavy metals content in hepatopancreas in males and females of P. clarkii was low and did not vary through the sampling periods and between sexes. On the contrary, crayfish exhibited sex-dependent differences in levels of some enzyme activities and of total glutathione, and no apparent relationship was found between contaminant burdens and antioxidant indexes in hepatopancreas. Because measured metal concentrations were low, other factors, presumably, were involved in antioxidant variations in P. clarkii and these latter seemed to be affected more by biological and environmental factors, other than those related to pollutants body burdens.

  2. Synthesis, antioxidant, enzyme inhibition and DNA binding studies of novel N-benzylated derivatives of sulfonamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Aadil; Murtaza, Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shamim, Saima; Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali; Naseem, Khadija; Rafique, Hummera

    2016-08-01

    A series of novel N-benzylated derivatives of sulfonamide were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, NMR and XRD analysis. The synthesized compounds were assayed for their biological potential. The biological studies involved antioxidant, enzyme inhibition, and DNA interaction studies. Antioxidant potential was investigated by Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and DPPH free radical scavenging method, the capacity of synthesized compounds to inhibit the enzyme's activity was assayed by using the well-known Elman method whereas DNA interaction studies were carried out with the help UV-Vis absorption titration method. Moreover, a direct correlation between enzyme inhibition activity and concentration of the compounds was observed both in experimental and molecular docking studies. DNA interaction studies of the synthesized compounds showed weak interaction.

  3. RSM based optimized enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidant phenolics from underutilized watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) rind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Asghar, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Enzyme assisted solvent extraction (EASE) of phenolic compounds from watermelon (C. lanatus) rind (WMR) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Rotatable Central Composite Design (RCCD). Four variables each at five levels i.e. enzyme concentration (EC) 0.5-6.5 %, pH 6-9, temperature (T) 25-75 °C and treatment time (t) 30-90 min, were augmented to get optimal yield of polyphenols with maximum retained antioxidant potential. The polyphenol extracts obtained under optimum conditions were evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant activities and characterized for individual phenolic profile by RP-HPLC-DAD. The results obtained indicated that optimized EASE enhanced the liberation of antioxidant phenolics up to 3 folds on fresh weight basis (FW) as compared to conventional solvent extraction (CSE), with substantial level of total phenolics (173.70 mg GAE/g FW), TEAC 279.96 mg TE/g FW and DPPH radical scavenging ability (IC50) 112.27 mg/mL. Chlorogenic acid (115.60-1611.04), Vanillic acid (26.13-2317.01) and Sinapic acid (113.01-241.12 μg/g) were major phenolic acid found in EASEx of WMR. Overall, it was concluded that EASE might be efficient and green technique to revalorize under-utilized WMR into potent antioxidant phenolic for their further application in food and nutraceutical industries.

  4. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

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    Muiño-Blanco Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GRD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system.

  5. Differential Responses of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes to Thermal Stresses between Two Invasive Eupatorium Species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Lu; Wei-Guo Sang; Ke-Ping Ma

    2008-01-01

    The effect of thermal stress on the antioxidant system was Investigated in two invasive plants, Eupatorlum adenophorum Spreng. and E. odoratum L. The former is sensitive to high temperature, whereas the latter is sensitive to low temperature.Our aim was to explore the relationship between the response of antioxidant enzymes and temperature In the two Invasive weeds with different distribution patterns in China. Plants were transferred from glasshouse to growth chambers at a constant 25 ℃ for 1 week to acclimatize to the environment. For the heat treatments, temperature was Increased stepwise to 30, 35, 38 and finally to 42 ℃. For the cold treatments, temperature was decreased stepwise to 20, 15,10 and finally to 5 ℃.Plants were kept In the growth chambers for 24 h at each temperature step. In E. adenophorum, the coordinated Increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes was effective In protecting the plant from the eccumulatlon of active oxygen species (AOS) at low temperature, but the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX),glutathione reductase (GR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) were not accompanied by the Increase of super-oxide dismutase (SOD) during the heat treatments. As a result, the level of lipid peroxidation in E. adenophorum was higher under heat stress than under cold stress. In E. odoratum, however, the lesser degree of membrane damage, as indicated by low monodehydroascorbate content, and the coordinated Increase of the oxygen. Dstoxlfying enzymes were observed in hest-treated plants, but the antioxidant enzymes were unable to operate in cold stress. This indicates that the plants have a higher capacity for scavenging oxygen radicals in heat stress than in cold stress. The different responses of antloxidant enzymes may be one of the possible mechanisms of the differences in temperature sensitivities of the two plant species.

  6. The interactive effects of mercury and selenium on metabolic profiles, gene expression and antioxidant enzymes in halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Lai, Yongkai; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Zou, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Suaeda salsa is the pioneer halophyte in the Yellow River Delta and was consumed as a popular vegetable. Mercury has become a highly risky contaminant in the sediment of intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta. In this work, we investigated the interactive effects of mercury and selenium in S. salsa on the basis of metabolic profiling, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression quantification. Our results showed that mercury exposure (20 μg L(-1)) inhibited plant growth of S. salsa and induced significant metabolic responses and altered expression levels of INPS, CMO, and MDH in S. salsa samples, together with the increased activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and POD. Overall, these results indicated osmotic and oxidative stresses, disturbed protein degradation and energy metabolism change in S. salsa after mercury exposures. Additionally, the addition of selenium could induce both antagonistic and synergistic effects including alleviating protein degradation and aggravating osmotic stress caused by mercury.

  7. What is the main driver of ageing in long-lived winter honeybees: antioxidant enzymes, innate immunity, or vitellogenin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurori, Cristian M; Buttstedt, Anja; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    To date five different theories compete in explaining the biological mechanisms of senescence or ageing in invertebrates. Physiological, genetical, and environmental mechanisms form the image of ageing in individuals and groups. Social insects, especially the honeybee Apis mellifera, present exceptional model systems to study developmentally related ageing. The extremely high phenotypic plasticity for life expectancy resulting from the female caste system provides a most useful system to study open questions with respect to ageing. Here, we used long-lived winter worker honeybees and measured transcriptional changes of 14 antioxidative enzyme, immunity, and ageing-related (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway) genes at two time points during hibernation. Additionally, worker bees were challenged with a bacterial infection to test ageing- and infection-associated immunity changes. Gene expression levels for each group of target genes revealed that ageing had a much higher impact than the bacterial challenge, notably for immunity-related genes. Antimicrobial peptide and antioxidative enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in aged worker honeybees independent of bacterial infections. The known ageing markers vitellogenin and IlP-1 were opposed regulated with decreasing vitellogenin levels during ageing. The increased antioxidative enzyme and antimicrobial peptide gene expression may contribute to a retardation of senescence in long-lived hibernating worker honeybees.

  8. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  9. Implications of free radicals and antioxidant levels in carcinoma of the breast: A never-ending battle for survival

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    R J Sinha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Under normal circumstances, there is a steady balance between the production of oxygen derived free radicals and their destruction by the cellular antioxidant system inside the human body. However, any imbalance between the levels of these oxidants and antioxidants might cause DNA damage and may lead to cancer development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of antioxidants and free radicals in blood and tissue of cancer patients and compare these levels at different TNM stages to derive the possible role of free radicals and antioxidant enzymes in the etiology of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: This study includes 30 patients suffering from cancer breast and 20 patients as controls who had benign breast diseases. Circulating lipid peroxide (Malonyldialdehyde [MDA] levels and activities of the defensive enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase [SOD] and Catalase [CAT] were estimated in the blood and breast tissue of these patients. Results: Increased levels of free radicals and low levels of antioxidants were observed in malignant tissue. An elevated lipid peroxide concentration was found in the tissue of all the cancer breast patients as evidenced by an increase in the mean MDA level seen with increasing TNM stage of carcinoma breast. Levels of antioxidants SOD and CAT were decreased in cancer patients. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that free radical activity is enhanced in cancer breast patients while the antioxidant defense mechanism is weakened. This activity is enhanced with the increasing severity of cancer as depicted in different TNM stages of breast cancer.

  10. Antioxidant enzyme activities in hepatic tissue from children with chronic cholestatic liver disease

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    Ismail Nagwa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: To study the oxidative stress status in children with cholestatic chronic liver disease by determining activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in liver tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 children suffering from cholestatic chronic liver disease were studied. They were selected from the Hepatology Clinic, Cairo University, and compared with seven children who happened to have incidental normal liver biopsy. The patients were divided into three groups: extrahepatic biliary atresia (n=13, neonatal hepatitis (n=15 and paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (n=6; GPx, SOD and CAT levels were measured in fresh liver tissue using ELISA . Results: In the cholestatic patients, a significant increase was found in mean levels of SOD, GPx and CAT in hepatic tissue compared to control children. The three enzymes significantly increased in the extrahepatic biliary atresia group, whereas in the groups of neonatal hepatitis and paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts, only GPx and CAT enzymes were significantly increased. Conclusion: Oxidative stress could play a role in the pathogenesis of cholestatic chronic liver diseases. These preliminary results are encouraging to conduct more extensive clinical studies using adjuvant antioxidant therapy.

  11. Evaluation of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and serum trace elements associated with progressive anemia in ovine malignant theileriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kianiamin, P; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2011-08-01

    Ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative injuries in Iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. The infected animals (infected group), composed of 50 Iranian sheep about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria sp., were divided into three subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%), and ten non-infected animals were also selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and serum concentrations of some trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium), were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. According to the results, a significant decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume, the activities of SOD, GPX, and catalase (P <0.001), and also serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se (P < 0.05) were evident in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (P < 0.001) as well as serum concentration of iron (P < 0.05) were recorded in the infected animals. The significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte osmotic fragility associated with the increase in parasitemia indicate increased exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage. Also, it appears that disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms can promote the development of anemia in ovine theileriosis.

  12. Estradiol Modulates Membrane-Linked ATPases, Antioxidant Enzymes, Membrane Fluidity, Lipid Peroxidation, and Lipofuscin in Aged Rat Liver

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    Pardeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radical production and oxidative stress are known to increase in liver during aging, and may contribute to the oxidative damage. These changes increase during menopausal condition in females when the level of estradiol is decreased. The objective of this study was to observe the changes in activities of membrane linked ATPases (Na+K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, lipid peroxidation levels, lipofuscin content and membrane fluidity occurring in livers of female rats of 3, 12 and 24 months age groups, and to see whether these changes are restored to 3 months control levels rats after exogenous administration of 17-β-estradiol (E2. The aged rats (12 and 24 months were given subcutaneous injection of E2 (0.1 μg/g body weight daily for one month. The results obtained in the present work revealed that normal aging was associated with significant decrease in the activities of membrane linked ATPases, antioxidant enzymes, membrane fluidity and an increase in lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin content in livers of aging female rats. The present study showed that E2 treatment reversed the changes to normal levels. E2 treatment may be beneficial in preventing some of the age related changes in the liver by increasing antioxidant defenses.

  13. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar; Trigun, Surendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase) level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  14. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

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    Brajesh Kumar Maurya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  15. Analysis of plasma lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status in patients of oral leukoplakia: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Shrivastava, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Imbalances between the oxidant-antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including oral cancer. Mostly, all oral cancer lesions are preceded by a stage of premalignancy. The present study aims to evaluate lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in the venous blood of patients with different clinicopathologic stages of leukoplakia. Materials and Methods: A case control study was designed with the inclusion of 20 new cases of histopathologically proven leukoplakia of various clinical stages along with an equal number of positive and negative control individuals. The concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, were estimated in plasma using spectrophotometric methods. The data are expressed as mean ± SD. The statistical comparisons between and within the study groups were performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc analysis. Karl Pearson correlation was performed for the biochemical parameters within the group and between the groups. For statistically significant correlations, simple linear regression was performed. Results: Significant enhanced lipid peroxidation (P leukoplakia patients compared with positive as well as negative controls. Accordingly, significant (P < 0.001) pattern of progression in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels was observed at various clinical stages among patients of both control groups. Among enzymes, glutathione showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction along the stages on comparison with two control groups. Conclusion: Enhanced lipid peroxidation and compromised antioxidant defense in plasma indicate the development of oxidative stress. Among the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione and glutathione Pperoxidase may play a decisive role in malignant transformation. PMID:28217539

  16. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation.

  17. Altered Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Lucie Vávrová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, an increase of oxidative stress could play an important role which is closely linked with insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and chronic inflammation. The aim of our study was to assess several parameters of the antioxidant status in MetS. Methods: 40 subjects with MetS and 40 age- and sex-matched volunteers without MetS were examined for activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1, glutathione reductase (GR, paraoxonase1 (PON1, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH, and conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein (CD-LDL. Results: Subjects with MetS had higher activities of CuZnSOD (p Conclusions: Our results implicated an increased oxidative stress in MetS and a decreased antioxidative defense that correlated with some laboratory (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and clinical (waist circumference, blood pressure components of MetS.

  18. Thymosin beta 4 protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress by targeting anti-oxidative enzymes and anti-apoptotic genes.

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    Chuanyu Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. The mechanism by which Tβ4 modulates cardiac protection under oxidative stress is not known. The purpose of this study is to dissect the cardioprotective mechanism of Tβ4 on H(2O(2 induced cardiac damage. METHODS: Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with or without Tβ4 pretreatment were exposed to H(2O(2 and expression of antioxidant, apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. ROS levels were estimated by DCF-DA using fluorescent microscopy and fluorimetry. Selected antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic genes were silenced by siRNA transfections in neonatal cardiomyocytes and effect of Tβ4 on H(2O(2-induced cardiac damage was evaluated. RESULTS: Pre-treatment of Tβ4 resulted in reduction of the intracellular ROS levels induced by H(2O(2 in cardiomyocytes. Tβ4 pretreatment also resulted in an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins and reduction of Bax/BCl(2 ratio in the cardiomyocytes. Pretreatment with Tβ4 resulted in stimulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes copper/zinc SOD and catalase in cardiomyocytes at both transcription and translation levels. Tβ4 treatment resulted in the increased expression of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory genes. Silencing of Cu/Zn SOD and catalase gene resulted in apoptotic cell death in the cardiomyocytes which was prevented by treatment with Tβ4. CONCLUSION: This is the first report that demonstrates the effect of Tβ4 on cardiomyocytes and its capability to selectively upregulate anti-oxidative enzymes, anti-inflammatory genes, and antiapoptotic enzymes in the neonatal cardiomyocytes thus preventing cell death thereby protecting the myocardium. Tβ4 treatment resulted in decreased oxidative stress and inflammation in the

  19. [Photodynamic reaction and oxidative stress - influence of the photodynamic effect on the activity antioxidant enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romiszewska, Anna; Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of light with a photosensitizer, accumulated in a tissue in the presence of oxygen, leads to formation of reactive oxygen species, mainly of singlet oxygen and free radicals. These factors react with biomolecules producing their oxidized states. Reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen and free radicals are able to damage membranes, DNA, enzymes, structural peptides and other cellular structures leading to cell death. An antioxidant protection of cell is formed by enzymes belonging to the family of oxidoreductases: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). Photodynamic therapy leads to the increased production of oxidizing toxic forms. It is important to analyze impact of PDT on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, CAT, GPx. The activity of antioxidant enzymes during the photodynamic effect is influenced by both the light energy dose and the concentration of photosensitizer. The presence only of the photosensitizer or only the light energy may also result in changes in the activity of these enzymes. The differences in changes in the activity of these enzymes depend on the type of used photosensitizer. A phenomenon of selective accumulation of photosensitizer in tumor tissues is used in the photodynamic method of tumor diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Effect of Maturity Stage on the Gene Expression of Antioxidative Enzymes in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Fruits Under Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Chun-lu; MI Hong-bo; ZHAO Yu-ying; HE Zhi-ping; MAO Lin-chun

    2013-01-01

    The gene expression patterns of antioxidative enzymes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruits at four different maturity stages, immature (3-8 d after anthesis (DAA), mature (9-16 DAA), breaker (17-22 DAA), and yellow (35-40 DAA), were determined before and after cold storage at 2°C for 9 d and after subsequent rewarming at 20°C for 2 d. The electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content in cucumber fruits were increased after cold storage and subsequent rewarming. Increased expressions of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and monodehydroascorbate reductase after cold storage played an important role in cucumber fruits to cope with chilling injury. The elevated cyt-superoxide dismutase, catalase, APX and dehydroascorbate reductase after subsequent rewarming in cucumber fruits facilitated the recovery from chilling stress. The highest expression levels of all the seven antioxidative enzyme genes in yellow fruits might be responsible for the enhanced chilling tolerance. Cucumber fruits at earlier developmental stages was more susceptible to chilling stress than those at later stages. The relative higher gene expressions of antioxidative enzymes genes at earlier developmental stages may be the responses to the sever oxidative stress caused by chilling injury.

  1. [Response of bacillus sp. F26 to different reactive oxygen species stress characterized by antioxidative enzymes synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guoliang; Hua, Zhaozhe; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2008-04-01

    The oxidative response of Bacillus sp F26 to different forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress including H2O2, O2- * and OH * were investigated by using diverse generating source of ROS, which were characterized by synthesis of antioxidative enzymes. It was shown that the responses of cells to oxidative stress are largely dependent on species, mode (instantaneous and continual) and intensity of stress. Higher synthesis rate of catalase (CAT) is crucial for Bacillus sp F26 to resist H2O2 stress. The damage of H2O2 to cell was minor if CAT can efficiently decompose H2O2 entering into cell, furthermore, the response can stimulate cell growths and sugar consumption. Conversely, cell growth and synthesis of antioxidative enzymes are greatly inhibited when the intensity of H2O2 stress overwhelms the cell capability of clearing H2O2. Due to the difference in mode and effect on cells between O2- * and H2O2, higher synthesis rates of CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD) couldn't guarantee cells to eliminate H2O2 and O2- * efficiently. Therefore, the toxicity to cells induced by intracellular O2- * is more severe than H2O2 stress. Unlike response to H2O2 and O2- *, OH stress significantly inhibited cell growth and synthesis of antioxidative enzymes due to the fact OH * is most active ROS. Our results indicated that Bacillus sp F26 will show diverse biological behaviour in response to H2O2, O2- * and OH * of stress due to the discrepancy in chemical property. In order to survive in oxidative stress, cells will timely adjust their metabolism to adapt to new environment including regulating synthesis level of antioxidative enzymes, changing rates of cells growth and substrate consumption.

  2. Effect of tacrolimus on the cauda epididymis in rats: analysis of epididymal biochemical markers or antioxidant defense enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Akihiko; Sakuma, Shozo; Fujiwara, Michio; Seki, Jiro

    2008-01-14

    The effect of tacrolimus on epididymal biochemical markers was investigated following single daily subcutaneous doses of 1, 2 and 3 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 2 weeks to male adult rats. The tacrolimus 2 and 3 mg kg(-1) day(-1) groups showed a significant and dose-dependent decrease in sperm count in the cauda epididymis. Among tissue levels of L-carnitine, alpha-glucosidase and acid phosphatase, only L-carnitine level in the cauda epididymis was significantly reduced in the tacrolimus 3 mg kg(-1)day(-1) group. However, no significant difference was seen in the plasma L-carnitine. It was suggested that lowering of L-carnitine in the cauda epididymis was attributable to the adverse effect on epididymal function to transport and/or concentrate L-carnitine. Since L-carnitine has been reported to have antioxidant potential, antioxidant defense enzymes in the cauda epididymis such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in activities, confirming that the treatment with tacrolimus did not affect the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, this study indicates that tacrolimus induces a decrease in L-carnitine level in the cauda epididymis, which is probably caused by impairment of epididymal function to transport and/or concentrate L-carnitine from bloodstream, and a decrease in sperm count.

  3. Plasma zinc antioxidant vitamins, glutathione levels and total antioxidant activity in oral leukoplakia

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    Subhash Chandra Bose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is a common, potentially premalignant lesion with malignant transformation rate from 1 to 17% with highest transformation rate for the lesions on the floor of the mouth, soft palate and tongue. One of the main etiological factors is consuming areca nut and its commercial preparations which generate high levels of reactive oxygen species during their metabolism. So the aim of this present study is to evaluate the plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant mineral zinc, glutathione and total antioxidant status (TAS in leukoplakia patients. Materials and Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we selected 23 newly diagnosed oral leukoplakia patients of both sexes within the age group 28-40 years and the same number of age and sex matched healthy individuals without having history of any systemic illness were selected as control group. In both the groups, we measured plasma antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, antioxidant mineral zinc, GSH and TAS. Student′s t test was applied and the P value <0.001 was considered as statistically significant. Results: We observed very low levels of antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, antioxidant mineral zinc and antioxidant metabolite GSH (P<0.001 and at the same time we also observed very poor (TAS (P<0.001 in leukoplakia patients when compared to patients in control group. Conclusion: The consumption of tobacco or areca quid which contains high copper levels creates an oxidative stress like environment during their metabolism, might play a major role in causation and propagation of oral leukoplakia.

  4. Different responses of tobacco antioxidant enzymes to light and chilling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T; Willekens, H; Van Montagu, M; Inze, D; Van Camp, W; Toneva, [No Value; Minkov, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    The effect of elevated light treatment (25 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m(-2) sec(-1)) or chilling temperatures combined with elevated light (5 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m-2 sec-1) on the activity of six antioxidant enzymes, guaiacol peroxidases, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) protein accu

  5. Differential expression and immunolocalization of antioxidant enzymes in Entamoeba histolytica isolates during metronidazole stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Lakshmi Rani; Singh, Nishant; Verma, Anil Kumar; Paul, Jaishree

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica infections are endemic in the Indian subcontinent. Five to eight percent of urban population residing under poor sanitary conditions suffers from Entamoeba infections. Metronidazole is the most widely prescribed drug used for amoebiasis. In order to understand the impact of metronidazole stress on the parasite, we evaluated the expression of two antioxidant enzymes, peroxiredoxin and FeSOD, in Entamoeba histolytica isolates during metronidazole stress. The results reveal that, under metronidazole stress, the mRNA expression levels of these enzymes did not undergo any significant change. Interestingly, immunolocalization studies with antibodies targeting peroxiredoxin indicate differential localization of the protein in the cell during metronidazole stress. In normal conditions, all the Entamoeba isolates exhibit presence of peroxiredoxin in the nucleus as well as in the membrane; however with metronidazole stress the protein localized mostly to the membrane. The change in the localization pattern was more pronounced when the cells were subjected to short term metronidazole stress compared to cells adapted to metronidazole. The protein localization to the cell membrane could be the stress response mechanism in these isolates. Colocalization pattern of peroxiredoxin with CaBp1, a cytosolic protein, revealed that the membrane and nuclear localization was specific to peroxiredoxin during metronidazole stress.

  6. Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Placenta Protect Placenta and Fetus in Inherited Thrombophilia from Hydrogen Peroxide

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    Jelena Bogdanovic Pristov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the activities of antioxidative defense enzymes in the placenta, fetal blood and amnion fluid in inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilia was associated with nearly threefold increase of activity (p < 0.001 of the placental catalase (81.1 ± 20.6 U/mg of proteins in controls and 270.0 ± 69.9 U/mg in thrombophilic subjects, glutathione (GSH peroxidase (C: 20.2 ± 10.1 U/mg; T: 60.0 ± 15.5 U/mg, and GSH reductase (C: 28.9 ± 5.6 U/mg; T: 72.7 ± 23.0 U/mg. The placental activities of superoxide dismutating enzymes—MnSOD and CuZnSOD, did not differ in controls and thrombophilia. Likewise, the activities of catalase and SOD in the fetal blood, and the level of ascorbyl radical which represents a marker of oxidative status of amniotic fluid, were similar in controls and thrombophilic subjects. From this we concluded that in thrombophilia, placental tissue is exposed to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, which could be initiated by pro-thrombic conditions in maternal blood. Increased activity of placental H2O2-removing enzymes protects fetus and mother during pregnancy, but may increase the risk of postpartum thrombosis.

  7. L-malate enhances the gene expression of carried proteins and antioxidant enzymes in liver of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Wu, Q; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. To investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L-malate in the mitochondria, we analyzed the change in gene expression of two malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS)-related carried proteins (AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier and OMC, oxoglutarate/malate carrier) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and three antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px) in the mitochondria. The changes in gene expression of these proteins and enzymes were examined by real-time RT-PCR in the heart and liver of aged rats treated with L-malate. L-malate was orally administered in rats continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. We found that the gene expression of OMC and GSH-Px mRNA in the liver increased by 39 % and 38 %, respectively, in the 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment group than that in the control group. The expression levels of SOD mRNA in the liver increased by 39 %, 56 %, and 78 % in the 0.105, 0.210, and 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment groups, respectively. No difference were observed in the expression levels of AGC, OMC, CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px mRNAs in the heart of rats between the L-malate treatment and control groups. These results predicted that L-malate may increase the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria by enhancing the expression of mRNAs involved in the MAS and the antioxidant enzymes.

  8. Ageing of enteric neurons: oxidative stress, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes

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    Korsak Kris

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction, which can have a major impact on quality of life of the elderly. A number of changes in the innervation of the gut during ageing have been reported, including neuronal loss and degenerative changes. Evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS are elevated in ageing enteric neurons, but that neurotrophic factors may reduce generation of neuronal ROS. Two such factors, glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 have also been found to protect enteric neurons against oxidative stress induced cell death of enteric ganglion cells in vitro. We have investigated the possible roles of neurotrophic factors further, by examining their expression in the gut during ageing, and by analysing their effects on antioxidant enzyme production in cultures of enteric ganglion cells. Results Analysis of the expression of GDNF and its receptors c-Ret and GFR α − 1 in rat gut by RT-PCR showed that expression continues throughout life and into ageing, in both ad libitum(AL and calorically-restricted (CR animals. Levels of expression of GDNF and GFR α − 1 were elevated in 24 month AL animals compared to 24 month CR animals, and to 24 CR and 6 month control animals respectively. The related factor Neurturin and its receptor GFR α − 2 were also expressed throughout life, the levels of the GFR – α-2(b isoform were reduced in 24 m AL animals. Immunolabelling showed that c-Ret and GFR α − 1 proteins were expressed by myenteric neurons in ageing animals. GDNF, but not NT-3, was found to increase expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase by cultured enteric ganglion cells. Conclusions The neurotrophic factors GDNF and neurturin and their receptors continue to be expressed in the ageing gut. Changes in the levels of expression of GDNF , GFR α-1 and GFR α-2(b isoform occurred in 24 m AL animals. GDNF, but not

  9. Association between radionuclides ((210)Po and (210)Pb) and antioxidant enzymes in oak (Quercus coccifera) and mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğur Görgün, A; Aslan, E; Kül, M; İlhan, S; Dimlioğlu, G; Bor, M; Özdemir, F

    2016-08-27

    The activity levels of naturally occurring radionuclides Polonium-210 and lead-210 in different subjects including plant species have direct or indirect impact on human beings. High levels of ionising radiation cause oxidative stress and the interaction between antioxidative defense and radionuclides is not well established in plant systems. In this study, we aimed to understand the impact of oxidative stress caused by (210)Po and (210)Pb in two Mediterranean plants; Quercus coccifera and Pistacia lentiscus. We analysed the constitutive and seasonal levels of (210)Po, (210)Pb, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities in the field-collected samples. The highest activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb were detected in both plants in summer and Q. coccifera had higher levels than that of P. lentiscus. SOD and APX activity trends were different between oak and mastic; as compared to P. lentiscus, Q. coccifera efficiently used the two major components of antioxidative defense. Lipid peroxidation levels were low in both plants in all seasons except that of spring which were in good agreement with high antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, we found that high (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in oak and mastic did not interfere with their growth and life cycles. The ability of both plants for survival and adaptation to Mediterranean environmental constraints provided an additional advantage for coping radionuclide induced oxidative stress as well.

  10. Activity of antioxidative enzymes in fresh and frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis spermatozoa in relation to lipid peroxidation and semen quality

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    G. Kadirve

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that loss of activity of intracellular antioxidative enzymes was evident after freezing and thawing and there was a strong association between the antioxidative enzyme activities, ROS, lipid peroxidation and sperm function in buffalo semen.

  11. Blood Levels of Oxidant/Antioxidant Parameters in Rats Infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Ali; Tavalla, Mehdi; Azadmanesh, Somayeh; Hamidinejat, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection in the world. Since increased free radicals and oxidative stress are reported in many parasitic diseases the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. RH strains of Toxoplasma tachyzoites were used in the present study. Twenty-five female rats were infected with the parasite while 25 other rats were as the control group that received normal saline. Zero-, 5-, 7-, 10-, and 45-day postinfection (DPI) blood samples were taken. Some parameters related to oxidant and antioxidants such as antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity were measured. On day 7 after infection, GPX activity and GSH level were significantly increased and in the mentioned day the amount of total antioxidant capacity was significantly reduced. In other cases, there were no significant differences between the groups in different days. Overall, based on the results it seems that, on day 7 after infection, in infected rats responses to oxidative stress were triggered and led to decrease of total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, glutathione was increased to cope with stress. It seems that probably antioxidant defense system entered the infection to the chronic phase and changed the parasites stage. PMID:27746857

  12. Extract from Eugenia punicifolia is an antioxidant and inhibits enzymes related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Galeno, Denise Morais; Carvalho, Rosany Piccolotto; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Lima, Arleilson Sousa; Oliveira de Almeida, Patricia Danielle; Pacheco, Carolina Carvalho; Pereira de Souza, Tatiane; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate in vitro biological activities of extract of Eugenia punicifolia leaves (EEP), emphasizing the inhibitory activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome and its antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity was analyzed by free radicals scavengers in vitro assays: DPPH·, ABTS(·+), O2(·−), and NO· and a cell-based assay. EEP were tested in inhibitory colorimetric assays using α-amylase, α-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase, and pancreatic lipase enzymes. The EEP exhibited activity in ABTS(·+), DPPH·, and O2(·−) scavenger (IC50 = 10.5 ± 1.2, 28.84 ± 0.54, and 38.12 ± 2.6 μg/mL), respectively. EEP did not show cytotoxic effects, and it showed antioxidant activity in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. EEP exhibited inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase activities in vitro assays (IC50 = 122.8 ± 6.3; 2.9 ± 0.1; 23.5 ± 2.6), respectively; however, EEP did not inhibit the lipase activity. The findings supported that extract of E. punicifolia leaves is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of enzymes, such as α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase, which can result in a reduction in the carbohydrate absorption rate and decrease of risks factors of cardiovascular disease, thereby providing a novel dietary opportunity for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Protective Potential of Antioxidant Enzymes as Vaccines for Schistosomiasis in a Non-Human Primate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Nyakundi, Ruth; Ogongo, Paul; Rikoi, Hitler; Egilmez, Nejat K.; Farah, Idle O.; Kariuki, Thomas M.; LoVerde, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major cause of morbidity in the world. The challenge today is not so much in the clinical management of individual patients, but rather in population-based control of transmission in endemic areas. Despite recent large-scale efforts, such as integrated control programs aimed at limiting schistosomiasis by improving education and sanitation, molluscicide treatment programs and chemotherapy with praziquantel, there has only been limited success. There is an urgent need for complementary approaches, such as vaccines. We demonstrated previously that anti-oxidant enzymes, such as Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S peroxidase (GPX), when administered as DNA-based vaccines induced significant levels of protection in inbred mice, greater than the target 40% reduction in worm burden compared to controls set as a minimum by the WHO. These results led us to investigate if immunization of non-human primates with antioxidants would stimulate an immune response that could confer protection as a prelude study for human trials. Issues of vaccine toxicity and safety that were difficult to address in mice were also investigated. All baboons in the study were examined clinically throughout the study and no adverse reactions occurred to the immunization. When our outbred baboons were vaccinated with two different formulations of SOD (SmCT-SOD and SmEC-SOD) or one of GPX (SmGPX), they showed a reduction in worm number to varying degrees, when compared with the control group. More pronounced, vaccinated animals showed decreased bloody diarrhea, days of diarrhea, and egg excretion (transmission), as well as reduction of eggs in the liver tissue and in the large intestine (pathology) compared to controls. Specific IgG antibodies were present in sera after immunizations and 10 weeks after challenge infection compared to controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mesenteric, and inguinal node cells from vaccinated animals proliferated and

  14. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels

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    Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO- induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipid peroxidation (LPO products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40 were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate transaminase (AST, cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO products (TBARS and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST. Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  15. Photobiomodulation Therapy Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Lung Tissue after Formaldehyde Exposure: Role of Oxidant/Antioxidant Enzymes

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    Rodrigo Silva Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is ubiquitous pollutant that induces oxidative stress in the lung. Several lung diseases have been associated with oxidative stress and their control is necessary. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT has been highlighted as a promissory treatment, but its mechanisms need to be better investigated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PBMT on the oxidative stress generated by FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were submitted to FA exposure of 1% or vehicle (3 days and treated or not with PBMT (1 and 5 h after each FA exposure. Rats treated only with laser were used as control. Twenty-four hours after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the effects of PBMT on the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide, oxidative burst, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, S-transferase enzyme activities, the gene expression of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, superoxide dismutase, the catalase enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1. PBMT reduced the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide and increased oxidative burst in the lung cells. A decreased level of oxidant enzymes was observed which were concomitantly related to an increased level of antioxidants. This study provides new information about the antioxidant mechanisms of PBMT in the lung and might constitute an important tool for lung disease treatment.

  16. Photobiomodulation Therapy Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Lung Tissue after Formaldehyde Exposure: Role of Oxidant/Antioxidant Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barioni, Éric Diego; de Oliveira Duro, Stephanie; Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Anna Carolina; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Marcourakis, Tânia; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is ubiquitous pollutant that induces oxidative stress in the lung. Several lung diseases have been associated with oxidative stress and their control is necessary. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has been highlighted as a promissory treatment, but its mechanisms need to be better investigated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PBMT on the oxidative stress generated by FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were submitted to FA exposure of 1% or vehicle (3 days) and treated or not with PBMT (1 and 5 h after each FA exposure). Rats treated only with laser were used as control. Twenty-four hours after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the effects of PBMT on the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide, oxidative burst, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, S-transferase enzyme activities, the gene expression of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, superoxide dismutase, the catalase enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1. PBMT reduced the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide and increased oxidative burst in the lung cells. A decreased level of oxidant enzymes was observed which were concomitantly related to an increased level of antioxidants. This study provides new information about the antioxidant mechanisms of PBMT in the lung and might constitute an important tool for lung disease treatment. PMID:27293324

  17. Insulin, catecholamines, glucose and antioxidant enzymes in oxidative damage during different loads in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, J; Blazícek, P; Marko, M; Grna, J D; Kvetnanský, R; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    Exercise, insulin-induced hypoglycemia and oral glucose loads (50 g and 100 g) were used to compare the production of malondialdehyde and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy subjects. Twenty male volunteers participated in the study. Exercise consisted of three consecutive work loads on a bicycle ergometer of graded intensity (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 W/kg, 6 min each). Hypoglycemia was induced by insulin (Actrapid MC Novo, 0.1 IU/kg, i.v.). Oral administration of 50 g and 100 g of glucose was given to elevate plasma glucose. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in red blood cells, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was measured in whole blood. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by HPLC, catecholamines were assessed radioenzymatically and glucose was measured by the glucose-oxidase method. Exercise increased MDA concentrations, GSH-Px and SOD activities as well as plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Insulin hypoglycemia increased plasma adrenaline levels, but the concentrations of MDA and the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased. Hyperglycemia increased plasma MDA concentrations, but the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly higher after a larger dose of glucose only. Plasma catecholamines were unchanged. These results indicate that the transient increase of plasma catecholamine and insulin concentrations did not induce oxidative damage, while glucose already in the low dose was an important triggering factor for oxidative stress.

  18. Activity of antioxidative defense enzymes in the blood of patients with liver echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilić Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Chronic echinococcocal disease is the parasite human disease caused by the penetration of larval (asexual stages of the canine tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosus in the liver of humans. After the penetration of the parasite, the host organism react by activating complement- depending immune response. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of larval form of Echinococcus granulosus in the liver on the activity of antioxidative defense enzymes in the blood of patients before and after the surgical intervention. Methods. We investigated the activity of antioxidative defense enzymes: copper/zinc containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione-S-transferase (GST in the blood of patients before and after the surgical intervention in respect to the controls, clinically healthy persons. Results. Our results showed that the activity of the GSH-Px was significantly decreased in the plasma of the patients with echinocococal disease before the surgery in respect to the controls. The activity of GST was significantly higher in the blood of the patients after the surgery in comparison to the controls. Conclusion. Chronic liver echinoccocal disease caused significant changes of some antioxidative defense enzymes, first of all Se-dependent enzyme GSH-Px, which could be a suitabile biomarker in the biochemical evaluation of the disease. This work represents a first comprehensive study of the activity of antioxidative defense enzymes in cronic liver echinococcocosis in the patients before and after the surgical intervention in respect to the clinically healthy persons.

