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Sample records for antioxidant enzyme activity

  1. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of some Brassica Species

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    Rodica SOARE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper set out to comparatively study five species: white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata alba Alef., red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra Alef., Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. Acephala, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. cymosa in order to identify those with high enzymatic and antioxidant activities. The enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and soluble peroxidase (POX as well as the antioxidant activity against 2.2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation were determined. Total superoxide dismutase activity was measured spectrophotometrically based on inhibition in the photochemical reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Total soluble peroxidase was assayed by measuring the increase in A436 due to the guaiacol oxidation and the catalase activity was assayed through the colorimetric method. The capacity of extracts to scavenge the ABTS radical cation was assessed colorimetric using Trolox as a standard. The obtained results show that studied enzymatic activities and the antioxidant activity against ABTS vary depending on the analyzed species. So, among the studied Brassicaceae species, it emphasize red cabbage with the highest enzymatic activity (CAT 22.54 mM H2O2/min/g and POX 187.2 mM ΔA/1min/1g f.w. and kale with highest antioxidant activity, of 767 μmol TE/100g f.w. The results of this study recommendintroducing the studied varieties in diet due to the rich antioxidant properties.

  2. Antioxidant enzymes activities in obese Tunisian children

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    Sfar Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxidant stress, expected to increase in obese adults, has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. It results when free radical formation is greatly increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are compromised. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant response to obesity-related stress in healthy children. Methods A hundred and six healthy children (54 obese and 52 controls, aged 6–12 years old, participated in this study. The collected data included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase: SOD, Catalase: CAT and Glutathione peroxidase: GPx. Results The first step antioxidant response, estimated by the SOD activity, was significantly higher in obese children compared with normal-weight controls (p  Conclusions The obesity-related increase of the oxidant stress can be observed even in the childhood period. In addition to the complications of an increased BMI, obesity itself can be considered as an independent risk factor of free radical production resulting in an increased antioxidant response.

  3. Relationship between Estradiol and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity of Ischemic Stroke

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    Nasrin Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests the neuroprotection of estrogen provided by the antioxidant activity of this compound. The main objective of this study was to determine the level of estradiol and its correlation with the activity of antioxidant enzymes, total antioxidant status and ferritin from ischemic stroke subjects. The study population consisted of 30 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 30 controls. There was no significant difference between estradiol in stroke and control group. The activity of superoxide dismutase and level of ferritin was higher in stroke compared with control group (<.05, <.001, resp.. There was no significant correlation between estradiol and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, total antioxidant status, and ferritin in stroke and control groups. We observed inverse correlation between estradiol with superoxide dismutase in males of stroke patients (=−0.54, =.029. Our results supported that endogenous estradiol of elderly men and women of stroke or control group has no antioxidant activity.

  4. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

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    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  5. Effect of fluorozis on the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdogan, M.; YiImaz, D.; Yontem, M.; Kalei, S.; Kilic, I.

    2011-01-01

    While the flourine level of (drinking) water was higher than normal ranges in the center of Isparta region before 1995 year, this problematic situation is solved in later years. (However) the individuals who are staying in Yenice district are still expose to high levels of fluorine because of the usage of Andik spring water (3.8 mg/L flour level) as drinking water. In this study we aimed to investigate the harmful effect of floride on human erythrocytes via antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we studied the activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Catalase (CAT), and the level of erythrocyte Glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and the level of urine floride in high floride exposed people (children, adult and elderly). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT and the level of GSH, TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed children (Group II) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control children (Group I) (p 0.05). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were lower and the levels of TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed elderly people (Group VI) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control elderly people (Group V) (p 0.05). As a result we thought that increased SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities in floride exposed children and adult people, decreased activities of these enzymes in floride exposed elderly people, and increased TBARS in all groups may indicate floride caused oxidative damage in erythrocytes. (author)

  6. Contemplation of wheat genotypes for enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, S.; Shabbir, G.; Ilyas, M.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is leading cereal crop in Pakistan but its yield is highly affected due to various abiotic factors especially drought stress, which affects the metabolism of plants. The present study was conducted at Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, using thirty three genotypes during 2011 to investigate the response of anti oxidative enzymes. Seedlings were subjected to stress condition with 30 % PEG 6000 solution along with control (irrigated with water) under in vitro conditions. The experiment was conducted in pots following Complete Randomized Design in Laboratory. Results revealed that under control conditions the maximum values for Guaiacol peroxidase were found in Punjab-96 and Auqab-2000 (2.523), for superoxide in C-273 (0.294), for ascorbate peroxide in PAK-81 (2.523) and for catalase in Kohsar-95 (0.487). Under moisture stress condition the maximum value for Guaiacol peroxidase were recorded for Kohsar-95 (2.699), for superoxide in Kohsar-95 (1.259), for ascorbate peroxide in Pak-81, SA-75, Mexipak-65 and PARI-73 (3.000) and for catalase in Mexipak-65 (0.640). The genotypes which showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity under drought stress have the ability to perform better under adverse soil moisture condition. Such potential genotypes can be utilized in the future breeding programs and also in improving the wheat varieties against drought stress. (author)

  7. Definition of regional dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes means of the dispersive analysis

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    Anatoly T. Bykov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In article application of the dispersive analysis for an estimation of dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes from region of constant residing, age, sex and the disease diagnosis is considered.

  8. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

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    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  9. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

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    Semsang, Nuananong, E-mail: nsemsang@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, LiangDeng [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  10. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Changes in water availability are responsible for a variety of biochemical stress responses in plant organisms. Stress induced by this factor may be associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations, which cause oxidative damage. In the present study we investigated the activities...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....... of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...

  11. Lifestyle predictors of oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity in healthy women: a cross-sectional study.

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    Mahasneh, Amjad A; Zhang, Yali; Zhao, Hua; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and modifiable lifestyle factors that may be related to endogenous oxidant and antioxidant activity measured in blood specimens from putatively healthy women recruited at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY, USA). Total glutathione (TGSH), catalase (CAT), CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in 124 healthy women, and associations with epidemiological factors were tested using general linear models. There were significant differences in oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities according to lifestyle factors, after adjusting for duration of blood storage and season of blood draw. Compared to women who consumed ≤2.8 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, those consuming >5.3 servings had on average 31 % lower MPO activity (p-trend = 0.02), as a marker of oxidative stress, 16 % higher antioxidant GPx activity (p-trend = 0.08), and 9 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.05). Obese women (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30) in contrast showed 17 % lower antioxidant GPx activity, 44 % higher MPO activity (p-trend = 0.03), and 10 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.03) compared to women with normal BMI lifestyle factors and, therefore, may be potentially modifiable, with implications for risk reduction of chronic conditions related to oxidative stress.

  12. Effect of bleaching on mercury release from amalgam fillings and antioxidant enzyme activities: a pilot study.

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    Cakir, Filiz Yalcin; Ergin, Esra; Gurgan, Sevil; Sabuncuoglu, Suna; Arpa, Cigdem Sahin; Tokgoz, İlknur; Ozgunes, Hilal; Kiremitci, Arlin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot clinical study was to determine the mercury release from amalgam fillings and antioxidant enzyme activities (Superoxide Dismutase [SOD] and Catalase[CAT] ) in body fluids after exposure to two different vital tooth bleaching systems. Twenty eight subjects with an average age of 25.6 years (18-41) having at least two but not more than four Class II amalgam fillings on each quadrant arch in the mouth participated in the study. Baseline concentrations of mercury levels in whole blood, urine, and saliva were measured by a Vapor Generation Accessory connected to an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Erythrocyte enzymes, SOD, and CAT activities in blood were determined kinetically. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of 14 volunteers. Group 1 was treated with an at-home bleaching system (Opalescence PF 35% Carbamide Peroxide, Ultradent), and Group 2 was treated with a chemically activated office bleaching system (Opalescence Xtra Boost 38% Hydrogen Peroxide, Ultradent) according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Twenty-four hours after bleaching treatments, concentrations of mercury and enzymes were remeasured. There were no significant differences on mercury levels in blood, urine, and saliva before and after bleaching treatments (p > 0.05). No differences were also found in the level of antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD and CAT) before and after treatments (p > 0.05). Mercury release did not affect the enzyme activities (p > 0.05). Bleaching treatments either office or home did not affect the amount of mercury released from amalgam fillings in blood, urine, and saliva and the antioxidant-enzyme activities in blood. Bleaching treatments with the systems tested in this pilot study have no deleterious effect on the mercury release from amalgam fillings and antioxidant enzymes in body fluids. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Thioredoxin 1 in Prostate Tissue Is Associated with Gleason Score, Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Dietary Antioxidants

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    Terrence M. Vance

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the US. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in prostate cancer. Methods. In this study, thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1, an enzyme and subcellular indicator of redox status, was measured in prostate biopsy tissue from 55 men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. A pathologist blindly scored levels of Trx 1. The association between Trx 1 and the Gleason score, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, and dietary antioxidant intake was determined using Fisher’s exact test. Results. Trx 1 levels in benign prostate tissue in men with incident prostate cancer were positively associated with the Gleason score (P=0.01 and inversely associated with dietary antioxidant intake (P=0.03. In prostate cancer tissue, Trx 1 levels were associated with erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (P=0.01. No association was found for other erythrocyte enzymes. Greater Gleason score of malignant tissue corresponds to a greater difference in Trx 1 levels between malignant and benign tissue (P=0.04. Conclusion. These results suggest that the redox status of prostate tissue is associated with prostate cancer grade and both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.

  14. Protein Hydrolysis from Catfish Prepared by Papain Enzyme and Antioxidant Activity of Hydrolyzate

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    Ace Baehaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to make a protein hydrolysates from catfish (Pangasius pangasius enzymatically using papain enzyme and analyzed the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates produced. The research used the method completely randomized design with two replications the treatment were the difference concentration of the papain enzyme (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6%. The parameters of research were antioxidative activity using DPPH (2,2-difenil-1–pikrilhidrazil, protein content, and molecular weight using SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The results showed that catfish protein hydrolysates prepared by papain enzyme has antioxidative activity. The highest degree of hydrolysis was 71.98% at enzyme concentration of 6%. Based on the DPPH scavenging method catfish protein hydrolysates has the antioxidative activity with the value 37.85-67.62%. The protein content of catfish protein hydrolysates were 20.86-54.47 mg/ml. The molecular weight of catfish protein hydrolyzates were 11.90-65.20 kDa.

  15. Effect of “Tai Chi” exercise on antioxidant enzymes activities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... exercise that increases physical strength and relax the mind. Materials and Methods: The study investigates effect of “tai chi” exercise on antioxidant enzymes activities and immunity function in participants. These participants were randomly divided into two groups: “tai chi” exercise group (n=25) and control group (n=25).

  16. Effect of sprint cycle training on activities of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Apple, F. S.; Sjödin, B.

    1996-01-01

    (P anaerobic capacity in the trained muscle. The present study demonstrates that intermittent sprint cycle training that induces an enhanced capacity for anaerobic energy generation also improves......The effect of intermittent sprint cycle training on the level of muscle antioxidant enzyme protection was investigated. Resting muscle biopsies, obtained before and after 6 wk of training and 3, 24, and 72 h after the final session of an additional 1 wk of more frequent training, were analyzed...... for activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Activities of several muscle metabolic enzymes were determined to assess the effectiveness of the training. After the first 6-wk training period, no change in GPX, GR, or SOD...

  17. Effects of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuifeng; Wang Bingliang; Guan Xueyu; Zhang Yan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed was studied. The results showed that the germination potentiality and germination rate of hot pepper seed after boarding return satellite were increased by 3.5% and 5.3%, respectively. During seed germination, soluble protein and MDA contents decreased, however, the SOD activities increased. SOD activity of treated seeds was higher than that of the control especially during the initial period of germination, while the content of soluble and MDA contents were much lower than those of control. The activities of SOD, G-POD, APX and CAT in 13d seedlings of treated seeds were increased by 14.29%, 25.23%, 1.84% and 21.52%, respectively. It was concluded that space flight enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities of seeds and seedlings, which were very important to prevent membrane lipid superoxide. (authors)

  18. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

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    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  19. Effect of norfloxacin and moxifloxacin on melanin synthesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Miliński, Maciej; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics provide broad-spectrum coverage for a number of infectious diseases, including respiratory as well as urinary tract infections. One of the important adverse effects of these drugs is phototoxicity which introduces a serious limitation to their use. To gain insight the molecular mechanisms underlying the fluoroquinolones-induced phototoxic side effects, the impact of two fluoroquinolone derivatives with different phototoxic potential, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin, on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes HEMa-LP was determined. Both drugs induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 for these drugs was found to be 0.5 mM. Norfloxacin and moxifloxacin suppressed melanin biosynthesis; antibiotics were shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in melanocytes. When comparing the both analyzed fluoroquinolones, it was observed that norfloxacin possesses greater inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in melanocytes than moxifloxacin. The extent of oxidative stress in cells was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx. It was observed that norfloxacin caused higher depletion of antioxidant status in melanocytes when compared with moxifloxacin. The obtained results give a new insight into the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones toxicity directed to pigmented tissues. Moreover, the presented differences in modulation of biochemical processes in melanocytes may be an explanation for various phototoxic activities of the analyzed fluoroquinolone derivatives in vivo.

  20. Effect of cadmium and zinc on antioxidant enzyme activity in the gastropod, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Rashmi; Sivakumar, A A; Mohandass, S; Aruchami, M

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal stress results in the production of O(2)(.-), H(2)O(2) and (.)OH, which affect various cellular processes, mostly the functioning of membrane systems. Cells are normally protected against free oxyradicals by the operation of intricate antioxidant systems. The aim of the present work is to examine the effect of CdCl(2) and ZnSO(4) on antioxidative enzyme activity in the gastropod, Achatina fulica. The concentrations of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)--and nonenzymatic antioxidants--glutathione and vitamin-C--were found to be decreased in both digestive gland and kidney of the gastropod, Achatina fulica treated with individual concentrations of 0.5 ppm and 1ppm of CdCl(2) and ZnSO(4), compared to that of control animals. Based on the above study, it is evident that Achatina fulica can be used as a bioindicator to monitor the environmental heavy metal pollution.

  1. Association between Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Enterovirus-Infected Type 1 Diabetic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; El-Senousy, Waled M; Abdel-Latif, Mahmoud; Khalil, Rehab G

    2018-01-01

    To examine the effect of infection with Enterovirus (EV) in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) on the activities of serum antioxidant enzymes in diabetic and nondiabetic controls. Three hundred and eighty-two diabetic and 100 nondiabetic children were tested for EV RNA using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. The activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were also estimated in diabetic patients infected with EV (T1D-EV+), those not infected with EV (T1D-EV-), and in nondiabetic controls. The frequency of EV was higher in diabetic children (100/382; 26.2%) than in healthy controls (0/100). Levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly higher but C-peptide was significantly lower in diabetic children than in controls. CRP levels were higher in the T1D-EV+ group than in the T1D-EV- group, and higher in all diabetic children than in nondiabetic controls. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes GPx, SOD, and CAT decreased significantly in diabetic children compared to in controls. Moreover, the activities of the enzymes tested were significantly reduced in the T1D-EV+ group compared to in the T1D-EV- group. Our data indicate that EV infection correlated with a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the T1D-EV+ group compared to in the T1D-EV- group; this may contribute to β cell damage and increased inflammation. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  3. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qing [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Xiaomei [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Xiaoyu [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Engineering Research Center of Seawater Utilization Technology, Ministry of Education, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yang Hongsheng, E-mail: hshyang@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Liu Baozhong, E-mail: bzliu@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  4. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qing; Wang Xiaomei; Wang Xiaoyu; Yang Hongsheng; Liu Baozhong

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 μg L -1 ). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  5. Cigarette smoke–induced induction of antioxidant enzyme activities in airway leukocytes is absent in active smokers with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Rosamund E.; Leong-Smith, Pheneatia; Roos-Engstrand, Ester; Pourazar, Jamshid; Shah, Mittal; Behndig, Annelie F.; Mudway, Ian S.; Blomberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative injury to the airway has been proposed as an important underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the extent of oxidant-mediated damage is dependent on the endogenous antioxidant defences within the airways, we examined whether COPD was associated with deficiencies in the antioxidant network within the respiratory tract lining fluids (RTLFs) and resident airway leukocytes. We hypothesised that COPD would be associated with both basal depression of antioxidant defences and impaired adaptive antioxidant responses to cigarette smoke. Methods Low molecular weight and enzymatic antioxidants together with metal-handling proteins were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway leukocytes, derived from current (n=9) and ex-smoking COPD patients (n=15), as well as from smokers with normal lung function (n=16) and healthy never smokers (n=13). Results Current cigarette smoking was associated with an increase in ascorbate and glutathione within peripheral RTLFs in both smokers with normal lung function compared with healthy never smokers and in COPD smokers compared with COPD ex-smokers. In contrast, intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase) were only up-regulated in smokers with normal lung function compared with healthy never smokers and not in actively smoking COPD patients relative to COPD ex-smokers. Conclusions We found no evidence of impaired basal antioxidant defences, within either the RTLFs or airway leukocytes in stable ex-smoking COPD patients compared with healthy never smoking controls. Current cigarette smoking induced an up-regulation of low molecular weight antioxidants in the RTLFs of both control subjects with normal lung function and patients with COPD. Importantly, the present data demonstrated a cigarette smoke–induced increase in intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme activities only within the smokers with

  6. Keratocyte apoptosis and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities after refractive corneal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Bilgihan, A; Adiguzel, U; Sezer, C; Yis, O; Akyol, G; Hasanreisoglu, B

    2002-01-01

    Refractive corneal surgery induces keratocyte apoptosis and generates reactive oxygen radicals (ROS) in the cornea. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the correlation between keratocyte apoptosis and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities after different refractive surgical procedures in rabbits. Rabbits were divided into six groups. All groups were compared with the control group (Group 1), after epithelial scraping (Group 2), epithelial scrape and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) (traditional PRK: Group 3), transepithelial PRK (Group 4), creation of a corneal flap with microkeratome (Group 5) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK, Group 6). Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labelling assay (to detect DNA fragmentation in situ) and light microscopy were used to detect apoptosis in rabbit eyes. Glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the corneal tissues were measured with spectrophotometric methods. Corneal Gpx and SOD activities decreased significantly in all groups when compared with the control group (P<0.05) and groups 2, 3 and 6 showed a significantly higher amount of keratocyte apoptosis (P<0.05). Not only a negative correlation was observed between corneal SOD activity and keratocyte apoptosis (cc: -0.3648) but Gpx activity also showed negative correlation with keratocyte apoptosis (cc: -0.3587). The present study illustrates the negative correlation between keratocyte apoptosis and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities. This finding suggests that ROS may be partly responsible for keratocyte apoptosis after refractive surgery.