  19. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin; Lotfi; Mohammad; Pessarakli; Puriya; Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein; Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid(0, 300, and 600 mg L-1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress(60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid(FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII(Fv/Fm)and performance index(PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Foto Fmand the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species(ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  20. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress:Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin Lotfi; Mohammad Pessarakli; Puriya Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L−1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and performance index (PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  1. Influence of Piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpavalli, Ganesan; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2008-01-01

    D-galactosamine is a well-established hepatotoxicant that induces a diffuse type of liver injury closely resembling human viral hepatitis. D-galactosamine by its property of generating free radicals causes severe damage to the membrane and affects almost all organs of the human body. The leaves of Piper betle L., a commonly used masticatory in Asian countries, possess several biological properties. Our aim is to investigate the in vivo antioxidant potential of P. betle leaf-extract against oxidative stress induced by D-galactosamine intoxication in male albino Wistar rats. Toxicity was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine, 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 21 days. Rats were treated with P. betle extract (200 mg/kg BW) via intragastric intubations. We assessed the activities of liver marker enzymes (aspartate amino-transferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) and levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione. The extract significantly improved the status of antioxidants and decreased TBARS, hydroperoxides, and liver marker enzymes when compared with the D-galactosamine treated group, demonstrating its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties.

  2. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  3. Ambient particulate air pollution and circulating antioxidant enzymes: A repeated-measure study in healthy adults in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Wang, Bin; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Li, Hongyu; Pan, Lu; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    The association of systemic antioxidant activity with ambient air pollution has been unclear. A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent repeated blood collection for 12 occasions under three exposure scenarios before and after relocating from a suburban area to an urban area in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. We measured various air pollutants including fine particles (PM2.5) and determined circulating levels of antioxidant enzymes extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in the laboratory. An interquartile range increase of 63.4 μg/m(3) at 3-d PM2.5 moving average was associated with a 6.3% (95% CI: 0.6, 12.4) increase in EC-SOD and a 5.5% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.8) increase in GPX1. Several PM2.5 chemical constituents, including negative ions (nitrate and chloride) and metals (e.g., iron and strontium), were consistently associated with increases in EC-SOD and GPX1. Our results support activation of circulating antioxidant enzymes following exposure to particulate air pollution.

  4. Selenium-induced Changes in Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes and Content of Photosynthetic Pigments in Spirulina platensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spirulina platensis exposed to various selenium (Se) concentrations (0,10,20, 40, 80, 150, 175, 200, 250 mglL) accumulated high amounts of Se in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Under low Se concentrations (≤150 mg/L), Se induced increases in biomass concentration, content of photosynthetic pigments, and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Gua-dep peroxidases (POD), which indicates that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in protecting cells from Se stress. Higher Se concentrations (≥ 175 mg/L) led to higher Se accumulation and increases in activities of GPX, SOD, CAT and POD, but also induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) coupled with potassium leakage and decreases in biomass concentration and contents of photosynthetic pigment. The results indicate that increases in activities of the antioxidant enzymes were not sufficient to protect cell membranes against Se stress. Time-dependent variations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, contents of chlorophyll a and carotenoid and the LPO level were also investigated under representative Se concentrations of 40 and 200 mg/L. Opposite variation trends between SOD-CAT activities, and GPX-POD-APX activities were observed during the growth cycles. The results showed that the prevention of damage to cell membranes of S. platensis cells could be achieved by cooperative effects of SOD-CAT and GPX-POD-APX enzymes. This study concludes that S. platensis possessed tolerance to Se and could protect itself from phytotoxicity induced by Se by altering various metabolic processes.

  5. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP.

  6. Effect of sunlight-exposure on antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme activities in 'd'Anjou' pear in relation to superficial scald development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Xie, Xingbin; Shen, Xiang; Wang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Influence of preharvest sunlight exposure on superficial scald development in 'd'Anjou' pears during cold storage was investigated. The biochemical changes related to scald including α-farnesene, conjugated trienols (CTols), antioxidants, antioxidant enzyme activities were monitored among separated blushed and shaded peels of unbagged fruit as well as the whole peel of bagged fruit. In unbagged fruit, scald symptom was restricted to shaded peel; while there was no difference in α-farnesene between blushed and shaded peels, CTols increased significantly in shaded peel along with scald development after 3months storage. Bagging treatment increased both α-farnesene and CTols significantly and enhanced scald. Preharvest sunlight exposure significantly increased certain antioxidant contents and antioxidant enzyme activities in blushed peel at harvest and during storage. These results reveal a direct role of CTols during development of scald, however, antioxidant systems may play an important role in α-farnesene oxidation to CTols and scald susceptibility in 'd'Anjou pears.

  7. Enzyme Inhibitory Properties, Antioxidant Activities, and Phytochemical Profile of Three Medicinal Plants from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Zengin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of three medicinal plants (Hedysarum varium, Onobrychis hypargyrea, and Vicia truncatula from Turkey against key enzymes involved in human pathologies, namely, diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase, neurodegenerative disorders (tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase, and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase. The antioxidant potential, phenolic and flavonoid content of ethyl acetate, and methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated using in vitro assays. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH•, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and metal chelating activity on ferrous ions were used to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of the extracts. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of the extracts on cholinesterase, tyrosinase, and α-amylase were significantly higher than the references, galantamine, kojic acid, and acarbose, respectively. The half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50 of the extracts on TAC, CUPRAC, and FRAP were significantly higher than trolox. The phenol and flavonoid contents of the plant extracts were in the range 20.90±0.190–83.25±0.914 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 1.45±0.200–39.71±0.092 mg rutin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The plants were found to possess moderate antioxidant capacities and interesting inhibitory action against key enzymes.

  8. Chemical stress induced by heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum L.) allelochemicals and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghader, Kalantar; Nojavan, Majid; Naghshbandi, Nabat

    2008-03-15

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the allelopathic potential of heliotrope on some biochemical processes of dodder. The preliminary experiments revealed that the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of heliotrope is higher than its seeds and roots. So, the aqueous extract of leaves was used in remaining experiments. Leaf extracts of 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O inhibited the germination of dodder seeds up to 95% and that of radish up to 100%. While, the aqueous extract of vine leaves which is a non-allelopathic plant did not have any inhibitory effect on these seeds. Vine leaf was used as a control to show that the inhibitory effect of heliotrope is due to an inhibitory compound but not due to the concentration. The leaf extract of heliotrope at 0.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O reduced the radish seedling growth from 14 cm to about 0.5 cm and that of dodder from 7.5 cm to about 0.25 cm. The effects of heliotrope allelochemicals on some physiological and biochemical processes of radish was also Investigated. The activity of auxin oxidase increased in leaves and roots of radish. Suggesting that the reduced radish growth is due to the decreased active auxin levels in its leaves and roots. The activity of alpha-amylase was reduced, so reduction of starch degradation and lack of respiratory energy is the prime reason of germination inhibition in dodder and radish seeds. The level of soluble sugars increased. This is an indication of reduction of the activity of some respiratory enzymes and reduced consumption of these sugars. Proline levels were also increased, indicating that, the chemical stress is induced by leaf extract. Finally, the activities of GPX and CAT which are antioxidant enzymes were increased, along with increased extract concentration. These finding shows that the chemical stress induced by leaf extract produces super oxide (O2*) and H2O2, which is neutralized to H2O and O2 by these enzymes.

  9. Role of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compound probucol in antiradical protection of pancreatic beta-cells during alloxan-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankin, V Z; Korchin, V I; Konovalova, G G; Lisina, M O; Tikhaze, A K; Akmaev, I G

    2004-01-01

    The severity of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes depended on activity of antioxidant enzymes in the target organ (pancreas). Damage to the pancreas is related to intensive generation of reactive oxygen species, free radicals, and lipid peroxides. Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats is a free radical disease, which in vivo serves as a useful model for the search for pharmacological preparations with antiradical and antioxidant properties. The antioxidant compound probucol indirectly increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in the pancreas and prevented the development of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Our results indicate that different sensitivity of laboratory animals of various species (rats and guinea pigs) to the influence of alloxan is associated with abnormal variations in activity of enzymes utilizing reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides in mammalian pancreatic cells.

  10. Understanding salt tolerance mechanisms in wheat genotypes by exploring antioxidant enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amjad, M.; Akhtar, J.; Haq, M.A.;

    2014-01-01

    The activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed in six wheat genotypes under different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100 and 200 mM). Plants were harvested after either 15 or 30 days of salt stress. The most salt tolerant genotype (SARC-1) maintained lower Na+ and higher relative growth rate (RGR....... Additionally, glutathione reductase (GR) activity was decreased in salt sensitive (S-9189 and S-9476) than salt tolerant (SARC-1) genotypes. Under salt stress conditions a negative relationship between SOD and leaf Na+, and a positive between SOD and shoot fresh weight (SFW), were observed. The higher...... efficiency of antioxidant enzymes of tolerant genotypes could be considered as one of the factors involved in salt tolerance of wheat....

  11. Growth, osmolyte concentration and antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, P Ramesh; Deepa, S; Kanth, Swarna V; Rengasamy, R

    2013-12-01

    In this study, growth and osmolyte concentration in the leaves of halophyte, Sesuvium portulacastrum, were studied with respect to salinity. Therefore, the changes in shoot growth, leaf tissue water content, osmolyte concentration (proline content, glycine betaine) and antioxidant enzymes [polyphenol oxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] were investigated. The 30-day old S. portulacastrum plants were subjected to 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mM NaCl for 28 days. The plant growth was steadily increased up to 500 mM NaCl stress at 28 days. TWC was higher in 300 mM NaCl treated leaves than that of 600 mM NaCl. Salinity stress induced the accumulation of osmolyte concentration when compared to control during the study period. The antioxidant enzymes PPO, CAT and SOD were increased under salinity.

  12. Impact of kanamycin on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in melanocytes--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Beberok, Artur; Buszman, Ewa

    2013-12-01

    Aminoglycosides, broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotics, are used in various infections therapy due to their good antimicrobial characteristics. However, their adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity and auditory ototoxicity, as well as some toxic effects directed to pigmented tissues, complicate the use of these agents. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aminoglycoside antibiotic-kanamycin on viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in cultured human normal melanocytes (HEMa-LP). It has been demonstrated that kanamycin induces concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 was found to be ~6.0 mM. Kanamycin suppressed melanin biosynthesis: antibiotic was shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in normal human melanocytes. Significant changes in the cellular antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT and GPx were stated in melanocytes exposed to kanamycin. Moreover, it was observed that kanamycin caused depletion of antioxidant defense sytem. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of kanamycin on melanogenesis and not sufficient antioxidant defense mechanism in melanocytes in vitro may explain the potential mechanisms of undesirable side effects of this drug directed to pigmented tissues in vivo.

  13. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Dekdouk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects.

  14. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekdouk, Nadia; Malafronte, Nicola; Russo, Daniela; Faraone, Immacolata; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Ameddah, Souad; Severino, Lorella; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. PMID:26557862

  15. Transgenerational stress memory in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.: antioxidative enzymes and HSP70

    OpenAIRE

    Ćuk, Katarina; Gogalo, Marko; Tkalec, Mirta; Vidaković-Cifrek, Željka

    2010-01-01

    Transgenerational transmission of information about stress exposure is manifested as an increase in the somatic homologous recombination frequency in plants. Our aim was to investigate whether information about changes of antioxidative enzyme activities and protein HSP70 induction are also transmitted in response to stress caused by UV-C irradiation. These stress indicators were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to UV-C irradiation (6 and 600 J m-2) and its non-irradiated pr...

  16. ANTI-OXIDANT AND ENZYME-INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF MARINE STREPTOMYCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suthindhiran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine actinomycetes are potential source for the discovery of novel compounds and enzymes. Though extensive research on marine actinomycetes is underway globally, the actinomycetes research from Indian marine ecosystem is unexplored and understudied. Hence, the present research is focussed on the screening of bioactive compounds from marine actinomycetes isolated from Indian coastal region. This study is designed to determine the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potential of Streptomyces sp. VITMSS05 strain, isolated from Marakkanam, southern coast of India. An actinomycetes strain designated as VITMSS05 was isolated. This strain was cultivated in Starch Caesin Agar medium (SCA supplemented with sea water. The cultural, morphological and molecular characterization was determined for the isolate. The crude extract of the isolate was extracted with ethyl acetate. Antioxidant activity of the crude extract was determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory potential of the extract was determined. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis the strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. Significant antioxidant activity of the extract was observed with an IC50 value of 92.49 μg mL-1. The extract shows 64.1% inhibition on α-amylase and 91.5% inhibition on α-glucosidase at 100 μg mL-1 with an IC50 value of 385.97 and 42.89 μg mL-1. From the results it is evident that the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. VITMSS05 has potent antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity in vitro. The combined effect of free radical scavenging and enzyme inhibition makes it a potent anti diabetic drug.

  17. Antioxidant enzymatic defenses and oxidative damage in Dentex dentex fed on different dietary macronutrient levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Hidalgo, M Carmen; Morales, Amalia E; Arizcun, Marta; Abellán, Emilia; Cardenete, Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    A wide range of antioxidant mechanisms are present in fish maintaining an adequate "oxidative balance". When this balance tilts in favor of the oxidant agents "oxidative stress" arises with detrimental effects in molecules of great biological importance. Little has been reported about the influence of different dietary energy sources on antioxidant defenses in fish. The influence of different dietary macronutrient combinations on the key antioxidant enzyme activity, the oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and the possible modifications in the SOD isoenzymatic pattern were evaluated in liver, white muscle, heart and erythrocytes of common dentex (Dentex dentex). Four experimental diets with different protein:lipid:carbohydrate ratios (43/16/28; 43/24/4; 38/19/28 and 38/24/13) were formulated. In general, neither different dietary macronutrient levels nor the interaction among them induces substantial modifications in enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms. Two constitutive SOD isoforms, CuZn-SOD I and Mn-SOD, were detected in the tissues analyzed in all experimental groups, independently of diet formulation, but, a third SOD isoenzyme, CuZn-SOD II seems to be induced in white muscle by higher dietary protein levels. Densitometric analyses of western blotting membranes revealed higher CuZn-SOD expression in the heart of dentex fed on lower dietary protein levels, although these differences did not correlate with the SOD activity. Finally, a direct relation exists between the lipid or protein intake level and occurrence of oxidative damage in different tissue components.

  18. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  19. Atorvastatin effects on liver enzymes, antioxidant content and paraoxonase 1: An animal trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Barzegar,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver cirrhosis (LC is end-stage and irreversible phase of some chronic liver diseases. Treatment of cirrhosis is varied. Statins are one of them for prophylactic use, and several studies have shown their usefulness and effectiveness in control of LC but according to some other studies the use of Atorvastatin is now matter of discuss. Many studies reported the role of statins in increased activity of PON1 in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. This study aims to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on PON1 activities on development of liver cirrhosis in animal models of mice with ligated bile duct. Material and methods:The 32 rats were haphazardly partitioned On two groups: sham group and Bile duct ligated (BDL group. Each group was also divided in two subgroups in order to treat with either atorvastatin 15 mg/kg suspended in 5%CMC (Sigma Chemicals Co., USA or the same volume/weight of the 5% CMC vehicle for 28 days. At the end of the 4-week period, blood samples were collected by puncturing the heart under deep anesthesia and laboratory test for blood was operated. All statistical analyses were carried out using Prism statistical software .These differences were considered significant when probability was less than 0.05. Results: BDL decreased paraoxonase activities and increase MDA and liver enzymes while atorvastatin treatment increase PON1 activity and decreased MDA levels and liver enzymes. Conclusion: These data confirm activity of atorvastatin in cirrhosis probably by its ability of prevention reducing paraoxonase 1 activity. Conclusion: These data confirm the antioxidant activity of atorvastatin in cirrhosis probably by its ability of prevention reducing paraoxonase 1 activity and expression

  20. Age-Specific Effects on Rat Lung Glutathione and Antioxidant Enzymes after Inhaling Ultrafine Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jackie K. W.; Kodani, Sean D.; Charrier, Jessie G.; Morin, Dexter; Edwards, Patricia C.; Anderson, Donald S.; Anastasio, Cort

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is a dominant contributor to urban particulate pollution (PM). Exposure to PM is linked to respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in susceptible populations, such as children. PM can contribute to the development and exacerbation of asthma, and this is thought to occur because of the presence of electrophiles in PM or through electrophile generation via the metabolism of PAHs. Glutathione (GSH), an abundant intracellular antioxidant, confers cytoprotection through conjugation of electrophiles and reduction of reactive oxygen species. GSH-dependent phase II detoxifying enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase facilitate metabolism and conjugation, respectively. Ambient particulates are highly variable in composition, which complicates systematic study. In response, we have developed a replicable ultrafine premixed flame particle (PFP)-generating system for in vivo studies. To determine particle effects in the developing lung, 7–day-old neonatal and adult rats inhaled 22 μg/m3 PFP during a single 6-hour exposure. Pulmonary GSH and related phase II detoxifying gene and protein expression were evaluated 2, 24, and 48 hours after exposure. Neonates exhibited significant depletion of GSH despite higher initial baseline levels of GSH. Furthermore, we observed attenuated induction of phase II enzymes (glutamate cysteine ligase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase) in neonates compared with adult rats. We conclude that developing neonates have a limited ability to deviate from their normal developmental pattern that precludes adequate adaptation to environmental pollutants, which results in enhanced cytotoxicity from inhaled PM. PMID:23065132

  1. Radioprotective effects of ginsan through the stimulation hematopoiesis and antioxidant enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Yun, Yeon Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    An immunomodulator ginsan which was isolated from Panax ginseng showed the mitogenic activity, generation of LAK cells, and secretion of several cytokines. In the extended effort to search other immunostimulatory effects, we evaluated protective effects of in vivo injected Ginsan against irradiation, by measuring the recovery of CFU-S, and the functioning of bone marrow (BM) and spleen cells. Ginsan was found to significantly increase the number of BM cells, spleen cells, granulocytes macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFC), and the number of circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets in irradiated mice. In addition, it induced endogenous production of cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IFN-g and IL-12, which are required for hematopoietic recovery, and was able to enhance Th1 function while interfering with the Th2 response in irradiated mice. We demonstrated that the pretreatment with Ginsan protected mice from lethal effects of ionizing radiation more effectively than given immediately or after the irradiation. A significant increase of the survival of Ginsan-treated group (100mg/kg) from LD50/30 7.54 Gy of PBS-injection to 10.93 Gy was observed. Moreover, the levels of the antioxidant enzymes such as SODs, catalase and gluthathion peroxidase were increased 1.5-2 fold in ginsan treated mice compared to the irradiated mice. These findings indicate that ginsan may be a promising agent to be used in reducing the time needed for reconstituting of hematopoietic cells after irradiation treatment.

  2. Rhodiola-induced inhibition of adipogenesis involves antioxidant enzyme response associated with pentose phosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Rhodiola crenulata extract and tyrosol, a major bioactive phenolic compound present in Rhodiola, change the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzyme response (AER) and energy pathways linked to proline-mediated pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during adipogenesis. Treatment with Rhodiola extracts inhibited the activities of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) as well as lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The inhibition of PDH and G6PDH activities by Rhodiola likely prevented proline oxidation required for critical ATP generation that is coupled to AER via the PPP, leading to inhibition of adipogenesis. Rhodiola extracts dose-dependently increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, resulting in a reduced ROS level during adipogenesis. Moreover, the effects of tyrosol, a major bioactive compound in Rhodiola species, were directly correlated with all observed effects by Rhodiola extracts. These results indicate that the antiadipogenic effects of Rhodiola extracts can be attributed to a phenolic tyrosol that may potentially disrupt proline-mediated energy generation and AER via PPP, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. This further provides a biochemical rationale to identify the roles of phenolics that modulate the cellular redox environment and therefore have relevance for obesity management.

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, M A; Cordero, H; Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez-Monreal, A M; Bakhrouf, A; Mahdhi, A

    2014-08-01

    Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the mucosae (gut, skin and gill) was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks. Previously, free radical scavenging and several antioxidant assays were developed to know the antioxidant properties present on the palm fruits extracts. The results demonstrated that experimental diets alter the expression of the studied antioxidant genes, primarily in the gill and skin. Furthermore, the tested probiotics and mainly, the aqueous date palm fruits extracts had significant antioxidant properties based on their protective effect against the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, especially when administering during 4 weeks. For this reason, probiotics and date palm fruit extracts may serve as good natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food ingredient for fish in farms.

  4. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27630756

  5. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Riffat A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India); Ahmad, Masood [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India)]. E-mail: smasood_ahmad@lycos.com

    2005-06-15

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 {mu}M, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also

  6. Acute liver failure in rats activates glutamine-glutamate cycle but declines antioxidant enzymes to induce oxidative stress in cerebral cortex and cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Liver dysfunction led hyperammonemia (HA causes a nervous system disorder; hepatic encephalopathy (HE. In the brain, ammonia induced glutamate-excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are considered to play important roles in the pathogenesis of HE. The brain ammonia metabolism and antioxidant enzymes constitute the main components of this mechanism; however, need to be defined in a suitable animal model. This study was aimed to examine this aspect in the rats with acute liver failure (ALF. METHODS: ALF in the rats was induced by intraperitoneal administration of 300 mg thioacetamide/Kg. b.w up to 2 days. Glutamine synthetase (GS and glutaminase (GA, the two brain ammonia metabolizing enzymes vis a vis ammonia and glutamate levels and profiles of all the antioxidant enzymes vis a vis oxidative stress markers were measured in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the control and the ALF rats. RESULTS: The ALF rats showed significantly increased levels of ammonia in the blood (HA but little changes in the cortex and cerebellum. This was consistent with the activation of the GS-GA cycle and static levels of glutamate in these brain regions. However, significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents were consistent with the reduced levels of all the antioxidant enzymes in both the brain regions of these ALF rats. CONCLUSION: ALF activates the GS-GA cycle to metabolize excess ammonia and thereby, maintains static levels of ammonia and glutamate in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Moreover, ALF induces oxidative stress by reducing the levels of all the antioxidant enzymes which is likely to play important role, independent of glutamate levels, in the pathogenesis of acute HE.

  7. Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system.

  8. Effects of mechanical damage and herbivore wounding on H2O2 metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities in hybrid poplar leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Yu; SHEN Ying-bai; ZHANG Zhi-xiang

    2009-01-01

    The changes of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities in a hybrid poplar (Populus simonii ×P. pyramidalis ‘Opera 8277') in response to mechanical damage (MD) and herbivore wounding (HW) were investigated to determine whether H2O2 could function as the secondary messenger in the signaling of systemic resistance. Results show that H2O2 was generated in wounded leaves through MD and HW treatments and systemically in unwounded leaves around the wounded leaves. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were also enhanced. However, the H2O2 accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were inhibited in MD leaves through the pretreatment with DPI (which is a specific inhibitor of NADPH oxidase). The results of this study suggest that H2O2 could be systemically induced by MD and HW treatments, and H2O2 metabolism was closely related to the change in SOD, APX and CAT activities. A high level of antioxidant enzymes could decrease membrane lipid peroxidation levels and effectively induce plant defense responses.

  9. EFFECTS OF AGE INCREMENT AND 36-WEEK EXERCISE TRAINING ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND APOPTOSIS IN RAT HEART TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Ahmadiasl

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the onset of age-related changes in the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis and the vulnerability of the myocardium to oxidative stress following exercise training. Few studies have investigated the influence of the most prevalent life-prolonging strategy physical exercise, on the age increment alterations in the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis at mid age and to determine whether exercise-induced antioxidant defense system could attenuate lipid peroxidation. Thirty six male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to exercise trained (n = 18 and sedentary (n = 18 groups. The rats in the training group went under 12, 24 and 36 weeks of moderate exercise trainings (25 m·min-1 for 60-min with a 0% slope. Six sedentary controls were killed together with each exercise group at the end of the training programs. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and catalase (CAT activity in myocardial homogenates were unchanged by training irrespective of the protocol duration. However, an increased content of the TBARS was detected in hearts from both the 24 and 36-week trained and sedentary control rats when compared with their corresponding 12-week groups (p<0.01. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD remained unchanged after the 12-week training period whereas a significant increase was observed in heart homogenates of 24-week trained animals as compared with their sedentary controls (p<0.05. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX remained unchanged. The rates of apoptosis which was detected by ELISA assays, were significantly modified after 24 and 36-week of training (p<0.05. These results demonstrate that a long-term endurance training (24 weeks induced increases in SOD activities in rat myocardium and elicited a marked reduction in apoptosis rate. However, a shorter training program (12 weeks was not effective in increasing heart antioxidant defenses

  10. GENOTYPIC THERMOTOLERANCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED PRE-STRESS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN COTTON LEAVES AND PISTILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have illustrated the need for antioxidant enzymes in acquired photosynthetic thermotolerance, but information on their possible role in promoting innate thermotolerance in either leaves or reproductive tissues is limited for cotton. We investigated the hypothesis that genotypic diff...

  11. Cadmium phytotoxicity: Quantitative sensitivity relationships between classical endpoints and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa Correa, Albertina Xavier da [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Roerig, Leonardo Rubi [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Verdinelli, Miguel A. [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Cotelle, Sylvie [Centre des Sciences de l' Environnement, Universite de Metz, 57000 Metz (France); Ferard, Jean-Francois [Centre des Sciences de l' Environnement, Universite de Metz, 57000 Metz (France); Radetski, Claudemir Marcos [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: radetski@univali.br

    2006-03-15

    In this work, cadmium phytotoxicity and quantitative sensitivity relationships between different hierarchical endpoints in plants cultivated in a contaminated soil were studied. Thus, germination rate, biomass growth and antioxidative enzyme activity (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in three terrestrial plants (Avena sativa L., Brassica campestris L. cv. Chinensis, Lactuca sativa L. cv. hanson) were analyzed. Plant growth tests were carried out according to an International Standard Organization method and the results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Williams' test. The concentration of Cd{sup 2+} that had the smallest observed significant negative effect (LOEC) on plant biomass was 6.25, 12.5 and 50 mg Cd/kg dry soil for lettuce, oat and Chinese cabbage, respectively. Activity of all enzymes studied increased significantly compared to enzyme activity in plant controls. For lettuce, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) for enzymic activity ranged from 0.05 (glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (catalase). For oat, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (for superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (for catalase and peroxidase). For Chinese cabbage, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (superoxide dismutase). Classical (i.e. germination and biomass) and biochemical (i.e. enzyme activity) endpoints were compared to establish a sensitivity ranking, which was: enzyme activity > biomass > germination rate. For cadmium-soil contamination, the determination of quantitative sensitivity relationships (QSR) between classical and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers showed that the most sensitive plant species have, generally, the lowest QSR values.

  12. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in yeast cells after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, Ji Young; Ryu, Tae Ho; Roh, Chang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Ionizing radiation induces water radiolysis, which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause apoptosis and cell damage. When exposed to ionizing radiation, cells activates ROS scavenging detoxifying enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. SOD scavenges superoxide radicals by catalyzing the conversion of two of these radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The hydrogen peroxide formed by superoxide dismutase and by other processes is scavenged by catalase, a ubiquitous heme protein that catalyzes the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen. Yeast has two catalase and three GPx proteins. The biochemical function of GPx is to reduce lipid-hydroperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and to reduce free hydrogen peroxide to water. N-acetylL-cysteine (NAC) having a thiol, a precursor for glutathione (GSH), is known as one of the antioxidants. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity and alkaline phosphatase. In this study, the role of NAC as an antioxidant and a radioprotector was examined on cell survival, transcriptional level, and protein level. through observing viability of cells, analyzing the gene expression of antioxidant enzyme, measuring the SOD activity and intracellular GSH levels in yeast W303-1A strain The cell viability of haploid S. cerevisiae W303-1A strain was reduced significantly at the low dose (10∼30 Gy). The half-lethal dose of the strain was about 20 Gy. The CFU assay result confirmed that NAC could not rescue the cells from radiation-induced death. When irradiated with 100 Gy, an increase in the transcriptional expression was observed in the antioxicant genes. The expression of these genes decreased by treatment of NAC in irradiated cells. NAC decline SOD activity and intracellular GSH levels. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge

  13. Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These

  14. 24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

    2013-09-01

    Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 μM of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar.

  15. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  16. Dietary palm olein oil augments cardiac antioxidant enzymes and protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, D; Sood, S; Thomas, M; Dinda, A K; Maulik, S K

    2005-11-01

    Wistar rats, 150-200 g, of either sex, were fed daily with commercial rat diet supplemented with palm olein oil in two doses (5% v/w (n = 16) and 10% v/w (n = 16) of diet) for 30 days. Control rats (n = 16) were fed with normal diet. On the 29(th) and 30(th) days, 8 rats from each group were administred isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, s.c., 24-h interval). On the 31(st) day, all rats were sacrificed and myocardial tissues were studied for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), antioxidant enzymes and light microscopic changes, along with the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). A significant rise in myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and FRAP level were observed in rats fed with palm olein oil. Isoproterenol caused an increase in myocardial oxidative stress in control rats, as evidenced by an increase in myocardial TBARS level, reduction in FRAP and myocardial SOD, catalase and GPx activity, along with focal necrosis of cardiac muscle fibres on light microscopy. The rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of SOD and catalase activity following isoproterenol administration were prevented in palm-olein-oil-supplemented diet-fed rats at both doses. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial light-microscopic changes were also prevented in the treated groups. The results suggest that dietary palm olein oil caused augmentation of myocardial antioxidant enzymes and protected against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis and associated oxidative stress.

  17. The effect of extra virgin olive oil and soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kholy, Thanaa A; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Al-Abbadi, Hatim Ali; Serafi, Abdulhalim Salim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K; Sobhy, Hanan M; Richardson, John R C

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents' organs and warrants further investigation in humans.

  18. Roles of antioxidant enzymes in corpus luteum rescue from reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Garrel, Catherine; Faure, Patrice; Sugino, Norihiro

    2012-12-01

    Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum (CL) regulates the synthesis of various endometrial proteins required for embryonic implantation and development. Compromised CL progesterone production is a potential risk factor for prenatal development. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play diverse roles in mammalian reproductive biology. ROS-induced oxidative damage and subsequent adverse developmental outcomes constitute important issues in reproductive medicine. The CL is considered to be highly exposed to locally produced ROS due to its high blood vasculature and steroidogenic activity. ROS-induced apoptotic cell death is involved in the mechanisms of CL regression that occurs at the end of the non-fertile cycle. Luteal ROS production and propagation depend upon several regulating factors, including luteal antioxidants, steroid hormones and cytokines, and their crosstalk. However, it is unknown which of these factors have the greatest contribution to the maintenance of CL integrity and function during the oestrous/menstrual cycle. There is evidence to suggest that antioxidants play important roles in CL rescue from luteolysis when pregnancy ensues. As luteal phase defect impacts fertility by preventing implantation and early conceptus development in livestock and humans, this review attempts to address the importance of ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzymes in the control of mammalian CL function and integrity. The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ that develops after ovulation from the ovulated follicle during each reproductive cycle. The main function of the CL is the production and secretion of progesterone which is necessary for embryonic implantation and development. Compromised CL progesterone production is a potential risk factor for prenatal development and pregnancy outcomes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are natural by-products of cellular respiration and metabolism, play diverse roles in mammalian reproductive biology. ROS

  19. Copper-induced response of physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymes in the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pusillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monferran, Magdalena V.; Sanchez Agudo, Jose A. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Dto. Bioquimica Clinica - CIBICI, Medina Allende Esq., Haya de la Torre, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Pignata, Maria L. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales - IMBIV, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Wunderlin, Daniel A., E-mail: dwunder@fcq.unc.edu.a [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Dto. Bioquimica Clinica - CIBICI, Medina Allende Esq., Haya de la Torre, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-08-15

    Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper was evaluated on Potamogeton pusillus L. The effect of copper (5-100 mug L{sup -1}) applied for several days was assessed by measuring changes in the chlorophyll's, phaeophytin's, malondialdehyde, electrical conductivity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activities. Plants accumulated copper with a maximum of 162 mug g{sup -1} dw after 7-days exposure at 100 mug L{sup -1}, however most of the metal was accumulated after 1-day exposure. The toxic effect caused by Cu was evident by the reduction of photosynthetic pigments, increase of malondialdehyde and electrical conductivity. P. pusillus shows Cu-induced oxidative stress by modulating antioxidant enzymes like GPX, GR and POD. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased significantly after exposure to 40 mug L{sup -1} during 24 h, followed by a drop at longer times. Thus, P. pusillus is proposed as a good biomonitor for the assessment of metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. - The tolerance of Potamogeton pusillus to copper largely depends on the enhanced activity of its antioxidant system, showing that a decrease on its activity favored oxidative stress and cell damage.

  20. Effect of norfloxacin and moxifloxacin on melanin synthesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Miliński, Maciej; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics provide broad-spectrum coverage for a number of infectious diseases, including respiratory as well as urinary tract infections. One of the important adverse effects of these drugs is phototoxicity which introduces a serious limitation to their use. To gain insight the molecular mechanisms underlying the fluoroquinolones-induced phototoxic side effects, the impact of two fluoroquinolone derivatives with different phototoxic potential, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin, on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes HEMa-LP was determined. Both drugs induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 for these drugs was found to be 0.5 mM. Norfloxacin and moxifloxacin suppressed melanin biosynthesis; antibiotics were shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in melanocytes. When comparing the both analyzed fluoroquinolones, it was observed that norfloxacin possesses greater inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in melanocytes than moxifloxacin. The extent of oxidative stress in cells was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx. It was observed that norfloxacin caused higher depletion of antioxidant status in melanocytes when compared with moxifloxacin. The obtained results give a new insight into the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones toxicity directed to pigmented tissues. Moreover, the presented differences in modulation of biochemical processes in melanocytes may be an explanation for various phototoxic activities of the analyzed fluoroquinolone derivatives in vivo.

  1. Assessment of the effect of silicon on antioxidant enzymes in cotton plants by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Moldes, Carlos; Fontão de Lima Filho, Oscar; Manuel Camiña, José; Gabriela Kiriachek, Soraya; Lia Molas, María; Mui Tsai, Siu

    2013-11-27

    Silicon has been extensively researched in relation to the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress, as an element triggering defense mechanisms which activate the antioxidant system. Furthermore, in some species, adding silicon to unstressed plants modifies the activity of certain antioxidant enzymes participating in detoxifying processes. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of unstressed cotton plants fertilized with silicon (Si). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponic culture and added with increasing doses of potassium silicate; then, the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Using multivariate analysis, we found that silicon altered the activity of GPOX, APX, and CAT in roots and leaves of unstressed cotton plants, whereas lipid peroxidation was not affected. The analysis of these four variables in concert showed a clear differentiation among Si treatments. We observed that enzymatic activities in leaves and roots changed as silicon concentration increased, to stabilize at 100 and 200 mg Si L(-1) treatments in leaves and roots, respectively. Those alterations would allow a new biochemical status that could be partially responsible for the beneficial effects of silicon. This study might contribute to adjust the silicon application doses for optimal fertilization, preventing potential toxic effects and unnecessary cost.

  2. Synergistic defensive mechanism of phytochelatins and antioxidative enzymes in Brassica chinensis L. against Cd stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN LiQin; GUO YiFei; YANG LiMin; WANG QiuQuan

    2008-01-01

    Brassica chinensis L. was chosen and exposed to different concentrations of Cd exposure to evaluate its Cd-accumulating capacity and its potential cellular defensive mechanisms. Cd accumulation in the shoots and roots of B. chinensis was up to 1348.3±461.8 and 3761.0±795.0 mg per killogram of dry weight, respectively, under 200 μmol/L of Cd exposure. Increasing Cd accumulation in the plant was accompanied by rapid accumulation of phytochelatins (PCs), and the sequestration of Cd by PCs pro-vided a primary cellular mechanism for Cd detoxification and tolerance of B. chinensis. Furthermore, malondialdehyde formation, hydrogen peroxide content and antioxidative enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase were observed in the shoots of Cd-stressed B. chinensis. Increasing enzyme activities in response to concentrations of 5 to 50 μmol/L Cd showed an efficient defense against oxidative stress, suggesting that the antioxidative system was a secondary defensive mechanism. These resulted in reduced free Cd damage and en-hanced Cd accumulation and tolerance. Glutathione plays a pivotal role in these two detoxification pathways. In general, these results suggested that PCs and the antioxidative system are synergistic in combatting Cd-induced oxidative stress and that they play important roles in Cd detoxification of B. chinensis, and also give a deep understanding of the natural defensive mechanisms in plants under heavy metal stress.

  3. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  4. Selenium ameliorates arsenic induced oxidative stress through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and thiols in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Rana Pratap; Singh, Pradyumna Kumar; Awasthi, Surabhi; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of rice is a major problem for South-East Asia. In the present study, the effect of selenium (Se) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to As was studied in hydroponic culture. Arsenic accumulation, plant growth, thiolic ligands and antioxidative enzyme activities were assayed after single (As and Se) and simultaneous supplementations (As + Se). The results indicated that the presence of Se (25 µM) decreased As accumulation by threefold in roots and twofold in shoots as compared to single As (25 µM) exposed plants. Arsenic induced oxidative stress in roots and shoots was significantly ameliorated by Se supplementation. The observed positive response was found associated with the increased activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.11.1.9) and induced levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) in As + Se exposed plants as compared to single As treatment. Selenium supplementation modulated the thiol metabolism enzymes viz., γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS; EC 6.3.2.2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS; EC 2.3.2.15). Gene expression analysis of several metalloid responsive genes (LOX, SOD and MATE) showed upregulation during As stress, however, significant downregulation during As + Se exposure as compared to single As treatment. Gene expressions of enzymes of antioxidant and GSH and PC biosynthetic systems, such as APX, CAT, GPx, γ-ECS and PCS were found to be significantly positively correlated with their enzyme activities. The findings suggested that Se supplementation could be an effective strategy to reduce As accumulation and toxicity in rice plants.

  5. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  6. Oxidative stress in cancer and fibrosis: Opportunity for therapeutic intervention with antioxidant compounds, enzymes, and nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingga Morry

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, mainly contributed by reactive oxygen species (ROS, has been implicated in pathogenesis of several diseases. We review two primary examples; fibrosis and cancer. In fibrosis, ROS promote activation and proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, activating TGF-β pathway in an autocrine manner. In cancer, ROS account for its genomic instability, resistance to apoptosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Importantly, ROS trigger cancer cell invasion through invadopodia formation as well as extravasation into a distant metastasis site. Use of antioxidant supplements, enzymes, and inhibitors for ROS-generating NADPH oxidases (NOX is a logical therapeutic intervention for fibrosis and cancer. We review such attempts, progress, and challenges. Lastly, we review how nanoparticles with inherent antioxidant activity can also be a promising therapeutic option, considering their additional feature as a delivery platform for drugs, genes, and imaging agents.

  7. Regulation of growth and antioxidant enzyme activities by 28-homobrassinolide in seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2010-06-01

    28-Homobrassinolide (28-HBL), a brassinosteroid is reported to play significant role in diverse physiological processes. It induces a range of cellular and adaptive responses to a range of environmental stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal which alters various physiological processes and generates ROS, which can oxidize biological macromolecules and causes oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by the internal antioxidative defense system and stress shielding phytohormones. In this study, effect of 28-HBL was studied on growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes in known hyperaccumulator Raphanus sativus L. (radish) seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. To determine the influence of 28-HBL (0, 10-(11), 10-(9), 10-(7) M) in radish seedlings subjected to Cd (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (APOX, CAT, GR, POD and SOD) were analyzed. In addition, length and biomass of radish seedlings was also recorded. Cd toxicity resulted in reduced length, biomass, protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes. 28-HBL treatments lowered the Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, biomass and seedling length. The present study thus suggests a possible role of 28-HBL in amelioration of metal stress by regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes in radish.

  8. Testicular toxicity in cannabis extract treated mice: association with oxidative stress and role of antioxidant enzyme systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Tapas K; Das, Nildari S

    2010-02-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of cannabis extract at low doses (total doses ranging from 40 mg to 60 mg per mouse) induced adverse effect on testes and oxidative stress. At low doses, there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in testicular lipid content, but the effects were significantly less at higher doses and at the withdrawal of cannabis treatment (recovery dose). There was a marked decrease in antioxidant enzyme profiles (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and glutathione content at low doses, but these effects were higher at higher dose and at withdrawal of the treatment (recovery effect). Histology revealed significant shrinkage of tubular diameter and detrimental changes in seminiferous epithelium of testis with resulting lowered serum testosterone and pituitary gonadotropins (follicular stimulating [FSH] and luteinizing hormones [LH]) levels at low doses. But at higher doses and particularly at withdrawal of the treatment, regression of various germ cell layers of testes through the revival of testosterone hormone and pituitary gonadotropins (FSH and LH) were observed, indicating that recovery effects on testes became operative possibly through the corrective measure of endogenous testicular antioxidant enzymes profiles and pituitary gonadotropins hormones feedback mechanisms.

  9. Age-related changes in mitochondrial function and antioxidative enzyme activity in fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingying; Wong, Yee Ting; Chen, Jie; Ruan, Runsheng

    2007-03-01

    We have previously reported the changes of mitochondrial function and/or antioxidative enzyme efficiency in a few organs of rats as a result of aging. However, there is a further need to reach a conclusion about their interactions in biological functions based on other evaluation tips like the usage of advanced methods and the exploring of crucial biochemical parameters. Therefore, we investigated the mitochondrial inner membrane functional integrity by the analysis of respiration control ratio and membrane potential in the liver and brain of young (8 months) and old (26 months) Fischer 344 rats. The disintegration of mitochondrial membrane integrity was determined higher in the liver of old rats than that of young rats. This was well correlated with the decrease of total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and glutathione peroxidase activities in most of the organs, except for the increase of catalase activity in heart of old rats. Similarly, the protein expressions of these enzymes were down regulated in the liver and kidney of old rats. Taken together, we suggest that the mitochondrial malfunction in old rats is associated with the decrease of antioxidative enzyme efficiency. And the data are also discussed with changes in the results from inter-laboratories.

  10. Expression profile of oxidative and antioxidative stress enzymes based on ESTs approach of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Peroni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only evolve but also reduce oxygen in photosynthesis. An inevitable consequence of this normal process is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants are adequately protected by the presence of multiple antioxidative enzymes in the cytosol and also in the different cell organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Traditionally, ROS were considered to be only a toxic byproduct of aerobic metabolism. However, recently it has become apparent that plants actively produce these molecules which may control many different physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress response, pathogen defense and systemic signaling. The search results using the Citrus Genome Program in Brazil (CitEST for oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in Citrus Sinensis variety ‘Pera IAC’ indicated that the multiple ROS-scavenging enzymes were expressed throughout all citrus tissues. The analyses demonstrated the ubiquitous expression of metallothioneins, probably indicating a constitutive expression pattern. Oxalate oxidase has been identified as the most abundant expressed gene in developing fruits, which suggests a specific function in the ripening of citrus fruit. Moreover, infected leaves with Xylella fastidiosa and Leprosis citri showed a massive change in their ROS gene expression profile which may indicate that the suppression of ROS detoxifying mechanisms may be involved in the induction of the diseases.

  11. Effects of Water-Borne Mercury and Cadmium Exposure on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Mangrove Red Snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Feng Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of waterborne cadmium (Cd2+ and mercury (Hg2+ both separately and in combination on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity in Lutjanus argentimaculatus was investigated. The fish was exposed for 3, 7 and 15 days respectively to Cd2+, Hg2+ and the mixture of both. Exposure to Cd2+ was done at three different concentrations viz 1, 5 and 100 μg/L .The fish was exposed to Hg2+ at 0.2,0.5 and 10 μg/L. Further L. argentimaculatus was also exposed to a mixture containing 5 μg/L Cd2+ and 0.5 μg/L Hg2+. The results showed increased levels of antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT and Peroxidase (POD (p<0.05 both in hepatic and branchial tissues. The level of Malonialdehyde (MDA which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation also showed significant increase (p<0.05. Further, antioxidant enzymes and MDA could not fall down to normal levels even after 15 days of release to clean sea water in all the treatments tested. However, the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the fishes exposed to mixture containing both Cd2+ and Hg2+ did not showed remarkable raise as when treated separately. The study indicated that the increase of antioxidant enzymes activity and MDA need to be considered carefully as pollution indicators as their values do not conform well to the corresponding metal ion concentrations, in view of co-effects of metals.

  12. Pressure-related effects of hyperbaric oxygen exposure on oxidation products and antioxidant enzymes in the rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to provide comprehensive information on the relationship between clinically used hyperbaric oxygen (HBO protocols and its oxidative effects. In order to enlighten this issue, we investigated the effects of various HBO pressure modalities on oxidant and antioxidant parameters in the rat lung. Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups. Group 1 was used as control. Groups 2 to 6 were subjected to 100% oxygen at a pressure of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 ATA (atmosphere absolute respectively for 2 hours. The lungs were taken immediately after exposure. Oxidation products of lipids (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS and proteins (carbonyl formation, PCO, and antioxidant enzyme levels (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT, glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px were determined. Results: TBARS, PCO, SOD and CAT levels increased concordantly with pressure. Significant change of TBARS levels started from 100% oxygen exposure at 1 ATA (normobaric, but PCO and CAT levels were affected first after 1.5, and SOD activity after 2 ATA. A significant correlation exists between exposure pressure and oxidative parameters. GSH-Px activity was not affected significantly. Conclusion: The oxidative effect of HBO in rat lung presents a positive correlation with increasing exposure pressure. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(1: 37-42

  13. Lycopene activates antioxidant enzymes and nuclear transcription factor systems in heat-stressed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Sahin, N; Hayirli, A; Bilgili, S; Kucuk, O

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lycopene supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, and muscle nuclear transcription factor [Kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] expressions in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress (HS). A total of 180 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned randomly to one of 2×3 factorially arranged treatments: two housing temperatures (22°C for 24 h/d; thermoneutral, TN or 34°C for 8 h/d HS) and three dietary lycopene levels (0, 200, or 400 mg/kg). Each treatment consisted of three replicates of 10 birds. Birds were reared to 42 d of age. Heat stress caused reductions in feed intake and weight gain by 12.2 and 20.7% and increased feed efficiency by 10.8% (Plycopene level improved performance in both environments. Birds reared under the HS environment had lower serum and muscle lycopene concentration (0.34 vs. 0.50 μg/mL and 2.80 vs. 2.13 μg/g), activities of superoxide dismutase (151 vs. 126 U/mL and 131 vs. 155 U/mg protein), glutathione peroxidase (184 vs. 154 U/mL and 1.39 vs. 1.74 U/mg protein), and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (0.53 vs. 0.83 μg/mL and 0.78 vs. 0.45 μg/ mg protein) than birds reared under the TN environment. Changes in levels of lycopene and MDA and activities of enzymes in serum and muscle varied by the environmental temperature as dietary lycopene level increased. Moreover, increasing dietary lycopene level suppressed muscle Keap1 expression and enhanced muscle Nrf2 expression, which had increased by 150% and decreased by 40%, respectively in response to HS. In conclusion, lycopene supplementation alleviates adverse effects of HS on performance through modulating expressions of stress-related nuclear transcription factors.

  14. Effect of Alkali Stress on Soluble Sugar, Antioxidant Enzymes and Yield of Oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jian-hui; LIU Jing-hui; ZHANG Na; YANG Jun-heng; SA Ru-la; WU Lan

    2013-01-01

    Alkali stress can cause severe crop damage and reduce production. However, physiological processes involved in alkali stress in oat seedlings are not well understood. In this study, physiological responses and yield of oat to alkali stress were studied using the alkali-tolerant oat genotype Vao-9 and the alkali-sensitive oat genotype Baiyan 5. The results were:(i) low concentrations of alkali stress (25 and 50 mmol L-1) significantly reduced the yield and grain weight while increased the oat grain number per spike. A negative correlation between yield and malondialdehyde (MDA) content at the jointing and grain filling stages and positive correlations between yield on one hand and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) activities on the other at the jointing stage were observed. There was a positive correlation between MDA and soluble sugar at the grain filling stage;(ii) soluble sugar content was increased at the jointing and grain filling stages and decreased at the heading stage by alkali stress;(iii) alkali stress increased the SOD activity during the heading and grain filling stages, and increased the POD activity at the heading stage. As compared to the control, the increase of MDA contents in alkali-treated oat was observed, during the jointing, heading and grain filling stages;(iv) under alkali stress, the oat genotype Vao-9 showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower soluble sugar contents during the heading stage, and lower MDA contents than those in the oat genotype Baiyan 5 under alkali stress. The result suggested that the high ROS scavenging capacity and soluble sugar levels might play roles in oat response to alkali stress.

  15. Effects of copper on induction of thiol-compounds and antioxidant enzymes by the fruiting body of Oudemansiella radicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Juan; Qin, Chuixin; Shu, Xueqin; Chen, Rong; Song, Haihai; Li, Qiao; Xu, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Oudemansiella radicata has been found to have ability to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals. In this study, to know about the metal tolerance and detoxification strategy of O. radicata, the tolerance responses in both cap and stipe of the fruiting body, including the copper content, the changes of thiol compounds production and antioxidant enzymes activities, caused by various copper stress (150-600 mg kg(-1)) during 2-6 days were investigated. Results showed that Cu content in the fruiting bodies increased with the increasing Cu concentrations and growing time, which was higher in cap than that in stipe. For thiols contents, the maximum level was in the sample at 300 mg kg(-1) Cu after 2 d both in cap and stipe, in accordance with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities. Guaicol peroxidase (POD) activities reached maximum at 150 mg kg(-1) Cu after 4 d and 6 d, respectively in cap and stipe, while the maximum of catalase (CAT) activities was recorded at 300 and 600 mg kg(-1) Cu after 4 d in the cap and stipe, respectively. As a whole, low concentration of Cu stimulated the production of thiols and activated the antioxidant enzymes activities in the fruiting body of O. radicata after 2/4 d, while high-level Cu decreased the thiols production and enzymes activities after 4/6 d. Furthermore, the cap was more sensitive than the stipe to Cu exposure. Different indicators showed different responses to copper accumulation and the different fruiting part (cap and stipe) of O. radicata had ability to response the oxidative stress caused by Cu. Considering the metal accumulation and its own detoxification with short growing time, mushroom might have the potential to be used as bio-accumulator to deal with Cu exposure in the Cu-contaminated farmland soil.

  16. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants.

  17. Renal antioxidant enzymes and glutathione redox status in leptin-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Lowicka, Ewelina; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that leptin increases blood pressure (BP) in the rats through two oxidative stress-dependent mechanisms: stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) by H(2)O(2) and scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) by superoxide (O(2-.)). Herein, we examined if renal glutathione system and antioxidant enzymes determine the mechanism of prohypertensive effect of leptin. Leptin administered at 0.5 mg/kg/day for 4 or 8 days increased BP and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and reduced fractional sodium excretion; these effects were prevented by NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Superoxide scavenger, tempol, abolished the effect of leptin on BP and renal Na(+) pump in rats receiving leptin for 8 days, whereas ERK inhibitor, PD98059, was effective in animals treated with leptin for 4 days. Leptin administered for 4 days decreased glutathione (GSH) and increased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in the kidney. In animals receiving leptin for 8 days GSH returned to normal level, which was accompanied by up-regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), a rate-limiting enzyme of the GSH biosynthetic pathway. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was increased in rats receiving leptin for 8 days. Cotreatment with gamma-GCS inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), accelerated, whereas GSH precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), attenuated leptin-induced changes in gamma-GCS, SOD, and GPx. In addition, coadministration of BSO changed the mechanism of BP elevation from H(2)O(2)-ERK to (O(2-.))-NO dependent in animals receiving leptin for 4 days, whereas NAC had the opposite effect in rats treated with leptin for 8 days. These results suggest that initial change in GSH redox status induces decrease in SOD/GPx ratio, which results in greater amount of (O)2-.)) versus H(2)O(2) in later phase of leptin treatment, thus shifting the mechanism of BP elevation from H(2)O(2)-ERK to (O(2

  18. Optimization of enzyme assisted extraction of Fructus Mori polysaccharides and its activities on antioxidant and alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qingfang; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Huaguo

    2014-10-13

    In the present study, enzyme assisted extraction of Fructus Mori polysaccharides (FMPS) from F. mori using four kinds of enzymes and three compound enzymes were examined. Research found that glucose oxidase offered a better performance in enhancement of the extraction yields of FMPS, antioxidant and activate alcohol dehydrogenase activities. The glucose oxidase assisted extraction process was further optimized by using response surface method (RSM) to obtain maximum yield of crude FMPS. The results showed that optimized extraction conditions were ratio of enzyme amount 0.40%, enzyme treated time 38 min, treated temperature 58 °C and liquid-solid radio 11.0. Under these conditions, the mean experimental value of extraction yield (16.16 ± 0.14%) corresponded well with the predicted values and increased 160% than none enzyme treated ones. Pharmacological verification tests showed that F. mori crude polysaccharides had good antioxidant and activate alcohol dehydrogenase activities in vitro.

  19. Effect of Subacute Exposure of Wrightia tinctoria Bark Extract on Hematological, Biochemical and Antioxidant Enzyme Parameters of Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papiya Bigoniya

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sub-acute administration of W. tinctoria bark extract on some haematological, biochemical, histological and antioxidant enzyme status of rat liver and kidney following 21 and 45 days treatment. The animals were observed for gross physiological and behavioural responses, food and water intake and body weight changes. Free radical scavenging activity and histopathology was done on liver and kidney samples. W. tinctoria showed significant hemopoiesis with increase in body weight signifying anabolic effect. It significantly reduced serum SGOT level and increased glucose levels. W. tinctoria caused increased SOD activity of liver along with catalase of both liver and kidney and decreased liver peroxidase (P< 0.001. These features indicate that W. tinctoria upto 1000 mg/kg daily dose is safe and has potential to be consumed for long time in management of various diseases.

  20. Plasma Homocysteine Is Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Welders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Hsin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association of vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine with oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in welders. Workers were divided into either the welding exposure group (n=57 or the nonexposure controls (n=42 based on whether they were employed as welders. There were no significant differences in vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine concentration between the welding exposure group and the nonexposure controls. The welding exposure group had significantly higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower erythrocyte glutathione concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities when compared to nonexposure controls. Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate concentration did not correlate with oxidative stress indicators or antioxidant capacities in either group. However, plasma homocysteine significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (TAC (partial rs=-0.34, P<0.05 and erythrocyte SOD activities (partial rs=0.29, P<0.05 after adjusting for potential confounders in the welding exposure group. In the welding exposure group, adequate vitamin B6 status was not associated with oxidative stress or antioxidant capacities. However, elevated plasma homocysteine seemed to be a major contributing factor to antioxidant capacities (TAC and erythrocyte SOD activities in welders.

  1. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89...... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....

  2. THERMOSTABILITY OF ANTIOXIDANT AND DETERIORATIVE ENZYMES FROM SOURSOP AND CASHEW APPLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA CRISTINA RABELO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the thermostability of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase - SOD, catalase - CAT and ascorbate peroxidase - APX and deteriorative (guaiacol peroxidase - G-POD, polyphenoloxidase - PPO, pectin-methylesterase - PME and polygalacturonase - PG enzymes from soursop and cashew apple juices. Juices were prepared homogenizing ripe fruit pulps and submitting to different thermal treatments (55, 65, 75, 85 and 95°C for different time period (1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min then enzymatic activities were evaluated. The treatments at 55°C for soursop juice and at 75°C for cashew apple juice presented the best results, considering the low residual activities for deteriorative enzymes and the retained activity of SOD. Our results suggest appropriate technological condition to thermal processing from soursop and cashew apple juice whereby ensuring quality beyond their functionality.

  3. Effects of vitamin-mineral supplementation on cardiac marker and radical scavenging enzymes, and MDA levels in young swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, Levent; Tarhan, Leman

    2004-04-01

    The relationship among the enzyme activities of cardiac markers, the antioxidant defense system, and erythrocyte membrane malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels related to vitamin-mineral supplementation in swim exercise was investigated. Swimmers aged 11 - 13 years were divided into 2 separate groups as control and vitamin-mineral supplemented. Swimmers participated in a monthly swimming program (4 times/wk) and swam approximately 2- 2.5 km/d. Cardiac markers such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK - MB), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [GOT (AST)], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and anti-oxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in post-training samples were found to be significantly (p<.05) higher than in pre-training samples. Except for GOT (AST), the activity increases in CK, CK-MB, and LDH in female and male supplemented groups were significantly (p<.05) lower than those of control groups during the 1-month period of swim training. Antioxidant enzyme activity increases in the male vitamin-mineral group were significantly (p <.05) higher when compared with the other groups. Post-training MDA levels were significantly (p <.001) higher than pre-training MDA levels in the control groups, whereas no significant (p<.05) differences were found between the vitamin-mineral supplemented groups. Vitamin-mineral supplementation was found to attenuate cardiac and muscle damage markers while also enhancing antioxidant levels and reducing membrane LPO levels in response to 1 month of swim training.

  4. Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesh B; Karuna R; Sreenivasa Reddy S; Haritha K; Sai Mangala D; Sasi Bhusana Rao B; Saralakumari D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antioxidant efficacy of Commiphora mukul (C. mukul) gum resin ethanolic extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: The male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each: Control group (C), CM-treated control group (C+CMEE), Diabetic control group (D), CM- treated diabetic group (D+CMEE). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg/ bwt). After being confirmed the diabetic rats were treated with C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEE) for 60 days. The biochemical estimations like antioxidant, oxidative stress marker enzymes and hepatic marker enzymes of tissues were performed. Results: The diabetic rats showed increased level of enzymatic activities aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in liver and kidney and oxidative markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PO) in pancreas and heart. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in the pancreas and heart compared to control group. Administration of CMEE (200 mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats for 60 days significantly reversed the above parameters towards normalcy. Conclusions: In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of C. mukul against STZ-induced diabetic oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of diabetes and aggravated antioxidant status.

  5. Chemical Composition and Enzymes Inhibitory, Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Caloplaca biatorina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Valadbeigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study evaluated the brine shrimp larvae toxicity and enzymes inhibitory especially anti-diabetic potential of Caloplaca biatorina via in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using the methanol extracts. Also aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of the species were determined. Methods In this experimental study, different concentrations of the extracts (0.2, 5.0, 1 and 1.5 mg/mL were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the percentage of enzyme inhibitory activity and IC50 was calculated. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography analysis were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS V.21 software. Results Parietin, Emodin, 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-6- methoxy-9.10-anthracenedione and Rhein were identified. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 17.12, 40.09 and 11.02 µg/mL respectively. Also methanol extract displayed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging and brine shrimp toxicity (IC50 = 91.11 properties. Conclusions The result obtained suggests that the C. biatorina extract can be classified as non-toxic. Also, it revealed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the lichen.

  6. Oenanthe javanica extract increases immunoreactivities of antioxidant enzymes in the rat kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Jin Tae; Joon Ha Park; Jeong-Hwi Cho; In Hye Kim; Ji Hyeon Ahn; Jae Chul Lee; Jong-Dai Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Oenanthe javanica is an aquatic perennial herb originated from East Asia.Nowadays,the effects of Oenanthe javanica have been proven in various disease models.Studies regarding the antioxidant effect of Oenanthe javanica in the kidney are still unclear.Methods This study was therefore performed to investigate the effect of the Oenanthe javanica extract (OJE) in the rat kidney using immunohistochemistry for antioxidant enzymes,copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1),manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2),catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx).Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups:(1) normal diet fed-group (normal-group),(2) diet containing ascorbic acid (AA)-fed group (AA-group) as a positive control,(3) diet containing OJE-fed group (OJE-group).AA and OJE were supplied during 28 days.Results The side-effects were not observed in all the groups.Immunoreactivities of SOD1,SOD2,CAT and GPx were easily detected in the distal tubules of the kidney,and their immunoreactivities in the AA-and OJE-groups were increased to about 1.4-1.5 times and 2 times,respectively,compared with those in the normal-group.Conclusion OJE significantly increased expressions of SOD1 & 2,CAT and GPx immunoreactivities in the distal tubules of the rat kidney,and this finding suggests that significant enhancements of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants by OJE treatment may be a legitimate strategy for decreasing oxidative stresses in the kidney.

  7. [Fetal distress: Information provided by lactate levels and antioxidant status, compared with the Apgar score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abessolo, Felix Ovono; Ngou, J P J F Ngou-Mve; Meye, J F; Yangou, Jf Moutsinga; Lemamy, G J J F; Ngou-Milama, E J F

    2009-01-01

    The multitude of criteria used to assess fetal distress and the subjective character of the Apgar score led us to compare the information it provides with that from measurements of lactate and two principal antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We measured plasma lactates, SOD, and GPX from the umbilical cord blood of live-born children whose mothers had had at least three prenatal consultations. The correlation of these measurements with the 5-minute Apgar score was tested with the Spearman correlation coefficient. Lactate levels were correlated with the baby's blood glucose (r=0.212; p=0.0084), and GPx activity (r=0.179; p=0.0061), the Apgar score (r=0.258; p=0.001) and the mother's blood glucose (r=0.167; p=0.035). GPx was correlated not only with the lactate level but also with birth weight (r=0.205; p=0.000) and height (r=0.316; p=0.0056), while SOD was correlated only with the mother's blood glucose (r=0.161; p=0.046). In multivariate analysis, followed by stepwise analysis, lactate was the main variable associated with the Apgar score. It thus seems better able to replace the Apgar score than the antioxidant enzyme levels. GPx was higher in children of high birth weight and may make them better able to combat the free radicals due to anoxia or hypoxia.

  8. Toxic effects of nitenpyram on antioxidant enzyme system and DNA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Saihong; Wang, Jinhua; Zhu, Lusheng; Chen, Aimei; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Nitenpyram is one of the most commonly used neonicotinoid pesticide worldwide and was found to be toxic to non-target aquatic organisms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress, changes in the detoxifying system and DNA damage in zebrafish induced by nitenpyram. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to four concentrations (0.6, 1.2, 2.5, and 5.0 mg L(-1)) for 28 d and then sampled in triplicate on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were dramatically inhibited at most exposure times compared with the control group, except SOD at low concentration (0.6 mg L(-1)) of nitenpyram and CAT on day 21. This difference is due to the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in zebrafish livers. The activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in in the treatment groups at a higher concentration compared with the control group. We found that nitenpyram exposure could affect the antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage in the exposed zebrafish livers. Additionally, the changes in the antioxidant enzyme activities could be an adaptive response protecting against the toxicity induced by nitenpyram.

  9. Activity of selected antioxidative enzymes in rats exposed to dimethoate and pyrantel tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, D; Spodniewska, A

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of research concerning the effect of single and combined application of pyrantel tartrate and dimethoate on selected antioxidative enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in rat erythrocytes. Pyrantel tartrate was applied twice, at a dose of 85 mg/kg bw at a two week interval, i.e. on day 14 and 28 of the experiment, orally, in a water solution with a stomach tube. Dimethoate was administered with drinking water for 28 days at a dose of 25 mg/kg bw/day. It was found that pyrantel tartrate caused only small changes in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes under analysis. Subchronic exposure of rats to dimethoate caused a significant increase in the activity of CAT, SOD and GPx in erythrocytes, indicating the existence of strong oxidative stress. In combined intoxication, no significant effects of administering pyrantel tartrate on the activity of CAT, SOD and GPx was found in animals poisoned with dimethoate. The profile of changes was similar to that observed in rats exposed only to the organophosphorus insecticide. This may indicate a lack of interaction between the compounds used in the experiment.

  10. Phytotoxicity of cadmium on protein, proline and antioxidant enzyme activities in growing Arachis hypogaea L. seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Phytotoxicity of cadmium on growing Arachis hypogaea L. seedlings was studied. Seeds were exposed to 25, 50, and 100 μmol/L CdCl2 concentrations, for a period of 10, 15, 20 and 25 d. The extent of damage to chlorophyll, protein, proline, nitrate and nitrite reductase, antioxidant enzyme activity in leaves and roots were evaluated after 10 d of cadmium stress. The higher concentration of cadmium (100 μmol/L) resulted (leaves and roots) total chlorophyll 91.01%, protein 79.51%, 83.61%, nitrate reductase 79.39%,80.72% and nitrite reductase 77.07%, 75.88% activity decreased with increase in cadmium concentrations and exposure periods. Cadmium caused significant changes in the activity of antioxidative enzymes. Contrastingly Cd treated plant tissues showed an increase in proline 159.87%, 239.6%, gluthion reductase (GR) 337.72%, 306.14%, superoxide disumutase (SOD) 688.56%, 381.72%, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) 226.47%, 252.14%, peroxidase (POD) 72.19%, 60.29% and catalase (CAT) 228.96%, 214.74% as compared to control. Cadmium stress caused a significant increase in the rate of SOD activity in leaves and roots of plant species. Results show the crop A. hypogaea is highly sensitive even at very low cadmium concentrations.

  11. Photosynthesis performance, antioxidant enzymes, and ultrastructural analyses of rice seedlings under chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Lv, Chunfang; Xu, Minli; Chen, Guoxiang; Lv, Chuangen; Gao, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium (Cr(6+)) (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) morphological traits, photosynthesis performance, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes. In addition, the ultrastructure of chloroplasts in the leaves of hydroponically cultivated rice (O. sativa L.) seedlings was analyzed. Plant fresh and dry weights, height, root length, and photosynthetic pigments were decreased by Cr-induced toxicity (200 μM), and the growth of rice seedlings was starkly inhibited compared with that of the control. In addition, the decreased maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) might be ascribed to the decreased the number of active photosystem II reaction centers. These results were confirmed by inhibited photophosphorylation, reduced ATP content and its coupling factor Ca(2+)-ATPase, and decreased Mg(2+)-ATPase activities. Furthermore, overtly increased activities of antioxidative enzymes were observed under Cr(6+) toxicity. Malondialdehyde and the generation rates of superoxide (O2̄) also increased with Cr(6+) concentration, while hydrogen peroxide content first increased at a low Cr(6+) concentration of 25 μM and then decreased. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy showed that Cr(6+) exposure resulted in significant chloroplast damage. Taken together, these findings indicate that high Cr(6+)concentrations stimulate the production of toxic reactive oxygen species and promote lipid peroxidation in plants, causing severe damage to cell membranes, degradation of photosynthetic pigments, and inhibition of photosynthesis.

  12. Different Gene Expression and Activity Pattern of Antioxidant Enzymes in Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonowski, Zbigniew; Tomasik, Bartlomiej; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Konecki, Tomasz; Fendler, Wojciech; Sosnowski, Marek; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Reszka, Edyta

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role in and contribution of antioxidant enzymes to bladder cancer (BC) etiology and recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR). We enrolled 40 patients with BC who underwent TUR and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The analysis was performed at diagnosis and recurrence, taking into account the time of recurrence. Gene expression of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes. The activity of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) was examined in plasma, and GPX1 and copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in erythrocytes. SOD2 and GPX1 expression and GPX1 and SOD1 activity were significantly higher in patients at diagnosis of BC in comparison to controls. In patients who had recurrence earlier than 1 year from TUR, CAT and SOD2 expression was lower (at diagnosis p=0.024 and p=0.434, at recurrence p=0.022 and p=0.010), while the GPX1 and GPX3 activity was higher (at diagnosis p=0.242 and p=0.394, at recurrence p=0.019 and p=0.025) compared to patients with recurrence after 1 year from TUR. This study revealed that the gene expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes are elevated in blood of patients with BC, although a low expression of CAT might contribute to the recurrence of BC, in early prognosis.

  13. Low in situ expression of antioxidative enzymes in rat cerebellar granular cells susceptible to methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, M; Usuki, F

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental neurotoxicant, induces site-specific toxicity in the brain. Although oxidative stress has been demonstrated with MeHg toxicity, the site-specific toxicity is not completely understood. Among the cerebellar neurons, cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) appear vulnerable to MeHg, whereas Purkinje cells and molecular layer neurons are resistant. Here, we use a MeHg-intoxicated rat model to investigate these cerebellar neurons for the different causes of susceptibility to MeHg. Rats were exposed to 20 ppm MeHg for 4 weeks and subsequently exhibited neuropathological changes in the cerebellum that were similar to those observed in humans. We first isolated the three cerebellar neuron types using a microdissection system and then performed real-time PCR analyses for antioxidative enzymes. We observed that expression of manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRxR1) was significantly higher in Purkinje cells and molecular layer neurons than in CGCs. Finally, we performed immunohistochemical analyses on the cerebellum. Immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of Mn-SOD, GPx1, and TRxR1 in Purkinje cells and molecular layer neurons, which was coincident with the mRNA expression patterns. Considering Mn-SOD, GPx1, and TRxR1 are critical for protecting cells against MeHg intoxication, the results indicate that low expression of these antioxidative enzymes increases CGCs vulnerability to MeHg toxicity.

  14. Copper toxicity in expanding leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L.: antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient element uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazizi, Houda; Jouili, Hager; Geitmann, Anja; El Ferjani, Ezzeddine

    2010-09-01

    Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper (CuSO4) were assessed in expanding leaves of 14-day-old bean seedlings. CuSO4 was administrated in the growth medium for three days and changes in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT), and in the H2O2 production and mineral element contents were measured. Copper accumulated in exposed plants caused severe symptoms such as chlorosis and necrosis as well as a dramatic reduction in dry weight production. Simultaneously, concentrations of iron, zinc and potassium were reduced significantly suggesting that a change in nutrient homeostasis may be responsible for the observed symptoms. Contrary to mature tissues, the expanding leaves did not display significant oxidative stress, since malondialdehyde (MDA) content was unchanged, the activities of GPX and CAT were lowered or unaltered, and endogenous H2O2 only increased at high copper concentrations. Our results suggest that while excess copper slightly alters the activity of the antioxidative enzyme system in young expanding leaves of bean plants, it exerts its toxicity primarily through causing a disturbance in the nutrient balance.

  15. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (pbacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation.

  16. Effect of curcumin on LDL oxidation in vitro, and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in cholesterol fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Mohamedain M; Zhou, Qi; Kummerow, Fred A

    2011-11-01

    In this study we examined the antioxidant effect of curcumin on lipid oxidation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, curcumin at 5 microgM concentration completely prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by CuS0(4), indicating that curcumin is an effective antioxidant in vitro. In vivo, feeding a pure cholesterol (PC)-rich diet to rabbits significantly increased the plasma and liver lipids as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. Addition of curcumin to the PC diet did not show any effect on either plasma lipid and TBARS or liver lipids. Liver TBARS tended to decrease but that decrease was not significant. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was significantly decreased while catalase activity was significantly increased in rabbits fed a PC diet. The addition of curcumin to a PC diet did not show any significant effect on erythrocyte enzyme activities compared to the rabbits fed a PC diet. The liver GSH-Px and catalase activities were significantly decreased in rabbits fed a PC diet, but the addition of curcumin to the PC diet enhanced the liver GSH-Px activity, which became nonsignificantly different from the control group. These results were discussed considering that curcumin may not be well absorbed and it did not reach a level high enough in vivo to overcome the severe hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress produced by the PC-rich diet.

  17. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum 'Bugwang'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression.

  18. Enzyme-assisted processing increases antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of bilberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Nohynek, Liisa; Ammann, Sabine; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Buchert, Johanna

    2008-02-13

    The effects of nine cell wall-degrading enzymes on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bilberry were studied. Antimicrobial activity was measured using the human pathogens Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus as test strains. Enzyme treatments liberated phenolics from the cell wall matrix, which clearly increased the antimicrobial activity of berry juices, press cakes, and berry mashes on the basis of plate counts. Antibacterial effects were stronger against Salmonella than against Staphylococcus bacteria. In general, the increase in activity measured as colony-forming units per milliliter was 3-5 logarithmic units against Salmonella and 1-2 units against Staphylococcus bacteria. Increase in antimicrobial activity was observed only in acidic conditions, which is also the natural environment in various berry products, such as juices. The activity profile of the pectinase preparation affected the chemistry of the phenolics due to the presence of deglycosylating activities in some preparations. The difference in phenolic profiles was reflected in the antimicrobial effects. Bilberry mashes treated with Pectinex Ultra SP-L, Pectinex 3 XL, and Pectinex BE XXL were most efficient against Salmonella bacteria, whereas mashes treated with Pectinex Smash, Pectinex BE 3-L, and Biopectinase CCM showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus bacteria. Due to the liberation of phenolics from the cell wall matrix the antioxidant activity measured as radical scavenging activity was also increased on average about 30% by the enzymatic treatments. The highest increase in phenolic compounds was about 40%. Highest increases in anthocyanins and in antioxidant activity were observed in berry mash treated with Pectinex Smash XXL enzyme, and the lowest increase was observed after treatment with Pectinex BE 3-L. Enzyme-assisted processing is traditionally used to improve berry and fruit juice yields. However, enzymatic treatments also

  19. Traditionally Used Lathyrus Species: Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Enzyme Inhibitory Properties, Cytotoxic Effects, and in silico Studies of L. czeczottianus and L. nissolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio J.; Zengin, Gokhan; Fernández-de Córdova, María L.; Bender, Onur; Atalay, Arzu; Ceylan, Ramazan; Mollica, Adriano; Mocan, Andrei; Uysal, Sengul; Guler, Gokalp O.; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2017-01-01

    Members of the genus Lathyrus are used as food and as traditional medicines. In order to find new sources of biologically-active compounds, chemical and biological profiles of two Lathyrus species (L. czeczottianus and L. nissolia) were investigated. Chemical profiles were evaluated by HPLC-ESI-MSn, as well as by their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In addition, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects were also investigated. Antioxidant properties were tested by using different assays (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelation). Cholinesterases (AChE and BChE), tyrosinase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase were used to evaluate enzyme inhibitory effects. Moreover, vitexin (apigenin-8-C-glucoside) and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were further subjected to molecular docking experiments to provide insights about their interactions at molecular level with the tested enzymes. In vitro cytotoxic effects were examined against human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) by using iCELLigence real time cell analysis system. Generally, L. czeczottianus exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than L. nissolia. However, L. nissolia had remarkable enzyme inhibitory effects against cholinesterase, amylase and glucosidase. HPLC-ESI-MSn analysis revealed that flavonoids were major components in these extracts. On the basis of these results, Lathyrus extracts were rich in biologically active components; thus, these species could be utilized to design new phytopharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulations. PMID:28289386

  20. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Raheleh Ghanbari; Mohammad Zarei; Afshin Ebrahimpour; Azizah Abdul-Hamid; Amin Ismail; Nazamid Saari

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates,...