  7. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients evolving with cholestatic jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax infection has been considered a benign and self-limiting disease, however, recent studies highlight the association between vivax malaria and life-threatening manifestations. Increase in reactive oxygen species has already been described in vivax malaria, as a result of the increased metabolic rate triggered by the multiplying parasite, and large quantities of toxic redox-active byproducts generated. The present study aimed to study the oxidative stress responses in patients infected with P. vivax, who developed jaundice (hyperbilirubinaemia) in the course of the disease, a common clinical complication related to this species. Methods An evaluation of the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes profile was performed in 28 healthy individuals and compared with P. vivax infected patients with jaundice, i.e., bilirubin jaundice (34 patients), on day 1 (D1) and day 14 (D14) after anti-malarial therapy. Results Hyperbilirubinaemia was more frequent among women and patients experiencing their first malarial infection, and lower haemoglobin and higher lactate dehydrogenase levels were observed in this group. Malondialdehyde levels and activity of celuroplasmin and glutathione reductase were increased in the plasma from patients with P. vivax with jaundice compared to the control group on D1. However, the activity of thioredoxin reductase was decreased. The enzymes glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, thiols and malondialdehyde also differed between jaundiced versus non-jaundiced patients. On D14 jaundice and parasitaemia had resolved and oxidative stress biomarkers were very similar to the control group. Conclusion Cholestatic hyperbilirubinaemia in vivax malaria cannot be totally disassociated from malaria-related haemolysis. However, significant increase of lipid peroxidation markers and changes in antioxidant enzymes in patients with P. vivax-related jaundice was observed. These results suggest oxidative processes contributing

  8. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women. © 2013.

  9. Zinc affects differently growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin synthase expression of four marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 μM) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  10. Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms

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    Thi Le Nhung Nguyen-Deroche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc-supplementation (20 μM effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa. Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  11. The Effects of Ibogaine on Uterine Smooth Muscle Contractions: Relation to the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes

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    Zorana Oreščanin-Dušić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid originally extracted from the root bark of the African rainforest shrub Tabernanthe iboga. It has been explored as a treatment for substance abuse because it interrupts drug addiction and relieves withdrawal symptoms. However, it has been shown that ibogaine treatment leads to a sharp and transient fall in cellular ATP level followed by an increase of cellular respiration and ROS production. Since contractile tissues are sensitive to changes in the levels of ATP and ROS, here we investigated an ibogaine-mediated link between altered redox homeostasis and uterine contractile activity. We found that low concentrations of ibogaine stimulated contractile activity in spontaneously active uteri, but incremental increase of doses inhibited it. Inhibitory concentrations of ibogaine led to decreased SOD1 and elevated GSH-Px activity, but doses that completely inhibited contractions increased CAT activity. Western blot analyses showed that changes in enzyme activities were not due to elevated enzyme protein concentrations but posttranslational modifications. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities point to a vast concentration-dependent increase in H2O2 level. Knowing that extracellular ATP stimulates isolated uterus contractility, while H2O2 has an inhibitory effect, this concentration-dependent stimulation/inhibition could be linked to ibogaine-related alterations in ATP level and redox homeostasis.

  12. Effects of alginate on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei

    2014-06-30

    Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (Pboar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (Pextenders with the presence of alginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (Pboar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in rice plants, cv. BRS AG, under saline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossatto, Tatiana; do Amaral, Marcelo Nogueira; Benitez, Letícia Carvalho; Vighi, Isabel Lopes; Braga, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel; de Magalhães Júnior, Ariano Martins; Maia, Mara Andrade Colares; da Silva Pinto, Luciano

    2017-10-01

    The rice cultivar ( Oryza sativa L.) BRS AG, developed by Embrapa Clima Temperado, is the first cultivar designed for purposes other than human consumption. It may be used in ethanol production and animal feed. Different abiotic stresses negatively affect plant growth. Soil salinity is responsible for a serious reduction in productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the gene expression and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR) and identify their functions in controlling ROS levels in rice plants, cultivar BRS AG, after a saline stress period. The plants were grown in vitro with two NaCl concentrations (0 and 136 mM), collected at 10, 15 and 20 days of cultivation. The results indicated that the activity of the enzymes evaluated promotes protection against oxidative stress. Although, there was an increase of reactive oxygen species, there was no increase in MDA levels. Regarding genes encoding isoforms of antioxidant enzymes, it was observed that OsSOD3 - CU/Zn , OsSOD2 - Cu/Zn , OsSOD - Cu/Zn , OsSOD4 - Cu/Zn , OsSODCc1 - Cu/Zn , OsSOD - Fe , OsAPX1 , OsCATB and OsGR2 were the most responsive. The increase in the transcription of all genes among evaluated isoforms, except for OsAPX6 , which remained stable, contributed to the increase or the maintenance of enzyme activity. Thus, it is possible to infer that the cv. BRS AG has defense mechanisms against salt stress.

  14. Chemical Composition and Enzymes Inhibitory, Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Caloplaca biatorina

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    Tahereh Valadbeigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study evaluated the brine shrimp larvae toxicity and enzymes inhibitory especially anti-diabetic potential of Caloplaca biatorina via in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using the methanol extracts. Also aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of the species were determined. Methods In this experimental study, different concentrations of the extracts (0.2, 5.0, 1 and 1.5 mg/mL were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the percentage of enzyme inhibitory activity and IC50 was calculated. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography analysis were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS V.21 software. Results Parietin, Emodin, 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-6- methoxy-9.10-anthracenedione and Rhein were identified. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 17.12, 40.09 and 11.02 µg/mL respectively. Also methanol extract displayed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging and brine shrimp toxicity (IC50 = 91.11 properties. Conclusions The result obtained suggests that the C. biatorina extract can be classified as non-toxic. Also, it revealed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the lichen.

  15. Antioxidant enzymes activity in embryogenic and non-embryogenic tissues in Sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marina Medeiros de Araujo Silva; Ulisses, Claudia; Lacerda E Medeiros, Maria Jaislanny; Cavalcante Granja, Manuela Maria; Willadino, Lilia; Camara, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to induce direct somatic embryogenesis from segments of immature leaves of the RB872552 variety of sugarcane and to correlate this morphogenic event with oxidative stress. Two previously described protocols were utilized for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane with different supplementations of the culture medium and different incubation conditions. For the conversion of embryos into plants was used ms medium without phytoregulators. Histological analyses and activity of antioxidant enzymes were also conducted for the embryogenic and non-embryogenic tissues. The formation of somatic embryos was obtained in 81 % of the explants with the combination of regulators 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)and BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) when incubated under 16 h photoperiod. With regards to the antioxidant enzymes, there was increased activity of peroxidase and an increase in the soluble protein content in embryogenic tissues, whereas lower activities of polyphenol oxidase and catalase appeared in these tissues compared to nonembryogenic tissues. It could be inferred that oxidative stress plays an important role in the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane.

  16. Polyphenols of Salix aegyptiaca modulate the activities of drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, and level of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Mohd; Kale, R K; Singh, Rana P

    2018-03-07

    Salix aegyptiaca is known for its medicinal properties mainly due to the presence of salicylate compounds. However, it also contains other beneficial phytochemicals such as gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin. The aim of the study was to examine the redox potential, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of these phytochemicals along with acetylsalicylic acid. The redox potential and antioxidant activity of gallic acid, quercetin, rutin, vanillin and acetylsalicylic acid were determined by oxidation-reduction potential electrode method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. In ex vivo studies, antioxidant activity of these phytochemicals was determined by lipid peroxidation and carbonyl content assay in the liver of mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by protein denaturation method. Six-week old C57BL/6 mice treated with gallic acid (100 mg/kg body weight) and acetylsalicylic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) to investigate their in vivo modulatory effects on the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and level of lipid peroxidation in liver. The order of ability to donate electron and antioxidant activity was found to be: gallic acid > quercetin > rutin > vanillin > acetylsalicylic acid. In ex vivo studies, the similar pattern and magnitude of inhibitory effects of these phytochemicals against peroxidative damage in microsomes and protein carbonyl in cytosolic fraction were observed. In in vivo studies, gallic acid and acetylsalicylic acid alone or in combination, enhanced the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes as well as antioxidant enzymes and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver. These findings show a close link between the electron donation and antioxidation potential of these phytochemicals, and in turn their biological activity. Gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin were found to be better electron donors and

  17. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

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    J. H. Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  18. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  19. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasma ‎concentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  20. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

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    Gulati Vandana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and (ii ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml, Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml, Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts

  1. The hormetic effect of cadmium on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan; Shen Guoqing; Yu Yueshu; Zhu Hongling

    2009-01-01

    The hormetic dose-response relationships induced by environmental toxic agents are often characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Confirmation of the general phenomenon of hormesis may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment, although the mechanisms that underlie hormesis remain an enigma. In this study, a model-based approach for describing a dose-response relationship incorporating the hormetic effect was applied to the detection and estimation of the hormetic effect of cadmium (Cd) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but high concentrations inhibited the enzymes, and this was reflected in an inverted U-shaped curve. The maximum hormetic magnitude of SOD activity was higher than that of catalase. The presence of hormesis induced by cadmium in the earthworm may be related to activation of adaptive pathways. - A model-based approach and careful preliminary experiments are needed for detecting and estimating the hormetic effect.

  2. The hormetic effect of cadmium on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yan [Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shen Guoqing, E-mail: gqsh@sjtu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu Yueshu; Zhu Hongling [Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The hormetic dose-response relationships induced by environmental toxic agents are often characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Confirmation of the general phenomenon of hormesis may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment, although the mechanisms that underlie hormesis remain an enigma. In this study, a model-based approach for describing a dose-response relationship incorporating the hormetic effect was applied to the detection and estimation of the hormetic effect of cadmium (Cd) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but high concentrations inhibited the enzymes, and this was reflected in an inverted U-shaped curve. The maximum hormetic magnitude of SOD activity was higher than that of catalase. The presence of hormesis induced by cadmium in the earthworm may be related to activation of adaptive pathways. - A model-based approach and careful preliminary experiments are needed for detecting and estimating the hormetic effect.

  3. Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These

  4. Cocoa-enriched diet enhances antioxidant enzyme activity and modulates lymphocyte composition in thymus from young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2007-08-08

    Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and procyanidins. This article reports the effect of continuous cocoa intake on antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues, including lymphoid organs and liver, from young rats. Weaned Wistar rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake) for three weeks, corresponding to their infancy. Flavonoid absorption was confirmed through the quantification of epicatechin metabolites in urine. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were examined. Cocoa intake enhanced TAC in all tissues especially in thymus. Moreover, thymus SOD and catalase activities were also dose-dependently increased by cocoa. It was also analyzed whether the enhanced antioxidant system in thymus could influence its cellular composition. An increase in the percentage of thymocytes in advanced development stage was found. In summary, cocoa diet enhances thymus antioxidant defenses and influences thymocyte differentiation.

  5. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates

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    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8% after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH (56.00% and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC (59.00% methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  6. AM Fungi Influences the Photosynthetic Activity, Growth and Antioxidant Enzymes in Allium sativum L. under Salinity Condition

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    Mahesh BORDE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Potential of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in alleviating adverse salt effects on growth was tested in garlic (Allium sativum L.. Towards this objective we analyzed the AM root colonization and the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM salinity levels. The activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied were found to be increased in AM garlic plants. Antioxidant activity was maximum in 100 and 200 mM NaCl (sodium chloride in AM and non-AM plants. Proline accumulation was induced by salt levels and it was more in leaves as well as roots of AM plants as compared to non-AM plants, this indicating that mycorrhiza reduced salt injury. Growth parameters of garlic plants like leaf area, plant fresh and dry weight and antioxidant enzyme activities were higher at moderate salinity level. This work suggests that the mycorrhiza helps garlic plants to perform better under moderate salinity level by enhancing the antioxidant activity and proline content as compared to non-AM plants.

  7. Cytokinin-induced activity of antioxidant enzymes in transgenic Pssu-ipt tobacco during plant ontogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synková, Helena; Semorádová, Šárka; Schnablová, Renáta; Witters, E.; Hušák, M.; Valcke, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2006), s. 31-41 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1061; GA ČR GA206/03/0310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokinins * antioxidant enzymes * ontogenesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2006

  8. Bioactive properties of commercialised pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice: antioxidant, antiproliferative and enzyme inhibiting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M; Arbonés-Mainar, Jose Miguel; Valero, Marta Sofía; López, Víctor

    2015-06-01

    Pomegranate juice and related products have long been used either in traditional medicine or as nutritional supplements claiming beneficial effects. Although there are several studies on this food plant, only a few studies have been performed with pomegranate juice or marketed products. The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant effects of pomegranate juice on cellular models using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent or DPPH and superoxide radicals in cell free systems. The antiproliferative effects of the juice were measured on HeLa and PC-3 cells by the MTT assay and pharmacologically relevant enzymes (cyclooxygenases, xanthine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase A) were selected for enzymatic inhibition assays. Pomegranate juice showed significant protective effects against hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in the Artemia salina and HepG2 models; these effects may be attributed to radical scavenging properties of pomegranate as the juice was able to reduce DPPH and superoxide radicals. Moderate antiproliferative activities in HeLa and PC-3 cancer cells were observed. However, pomegranate juice was also able to inhibit COX-2 and MAO-A enzymes. This study reveals some mechanisms by which pomegranate juice may have interesting and beneficial effects in human health.

  9. Strawberry polyphenols attenuate ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by activation of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of MDA increase.

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    José M Alvarez-Suarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in

  10. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristić, Slavica; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Petronijević, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a

  11. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Malondialdehyde Concentration and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Erythrocytes

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    José A. Morales-González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress.

  12. Chemical stress induced by heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum L.) allelochemicals and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghader, Kalantar; Nojavan, Majid; Naghshbandi, Nabat

    2008-03-15

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the allelopathic potential of heliotrope on some biochemical processes of dodder. The preliminary experiments revealed that the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of heliotrope is higher than its seeds and roots. So, the aqueous extract of leaves was used in remaining experiments. Leaf extracts of 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O inhibited the germination of dodder seeds up to 95% and that of radish up to 100%. While, the aqueous extract of vine leaves which is a non-allelopathic plant did not have any inhibitory effect on these seeds. Vine leaf was used as a control to show that the inhibitory effect of heliotrope is due to an inhibitory compound but not due to the concentration. The leaf extract of heliotrope at 0.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O reduced the radish seedling growth from 14 cm to about 0.5 cm and that of dodder from 7.5 cm to about 0.25 cm. The effects of heliotrope allelochemicals on some physiological and biochemical processes of radish was also Investigated. The activity of auxin oxidase increased in leaves and roots of radish. Suggesting that the reduced radish growth is due to the decreased active auxin levels in its leaves and roots. The activity of alpha-amylase was reduced, so reduction of starch degradation and lack of respiratory energy is the prime reason of germination inhibition in dodder and radish seeds. The level of soluble sugars increased. This is an indication of reduction of the activity of some respiratory enzymes and reduced consumption of these sugars. Proline levels were also increased, indicating that, the chemical stress is induced by leaf extract. Finally, the activities of GPX and CAT which are antioxidant enzymes were increased, along with increased extract concentration. These finding shows that the chemical stress induced by leaf extract produces super oxide (O2*) and H2O2, which is neutralized to H2O and O2 by these enzymes.

  13. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  14. Changes in element accumulation, phenolic metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities in the red-skin roots of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Yang, Zhenming; Gao, Lingling; Liu, Wen; Liu, Rongkun; Zhao, Junting; You, Jiangfeng

    2017-07-01

    Red-skin root disease has seriously decreased the quality and production of Panax ginseng (ginseng). To explore the disease's origin, comparative analysis was performed in different parts of the plant, particularly the epidermis, cortex, and/or fibrous roots of 5-yr-old healthy and diseased red-skin ginseng. The inorganic element composition, phenolic compound concentration, reactive oxidation system, antioxidant concentrations such as ascorbate and glutathione, activities of enzymes related to phenolic metabolism and oxidation, and antioxidative system particularly the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were examined using conventional methods. Aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), magnesium, and phosphorus were increased, whereas manganese was unchanged and calcium was decreased in the epidermis and fibrous root of red-skin ginseng, which also contained higher levels of phenolic compounds, higher activities of the phenolic compound-synthesizing enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the phenolic compound oxidation-related enzymes guaiacol peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase. As the substrate of guaiacol peroxidase, higher levels of H 2 O 2 and correspondingly higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were found in red-skin ginseng. Increased levels of ascorbate and glutathione; increased activities of l-galactose 1-dehydrogenase, ascorbate peroxidase, ascorbic acid oxidase, and glutathione reductase; and lower activities of dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione peroxidase were found in red-skin ginseng. Glutathione- S -transferase activity remained constant. Hence, higher element accumulation, particularly Al and Fe, activated multiple enzymes related to accumulation of phenolic compounds and their oxidation. This might contribute to red-skin symptoms in ginseng. It is proposed that antioxidant and antioxidative enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycles, are activated to protect against phenolic compound

  15. Tributyltin toxicity in abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) assessed by antioxidant enzyme activity, metabolic response, and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Xiao-shan; Cai, Zhong-hua

    2010-11-15

    A toxicity test was performed to investigate the possible harmful effects of tributyltin (TBT) on abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta). Animals were exposed to TBT in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations (2, 10 and 50 ng/L) for 30 days under laboratory conditions. TBT-free conditions were used as control treatments. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), along with levels of haemolymph metabolites, and hepatopancreas histopathology were analyzed. The results showed that TBT decreased SOD activity, and increased POD level and MDA production in a dose-dependent way, indicating that oxidative injury was induced by TBT. Haemolymph metabolite measurements showed that TBT increased alanine and glutamate levels, and decreased glucose content, which suggested perturbation of energy metabolism. Elevated levels of acetate and pyruvate in the haemolymph indicated partial alteration of lipid metabolism. A decrease in lactate and an increase in succinate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, indicated disturbance of amino acid metabolism. Hepatopancreas tissues also exhibited inflammatory responses characterized by histopathological changes such as cell swelling, granular degeneration, and inflammation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TBT was a potential toxin with a variety of deleterious effects on abalone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High activity antioxidant enzymes protect flying-fox haemoglobin against damage: an evolutionary adaptation for flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, N B; O'Brien, G M

    2006-11-01

    Flying-foxes are better able to defend haemoglobin against autoxidation than non-volant mammals such as sheep. When challenged with the common physiological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, haemolysates of flying-fox red blood cells (RBC) were far less susceptible to methaemoglobin formation than sheep. Challenge with 1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine (APH) caused only half as much methaemoglobin formation in flying-fox as in ovine haemolysates. When intact cells were challenged with phenazine methosulfate (PMS), flying-fox RBC partially reversed the oxidant damage, and reduced methaemoglobin from 40 to 20% over 2 h incubation, while ovine methaemoglobin remained at 40%. This reflected flying-fox cells' capacity to replenish GSH fast enough that it did not deplete beyond 50%, while ovine RBC GSH was depleted to around 20%. The greater capacity of flying-foxes to defend haemoglobin against oxidant damage may be explained in part by antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome-b ( 5 ) reductase having two- to four-fold higher activity than in sheep (P foxes.

  17. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat.

  18. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  19. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  20. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Ding

    Full Text Available Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  1. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I.; González-Laredo, Rubén F.; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Pérez, MŞ del Mar Larrosa; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R.; Flores-Rueda, Ana G.; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E.

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profi le measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis d...

  2. Evaluation of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme and Lysosomal Enzymes of the Longissimus dorsi Muscle from Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) in Various Freezing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Kim, Donghun; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and lysosomal enzymes (alpha-glucopyranosidase (AGP) and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (BNAG)) of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) in three freezing conditions. Following freezing at -20, -60, and -196? (liquid nitrogen), LD samples (48 h post-slaughter) were treated as follows: 1) freezing for 14 d, 2) 1 to 4 freeze-thaw cycles (2 d of freezing in each cycl...

  3. Seasonal changes in antioxidant enzyme activities of freshwater biofilms in a metal polluted Mediterranean stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Berta; Corcoll, Natàlia; Acuňa, Vicenç; Sigg, Laura; Behra, Renata; Guasch, Helena

    2013-02-01

    While seasonal variations in fluvial communities have been extensively investigated, effects of seasonality on community responses to environmental and/or chemical stress are poorly documented. The aim of this study was to describe antioxidant enzyme activity (AEA) variability in fluvial biofilms over an annual cycle, under multi-stress scenarios due to environmental variability (e.g., light intensity, water flow, and temperature) and metal pollution (Zn, Mn and Fe). The annual monitoring study was performed at three sites according to their water and biofilm metal concentrations. Metal concentration was affected by water flow due to dilution. Low flow led to higher dissolved Zn concentrations, and thus to higher Zn accumulation in the biofilm. Water temperature, light intensity and phosphate concentration were the environmental factors which determined the seasonality of biofilm responses, whereas dissolved Zn and Zn accumulation in biofilms were the parameters linked to sites and periods of highest metal pollution. Community algal succession, from diatoms in cold conditions to green algae in warm conditions, was clearer in the non metal-polluted site than in those metal-polluted, presumably due to the selection pressure exerted by metals. Most AEA were related with seasonal environmental variability at the sites with low or no-metal pollution, except glutathione-S-transferase (GST) which was related with Zn (dissolved and accumulated in biofilm) pollution occurring at the most polluted site. We can conclude that seasonal variations of community composition and function are masked by metal pollution. From this study we suggest the use of a multi-biomarker approach, including AEA and a set of biological and physicochemical parameters as an effect-based field tool to assess metal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of thermal treatment on color, enzyme activities, and antioxidant capacity of innovative pastelike parsley products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andrea; Brinkmann, Maike; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2012-03-28

    Conventional spice powders are often characterized by low sensory quality and high microbial loads. Furthermore, genuine enzymes are only inhibited but not entirely inactivated upon drying, so that they may regain their activity upon rehydration of dried foods. To overcome these problems, initial heating was applied in the present study as the first process step for the production of innovative pastelike parsley products. For this purpose, fresh parsley was blanched (80, 90, and 100 °C for 1-10 min) and subsequently comminuted to form a paste. Alternatively, mincing was carried out prior to heat treatment. Regardless of temperature, the color of the latter product did not show any change after heating for 1 min. With progressing exposure time the green color turned to olive hues due to marked pheophytin formation. Inactivation of genuine peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was achieved at all temperature-time regimes applied. In contrast, the parsley products obtained after immediate water-blanching were characterized by brighter green colors and enhanced pigment retention. With the exception of the variants water-blanched at 80 °C, POD and PPO were completely inactivated at any of the thermal treatments. Furthermore, in water-blanched samples, antioxidant capacities as determined by the TEAC and FRAP assays were even enhanced compared to unheated parsley, whereas a decrease of phenolic contents could not be prevented. Consequently, the innovative process presented in this study allows the production of novel herb and spice products characterized by improved sensory quality as compared to conventional spice products.

  5. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Relationships among alcoholic liver disease, antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-01-07

    Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a serious cause of liver disease worldwide. The metabolism of ethanol generates reactive oxygen species, which play a significant role in the deterioration of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Antioxidant phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, regulate the expression of ALD-associated proteins and peptides, namely, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. These plant antioxidants have electrophilic activity and may induce antioxidant enzymes via the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway and antioxidant responsive elements. Furthermore, these antioxidants are reported to alleviate cell injury caused by oxidants or inflammatory cytokines. These phenomena are likely induced via the regulation of mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by plant antioxidants, similar to preconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion models. Although the relationship between plant antioxidants and ALD has not been adequately investigated, plant antioxidants may be preventive for ALD because of their electrophilic and regulatory activities in the MAPK pathway.

  7. Effect of Grinding at Modified Atmosphere or Vacuum on Browning, Antioxidant Capacities, and Oxidative Enzyme Activities of Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah-Na; Lee, Kyo-Yeon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chun, Jiyeon; Kerr, William L; Choi, Sung-Gil

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of grinding at atmospheric pressure (control), under vacuum (∼2.67 kPa), or with modified atmosphere (N 2 and CO 2 ) on the browning, antioxidant activity, phenolics, and oxidative enzyme activity of apples as a function of time. The control group was affected most, showing distinct browning and losing most of the antioxidant activity and concentrations of the main phenolic compounds. The modified atmosphere groups retained color, antioxidant activity, and phenolic compounds better than the control group. Least changes were obtained with vacuum grinding, particularly in terms of preventing enzymatic browning and oxidation of antioxidants apples. At 12 h after grinding, vacuum-ground apples retained total phenolic contents 5.32, 1.54, and 1.49 times higher than control, nitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide gas-ground samples, respectively. The oxidative enzyme activity, including that of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, decreased in the control and modified atmosphere group, but they were maintained in the samples ground under the vacuum. In this study, we found that grinding with modified atmosphere or vacuum conditions could effectively prevent browning as well as loss of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of ground apples. These results can help scientists and engineers build better grinding systems for retaining nutrient and quality factors of ground apples. In addition, these results may be useful to other fruit and vegetable industries that wish to retain fresh-like quality and nutritional value during grinding and storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Trehalose improves semen antioxidant enzymes activity, post-thaw quality, and fertility in Nili Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sajid; Andrabi, Syed Murtaza Hassan; Riaz, Amjad; Durrani, Aneela Zameer; Ahmad, Nasim

    2016-03-15

    Our objectives were to study the effect of trehalose in extender on (1) antioxidant enzymes profile during cryopreservation (after dilution, before freezing, and after thawing), (2) in vitro quality (after thawing), and (3) in vivo fertility of Nili Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. Semen samples (n = 20) from four buffalo bulls were diluted in Tris-citric acid-based extender having different concentrations of trehalose (0.0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mM) and frozen in French straws. At post dilution, profile of sperm catalase (U/mL) was higher (P semen doses cryopreserved in extender containing 30 mM of trehalose than the control. It is concluded that addition of 30-mM trehalose in extender improves the semen antioxidant enzymes activity, post thaw quality, and fertility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

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    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  10. Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

    2013-04-01

    A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro

  11. Lycopene activates antioxidant enzymes and nuclear transcription factor systems in heat-stressed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Sahin, N; Hayirli, A; Bilgili, S; Kucuk, O

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lycopene supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, and muscle nuclear transcription factor [Kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] expressions in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress (HS). A total of 180 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned randomly to one of 2×3 factorially arranged treatments: two housing temperatures (22°C for 24 h/d; thermoneutral, TN or 34°C for 8 h/d HS) and three dietary lycopene levels (0, 200, or 400 mg/kg). Each treatment consisted of three replicates of 10 birds. Birds were reared to 42 d of age. Heat stress caused reductions in feed intake and weight gain by 12.2 and 20.7% and increased feed efficiency by 10.8% (Plycopene level improved performance in both environments. Birds reared under the HS environment had lower serum and muscle lycopene concentration (0.34 vs. 0.50 μg/mL and 2.80 vs. 2.13 μg/g), activities of superoxide dismutase (151 vs. 126 U/mL and 131 vs. 155 U/mg protein), glutathione peroxidase (184 vs. 154 U/mL and 1.39 vs. 1.74 U/mg protein), and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (0.53 vs. 0.83 μg/mL and 0.78 vs. 0.45 μg/ mg protein) than birds reared under the TN environment. Changes in levels of lycopene and MDA and activities of enzymes in serum and muscle varied by the environmental temperature as dietary lycopene level increased. Moreover, increasing dietary lycopene level suppressed muscle Keap1 expression and enhanced muscle Nrf2 expression, which had increased by 150% and decreased by 40%, respectively in response to HS. In conclusion, lycopene supplementation alleviates adverse effects of HS on performance through modulating expressions of stress-related nuclear transcription factors. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. The 28-day exposure to fenpropathrin decreases locomotor activity and reduces activity of antioxidant enzymes in mice brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara; Borzęcki, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Fenpropathrin (Fen) is a pyrethroid (Pyr) insecticide. Pyrs are used in veterinary medicine, in agriculture and for domestic purposes. As their use increases, new questions about their side effects and mode of action in non-target organisms arise. The objective of this work was to characterize dose-response relationship for in vivo motor function and memory in mice exposed to Fen for 28 days and to assess its influence on activity of antioxidant enzymes in mice brains. The experiment was performed using 64 female mice. Fen at the dose of 11.9mg/kg of body mass, 5.95mg/kg or 2.38mg/kg was administered ip to the mice for 28 consecutive days. Motor function and spatial working memory were tested on days 7, 14 and 28. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed and brains were used to determine activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Fen significantly decreased locomotor activity in mice receiving the highest dose at every stage of the experiment. Lower doses reduced locomotion on days 7 and 14. Fen did not produce memory impairment. A decrease in activities of SOD and GPx was recorded in mice brains. The decrease of SOD activity in mice brains results from direct inhibition of the enzyme by Fen and/or increased utilization due to excessive free radical formation in conditions of Fen-induced oxidative stress. The reduction in GPx activity is probably due to limited glutathione availability. The reduced locomotor activity is a behavioral demonstration of Fen-induced damage in the dopaminergic system. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of enzymes-microwave-ultrasound assisted extraction of Lentinus edodes polysaccharides and determination of its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chaomin; Fan, Xiuzhi; Fan, Zhe; Shi, Defang; Gao, Hong

    2018-05-01

    Enzymes-microwave-ultrasound assisted extraction (EMUE) method had been used to extract Lentinus edodes polysaccharides (LEPs). The enzymatic temperature, enzymatic pH, microwave power and microwave time were optimized by response surface methodology. The yields, properties and antioxidant activities of LEPs from EMUE and other extraction methods including hot-water extraction, enzymes-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction were evaluated. The results showed that the highest LEPs yield of 9.38% was achieved with enzymatic temperature of 48°C, enzymatic pH of 5.0, microwave power of 440W and microwave time of 10min, which correlated well with the predicted value of 9.79%. Additionally, LEPs from different extraction methods possessed typical absorption peak of polysaccharides, which meant different extraction methods had no significant effects on type of glycosidic bonds and sugar ring of LEPs. However, SEM images of LEPs from different extraction methods were significantly different. Moreover, the different LEPs all showed antioxidant activities, but LEPs from EMUE showed the highest reducing power when compared to other LEPs. The results indicated LEPs from EMUE can be used as natural antioxidant component in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  15. Effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in Pacific cod Gadus microcephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Shi, Xuehui; Liu, Yifan; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Sperm motility and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (Gr), and lipid peroxidation (measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were determined after the milt was stored at 4°C for 12 h, cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in 12% propylene glycol (PG), cryopreserved in 12% PG+0.1 mol/L trehalose, or cryopreserved in 12% PG spermatozoa but centrifuged to decant the supernatant prior to cryopreservation (only sperm cells were cryopreserved). After chilled storage or cryopreservation, the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were reduced in sperm cells and increased in seminal plasma in almost all treatments; sperm motility parameters were also decreased. However, the addition of trehalose into the cryoprotectant could significantly improve the postthaw sperm quality as revealed by the sperm average path velocity. This improvement might be attributed to the function of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chilled storage and cryopreservation had significant effects on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod.