  1. Effect of butachlor on antioxidant enzyme status and lipid peroxidation in fresh water African catfish, (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, E O; Ajimoko, Y R; Adelowo, O A

    2008-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of butachlor, a widely used herbicide, on antioxidant enzyme system and lipid peroxidation formation in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of butachlor 1, 2, 2.5 ppm and sacrificed 24hrs after treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney, gills and heart of the fish following exposure to different concentrations of butachlor. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased in the liver and kidney but decreased in the gills and heart in a concentration-dependent pattern. Glutathione level and glutathione-Stransferase activities increased (Pbutachlor. The results suggest that butachlor induced oxidative stress in the various tissues of the fish particularly in the kidney and as such the organ may be subjected to severe oxidative toxicity due to depressed glutathione detoxification system.

  2. Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bei-bei; Ling, Li; Hua, Chen; Ren, Shu-yan

    2014-09-01

    The effects of soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were investigated. Ninety-seven pregnant women with GDM were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (51 cases) and the SBOS group (46 cases). Before the group separation, the blood sugar level in patients was maintained stable by regular diet and insulin treatment. The control group was continued with the insulin treatment, while the SBOS group was treated with the combination of insulin and SBOS. Results showed that SBOS were able to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate insulin resistance in pregnant women with GDM, which indicates that SBOS may play an important role in the control of GDM complications.

  3. Chromate tolerance and accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris L.: role of antioxidant enzymes and biochemical changes in detoxification of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, U N; Singh, N K; Upadhyay, A K; Verma, S

    2013-05-01

    A concentration-dependent increase in activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase) and carotenoid, MDA level have been observed in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris following chromium exposure at different concentrations (0.01-100 μg ml(-1)). Simultaneously, decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll and protein contents was observed. In case of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase a bell shaped dose response was evident, however, lipid peroxidation followed a linear relationship along with catalase activity, which could be used as biomarker of Cr toxicity and played important role in providing tolerance and subsequently, high accumulation potential of chromium in C. vulgaris. In present investigation, the green alga C. vulgaris respond better under chromium stress in terms of tolerance, growth and metal accumulating potential at higher concentration of Cr (VI) which could be employed in decontamination of chromium for environmental cleanup.

  4. Differential Expression of Antioxidant Enzymes During Degradation of Azo Dye Reactive black 8 in Hairy roots of Physalis minima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pamela; Modi, Nikita; Jobby, Renitta; Desai, Neetin

    2015-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the protection of plant metabolism in presence of azo dye was characterized by studying activities of the role of antioxidant enzymes in the hairy roots (HRs) of Physalis minima L. during degradation of an azo dye, Reactive Black 8 (RB8). When the HRs were exposed to RB8 (30 mg L(-1)), a  nine fold increase in SOD activity was observed after 24 h, while 22 and 50 fold increase in activity was observed for POX and APX respectively after 72 h, whereas there was no significant change in activity of CAT. The activation of different antioxidant enzymes at different time intervals under dye stress suggests the synchronized functioning of antioxidant machinery to protect the HRs from oxidative damage. FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of dye and the non-toxic nature of metabolites formed after dye degradation was confirmed by phytotoxicity study.

  5. Lycium chinensis Mill attenuates glutamate induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells by increasing antioxidant defense enzymes and down regulating ROS and Ca(2+) generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2016-03-11

    Lycium chinensis Mill is a famous traditional Chinese medicine which displays several medicinal activities including antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. However, the mechanism of action towards the neuroprotective action has not been fully elucidated. This work was aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effects of L. chinensis Mill against glutamate-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Oxidative cell death was induced with 5mM glutamate in PC12 cells. Cell viability, LDH release, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD antioxidant enzyme levels were measured. Our results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with L. chinensis Mill extracts markedly attenuated the loss of cell viability, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Ca(2+) overload, ROS generation, and cell apoptosis induced by glutamate toxicity. Furthermore, L. chinensis Mill extracts also significantly increased the levels of innate antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px, SOD and CAT in glutamate-induced PC12 cells. Conclusively, our results provided substantial evidence that L. chinensis Mill protected PC12 cells against glutamate-induced cell death by attenuating ROS generation, Ca(2+) influx, and increased the antioxidant defense capacity of PC12 cells against oxidative stress damages, suggesting the possible potential of extracts from the plant as sources of bioactive molecules in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Genetic variability in chronic irradiated plant populations - Polymorphism and activity of antioxidant enzymes in chronic irradiated plant populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Polina Y.; Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    . We used index of phenotypic diversity (μ) for comparison phenotypic diversity in populations. Indexes of phenotype diversity in this populations significantly different from reference site. In order to detail allozyme structure of population we estimated proportion of rare morphs. It is shown that proportion of rare morphs is increased with rise of level anthropogenic impact. Observed and expected heterozygosity values increase with the level of radioactive contamination. There were null-mutations without protein biosynthesis in experiment. We observed significant increase of null-mutations frequency in populations from experimental sites. We obtained data about enzyme activity in studied populations. Catalase activity has significant difference from reference on site SB. Superoxide dismutase activity has not any significant changes on study sites. Peroxidase activity decrease on the most contaminated sites. It was showed that chronic radiation exposure increased general mutation frequency and proportion of rare morphs antioxidant enzymes in studied populations. So far as mutational events in seeds of Scots pine relatively rare, they doesn't make a significant contribution to observed enzymes activities. In whole our study suggests that present dose rates insufficient for form significant changes on physiological level, in spite of revealed changing in genetic structure of populations. (authors)

  7. Effect of Cadmium Stress on the Growth, Antioxidative Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Two Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Plant Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-tao; QI Jian-min; ZHANG Gao-yang; LIN Li-hui; FANG Ping-ping; TAO Ai-fen; XU Jian-tang

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cadmium stress on the growth, antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in two kenaf plants, Fuhong 991 and ZM412, were analysed under control (0.5-strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution) or five levels of cadmium stress (0.5-strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution containing different concentrations of Cd2+). The leaves and roots of control and cadmium-stressed plants were harvested after 3 wk. At the same Cd concentration, the Cd tolerance index of Fuhong 991 was higher than that of ZM412, indicating that Fuhong 991 may be more tolerant to Cd than ZM412. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities fluctuated in the leaves of the Cd-stressed plants compared to the control, whereas the glutathione reductase activity (GR) was much larger than the control for Fuhong 991, ensuring that sufficient quantities of GSH were available to respond to the cadmium stress. In comparison to the control, the dynamic tendency of the SOD, CAT and POD activities in roots of the Cd-stressed plants all increased and then declined, but the POD activity of Fuhong 991 remained nearly unchanged at all of the stress levels. The increase in the enzyme activities demonstrated that Fuhong 991 was more tolerant to cadmium than ZM 412. The lipid peroxidation was enhanced only in the leaves of Cd-stressed ZM 412. These findings indicated that antioxidative activities may play important roles in Cd-stressed Fuhong 991 and ZM 412 and that the leaf and root cell membranes of Fuhong 991 have a greater stability than those of ZM 412. For pollution monitoring purposes, the GR activity in the roots and leaves may serve as a biomarker of Cd for Fuhong 991, whereas lipid peroxidation may serve as biomarker for ZM 412.

  8. Influence of Piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in ethanol-treated Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, R; Prakasam, A; Ramesh, B; Pugalendi, K V

    2002-01-01

    Piper betle L. is a commonly used masticatory in Asia. This study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of P. betle, using ethanol intoxication as a model of hepatotoxic and oxidative damage. Ethanol-treated rats exhibited elevation of hepatic marker enzymes and disturbances in antioxidant defense when compared with normal rats. Oral administration of P. betle extract (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days significantly (P betle extract (300 mg/kg body weight) was most effective. The results were comparable with the known hepatoprotective drug, silymarin. These results indicate that P. betle could afford a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect.

  9. A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S. K.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead contaminated soils. Soils are a unique environment of diverse physical and chemical characteristics that influence the extent of phytoavailable (labile) Pb forms. The success of phytoremediation strategy depends on the physiological/ biochemical tolerance of the plants to lipid peroxidation induced by Pb at sub-lethal levels. Oxidative challenge is alleviated by antioxidant compounds, but more importantly by the induction of antioxidant enzymes, which are crucial for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and terminating lipid peroxidation chain reaction. A column study was conducted in a temperature and humidity-controlled greenhouse setting to assess the extent of Pb phytoextraction and antioxidant response in a lead accumulator, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Treatments consisted of a randomized block arrangement of 4 soil types (Immokalee, Pahokee Muck, Tobosa, and Millhopper) and 3 soil Pb concentrations [normal - 400 mg/kg lead (following federal soil standards for lead), moderate - 800 mg/kg lead, and excessive - 1200 mg/kg lead] in 4 replicates. At the end of 6 months, selected columns were amended with a biodegradable chelating agent, ethylenediamene disuccinate (10 mmol/ kg EDDS), to mobilize Pb and enhance Pb uptake by vetiver. Total and exchangeable (labile) Pb were correlated with phytoextracted Pb, and levels of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. Results indicate that Pb uptake and antioxidant

  10. Analysis of gene expression changes, caused by exposure to nitrite, in metabolic and antioxidant enzymes in the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qichen; Zhang, Wenyi; Tan, Hongyue; Pan, Dongmei; Yang, Yuanhao; Ren, Qian; Yang, Jiaxin

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of acute exposure to nitrite on expression of antioxidant and metabolic enzyme genes in gill tissue of advanced juvenile Cherax quadricarinatus. A 48h nitrite exposure was conducted, using four test concentrations (NO2-N=0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2mg L(-1)) plus a control group. The relative mRNA expression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mMnSOD), cytosolic MnSOD (cMnSOD), extracellular copper/zinc SOD (exCu/ZnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), arginine kinase (AK), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in gill tissue was measured. Significantly increased mRNA expression was observed for all the antioxidant enzymes after 12 and 24h. After 48h, they all decreased at high nitrite concentrations. The gene expression levels of AK, GDH, mMDH and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit showed similar trends as the antioxidant enzymes. Significant depression of gene expression levels of PEPCK occurred throughout the experimental time at high nitrite concentrations. The results indicated that nitrite could induce oxidative and metabolic stress in C. quadricarinatus, in a time dependent manner, which suggests they could be helpful in predicting sublethal nitrite toxicity and useful in environmental monitoring studies.

  11. Possible associations between antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms and metabolic abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saruwatari J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Junji Saruwatari,1,* Norio Yasui-Furukori,2,* Ryoko Kamihashi,1 Yuki Yoshimori,1 Kentaro Oniki,1 Shoko Tsuchimine,2 Madoka Noai,1 Yasushi Sato,3 Taku Nakagami,4 Norio Sugawara,2 Manabu Saito,2 Akira Fujii,2 Ayami Kajiwara,1 Shuichi Mihara,5 Yasuhiro Ogata,6 Sunao Kaneko,2 Kazuko Nakagawa1,71Division of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hirosaki Aiseikai Hospital, Hirosaki, 4Department of Psychiatry, Odate Municipal General Hospital, Odate, 5Mihara Life Care Clinic, Kumamoto, 6Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Health Care Center, Kumamoto, 7Center for Clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan*These authors contributed equally to this paperBackground: This study investigated the possible association between common and potentially functional polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes and metabolic abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: The possible associations of the glutathione S-transferase (GST M1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes, and the superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 Val16Ala polymorphism with the risks of being overweight and having metabolic syndrome were examined using a logistic regression analysis in 154 schizophrenic Japanese patients and 203 controls.Results: Among smokers with schizophrenia, the risks of being overweight and having decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in those with the GSTM1 null genotype than in those with the present genotype (odds ratio 3.20 and 3.15, P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively, while among nonsmokers with schizophrenia, the risk of an abnormal waist circumference was lower in those with the GSTM1 null genotype (odds ratio 0.34, P=0.04. The risk of a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was significantly higher in patients with the combined GSTM1 null and

  12. Dietary selenium and prolonged exercise alter gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in equine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S H; Johnson, S E; Bobel, J M; Warren, L K

    2016-07-01

    Untrained Thoroughbred horses (6 mares and 6 geldings; 11 yr [SE 1] and 565 kg [SE 11]) were used to evaluate antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity in blood and skeletal muscle in response to prolonged exercise after receiving 2 levels of dietary selenium for 36 d: 0.1 (CON; = 6) or 0.3 mg/kg DM (SEL; = 6). Horses were individually fed 1.6% BW coastal bermudagrass hay, 0.4% BW whole oats, and a mineral/vitamin premix containing no Se. Sodium selenite was added to achieve either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM in the total diet. On d 35, horses underwent 2 h of submaximal exercise in a free-stall exerciser. Blood samples were obtained before (d 0) and after 34 d of Se supplementation and on d 35 to 36 immediately after exercise and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Biopsies of the middle gluteal muscle were obtained on d 0, before exercise on d 34, and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Supplementation with Se above the NRC requirement (SEL) increased serum Se ( = 0.011) and muscle thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity ( = 0.051) but had no effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) lysate, or muscle in horses at rest. Serum creatine kinase activity increased ( SEL immediately following exercise. Muscle expression of was unchanged at 6 h but increased ( = 0.005) 2.8-fold 24 h after exercise, whereas muscle TrxR activity remained unchanged. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in plasma (P impact of prolonged exercise on the activities of antioxidant enzymes varied. Furthermore, changes in enzyme activity did not necessarily align with enzyme gene expression following exercise. A higher level of Se intake elevated Se status of untrained horses, increased GPx activity, and lessened lipid peroxidation following exercise, suggesting that Se may be beneficial for mitigating oxidative muscle damage and aiding in postexercise recovery.

  13. Impact of acute exercise on antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid status in blood of patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Many studies support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenic process of a variety of diseases including hypertension. In humans, hypertension is also considered a state of oxidative stress that can contribute to the development of arteriosclerosis and other hypertension- induced organ damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate an influence of acute physical exercise on antioxidative enzymes activity and lipid status in patients with hypertension. Methods. Forty patients with hypertension and 20 age-matched controls were included in the study. To assess an influence of acute exercise on lipids and antioxidative enzymes activity the following parameters were determined at rest and immediately after the acute cardiopulmonary exercise cycloergometer test: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, low density cholesterol (LDL, oxidised LDL cholesterol (OxLDL, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI. Results. In basal condition, hypertensive patients compared to the control group had increased, but not significantly, level of Ox LDL (88.61±14.06 vs 79.00±29.26 mmol/L, PAI (3.06±0.56 vs 2.6±0.35 U/mL and activity of GSH-Px (50.22±15.20 vs 44.63±13.73 U/g Hb. After acute exercise test, there was significantly greater level of Ox LDL (79.0±29.26 vs 89.3±29.07 mmol/L; p < 0.05 only in the control group. GSH-Px activity was significantly decreased only in hypertensive patients after acute exercise (50.22±15.2 vs 42.82±13.42 U/g Hb; p < 0.05, but not in the controls. Conclusion. No significantly elevated Ox LDL, GSH-Px and PAI-1 levels were found in hypertensive patients during basal condition in comparison with healthy subjects. Decreased GSH-Px activity was associated with those in acute exercise only in hypertensive patients. It could be an important indicator of deficiency of physiological antioxidative defense mechanism in hypertensive

  14. Intermittent Photoperiod Schedule does not Influence Brain and Serum Melatonin and Selected Serum Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosleh N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the intermittent light program on serum and brain melatonin concentrations, antioxidant enzyme activities, and homocysteine concentration in broiler chickens. A total of 60 one-day-old broiler chickens (Cobb 500 were distributed in three light-proof controlled rooms (20 chicks per room. All birds were reared in continuous light until 3 days of age. Then, chicks were treated as follows: 1 intermittent lighting program (1L: 3D cycles, 2 continuous lighting program (24L, and 3 nonintermittent restricted lighting program (8L: 16D. At day 42 of age, sera and brains were collected from all chicks of each group (at the end of the dark phase for groups 1 and 3. Serum and brain melatonin concentrations were not affected by the different photoperiod schedules. Serum glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activity as well as homocysteine concentration were also similar between different treatment groups. In conclusion, intermittent lighting program during the rearing period does not affect serum and brain melatonin levels as well as antioxidant status at the end of the dark phase in broilers.

  15. Effects of different carbon dioxide and LED lighting levels on the anti-oxidative capabilities of Gynura bicolor DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jin; Guo, Shuangsheng; Xu, Chunlan; Yang, Chengjia; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Qin, Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    Gynura bicolor DC is not only an edible plant but also a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine. G. bicolor DC grown in controlled environmental chambers under 3 CO2 concentrations [450 (ambient), 1500 (elevated), 8000 (super-elevated) μmol mol-1] and 3 LED lighting conditions [white (WL), 85% red + 15% blue (RB15), 70% red + 30% blue (RB30) ] were investigated to reveal plausible antioxidant anabolic responses to CO2 enrichment and LED light quality. Under ambient and elevated CO2 levels, blue light increasing from 15% to 30% was conducive to the accumulation of anthocyanins and total flavonoids, and the antioxidant activity of extract was also increased, but plant biomass was decreased. These results demonstrated that the reinforcement of blue light could induce more antioxidant of secondary metabolites, but depress the effective growth of G. bicolor DC under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. In addition, compared with the ambient and elevated CO2 levels, the increased anthocyanins, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant enzyme activities of G. bicolor DC under super-elevated CO2 level could serve as important components of antioxidative defense mechanism against CO2 stress. Hence, G. bicolor DC might have higher tolerance to CO2 stress.

  16. Amelioration of cholesterol induced atherosclerosis by normalizing gene expression, cholesterol profile and antioxidant enzymes by Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, have found to be the dreadful diseases worldwide and therapeutic interventions using plant sources have wide therapeutic value. Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves have been used as food and therapeutics. Hence, our study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic as well as anti-atherogenic potential of VU leaves in normalizing atherogenic gene expression, cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme system on cholesterol fed rabbit model. For the study New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and experimental period was three months; group -i - ND [normal diet (40 g feed)], group-ii- ND (normal diet) +EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)], group -iii- ND [normal diet ]+ CFD [cholesterol fed diet (cholesterol 1 % of 40 g feed and cholic acid 0.5 % of 40 g feed)] and group-iv - ND [normal diet] +CFD [cholesterol fed diet ]+EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)]. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the rabbit with cholesterol (1 % of 40 g feed) and cholic acid (0.5 % of 40 g feed). Supplementation of EAVU normalized cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products like thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), antioxidant system and important genes of cardiovascular diseases like interleukin-10 (IL 10), paraoxanase-1 (PON I), interleukin-6 (IL 6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox 2) to near normal level as compared with normal diet. The result obtained showed the antioxidant as well as anti-atherogenic potential of Vigna unguiculata leaves in ameliorating cholesterol induced atherosclerosis, and thus it is good task to include VU leaves in daily diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases especially atherosclerosis.

  17. Effect of Sodium Chloride and Cadmium on the Growth, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunsheng; XU Ying; JIANG Wei; LV Xin; DONG Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly under-stood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6%NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory ef-fect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  18. Respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants and antioxidants status in Bangladeshi population with β-thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faruk Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including β-thalassemia. Aim: The study was to estimate the status of respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants, and antioxidants in β-thalassemia major patients in Bangladesh and to compare with apparently healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 49 subjects were recruited which included 25 patients (age range 5 to 40 years with β-thalassemia major and 24 controls (age and sex matched. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT represented respiratory burst enzymes; malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid hydroperoxide (LHP, and xanthine oxidase (XO were measured as pro-oxidants; and glutathione S transferase (GST, vitamin C (Vit.C, and glutathione (GSH were the measured antioxidants. Results: The activity of SOD was significantly (P < 0.001 increased by about 79% and the activity of CAT was significantly (P < 0.001 decreased by more than 34% in the blood of β-thalassemia major patients compared to the control group. The content of pro-oxidants such as MDA, LHP, and XO was significantly (P < 0.001 higher in patients by about 228%, 241.3% and 148.1% respectively compared to control group. The level of GSH and Vit.C were significantly (P = 0.000 decreased in patients by about 59% and 81% versus the healthy group, respectively; and GST activity was significantly (P < 0.001 declined by 44.25% in patients group. Conclusion: β-thalassemia major patients demonstrate raised oxidative stress compared to healthy subjects.

  19. EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON RAT (Rattus norvegicus ERYTHROCYTES ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Friščić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the last century, maximum in herbicide production was achieved. Growing use of herbicides initiated the need for continuous evaluation of damaging effects of herbicides on human health and environment. Paraquat is the trade name for N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride and one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Although mechanism of paraquat toxicity remains undefined, a great portion of toxicity is attributed to the process of redox cycling. In this research, rat erythrocytes were exposed to various paraquat concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.25 mM. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activity, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined, and also the activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. Obtained results show damaging effects of paraquat on erythrocytes due to oxidative stress.

  20. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jinghua; XU Wei; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; FENG Xiuni; LIUFU Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight:1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length:19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0,10,and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg,respectively.Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments.Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GPX),glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione.However,activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased.Therefore,antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  1. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  2. Determination of chemopreventive role of Foeniculum vulgare and Salvia officinalis infusion on trichloroacetic acid-induced increased serum marker enzymes lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense systems in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Isik, Ismail

    2008-01-10

    Today's world is increasingly seeking ways to replace the synthetic drugs with the therapeutic power of natural products. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare (FV) and Salvia officinalis (SO) waters infusions against carcinogen chemical trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-exposure in rats. The chemopreventive potential of the plant infusions were evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], antioxidant defense systems [Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)] and lipid peroxidation level (Malondialdehyde = MDA) in various tissues of rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 150-200 g, were randomly allotted into four experimental groups. While the control group (A) received only natural spring water, the treatment B group (0.2% TCA) supplied with the drinking water containing 0.2% TCA, the treatment C (TCA + FV infusion) and D (TCA + SO infusion) groups drank the drinking water containing 0.2% TCA and 2.5% the plant grains and leaves ad libitum for 50 days during experiment. At the end of the 50 days experiment, TCA and the plant's infusions caused different affect on the serum marker enzymes, tissues antioxidant defense systems and lipid peroxidation against TCA-exposed in rats with comparison to those of TCA exposed and control rats. According to the results, both TCA and TCA + plants infusions caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT and CPK activity. Non-enzymic antioxidant GSH level significantly increased in the brain whereas reduced in the erythrocytes and kidney of TCA + FV and TCA + SO as compared to TCA group and control. While MDA content slightly increased in tissues of TCA group in comparison to those of control, significantly

  3. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

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    Gulati Vandana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and (ii ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml, Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml, Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts

  4. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasma ‎concentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  5. Induction of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes by broccoli sulforaphane: Perspectives in maintaining the antioxidant activity of vitamins A, C, and E

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    Sekhar s Boddupalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of fruits and vegetables is recognized as an important part of a healthy diet. Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables in particular has been associated with a decreased risk of several degenerative and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Members of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage, accumulate significant concentrations of glucosinolates, which are metabolized in vivo to biologically active isothiocyanates (ITCs. The ITC sulforaphane, which is derived from glucoraphanin, has garnered particular interest due to its extraordinary ability to induce expression of several enzymes via the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Nrf2/ARE gene products are typically characterized as Phase II detoxification enzymes and/or antioxidant (AO enzymes. Over the last decade, human clinical studies have begun to provide in vivo evidence of both Phase II and AO enzyme induction by SF. Many AO enzymes are redox cycling enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis and activity of free radical scavengers such as such as vitamins A, C and E. In this review, we present the existing evidence for induction of PII and AO enzymes by SF, the interactions of SF-induced AO enzymes and proposed maintenance of the essential vitamins A, C and E, and, finally, the current view of genotypic effects on ITC metabolism and AO enzyme induction and function.

  6. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates

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    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8% after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH (56.00% and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC (59.00% methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  7. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-12-04

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  8. Antioxidative properties and inhibition of key enzymes relevant to type-2 diabetes and hypertension by essential oils from black pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on α -amylase, α -glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe(2+)-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH∗, NO∗, and ABTS∗ and chelated Fe(2+). α -Pinene, β -pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of α -glucosidase than α -amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  9. Activity of antioxidant enzymes and physiological responses in ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii, exposed to thermal and osmotic stress: effects on hemolymph and biochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Myung In; Choi, Cheol Young

    2010-01-01

    Changes in water temperature and salinity are responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in aquatic organisms. Stress induced by these factors was recently associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which caused oxidative damage. In the present study, we investigated the time-related effects of changes in water temperature and salinity on mRNA expression and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the gills and digestive glands of the ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii. To investigate physiological responses, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), lysozyme activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) were measured in the hemolymph. Water temperature and salinity changes significantly increased antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activity in the digestive glands and gills in a time-dependent manner. H(2)O(2) concentrations increased significantly in the high-temperature and hyposalinity treatments. LPO, AspAT and AlaAT levels also increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, while lysozyme activity decreased. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in ark shells exposed to changes in water temperature and salinity.

  10. Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochikuzhyil Benson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the effect of saturated fatty acid (SFA-rich dietary vegetable oils on the lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p. in neonatal rats. Twenty-eight-day-old normal (N and diabetic (D male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with a fat-enriched special diet (10% prepared with coconut oil (CO - lauric acid-rich SFA, palm oil (PO - palmitic acid-rich SFA and groundnut oil (GNO - control (N and D. Lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and oral glucose tolerance tests were monitored. Results : D rats fed with CO (D + CO exhibited a significant decrease in the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Besides, they also showed a trend toward improving antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance as compared to the D + GNO group, whereas D + PO treatment aggravated the dyslipidemic condition while causing a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase levels when compared to N rats fed with GNO (N + GNO. D + PO treatment also impaired the glucose tolerance when compared to N + GNO and D + GNO. Conclusion : The type of FA in the dietary oil determines its deleterious or beneficial effects. Lauric acid present in CO may protect against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia.

  11. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity.

  12. [Functional activity of metal contained enzymes with antioxidant activity in blood of patients with stomach cancer and during the use of anticancer autovaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    P'iatchanina, T V; Rozumiĭ, D O; Mel'nykov, O R; Momot, V Ia; Chornyĭ, V O; Sydoryk, Ie P

    2007-01-01

    The authors presented in the article results of assessment of metal contained enzymes with antioxidant activity, ceruloplasmin (CP) in plasma blood, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in red blood cells of patients with I-IV stage stomach cancer during surgical treatment and application of anticancer autovaccine (AAV) to prevent relapses and methastases. It was revealed compared with the donors that at stages of the treatment, before operation and after resuscitation, the level of activity of CP was higher in 1,3 times and in 3 times was higher the level of SOD. The change of catalase activity was within the limits of physiological values. Discrepancy in levels of activity of enzymes- synergists in relation to the elimination of radical forms testifies about the disbalance in functioning of the antioxidant system protection and is one of the signs of the manifestation of oxidant stress. The presence of wide ranges of changes in activity of metal contained enzymes before surgical operation and after resuscitation may depict the presence of significant tension in the functioning of antioxidant system in patients and may demand to carry out an analysis of each parameter. Normalization or stabilization of the level of activity of metal contained enzymes at the stage of surgical treatment or during the use of AAV reflects an availability of adaptation and compensatory mechanisms and it may be considered as a favorable prognostic factor of the treatment. The use of AAV in a complex treatment of patients with not local stomach canser lead to 3 years survival by 22% in comparison with surgical treatment of the patients.

  13. Antioxidant metabolism during acclimation of Begonia x erythrophylla to high light levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burritt, David J; Mackenzie, Susan

    2003-06-01

    This study examined the influence of high light levels on antioxidant metabolism and the photosynthetic properties of Begonia x erythrophylla leaves. The pigment composition of shaded leaves and those developing in full sunlight was typical of shade- and sun-leaves, respectively. After 28 d in full sunlight, the preformed leaves of shade plants transferred to full sunlight (transferred-leaves) showed photo-bleaching with lower Chl (a + b) content and Chl a : Chl b ratios than shade-leaves, with Chl (a + b) : carotenoid ratios not significantly different. The variable/maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) of sun-leaves was not significantly different from that of shade-leaves, but transferred-leaves had reduced Fv : Fm ratios. Light response curves for the electron transport rate (ETR), the oxidation state of photosystem II (qP) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) showed significant differences between the three leaf types, with transferred-leaves not able to acclimate completely to full sunlight, having lower ETR, qP and NPQ values at high light levels than sun-leaves. Transfer to full sunlight caused a rapid increase in H2O2 and lipid hyperoxides, and a slight increase in protein oxidation. Ascorbate and glutathione levels decreased rapidly, as did the size of the total glutathione pool and, in addition to the general oxidation of proteins, rapid decreases in both the initial and total activities of chloroplastic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were observed. These results suggest that a more oxidizing cellular environment is the likely cause of the photo-bleaching observed upon transfer of shade-leaves to full sunlight. Acclimation of transferred-leaves to full sunlight involved gradual increases in the activities of enzymes involved in antioxidant metabolism, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase, but the levels of

  14. Antioxidant supplementations in vitro improve rat sperm parameters and enhance antioxidant enzyme activities against dimethoate-induced sperm damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdallah, F; Fetoui, H; Zribi, N; Fakfakh, F; Ammar-Keskes, L

    2012-05-01

    Organophosphorus compounds are currently among the most frequently used pesticides worldwide, and therefore, the potential for human exposure to man is considerable. Their toxicity results in negative effects on many organs and systems such as the male reproductive system. So, vitamins that can offer spermatozoa protection are of great importance. This study was designed to investigate (i) the possibility of dimethoate, an organophosphate insecticide, to induce oxidative stress response in rat spermatozoa in vitro and its effect on antioxidant defence system and (ii) the role of vitamin C and vitamin E in alleviating the cytotoxic effects of dimethoate Epididymal spermatozoa were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C with different concentrations of dimethoate (50, 100 and 200 μm) without vitamins or pre-incubated with 20 mm of vitamin C or 2 mm of vitamin E. Sperm parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were performed. Dimethoate caused a significant induction of oxidative damage in spermatozoa at different concentrations as evidenced by increased MDA levels. However, a significant decrease in sperm mobility, viability and activities SOD, CAT and GPx was observed. Vitamins pre-treated spermatozoa showed a significant protection against the cytotoxic effects induced by dimethoate on studied parameters.

  15. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    The administration of lycopene to female rats at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g/kg b.w, per day for 2 weeks was found to alter the drug-metabolizing capacity and antioxidant status of the exposed animals. An investigation of four cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes revealed that benzyloxyresoruf...

  16. Effect of curcumin on hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities and gene expressions in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahr, S M

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight rats were examined in a 5-week experiment to investigate the effect of curcumin on gene expression and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ). The rats were divided into four groups. Rats in 1-4 groups served as control, oral curcumin treated (15 mg/kg body weight), single i.p. dose of AFB1 (3 mg/kg body weight) and combination of single i.p. dose of AFB1 with oral curcumin treated, respectively. AFB1 Liver damage and oxidative stress were evident in untreated AFB1 -intoxicated rats as indicated by a significant elevation in hepatic transaminases, elevation in lipid peroxide biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS), reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and down-regulation of gene expression of these antioxidant enzymes compared to control. Liver sections of rats intoxicated with AFB1 showed a disrupted lobular architecture, scattered necrotic cells and biliary proliferation. Administration of curcumin with AFB1 resulted in amelioration of AFB1 -induced effects compared to untreated AFB1 -intoxicated rats via an up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme gene expression, activation of the expressed genes and increase in the availability of GSH.

  17. In vitro larvicidal potential against Anopheles stephensi and antioxidative enzyme activities of Ginkgo biloba, Stevia rebaudiana and Parthenium hysterophorous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Bilal H Abbasi; Mazhar Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in vitro larvicidal and antioxidant enzymes potential of the medicinal plants Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba), Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) and Parthenium hysterophorous (P. hysterophorous) against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) 4th instars larvae. Methods:For evaluation of larvicidal potential, the ethanolic, methanolic and dichloromethane leaves extracts of three different plants were used in dose-dependent experiments in two media, while the antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated using four different methods viz., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, ascorbate and catalase. Results:An. stephensi has developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. The comparative performance of ethanolic extracts (65%-90%) was found better than the methanolic extract (70%-87%) and dichloromethane extract (60%-70%). Among the three plants extracts tested in two media, S. rebaudiana exhibited higher larvicidal activity with LC50 (24 h) in methanolic extract than P. hysterophorous and G. biloba. G. biloba and P. hysterophorous exhibited the strongest antioxidative enzymes activity and S. rebaudiana were less active and no significant difference was observed. Conclusions:These three plants exhibit larvicidal potential and can be further used for vector control alternative to synthetic insecticide due to eco-friendly and diseases control, furthermore these plant species have potent antioxidative enzyme activities, therefore, making them strong natural candidate particularly for diseases which are caused due to free radicals.

  18. The Role of Antioxidant Enzymes in Adaptive Responses to Sheath Blight Infestation under Different Fertilization Rates and Hill Densities

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    Wei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, and catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde content (MDA responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development.

  19. Effect of high dietary copper on growth, antioxidant and lipid metabolism enzymes of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxing Meng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to test the responses of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus to high Cu intake. Experimental diets were formulated containing three levels of Cu: low Cu (3.67 mg/kg, middle Cu (13.65 mg/kg and high Cu (25.78 mg/kg, and each diet were fed to large yellow croaker in triplicate for 10 weeks. Final body weight, weight gain and feed intake were the lowest in high Cu group, but hepatosomatic index was the highest; Cu concentrations in the whole-body, muscle and liver of fish fed low Cu diet was the lowest; Liver superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in fish fed high Cu diet were lower than those in fish fed other diets; The higher content of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content was found in high Cu group, followed by middle Cu group, and the lowest in low Cu group; Liver 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase activities were the lowest in high Cu group, but lipoprotein lipase activity was the highest. This study indicated that high copper intake reduced growth of juvenile larger yellow croaker, inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid synthetases, and led to energy mobilization.

  20. Strawberry polyphenols attenuate ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by activation of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of MDA increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Alvarez-Suarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in

  1. Effect of Atrazine on Antioxidant Enzyme and Its Bioaccumulation in Kidney of Crucian Carp, Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Shunlong; CHEN Jiazhang; WU Wei; HU Gengdong; QU Jianhong; YOU Yang

    2011-01-01

    Etrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in China and the world. Acute and chronic toxicity tests werc carried out to assess the possible toxicity effect of atrazine on crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Results showed that 96 h LC,. of atrazine to Carassius auratus was 105.94 mg. L-1. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferases (GST) in kidney of Carassius auratus were all influenced by atraizine, and CAT was more sensitive to atrazine compared with SOD and GST. Atrazine residues in kidney of Carassius aura/us reached the stable state at day 19, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of atrazine in kidney of Carassius auratus treated with 1.0 mg. L-1 and 10.0 mg. L-1 atrazine were 8.3 and 4.4, respectively. The research demonstrated that atrazine could cause oxidative stress to fish kidney, but atrazine was not easy to accumulate in Carassius auratus kidney, and the antioxidant enzymes could be used as biomarker to the early detection of pollution.