  16. PPARα ligands activate antioxidant enzymes and suppress hepatic fibrosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Hideki; Harano, Yuichi; Yamauchi, Norihito; Morita, Atsuhiro; Kirishima, Toshihiko; Minami, Masahito; Itoh, Yoshito; Okanoue, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major pathogenetic factor in hepatic fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a nuclear receptor which is known to affect oxidative stress and PPARα ligands may have rescue effects on hepatic fibrosis. We tested this hypothesis using rat thioacetamide (TAA) models of liver cirrhosis. Rats were given intraperitoneal injection of TAA and treated with a diet containing one of the two PPARα ligands, Wy-14,643 (WY) or fenofibrate. WY treatment dramatically reduced hepatic fibrosis and also prevented the inhibition catalase of mRNA expression caused by TAA. Correspondingly, catalase activity increased in the TAA + WY group but decreased in the control TAA group. The antifibrotic action of fenofibrate in the TAA model was comparable with that of WY. PPARα ligands have an antifibrotic action in the rat TAA model of liver cirrhosis, probably due to an antioxidant effect of enhanced catalase expression and activity in the liver

  17. Cadmium toxicity affects chlorophyll a and b content, antioxidant enzyme activities and mineral nutrient accumulation in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhad Muradoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is well known as one of the most toxic metals affecting the environment and can severely restrict plant growth and development. In this study, Cd toxicities were studied in strawberry cv. Camarosa using pot experiment. Chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities and mineral nutrient concentrations were investigated in both roots and leaves of strawberry plant after exposure Cd. RESULTS: Cd content in both roots and leaves was increased with the application of increasing concentrations of Cd. We found higher Cd concentration in roots rather than in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b was decreased in leaves but MDA significantly increased under increased Cd concentration treatments in both roots and leaves. SOD and CAT activities was also increased with the increase Cd concentrations. K, Mn and Mg concentrations were found higher in leaves than roots under Cd stress. In general, increased Cd treatments increased K, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu and Zn concentration in both roots and leaves. Excessive Cd treatments reduced chlorophyll contents, increased antioxidant enzyme activities and changes in plant nutrition concentrations in both roots and leaves. CONCLUSION: The results presented in this work suggested that Cd treatments have negative effect on chlorophyll content and nearly decreased 30% of plant growth in strawberry. Strawberry roots accumulated higher Cd than leaves. We found that MDA and antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD and APX contents may have considered a good indicator in determining Cd tolerance in strawberry plant.

  18. Rosmarinic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities in Lavandula vera MM cell suspension culture: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Milen; Abrashev, Radoslav; Krumova, Ekaterina; Demirevska, Klimentina; Ilieva, Mladenka; Angelova, Maria

    2009-11-01

    The growth and intracellular protein content of lavender (Lavandula vera MM) cell suspension culture was followed along with some antioxidant defense system members-non-enzymatic (rosmarinic acid) and enzymatic [superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6)]. It was found that the media content and the cultivation mode strongly influenced the production of plant defense compounds as well as the ratio between non-enzymatic and enzymatic ones. The bioreactor culture contains about two times more rosmarinic acid, superoxide dismutase, and catalase compared to the shake-flask cultivation. These findings are discussed with respect to the relative stress levels and plant antioxidant orchestra system. It was concluded that investigated defense system components (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were closely associated in a complex balance. The three isoenzyme forms of SOD (Cu/ZnSOD, FeSOD, and MnSOD) in the cells of Lavandula vera were revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, and the FeSOD isoform exhibited highest activity.

  19. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) and Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) under heavy metal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odjegba, V. J.; Fasidi, I. O.

    2007-01-01

    Whole plants of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were exposed to various concentrations (0,0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM) of 8 heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) hydroponically for 21 days. Spectrometric assays for the total activity of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the leaves were studied. At the end of the experimental period, data referred to metal treated plants were compared to data of untreated ones (control). Heavy metals increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in both species and there was differential inducement among metals. Overall, Zn had the least inducement of antioxidant enzymes in both species while Hg had the highest inducement. The increase in antioxidant enzymes in relation to the control plants was more in E. crassipes than P. stratiotes. The results showed that E. crassipes tolerated higher metal concentrations in a greater number of metals than P. stratiotes. (author)

  20. Comparison of antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA damage in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes exposed to vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Muhammad Adnan; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Yousaf, Balal; Ashraf, Muhammad; Shuanglian, Xiong; Rizwan, Muhammad; Mehmood, Sajid; Tu, Shuxin

    2016-10-01

    The present study was done to elucidate the effects of vanadium (V) on photosynthetic pigments, membrane damage, antioxidant enzymes, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity in the following chickpea genotypes: C-44 (tolerant) and Balkasar (sensitive). Changes in these parameters were strikingly dependent on levels of V, at 60 and 120 mg V L(-1) induced DNA damage in Balkasar only, while photosynthetic pigments and protein were decreased from 15 to 120 mg V L(-1) and membrane was also damaged. It was shown that photosynthetic pigments and protein production declined from 15 to 120 mg V L(-1) and the membrane was also damaged, while DNA damage was not observed at any level of V stress in C-44. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were increased in both genotypes of chickpea against V stress; however, more activities were observed in C-44 than Balkasar. The results suggest that DNA damage in sensitive genotypes can be triggered due to exposure of higher vanadium.

  1. Effects of Heat Acclimation on Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Gene Expression in Orchardgrass under Heat Stress

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    Xin Xin Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the effects of heat acclimation on enzymatic activity, transcription levels, the photosynthesis processes associated with thermostability in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L..The stomatal conductance (Gs, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, and transpiration rates (Tr of both heat-acclimated (HA and non-acclimated (NA plants were drastically reduced during heat treatment [using a 5-day heat stress treatment (38/30 °C ‒ day/night followed by a 3-day recovery under control conditions (25/20 °C ‒ day/night, in order to consolidate the second cycle was permitted]. Water use efficiency increased more steeply in the HA (4.9 times versus the NA (1.8 times plants, and the intercellular CO2 concentration decreased gently in NA (10.9% and HA (25.3% plants after 20 d of treatments compared to 0 days’. Furthermore, heat-acclimated plants were able to maintain significant activity levels of superoxide disumutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, and transcription levels of genes encoding these enzymes; in addition, HA plants displayed lower malondialdehyde content and lower electrolyte leakage than NA plants. These results suggest that maintenance of activity and transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as photosynthesis are associated with variable thermostability in HA and NA plants. This likely occurs through cellular membrane stabilization and improvements in water use efficiency in the photosynthetic process during heat stress. The association between antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, both of which may vary with genetic variation in heat tolerance, is important to further understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to heat tolerance.

  2. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-09-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe(2+) chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods.

  3. Effects of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and on Tissue Accumulation of Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçsoy, Mustafa; Duran, Servet; Ay, Özcan; Cicik, Bedii; Erdem, Cahit

    2017-09-01

    Accumulation of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) in gill, liver and muscle tissues of Oreochromis niloticus and its effects on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in gill and liver tissues were studied after exposing the fish to 20 µg/L Cu over 15 days. Copper levels and enzyme activities in tissues were determined using spectrophotometric (ICP-AES and UV) techniques respectively. No mortality was observed during the experiments. Copper levels increased in gill and liver tissues of O. niloticus compared to control when exposed to CuO NPs whereas exposure to metal had no effect on muscle level at the end of the exposure period. Highest accumulation of copper was observed in liver while no accumulation was detected in muscle tissue. SOD, CAT activities decreased and GPx activity increased in gill and liver tissues when exposed to CuO NPs.

  4. Antioxidant and lipoxygenase activities of polyphenol extracts from oat brans treated with polysaccharide degrading enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisita Ratnasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used polysaccharide degrading enzymes and protein precipitation to extract polyphenols from oats and to determine their bioactivity. Duplicate oat brans were treated with viscozyme (Vis, cellulase (Cel or no enzyme (control, CTL then, proteins were removed in one set (Vis1, Cel1, CTL1 and not in the other (Vis2, Cel2, CTL2. HPLC analyses showed that for cellulase treated brans, precipitation of proteins increased phenolic acids and avenanthramides by 14%. Meanwhile, a decreased of 67% and 20% respectively was found for viscozyme and control brans. The effect of protein precipitation on soluble polyphenols is therefore dependent of the carbohydrase, as proteins with different compositions will interact differently with other molecules. Radical scavenging data showed that Cel1 and Vis1 had higher quenching effects on ROO• radicals with activities of 22.1 ± 0.8 and 23.5 ± 1.2 μM Trolox Equivalents/g defatted brans. Meanwhile, CTL2 had the highest HO• radicals inhibition (49.4 ± 2.8% compared to 10.8–32.3% for others. Samples that highly inhibited lipoxygenase (LOX, an enzyme involved in lipid oxidation were Cel1 (23.4 ± 2.3% and CTL1 (18 ± 0.4%.

  5. Nanodiamonds as pH-switchable oxidation and reduction catalysts with enzyme-like activities for immunoassay and antioxidant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T M; Tian, X M; Huang, L; Xiao, J; Yang, G W

    2017-10-19

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) have recently become a focus of interest from the viewpoints of both science and technology. Their intriguing properties make them suitable as biologically active substrates, in biosensor applications as well as diagnostic and therapeutic biomedical imaging probes. Here, we demonstrate that NDs, as oxidation and reduction catalysts, possess intrinsic enzyme mimetic properties of oxidase, peroxidase and catalase, and these behaviors can be switched by modulating the pH value. NDs not only catalyze the reduction of oxygen (O 2 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) at acidic pH, but also catalyze the dismutation decomposition of H 2 O 2 to produce O 2 at alkaline pH. It was proposed that the molecular mechanism of their peroxidase-like activity is electron-transfer acceleration, the source of which is likely derived from oxygen containing functional groups on their surface. Based on the color reaction, a nanodiamond-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG). Surprisingly, NDs display an excellent antioxidant activity due to the protective effect against H 2 O 2 -induced cellular oxidative damage. These findings make NDs a promising enzyme mimetic candidate and expand their applications in biocatalysis, bioassays and nano-biomedicine.

  6. Increased oxidative/nitrosative stress and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsova-Sarafinovska, Zorica; Eken, Ayse; Matevska, Nadica; Erdem, Onur; Sayal, Ahmet; Savaser, Ayhan; Banev, Saso; Petrovski, Daniel; Dzikova, Sonja; Georgiev, Vladimir; Sikole, Aleksandar; Ozgök, Yaşar; Suturkova, Ljubica; Dimovski, Aleksandar J; Aydin, Ahmet

    2009-08-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the oxidative/nitrosative stress status in prostate cancer (CaP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). 312 men from two different populations were included: 163 men from Macedonia (73 CaP patients, 67 BPH patients and 23 control subjects) and 149 men from Turkey (34 prostate cancer patients, 100 BPH patients and 15 control subjects). We measured erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, erythrocyte activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT); plasma nitrite/nitrate (NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-)), cGMP and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. A similar pattern of alteration in the oxidative/nitrosative stress-related parameters was found in both, Macedonian and Turkish studied samples: higher MDA concentrations with lower GPX and CuZn-SOD activities in CaP patients versus controls and BPH groups. The CAT activity was decreased in the CaP patients versus controls in the Turkish studied sample. Furthermore, CaP patients had increased plasma NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) and cGMP levels versus controls and BPH groups in both studied samples. This study has confirmed an imbalance in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status and revealed an altered nitrosative status in prostate cancer patients.

  7. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  8. Genetic variability in chronic irradiated plant populations - Polymorphism and activity of antioxidant enzymes in chronic irradiated plant populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Polina Y.; Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The gene pool of natural population is constantly changing in order to provide the greatest fitness at this time. Ability of population to adapt to changing environmental conditions depends on genetic polymorphism of traits which are operates by selection. Chronic stress exposure can change amount or structure intra-population variability. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the relationships between genetic polymorphism and stress factors, such as radiation exposure. This studies my assist in the development of new bio-indication methods. Materials and methods: Studying sites: Bryansk region is the most contaminated region of Russia as a result of Chernobyl accident. The initial activity by {sup 137}Cs on this territory reached 1 MBq/m{sup 2} above surface. Our study conducted in several districts of Bryansk region, which are characterized the most dose rate. Experimental sites similar to climate characteristics, stand of trees is homogeneous, pine trees take up a significant part of phytocenosis. Heavy metals content in soils and cones be within background. Dose rates vary from 0.14 to 130 mGy/year. Object: Pinus sylvestris L.,the dominant tree species in North European and Asian boreal forests. Scots pine has a long maturation period (18-20 month), which means that significant DNA damage may accumulate in the undifferentiated stem cells, even at low doses (or dose rates) during exposure to low concentrations of contaminants Isozyme analysis: We evaluated isozyme polymorphism of three antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutatione reductase and glutatione peroxidase. Analysis of enzymes activities: We chose key enzymes of antioxidant system for this experiment: superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Results and conclusions: We estimated frequency of each allele in reference and experimental populations. based It was showed that frequency of rare alleles increase in chronic irradiated populations, i.e. increase the sampling variance

  9. In vitro enzyme-mimic activity and in vivo therapeutic potential of HSJ-0017, a novel Mn porphyrin-based antioxidant enzyme mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-qiu; Dong, Xin; Li, Na; Gao, Ji-you; Yuan, Qiang; Fang, Shi-hong; Gong, Xian-chang; Wang, Shu-juan; Wang, Feng-shan

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (III) 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis [3-(2-(2-methoxy)-ethoxy) ethoxy] phenyl porphyrin chloride, designated HSJ-0017, is a novel antioxidant enzyme mimic. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enzyme-mimic activity and the therapeutic potential of HSJ-0017 in free radical-related diseases. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic activity was measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium chloride monohydrate reduction assay. Catalase (CAT) mimic activity was measured based on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The antitumor, radioprotective and chemoprotective effects of HSJ-0017 were evaluated in H22 or S180 tumor-bearing Kunming mice. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects were, respectively, evaluated in histamine-induced edema model and CCl4-induced hepatic damage model in Wistar rats. HSJ-0017 over a concentration range of 0.001-10 µmol/L significantly inhibited the generation of superoxide anion. Significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity was observed when the concentration of HSJ-0017 was higher than 0.01 µmol/L. HSJ-0017 at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg exhibited significant antitumor effect on S180 tumor xenografts, whereas no significant antitumor effect was observed in H22 tumor xenografts. HSJ-0017 at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg enhanced the antitumor effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and reduced their toxicity. However, HSJ-0017 counteracted the antitumor effects of radiotherapy when administered simultaneously with radiotherapy. HSJ-0017 showed significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. Our results demonstrate that HSJ-0017 exhibits antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, chemoprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. It is a potent dual SOD/CAT mimic. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z H; Gong, J G; Zhao, G X; Lin, X; Liu, Y C; Ma, K W

    2017-10-01

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period. 3. The results indicated that dietary resveratrol significantly improved feed conversion ratios during 5-8 weeks and 1-8 weeks of the trial. Increasing dietary concentrations of the resveratrol linearly improved Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs. 4. The content of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum and cholesterol in yolk was significantly decreased by dietary resveratrol, and there were significant linear correlations between these indexes and resveratrol supplemental levels. 5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation significantly improved serum Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in groups with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg resveratrol as compared to the control, respectively. However, supplementation of resveratrol did not affect the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). 6. It is concluded that resveratrol supplementation has a positive effect on performance, lipid-related traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens.

  11. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I; González-Laredo, Rubén F; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Pérez, Mş Del Mar Larrosa; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R; Flores-Rueda, Ana G; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E

    2016-09-01

    Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profile measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50% of DPPH radical ( i . e . lower IC 50 ). Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14% of E. camaldulensis and 49% of L. glaucescens ); whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC 50 than positive control (captopril). The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.

  12. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia I. Gamboa-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profi le measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50 % of DPPH radical (i.e. lower IC50. Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14 % of E. camaldulensis and 49 % of L. glaucescens; whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC50 than positive control (captopril. The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.

  13. Effects of Estrogen Replacement Therapy on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı F. Ceylan-Işık

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause and diabetes are conditions producing free radicals independently from each other. Estrogen replacement therapy which widely used in postmenopausal period has beneficial effects because of its antioxidant property. The study groups were as follows: ovariectomy (n=8, ovariectomy+17-östradiol (n=8, ovariectomy+diabetes (n=10 and ovariectomy+diabetes+17-östradiol (n=8. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg i.p. and the treatment with 17-östradiol (0.1 mg/kg/day was started a week after ovariectomy. After–week long experimental period aortic and uterine tissues were collected from the animals and the malondialdehyde concentration, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were quantified. The treatment did not effect blood glucose concentrations, but increased plasma estradiol concentrations. Increased malondialdehyde concentrations were reduced by the treatment in aorta from diabetics and nondiabetics, but the treatment increased malondialdehyde concentrations in nondiabetic uterine while were reducing in diabetic uterine. The treatment also reduced the increased activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in aorta from diabetics and nondiabetics, on the other hand the treatment increased the activities of those enzymes in uterine from diabetics and nondiabetics. Our results suggested that estrogen acts as an antioxidant or prooxidant depending on the tissues.