  2. Effects of NaCl stress on antioxidative enzymes of glycine Soja sieb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan

    2009-03-15

    The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Catalase (CAT) and parameters of oxidative stress malondialdehyde (MDA) of shoots were investigated in S. sieb naturally salt-resistant halophyte. The seedlings of S. sieb were treated with varying (0, 80, 160 and 240 mM) NaCl stress. The results showed that NaCl played an important role in growth of S. sieb. It made obviously promotion of certain NaCl concentration to growth of S. sieb, the seeflings of S. sieb grew best under 80 mM salt stress. MDA concentration of S. sieb obviously decreased under 80 mM salt stress then increased with salt concentration increased. The activities of SOD, POD and CAT increased with the increase of the concentration of NaCl in S. sieb. The salt tolerance of this halophyte under salt stress condition are probably due to its ability to exhibit high SOD, POD and CAT enzyme activities and Soluble Sugar (SS) concentration.

  3. [Oxidative stress, rRNA genes, and antioxidant enzymes in pathogenesis of schizophrenia and autism: modeling and clinical advices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porokhovnik, L N; Pasekov, V P; Egolina, N A; Tsvetkova, T G; Kosiakova, N V; Gorbachevskaia, N L; Sukhotina, N K; Kozlovskaia, G V; Sorokin, A B; Korovina, N Iu; Liapunova, N A

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal genes (RG), or genes for rRNA, are represented by multiple tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes, and just a part of them is transcriptionally active. The quantity of active copies is a stable genome feature which determines the cell's capability for rapid synthesis of proteins, necessary to cope with stress conditions. Low number of active RG copies leads to reduced stress resistance and elevated risk of multifactorial disorders (MFD). Oxidative stress (OS) in the brain cells is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of infantile autism (IA) and schizophrenia, i.e., MFDs with a manifested genetic predisposition. With autism, OS markers are found almost in every research, whilst with schizophrenia, the OS data are contradictory. Earlier, in a sample of patients with schizophrenia, we have found significantly higher quantity of active RG copies than at the average in healthy population. Here we have estimated the number of active RG copies in a sample of patients with IA (n = 51) and revealed significantly lower mean value than in healthy population. A novel mathematical model of the dynamic pattern of OS has been proposed. The model is realized as an ordinary differential equation system, supposing induction of antioxidant protection enzymes being mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), with the subsequent decrease of ROS content in a cell. The rate of synthesis of antioxidant protection enzymes is limited by the ribosome synthesis rate which depends on the number of active RG copies. Analysis of the model showed that the system always approaches a single stable equilibrium point along a damped oscillation trajectory, which in some degree resembles the dynamics of 'predator-prey' interaction in Lotka-Volterra model. The stationary ROS level inversely depends on the number of active RG copies. Our study explains the inconsistency of clinical data of OS in schizophrenia and suggests a novel criterion for discriminative cytogenetic diagnostics of

  4. Effect of alcohol on blood glucose and antioxidant enzymes in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Shanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus affects every organ in the man including eyes, kidney, heart, and nervous system. Alcohol consumption is a widespread practice. As the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on diabetic state have been little studied, this study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of alcohol in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, the rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each group: normal control (NC, alcohol treatment (At, diabetic control (DC, diabetic plus alcohol treatment (D + At, diabetic plus glibenclamide treatment (D + Gli. Alcohol treatment was given to the diabetic rats for 30 days. During the period the blood glucose levels, and body weight changes were observed at regular intervals. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were assayed in the liver and kidney tissues. Results: The blood glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.001 elevated and body weight significantly (P < 0.001 decreased in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. SOD and CAT activities were decreased and the MDA level increased significantly (P < 0.001 in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. Histopathological studies showed that alcohol damages the liver and kidney tissues in diabetic rats. Conclusion: These finddings concluded that the consumption of alcohol in diabetic rats worsens the condition. So the consumption of alcohol by diabetic subjects may be potentially harmful.

  5. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  6. Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: Responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Yijun; Wan, Xiaochun [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China); Yang, Chung S. [Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Zhang, Jinsong, E-mail: zjs@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China)

    2015-02-15

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. - Highlights: • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose does not disturb hepatic major antioxidant defense. • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose modestly upregulates hepatic Nrf2 target genes. • EGCG at toxic dose suppresses hepatic major antioxidant enzymes. • EGCG at non-lethal toxic dose pronouncedly activates hepatic Nrf2 rescue response. • EGCG at

  7. Responses of antioxidant gene, protein and enzymes to salinity stress in two genotypes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) differing in salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Li, Huiying; Pang, Huangcheng; Fu, Jinmin

    2012-01-15

    Salinity could damage cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxic effect of salt on the antioxidant enzyme activities, isoforms and gene expressions in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Salt-tolerant 'Quickstart II' and salt-sensitive 'DP1' were subjected to 0 and 250 mM NaCl for 12 d. Salt stress increased the content of lipid peroxidation (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), to a greater extent in salt-sensitive genotype. Salt-stressed plant leaves exhibited a greater activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) at 4d after treatment (DAT), but a lower level of enzyme activity at 8 and 12d, when compared to the control. Catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity was greater at 4 DAT and thereafter decreased in salt tolerant genotype relative to the control, whereas lower than the control during whole experiment period for salt-sensitive genotype. There were different patterns of five isoforms of SOD, POD and two isoforms of APX between two genotypes. Antioxidant gene expression was positively related to isoenzymatic and total enzymatic activities during 12-d salt-treated leaves of two genotypes, with a relatively higher level in salt-tolerant genotype. Thus, salt tolerance could be related to the constitutive/induced antioxidant gene, leading to more efficient enzyme stimulation and protection in perennial ryegrass.

  8. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  9. Protective Role of Ca Against NaCl Toxicity in Jerusalem Artichoke by Up-Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yan-Feng; LIU Ling; LIU Zhao-Pu; S. K.MEHTA; ZHAO Geng-Mao

    2008-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of external Ca2+ on Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) under salt stress was studied through biochemical and physiological analyses of Jerusalem artichoke seedlings treated with or without 10 mol L-1 CaCl2, 150 mmol L-1 NaCl, and/or 5 mmol L-1 ethylene-bis(oxyethylenenitrilo)-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) for five days. Exposure to NaCl (150 mmol L-1) decreased growth, leaf chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic rate of Jerusalem artichoke seedlings. NaCl treatment showed 59% and 37% higher lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage, respectively, than the control. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were decreased by NaCl, indicating an impeded antioxidant defense mechanism of Jerusalem artichoke grown under salt stress. Addition of 10 mmol L-1 CaCl2 to the salt solutions significantly decreased the damaging effect of NaCl on growth and chlorophyll content and simultaneously restored the rate of photosynthesis almost to the level of the control. Ca2+ addition decreased the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage from NaCl-treated seedlings by 47% and 24%, respectively, and significantly improved the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT in NaCl-treated plants. Addition of ECTA, a specific chelator of Ca2+, decreased the growth, chlorophyll content, and photosynthesis, and increased level of MDA and electrolyte leakage from NaCl-treated plants and from the control plants. ECTA addition to the growth medium also repressed the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT in NaCl-treated and control seedlings. External Ca2+ might protect Jerusalem artichoke against NaCl stress by up-regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes and thereby decreasing the oxidative stress.

  10. Effect of iron stress on Withania somnifera L.: antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient elemental uptake of in vitro grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Jyoti Ranjan; Behera, Sadhana; Keshari, Nitin; Ram, Shidharth Sankar; Bhar, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Sahoo, Santi Lata

    2015-03-01

    In the present study the response of antioxidant enzyme activities and the level of expression of their corresponding genes on bioaccumulation of iron (Fe) were investigated. In vitro germinated Withania somnifera L. were grown in Murashige and Skoog's liquid medium with increasing concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) of FeSO4 for 7 and 14 days. Root and leaf tissues analyzed for catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), have shown an increase in content with respect to exposure time. Isoforms of CAT, SOD and GPX were separated using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and observed that the isoenzymes were greatly affected by higher concentrations of Fe. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis performed by taking three pairs of genes of CAT (RsCat, Catalase1, Cat1) and SOD (SodCp, TaSOD1.2, MnSOD) to find out the differential expression of antioxidant genes under Fe excess. RsCat from CAT and MnSOD from SOD have exhibited high levels of gene expression under Fe stress, which was consistent with the changes of the activity assayed in solution after 7 days of treatment. Analysis by proton induced X-ray emission exhibited an increasing uptake of Fe in plants by suppressing and expressing of other nutrient elements. The results of the present study suggest that higher concentration of Fe causes disturbance in nutrient balance and induces oxidative stress in plant.

  11. Changes in non Protein Thiols, some Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Ultrastructural Alteration in Radish Plant (Raphanus sativus L. Grown under Lead Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty days old radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. were exposed to different regimes of lead stress as Pb(NO32 at the following concentrations 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 250 and 500 ppm. The possible generation of oxidative stress, antioxidant metabolism and changes in the chloroplast and cell membrane ultrastructure were investigated. Greater loss of the photosynthetic pigments (Chl. a, Chl. b and total carotenoids were observed especially under 500 ppm lead (Pb. The accumulation of lead in roots and leaves of plant were measured and the results showed that lead accumulation increased with increasing of the metal treatment concentration. An increasing trend was observed in levels of ascorbate and decreasing trend in glutathione. Also, the antioxidant enzymes, viz., guaiacol peroxidase (GPX ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST showed significant variation with the increase in lead stress compared to control (untreated plants. The rapid inducibility of some of these enzymes is useful early and sensitive indicators of heavy metal toxicity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed an increase in the isoenzymes profile of CAT in both leaves and roots. While POD isoenzymes bands prominently increased in leaves and slightly decreased in roots at the higher Pb concentration in the growth media. The ultrastructural studies at selected concentrations; 100 and 500 ppm of Pb showed distortion of the structure and cell membranes in roots. Therefore, the changes in the levels of some antioxidants may play an important role against oxidative injury.

  12. Activity of the glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-generating enzymes in blood serum of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus after administration of melatonin-correcting drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarkov, A A; Popova, T N; Verevkin, A N; Matasova, L V

    2014-06-01

    We studied the effects of epifamin and melaxen on serum content of reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and NADPH-generating enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase) in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The concentration of reduced glutathione was decreased in rats with this disease (by 1.8 times), but increased after treatment with epifamin and melaxen (by 1.6 and 1.7 times, respectively). Activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and NADPH-generating enzymes returned to the control level. Correction of melatonin concentration after treatment with the test drugs was probably followed by inhibition of free radical processes. The observed changes were accompanied by normalization of activity of the glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-generating enzymes required for normal function of this system.

  13. Activity of Selected Antioxidant Enzymes, Selenium Content and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of the Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus L.) in Relation to the Season of the Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Radosław; Pilarczyk, Renata; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Drozd, Arleta; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Bombik, Teresa; Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Bombik, Elżbieta; Jankowiak, Dorota; Wasak, Agata

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of low concentrations of selenium in the environment on the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes: Se-GSHPx, total GSHPx, SOD, CAT, and GST as well as fatty acid profile in the livers of brown hares during winter and spring. Liver tissues obtained from 20 brown hares collected in the north-eastern Poland in the winter and spring season were analyzed. In the tissue analyzed, a significantly lower level of selenium was noticeable in the spring compared to winter; however, values measured in both seasons indicated a deficiency of this element in the analyzed population of brown hares. There were no differences found that could indicate the influence of Se deficiency on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The determined activity of antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition suggest a negligible impact of the low concentration of Se on the analyzed biochemical parameters of brown hare livers.

  14. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han [Division of Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • No mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). • A reduced fecundity of Brachionus koreanus at over 150 Gy with a decrease in lifespan. • Dose-dependent ROS increase with GST enzyme activity at sub-lethal doses. • Significant impact on life table parameters, particularly fecundity. • Significant up-regulation of DNA repair-associated genes at sublethal doses. - Abstract: To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size.

  15. Complex of vitamins and antioxidants protects low-density lipoproteins in blood plasma from free radical oxidation and activates antioxidants enzymes in erythrocytes from patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, G G; Lankin, V Z; Tikhaze, A K; Nezhdanova, I B; Lisina, M O; Kukharchuk, V V

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of a complex containing antioxidant vitamins C and E, provitamin A, and antioxidant element selenium on the contents of primary (lipid peroxides) and secondary products (malonic dialdehyde) of free radical lipid oxidation in low-density lipoproteins isolated from the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia by means of preparative ultracentrifugation. Activity of key antioxidant enzymes in the blood was measured during treatment with the antioxidant preparation. Combination treatment with antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant element selenium sharply decreased the contents of primary and secondary free radical oxidation products in circulating low-density lipoproteins and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes. Activities of superoxide dismutase and selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase increased 1 and 2 months after the start of therapy, respectively.

  16. Effects of Glutamate and Aspartate on Serum Antioxidative Enzyme, Sex Hormones, and Genital Inflammation in Boars Challenged with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengjia Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress is associated with infertility. This study was conducted to determine the effects of glutamate and aspartate on serum antioxidative enzymes, sex hormones, and genital inflammation in boars suffering from oxidative stress. Methods. Boars were randomly divided into 4 groups: the nonchallenged control (CON and H2O2-challenged control (BD groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 2% alanine; the other two groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2% glutamate (GLU or 2% aspartate (ASP. The BD, GLU, and ASP groups were injected with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on day 15. The CON group was injected with 0.9% sodium chloride solution on the same day. Results. Dietary aspartate decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA level in serum (P<0.05 compared with the BD group. Additionally, aspartate maintained serum luteinizing hormone (LH at a relatively stable level. Moreover, glutamate and aspartate increased transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels in the epididymis and testis (P<0.05 compared with the BD group. Conclusion. Both glutamate and aspartate promoted genital mRNA expressions of anti-inflammatory factors after oxidative stress. Aspartate more effectively decreased serum MDA and prevented fluctuations in serum sex hormones after H2O2 challenge than did glutamate.

  17. Effect of heavy metals on plasma membrane lipids and antioxidant enzymes of Zygophyllum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Ahmed Morsy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals are major environmental pollutant when they present in high concentration in soil and have toxic effects on growth and development of plants. Industrial activities result in heavy metal pollution of large areas of land, which greatly affects natural vegetation. Understanding the mechanism of how plants combat heavy metals adverse effects is hence of great importance. Materials and Methods: Two different localities were chosen; one locality was in the vicinity of gypsum factory and the other one was 25 km away from the factory. Two Zygophyllum species (Z. album and Z. coccineum were naturally grown in the studied areas. The effects of soil heavy metal stress on shoot heavy metal concentrations, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and the root plasma membrane (PM lipid composition were analyzed. Results: Heavy metal concentrations and Lipid peroxidation increased in the shoot of both species grown in the polluted area. The activities of ascorbate oxidase (ASO, guaiacal peroxidase (GPX, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and superoxide dismutase (SOD were increased whereas these of catalase (CAT were decreased in both species under the polluted conditions. PM total lipids, phospholipids, glycolipids and sterols were decreased in Z. album and Z. coccineum as a result of the polluted soil. Heavy metal stress increased phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and decreased phosphatidylinositol (PI and phophatidylglycerol (PG, with no significant change in phosphatidylcholine (PC in the root PM of both species. Phosphatidylserine (PS decreased in the PM of Z. album whereas it increased in the PM of Z. coccineum under the pollution conditions. Heavy metal stress changed the composition and concentration of fatty acids of the root PM, resulting in increased sat/unsat ratio of both species. Conclusion: the results suggest that efficient antioxidant machinery and favorable PM lipid homeostasis are important to enable Zygophyllum species

  18. Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic and renal marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart in fructose fed insulin resistant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the antioxidant efficacy of Commiphora mukul (C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract in high fructose diet (HFD insulin resistant rats. The male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each; two of these groups (Control group [C] and Control treated with C. mukul [C + CM] were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (Fructose fed rats [F-group] and fructose fed with C. mukul treated group [F + CM] were fed with high fructose diet (HFD (66%. C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg body weight/day was administered orally to group C + CM and group F + CM. At the end of 60-day experimental period biochemical parameters related to antioxidant, oxidative stress marker enzymes and hepatic and renal marker enzymes of tissues were performed. The fructose fed rats showed increased level of enzymatic activities aspartate aminotransminases (AST, alanine aminotransminases (ALT in liver and kidney and oxidative markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO and protein oxidation (PO in pancreas and heart. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in the pancreas and heart compared to control groups. Administration of C. mukul (200 mg/kg bwt to fructose fed insulin resistant rats for 60 days significantly reversed the above parameters toward normal. In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of C. mukul against fructose-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of chronic diseases characterized by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and aggravated antioxidant status.

  19. Elevated serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels in metastatic ovarian dysgerminoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    A case of a 32-year-old XY genotype female is described, presenting with mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy and associated with an elevated serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (SACE) level. Lymph node histology showed a malignant dysgerminoma of ovarian origin. Combined chemotherapy led to a radiological regression of the lymphadenopathy and coincided with a decrease in SACE concentration. The authors suggest that SACE may be a marker for disseminated germinoma tumours and may be useful for monitoring treatment.

  20. Effects of immediate and delayed mild hypothermia on endogenous antioxidant enzymes and energy metabolites following global cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; ZHANG Jun-jian; MEI Yuan-wu; SUN Sheng-gang; TONG E-tang

    2011-01-01

    Background The optimal time window for the administration of hypothermia following cerebral ischemia has been studied for decades,with disparity outcomes.In this study,the efficacy of mild brain hypothermia beginning at different time intervals on brain endogenous antioxidant enzyme and energy metabolites was investigated in a model of global cerebral ischemia.Methods Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a sham-operated group,a normothermia (37℃-38℃) ischemic group and a mild hypothermic (31℃-32℃) ischemia groups.Rats in the last group were subdivided into four groups:240 minutes of hypothermia,30 minutes of normothermia plus 210 minutes of hypothermia,60 minutes of normothermia plus 180 minutes of hypothermia and 90 minutes of normothermia plus 150 minutes of hypothermia (n=8).Global cerebral ischemia was established using the Pulsinelli four-vessel occlusion model for 20minutes and mild hypothermia was applied after 20 minutes of ischemia.Brain.tissue was collected following 20 minutes of cerebral ischemia and 240 minutes of reperfusion,and used to measure the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px),reduced glutathione (GSH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).Results Mild hypothermia that was started within 0 to 60 minutes delayed the consumption of SOD,GSH-Px,GSH,and ATP (P <0.05 or P <0.01) in ischemic tissue,as compared to a normothermic ischemia group.In contrast,mild hypothermia beginning at 90 minutes had little effect on the levels of SOD,GSH-Px,GSH,and ATP (P>0.05).Conclusions Postischemic mild brain hypothermia can significantly delay the consumption of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and energy metabolites,which are critical to the process of cerebral protection by mild hypothermia.These results show that mild hypothermia limits ischemic injury if started within 60 minutes,but loses its protective effects when delayed until 90 minutes following cerebral ischemia.

  1. Effects of cytokinins on antioxidant enzymes in in vitro grown shoots of Pelargonium hortorum L. H. Bayley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wojtania

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of meta-topolin (mT and 6-benzyl-aminopurine (BAP on the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 level and antioxidant enzymes activities in relation to the shoot formation and senescence process in Pelargonium hortorum cultivars, which differ in their susceptibility to leaf yellowing under in vitro conditions. In an early senescing cultivar ‘Grand Prix’, the addition of an aromatic cytokinin mT to abscisic acid (ABA-enriched Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium more efficiently inhibited leaf yellowing than BAP. In both genotypes, meta-topolin was also the most effective in shoot formation. It was found that Pelargonium species varying in their susceptibility to senescence differ in H2O2 production and antioxidant enzymes activities. Generally, meta-topolin more effectively enhanced H2O2 production and POD activity than BAP and control medium, but its effect depended on genotype. The highest H2O2 production stimulated by mT was observed on day 5 of subculture in late senescing cv. ‘Bergpalais’. In both geranium genotypes, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT levels were highest at the beginning of the subculture period, during the initiation of shoot formation. SOD showed the highest activity on day 5 of subculture on the medium without cytokinin and generally being higher in cv. ‘Bergpalais’ than in cv. ‘Grand Prix’. CAT activity was positively regulated by both cytokinins. POD activity was most effectively enhanced by mT, but on different days of subculture - on the 2nd day of subculture in cv. ‘Bergpalais’ and on the 22nd day of subculture in cv. ‘Grand Prix’. The enhanced activity of POD in the presence of mT, 4-fold higher than on control medium, at the end of subculture in P. hortorum ‘Grand Prix’ coincided with the inhibition of leaf senescence.

  2. Relation between iron metabolism and antioxidants enzymes and δ-ALA-D activity in rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Mendes, Ricardo E; Baldissera, Matheus D; Bochi, Guilherme V; Moresco, Rafael N; Leal, Marta L R; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Christ, Ricardo; Gheller, Larissa; Marques, Éder J; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the iron metabolism in serum, as well as antioxidant enzymes, in addition to the Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity in the liver of rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Thirty male adult rats (Wistar) specific pathogen free were divided into four groups: two uninfected group (CTRL 1 and CTRL 2) with five animals each and two infected groups (INF 1 and INF 2) with 10 animals each. Infection was performed orally with 20 metacercariae at day 1. On day 15 (CTRL 1 and INF 1 groups) and 87 PI (CTRL 2 and INF 2 groups) blood and bone marrow were collected and the animals were subsequently euthanized for liver sampling. Blood was allocated in tubes without anticoagulant for serum acquisition to measure iron, transferrin and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC). δ-ALA-D, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in the liver. A decrease in iron, transferrin and UIBC levels was observed in all infected animals compared to control groups (P iron accumulation was observed in bone marrow of infected mice. Infected animals showed an increase in δ-ALA-D activity at 87 post-infection (PI) (INF 2) as well as in SOD activity at days 15 (INF 1) and 87 PI (INF 2). On the other hand, CAT activity was reduced in rats infected by F. hepatica during acute and chronic phase of fasciolosis (INF 1 and INF 2 groups), when moderate (acute) and severe necrosis in the liver histopathology were observed. These results may suggest that oxidative damage to tissues along with antioxidant mechanisms might have taken part in fasciolosis pathogenesis and are also involved in iron deficiency associated to changes in δ-ALA-D activity during chronic phase of disease.

  3. Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions.

  4. Activity of Stress-related Antioxidative Enzymes in the Invasive Plant Crofton Weed(Eupatorium adenophorum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Crofton weed is an Invasive weed in southwestern China.The activities of several antioxidative enzymes involved in plant protection against oxidative stress were assayed to determine physiological aspects of the crofton weed that might render the plant vulnerable to environmental stress.Stresses imposed on crofton weed were heat (progressively increasing temperatures:25℃,30℃,35℃.38℃ and 42℃ at 24 h intervals),cold(progressively decreasing temperatures:25℃,20℃,15℃,10℃ and 5℃ at 24h intervals),and drought(without watering up to 4 days).The three stresses induced oxidative damage as evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation.The effect varied with the stress imposed and the length of exposure.The activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD)increased in response to all stresses but was not significantly different from the controls(P<0.05) when exposed to cold stress.Catalase (CAT)activity decreased in response to heat and drought stress but increased when exposed to cold conditions.Guaiacol peroxidase(POD) and glutathione reductase (GR)activities increased in response to cold and drought but decreased in response to heat stress.The activity of ascorbate peroxidase(APX) responded differently to all three stresses.Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR)activity decreased in response to heat and drought,and slightly increased in response to the cold stress but was not significantly different from the controls (P<0.05).The activity of dehydroascorbate reductase(DHAR)increased in response to all three stresses.Taken together,the co-ordinate increase of the oxygen-detoxifying enzymes might be more effective to protect crofton weed from the accumulation of oxygen radicals at low temperatures rather than at high temperatures.

  5. Rapid regulatory effect of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on antioxidant enzyme activities in a fish Anabas testudineus (Bloch): short-term in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, P; Oommen, O V

    2006-04-01

    The short-term action of thyroid hormone tri-iodothyronine (T3) was studied in vivo and in vitro on antioxidant enzyme activities in a teleost Anabas testudineus (Bloch). T3 injection in vivo (200 ng) in normal fish decreased the lipid peroxidation products and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities after 30 min. T3 in vitro (10(-6) M) increased the antioxidant activities of catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), GPx and glutathione level after 15/30 min, except SOD, substantiating in vivo effects in normal fish. The results suggest a rapid regulatory effect of thyroid hormone in vivo and in vitro, in the removal of reactive oxygen species in A testudineus.

  6. Studies on antioxidative enzymes induced by cadmium in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nalini; Singh, Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Swati) exposed to different concentration of cadmium (50,100, 200 microM Cd) under controlled glass house conditions were quantified for different physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes. In pea plants, Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth and induced chlorosis, marginal yellowing and necrosis in young leaves, the effect being most pronounced at 200 microM Cd supply. An alteration in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected as evidenced by an increase in concentration of H2O2 and TBARS along with decrease in the chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration in leaves. Cadmium toxicity induced an increase in non-protein thiol, ascorbate, proline and cysteine concentration. A significant increment in the activity of SOD, APX and GR, and a decrease in CAT was observed as a result of Cd treatment. The enhanced activity of SOD and inhibition of CAT and POD produces a high build up of H2O2 which appears to be the main cause of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity in pea plants.

  7. DNA damage and effects on antioxidative enzymes in zebra fish (Danio rerio) induced by atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lu-Sheng; Shao, Bo; Song, Yan; Xie, Hui; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jin-Hua; Liu, Wei; Hou, Xin-Xin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1, 3, 5-triazine) on the activity of some antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; and guaiacol peroxidase, POD) and DNA damage induced by atrazine were investigated in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Zebra fish were exposed to four different concentrations of atrazine (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L) for 7, 14, and 21 days, with three replicates of 10 fishes per treatment. Compared to the controls, the SOD activity in the 2.5 mg/L treatment was markedly stimulated in 21 days, while the SOD activities in the 5 mg/L treatment was stimulated at first and then inhibited. The change of CAT activity at 2.5 mg/L was similar to the SOD activity at 2.5 mg/L. The POD activities in the 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L treatment were markedly higher on days 14 and 21 compared with the controls. The olive tail moments of single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) of zebra fish enhanced after treatment of different doses on days 7, 14, and 21, and significant differences were found compared to the controls. In conclusion, these findings showed the effect regularity of atrazine to zebra fish, and also provide the basis for the future research of adverse effects induced by atrazine in aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Growth inhibition of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans by cadmium: an antioxidant enzyme approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelfi, Andrea; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Lea, Peter J; Molina, Silvia M G

    2003-04-01

    The heavy metal cadmium is very toxic to biological systems. Although its effect on the growth of microorganisms and plants has been investigated, the response of antioxidant enzymes of Aspergillus nidulans to cadmium is not well documented. We have studied the effect of cadmium (supplied as CdCl(2)) on catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). 0.005 mM CdCl(2) had a very slight stimulatory effect on the growth rate of A. nidulans, but at concentrations above 0.025 mM, growth was totally inhibited. The accumulation of Cd within the mycelium was directly correlated with the increase in the concentration of CdC(2) used in the treatments. Although a cadmium-stimulated increase in SOD activity was observed, there was no change in the relative proportions of the individual Mn-SOD isoenzymes. Higher concentrations of CdCl(2) induced a small increase in total CAT activity, but there was a major increase in one isoenzymic form, that could be separated by gel electrophoresis. GR activity increased significantly following treatment with the highest concentration (0.05 mM) of CdCl(2). The increases in SOD, CAT, and GR activities suggest that CdCl(2) induces the formation of reactive oxygen species inside the mycelia of A. nidulans.

  9. Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles interfere with the activity of antioxidant enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorovová, Slavomira; Santos, Dario L; Costa, Inês; Andreani, Tatiana; Souto, Eliana B; Silva, Amélia M

    2014-08-25

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are colloidal drug and/or gene carriers developed from solid lipids and surfactants that are considered safe. Cationic SLN, usually used for formulating poorly water-soluble drugs and for gene delivery purposes, as positively charged particles may attach to cellular surfaces and be internalized more easily than negatively charged SLN, but they can also cause damage. The main aim of this work was to test a set of cationic SLN and investigate its influence on the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), on antioxidant enzymes activities and on possible oxidative damage to membrane lipids in HepG2 cells. The Dichlorofluorescein assay revealed great increase in ROS presence after cell exposure to SLN. While the exposure to SLN increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase it decreased glutathione reductase activity. Although no significant increase in thiobarbituric reactive species was found, a decrease in sulfhydryl groups was detected. These results indicate that cationic SLN caused oxidative stress in HepG2 cells, but under reported exposure conditions HepG2 cells could attenuate the stress and thus the damage to cellular components was minimal.

  10. Antioxidant enzymes are induced by phenol in the marine microalga Lingulodinium polyedrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, P L G; Marques, L G; Colepicolo, P

    2015-06-01

    Knowing the impacts of different anthropogenic activities on ecosystems promotes preservation of aquatic organisms. Aiming to facilitate the identification of polluted or contaminated areas, the study of microalga Lingulodinium polyedrum in phenol-containing medium comprises the determination of toxic and metabolic phenol effects, featuring a possible use of this microorganism as bioindicator for this pollutant. Marine microalga L. polyedrum exposure to phenol increases superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The 20% and 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC20 and IC50) of cells exposed to phenol were 40 μmol L(-1) and 120 μmol L(-1), respectively. Phenol biodegradation by L. polyedrum was 0.02 μmol h(-1)cell(-1), and its biotransformation was catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase (GST), phenol hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dihydroxygenase metabolic pathways. Phenol exposure produced the metabolites 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde acid, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol), and 2-oxo-4-pentenoic acid; also, it induced the activity of key antioxidant biomarker enzymes SOD and CAT by three folds compared to that in the controls. Further, phenol decreased the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG), highlighting the effective glutathione oxidation in L. polyedrum. Overall, our results suggest that phenol alters microalga growth conditions and microalgae are sensitive bioindicators to pollution by phenol in marine environments.

  11. [Effect of melaxen on free radical processes intensity and some antioxidant enzymes activity in rats liver and blood serum under type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verevkin, A N; Popova, T N; Agarkov, A A; Semenikhina, A V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of melaxen on free radical processes and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been investigated. It was established that melaxen administration to diabetic rats caused a decrease of the intensity of free radical processes as evidenced a decrease of the lipid peroxidation primary products content and biochemiluminescence parameters. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes changed towards normal values. These effects were probably induced by the correction of the melatonin level at the result of the melaxen action.

  12. Storage Effect on Phenols and on the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Anemopsis californica and Inhibition of Elastase Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of total phenols and flavonoids and the antioxidant activity of leaf, stem, and rhizome methanolic extracts from a commonly consumed Anemopsis californica under different storage conditions were investigated. Storage conditions were at 50, 25, 4, and −20°C, protected or not from light, during 180 days. The inhibition of the elastase enzyme was also evaluated. The results demonstrated that leaf, stem, and rhizome methanolic extracts of Anemopsis californica maintain approximately up to 97 and 95% stability in phenolic content and antioxidant activity, respectively, when stored during 60 days at −20°C in the dark. Additionally, these extracts, principally from leaf and rhizome, showed an elastase inhibitory effect by 75 and 71.8%, respectively. Therefore, this study provides the basis for further research on the anti-inflammatory activity. On the other hand, Anemopsis californica could comprise a good alternative of use as antioxidant in foods.

  13. Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense seeds on α-amylase, α-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes, and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE (key enzyme linked to hypertension were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and nitric oxide (NO] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH*, NO*, and ABTS* and chelated Fe2+. α-Pinene, β-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of α-glucosidase than α-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  14. Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KARTHIKEYAN B.; JALEEL C.A.; GOPI R.; DEIVEEKASUNDARAM M.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters.There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximum of 50% germination, whereas Azospirillum and Azotobacter were on par with C. roseus with respect to their vigour index. There was significant difference in the population of total diazotrophs. Azospirillum and Azotobacter between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of C. roseus had the same trend and were observed at various locations of the study. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased to a significant extent due to the treatment with diazotrophs.

  15. Nutritional, amylolytic enzymes inhibition and antioxidant properties of bread incorporated with Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda B; Matus-Basto, Angel J; Segura-Campos, Maira R

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bread with sucrose content replaced with different levels of stevia extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The ability to reduce glucose intake was highlighted by performing enzymatic assays using α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was measured by determining the scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50% stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all the quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of Stevia rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread could be suitable as functional food in human nutrition.

  16. Aging- and photoaging-dependent changes of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants in the epidermis and dermis of human skin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, G; Shin, M H; Seo, J Y; Choi, W W; Cho, K H; Kim, K H; Park, K C; Eun, H C; Chung, J H

    2001-11-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the changes in major antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant molecules during intrinsic aging and photoaging processes in the epidermis and dermis of human skin in vivo. We show that the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase are not changed during these processes in human skin in vivo. Interestingly, the activity of catalase was significantly increased in the epidermis of photoaged (163%) and naturally aged (118%) skin (n = 9), but it was significantly lower in the dermis of photoaged (67% of the young skin level) and naturally aged (55%) skin compared with young (n = 7) skin. The activity of glutathione reductase was significantly higher (121%) in naturally aged epidermis. The concentration of alpha-tocopherol was significantly lower in the epidermis of photoaged (56% of young skin level) and aged (61%) skin, but this was not found to be the case in the dermis. Ascorbic acid levels were lower in both epidermis (69% and 61%) and dermis (63% and 70%) of photoaged and naturally aged skin, respectively. Gluta thione concentrations were also lower. Uric acid did not show any significant changes. Our results suggest that the components of the antioxidant defense system in human skin are probably regulated in a complex manner during the intrinsic aging and photoaging processes.

  17. A comparative evaluation of antioxidant enzymes and selenium in the serum of periodontitis patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease with an aberrant response characterized by exaggerated inflammation, involving the release of excess proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Diabetes mellitus is a group of complex multisystem metabolic disorders characterized by a relative or absolute insufficiency of insulin secretion and or concomitant resistance to the metabolic action of insulin on target tissues. Increased production of ROS necessitates elevated requirements for the nutrients involved in antioxidant defenses: Selenium, zinc, and copper. Inflammatory states promote a decrease in the amount of systemic glutathione levels. Catalase is a central antioxidant enzyme constituting the primary defense against oxidative stress. Aims: This study has been designed to evaluate the comparison of glutathione, catalase, and selenium levels in the serum of diabetes mellitus type 2 patients and healthy individuals with and without periodontal disease. Settings and Design: This study is a case control study. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a case - control study comprising of 150 subjects, inclusive of both sexes and were divided into three groups of 50 patients each. Group I: 50 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis. Group II: 50 subjects who are systemically healthy with the chronic periodontitis. Group III: 50 subjects who are systemically healthy and not suffering from Periodontitis: Serum samples were taken for estimation of glutathione, catalase, and selenium from all groups, and Subjected to biochemical analysis after which atomic absorption spectrophotometry method was used to obtain their levels in serum. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: The serum levels of glutathione in diabetic patients with periodontitis were significantly lower with a mean of 61.36 + 8.054 when compared to healthy individuals with and without periodontitis with a mean of 56

  18. Interactive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Features and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA applications (10−3 and 10−5 M on activities of nitrate reductase, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutases (SOD, catalase (CAT and proline enzymes and physiological parameters was evaluated in two ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara under greenhouse conditions. In both varieties, tested treatments generally enhanced photosynthetic rate and total dry weight. Photosynthetic rate increases were generally accompanied by increased or unchanged stomatal conductance levels, although intercellular CO2 concentrations of treated plants were typically lower than in controls. Lower SA concentrations were generally more effective in enhancing photosynthetic rate and plant growth. Exogenous application of SA increased antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content; the greatest responses were obtained in plants sprayed with 10–5 M SA, with significant increases observed in CAT (20.1%, POD (45.2%, SOD (44.1% and proline (43.1% activities. Increased CAT activity in leaves is naturally expected to increase photosynthetic efficiency and thus net photosynthesis by maintaining a constant CO2 supply. Our results support the idea that low SA concentrations (10–5 M may induce nitrite reductase synthesis by mobilizing intracellular NO3− and can provide protection to nitrite reductase degradation in vivo in the absence of NO3–. Observed positive correlations among proline, SOD, CAT and POD activities in the studied varieties suggest that increased SOD activity was accompanied by increases in CAT and POD activities because of the high demands of H2O2 quenching.

  19. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, A.; El-Beltagi, H. E. S.

    2010-07-01

    The seeds of Vicia f aba L. Gaza 834 were exposed to {gamma}-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He-Ne (632.8 nm) or diode (650.0 nm) laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He-Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy) of {gamma}-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of {gamma}-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 {mu}mol/g d.w) compared to the control (3.9 {mu}mol/g d.w). Laser treatment by He-Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P < 0.05) in MDA content (4.4 and 5.08 {mu}mol/g d.w respectively) compared to the control (3.9 {mu}mol/g d.w). H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 {mu}mol/g d.w) compared to the control (2.3 {mu}mol/g d.w.). On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with {gamma}-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with {gamma}-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by {gamma}-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of {gamma}-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone. (Author) 46 refs.

  20. Effect of Butachlor on Antioxidant Enzyme Status and Lipid Peroxidation in Fresh Water African Catfish, (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Farombi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of butachlor, a widely used herbicide, on antioxidant enzyme system and lipid peroxidation formation in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus. Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of butachlor 1, 2, 2.5 ppm and sacrificed 24hrs after treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney, gills and heart of the fish following exposure to different concentrations of butachlor. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased in the liver and kidney but decreased in the gills and heart in a concentration-dependent pattern. Glutathione level and glutathione-Stransferase activities increased (P<0.05 in the liver but decreased in the kidneys, gills and heart when fishes were exposed to the three concentrations of butachlor. The results suggest that butachlor induced oxidative stress in the various tissues of the fish particularly in the kidney and as such the organ may be subjected to severe oxidative toxicity due to depressed glutathione detoxification system.

  1. Antioxidant enzymes status and reproductive health of adult male workers exposed to brick kiln pollutants in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sarwat; Falah, Samreen; Ullah, Hizb; Ullah, Asad; Rauf, Naveed

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to study the effect of brick kilns emissions on the reproductive health and biochemical status of brick kiln workers and people living in the area near brick kilns. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers compared to the control. Red blood cells count and hematocrit (%) were significantly high in brick bakers while MCH was significantly reduced in brick makers and brick bakers. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and chromium) concentration in whole blood of the brick kiln workers were significantly higher as compared to the control. Antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GSH, and GR) were significantly reduced in brick kiln workers as compared to the control while TBARS level were significantly high in brick bakers as compared to the control. Plasma leutinizing hormone (LH) was significantly high in brick bakers while testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers. The present study shows that brick kiln workers and people living in the brick kiln vicinity are exposed to heavy metals and other pollutants that is a serious threat to their health. Alternate technology is needed to be developed and brick kilns should be replaced.

  2. Response of growth and antioxidant enzymes in Azolla plants (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides) exposed to UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Amjad; Zeeshan, M; Abraham, G

    2008-06-01

    Effect of ultravilolet-B (0.4 Wm(-2)) irradiation on growth, flavonoid content, lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation and activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase was comparatively analysed in Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides. Growth measured as increment in dry weight reduced considerably due to all UV-B treatments. However, the reduction was found to be severe in A. filiculoides as compared to A. pinnata. The level of UV-absorbing compound flavonoids increased significantly in A. pinnata plants whereas only a slight increase in the flavonoid content was observed in A. filiculoides. UV-B exposure led to enhanced production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in A. filiculoides than A. pinnata. Proline accumulation also showed a similar trend. Marked differences in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) was noticed in both the plants exposed to UV-B. Our comparative studies indicate A. pinnata to be better tolerant to UV-B as compared with A. filiculoides which appears to be sensitive.

  3. Modulation of antioxidant enzyme expression by PTU-induced hypothyroidism in cerebral cortex of postnatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja, Shravani; Jena, Srikanta

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the effect of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism on oxidative stress parameters and expression of antioxidant enzymes in cerebral cortex of rat brain during postnatal development. A significant decrease in levels of lipid peroxidation and H(2)O(2) were seen in 7 and 30 days old PTU-treated rats with respect to their controls. Significantly decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) along with the translated products of SOD1 and SOD2 were observed in 7, 15 and 30 days old PTU-treated rats as compared to their respective controls. However, increase in translated product of CAT was seen in all age groups of PTU-treated rats. Glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased in 7 days and increased in 15 days old PTU-treated rats with respect to their control groups. Histological sections clearly show a decline in neuronal migration with neurons packed together in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control.

  4. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments.

  5. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Effects of Heavy-ion Beams Irradiation on Survival Rate and Antioxidant Enzymes of Sweet Sorghum Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effects of heavy-ion beams irradiation on the seed germination potential, survival rate, antioxidant enzyme activi- ties and lipid peroxidation of sweet sorghum. [Method] The dry seeds were irradiated by '2(36. heavy ion beams with absorbed doses: 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 Gy, respectively. Then, the seed germination potential, survival rate, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of sweet sorghum were measured. [Result] Heavy-ion beams irradiation exhibited different influence on germination potential and survival rates. Germination rate showed a downward trend, but the corresponding survival curve of seedlings was saddle-shaped. The activities of SOD, POD, CAT and ASA- POD changed in different trends as well. The MDA content rose toward increasing irradiation dose, suggesting that high dose of heavy-ion beams irradiation enhanced the damage to membrane of sweet sorghum seedlings. [Conclusion] After being irra- diated, germination potential and survival rates of sweet sorghum were decreased, and antioxidant enzymes activity changed greatly. This study laid the basis for fur- ther work on breeding and improvement of sweet sorghum irradiated by ,^(12)C^(6+) heavy ion beams.

  7. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Ding

    Full Text Available Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  8. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women.

  9. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  10. [Impacts of root-zone hypoxia stress on muskmelon growth, its root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Ling; Li, Tian-Lai; Sun, Zhou-Ping; Chen, Ya-Dong

    2010-06-01

    By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the impacts of root-zone hypoxia (10% O2 and 5% O2) stress on the plant growth, root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities of muskmelon at its fruit development stage. Root-zone hypoxia stress inhibited the plant growth of muskmelon, resulting in the decrease of plant height, root length, and fresh and dry biomass. Comparing with the control (21% O2), hypoxia stress reduced the root respiration rate and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity significantly, and the impact of 5% O2 stress was more serious than that of 10% O2 stress. Under hypoxic conditions, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly higher than the control. The increment of antioxidative enzyme activities under 10% O2 stress was significantly higher than that under 5% O2 stress, while the MDA content was higher under 5% O2 stress than under 10% O2 stress, suggesting that when the root-zone oxygen concentration was below 10%, the aerobic respiration of muskmelon at its fruit development stage was obviously inhibited while the anaerobic respiration was accelerated, and the root antioxidative enzymes induced defense reaction. With the increasing duration of hypoxic stress, the lipid peroxidation would be aggravated, resulting in the damages on muskmelon roots, inhibition of plant growth, and decrease of fruit yield and quality.

  11. Chemoprotective potentials of homoisoflavonoids and chalcones of Dracaena cinnabari: modulations of drug-metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machala, M; Kubínová, R; Horavová, P; Suchý, V

    2001-03-01

    A series of homoisoflavonoids and chalcones, isolated from the endemic tropical plant Dracaena cinnabari Balf. (Agavaceae), were tested for their potential to inhibit cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) enzymes and Fe-enhanced in vitro peroxidation of microsomal lipids in C57B1/6 mouse liver. The effects of the polyphenolic compounds were compared with those of prototypal flavonoid modulators of CYP1A and the well-known antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene. 2-Hydroxychalcone and partly 4,6-dihydroxychalcone were found to be strong inhibitors of CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in vitro comparable to the effects of quercetin and chrysin. The first screening of flavonoids and chalcones of Dracaena cinnabari for antioxidant activity was done in an in vitro microsomal peroxidation assay. While chalcones were shown to be poor antioxidants, 7,8-methylenedioxy-3(4-hydroxybenzyl) chromane, as one of the tested homoisoflavonoids, exhibited a strong antioxidant activity comparable to that of the strongest flavonol antioxidant, quercetin.

  12. Is HOMO Energy Level a Good Parameter to Characterize Antioxidant Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Semiempirical quantum chemical method AM1 was employed to calculate the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels (EHOMO) for various types of antioxidants. It was verified that the correlation between logarithm of free radical scavenging rate constants (lgks) and EHOMO substantially arises from the correlation between EHOMO and O-H bond dissociation energies (BDE) of antioxidants. Furthermore, EHOMO were poorly correlated with the logarithm of relative free radical scavenging rate constants (lgk3/k1) for various types of antioxidants that possess complex structures (r = 0.5602). So in a broad sense, EHOMO was not an appropriate parameter to characterize the free radical scavenging activity of antioxidants.

  13. Antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress adaptation to exercise training: Comparison of endurance, resistance, and concurrent training in untrained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Azizbeigi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of endurance training (ET, resistance training (RT, and concurrent training (CT on circulating antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 30 men aged 21.7 ± 2.4 years were assigned to the following three training groups: ET, which included continuous running with incremental intensity that was increased up to 80% of maximal heart rate (n = 10; RT, which included a beginning load of 50% of one repetition maximum (1RM that was increased up to 80% of 1RM (n = 10; and CT, which included ET and RT programs every other day during the week (n = 10. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in erythrocytes and total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA level in plasma were measured. The results showed that SOD significantly increased by 21.85% (p = 0.020, 9.54% (p = 0.032, and 14.55% (p = 0.038 in the ET, RT, and CT groups, respectively. Furthermore, the activity of erythrocyte GPx significantly increased in the ET (p = 0.018 and CT (p = 0.042 groups. The TAC increased significantly in the ET (p = 0.040 and CT (p = 0.049 groups compared with the pretest values. The MDA level significantly decreased in the ET group by 32.7% (p = 0.028, by 32% in the RT group (p = 0.025, and by 29.1% (p = 0.047 in the CT group. However, there was no significant difference in the interaction of time and group between variables of SOD and GPx enzymes and TAC of plasma and MDA in the ET, RT, and CT groups (p < 0.05. It can be concluded that all three training types induced the same changes in redox state (increased SOD activity and reduction in MDA levels, but at different rates.

  14. Influence of subacute treatment of some plant growth regulators on serum marker enzymes and erythrocyte and tissue antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Tuluce, Yasin; Isik, Ismail

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorofenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) on serum marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), antioxidant defense systems (reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT)), and lipid peroxidation content (malondialdehyde = MDA) in various tissues of rats. 50 and 100 ppm of PGRs as drinking water were administered orally to rats (Sprague-Dawley albino) ad libitum for 25 days continuously. The PGRs treatment caused different effects on the serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defense systems, and the MDA content in experimented rats compared to controls. Results showed that TIBA caused a significant decrease in serum AST activity with both the dosage whereas serum CPK was significantly increased with 100 ppm dosage of TIBA. Meanwhile, serum AST, CPK, and LDH activities were significantly increased with both dosage of NAA and 2,4-D. The lipid peroxidation end-product MDA significantly increased in the all tissues treated with both dosages of PGRs without any change in the brain and erythrocyte of rats treated with both the dosages of 2,4-D. The GSH depletion in the kidney and brain tissues of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs was found to be significant. Furthermore, the GSH depletion in the erythrocyte of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs except 50 ppm dosage of 2,4-D was significant too. Also, the GSH level in the liver was significantly depleted with 50 ppm of 2,4-D and NAA, whereas the GSH depletion in the same tissue did not significantly change with the treatment. The activity of antioxidant enzymes was also seriously affected by PGRs; SOD significantly decreased in the liver, heart, kidney, and brain of rats treated with

  15. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; pkale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity.

  16. Antioxidant Metabolism during Acclimation of Begonia × erythrophylla to High Light Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    BURRITT, DAVID J.; MACKENZIE, SUSAN

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the influence of high light levels on antioxidant metabolism and the photosynthetic properties of Begonia × erythrophylla leaves. The pigment composition of shaded leaves and those developing in full sunlight was typical of shade‐ and sun‐leaves, respectively. After 28 d in full sunlight, the preformed leaves of shade plants transferred to full sunlight (transferred‐leaves) showed photo‐bleaching with lower Chl (a + b) content and Chl a : Chl b ratios than shade‐leaves, with Chl (a + b) : carotenoid ratios not significantly different. The variable/maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) of sun‐leaves was not significantly different from that of shade‐leaves, but transferred‐leaves had reduced Fv : Fm ratios. Light response curves for the electron transport rate (ETR), the oxidation state of photosystem II (qP) and non‐photochemical quenching (NPQ) showed significant differences between the three leaf types, with transferred‐leaves not able to acclimate completely to full sunlight, having lower ETR, qP and NPQ values at high light levels than sun‐leaves. Transfer to full sunlight caused a rapid increase in H2O2 and lipid hyperoxides, and a slight increase in protein oxidation. Ascorbate and glutathione levels decreased rapidly, as did the size of the total glutathione pool and, in addition to the general oxidation of proteins, rapid decreases in both the initial and total activities of chloroplastic fructose‐1,6‐bisphosphatase and glyceraldehyde‐3‐phosphate dehydrogenase were observed. These results suggest that a more oxidizing cellular environment is the likely cause of the photo‐bleaching observed upon transfer of shade‐leaves to full sunlight. Acclimation of transferred‐leaves to full sunlight involved gradual increases in the activities of enzymes involved in antioxidant metabolism, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase and

  17. Metallothionein and antioxidant enzymes in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats treated with zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Santon, Alessandro; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; D'Incà, Renata; Giannetto, Sabrina; Albergoni, Vincenzo; Irato, Paola

    2002-09-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant animal model for Wilson's disease. It is known that an abnormal accumulation of Cu and Fe in the liver and low concentrations of both ceruloplasmin and Cu in the serum occur in these rats. The accumulation of Cu is explained by the defective expression of the Cu-transporting P-type ATPase gene, homologous to the gene for Wilson's disease (ATP7B). The aim of this work was to clarify the action mechanism of Zn, and to verify the role that this metal plays in LEC rats in short-term treatment experiments (1 and 2 weeks) on concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, metallothionein (MT), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (oh(8)dG) and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is well known that Zn induces MT and has the ability to prevent redox-active metals, Cu and Fe, binding to and causing oxidative damage at active sites of Zn metalloenzymes and nonspecific binding sites on proteins. Zn administration reduces Cu and Fe transport from mucosal to serosal intestinal sides through competitive mechanisms. Our findings show that treatment with zinc acetate increases tissue Zn and MT contents and decreases Cu and Fe concentrations in the liver and kidneys, even if hepatic Zn and MT concentrations decrease with treatment period. Induction of MT synthesis by Zn contributes to the reduction in free radicals produced by Cu and Fe. We also observed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD)activity in liver decreases with treatment duration in association with the Cu and Fe liver decrease. However, the SOD activity in kidney increases in untreated rats at 2 weeks relative to those untreated for 1 week.

  18. Ethanol and supercritical fluid extracts of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) increase gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunghyun Hong; Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Taewoo Joo; Chanmook Lim; Haeme Cho; Songmun Kim; Gur-Yoo Kim; Jin-Woo Jhoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes by hemp seed extracts in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Methods: Ethanol and supercritical fluid (SF) extracts obtained from de-hulled hemp seed were used for the evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. In vitro antioxidant activities of the samples evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in HepG2cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. Results:In the antioxidant assay, SF extract of hemp seed exhibited higher ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities (IC50 of 66.6 µg/mL and 9.2 mg/mL, respectively) than ethanol extract. The results of antioxidant enzyme expression in real-time PCR study revealed the H2O2 (200 µM) challenged HepG2 cells reduced the expression of enzymes such as SOD, GPx and CAT. However, the cells treated with ethanol and SF extracts were up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes in concentration dependent manner. When compared to ethanol extract, the SF extract exhibited higher activity in the expression of all the antioxidant enzymes at the concentration of 500 µg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the hemp seed effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  19. Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Zueng-Sang [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hong, Chwan-Yang, E-mail: cyhong@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-30

    The accumulation and effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth and enzymatic activities changes of antioxidants in Tagetes patula, French marigold, were investigated to reveal the physiological mechanisms corresponding to its Cd tolerance and accumulation. Hydroponically grown T. patula plants were treated with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}) at various regime of times. T. patula accumulated Cd to a maximum of 450 mg Cd kg{sup -1} dry weight (DW) in shoot and 3500 mg Cd kg{sup -1} DW in root after 14 days' exposure at 10 and 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}, respectively. The translocation factors of Cd were greater than 1 in plants exposed to 10 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. Toxic effects were gradually observed with increasing Cd concentration (25 and 50 {mu}M) accompanied with the reduction of biomass, chlorophyll content, decrease of cell viability and the increase level of lipid peroxidation. In leaves of T. patula, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced by Cd. However, in roots, activities of APX, GR, SOD and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced by 25 and 50 {mu}M Cd treatment but not 10 {mu}M Cd. In-gel zymography analysis revealed that Cd induced the enzymatic activities of APX, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and different isozymes of GR in leaves. These results indicate that T. patula is a novel Cd accumulator and able to tolerate with Cd-induced toxicity by activation of its antioxidative defense system.

  20. Natural leaf senescence: probed by chlorophyll fluorescence, CO2 photosynthetic rate and antioxidant enzyme activities during grain filling in different rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Debabrata; Sarkar, Ramani Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Natural leaf senescence was investigated in four rainfed lowland rice cultivars, FR 13A (tolerant to submergence), Sabita and Sarala (adapted to medium depth, 0-50 cm stagnant flooding) and Dengi (conventional farmers' cultivar). Changes in the levels of pigment content, CO2 photosynthetic rate, photosystem II photochemistry and anti-oxidant enzyme activities of flag leaves during grain-filling stage were investigated. Chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and CO2 photosynthetic rate decreased significantly with the progress of grain-filling. Likely, the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase decreased with progress of grain-filling. A substantial difference was observed among the four cultivars for the sustainability index (SI) of different photosynthetic parameters and antioxidant enzyme activities; SIs of those parameters, in general, were lower in low yielding cultivar FR 13A compared to the other three cultivars. Among the four cultivars Sabita gave maximum grain yield. Yet, SI of Pn was greater in Sarala and Dengi compared to the Sabita. SIs of electron transport (ETo/CS), maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), area above Fo and Fm, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were also greater in Sarala and Dengi. The data showed that among the different Chl a fluorescence parameters, PI could be used with greater accuracy to distinguish slow and fast senescence rice cultivars during grain-filling period. It was concluded that maintaining the vitality of rice plants during grain-filling gave guarantee to synthesize carbohydrate, however greater yield could be realized provided superior yield attributing parameters are present.

  1. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks׳ gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; Gill, Carolyn A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Seed, Paul T; Hesketh, John E; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2-7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks׳ gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both Ppreeclampsia. The modest elevation in copper may contribute to oxidative stress, later in pregnancy, in those women that go on to develop preeclampsia. The lack of evidence to support the hypothesis that functional SNPs influence antioxidant enzyme activity in pregnant women argues against a role for these genes in the etiology of preeclampsia.

  2. Effect of static magnetic field and/or cadmium in the antioxidant enzymes activity in rat heart and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Salem; Garrel, Catherine; Favier, Alain; Ben Rhouma, Khémais; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2009-12-01

    Currently, environmental and industrial pollution along with increase and causes multiple stress conditions, the combined exposure to magnetic field and other toxic agents is recognised as an important research area, with a view to better protecting human health against their probable unfavourable effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of co-exposure to static magnetic field (SMF) and cadmium (Cd) on the antioxidant enzymes activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. The exposure of rats to SMF (128 mT, 1 h/day during 30 consecutive days) decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) in heart muscle. Sub-chronic exposure to SMF increased the MDA concentration in rat cardiac muscle. Cd treatment (CdCl2, 40 mg/l, per os) during 4 weeks decreased the activities of catalase (CAT) in skeletal muscle and the CuZn-SOD in the heart. Moreover, Cd administration increased MDA concentration in the both structures. The combined effect of SMF (128 mT, 1 h/day during 30 consecutive days) and Cd (40 mg/l, per os) disrupt the antioxidant enzymes activity in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, we noted a huge increase in MDA concentration in the heart and skeletal muscle compared to control group. Thus it is possible that the SMF- and/or Cd-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes activity in muscle tissues might, like the enhanced lipid peroxidation, importantly contribute to oxidative damage. The combined effect of SMF and Cd altered significantly the antioxidant enzymatic capacity and induced lipid peroxidation in both skeletal and cardiac muscle.

  3. [Effect of exogenous calcium on the activities of antioxidative protective enzymes in ectomycorrhizal fungi under aluminum stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Xia; Huang, Jian-Guo; Yuan, Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Feng

    2012-10-01

    In order to investigate the function of Ca2+ in the alleviation of Al3+ stress in ectomycorrhizal fungi, four strains (Bo 02, Bo 15, Pt 715 and Sl 08) were grown in liquid culture media to study the Al resistance of different strains and the effect of exogenous Ca2+ (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mmol x L(-1)) on the activity of antioxidative protective enzymes under Al3+ stress. It was showed that ectomycorrhizal fungal species varied in resistance to Al3+ stress. Pt 715 and Sl 08 were more tolerant to Al3+ than Bo 02 and Bo 15 in vitro. The activities of CAT and SOD in Bo 02, SOD in Bo 15, CAT and POD in Sl 08 increased significantly under Al3+ stress. It was showed that the activities of these enzymes in ectomycorrhizal fungi had a close relationship with Al3+ stress. The enzymes in Bo 02 were most sensitive to exogenous Ca2+ and the function of Ca2+ in resisting Al3+ stress was the best in the four strains. A high concentration of Ca2+ (> or = 0.5 mmol x L(-1)) could alleviate or offset the increased activities of antioxidative protective enzymes by Al3+ stress in Sl 08.

  4. Effect Of Priming Of Seeds Of Medicago Sativa ‘Bami’ With Gibberellic Acid On Germination, Seedlings Growth And Antioxidant Enzymes Activity Under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younesi Omid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in order to study effects of seeds priming with gibberellic acid (GA3 at 0, 3, 5 and 8 mM on germination, growth and antioxidant enzymes activity in alfalfa seedlings under salinity stress (200 mM NaCl. All control seeds germinated. The rate of germinated seeds was reduced to 48% in the presence of NaCl, and increased to 76% after seeds priming with 5 mM GA3. Priming with 5 mM GA3 was also correlated with an increase of dry weight of seedlings derived from both stressed and non-stressed seeds as well as with the reduction of electrolyte leakage (EL and malondialdehyde (MDA level in salt stressed seedlings. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase in primed and non-primed seeds increased in the presence of NaCl and after priming of seeds with 5 mM GA3, whereas only small effect on glutathione reductase activity in both primed and non-primed seeds was observed. The total ascorbate level was higher in both stressed and non-stressed seedlings from primed seeds. These results suggest that GA3 priming might increase the salt tolerance of alfalfa seedlings through enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the membrane damage as estimated using biomarkers, EL index and MDA content.

  5. Engineering yeast for high-level production of stilbenoid antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingji; Schneider, Konstantin; Kristensen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Stilbenoids, including resveratrol and its methylated derivatives, are natural potent antioxidants, produced by some plants in trace amounts as defense compounds. Extraction of stilbenoids from natural sources is costly due to their low abundance and often limited availability of the plant. Here we...

  6. Influence of SkQ1 on Expression of Nrf2 Gene, ARE-Controlled Genes of Antioxidant Enzymes and Their Activity in Rat Blood Leukocytes under Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnukov, V V; Gutsenko, O I; Milutina, N P; Kornienko, I V; Ananyan, A A; Danilenko, A O; Panina, S B; Plotnikov, A A; Makarenko, M S

    2015-12-01

    The study demonstrated that oxidative stress induced by hyperoxia (0.5 MPa for 90 min) resulted in reduction of mRNA levels of transcription factor Nrf2 and Nrf2-induced genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, CAT, GPx4) in peripheral blood leukocytes of rats. The changes in gene expression profiles under hyperoxia were accompanied by disbalance of activity of antioxidant enzymes in the leukocytes, namely activation of superoxide dismutase and inhibition of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase. Pretreatment of rats with SkQ1 (50 nmol/kg for five days) significantly increased mRNA levels of transcription factor Nrf2 and Nrf2-induced genes encoding antioxidant enzymes SOD2 and GPx4 and normalized the transcriptional activity of the SOD1 and CAT genes in the leukocytes in hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress. At the same time, the activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase was increased, and the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase returned to the control level. It is hypothesized that protective effect of SkQ1 in hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress can be realized via a direct antioxidant property and the stimulation of the Keap1/Nrf2 redox-sensitive signaling system.

  7. Changes of antioxidative enzymes and cell membrane osmosis in tomato colonized by arbuscular Mycorrhizae under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqun; He, Chaoxing; Zhang, Zhibin; Zou, Zhirong; Wang, Huaisong

    2007-10-01

    Salinity toxicity is a worldwide agricultural and eco-environmental problem. Many literatures show that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can enhance salt tolerance of many plants and some physiological changes occurred in AM symbiosis under salt stress. However, the role of ROS-scavenging enzymes in AM tomato is still unknown in continuous salt stress. This study investigated the effect of Glomus mosseae on tomato growth, cell membrane osmosis and examined the antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; peroxidase, POD) responses in roots of mycorrhizal tomato and control under different NaCl stress for 40 days in potted culture. NaCl solution (0, 0.5 and 1%) was added to organic soil in the irrigation water after 45 days inoculated by AMF (Glomus mosseae). (1) AMF inoculation improved tomato growth under salt or saltless condition and reduced cell membrane osmosis, MDA (malonaldehyde) content in salinity. So the salt tolerance of tomato was enhanced by AMF; (2) SOD, APX and POD activity in roots of AM symbiosis were significantly higher than corresponding non-AM plants in salinity or saltless condition. However, CAT activity was transiently induced by AMF and then suppressed to a level similar with non-AM seedlings; (3) higher salinity (1% level) and long stress time suppressed the effect of AMF on SOD, APX, POD and CAT activity; (4) this research suggested that the enhanced salt tolerance in AM symbiosis was mainly related with the elevated SOD, POD and APX activity by AMF which degraded more reactive oxygen species and so alleviated the cell membrane damages under salt stress. Whereas, the elevated SOD, POD and APX activity due to AMF depended on salinity environment.

  8. Size distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles in cell culture medium and their influence on antioxidative enzymes in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđenović Branislava U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenol (C60(OH24 nanoparticles (FNP have a significant role in biomedical research due to their numerous biological activities, some of which are cytoprotective and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to measure distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles and zeta potential in cell medium RPMI 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and to investigate the influence of FNP on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 survival, as well as to determine the activity of three antioxidative enzymes: superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-reductase and glutathione-S-transferase in mitomycin C-treated cell line. Our investigation implies that FNP, as a strong antioxidant, influence the cellular redox state and enzyme activities and thus may reduce cell proliferation, which confirms that FNP could be exploited for its use as a cytoprotective agent.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45005 i Pokrajinski Sekretarijat za nauku i tehnološki razvoj Vojvodine, grant number 114-451-2056/2011-01

  9. Effect of various soil salinity level on the antioxidant and physiological properties of corn plant (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Ezzati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of various soil salinity levels on the antioxidant enzymes and physiological characteristics of corn as an indicator of salt stress resistance, present study was conducted in 2013 at Research lab of environmental, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Kharazmi, Iran. Furthermore, desert soils of Libya, India, Iraq and Karaj were used for testing the effect of soil salinity on the quantity of oxidant enzymes and various properties of maize plant. For providing favorable atmospheric conditions 33000 lux light and spray of perlite medium was used. Corn crop is highly sensitive to soil salinity so all the cultivation was carried out under conditions of soil EC lower than 20 ds/m and 8.5 pH. Results of the study revealed that the salt stress significantly affect the amount of antioxidant enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase and malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it was reported that saline soil did not have any negative effect on the physiological characteristics and growth of corn plant growth.

  10. Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Srivastava

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L-1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05 in LC10-90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ~10.600 mg·L-1, 1/8 LC50 = ~5.300 mg·L-1 and 1/10 LC50 = ~4.238 mg·L-1 induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes.

  11. Antioxidant effects of the sarsaparilla via scavenging of reactive oxygen species and induction of antioxidant enzymes in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Tae-mi; Kim, Jeong Hee; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight causes distinct changes in collagenous skin tissues as a result of the breakdown of collagen, a major component of the extracellular matrix. UV irradiation downregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-elimination pathways, thereby promoting the production of ROS, which are implicated in skin aging. Smilax glabra Roxb (sarsaparilla) has been used in folk medicine because of its many effects. However, no study on the protective effects of sarsaparilla root (SR) on human dermal fibroblasts has been reported previously. Here, we investigated the protective effect of SR against oxidative stress in dermal fibroblasts. SR significantly inhibited oxidative damage and skin-aging factor via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Also, SR decreased Ca(2+) and ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential, dysfunction, and increased glutathione, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and heme oxygenase-1. These results demonstrate that SR can protect dermal fibroblasts against UVB-induced skin aging via antioxidant effects.

  12. Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Potential of Cistus salviifolius (L. and Cistus monspeliensis (L. Aerial Parts Extracts against Key Enzymes Linked to Hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Sayah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cistus genus (Cistaceae comprises several medicinal plants used in traditional medicines to treat several pathological conditions including hyperglycemia. These include Cistus salviifolius L. (CS and Cistus monspeliensis L. (CM, still not fully explored as a source of metabolites with therapeutic potential for human diseases. In this study, the antioxidant α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory effects of aqueous and hydromethanolic extracts from the aerial parts of Moroccan CS and CM were investigated. Antioxidant activity has been assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS radicals and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP methods. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity has been assessed using an in vitro model. Moreover, mineral and phenolic contents of CS and CM were analyzed. The extracts of both species exhibited potent antioxidant activity in all used systems and possess strong inhibitory effect towards α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.95±0.14 to 14.58±1.26 μg/mL and significant inhibitory potential against α-amylase (IC50: 217.10±0.15 to 886.10±0.10 μg/mL. Furthermore, the result showed high levels of phenolic content and unexpectedly some higher levels of mineral content in CS. The results suggest that the phenolic rich extracts of CS and CM may have a therapeutic potential against diseases associated with oxidative stress and may be useful in the management of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients.

  13. Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Potential of Cistus salviifolius (L.) and Cistus monspeliensis (L.) Aerial Parts Extracts against Key Enzymes Linked to Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmouzi, Ilias; Cherrah, Yahia; Faouzi, My El Abbes

    2017-01-01

    Cistus genus (Cistaceae) comprises several medicinal plants used in traditional medicines to treat several pathological conditions including hyperglycemia. These include Cistus salviifolius L. (CS) and Cistus monspeliensis L. (CM), still not fully explored as a source of metabolites with therapeutic potential for human diseases. In this study, the antioxidant α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory effects of aqueous and hydromethanolic extracts from the aerial parts of Moroccan CS and CM were investigated. Antioxidant activity has been assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radicals and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity has been assessed using an in vitro model. Moreover, mineral and phenolic contents of CS and CM were analyzed. The extracts of both species exhibited potent antioxidant activity in all used systems and possess strong inhibitory effect towards α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.95 ± 0.14 to 14.58 ± 1.26 μg/mL) and significant inhibitory potential against α-amylase (IC50: 217.10 ± 0.15 to 886.10 ± 0.10 μg/mL). Furthermore, the result showed high levels of phenolic content and unexpectedly some higher levels of mineral content in CS. The results suggest that the phenolic rich extracts of CS and CM may have a therapeutic potential against diseases associated with oxidative stress and may be useful in the management of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. PMID:28116307

  14. Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

    2013-04-01

    A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro

  15. Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  16. Lithium and valproate modulate antioxidant enzymes and prevent ouabain-induced oxidative damage in an animal model of mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornada, Luciano K; Valvassori, Samira S; Steckert, Amanda V; Moretti, Morgana; Mina, Francielle; Ferreira, Camila L; Arent, Camila O; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we assessed the oxidative stress parameters in rats submitted to an animal model of mania induced by ouabain (OUA), which included the use of lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA). Li and VPA treatment reversed and prevented the OUA-induced damage in these structures, however, this effect varies depending on the brain region and treatment regimen. Moreover, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was found to be increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain of OUA-administered rats. Li and VPA modulated SOD and CAT activities in OUA-subjected rats in both experimental models. Our results support the notion that Li and VPA exert antioxidant-like properties in the brain of rats submitted to animal model of mania induced by ouabain.

  17. Evaluation of total antioxidant level of saliva in modulation of caries occurrence and progression in children

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Reddy Banda; Garima Singh; Vandana Markam

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recent studies have implicated a direct relation between dental caries and salivary total antioxidant level (TAL), which can be suggested as an indicator (either harmful or protective) for susceptibility of individuals for dental caries. Aim: To evaluate the total antioxidant level (TAL) in unstimulated saliva of children, and to correlate the TAL with caries experience and BMI (body mass index). Settings and Design: 60 children, aged 6-12 yrs, were randomly selected for the study. T...

  18. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activity of bioactive peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of skin from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Jierong; De Gobba, Cristian; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp skin pieces were homogenized in water and hydrolyzed by Alcalase®, collagenase, proteinase K, and/or trypsin at their optimum conditions. Samples were taken at various degrees of hydrolysis and were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory...... activities. Alcalase and collagenase completely hydrolyzed the skin with different rates, and released peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity. These activities increased linearly with increasing degrees of hydrolysis. Subsequent incubation of the collagenase...... hydrolysates with trypsin slightly increased the antioxidant activity. Proteinase K, although only partially hydrolyzing the skin, also catalyzed the release of peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities. These results show that skin by-products from grass carp can...

  19. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  20. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferase or histone deacetylase protects retinal pigment epithelial cells from DNA damage induced by oxidative stress by the stimulation of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Paulina; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

    2016-04-05

    Epigenetic modifications influence DNA damage response (DDR). In this study we explored the role of DNA methylation and histone acetylation in DDR in cells challenged with acute or chronic oxidative stress. We used retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19), which natively are exposed to oxidative stress due to permanent exposure to light and high blood flow. We employed a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor - RG108 (RG), or a histone deacetylase inhibitor - valproic acid (VA). ARPE-19 cells were exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide, an acute oxidative stress inducer, or glucose oxidase, which slowly liberates low-doses of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of glucose, creating chronic conditions. VA and RG reduced level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in ARPE-19 cells in normal condition and in oxidative stress. This protective effect of VA and RG was associated with the up-regulated expression of antioxidant enzyme genes: CAT, GPx1, GPx4, SOD1 and SOD2. RG decreased the number of cells in G2/M checkpoint in response to chronic oxidative stress. Neither RG nor VA changed the DNA repair or apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Therefore, certain epigenetic manipulations may protect ARPE-19 cells from detrimental effects of oxidative stress by modulation of antioxidative enzyme gene expression, which may be further explored in pharmacological studies on oxidative stress-related eye diseases.

  1. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.

  2. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: contardo@igb-berlin.de; Klingelmann, Eva [Technische Universitaet Berlin/Berlin Institute of Technology, Department of Ecology, Chair of Soil Protection, Salzufer 12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: eva.klingelmann@TU-Berlin.de; Wiegand, Claudia [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt University Berlin, Faculty of Biology, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: cwiegand@igb-berlin.de

    2009-01-15

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L{sup -1} pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using {sup 14}C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from log P{sub ow}. Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. - Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the active ingredient, glyphosate, to Lumbriculus variegatus regarding accumulation potential and enzymatic responses.

  3. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant responses of alfalfa leaves and roots under different salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, G; Amjad, Leyla; Nosrati, H

    2013-06-01

    The effect of increasing NaCl concentrations on biomass, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (ASC), proline and total thiol, and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Gara-Yonjeh) were investigated. The dry weights of roots and shoots with increasing NaCl concentrations decreased progressively, and the strongest toxicity was detected at NaCl treatment of 200 mM. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the leaves increased gradually up to NaCl concentrations of 100, while the higher concentration of NaCl reduced SOD activity in both leaves and roots. The maximum levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were increased at 150 mM and 100 mM NaCl in leaves and roots of Gara-Yonjeh, respectively. Peroxidase (POD) activity in roots of Gara-Yonjeh increased (82% at 200 mM) by salinity, while it decreased (43% at 200 mM) in leaves. In contrast, catalase (CAT) activity increased (84% at 200 mM) in leaves, and decreased (57% at 200 mM) in the roots of Gara-Yonjeh. Electrophoresis analysis suggested that different patterns in SOD, CAT and POD isoenzymes depend on NaCl concentrations, and the staining intensities of these isoforms are supported the results obtained from the spectrophotometric determinations. In POD and CAT, activity of isoform III was detected at all concentrations, by a "low-high-low" pattern, with the maximum activity at 50 mM of NaCl. Results imply that the function of antioxidant systems in higher NaCl concentration is responsible for the salt tolerance observed in Gara-Yonjeh.

  4. Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, T L; Herrero, M; Ibáñez, E

    2013-05-03

    In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-β-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in vitro assays, whereas the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was employed to estimate the total phenols content. On the other hand, extracts were chemically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that EAE enhanced the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity compared to a non-enzymatic control. PLE extracts presented higher amount of phenols and antioxidant capacity than enzyme-assisted extracts, reaching the highest values on water extracts (193.18mggallicacid/gextract and EC50=6.81μg/mL). Among the bioactive phenolic compounds identified in lemon balm, rosmarinic acid was the main component, although other important compounds were also identified, such as caffeic acid derivatives (salvianolic acids, lithospermic acid) and rosmarinic acid derivatives (rosmarinic acid hexoside, sagerinic acid, sulfated rosmarinic acid). The present study confirms that EAE and PLE can be considered alternative methods for the extraction of natural compounds with biological activity from natural sources.