  14. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum 'Bugwang'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression.

  15. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum ‘Bugwang'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression. PMID:27088085

  16. Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bei-bei; Ling, Li; Hua, Chen; Ren, Shu-yan

    2014-09-01

    The effects of soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were investigated. Ninety-seven pregnant women with GDM were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (51 cases) and the SBOS group (46 cases). Before the group separation, the blood sugar level in patients was maintained stable by regular diet and insulin treatment. The control group was continued with the insulin treatment, while the SBOS group was treated with the combination of insulin and SBOS. Results showed that SBOS were able to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate insulin resistance in pregnant women with GDM, which indicates that SBOS may play an important role in the control of GDM complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Jasmonic acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetika eSirhindi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L. plants subjected to nickel (Ni stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23%, 38.31% and 39.21% respectively over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and growth of Ni-stressed seedlings in terms of root and shoot length. Plants supplemented with Jasmonate restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein and total soluble sugar (TSS by 33.09%, 51.26%, 22.58% and 49.15% respectively under Ni toxicity as compared to control. Supplementation of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX increases by 40.04%, 28.22%, 48.53% and 56.79% respectively over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62%, CAT by 15.25%, POD by 58.33% and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes and osmoprotectants, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression.

  18. Quercetin Protects Primary Human Osteoblasts Exposed to Cigarette Smoke through Activation of the Antioxidative Enzymes HO-1 and SOD-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl F. Braun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smokers frequently suffer from impaired fracture healing often due to poor bone quality and stability. Cigarette smoking harms bone cells and their homeostasis by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Quercetin, a naturally occurring antioxidant, can protect osteoblasts from the toxic effects of smoking. Human osteoblasts exposed to cigarette smoke medium (CSM rapidly produced ROS and their viability decreased concentration- and time-dependently. Co-, pre- and postincubation with Quercetin dose-dependently improved their viability. Quercetin increased the expression of the anti-oxidative enzymes heme-oxygenase- (HO- 1 and superoxide-dismutase- (SOD- 1. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abolished the protective effect of Quercetin. Our results demonstrate that CSM damages human osteoblasts by accumulation of ROS. Quercetin can diminish this damage by scavenging the radicals and by upregulating the expression of HO-1 and SOD-1. Thus, a dietary supplementation with Quercetin could improve bone matter, stability and even fracture healing in smokers.

  19. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto)-fermented pigeon pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Wu, She-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto-fermented pigeon pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension.

  1. Interactive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Features and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

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    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA applications (10−3 and 10−5 M on activities of nitrate reductase, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutases (SOD, catalase (CAT and proline enzymes and physiological parameters was evaluated in two ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara under greenhouse conditions. In both varieties, tested treatments generally enhanced photosynthetic rate and total dry weight. Photosynthetic rate increases were generally accompanied by increased or unchanged stomatal conductance levels, although intercellular CO2 concentrations of treated plants were typically lower than in controls. Lower SA concentrations were generally more effective in enhancing photosynthetic rate and plant growth. Exogenous application of SA increased antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content; the greatest responses were obtained in plants sprayed with 10–5 M SA, with significant increases observed in CAT (20.1%, POD (45.2%, SOD (44.1% and proline (43.1% activities. Increased CAT activity in leaves is naturally expected to increase photosynthetic efficiency and thus net photosynthesis by maintaining a constant CO2 supply. Our results support the idea that low SA concentrations (10–5 M may induce nitrite reductase synthesis by mobilizing intracellular NO3− and can provide protection to nitrite reductase degradation in vivo in the absence of NO3–. Observed positive correlations among proline, SOD, CAT and POD activities in the studied varieties suggest that increased SOD activity was accompanied by increases in CAT and POD activities because of the high demands of H2O2 quenching.

  2. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makpol, Suzana; Yeoh, Thong Wei; Ruslam, Farah Adilah Che; Arifin, Khaizurin Tajul; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2013-08-16

    Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs.

  3. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  4. Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease, with and without Presence of Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić-Balen, Marica; Božikov, Veljko; Bistrović, Dragica; Jandrić, Ivan; Božikov, Jadranka; Romić, Željo; Balen, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The study evaluated antioxidant status in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD), with and without concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). 211 participants were divided into standardized 4 groups: patients with PVD and DM (PVD+DM+), patients with PVD without DM (PVD+DM-), patients without PVD with DM (PVD-DM+) and patients without PVD and DM (PVD-DM-). The diagnosis of PVD was established by Doppler sonography analysis, including determination of the ankle brachial index (...

  5. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xu [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Dapeng [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yamanaka, Kenzo [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan); An, Yan, E-mail: dranyan@126.com [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-12-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. - Highlights: • Low level, long term arsenite exposure induces malignant transformation in vitro. • Long term arsenite exposure reduces ROS and MDA levels. • Long term arsenite

  6. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xu; Wang, Dapeng; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian; Yamanaka, Kenzo; An, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. - Highlights: • Low level, long term arsenite exposure induces malignant transformation in vitro. • Long term arsenite exposure reduces ROS and MDA levels. • Long term arsenite

  7. Role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes and extracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ChithrashreeGS

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... peroxidase are two important antioxidant scavenging enzymes involved in ... Catalase was assayed using the method of Beers and Sizer. (1951) with .... yeast dextrose calcium carbonate agar (YDC) medium. Catalase and ...

  8. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliahmat, Nor Syahida; Noor, Mohd Razman Mohd; Yusof, Wan Junizam Wan; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during aging.

  9. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Syahida Aliahmat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old, middle-aged (12 months old, and old (18 months old. Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight, tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg, and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg. The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes

  10. Interleukin-6, Creatine Kinase, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities following Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment on Muscle Injury: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Lai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP treatment alongside rehabilitation compared with rehabilitation alone on inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6, IL-6, creatine kinase muscle type (CKM, and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT following hamstring injury. This study was a randomised control trial. Participants diagnosed with grade-2 acute hamstring injury (n=16 were divided into 2 groups of PRP treatment with rehabilitation program (PRP-T and rehabilitation program (CON. Blood samples were collected at baseline, and 2 fortnightly for the various biochemical assessments. Participants were certified to have recovered upon fulfilling return to play (RTP criteria. Level of IL-6 and the activities of CKM, SOD, and CAT were measured. PRP-T group benefited from earlier time to RTP with significantly lower IL-6 level and CAT activity compared to CON group. There was no significant difference in CKM and SOD activities between the groups, though a trend of lower values in all variables was observed at week 4 compared to week 0. PRP treatment potentially improves muscle healing process by altering both the inflammatory and oxidative responses, hence hastens time to RTP. KEY WORDS:  Autologous, blood injection, rehabilitation, sports injury, hamstring injury

  11. Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on antioxidant enzymes activity, heat resistance and productivity of Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko N.N.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of treatment of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. seeds with the solutions of salicylic and succinic acids on the heat resistance of plantlets and activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase – in them have been investigated. In the micro-field experiment the influence of these acids on the millet yield was estimated. The action of salicylic (10 μM and succinic (1 mM acids caused the increase of plantlets resistance to the damaging heating that expressed in the rise of relative quantity of survived plantlets in 5 days after heating at the temperature of 47°С and in the reduced content of lipid peroxidation product malonic dialdehyde during the poststress period. The increase of activity of SOD, catalase and peroxidase took place in millet plantlets under the influence of salicylic and succinic acids. The increase of productivity of millet grain under the action of salicylic and succinic acids on 13,3-52,0 and 6,4-38,8% respectively depending on weather conditions in the field experiments was noted.

  12. Effects of fluoride on germination, early growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of legume plant species Prosopis juliflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-03-01

    Prosopis juliflora (Mimosoideae) is a fast growing and drought resistant tree of semi-arid region of India where fluoride (F) toxicity is a common problem. In the present investigations this species was fluoride tested to check their capacity as bioindicator plant and its efficiency to accumulate. To achieve this aim, P. juliflora seedlings grown in hydroponic culture containing different concentrations of F were analyzed for germination percentage together with some biochemical parameters viz, antioxidant enzyme activities, total chlorophyll and accumulation of F in different plant parts. After 15 days of treatment, root growth (r = -0.928, p juliflora did not show any morphological changes (marginal and tip chlorosis of leaf portions, necrosis and together these features are referred to as leaf "tip-burn") therefore, this species may be used as suitable bioindicator species for potentially F affected areas. Further, higher accumulation of F in roots indicates that P. juliflora is a suitable species for the removal of F in phytoremediation purposes.

  13. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments.

  14. Effect of salinity stress on antioxidative enzyme activities in tomato cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srineing, K.; Saisavoey, T.; Karnchanatat, A.

    2015-01-01

    Under inappropriate environments, plants responses by changing their metabolisms to maintain homeostasis that acclimation abilities are different among species and varieties. Saline tolerance tomato is an alternative way to overcome saline soil condition of some areas in Thailand. This study aims to select one or some saline tolerance tomato varieties from mostly used commercial ones. Six tomato variety seeds (Pethlanna, Puangphaka, Seeda, Beefeater, Seeda chompoo and TE VF 1-3-4) were grown by tissue culture technique in MS medium and MS medium supplied with 0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mM NaCl. The Puangphaka variety was selected since it could grow in all tests NaCl concentrations with best germination time compared to the others cultivar seeds and exhibited 80-90% growth compared to control group. The seedlings were further cultivated in the same medium for 7, 14 and 21 days before they were conducted to determine stem and root superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as amount of chlorophyll. It was found that the SOD, CAT and GPx exhibited increase and decrease trends nearly the same pattern in salinity responses but with different activity levels. Inhibition of nutrient uptake could also be seen from the results. The maximum activities were 5, 0.18, 0.08, 2 and 3 U/mg protein for stem SOD, stem CAT, root CAT, stem GPx and root GPx, respectively. Furthermore, the chlorophyll A and B levels were decrease slightly except for the 21 days plants which presented considerable decrease. (author)

  15. The biochemical effects of occupational exposure to lead and cadmium on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activity in the blood of glazers in tile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormozi, Maryam; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nakhaee, Alireza; Izadi, Shahrokh; Dehghan Haghighi, Javid

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) on markers of oxidative stress in glazers in tile industries. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the blood of 80 subjects, including 40 glazers and 40 nonexposed subjects. Mean levels of blood Cd (8.90 ± 2.80 µg/L) and blood Pb (62.90 ± 38.10 µg/L) of glazers showed a significant increase compared with the control group. In the serum of glazers, the level of MDA was significantly higher and the level of TAC was significantly lower than the control group. We have noted a disturbance in the levels of antioxidants by a significant increase in the CAT activity and a significant decrease in the activities of SOD and GPx in the serum of glazers compared with the controls. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the serum MDA level and CAT activity were positively associated with the blood levels of Pb and Cd. Also, GPx and SOD were negatively correlated with blood Cd levels. The study clearly indicated that co-exposure to Cd and Pb can induce oxidative stress in glazers, resulting in increased lipid peroxidation and altered antioxidant enzymes.

  16. Triangular gold nanoparticles modify shell characteristics and increase antioxidant enzyme activities in the clam Ruditapes decussatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafidh, Khazri; Badreddine, Sellami; Mezni, Amine; Mouhamed, Dellali; Wiem, Saidani; Imen, Bouzidi; David, Sheehan; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Hamouda, Beyrem

    2018-04-19

    Nanoparticles may cause adverse environmental effects but there is limited information on their interactions with marine organisms. Our aim was to examine the effects of triangular gold nanoparticles (Tr-Au NPs) on the clam, Ruditapes decussatus. Clams were exposed to Tr-Au1 = 5 µg/L and Tr-Au2 = 10 µg/L for 2 and 7 days. Effects on shell structure were investigated. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione transferase (GST) activities, protein carbonyl levels and malondialdehyde content were used to assess biochemical status. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) showed that Tr-Au NPs modified shell structure and morphology. Tr-Au NPs size increased forming aggregate particles. Tr-Au NPs increased SOD, CAT and GST activities in gill and digestive gland in a concentration- and time-dependent manner indicating defence against oxidative stress. Enhanced lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl levels confirmed oxidative stress. Tr-Au NPs cause oxidative stress and affect shell structure of clams. These findings may have relevance to other marine species.

  17. [Effects of melaxen and valdoxan on the activity of glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-producing enzymes in rat heart under experimental hyperthyroidism conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of melaxen and valdoxan on the activity of glutathione antioxidant system and some NADPH-producing enzymes have been studied under conditions of experimental hyperthyroidism in rat heart. Under the action of these drugs, reduced glutathione (GSH) content increased as compared to values observed under the conditions of pathology. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase (increased under pathological conditions) change toward the intact control values upon the introduction of both drugs. The influence of melaxen and valdoxan, capable of producing antioxidant effect, leads apparently to the inhibition of free-radical oxidation processes and, as a consequence, the reduction of mobilization degree of the glutathione antioxidant system.

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant potential, enzyme inhibition activity and phenolic profile of Lathyrus cicera and Lathyrus digitatus: Potential sources of bioactive compounds for the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorent-Martínez, E J; Ortega-Barrales, P; Zengin, G; Mocan, A; Simirgiotis, M J; Ceylan, R; Uysal, S; Aktumsek, A

    2017-09-01

    The genus Lathyrus has great importance in terms of food and agricultural areas. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant activity (phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC and metal chelating) and enzyme inhibitory activity evaluation (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase) of L. cicera and L. digitatus were investigated, as well as their phytochemical profiles. The screening of the main phytochemical compounds in aerial parts of L. cicera and L. digitatus was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-ESI-MS n ), observing that flavonoids represent the highest percentage of identified compounds, with abundance of tri- and tetra-glycosilated flavonoids, including acylated ones, especially in L. cicera. Generally, L. digitatus exhibited stronger antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities in correlation with its higher level of phenolics. The high number of phenolic compounds and the results of the antioxidant and enzyme assays suggest that these plants may be further used as sources of bioactive compounds, and for the preparation of new nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of cadmium on phenolic compounds, antioxidant enzyme activity and oxidative stress in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plantlets grown in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manquián-Cerda, K; Escudey, M; Zúñiga, G; Arancibia-Miranda, N; Molina, M; Cruces, E

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) can affect plant growth due to its mobility and toxicity. We evaluated the effects of Cd(2+) on the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant response of Vaccinium corymbosum L. Plantlets were exposed to Cd(2+) at 50 and 100µM for 7, 14 and 21 days. Accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the antioxidant enzyme SOD was determined. The profile of phenolic compounds was evaluated using LC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test (FRAP). Cd(2+) increased the content of MDA, with the highest increase at 14 days. The presence of Cd(2+) resulted in changes in phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compound found in blueberry plantlets was chlorogenic acid, whose abundance increased with the addition of Cd(2+) to the medium. The changes in the composition of phenolic compounds showed a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity measured using FRAP. Our results suggest that blueberry plantlets produced phenolic compounds with reducing capacity as a selective mechanism triggered by the highest activity of Cd(2+). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Redox regulation of antioxidant enzymes: post-translational modulation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity by resveratrol in diabetic rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Gökhan; Bozan, Davut; Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir

    2014-08-01

    Resveratrol is a strong antioxidant that exhibits blood glucose-lowering effects, which might contribute to its usefulness in preventing complications associated with diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate resveratrol effects on catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) gene and protein expression, their phosphorylation states and activities in rat liver of STZ-induced diabetes. Diabetes increased the levels of total protein phosphorylation and p-CAT, while mRNA expression, protein levels, and activity were reduced. Although diabetes induced transcriptional repression over GPx, it did not affect the protein levels and activity. When resveratrol was administered to diabetic rats, an increase in activity was associated with an increase in p-GPx levels. Decrease in Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) gene expression in diabetes were associated with a decrease in CAT and GPx mRNA expression. A possible compensatory mechanism for reduced gene expression of antioxidant enzymes is proved to be nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive Nrf2 and NFκB in diabetes which is confirmed by the increase in nuclear and decrease in cytoplasmic protein levels of Nrf2 and NFκB. Taken together, these findings revealed that an increase in the oxidized state in diabetes intricately modified the cellular phosphorylation status and regulation of antioxidant enzymes. Gene regulation of antioxidant enzymes was accompanied by nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and NFκB. Resveratrol administration also activated a coordinated cytoprotective response against diabetes-induced changes in liver tissues.

  1. Role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes and extracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we studied the role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes of plant pathogenic bacteria: catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and a virulence factor; extracelluar polysaccharide production in determining the virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) isolates and its differential reaction to rice cultivars.

  2. Histological changes and antioxidant enzyme activity in signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) associated with sub-acute peracetic acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupani, Latifeh; Zuskova, Eliska; Stara, Alzbeta; Velisek, Josef; Kouba, Antonin

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a powerful disinfectant recently adopted as a therapeutic agent in aquaculture. A concentration of 10 mg L(-1) PAA effectively suppresses zoospores of Aphanomyces astaci, the agent of crayfish plague. To aid in establishing safe therapeutic guideline, the effects of PAA on treated crayfish were investigated through assessment of histological changes and oxidative damage. Adult female signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (n = 135) were exposed to 2 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1) of PAA for 7 days followed by a 7 day recovery period in clean water. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in gill and hepatopancreas after three days exposure to 10 mg L(1) PAA than in the group treated with 2 mg L(-1) PAA and a control in only clean water. Catalase activity in gill and hepatopancreas remained unaffected by both exposures. Glutathione reductase was significantly decreased in gill of 10 mg L(-1) PAA treated crayfish and increased in group exposed to 2 mg L(-1) compared to control after 7 days exposure. Antioxidant enzyme activity in exposed groups returned to control values after recovery period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and antennal gland showed slight damage in crayfish treated with 2 mg L(-1) of PAA compared to the control group. The extent and frequency of histological alterations were more pronounced in animals exposed to 10 mg L(-1). The gill was the most affected organ, infiltrated by granular hemocytes and displaying malformations of lamella tips and disorganization of epithelial cells. After a 7 day recovery period, the infiltrating cells in affected tissues of the exposed crayfish began to return to normal levels. Results suggested that the given concentrations could be applied to signal crayfish against crayfish plague agent in aquaculture; however, further studies are required for safe use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Activity changes of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae infected by the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis beicherriana (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyue; Liu, Qizhi; Lewis, Edwin E; Tarasco, Eustachio

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are lethal parasites of many insect species. To investigate defensive mechanisms towards EPNs in relation to antioxidative and detoxifying enzymes, we chose Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as experimental insect. We studied the activity changes of superoxide dismutases (SODs), peroxidases (PODs), and catalases (CATs), as well as tyrosinase (TYR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CarE), and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) for 40 h in T. molitor larvae infected with Heterorhabditis beicherriana infective juveniles (IJs) at 5 rates (0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 IJs/larva). We found that when T. molitor larvae infected with H. beicherriana at higher rates (80 and 160 IJs/larva), SOD activity quickly increased to more than 70 % higher than that control levels. The activities of POD and CAT increased after 24 h. TYR activity increased slowly at lower rates of infection for 16 h, followed by a slight decrease, and then increasing from 32 to 40 h. The other detoxifying enzymes (GST, CarE, and AChE) were enhanced at lower infection rates, but were inhibited at higher rates. Our results suggested that host antioxidative response and detoxification reactions played a central role in the defensive reaction to EPNs, and that this stress which was reflected by the higher level enzymes activity contributed to the death of hosts. Further study should explore the exact function of these enzymes using different species of EPNs and investigate the links between enzyme activity and host susceptibility to EPNs.

  4. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity, Antioxidant Properties, Phenolic Content and Amino Acid Profiles of Fucus spiralis L. Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Paiva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food protein-derived hydrolysates with multi-bioactivities such as antihypertensive and antioxidant properties have recently received special attention since both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. This study reports, for the first time, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of ultrafiltrate fractions (UF with different molecular weight ranges (<1, 1–3 and ≥3 kDa obtained from Fucus spiralis protein hydrolysate (FSPH digested with cellulase–bromelain. The amino acids profile, recovery yield, protein, peptide and total phenolic contents of these FSPH-UF, and the in vitro digestibility of F. spiralis crude protein were also investigated. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa presented remarkably higher ACE-inhibition, yield, peptide and polyphenolic (phlorotannins contents. Antioxidant analysis showed that FSPH-UF <1 kDa and ≥3 kDa exhibited significantly higher scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC activity. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa had also notably higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Strong correlations were observed between ACE-inhibition and antioxidant activities (FIC and FRAP. The results suggest that ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of FSPH-UF may be due to the bioactive peptides and polyphenols released during the enzymatic hydrolysis. In conclusion, this study shows the potential use of defined size FSPH-UF for the prevention/treatment of hypertension and/or oxidative stress-related diseases.

  5. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effect of melaxen on free radical processes intensity and some antioxidant enzymes activity in rats liver and blood serum under type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verevkin, A N; Popova, T N; Agarkov, A A; Semenikhina, A V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of melaxen on free radical processes and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been investigated. It was established that melaxen administration to diabetic rats caused a decrease of the intensity of free radical processes as evidenced a decrease of the lipid peroxidation primary products content and biochemiluminescence parameters. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes changed towards normal values. These effects were probably induced by the correction of the melatonin level at the result of the melaxen action.

  7. MicroRNAs, polyamines, and the activities antioxidant enzymes are associated with in vitro rooting in white pine (Pinus strobus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yunjun; Xiao, Bo; Yang, Man; Ding, Qiong; Tang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanism of in vitro rooting in conifer is not fully understood. After establishment of a regeneration procedure in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) using mature embryos as explants to induce shoot formation on medium containing 3 μM IAA, 6 μM BA and 6 μM TDZ and induce root formation on medium containing 0.001-0.05 μM IAA, 0.001-0.05 μM IBA, 0.001-0.05 μM TDZ, we have investigated the changes of polyamine content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes during in vitro rooting in P. strobus. Our results demonstrated that putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) did not increase in P. strobus during the first week of rooting on medium supplemented with 0.01 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), whereas the levels of Put, Spd, and Spm increased during the 1st-3rd week of culture on medium with IAA, and then decreased on medium with IAA. No such a change in Put, Spd, and Spm was observed on medium without IAA. Measurement of antioxidant enzyme activity demonstrated that the activities of polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and peroxidase slightly increased in the first week of culture and reached to the highest peak in the 3rd-5th week of culture. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that miR160 was increased on the 7th day, miR162, miR397, and miR408 was increased from the 21th to 35th day, miR857 was increased on the 35th day, and miR827 was increased on the 49th day. These results demonstrated that enhanced polyamine biosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and microRNAs are correlated with the root induction and formation in P. strobus.

  8. Antioxidant activity and emulsion-stabilizing effect of pectic enzyme treated pectin in soy protein isolate-stabilized oil/water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Lu, Hao-Te; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2011-09-14

    The antioxidant activity of pectic enzyme treated pectin (PET-pectin) prepared from citrus pectin by enzymatic hydrolysis and its potential use as a stabilizer and an antioxidant for soy protein isolate (SPI)-stabilized oil in water (O/W) emulsion were investigated. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was found to be positively associated with molecular weight (M(w)) of PET-pectin and negatively associated with degree of esterification (DE) of PET-pectin. PET-pectin (1 kDa and 11.6% DE) prepared from citrus pectin after 24 h of hydrolysis by commercial pectic enzyme produced by Aspergillus niger expressed higher α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, TEAC, and reducing power than untreated citrus pectin (353 kDa and 60% DE). The addition of PET-pectin could increase both emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) of SPI-stabilized O/W emulsion. When the SPI-stabilized lipid droplet was coated with the mixture of PET-pectin and pectin, the EA and ES of the emulsion were improved more than they were when the lipid droplet was coated with either pectin or PET-pectin alone. The amount of secondary oxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) produced in the emulsion prepared with the mixture of SPI and PET-pectin was less than the amount produced in the emulsion prepared with either SPI or SPI/pectin. These results suggest that PET-pectin has an emulsion-stabilizing effect and lipid oxidation inhibition ability on SPI-stabilized emulsion. Therefore, PET-pectin can be used as a stabilizer as well as an antioxidant in plant origin in SPI-stabilized O/W emulsion and thus prolong the shelf life of food emulsion.

  9. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Lipid Oxidation in Rape (Brassica campestris L. Bee Pollen Added to Salami during Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the antioxidant effect of rape (Brassica campestris L. bee pollen (RBP on salami during processing. Eight flavonoids in RBP ethanol extract were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS analysis, and quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol were the major bioactive compounds. The RBP ethanol extract exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity than 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tertramethylchromancarboxylic acid (trolox at the same concentration. The salami with 0.05% RBP extract had higher catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities than that of the control throughout the processing time (p < 0.05. Significant decreases in peroxide value (POV and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS were obtained in the final salami product with 0.05% RBP ethanol extract or 1% RBP (p < 0.05. These results suggested that RBP could improve oxidative stability and had a good potential as a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid oxidation.

  10. Effect of different levels dietary vitamin C on growth performance, muscle composition, antioxidant and enzyme activity of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamalai Asaikkutti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was conducted to examine the effects and interactions of dietary vitamin C levels on the growth performance, antioxidant ability, muscle composition and enzyme activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (M. malcolmsonii. Additional, the vitamins C was dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn M. malcolmsonii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with M. malcolmsonii at the rates of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented vitamin C was fed in M. malcolmsonii for a period of 90 days. In the present investigation revealed that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C shows enhanced (P  0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR were observed in prawn fed different diets. Addition, prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C supplemented diets achieved significant (P  0.05 alterations in prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamin C supplemented diets. Therefore, the present study proposed that 100 mg/kg of vitamin C could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival; growth, antioxidant defense system and production of M. malcolmsonii. Keywords: Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, Vitamin, Growth performance, Biochemical compositions, Antioxidant enzyme

  11. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  12. The effect of rosemary extract on spatial memory, learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoolijazi, Homa; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Nikbakhte, Farnaz; Eslami Farsani, Mohsen; Ababzadeh, Shima

    2015-01-01

    The Rosemary extract (RE) possesses various antioxidant, cytoprotective and cognition- improving bioactivities. In this study, we postulated which doses of RE have a more effect on the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. In this experimental study, thirty-two middle-aged male Wistar rats were fed by different doses (50,100 and 200 mg/kg/day) of RE (containing 40% carnosic acid) or distilled water for 12 weeks. The effects of different RE doses on learning and spatial memory scores, hippocampal neuronal survival, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation amount were evaluated by one and two way analysis of variance (ANOVA). It seemed that RE (100mg/kg) could recover the spatial memory retrieval score (prosemary extract (40% carnosic acid) may improve the memory score and oxidative stress activity in middle aged rats in a dose dependent manner, especially in 100mg/kg.

  13. The antioxidant effects of vitamin C on liver enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotranferease, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities in rats under Paraquat insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a bipyridylium herbicide; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT, alanine aminotranferease (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT] of rats under this toxic insult. Male rats in groups (A, B, C and D were intraperitoneally injected with different sublethal increasing doses (0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 g/kg body weigh of PQ respectively on monthly basis. Subsequently, the subgroups (A2, B2, C2 and D2 were given orally, 200 mg/L vitamin C, while the subgroups A1, B1, C1, and D1, received only water. Four animals per subgroup were decapitated on monthly basis and blood samples taken for enzyme assay. The parameters studied were - SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT - liver enzymes. The dose and time dependent PQ toxicity effect resulted in highly elevated Liver enzymes activities. The subgroups on vitamin C had significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the same subgroups on only PQ insult. But the values were high when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. These results were indication that vitamin C when given at moderate doses and maintained for a longer period could be a life saving adjunct to toxic insult.

  14. In vitro antioxidant activity, enzyme kinetics, biostability and cellular SOD mimicking ability of 1:1 curcumin-copper (II) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunwar, A.; Mishra, B.; Barik, A.; Priyadarsini, K.I.; Narang, H.; Krishna, M.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro antioxidant activity of 1:1 curcumin copper (II) complex was evaluated by following the inhibition of γ-radiation induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in model systems. The SOD enzyme kinetic parameters K m and V max values and the turn over number of the complex were determined. The complex is stable in bio-fluids and prevents oxidation of lipid and protein solution in presence of H 2 O 2 and showed reduction in MnSOD level in spleen cells without having any effect on cell viability. (author)

  15. In vitro antioxidant activity, enzyme kinetics, biostability and cellular SOD mimicking ability of 1:1 curcumin-copper (II) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunwar, A; Mishra, B; Barik, A; Priyadarsini, K I [Radiation and Photochemistry Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Narang, H; Krishna, M [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2008-01-15

    In vitro antioxidant activity of 1:1 curcumin copper (II) complex was evaluated by following the inhibition of {gamma}-radiation induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in model systems. The SOD enzyme kinetic parameters K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and the turn over number of the complex were determined. The complex is stable in bio-fluids and prevents oxidation of lipid and protein solution in presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and showed reduction in MnSOD level in spleen cells without having any effect on cell viability. (author)

  16. Life history traits and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in Lymantria dispar L. (lepidoptera, lymantriidae) larvae exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Todorović, Dajana; Vlahović, Milena; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2015-11-01

    Increased presence of benzo[a]pyrene in the environment underlines the need for development of sensitive biomarkers for monitoring. Antioxidative enzymes could be used as early-warning signals because of their sensitivity and applicability. The activity of 2 antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were measured in midgut tissues of fifth instar Lymantria dispar larvae exposed to different concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene: 2 ng, 10 ng, 20 ng, 100 ng, 200 ng, and 2000 ng benzo[a]pyrene/g dry food weight. Larval development, larval mass, and relative growth rate were also monitored. The authors detected prolonged larval development, as well as reduced larval mass and relative growth rate in larvae exposed to all benzo[a]pyrene concentrations. The L. dispar midgut SOD activity was significantly increased, and 2 SOD isoforms were detected on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with benzo[a]pyrene. In contrast, the control group had only 1 isoform. Catalase activity was significantly increased in all benzo[a]pyrene-treated larvae. Native gel electrophoresis showed that a switch in active CAT isoforms occurred after benzo[a]pyrene treatment. Thus, SOD and CAT in polyphagous herbivorous L. dispar larvae are very sensitive to low concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene. Therefore, they could be used as biomarkers for exposure and effects of this toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst and catalase (cat genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05 and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05. The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage.

  18. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  19. Short communication: Potential of Fresco-style cheese whey as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango-Hernández, S; Alarcón-Rojo, A D; Robles-Sánchez, M; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, traditional Mexican Fresco-style cheese production has been increasing, and the volume of cheese whey generated represents a problem. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of Fresco-style cheese wheys and their potential as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Three samples from Fresco, Panela, and Ranchero cheeses whey were physicochemically characterized. Water-soluble extracts were fractionated to obtain whey fractions with different molecular weights: 10-5, 5-3, 3-1 and wheys. All whey fractions had antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. The 10-5 kDa whey fraction of Ranchero cheese had the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (0.62 ± 0.00 mM), and the 3-1 kDa Panela and Fresco cheese whey fractions showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity (0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.59 ± 0.04 μg/mL 50%-inhibitory concentration values, respectively). These results suggest that Fresco-style cheese wheys may be a source of protein fractions with bioactivity, and thus could be useful ingredients in the manufacture of functional foods with increased nutritional value. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Kharazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace elements between fertile and idiopathic infertile men.Methods: Semen specimens were collected from 30 infertile men with proven infertility by an urologist, and 30 fertile men as control donors, with age range between 20-40 years old. Semen analysis was conducted by CASA method. Atomic absorption method was used for measuring of zinc and selenium concentration. Activity assays of SOD and GPX were performed by Randox Kits. Aebi method also was applied for evaluation of catalase activity.Results: There was no difference between the activities of enzymes in fertile men and infertile ones. Also, it wasn't seen any difference in the selenium and zinc levels of seminal plasma. There was no relationship between evaluated items with sperm parameters. Only, in asthenoteratospermic individuals negative correlations were found between GPX and sperm motility, selenium and sperm morphology. Also, in these individuals ,there was a positive correlation between SOD and catalse activity.Conclusion: Measuring activities of SOD, GPx, and catalase and the contents of zinc and selenium of seminal plasma do not appear to be suitable tools for determining the fertility potential of sperm.

  1. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto)-fermented pigeon pea

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Hong Lee; Yi-Syuan Lai; She-Ching Wu

    2015-01-01

    Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained us...