  5. Fermented wheat aleurone induces enzymes involved in detoxification of carcinogens and in antioxidative defence in human colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Katrin; Borowicki, Anke; Scharlau, Daniel; Glei, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Dietary fibre is fermented by the human gut flora resulting mainly in the formation of SCFA, for example, acetate, propionate and butyrate. SCFA, in particular butyrate, may be important for secondary cancer prevention by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell growth of cancer cells, thereby inhibiting the promotion and/or progression of cancer. Furthermore, SCFA could also act on primary cancer prevention by activation of detoxifying and antioxidative enzymes. We investigated the effects of fermented wheat aleurone on the expression of genes involved in stress response and toxicity, activity of drug-metabolising enzymes and anti-genotoxic potential. Aleurone was digested and fermented in vitro to obtain samples that reflect the content of the colon. HT29 cells and colon epithelial stripes were incubated with the resulting fermentation supernatant fractions (fs) and effects on mRNA expression of CAT, GSTP1 and SULT2B1 and enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Fermented aleurone was also used to study the protection against H2O2-induced DNA damage in HT29 cells. The fs of aleurone significantly induced the mRNA expression of CAT, GSTP1 and SULT2B1 (HT29) and GSTP1 (epithelial stripes), respectively. The enzyme activities of GST (HT29) and CAT (HT29, epithelial stripes) were also unambiguously increased (1.4- to 3.7-fold) by the fs of aleurone. DNA damage induced by H2O2 was significantly reduced by the fs of aleurone after 48 h, whereupon no difference was observed compared with the faeces control. In conclusion, fermented aleurone is able to act on primary prevention by inducing mRNA expression and the activity of enzymes involved in detoxification of carcinogens and antioxidative defence.

  6. The ameliorating effects of vitamin E on hepatic antioxidant system and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in fenvalerate-exposed iodine-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Caglayan, Aydan; Hincal, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of vitamin E (VE) on hepatic antioxidant system and drug-metabolizing enzymes in fenvalerate (FEN)-exposed iodine-deficient (ID) Wistar rats. ID was produced by perchlorate containing drinking water. VE was introduced by a loading dose of 100 mg/kg/d, i.g. for the first three days in the last week of feeding period; then with a single maintenance dose of 40 mg/kg on the 4th day. During last week, FEN groups (F) received 100 mg/kg/d, i.p. FEN. VE alone did not significantly affect thyroid hormones and antioxidant parameters; however, significantly increased total cytochrome P450 (38%) and cytochrome b5 levels (36%). In all ID groups, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels increased markedly, but remained at control level in vitamin E plus FEN receiving iodine-deficient group (IDVF) group. Glutathione peroxidase activity showed marked increases in F (19%) and FEN-exposed iodine-deficient group (IDF, 48%) groups. FEN treatment significantly increased total cytochrome P450 (28%) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (36%), as well as 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (120%), 7-penthoxyresorufin O-deethylase (139%) and glutathione S-transferase (15%) activities and decreased total glutathione concentrations (28%) versus control. Overall results suggest that vitamin E has ameliorating effects on the measured parameters in ID and/or FEN exposure.

  7. Investigation of Comparative Regulation on Antioxidant Enzyme System under Copper Treatment and Drought Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice CETİNKYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to present the responses of drought-sensitive ‘Shemal’ and drought-tolerant ‘71MAY69’ maize cultivars under drought condition (20% Polyethylene glycol, -0.40 MPa and three different copper concentrations (0.5 mM, 1 mM, 1.5 mM uSO4.5H2O for 5 days to determine the enzymatic responses of copper treatment in maize leaves. Copper treatments alone did not change stomatal conductance, relative water content, malondialdehyde, proline, hydrogen peroxide content and abscisic acid level according to control groups.  Combined treatment (drought and copper alleviated the damage of PEG- induced drought stress in maize leaves. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutatione reductase (GR activity increased and glutathione -S transferase (GST activity decreased, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity did not change under drought stress in the tolerant cultivar. SOD, CAT and APX were decreased and GST activities were increased while GR did not change in ‘Shemal’. Also SOD, APX and CAT activity increased by copper treatment alone in both cultivars. Otherwise combined treatment increased SOD, APX and CAT activity at all concentrations, but GR and GST activity increased only by (PEG+1.5 mM treatment when compared with PEG treatment alone in sensitive ones. As a result, exogenous copper alleviated drought stress, while it induced an oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities differently from drought tolerance. Copper tolerance in maize is not a common response of its defense mechanism because of different response to copper and drought in the same cultivar. 

  8. Inoculation effects of endophytic fungus (Piriformospora indica on antioxidant enzyme activity and wheat tolerance under phosphorus deficiency in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rahmani Iranshahi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Information about the effect of endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat response to stress conditions is very limited and sometime contradictory. This greenhouse research was conducted in a hydroponic culture to investigate the inoculation effects of mycorrizhal-like fungus, P. indica, on enzymatic and non–enzymatic defense mechanisms of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Niknejad at two levels of phosphorus (P supply (deficient and sufficient. The experiment was factorial, based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Sixty days after applying the treatments, plants were harvested and shoot dry weight and concentration of P, iron, zinc and activity of antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX and chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids contents were measured. Results showed that P-deficiency reduced shoot dry weight and concentration of P and iron and increased concentration of zinc in the shoots. Inoculation of wheat roots with P. indica in P-deficiency condition resulted in significant increasing of shoot dry weight and P concentration. Also, chlorophyll a, b contents and concentration of carotenoids in P-deficiency condition was significantly higher than P-sufficiency condition. Inoculation of P. indica to wheat roots decreased chorophyll a, b contents and concentration of carotenoids. Inoculation of P. indica in P-deficiency condition significantly decreased the activity of GPX and significantly increased the activity of CAT and GPX in P-sufficiency condition. In general, inoculation of fungus P. indica to wheat plant could be recommended as an effective method to alleviate deleterious effects of P-deficiency and increase its tolerance to this stress.

  9. Histological changes and antioxidant enzyme activity in signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) associated with sub-acute peracetic acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupani, Latifeh; Zuskova, Eliska; Stara, Alzbeta; Velisek, Josef; Kouba, Antonin

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a powerful disinfectant recently adopted as a therapeutic agent in aquaculture. A concentration of 10 mg L(-1) PAA effectively suppresses zoospores of Aphanomyces astaci, the agent of crayfish plague. To aid in establishing safe therapeutic guideline, the effects of PAA on treated crayfish were investigated through assessment of histological changes and oxidative damage. Adult female signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (n = 135) were exposed to 2 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1) of PAA for 7 days followed by a 7 day recovery period in clean water. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in gill and hepatopancreas after three days exposure to 10 mg L(1) PAA than in the group treated with 2 mg L(-1) PAA and a control in only clean water. Catalase activity in gill and hepatopancreas remained unaffected by both exposures. Glutathione reductase was significantly decreased in gill of 10 mg L(-1) PAA treated crayfish and increased in group exposed to 2 mg L(-1) compared to control after 7 days exposure. Antioxidant enzyme activity in exposed groups returned to control values after recovery period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and antennal gland showed slight damage in crayfish treated with 2 mg L(-1) of PAA compared to the control group. The extent and frequency of histological alterations were more pronounced in animals exposed to 10 mg L(-1). The gill was the most affected organ, infiltrated by granular hemocytes and displaying malformations of lamella tips and disorganization of epithelial cells. After a 7 day recovery period, the infiltrating cells in affected tissues of the exposed crayfish began to return to normal levels. Results suggested that the given concentrations could be applied to signal crayfish against crayfish plague agent in aquaculture; however, further studies are required for safe use.

  10. Alteration of antioxidant enzymes and impairment of DNA in the SiO2 nanoparticles exposed zebra fish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, R; Kavitha, P; Kanipandian, N; Arun, S; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2013-07-01

    The incorporation of nanoparticles in industrial and biomedical applications has increased significantly in recent years, yet their hazardous and toxic effects have not been studied extensively. While standard toxicological test methods are generally capable of detecting the toxic effects, the choice of relevant methods for nanomaterials is still discussed. Among the various oxide nanomaterials, silica nanoparticles are widely used in biological applications that include nano-medicine. But studies on adverse effects of silica nanoparticle exposure to fish remain unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the oxidative toxic effects of silicon dioxide nanoparticles using fish model. The size of the SiO2 nanoparticles was between 68 and 100 nm which was confirmed by X-ray diffractometer, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The zebra fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (5 and 2.5 mg/L) of characterized SiO2 nanoparticles for a period of 7 days. After 7 days, SiO2 nanoparticle-treated fishes were sacrificed, and tissues such as liver, muscle and gill were dissected out for the analysis of antioxidant enzymes and DNA fragmentation. The DNA profiles were analysed in the tissues of zebra fish that treated with SiO2 nanoparticles. Tissues of fish from clean water were used as control, and DNA profiles were analysed. It is found that DNA from control tissues was intact, whereas the tissues treated with SiO2 were all fragmented. SiO2 nanoparticle-mediated antioxidant enzymes activities, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH, in the tissues of zebra fish were measured. The results revealed that alteration of antioxidant enzymes due to SiO2 nanoparticle can be considered as a biomarker to SiO2-mediated oxidative stress in biological samples.

  11. Cobalt and manganese stress in the microalga Pavlova viridis (Prymnesiophyceae): Effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of marine environment has become an issue of major concern in recent years. Serious environmental pollution by heavy metals results from their increasing utilization in industrial processes and because most heavy metals are transported into the marine environment and accumulated without decomposition. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects on growth, pigments, lipid peroxidation, and some antioxidant enzyme activities of marine microalga Pavlova. viridis, in response to elevated concentrations of cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn), especially with regard to the involvement of antioxidative defences against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. In response to Co2+, lipid peroxidation was enhanced compared to the control, as an indication of the oxidative damage caused by metal concentration assayed in the microalgal cells but not Mn2+. Exposure of P. viridis to the two metals caused changes in enzyme activities in a different manner, depending on the metal assayed: after Co2+ treatments, total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was irregular, although it was not significantly affected by Mn2+ exposure. Co2+ and Mn2+ stimulated the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), whereas, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed a remarkable increase in activity in response to Co2+ treatments and decreased gradually with Mn2+ concentration, up to 50 μmol/L, and then rose very rapidly, reaching to about 38.98% at 200 μmol/L Mn2+. These results suggest that an activation of some antioxidant enzymes was enhanced, to counteract the oxidative stress induced by the two metals at higher concentration.

  12. A Novel Dietary Supplement Containing Multiple Phytochemicals and Vitamins Elevates Hepatorenal and Cardiac Antioxidant Enzymes in the Absence of Significant Serum Chemistry and Genomic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elida Bulku

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart, serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X = daily human dose diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST/LDH for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant

  13. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  14. Effects of exogenous vitamin E supplementation on the levels of oxidants and antioxidants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Daga; Rashmi Chhabra; Bhavneesh Sharma; T K Mishra

    2003-02-01

    Oxidative stress has been recognized as a central feature of smoke induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant enzymes is also an established fact in these patients. But studies in regard to stable COPD patients and effect of vitamin E supplementation are lacking. Thirty patients with COPD were included in the study. Their baseline clinical examination, spirometry, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), alpha-tocopherol and red blood cell superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Twenty healthy non-smokers who were matched for age and sex served as controls. All the above parameters were repeated after 12 weeks of supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin E daily. The mean malondialdehyde levels in the patients at baseline were higher than controls (5.91 ± 1.23 nmol/ml vs 4.55 ± 1.51 nmol/ml, = 0.001), so also was plasma alpha-tocopherol levels ( < 0.001), while SOD levels were lower in the patients compared to controls (1692 ± 259 units g/Hb vs 2451 ± 131 units g/Hb, < 0.001). Exogenous vitamin E (400 IU per day) supplementation did not bring about any significant change in plasma alpha-tocopherol and SOD levels. The Pearson’s co-efficient of correlation between the levels of MDA, vitamin E, SOD; and spirometric measurements were not significant either on day 1 or after 12 weeks of vitamin E supplementation. The present study shows that initially the plasma lipid peroxide (MDA) levels are high and antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol and SOD) are low in patients with COPD. Exogenous supplementation with vitamin E does not have any significant effect on the spirometric measurements though it brings down the levels of MDA showing attenuation of further damage. However, inclusion of larger number of patients and supplementation with vitamin E for longer periods may throw more light on free radical injury and protective effects of antioxidants.

  15. Effects of Exogenous Silicon on Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Chloroplast of Cucumber Seedlings Under Excess Manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jian-peng; SHI Qing-hua; WANG Xiu-feng

    2009-01-01

    Effects of silicon on photosynthetic parameters and antioxidant enzymes of chloroplast in cucumber seedlings under excess Mn were studied. Compared with the control, excess Mn significantly inhibited net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance, as well as the maximum yield of the photosystem Ⅱ photochemical reactions (Fv/Fm) and the quantum yield of photosysytem Ⅱelectron transport(φPSⅡ),application of Si reversed the negative effects of excess Mn. In the further investigation, it was obtained that application of Si significantly increased the activities of enzymes related with ascorbate-glutathione cycle including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) in cucumber chloroplast under excess Mn, this could be responsible for the lower accumulation of H2O2 and lower lipid peroxidation of chloroplast induced by Mn, and resulted in keeping higher photosynthesis.

  16. Effect of Different Nano-Zinc Levels in Dietary on Semen Quality, Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme and Expression of Copper Zinc Superoxide in Epididymis of Ram Lambs%纳米锌水平对公羊精液品质、抗氧化酶活性及附睾 Cu-ZnSOD 表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春香; 秦小伟; 郭丽娜; 张国林; 张建新; 任有蛇

    2015-01-01

    >附睾头>附睾尾;然而对照组的顺序为:附睾头>附睾体>附睾尾。50 mg·kg-1或100 mg·kg-1纳米锌组公羊附睾头和附睾体阳性信号的平均光密度显著高于对照组和150 mg·kg-1纳米锌(P<0.05)。精浆 Cu-ZnSOD 活性与精子密度、精子活力和精子质膜完整性呈正相关,与精子畸形率呈负相关。【结论】日粮添加50 mg·kg-1或100 mg·kg-1纳米锌可改善精液品质,提高精浆抗氧化能力,增加附睾中 Cu-ZnSOD 蛋白表达量。精浆 Cu-ZnSOD 活性可以作为检测精液品质优劣的指标在羊生产中应用。微量元素锌对精液品质影响调控的分子机理还需进一步深入研究。%[Objective] The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of nano-zinc supplementation in dietary on the semen quality parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzyme in seminal plasma and the expression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase in epididymis of ram lambs, and to analyze the correlation between semen quality parameters and the activities of antioxidant enzyme.[Method]Sixteen 9-month-old Jinzhong ram lambs with good health and approximate weight were randomly divided into 4 groups, fed with a basal diet with supplementation of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg·kg-1 DM nano-zinc, respectively. The experimental period was 90 d. Semen was collected on 78 d and 79 d in consecutive two days, samples of 100 µL fresh semen was used to analyze semen quality parameters, the rest of fresh semen sample was centrifuged at 2 000 r/min for 10 min, the supernatant (seminal plasma) was collected for measurement of the activities of copper zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total anti-oxidation competence. All rams were castrated for collection of epididymis caput, corpus and cauda at the end of experiment. Expression of Cu-ZnSOD protein in epididymis was detected and located by immunohistochemistry. The mean optical density was analyzed with Image Pro

  17. Effect of Turmeric and Carrot Seed Extracts on Serum Liver Biomarkers and Hepatic Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Total Antioxidant Status in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rezaei-Moghadam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pathogenic role of free radicals are well known in various metabolic diseases. They originate from internal and external sources of body. Essential roles of antioxidant defense system for cellular redox regulation and free radical scavenging activity were described in this study. Many in vitro investigations have shown that turmeric (TE and carrot seed extract (CSE exhibits to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potentials of ethanolic TE and CSE based on in vivo experiment in the rats. Methods: Animals were assigned to six groups: the 1st and 2nd groups were control groups and 2nd group received 0.2 ml dimethyl sulphoxide as vehicle treated group; other four experimental groups received different doses of TE (100, 200 mg/kg b.w. and CSE (200, 400 mg/kg b.w. by gavages, respectively for a period of one month. The indicators of oxidative stress, lipids peroxidation, markers of hepatocyte injury and biliary function markers were measured. Results: The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly stimulated in the hepatic tissue of treatment groups. The malondialdehyde contents of liver tissue were significantly reduced in the groups fed with TE and CSE. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, in treated groups were found to be significantly decreased, whereas albumin and total protein increased as compared to the control groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: this study showed that the regular intake of TE and CSE through the diet can improve antioxidant status and inhibit peroxidation activity in the liver tissue so that using these extracts may protect tissue oxidative stress.

  18. Response of testicular antioxidant enzymes to hexachlorocy—clohexane is species specific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LunaSamanta; G·B·N·Chainy

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To find out whether the response of testicular oxidative stess parameters to hexachlorocyclohexane(HCH)is species specific.Methods:In rats and mice(n=5in each group).HCHwas administered at a dose of 20mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 30daysin0.1ml of refined rgoundnut oil.The control groups received equal volume of the vehicle.Animals were sacrificed 24hours after the last injection and various oxidative stress parameters were measured immediately.Results:The level of both endogenous as well as FeSO4and ascorbic acid-stimulated lipid peroxidation was increased significantly in the HCH-treated rats,whereas the pattern was just the reverse in case of mice.Although the level of H2O2content increased inresponse to HCHinboth groups,a totally different trend was observed for the activity of the principal H2O2-metabolising emzyme,catalase,In case of rats,a significant decline inthe activity of catalase was recorded in response to HCH whereas a sharp augmentation in the enzyme activity was noticed im mice,Similarly,the decreased activity of superoxide dismutase observed in rast remained unaltered in mice.Conclusion:HCH induces oxidative stress in the testis of both rats and mice,However,the pattern of response of testicular oxidative stress parameters seems to be species specific.

  19. Effects of cadmium exposure on digestive enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Xuan, Ruijing; Li, Yingjun; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Qian; Wang, Lan

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on the activities of disaccharidases (sucrase, lactase, and maltase), amylase, trypsin, pepsase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the alimentary system of freshwater crabs Sinopotamon henanense were studied. Results showed that the enzyme activities in the stomach, intestine, and hepatopancreas changed with Cd concentration. In terms of digestive enzymes, Cd exposure had an inhibitory effect on the activities of the disaccharidases, amylase, and pepsase (only in the stomach). Significant induction of trypsin activity by Cd at a lower concentration was observed, but as Cd concentration increased, trypsin activity decreased. Maltase activity showed a slight recovery after inhibition by Cd. The activities of SOD and CAT increased initially and decreased subsequently. Cd significantly inhibited the activity of GPx. MDA content increased with increasing concentration of Cd. These results showed that acute Cd exposure led to harmful effects on the alimentary system of crabs, which are likely linked to Cd induced oxidative stress.

  20. ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF MAJORANA HORTENSIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniswamy Radha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals can be generated in the biological systems in the form of reactive oxygen species which are harmful and these are removed by the antioxidant system in the body. Antioxidants protect us from free radicals that cause tissue damage, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Plants are a rich source of antioxidants. In the present study, Majorana hortensis, commonly called majoram was chosen as the candidate plant to determine the antioxidant potential. The enzymic activity and non-enzymic levels of the fresh leaves was determined proving the plant to be a potent source of antioxidants.

  1. Metabolite profile, antioxidant capacity, and inhibition of digestive enzymes in infusions of peppermint (Mentha piperita) grown under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Pérez, Marely G; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2014-12-10

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) infusions represent an important source of antioxidants, which can be enhanced by inducing abiotic stress in plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of drought stress on peppermint cultivation as well as the metabolite profile, antioxidant capacity, and inhibition of digestive enzymes of resulting infusions. At 45 days after planting, irrigation was suppressed until 85 (control), 65, 35, 24, and 12% soil moisture (SM) was reached. The results showed that 35, 24, and 12% SM decreased fresh (20%) and dry (5%) weight. The 35 and 24% SM treatments significantly increased total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant capacity. Coumaric acid, quercetin, luteolin, and naringenin were detected only in some drought treatments; however, in these infusions, fewer amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. The 24 and 12% SM treatments slightly improved inhibition of pancreatic lipase and α-amylase activity. Therefore, induction of moderate water stress in peppermint is recommended to enhance its biological properties.

  2. Fermentation temperature affects the antioxidant activity of the enzyme-ripened sufu, an oriental traditional fermented product of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Hsin; Lai, Ying-Jang; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2011-07-01

    In this study, sufu, a Chinese traditional fermented product of soybean, was prepared by ripening salted tofu cubes in the mash of Aspergillus oryzae-fermented rice-soybean koji possessing various hydrolytic enzymes at 25°C, 37°C and 45°C. Antioxidant activity including 2,2-diphenyl-2-picylhydoxyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, Fe(2+)-chelating ability and reducing power exerted by the methanol extract of sufu was determined and compared with that of the non-fermented tofu extract. It was found that antioxidant activity of the sufu extracts was, generally, higher than the non-fermented tofu extract. Ripening temperature and the duration of ripening period affected the antioxidant activity of the sufu extracts. Taking into account of extraction yields, the sufu product ripened at 45°C for 16 days showed the most profound enhancement in the DPPH radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-iron-chelating ability, which is 3.4 and 11.5 folds, respectively, that noted with the non-fermented tofu.

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of the antioxidant enzymes biliverdin reductase and heme oxygenase-2 in human and pig gastric fundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpaert, Erwin E; Timmermans, Jean Pierre; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2002-04-01

    The intrinsic antioxidant capacities of the bile pigments biliverdin and bilirubin are increasingly recognized since both heme degradation products can exert beneficial cytoprotective effects due to their scavenging of oxygen free radicals and interaction with antioxidant vitamins. Several studies have been published on the localization of the carbon monoxide producing enzyme heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), which concomitantly generates biliverdin; histochemical data on the distribution of biliverdin reductase (BVR), converting biliverdin to bilirubin, are still very scarce in large mammals including humans. The present study revealed by means of immunohistochemistry the presence of BVR and HO-2 in mucosal epithelial cells and in the endothelium of intramural vessels of both human and porcine gastric fundus. In addition, co-labeling with the specific neural marker protein-gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) demonstrated that both BVR and HO-2 were present in all intrinsic nerve cell bodies of both submucous and myenteric plexuses, while double labeling with c-Kit antibody confirmed their presence in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Our results substantiate the hypothesis that BVR, through the production of the potent antioxidant bilirubin, might be an essential component of normal physiologic gastrointestinal defense in man and pig.

  4. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

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    El-Beltagi, Hossam E. S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vicia faba L. Giza 834 were exposed to γ-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He–Ne (632.8 nm or diode (650.0 nm laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He- Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy of γ-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of γ-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (3.9 μmol/g d.w. Laser treatment by He–Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P 2O2 content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (2.3 μmol/g d.w.. On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with γ-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with γ-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by γ-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of γ-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone.Semillas de Vicia faba L. Giza 834 fueron expuestas a γ-irradiación a dosis de 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 y 20.0 kGy y después expuesta a una radiación laser de He–Ne (632.8 nm o de diodo (650.0 nm durante 5 minutos. Las actividades de las enzimas POD, APOX, CAT, SOD y GST fueron favorecidas significativamente, y éstas alcanzaron un máximo a una dosis de 5.0 kGy para las enzimas

  5. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

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    Julin Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst and catalase (cat genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05 and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05. The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage.

  6. The enhancement of antioxidant compounds extracted from Thymus vulgaris using enzymes and the effect of extracting solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Alejandra; Martínez, María Eugenia; Soto, Carmen; Poirrier, Paola; Perez-Correa, Jose R; Vergara-Salinas, Jose R; Zúñiga, María Elvira

    2013-08-15

    We evaluate the total phenolic compounds (TPC) content and the antioxidant activity (AA) of extracts obtained from ground fresh thyme (FT) and depleted thyme (DT), a by-product of the process of essential oil extraction. In addition, enzymatic treatments were evaluated to improve the extraction yields of polyphenolic compounds from thyme. Extractions were performed using several solvents as methanol, ethanol, and water. Enzymes were applied prior to extraction or during the extraction process. The best results were obtained using a mixture of methanol and water, resulting in 2790 and 220 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L of TPC for FT and DT, respectively. A similar result was observed for AA. With regard to enzymatic treatment, application of Grindamyl CA 150 enzyme as a pre-treatment resulted in the production of an extract from DT with 614 mg TE (trolox equivalent)/L of AA, 70% more than the control, and an AA of 621 mg TE/L (74% more than the control sample) was obtained using Grindamyl CA 150 during the extraction process. These results suggest that enzymatic treatment is an interesting alternative for producing antioxidant extracts from DT.

  7. Effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in Pacific cod Gadus microcephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Shi, Xuehui; Liu, Yifan; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Sperm motility and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (Gr), and lipid peroxidation (measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were determined after the milt was stored at 4°C for 12 h, cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in 12% propylene glycol (PG), cryopreserved in 12% PG+0.1 mol/L trehalose, or cryopreserved in 12% PG spermatozoa but centrifuged to decant the supernatant prior to cryopreservation (only sperm cells were cryopreserved). After chilled storage or cryopreservation, the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were reduced in sperm cells and increased in seminal plasma in almost all treatments; sperm motility parameters were also decreased. However, the addition of trehalose into the cryoprotectant could significantly improve the postthaw sperm quality as revealed by the sperm average path velocity. This improvement might be attributed to the function of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chilled storage and cryopreservation had significant effects on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod.

  8. Antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms and neuropsychological outcomes in medulloblastoma survivors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, Julienne; Krull, Kevin R; Scheurer, Michael E; Liu, Wei; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Stovall, Marilyn; Merchant, Thomas E; Packer, Roger J; Robison, Leslie L; Okcu, M Fatih

    2012-08-01

    Psychological or neurocognitive impairment is often seen in medulloblastoma survivors after craniospinal radiation; however, significant variability in outcomes exists. This study investigated the role of antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms in moderating this outcome and hypothesized that patients who had polymorphisms associated with lower antioxidant enzyme function would have a higher occurrence of impairment. From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort, 109 medulloblastoma survivors and 143 siblings were identified who completed the CCSS Neurocognitive Questionnaire (NCQ) and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) and who provided buccal DNA samples. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination was used for SOD2 (rs4880), GPX1 (rs1050450), and GSTP1 (rs1695 and rs1138272) genotyping and PCR for GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions. Outcomes on NCQ and BSI-18 subscale scores were examined in association with genotypes and clinical factors, including age at diagnosis, sex, and radiation dose, using univariate and multivariate analysis of variance. Patients survivors across multiple domains, suggesting that this genotype may predispose patients for increased emotional late effects.

  9. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity of maize plants under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiancan; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen

    2010-06-01

    The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation, osmotic adjustment, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was studied in pot culture under temperature stress. The maize plants were placed in a sand and soil mixture under normal temperature for 6 weeks and then exposed to five different temperature treatments (5 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 40 degrees C) for 1 week. AM symbiosis decreased membrane relative permeability and malondialdehyde content in leaves and roots. The contents of soluble sugar content and proline in roots were higher, but leaf proline content was lower in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants. AM colonization increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase in leaves and roots. The results indicate that the AM fungus is capable of alleviating the damage caused by temperature stress on maize plants by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and membrane permeability and increasing the accumulation of osmotic adjustment compounds and antioxidant enzyme activity. Consequently, arbuscular mycorrhiza formation highly enhanced the extreme temperature tolerance of maize plant, which increased host biomass and promoted plant growth.

  10. Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-03-01

    Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (α-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and α-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%).

  11. Changes of Proline Content,Activity,and Active Isoforms of Antioxidative Enzymes in Two Alfalfa Cultivars Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-shan; HAN Jian-guo

    2009-01-01

    The plants of two alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.)cultivars differing in salt tolerance were subjected to three salt treatments,70,140,and 210 mM NaCl for 7 days.Root,shoot,and leaf growths were inhibited by increased salt treatments in both cultivars,and at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments,Zhongmu 1 had significantly higher root,shoot,and leaf dry weights per plant than Defi.The malondialdehyde(MDA)accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1,indicating a higher degree of lipid peroxidation at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments.The changes in the activity and active isoforms of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase(SOD,EC 1.15.1.1),catalase(CAT,EC 1.11.1.6),peroxidase(POD,EC 1.11.1.7),and ascorbate peroxidase(APOX,EC 1.11.1.11),accumulation of free proline,and rate of lipid peroxidation in leaves of two alfalfa cultivars were also investigated.After stress,the activity and active isoforms of antioxidative enzymes were altered and the extent of alteration varied between the cultivar Deft and Zhongmu 1.The proline accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1 at 210 mM salt treatment.This indicated that proline accumulation may be the result,instead of the cause,of salt tolerance.

  12. Effects of osmotic stress on antioxidant enzymes activities in leaf discs of PSAG12-IPT modified gerbera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Qi-xian; BAO Zhi-yi; ZHU Zhu-jun; QIAN Qiong-qiu; MAO Bi-zeng

    2007-01-01

    Leaf senescence is often caused by water deficit and the chimeric gene PSAG12-IPT is an auto-regulated gene delaying leaf senescence. Using in vitro leaf discs culture system, the changes of contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, soluble protein and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated during leaf senescence of PSAG12-IPT modified gerbera induced by osmotic stress compared with the control plant (wild type). Leaf discs were incubated in 20%, 40% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6 000 nutrient solution for 20 h under continuous light [130 μmol/(m2·s)]. The results showed that the contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids and soluble protein were decreased by osmotic stress with the decrease being more pronounced at 40% PEG, but that, at the same PEG concentration the decrease in the transgenic plants was significantly lower than that in the control plant. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX),guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) were stimulated by PEG treatment. However, the increases were higher in PSAG12-IPT transgenic plants than in the control plants, particularly at 40% PEG treatment. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS content) was increased by PEG treatment with the increase being much lower in transgenic plant than in the control plant.It could be concluded that the increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, CAT, APX, GPX and DHAR were responsible for the delay of leaf senescence induced by osmotic stress.

  13. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction, Purification, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Zhou, Xinghai

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides (ABP) were extracted by complex enzyme-assisted extraction methodology. The following were optimal conditions for the extraction of crude ABP: complex enzyme amount, 2.2%; temperature, 62°C; time, 3 h; and pH, 4. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude ABP was 6.87%. The crude ABP was purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one fraction-namely, ABP-1-was produced. The ABP-1 contained 93.67% carbohydrate, 1.46% protein, and 0.62% uronic acid. The constituent monosaccharides were predominantly glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose. The antioxidant activities of ABP-1 were investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, its ferric-reducing activity power, and the reducing power assay. At a concentration of 1.2 mg/mL, ABP-1 seemed to possess good free radical scavenging activity, with a scavenging value of about 56%. The results indicate that ABP-1 has good antioxidant activity.

  14. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  15. Effect of vitamin E (Tri E® on antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage in rats following eight weeks exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlan Musalmah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise is beneficial to health, but during exercise the body generates reactive oxygen species (ROS which are known to result in oxidative stress. The present study analysed the effects of vitamin E (Tri E® on antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (Cat activity and DNA damage in rats undergoing eight weeks exercise. Methods Twenty four Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 320-370 gm were divided into four groups; a control group of sedentary rats which were given a normal diet, second group of sedentary rats with oral supplementation of 30 mg/kg/d of Tri E®, third group comprised of exercised rats on a normal diet, and the fourth group of exercised rats with oral supplementation of 30 mg/kg/d of Tri E®. The exercising rats were trained on a treadmill for 30 minutes per day for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken before and after 8 weeks of the study to determine SOD, GPx, Cat activities and DNA damage. Results SOD activity decreased significantly in all the groups compared to baseline, however both exercised groups showed significant reduction in SOD activity as compared to the sedentary groups. Sedentary control groups showed significantly higher GPx and Cat activity compared to baseline and exercised groups. The supplemented groups, both exercised and non exercised groups, showed significant decrease in Cat activity as compared to their control groups with normal diet. DNA damage was significantly higher in exercising rats as compared to sedentary control. However in exercising groups, the DNA damage in supplemented group is significantly lower as compared to the non-supplemented group. Conclusions In conclusion, antioxidant enzymes activity were generally reduced in rats supplemented with Tri E® probably due to its synergistic anti-oxidative defence, as evidenced by the decrease in DNA damage in Tri E® supplemented exercise group.

  16. CHOLESTEROL ESTERASE ENZYME INHIBITORY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES OF CAMELLIA SINENSIS (L. KUNTZE. USING IN VITRO MODELS

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    Pradeep Kumar et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to evaluate the in vitro cholesterol esterase enzyme inhibitory and in vitro antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of the leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.. Phytochemical screening of the extract shows the presence of flavonoids, phenolics and terpenoids. The extract shows ability to inhibit the enzyme with IC50 (82.46±0.74µg/ml where as that of standard, Orlistat (24.15±0.59µg/ml. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were also assessed by using the methods, IC50 values for Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (396.83±0.83µg/ml, whereas for standard curcumin (260.38±0.66µg/ml, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (47.04±2.26µg/ml and for quercetin (70.99±1.31µg/ml. Moreover, the extract was found to scavenge the superoxide with 50% inhibition at 308.17±23.25µg/ml and standard ascorbic acid at 225.08±2.44µg/ml, IC50 for ferrous chelating ability assay (44.12±4.63µg/ml and of ascorbic acid (47.25±.89µg/ml. Total content of flavonoids present in 1mg of extract was 19.8±0.11 µg quercetin equivalents/mg. Results indicated that the extract shows potential bioactive compounds which might have a beneficial impact on diseases related to cholesterol synthesis and showed potential antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.

  17. Influence of bacterial N-acyl-homoserinelactones on growth parameters, pigments, antioxidative capacities and the xenobiotic phase II detoxification enzymes in barley and yam bean

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    Christine eGoetz-Roesch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria are able to communicate with each other and sense their environment in a population density dependent mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS. N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs are the QS signalling compounds of Gram-negative bacteria which are frequent colonizers of rhizospheres. While cross-kingdom signalling and AHL-dependent gene expression in plants has been confirmed, the responses of enzyme activities in the eukaryotic host upon AHLs are unknown. Since AHL are thought to be used as so-called plant boosters or strengthening agents, which might change their resistance towards radiation and/or xenobiotic stress, we have examined the plants’ pigment status and their antioxidative and detoxifying capacities upon AHL treatment. Because the yield of a crop plant should not be negatively influenced, we have also checked for growth and root parameters.We investigated the influence of three different AHLs, namely N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL, N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL and N-decanoyl- homoserine lactone (C10-HSL on two agricultural crop plants. The AHL-effects on Hordeum vulgare (L. as an example of a monocotyledonous crop and on the tropical leguminous crop plant Pachyrhizus erosus (L were compared. While plant growth and pigment contents in both plants showed only small responses to the applied AHLs, AHL treatment triggered tissue- and compound-specific changes in the activity of important detoxification enzymes. The activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR in barley shoots after C10-HSL treatment for instance increased up to 384% of control plant levels, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in barley roots was decreased down to 23% of control levels upon C6-HSL treatment. Other detoxification enzymes reacted similarly within this range, with interesting clusters of positive or negative answers towards AHL treatment. In general the changes on the enzyme level were more severe in barley than in yam bean which might be due to the different

  18. Circulatory levels of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in Indian patients with generalized and localized vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rehan; Satyam, Abhigyan; Gupta, Somesh; Sharma, Vinod K; Sharma, Alpana

    2009-10-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired skin disease, characterized by white areas on the skin due to loss of functional melanocytes. The pathogenesis of the disease is still unclear. Published data show the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of vitiligo. A total of 30 vitiligo patients and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. We estimated serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamins E and C, total antioxidant activity and whole blood levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in vitiligo patients and controls. We found significantly higher levels of MDA and significantly lower levels of SOD, GPx, vitamins C and E and total antioxidant activity in vitiligo patients compared with controls. This study is a maiden attempt to report on antioxidant parameters of both generalized/localized-type Indian vitiligo patients. Our results confirmed that oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo and cause melanocyte damage in vitiligo.

  19. Chemomodulatory action of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) on skin and forestomach papillomagenesis, enzymes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant status in murine model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B; Kale, R K

    2008-12-01

    The chemopreventive effect of different doses of test diet of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Fennel) seeds was examined on DMBA-induced skin and B(a)P-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Fennel seeds exhibiting a significant reduction in the skin and the forestomach tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to the control group. Further, biochemical assays showed a significant increase in the content/activities of phase I enzymes especially in the case of 6% test diet. A concomitant increase in the activities of the phase II enzymes were observed with all the doses of test diet under study. A significant enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were observed especially at 4% and 6% test diets of Fennel. Glyoxalase I activity and the content of reduced glutathione were significantly elevated. Expectedly, the levels of peroxidative damage along with lactate dehydrogenase activity, exhibited a significant reduction at all three doses of test diets. These findings were indicative of chemopreventive potential of Fennel against carcinogenesis.