  2. Improvement in antioxidant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and in vitro cellular properties of fermented pepino milk by Lactobacillus strains containing the glutamate decarboxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tsai-Hsin; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Wu, Tsung-Yen; Fu, Szu-Chieh; Hwang, Yi-Ting

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional potential of fermented pepino extract (PE) milk by Lactobacillus strains containing the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene. Three Lactobacillus strains were selected, including L. brevis BCRC 12310, L. casei BCRC 14082 and L. salivarius subsp. salivarius BCRC 14759. The contents of free amino acids, total phenolics content, total carotenoids and the associated functional and antioxidant abilities were analyzed, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging ability and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cell proliferation of fermented PE milk was also evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Compared to the unfermented PE, fermented PE milk from Lactobacillus strains with the GAD gene showed higher levels of total phenolics, γ-aminobutyric acid, ACE inhibitory activity, DPPH, and ORAC. The viability of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) determined by the MTT method decreased significantly when the cells were incubated with the PE and the fermented PE milk extracts. The consumption of fermented PE milk from Lactobacillus strains with the GAD gene is expected to benefit health. Further application as a health food is worthy of investigation. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The antioxidant effect of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes in the hippocampus of animal model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alizadeh*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hesperetin flavanone is a natural bioflavonoid found abundantly in citrus fruits with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nano sizing techniques improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs such as hesperetin. Main feature of Parkinson's disease is the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The rate of oxidative damage increases during Parkinson's disease, as the efficiency of antioxidant and repair mechanisms decreases.The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial potential of hesperetin and nano-hesperetinon the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzymes in the animal model of Parkinson's disease. Methods:  Forty nine male rats were divided into 7 groups. All groups except the control group and vehicle with unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine to striatum were converted to Parkinson's models. The four treatment groups received 5 and 10 mg/kg hesperetin and nano-hesperetinper day orally for four weeks. Then, at the end of the fourth week, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus area was measured. Results: The results showed that intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine significantly (p

  4. Effects of UV-B irradiation on isoforms of antioxidant enzymes and their activities in red alga Grateloupia filicina (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiqiang; Li, Lixia

    2014-11-01

    Macroalgae in a littoral zone are inevitably exposed to UV-B irradiance. We analyzed the effects of UV-B on isoenzyme patterns and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) of red algae Grateloupia filicina (Lamour.) C. Agardh. The activities of SOD, CAT, and APX changed in response to UV-B in a time- and dose-dependent manner. POX activity increased significantly under all three UV-B treatments. The enzymatic assay showed three distinct bands of SODI (Mn-SOD), SODII (Fe-SOD), and SODIII (CuZn-SOD) under a low (Luv) and medium (Muv) dose of UV-B irradiation, while SODI and SODIII activities decreased significantly when exposed to a high dose of UV-B irradiation (Huv). The activity of POX isoenzymes increased significantly after exposure to UV-B, which is consistent with the total activity. In addition, a clear decrease in activity of CATIV was detected in response to all the three doses of UV treatments. Some bands of APX isoenzyme were also clearly influenced by UV-B irradiation. Correspondingly, the daily growth rate declined under all the three exposure doses, and was especially significant under Muv and Huv treatments. These data suggest that, although the protection mechanisms of antioxidant defense system are partly inducible by UV-B to prevent the damage, G. filicina has incomplete tolerance to higher UV-B irradiation stress.

  5. Expression profiles of two small heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzyme activity in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Liping; Ning, Xuanxuan; Chen, Leilei; Zhang, Linbao; Zhao, Jianmin; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-03-01

    Small heat shock proteins encompass a widespread but diverse class of proteins, which play key roles in protecting organisms from various stressors. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of two small heat shock proteins (MgsHSP22 and MgsHSP24.1) were cloned from Mytilus galloprovincialis, which encoded peptides of 181 and 247 amino acids, respectively. Both MgsHSP22 and MgsHSP24.1 were detected in all tissues examined by real-time PCR, with the highest expression being observed in muscle and gonad tissues. The real-time PCR results revealed that Cd significantly inhibited MgsHSP22 expression at 24 h and MgsHSP24.1 at 24 and 48 h under 5 μg/L Cd 2+ exposure. MgsHSP24.1 expression was also significantly inhibited after 50 μg/L Cd2+ exposure for 48 h. With regard to antioxidant enzymes, increased GPx and CAT activity were detected under Cd2+ stress (5 and 50 μg/L), while no significant difference in SOD activity was observed throughout the experiment. Overall, both MgsHsps and antioxidant enzymes revealed their potential as Cd stress biomarkers in M. galloprovincialis.

  6. Transcriptome, antioxidant enzyme activity and histopathology analysis of hepatopancreas from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed with aflatoxin B1(AFB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Lei; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Wang, Mengqiang; Yang, Guang; Qi, Cancan; Wang, Baojie

    2017-09-01

    Aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus parasiticus fungi during grain and feed processing and storage. Aflatoxins cause severe health problems reducing the yield and profitability of shrimp cultures. We sought to understand the interaction between shrimp immunity and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), analyzing transcriptome expression, antioxidant enzyme activity, and histological features of the hepatopancreas of shrimp fed with AFB1. From over 4 million high-quality reads, de novo unigene assembly produced 103,644 fully annotated genes. A total of 1024 genes were differentially expressed in shrimp fed with AFB1, being involved in functions, such as peroxidase metabolism, signal transduction, transcriptional control, apoptosis, proteolysis, endocytosis, and cell adhesion and cell junction. Upon AFB1 challenge, there were severe histological alterations in shrimp hepatopancreas. AFB1 challenge increased the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. Our data contribute to improve the current understanding of host-AFB1 interaction, providing an abundant source for identification of novel genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats exposed to high-fructose diet in the period from weaning to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glban, Alhadi M; Vasiljević, Ana; Veličković, Nataša; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra; Blagojević, Duško; Matić, Gordana; Nestorov, Jelena

    2015-08-30

    Increased fructose consumption correlates with rising prevalence of various metabolic disorders, some of which were linked to oxidative stress. The relationship between fructose consumption and oxidative stress is complex and effects of a fructose-rich diet on the young population have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-fructose diet applied in the period from weaning to adulthood induces oxidative stress in the liver, thus contributing to induction or aggravation of metabolic disturbances in later adulthood. To that end we examined the effects of high-fructose diet on expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage in the liver as the main fructose metabolizing tissue. High-fructose diet increased only SOD2 (mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase) activity, with no effect on other antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation or accumulation of damaged proteins in the liver. The results show that fructose-induced metabolic disturbances could not be attributed to oxidative stress, at least not at young age. The absence of oxidative stress in the liver observed herein implies that young organisms are capable of maintaining redox homeostasis when challenged by fructose-derived energy overload. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effects of varying dietary iodine supplementation levels as iodide or iodate on thyroid status as well as mRNA expression and enzyme activity of antioxidative enzymes in tissues of grower/finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qimeng; Mair, Christiane; Schedle, Karl; Hellmayr, Isabella; Windisch, Wilhelm

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of high dietary iodine supply and different iodine sources on thyroid status and oxidative stress in target tissues of the thyroid hormones in fattening pigs. Eighty castrates (body weight: 33.3 ± 0.4 kg) were randomly allotted into five different treatments: The control diet contained 150 μg I/kg as KI, the other feeding groups were supplemented with 4,000 μg I/kg (as KI and KIO(3)) and 10,000 μg I/kg (as KI and KIO(3)), respectively. The mRNA expression levels of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and key antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn SOD, CAT, GPx) were analyzed in thyroid gland, liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose tissue sampled during slaughter. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activities and the effect on lipid peroxidation (MDA) were determined in liver and muscle. In thyroid gland, a significant downregulation of NIS and Cu/Zn SOD mRNA expression was observed in high-iodine groups. In liver, a source effect on the mRNA expression of Cu/Zn SOD between KI and KIO(3) at 4,000 μg I/kg was shown. In contrast, not SOD but GPx activity was affected by iodine source with strongest downregulation in high KIO(3) group. In muscle, GPx activity was affected by both iodine source and dose, showing stronger downregulation in KI groups. In kidney and adipose tissue, oxidative stress parameters showed no or only unsystematic changes. However, variation in iodine supply had no effect on MDA concentrations. NIS expression was significantly decreased with increased iodine supplementation, which is to ensure the thyroid gland function. However, the alleviating effect of iodine supplementation observed in antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activity did not reflect on the lipid peroxide level.

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin C on growth, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant enzyme activity of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) juveniles exposed to nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zuoyong; Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Liu, Mingxing; Wang, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Different amounts of vitamin C were added to diets fed to juveniles (2.5 ± 0.15 g) of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonic u s (Selenka) in an attempt to reduce the stress response of specimens exposed to nitrite stress. A commercial feed was used as the control diet and three experimental diets were made by supplementing 1 000, 1 500, or 2 000 mg vitamin C/kg diet to control diet separately in a 45-day experiment. Sea cucumbers were exposed to three different levels (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L) of nitrite stress for 4, 8, and 12 h at four time intervals (0, 15, 30, and 45 d). Growth of the animals was recorded during the experiment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (i.e. hydroxyl free radical (-OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were measured. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the effect of multiple factors on ROS indices and enzyme activities. Weight gain (WG) and special growth rate (SGR) of vitamin C supplementation groups were significantly higher than those of control group ( P < 0.05). The levels of -OH and MDA increased under exposure time extending and nitrite concentration increasing, whereas T-AOC level decreased. SOD and CAT activities increased at 4 h and 8 h and decreased at 12 h. During the days in which the animal consumed experimental diets, the levels of -OH and MDA decreased and that of T-AOC increased. This result suggests that diets containing vitamin C could reduce the nitrite stress response in the animals and increase their antioxidant capacity. The multifactor regression equation of growth performance, ROS indices, and duration of feeding results suggest that vitamin C supplementation of 1 400-2 000 mg/kg diet for 29-35 days could reduce effectively the effects of nitrite exposure.

  10. Effect of selenium-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Se-bLF) on antioxidant enzyme activities in human gut epithelial cells under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Hannah; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Mahidhara, Ganesh; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2011-10-01

    Cancer and many chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The potential cellular and tissue damage created by ROS has significant impact on many disease and cancer states and natural therapeutics are becoming essential in regulating altered redox states. We have shown recently that iron content is a critical determinant in the antitumour activity of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLF). We found that 100% iron-saturated bLF (Fe-bLF) acts as a potent natural adjuvant and fortifying agent for augmenting cancer chemotherapy and thus has a broad utility in the treatment of cancer. Furthermore, we also studied the effects of iron saturated bLF's ability as an antioxidant in the human epithelial colon cancer cell line HT29, giving insights into the potential of bLF in its different states. Thus, metal saturated bLF could be implemented as anti-cancer neutraceutical. In this regard, we have recently been able to prepare a selenium (Se) saturated form of bLF, being up to 98% saturated. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine how oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) alters antioxidant enzyme activity within HT29 epithelial colon cancer cells, and observe changes in this activity by treatments with different antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), Apo (iron free)-bLF and selenium (Se)-bLF. The states of all antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione- s-transferase (GsT), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) demonstrated high levels within untreated HT29 cells compared to the majority of other treatments being used, even prior to H2O2 exposure. All enzymes showed significant alterations in activity when cells were treated with antioxidants AA, Apo-bLF or Se-bLF, with and/or without H2O2 exposure. Obvious indications that the Se content of the bLF potentially interacted with the glutathione (GSH)/GPx/GR/GsT associated redox system could be

  11. Screening of Salt-stress, Antioxidant Enzyme, and Antimicrobial Activity of Leave extracts of Mangroves Avicennia marina L. from Hodaidah, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A. Al Maqtari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the salinity stress, antioxidant enzyme and antimicrobial activities of leaf extract of Avicennia marinawere investigated. As visualized from SDS-PAGE, no differences was found in number of protein band, but the intensities of several protein bands having apparent molecular mass by reduced severely in salt treated samples with enhanced activities of CAT, POX and GPX. Escherichia coli (ATCC8739, Staphylococus aureus (ATCC 6538, and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC6633 and fungus (Candida albicans ATCC 2091, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 were used as the test pathogenic bacteria and fungi, respectively in this study. The Avicennia marina extract possessed antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis (12, 6, and 7 mm respectively, with antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger (9 and 10 mm.

  12. Antioxidant enzymes, presbycusis, and ethnic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bared, Anthony; Ouyang, Xiaomei; Angeli, Simon; Du, Li Lin; Hoang, Kimberly; Yan, Denise; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2010-08-01

    A proposed mechanism for presbycusis is a significant increase in oxidative stress in the cochlea. The enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST) and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) are two classes of antioxidant enzymes active in the cochlea. In this work, we sought to investigate the association of different polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and NAT2 and presbycusis and analyze whether ethnicity has an effect in the genotype-phenotype associations. Case-control study of 134 DNA samples. University-based tertiary care center. Clinical, audiometric, and DNA testing of 55 adults with presbycusis and 79 control patients with normal hearing. The GSTM1 null genotype was present in 77 percent of white Hispanics and 51 percent of white non-Hispanics (Fisher's exact test, 2-tail, P = 0.0262). The GSTT1 null genotype was present in 34 percent of control patients and in 60 percent of white presbycusis subjects (P = 0.0067, odds ratio [OR] = 2.843, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.379-5.860). The GSTM1 null genotype was more frequent in presbycusis subjects, i.e., 48 percent of control patients and 69 percent of white subjects carried this deletion (P = 0.0198, OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.163-5.067). The NAT2*6A mutant genotype was more frequent among subjects with presbycusis (60%) than in control patients (34%; P = 0.0086, OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.355-6.141). We showed an increased risk of presbycusis among white subjects carrying the GSTM1 and the GSTT1 null genotype and the NAT*6A mutant allele. Subjects with the GSTT1 null genotypes are almost three times more likely to develop presbycusis than those with the wild type. The GSTM1 null genotype was more prevalent in white Hispanics than in white non-Hispanics, but the GSTT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms were equally represented in the two groups. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Potato virusY on activities of antioxidant and anaplerotic enzymes in Nicotina tabacum L. transgenic plants with the gene for p3 protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubnerová, V.; Janoušková, M.; Synková, Helena; Šubr, Z.; Čeřovská, Noemi; Ryšlavá, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 33, 3-4 (2007), s. 123-140 ISSN 1312-8183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : antioxidant enzymes * NADP-malic enzyme * PEPC Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology www.bio21.bas.bg/ipp/gapbfiles/v-33/07_3-4_123-140.pdf

  14. Correlation between enzymes inhibitory effects and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and phytochemical content of fractions was investigated. The n-butanol fraction showed significant α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects (IC50 values 15.1 and 39.42 μg/ml, respectively) along with the remarkable antioxidant activity when compared to the other fractions. High performance liquid chromatography ...

  15. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity on exposure to acute restraint stress in sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, G.M.; Hussain, M.M.; Aslam, M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects of ascorbic acid (AA) and alpha tocopherol (AT) supplementation on stress induced changes in serum malondialdehyde and serum superoxide dismutase levels in male Sprague Dawley rats. Study design: Quasi experimental study Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad during March 2009 to September 2009. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups with sixteen rats in each group. Group I served as control without stress and group II exposed to restraint stress for 06 hours, group III given ascorbic acid, group IV alpha tocopherol and group V was supplemented with both vitamins along with standard diet for one month. All antioxidant supplemented groups were exposed to restraint stress for six hours. Immediately after stress, the blood samples were analyzed colorimetrically to estimate serum malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase by commercially available kits. Results: There was no significant fall in serum malondialdehyde in rats supplemented with ascorbic acid alone, however rats supplemented with alpha tocopherol or combination of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol revealed significant fall in serum malondialdehyde and increment in superoxide dismutase activity. Conclusions: Alpha tocopherol alone and in combination with ascorbic acid is effective to prevent reactive oxygen species induced increase in lipid peroxidation and fall in super oxide dismutase activity thereby conferring protection against oxidative stress. (author)

  16. The Native Fruit Geoffroea decorticans from Arid Northern Chile: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activities and In Vitro Inhibition of Pro-Inflammatory and Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez-Aspee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The native tree Geoffroea decorticans (chañar grows in the arid lands of northern Chile. It has been used as a food plant since prehistoric times. Phenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs of Chilean chañar fruits were assessed for their chemical composition, antioxidant properties and inhibition of pro-inflammatory and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. Phenolic profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The PEEs of G. decorticans showed a strong effect towards the enzymes COX-1/COX-2, with inhibition percentages ranging from inactive to 92.1% and inactive to 76.0% at 50 µg PEE/mL, respectively. The IC50 values of the PEEs towards lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity were between 43.6–96.8 and 98.9–156.0 μg PEE/mL, respectively. Samples inhibited α-glucosidase (IC50 0.8–7.3 μg PEE/mL and lipase (9.9 to >100 μg PEE/mL. However, samples did not inhibit α-amylase. The HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of the PEEs allowed the tentative identification of 53 compounds, mainly flavonol glycosides and procyanidins. The procyanidin content of the Chilean G. decorticans pulp was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity and the inhibition of the enzyme α-glucosidase. These results indicate that the Chilean chañar fruit contains bioactive polyphenols with functional properties.