  20. Morin hydrate attenuates the acrylamide-induced imbalance in antioxidant enzymes in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahendra Pal; Jakhar, Rekha; Kang, Sun Chul

    2015-10-01

    Liver diseases are among the most serious health issues nowadays. Hepatocellular carcinoma, one of the most lethal types of cancer worldwide, can be caused by chemically-induced oxidative stress. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects of morin hydrate (MH) against acrylamide (AA)-induced hepatotoxicity in male ICR mice. The mice were randomly allocated into 4 groups [the control, the group subcutaneously injected with AA alone (50 mg/kg body weight), the group subcutaneously injected with AA (50 mg/kg body weight) and MH (5 mg/kg body weight) and the group subcutaneously injected with AA (50 mg/kg body weight) and MH (15 mg/kg body weight) for 5 consecutive days]. Histopathological evaluations were performed and the levels of serum hepatic enzymes were analyzed to determine initial liver injury, and the mice in the AA-treated groups were compared with the mice receiving no treatment and with the mice administered MH in combination with AA. Furthermore, oxidative stress, hepatic inflammation and the levels of DNA damage-related markers were evaluated to determine the extent of liver damage induced by AA within a short-term period. The subcutaneous administration of AA induced severe hepatic injury, and combined treatment with AA and MH resulted in a significant improvement in all evaluated parameters. This recovery was most obvious in the group receiving AA and 15 mg/kg body weight dose of MH. The findings of our study demonstrated that MH protected mice from severe hepatic injury induced by AA. Moreover, MH is a natural polyphenolic compound, and thus it has potential for use in the treatment of severe liver diseases, in place of many synthetic drugs.

  1. Adverse Effect of H2O2 Change on Morphology, Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability and Antioxidant Enzyme in Root of Dianthus Chinensis L. under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-qin He

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dianthus Chinensis L. is a salt-tolerant ornamental plant. Root is the first and critical part of plant to encounter soli salinity. In order to elucidate H2O2 impact on root morphology and mitochondrial permeability transition as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes in root ofDianthus Chinensis L., we treated seedling with H2O2 and DMTU under NaCl. The results revealed that change of H2O2 level under NaCl would negatively influence the root growth, as well as lower the value of mitochodrial membrane absorbance at 540 nm and the ratio of Cyt c/a. Meanwhile, SOD and POD under NaCl plus H2O2 and NaCl plus DMTU were far lower than those under NaCl alone.

  2. H2O2 Distribution and its Relationship with Antioxidant Enzymes during Germination in Dianthus Chinensis L. under Long-Term Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-qin He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dianthus chinensis L. is a very ornamental plant and widely used in landscaping. It can be tolerant to some level of salt stress. In order to study H2O2 distribution and activities of antioxidant enzymes under salt stress, seeds of Dianthus chinensis L. were treated with different NaCl concentrations. The results suggested that H2O2 initially produced in root and then transferred to leaf via stem xylem and leaf vein during seed germination under long-term salt stress. Same phenomena were observed in seedlings under short-term salt stress. However, the distribution varied with time under different NaCl. H2O2 was quickly scavenged with 100 mM NaCl. POD and CAT obviously dropped, as well as SOD significantly rose under NaCl. In the meantime, APX and GR seemed to be no associated with salt stress.

  3. Aluminium oxide nanoparticles induce mitochondrial-mediated oxidative stress and alter the expression of antioxidant enzymes in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshatwi, Ali A; Subbarayan, Periasamy Vaiyapuri; Ramesh, E; Al-Hazzani, Amal A; Alsaif, Mohammed A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman A

    2013-01-01

    An urgent need for toxicological studies on aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al(2) [Formula: see text]NPs) has arisen from their rapidly emerging range of applications in the food and agricultural sectors. Despite the widespread use of nanoscale aluminium and its composites in the food industry, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activities of Al(2) [Formula: see text]NPs (ANPs) and their impact on human health. In this preliminary study, the effects of ANPs on metabolic stress in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were analysed. The results showed dose-dependent effects, including cellular toxicity. The mitochondrial membrane potential in the hMSCs decreased with increasing ANP concentrations after 24 h of exposure. The expression levels of oxidative stress-responsive enzymes were monitored by RT-PCR. The expression levels of CYP1A and POR were up-regulated in response to ANPs, and a significant down-regulation in the expression of the antioxidant enzyme SOD was observed. Further, dose-dependent changes in the mRNA levels of GSTM3, GPX and GSR were noted. These findings suggest that the toxicity of ANPs in hMSCs may be mediated through an increase in oxidative stress. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the nanotoxicological effects of ANPs on hMSCs, which will be useful for nanotoxicological indexing.

  4. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Alleviated the Inhibition of Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Iron-Deficient Chinese Cabbage(Brassica chinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Fei; WANG Xiu-feng; SHI Qing-hua; WANG Mei-ling; YANG Feng-juan; GAO Qing-hai

    2008-01-01

    The effects of exogenous nitric oxide(NO)on plant growth,chlorophyll contents,photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters as well as lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Chinese cabbage plants exposed to iron(Fe)deficiency.Iron deficiency led to serious chlorosis in Chinese cabbage leaves,and resulted in significant decrease in plant growth,photosynthetic pigments,net photosynthetic rate,Fv/Fm,ΦPsⅡand activities of antioxidant enzymes,and increase in lipid peroxidation.While treatment with SNP,a NO donor,it could revert the iron deficiency symptoms,increased photosynthetic rate as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes,and protected membrane from lipid peroxidation,as a result,the growth inhibition of Chinese cabbage by Fe deficiency was alleviated.

  5. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Shim, K S

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  6. Oxidative stress as a risk factor for osteoporosis in elderly Mexicans as characterized by antioxidant enzymes

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    Correa-Muñoz Elsa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress (OxS has recently been linked with osteoporosis; however, we do not know the influence of OxS as an independent risk factor for this disease. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 94 subjects ≥60 years of age, 50 healthy and 44 with osteoporosis. We measured total antioxidant status, plasma lipid peroxides, antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and calculated the SOD/GPx ratio. Bone mineral density was obtained at the peripheral DXA in calcaneus using a portable Norland Apollo Densitometer®. Osteoporosis was considered when subjects had a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for young adults. Results GPx antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the group of subjects with osteoporosis in comparison with the group of healthy subjects (p p p = 0.034. Conclusion Our findings suggest that OxS is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis linked to increase of SOD/GPx ratio.

  7. Biogenic nanoparticle-mediated augmentation of seed germination, growth, and antioxidant level of Eruca sativa mill. varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushahra, Jyoti; Bhati-Kushwaha, Himakshi; Malik, C P

    2014-09-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the influence of biogenic nanoparticles synthesized from Tridax procumbens on different parameters of seed germination, seedling growth, and various biochemical parameters in four Eruca sativa varieties having low percentage of germination. Seeds were treated with different concentrations (30 and 40 ppm) of biogenic nanoparticles, of which 30 ppm was found to be the most effective and was therefore used for subsequent studies. Initially, the effect of biogenic nanoparticles on germination percentage, speed of germination, coefficient of germination, mean germination time, shoot and root length, fresh and dry matter, and vigor index was studied. From the experiments performed and the results obtained, it was evident that the treatment with biogenic nanoparticles decreased the electrolyte leakage and level of malondialdehyde as compared to control. The treatment with biogenic nanoparticles enhanced the levels of proline and ascorbic acid and stimulated the antioxidant enzyme activities resulting in the reduced level of reactive oxygen species. These activities were found to be variety-dependent. The possible involvement of biogenic nanoparticles in the production of new pores in seed coat during their penetration, resulting in the influx of the nutrients inside the seed, is suggested. This accelerated seed germination is followed by rapid seedling growth. The present findings indicated that biogenic nanoparticles promote seed germination in E. sativa by overcoming the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improving the antioxidative defense system which finally result in increased seedling growth.

  8. 菊黄东方鲀仔稚鱼生长及其消化酶与抗氧化酶活性%Growth, digestive enzyme and antioxidant enzyme activities of tawny puffer (Taki fugu f lavidus) larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永士; 施永海; 张根玉; 谢永德; 徐嘉波; 邓平平; 张宗锋

    2014-01-01

    Summary It is well documented that , due to the changing nutritional requirements and shifting from endogenous to exogenous feeding , fishes experience evolutionary adaptations in the morphogenesis of their digestive system during early developmental stages . This fact is also reflected in the ontogeny of digestive enzyme patterns . To maintain health and prevent oxidation‐induced lesions and mortalities , there must be effective antioxidant systems operating in fish larvae . The components of these systems involve antioxidant compounds and antioxidant enzymes . It is well known and generally acknowledged that many biological and physiological systems are poorly developed in fish larvae . Therefore , a comprehensive analysis of the ontogenic changes occurring during the early life stages of fish is essential for the design of adequate larval rearing and feeding strategies and also for the formulation of dry diets . The overall aims of this study were to understand the characterization of the growth , digestive enzyme and antioxidant enzyme activities in tawny puffer ( Taki f ugu f lavidus ) during the early development in order to enhance the growth and quality of early life stages by avoiding nutrient and oxidation problems that may cause pathologies and diseases .Total length , body mass , main digestive enzymes and antioxidant enzymes of tawny puffer larvae from 2 to 30 day‐old were determined . The relationship between total length or body mass and day‐old could be fixed to the linear and exponential functions , respectively . The general correlation equation of total length and body mass was power function under artificial farming conditions , and the grow th ( in mass ) in relation to total length was allometric . Lipase activity was not detected in tawny puffer larvae . The activities of trypsin and pepsin followed a complementary variation pattern . Trypsin activity showed a rapid decrease from 2 to 6 day‐old , and reached to the minimum level ( 109

  9. Sulphated galactopyran derived from Gracilaria opuntia, a marine macroalgae restores the antioxidant metabolic enzymes during STZ induced diabetic rats

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    Lavanya Rayapu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the effect of sulphated galactopyran fraction isolated from Gracilaria opuntia (G. opuntia (FM4 in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods: In vitro antioxidant assays of FM4 were estimated by DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl free radical and Nitric oxide free radical activities. FM4 was purified and characterized by 1H-NMR spectra and FTIR as sulphated galactopyran. Diabetes was induced intraperitonially by single dose of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight. FM4 was administrated orally (80, 100, 125 mg/kg BW to diabetic rats for 60 days. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, lipid peroxidase (LPx, glutathione reduced (GSH, vitamin-C (VIT-C and vitamin-E (VIT-E levels were estimated. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. Results: Our results demonstrated that the aqueous extract of G. opuntia possess free radical scavenging activity. During FM4 fraction treatment (100 mg/kg BW, the SOD, GPx, CAT, GST, GSH, VIT-C and VIT-E levels were significantly (P < 0.05 increased, and the LPx levels were decreased in different organs such as liver, kidney, brain and pancreas of diabetic rats. Conclusions: The sulphated galactopyran fraction of the marine macroalgae (G. opuntia possesses the antioxidant activity which might help in the prevention of oxidative damage that occurs during diabetes.

  10. Antioxidant vitamin levels among preschool children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sokoto, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghedo FI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Festus I Aghedo,1 Resqua A Shehu,2 Rabiu A Umar,2 Mohammed N Jiya,3 Osaro Erhabor4 1Department of Haematology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria; 2Department of Biochemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 4Department of Haematology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria Objective: To assess antioxidant vitamin levels among preschool children with plasmodium malarial infection. Methods: We assessed antioxidant vitamin levels by using a standard procedure in 130 malaria-parasitized preschool children. Packed cell volume and parasite density were also evaluated. Forty healthy age- and gender-matched nonparasitized children were included as controls. Results: Plasmodium falciparum was the causative species in all subjects. The mean malaria parasitemia was 4529.45 ± 1237.5/µL. The mean antioxidant concentrations for vitamins A, C, and E among plasmodium-parasitized subjects were 33.15 ± 1.79 µg/dL, 0.51 ± 0.02 mg/dL, and 0.61 ± 0.02 mg/dL, respectively. The mean concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E among the non-malaria-parasitized controls were 69.72 ± 1.71 µg/dL, 1.25 ± 0.04 mg/dL, and 1.31 ± 0.04 mg/dL respectively. We observed that the mean antioxidant concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E were significantly lower among plasmodium-parasitized subjects compared with non-parasitized controls (P = 0.01. Malaria parasitemia correlated negatively with antioxidant concentrations and packed cell volume (r = -0.736 and -0.723, P = 0.001. We observed that the higher the level of parasitemia, the lower the antioxidant concentration. Conclusion: Our study has shown that the antioxidant levels in plasmodium-parasitized children in the North-West of Nigeria are low and that the more severe the malarial infection, the lower the antioxidant level and the

  11. Contributions of apoplasmic cadmium accumulation, antioxidative enzymes and induction of phytochelatins in cadmium tolerance of the cadmium-accumulating cultivar of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Shimpei; Kiyono, Masako; Sakamoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Izumi; Kuno, Katsuji

    2009-07-01

    The contributions of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in cell walls, antioxidative enzymes and induction of phytochelatins (PCs) to Cd tolerance were investigated in two distinctive genotypes of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.). One cultivar of black oat 'New oat' accumulated Cd in the leaves at the highest concentration compared to another black oat cultivar 'Soil saver' and other major graminaceous crops. The shoot:root Cd ratio also demonstrated that 'New oat' was the high Cd-accumulating cultivar, whereas 'Soil saver' was the low Cd-accumulating cultivar. Varied levels of Cd exposure demonstrated the strong Cd tolerance of 'New oat'. By contrast, low Cd-accumulating cultivar 'Soil saver' suffered Cd toxicity such as growth defects and increased lipid peroxidation, even though it accumulated less Cd in shoots than 'New oat'. Higher activities of ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1. 15. 1. 1) were observed in the leaves of 'New oat' than in 'Soil saver'. No advantage of 'New oat' in PCs induction was observed in comparison to Cd-sensitive cultivar 'Soil saver', although Cd exposure increased the concentration of total PCs in both cultivars. Higher and increased Cd accumulation in cell wall fraction was observed in shoots of 'New oat'. On the other hand, in 'Soil saver', apoplasmic Cd accumulation showed saturation under higher Cd exposure. Overall, the present results suggest that cell wall Cd accumulation and antioxidative activities function in the tolerance against Cd stress possibly in combination with vacuolar Cd compartmentation.

  12. Antioxidant factors, nitric oxide levels, and cellular damage in leprosy patients

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    Taysa Ribeiro Schalcher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The immune response caused by Mycobacterium leprae is a risk factor for the development of oxidative stress (OS in leprosy patients. This study aimed to assess OS in leprosy patients before the use of a multidrug therapy. Methods We evaluated the nitric oxide (NO concentration; antioxidant capacity; levels of malondialdehyde, methemoglobin and reduced glutathione; and the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD in leprosy patients. Results We observed lower SOD activity in these leprosy patients; however, the NO levels and antioxidant capacity were increased. Conclusions The infectious process in response to M. leprae could primarily be responsible for the OS observed in these patients.

  13. Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Ischemic Stroke: Decreased Insulin Sensitivity and Decreases in Antioxidant Enzyme Activity Are Related to Different Stroke Subtypes

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    Aleksandra Jotic

    2013-01-01

    C (1.14±0.58, 1.00±0.26 versus 3.14±0.62 min−1/mU/l × 104, P<0.001 and in nondiabetics in D and E versus F (3.38±0.77, 3.03±0.72 versus 6.03±1.69 min−1/mU/l × 104, P<0.001. Also, GSH-Px and GR activities were lower in A and B versus C (GSH-Px: 21.96±3.56,  22.51±1.23 versus 25.12±1.67; GR: 44.37±3.58,  43.50±2.39 versus 48.58±3.67 U/gHb; P<0.001 and in D and E versus F (GSH-Px: 24.75±3.02,  25.57±1.92 versus 28.56±3.91; GR: 48.27±6.81,  49.17±6.24 versus 53.67±3.96 U/gHb; P<0.001. Decreases in Si and GR were significantly related to both ATI and LI in T2D. Our results showed that decreased IS and impaired antioxidant enzymes activity influence ischemic stroke subtypes in T2D. The influence of insulin resistance might be exerted on the level of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Assessment of Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Mineral Nutrients in Response to NaCl Stress and its Amelioration Through Glutathione in Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Vinay; Kumar, Dinesh; Agrawal, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress has been reckoned as one of the major threat towards crop productivity as it causes significant decline in the yield. The impact of NaCl stress (0, 1, 10, 50, 100 and 200 mg L(-1)) as well as glutathione (10 mg L(-1)) either alone or in combination has been evaluated on the induction of multiple shoots, antioxidant enzymes' activity, lipid peroxidation, relative permeability, concentration of nutrients, photosynthetic pigments, protein and proline content of nodal segments of chickpea after 14 days of culture. The antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were found to be increased under salt stress as well as glutathione-supplemented medium. A significant decrease in the concentrations of chlorophylls a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid was observed under salt stress. Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, carbon, magnesium and sulphur showed an initial increase up to 10 mg L(-1) NaCl, but a decline was seen at higher NaCl levels. Proline content and malondialdehyde concentration were found to be increased under salt stress. Three isoforms of SOD, one of CAT and four of GPX were expressed during native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis. However, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the stressed nodal explants revealed the over-expression of several polypeptide bands related to NaCl stress. These findings for the first time suggest that glutathione (GSH) helps in ameliorating NaCl stress in nodal explants of chickpea by manipulating various biochemical and physiological responses of plants.

  15. Effects of High Temperature on Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Flag Leaves of Wheat During Grain Filling Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping; GUO Wen-shan; PU Han-chun; FENG Chao-nian; ZHU Xin-kai; PENG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the phytotron, the effects of high temperature (daily average temperature 25, 30, 35 and 40℃, respectively) on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in flag leaves of wheat at 50% relative air moisture during grain fastest fillingstage [19-21 days after anthesis (DAA)] were studied. The wheat cultivars tested were Yangmai 9 with weak-gluten and Yangmai 12 with medium-gluten. Compared with 25℃, the higher the temperature was, the higher was the MDA content in flag leaves, while lower were the SOD, POD, and CAT activities. SOD and CAT activities in Yangmai 12 appeared to be more sensitive to high temperature than that in Yangmai 9. But POD activity in Yangmai 12 was less sensitive to high temperature. MDA content in Yangmai 12 was higher than that in Yangmai 9. The 1 000-grain weight declined with increase in temperature.

  16. Combined Effects of Excess Mn and Low pH on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzymes in Cucumber Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Qing-hua; ZHU Zhu-jun; LI Juan; QIAN Qiong-qiu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of excess Mn on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in cucumber roots under different pH (pH 4.5 and 6.5) were studied. The results indicated that lipid peroxidation was increasingly serious with the increased concentration of Mn, especially under low pH. As a result, the growth of cucumber roots and shoots was significantly inhibited. CAT was sensitive to excess Mn, and its activity significantly decreased under excess Mn and low pH, while activities of GPX, APX, DHAR and GR increased under low pH and to some extent under excess Mn, which indicated their important roles in scavenging reactive oxygen in tolerance to low pH and excess Mn of cucumber roots.

  17. Effects of cold-hardening on compatible solutes and antioxidant enzyme activities related to freezing tolerance in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-juan; CHEN Yu-zhen; LIU Mei-qin; LU Cun-fu

    2008-01-01

    Cold acclimation is associated with many metabolic changes that lead to an increase of freezing tolerance. In order to investigate the biochemical process of cold acclimation in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, seedlings were acclimated at 2℃ under 16-h photoperiod (150 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetically active radiation) for 14 d. Freezing tolerance in seedlings increased after 14 d of cold-hardening. Contents of protein, proline and solute carbohydrate in cotyledon increased after cold acclimation. Patterns of isozymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were investigated. The activities of SOD, peroxidase and PPO in cold acclimated plants were increased during cold-hardening. We deduced that compatible solutes and antioxidant enzymes play important roles in development of freezing tolerance during cold acclimation in this evergreen woody plant.

  18. Dietary supplementation of extracts from a halophyte affects the level of the circulating enzymes in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. G.; Lee, B. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H.; Youn, Y. D. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Extracts from Salicornia herbacea with two extraction methods (using water or ethanol) were examined for their potential as a radioprotector. This plant accumulates a great amount of salt , Mg, Ca, Fe, and K and thus contains high levels of mineral in its body. It is famous as a remedial material for the constipation and glycosuria in folk medicine. The present study was designed to explore the in vivo antioxidant effects of water - and ethanol- extracts of S. herbacea. Both extracts of the plants were tested for their free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH assay. For the in vivo studies, male F344 rats (3 week- old) received po administration of both extracts 0.5 mg/ml during 5 days before whole- body irradiation. Six hours after irradiation, we measured the body and organ weight and collected blood. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed a similar pattern six hours after irradiation. In case of the water extract - dietary group after irradiation, the levels of all enzymes had a tendency to decrease toward to the base level. Therefore, the results reflects the antioxidant activity of S. herbacea extracts and its potential to protect against radiation damage.

  19. Effects of Waterlogging on Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Six Barley Genotypes with Different Waterlogging Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yu-ping; WEI Kang; CHEN Jin-xin; ZHOU Mei-xue; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study genotypic difference in the effect of waterlogging on photosynthesis, chlorophyll content and antioxidative enzyme activities in barley. Waterlogging caused a rapid decline in net photosynthetic rate (Ph) and stomatal conductance (gs), and little change in chlorophyll content during early days of the treatment. A dramatic increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in waterlogged plants in the early days of the experiment was found, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress in barley plants exposed to waterlogging. There was a highly significant difference in the changed extent of all these parameters among genotypes.Franklin and Yongjiahong Liuleng Damai, which were relatively sensitive to waterlogging in terms of growth, photosynthesis and chlorophyll content, accumulated much more MDA than the other two relatively tolerant genotypes (93-3143 and QS).After removal of waterlogging, the genotypic difference became much greater in recovering of these examined parameters.Yongjiahong Liuleng Damai showed higher recovery, while Franklin only recovered to 50% of the control at the 14 day after waterlogging removal. It may be concluded that it is the difference in anti-oxidative stress caused by waterlogging that account for the major difference in photosynthesis among barley genotypes.

  20. Effects of progesterone application on antioxidant enzyme activities and K+/Na+ ratio in bean seeds exposed to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Serkan; Genisel, Mucip; Turk, Hulya; Gorcek, Zeynep

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of progesterone, a mammalian sex hormone, on germination of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds exposed to salt stress. The exogenous addition of 10(-6), 10(-8) and 10(-10) M progesterone to the stressing media in which bean seeds were germinated in combination with the salt (100 mM NaCl) stressor induced significant protective changes in the germination and early growth parameters. The mitigating effect of progesterone was evaluated by the measurement of radicle and plumule lengths, activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT). In addition, it is the first study that exhibited changes in K/Na ratio. The obtained results showed that progesterone application stimulated germination and growth of salt-stressed seeds. Similarly, it stimulated significantly SOD, POX and CAT activities compared to both control and salt control. Salt stress significantly increased the lipid peroxidation compared to the control seeds. However, parallel to the increase in antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by progesterone application. The best stimulatory effects on investigated parameters were recorded at 10(-8) M progesterone-applied seeds. On the other hand, salt stress reduced remarkably K/Na ratio by 50% in radicle and by 80% in plumule. However, progesterone application significantly mitigated the reduction in K/Na ratio. These findings clearly demonstrate that progesterone has a positive role in moderate detrimental effects induced by salt.

  1. Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)μgL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure.

  2. Hydrolysates of sheep cheese whey as a source of bioactive peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Daroit, Daniel Joner; Fontoura, Roberta; Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Segalin, Jeferson; Brandelli, Adriano

    2014-11-01

    Enzymatic proteolysis may be employed to release bioactive peptides, which have been investigated for potential benefits from both technological and human health perspectives. In this study, sheep cheese whey (SCW) was hydrolyzed with a protease preparation from Bacillus sp. P7, and the hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Soluble protein and free amino acids increased during hydrolysis of SCW for up to 4h. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates, evaluated by the 2,2'azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging method, increased 3.2-fold from 0 h (15.9%) to 6h of hydrolysis (51.3%). Maximum Fe(2+) chelation was reached in 3h hydrolysates, and the reducing power peaked at 1h of hydrolysis, representing 6.2 and 2.1-fold increase, respectively, when compared to that of non-hydrolyzed SCW. ACE inhibition by SCW (12%) was improved through hydrolysis, reaching maximal values (55% inhibition) in 4h, although 42% inhibition was already observed after 1h hydrolysis. The peptide LAFNPTQLEGQCHV, derived from β-lactoglobulin, was identified from 4-h hydrolysates. Such a biotechnological approach might be an interesting strategy for SCW processing, potentially contributing to the management and valorization of this abundant dairy byproduct.

  3. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties of Nepeta crassifolia Boiss & Buhse and Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Nadjafi, Farsad; Menichini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    This article reports phytochemical and biological studies on Nepeta binaludensis and Nepeta crassifolia. Both species were investigated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties through three in vitro models [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay]. Aerial parts were extracted with methanol and partitioned between water and subsequently n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. N. binaludensis methanol extract exerted significantly higher reducing power (1.9 μM Fe(II)/g) than did the positive control butylhydroxytoluene (63.2 μM Fe(II)/g) in FRAP assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was found for N. crassifolia, with IC50 values of 9.6 and 12.1 µg/mL for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, respectively. n-Butanol fraction of both species showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 59.3 and 81.7 µg/mL for N. binaludensis and N. crassifolia, respectively. Phytochemical investigations resulted in the isolation of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, apigenin, luteolin and ixoroside. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 8-hydroxycirsimaritin and cirsimaritin were furthermore identified in N. crassifolia ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. Nepetanudoside B was isolated from the n-butanol fraction of N. binaludensis.

  5. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Haifeng; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Xu Xiaoyan; Liu Weiping [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Fu Zhengwei [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)], E-mail: azwfu2003@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-07-30

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12 h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris.

  6. [THE EFFECT OF DIETARY RESTRICTION DURING DEVELOPMENT OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER ON THE ACTIVITY OF ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM ENZYMES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabuga, O G; Koliada, A K; Kukharskyy, V M; Bazhynova, A I; Vaiserman, A M

    2015-01-01

    In the previous study we demonstrated that dietary restriction only at the development stage of Drosophila melanogaster may impact the life span of adult flies. It was important that we didn't use qualitative (restriction of proteins or other macro- or microelements) and not a calorie restriction as well, but quantitative dietary restriction that was the proportional reduction of all food components in the larval medium. In the situations when the larvae were reared in the medium types, that contained protein and carbohydrate components in concentrations of 90-10% of food components compared to the standard one (100%), the males were characterised with the significant increase in the maximum life span. The average life span was also increased, but only in those male individuals that developed in the medium types, that contained 50% and 60% of food components compared to controls. Such an effect we haven't detected in the female flies. To study the biochemical changes associated with the physiological effects we have determined the activity of the antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In the male flies the 50% dietary restriction implemented during the development has led to the significant increase in a SOD and catalase activity. Also the flies of both sexes reared in the medium with the 50% of food components have been characterised with the reduction in the accumulation of glycation end products. According to these results, we suggest that the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes may play a role in the increase of the flies life span caused by the dietary restriction during the development.

  7. Effect of different methods of hypoxic exercise training on free radical oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity in the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, JIE; WANG, YUXIA

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different modes of hypoxic exercise training on free radical production and antioxidant enzyme activity in the brain of rats were investigated in this study. A total of 40 healthy 2-month-old male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to different training modes. Endurance training sessions were performed for 5 weeks under different normoxic (atmospheric pressure ~632 mmHg, altitude ~1,500 m) and hypoxic conditions (atmospheric pressure ~493 mmHg, altitude ~3,500 m) at the same relative intensity. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the brain were evaluated by spectrophotometric analysis. Compared to the low-training low (LL) group, the SOD activity was significantly increased by 68.73, 54.28 and 304.02% in the high-training high (HH), high-training low (HL) and high-exercise high-training low (HHL) groups, respectively. However, no obvious change was observed for the low-training high (LH) group. In comparison to the LL group, the GSH-Px activity was found to be significantly higher in the HH, HL, LH and HHL groups. Similarly, in comparison to the LL group, the CAT activity exhibited a significant increase in the HH, HL, LH and HHL groups. Compared to the LL group, the MDA content was significantly increased in the HH, HL and HHL groups, although no significant difference was detected for the LH group. Following exhaustive exercise, the antioxidant enzyme activities in the rat brains were immediately improved in all the hypoxia modes. Moreover, the free radical production was increased after all the modes of hypoxic exercise training, with the LH mode being the only exception. PMID:24649054

  8. Effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, bound extracellular polymeric substances and microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Xun; Wang, Peifang; Chen, Bin; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have occurred in various water bodies during recent decades and made serious health hazards to plants, animals and humans. Iron is an important micronutrient for algal growth and recently, the concentration of which has increased remarkably in freshwaters. In this paper, the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 was cultivated under non-iron (0μM), iron-limited (10μM) and iron-replete (100μM) conditions to investigate the effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, EPS and microcystin production. The results showed that algal cell density and chlorophyll-a content were maximal at the highest iron concentration. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased notably under all three conditions in the early stage of experiment, of which the SOD activity recovered soon from oxidative stress in 10μM group. The productions of some protein-like substances and humic acid-like substances of bound EPS were inhibited in iron-containing groups in the early stage of experiment while promoted after the adaptation period of Microcystis aeruginosa. Iron addition is a factor affecting the formation of cyanobacterial blooms through its impact on the content of LB-EPS and the composition of TB-EPS. The intracellular MC-LR concentration and the productivity potential of MC-LR were the lowest in 0μM group and highest in 10μM group. No obvious extracellular release of MC-LR was observed during the cultivation time. Therefore, iron addition can promote the physiological activities of M. aeruginosa, but a greater harm could be brought into environment under iron-limited (10μM) condition than under iron-replete (100μM) condition.

  9. Effects of paraquat on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic compared with autotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiguo; Liu, Min; Zhang, Peiliang; Yu, Fugen; Lu, Shan; Li, Pengfu; Zhou, Junying

    2014-11-01

    Only limited information is available on herbicide toxicity to algae under mixotrophic conditions. In the present study, we studied the effects of the herbicide paraquat on growth, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic compared with autotrophic conditions. The mean measured exposure concentrations of paraquat under mixotrophic and autotrophic conditions were in the range of 0.3-3.4 and 0.6-3.6 μM, respectively. Exposure to paraquat for 72 h under both autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions induced decreased growth and chlorophyll (Chl) content, increased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, and decreased transcript abundances of three photosynthesis-related genes (light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase subunit, photosystem II protein D1, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit [rbcL]). Compared with autotrophic conditions, the inhibition percentage of growth rate under mixotrophic conditions was lower at 0.8 μM paraquat, whereas it was greater at 1.8 and 3.4 μM paraquat. With exposure to 0.8-3.4 μM paraquat, the inhibition rates of Chl a and b content under mixotrophic conditions (43.1-52.4% and 54.6-59.7%, respectively) were greater compared with autotrophic conditions, whereas the inhibition rate of rbcL gene transcription under mixotrophic conditions (35.7-44.0%) was lower. These data showed that similar to autotrophic conditions, paraquat affected the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreased Chl synthesis and transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic conditions, but a differential susceptibility to paraquat toxicity occurred between autotrophically versus mixotrophically grown cells.

  10. Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) intake on urinary apigenin excretion, blood antioxidant enzymes and biomarkers for oxidative stress in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S E; Young, J F; Daneshvar, B; Lauridsen, S T; Knuthsen, P; Sandström, B; Dragsted, L O

    1999-06-01

    Seven men and seven women participated in a randomized crossover trial to study the effect of intake of parsley (Petroselinum crispum), containing high levels of the flavone apigenin, on the urinary excretion of flavones and on biomarkers for oxidative stress. The subjects received a strictly controlled diet low in flavones and other naturally occurring antioxidants during the 2 weeks of intervention. This basic diet was supplemented with parsley providing 3.73-4.49 mg apigenin/MJ in one of the intervention weeks. Urinary excretion of apigenin was 1.59-409.09 micrograms/MJ per 24 h during intervention with parsley and 0-112.27 micrograms/MJ per 24 h on the basic diet (P < 0.05). The fraction of apigenin intake excreted in the urine was 0.58 (SE 0.16)% during parsley intervention. Erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.1; GR) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1; SOD) activities increased during intervention with parsley (P < 0.005) as compared with the levels on the basic diet, whereas erythrocyte catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) activities did not change. No significant changes were observed in plasma protein 2-adipic semialdehyde residues, a biomarker of plasma protein oxidation. In this short-term investigation, an overall decreasing trend in the activity of antioxidant enzymes was observed during the 2-week study. The decreased activity of SOD was strongly correlated at the individual level with an increased oxidative damage to plasma proteins. However, the intervention with parsley seemed, partly, to overcome this decrease and resulted in increased levels of GR and SOD.

  11. Heat stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in bubaline ( Bubalus bubalis) oocytes during in vitro maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Raies-ul-Haq, Mohammad; Dhanda, Suman; Kumar, Anil; Goud, T. Sridhar; Chauhan, M. S.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-09-01

    In vitro environments like heat stress usually increase the production of reactive oxygen species in bubaline oocytes which have been implicated as one of the major causes for reduced developmental competence. Oocytes during meiotic maturation are sensitive to oxidative stress, and heat stress accelerates cellular metabolism, resulting in the higher production of free radicals. Therefore, the aim of present work was to assess the impact of heat stress during meiotic maturation on bubaline cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), denuded oocytes (DO), and cumulus cell mass in terms of their oxidative status. Accordingly, for control group, COC were matured at 38.5 °C for complete 24 h of meiotic maturation and heat stress of 40.5 and 41.5 °C was applied to COC during the first 12 h of maturation and then moved to 38.5 °C for rest of the 12 h. In another group, COC after maturation were denuded from the surrounding cumulus cells by manual pipetting. Results indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide (NO) was significantly ( P stress (40.5 and 41.5 °C) during meiotic maturation compared to the oocytes matured under standard in vitro culture conditions (38.5 °C). Also, the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly ( P stress ensues oxidative stress in bubaline oocytes which triggers the induction of antioxidant enzymatic defense system for scavenging the ROS.

  12. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  13. Modulating Effect of Hypnea musciformis (Red Seaweed) on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidants and Biotransforming Enzymes in 7,12-Dimethylbenz (a) Anthracene Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis in Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Mohan; Sivakumar, Kathiresan; Mariadoss, Arokia Vijaya Anand; Suresh, Kathiresan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the second most widespread diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer death in women. Objective: The present work was carried out to evaluate the chemo preventive potential of Hypnea musciformis (ethanol extract) seaweed on oxidative stress markers, bio transforming enzymes, incidence of tumors, and pathological observation in 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) exposed experimental mammary carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Rats in the group 1 served as control. Rats in the group 2 and 3 received a single subcutaneous injection of DMBA (25 mg/kg body weight (b.w)) in the mammary gland to develop mammary carcinoma. In addition, group 3 rats were orally administrated with 200 mg/kg between of H. musciformis along with DMBA injection and group 4 rats received ethanolic extract of H. musciformis every day orally (200 mg/kg b.w) throughout the experimental period of 16 weeks. Results: Our results revealed that treatment with H. musciformis ethanolic extract to DMBA treated rats significantly reduced the incidence of tumor and tumor volume as compared to DMBA alone treated rats. Moreover, our results showed imbalance in the activities/levels of lipid peroxidation by products, antioxidant enzymes, and bio transforming phase I and II enzymes in the circulation, liver and mammary tissues of DMBA treated rats which were significantly modulated to near normal on treatment with ethanolic extract of H. musciformis. All these alterations were supported by histochemical findings. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that chemo preventive potential of H. musciformis ethanol extract is probably due to their free radicals quenching effect and modulating potential of bio transforming enzymes during DMBA exposed experimental mammary carcinogenesis. SUMMARY DMBA is a source of well-established site specific carcinogenHypnea musciformis act as a free radical

  14. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nurhanani; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni

    2015-01-01

    The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, "Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease" was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P FGG), Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK), Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1) and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6). In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid peroxidation and ROS production, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and significantly regulated the expression of genes and proteins involved with consequential impact on the coagulation system, cholesterol biosynthesis, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and antimicrobial response.

  15. Total antioxidant status in lung cancer is associated with levels of endogenous antioxidants and disease stage rather than lifestyle factors – preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porębska, Irena; Gołecki, Marcin; Kosacka, Monika; Pawełczyk, Konrad; Pawlik-Sobecka, Lilla; Zarębska, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been reported in differe