  17. Ubiad1 is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates eNOS activity by CoQ10 synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugoni, V.; Postel, R.; Catanzaro, V.; De Luca, E.; Turco, E.; Digilio, G.; Silengo, L.; Murphy, M.P.; Medana, C.; Stainier, D.Y.; Bakkers, J.; Santoro, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Protection against oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an antioxidant network is essential for the health of tissues, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we identified a gene with important antioxidant features by analyzing a null allele of zebrafish

  18. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in response to salt stress in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings raised from seed treated with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nusrat; Ahmad, Rafiq

    2013-05-01

    Salt tolerance is a complex trait which involves the coordinated action of many genes that perform a variety of functions, such as ion sequestration, metabolic adjustment, osmotic adjustment and antioxidative defence. In this article, the growth and the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under normal (ECiw [Electrical conductivity of irrigation water] = 0.5 dS m(-1)) and salt stress conditions (ECiw = 3.4, 6.1, 8.6 and 10.8 dS m(-1) ) in relation to the priming of seeds of the two important oil yielding crops, i.e. safflower and sunflower, with different concentrations of chitosan [0% (control), 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%] is discussed. Induced salinity stress significantly decreased germination percentage, germination rate, length and weight of root and shoot, and protein content. Proline content, malondialdehyde content (MDA), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) activity increased at 10.8 dS m(-1). Under control conditions there were no significant differences in germination percentage among different concentrations of chitosan, whereas CAT and POX activity were increased by low concentrations of chitosan. With increasing salt stress, low concentrations of chitosan increased germination percentage but decreased MDA and proline contents and CAT and POX activity. Generation of ROS seems to be unavoidable under normal conditions and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in plants varies in terms of ROS generation under salt stress. However, the data indicate that plants subjected to salt stress-induced oxidative stress and the low concentrations of chitosan exhibited positive effects on salt stress alleviation through the reduction of enzyme activity in both crops. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effect of Chemical and Biological Phosphorus on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Some Biochemical Traits of Spring Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under Water Deficit Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heshmati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of biological and chemical phosphorus on antioxidant enzyme activity in safflower under water deficit conditions, an experiment was conducted in 2012 at the Research Field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. The experimental design was a split-factorial with three replicates. The main factor was the three levels of irrigation treatment: full irrigation (irrigation up to 50% soil moisture depletion relative to field capacity, water stress in the vegetative and flowering stages (irrigation up to 75% soil moisture depletion relative to field capacity. The sub-factor was the six treatments resulting from three levels of phosphate chemical fertilizer (0, 50, and 100 kg ha-1 Triple Super Phosphate, each at two levels of Barvar-2 bio-fertilizer (with and without inoculation with Barvar-2. According to the results of our experiment, antioxidant enzyme activity is affected by high levels of chemical phosphorus when there is no inoculation with biofertilizer (Barvar 2 under water stress in the vegetative and flowering stages. The results showed that inoculation with Barvar 2 in the absence of added chemical phosphorus increases the catalase activity and soluble protein concentration under drought stress in the vegetative and flowering stages. Also, using chemical phosphorus followed by Barvar 2 led to increase in the polyphenol oxidase activity and superoxide dismutase activity under these conditions. Inoculation with Barvar 2 in the absence of added chemical phosphorus significantly decreased the amount of malondialdehyde under stress condition at the flowering stage. It was demonstrated that inoculation with a biological fertilizer (Barvar 2 followed by application of a chemical phosphorus fertilizer under drought conditions could decrease the detrimental effects of drought stress on spring safflower.

  20. Effect of N-acetylcysteine administration on the expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes and the malondialdehyde level in the blood of lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Machnik, Grzegorz; Birkner, Ewa

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces oxidative stress intensity and restores the expression and activities of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, SOD), catalase (Cat, CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1, GPx) in lead-exposed workers. The exposed population was divided randomly into two groups. Workers in the first group (reference group, n=49) were not administered any drugs, while workers in the second group (n=122) were treated with NAC at three doses for 12 weeks (200 mg, 400 mg, 800 mg/day). NAC administered orally to lead-exposed workers normalized antioxidant enzyme activities in blood cells. Oxidative stress intensity measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum, leukocytes and erythrocytes significantly decreased after NAC administration. NAC may be an alternative therapy for chronic lead intoxication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long term effect of curcumin in restoration of tumour suppressor p53 and phase-II antioxidant enzymes via activation of Nrf2 signalling and modulation of inflammation in prevention of cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmidhar Das

    Full Text Available Inhibition of carcinogenesis may be a consequence of attenuation of oxidative stress via activation of antioxidant defence system, restoration and stabilization of tumour suppressor proteins along with modulation of inflammatory mediators. Previously we have delineated significant role of curcumin during its long term effect in regulation of glycolytic pathway and angiogenesis, which in turn results in prevention of cancer via modulation of stress activated genes. Present study was designed to investigate long term effect of curcumin in regulation of Nrf2 mediated phase-II antioxidant enzymes, tumour suppressor p53 and inflammation under oxidative tumour microenvironment in liver of T-cell lymphoma bearing mice. Inhibition of Nrf2 signalling observed during lymphoma progression, resulted in down regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes, p53 as well as activation of inflammatory signals. Curcumin potentiated significant increase in Nrf2 activation. It restored activity of phase-II antioxidant enzymes like GST, GR, NQO1, and tumour suppressor p53 level. In addition, curcumin modulated inflammation via upregulation of TGF-β and reciprocal regulation of iNOS and COX2. The study suggests that during long term effect, curcumin leads to prevention of cancer by inducing phase-II antioxidant enzymes via activation of Nrf2 signalling, restoration of tumour suppressor p53 and modulation of inflammatory mediators like iNOS and COX2 in liver of lymphoma bearing mice.

  2. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  3. Impaired synthesis and antioxidant defense of glutathione in the cerebellum of autistic subjects: alterations in the activities and protein expression of glutathione-related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Chauhan, Ved; Chauhan, Abha

    2013-12-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with social deficits and behavioral abnormalities. Recent evidence in autism suggests a deficit in glutathione (GSH), a major endogenous antioxidant. It is not known whether the synthesis, consumption, and/or regeneration of GSH is affected in autism. In the cerebellum tissues from autism (n=10) and age-matched control subjects (n=10), the activities of GSH-related enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) involved in antioxidant defense, detoxification, GSH regeneration, and synthesis, respectively, were analyzed. GCL is a rate-limiting enzyme for GSH synthesis, and the relationship between its activity and the protein expression of its catalytic subunit GCLC and its modulatory subunit GCLM was also compared between the autistic and the control groups. Results showed that the activities of GPx and GST were significantly decreased in autism compared to that of the control group (Pautistic subjects showed lower GR activity than 95% confidence interval (CI) of the control group. GCL activity was also significantly reduced by 38.7% in the autistic group compared to the control group (P=0.023), and 8 of 10 autistic subjects had values below 95% CI of the control group. The ratio of protein levels of GCLC to GCLM in the autism group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P=0.022), and GCLM protein levels were reduced by 37.3% in the autistic group compared to the control group. A positive strong correlation was observed between GCL activity and protein levels of GCLM (r=0.887) and GCLC (r=0.799) subunits in control subjects but not in autistic subjects, suggesting that regulation of GCL activity is affected in autism. These results suggest that enzymes involved in GSH homeostasis have impaired activities in the cerebellum in autism, and lower GCL activity in autism may be related to decreased protein expression

  4. Two Ganoderma species: profiling of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD, antioxidant, antimicrobial and inhibitory activities on key enzymes linked to diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Gokhan; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Gunes, Erdogan; Uysal, Ahmet; Ceylan, Ramazan; Uysal, Sengul; Gungor, Halil; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2015-08-01

    This work reports the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and inhibitory effects of methanol and water extracts from Ganoderma applanatum (GAM: methanol extract and GAW: water extract) and G. resinaceum (GRM: methanol extract and GRW: water extract) against cholinesterase, tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The total phenolics, flavonoids contents, and HPLC profile of phenolic components present in the extracts, were also determined. Antioxidant activities were investigated by using different assays, including DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating assays. Antimicrobial activity of the tested Ganoderma extracts was also studied by the broth microdilution method. Generally, the highest antioxidant (59.24 mg TEs per g extract for DPPH, 41.32 mg TEs per g extract for ABTS, 41.35 mg TEs per g extract for CUPRAC, 49.68 mg TEs per g extract for FRAP, 130.57 mg AAEs per g extract for phosphomolybdenum and 26.92 mg EDTAEs per g extract) and enzyme inhibitory effects (1.47 mg GALAEs per g extract for AChE, 1.51 mg GALAEs per g extract for BChE, 13.40 mg KAEs per g extract for tyrosinase, 1.13 mmol ACEs per g extract for α-amylase and 2.20 mmol ACEs per g extract for α-glucosidase) were observed in GRM, which had the highest concentrations of phenolics (37.32 mg GAEs g(-1) extract). Again, Ganoderma extracts possess weak antibacterial and antifungal activities. Apigenin and protocatechuic acid were determined as the main components in GRM (1761 μg per g extract) and GAM (165 μg per g extract), respectively. The results suggest that the Ganoderma species may be considered as a candidate for preparing new food supplements and can represent a good model for the development of new drug formulations.

  5. Effects of Droplet-Vitrification Cryopreservation Based on Physiological and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Brassidium Shooting Star Orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safrina Rahmah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid were successfully cryopreserved using droplet-vitrification method. Vitrification based cryopreservation protocol is comprised of preculture, osmoprotection, cryoprotection, cooling, rewarming, and growth recovery and each and every step contributes to the achievement of successful cryopreservation. In order to reveal the lethal and nonlethal damage produced by cryopreservation, histological observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and biochemical analysis were carried out in both cryopreserved and noncryopreserved PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid comparing with the control PLBs stock culture. Histological and scanning electron microscopy analyses displayed structural changes in cryopreserved PLBs due to the impact of cryoinjury during exposure to liquid nitrogen. Total soluble protein significantly increased throughout the dehydration process and the highest value was achieved when PLBs were stored in liquid nitrogen. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT showed the highest enzyme activities in both dehydration and cryostorage treatments indicating that stress level of PLBs was high during these stages.

  6. HPLC-DAD fingerprinting analysis, antioxidant activities of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray leaves and its inhibition of key enzymes linked to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Ojo, Adebola Busola; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Olaiya, Oluranti; Okesola, Mary Abiola; Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Campos, Marli Matiko Anraku; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2018-01-01

    Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray leaves have long been used to manage neurodegenerative diseases without scientific basis. This study characterized the phenolic constituents, evaluated the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from T. diversifolia leaves used as traditional medicine in Africa and its inhibition of key enzymes linked to Alzheimer's disease. The extract was rich in phenolic acids (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p -coumaric acid) and flavonoids (apigenin) and had 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil radical scavenging abilities (IC 50  = 41.05 μg. mL -1 ), 2,2-Azino-bis3-ethylbenthiazoline-6sulphonic acid radical scavenging ability (IC 50  = 33.51 μg. mL -1 ), iron chelation (IC 50  = 38.50 μg. mL -1 ), reducing power (Fe 3+ - Fe 2+ ) (7.34 AAEmg/100 g), inhibited acetylcholinesterase (IC 50  = 39.27 μg mL -1 ) and butyrylcholinesterase (IC 50  = 35.01 μg mL -1 ) activities. These results reveal the leaf as a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  7. Influence of a Modified Plant Extract on Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes and Concentration of Pigments in Gamma-Irradiated Plants of Maize and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizov Ibrahim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a medicinal plant extract, immobilised by ligands, on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and photosynthetic pigment concentration of wheat and maize was studied. The object of study was seed of drought-resistant firm durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and maize (Zea mays L.. Seeds were subjected to general uniform γ-radiation from a 60Co source on a Rkhund installation at average dose power of MD = 0.306 Gy/sec. Before radiation seeds were treated in modified extract from medicinal plants. The treatment of seeds with 0.1 and 0.01% solution of modified extract from Hypericum, Dandelion, and Calendula caused significant reduction in processes initiated by radiation and in formation of free radicals. On the basis of the obtained results it was concluded that the used modified plant extract collection had a protective effect, reducing the amount of free radicals produced by γ-irradiation.

  8. Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Ischemic Stroke: Decreased Insulin Sensitivity and Decreases in Antioxidant Enzyme Activity Are Related to Different Stroke Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jotic

    2013-01-01

    C (1.14±0.58, 1.00±0.26 versus 3.14±0.62 min−1/mU/l × 104, P<0.001 and in nondiabetics in D and E versus F (3.38±0.77, 3.03±0.72 versus 6.03±1.69 min−1/mU/l × 104, P<0.001. Also, GSH-Px and GR activities were lower in A and B versus C (GSH-Px: 21.96±3.56,  22.51±1.23 versus 25.12±1.67; GR: 44.37±3.58,  43.50±2.39 versus 48.58±3.67 U/gHb; P<0.001 and in D and E versus F (GSH-Px: 24.75±3.02,  25.57±1.92 versus 28.56±3.91; GR: 48.27±6.81,  49.17±6.24 versus 53.67±3.96 U/gHb; P<0.001. Decreases in Si and GR were significantly related to both ATI and LI in T2D. Our results showed that decreased IS and impaired antioxidant enzymes activity influence ischemic stroke subtypes in T2D. The influence of insulin resistance might be exerted on the level of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes.

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbiological, phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) Activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mun'im, Abdul; Ramadhani, Fitria; Chaerani, Kartika; Amelia, Lili; Arrahman, Arif

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Gamma irradiation is an effective technique can be used to reduce contaminants in herbal products. Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth belongs to Piperaceae family has some biological activity, such as antioxidant and ACE inhibitor. The aimed of this research was to determine the effects of

  10. Alterations in Plasma Glucose and Cardiac Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum Extract and Swimming Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghani, Karimeh; Bakhtiyari, Salar; Doost Mohammadpour, Jafar

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and swimming training have previously been reported to have hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects. We aimed to evaluate the effects of swimming training and fenugreek aqueous extract, alone and in combination, on plasma glucose and cardiac antioxidant enzymes activity of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. We divided 70 male Wistar rats equally into 7 groups: diabetic control (DC), healthy control (HC), swimming (S), fenugreek seed extract (1.74 g/kg) (F1), fenugreek seed extract (0.87 g/kg) (F2), swimming + fenugreek seed extract (1.74 g/kg) (SF1), and swimming + fenugreek seed extract (0.87 g/kg) (SF2). We used streptozotocin for the induction of diabetes. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical program SPSS. We did not detect any significant differences in body weight in the F1, F2, S, SF1 and SF2 groups compared with the DC group (p>0.05). The results also revealed that the hypoglycemic effect of combined swimming and fenugreek was significantly stronger (pswimming could be useful for the treatment of hyperglycemia and cardiac oxidative stress induced by type 1 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Drying Methods Alter Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity, Antioxidant Properties, and Phenolic Constituents of African Mistletoe (Loranthus bengwensis L) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi Seun; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the most appropriate drying method (sun drying, oven drying, or air drying) for mistletoe leaves obtained from almond tree. The phenolic constituents were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector, while the inhibitory effect of the aqueous extracts of the leaves on angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) was determined in vitro as also the antioxidant properties. Oven-dried extract (kidney [276.09 μg/mL] and lungs [303.41 μg/mL]) had the highest inhibitory effect on ACE, while air-dried mistletoe extract (kidney [304.47 μg/mL] and lungs [438.72 μg/mL]) had the least. Furthermore, the extracts dose-dependently inhibited Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat's heart and kidney. Also, all extracts exhibited antioxidative properties as typified by their radical scavenging and Fe-chelating ability. Findings from this study revealed that oven drying is the best of the 3 drying methods used for mistletoe obtained from almond host tree, thus confirming that diversity in drying methods leads to variation in phenolic constituents and biological activity of plants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Antioxidant enzyme activity is associated with blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness in black men and women: The SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Caitlynd; Huisman, Hugo W; Mels, Catharina M C

    2016-05-01

    In the urbanized black population of South Africa, oxidative stress may play a crucial role in the development of hypertension. Since oxidative stress may result from impaired antioxidant capacity we aimed to investigate antioxidant enzyme activity as well as its associations with vascular function and structure in a bi-ethnic population. Participants included 409 subjects almost equally stratified by ethnicity and sex. Blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) were measured and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities were determined. GR activity was significantly higher in black men (7.71 nmol/min/ml vs 2.23 nmol/min/ml) and women (6.46 nmol/min/ml vs 2.86 nmol/min/ml) (p women, GPx activity was significantly lower (p women (31.9 nmol/min/ml vs 37.1 nmol/min/ml). In black men, cIMT was positively and independently associated with GR activity (R(2) = 0.30; β = 0.18; p = 0.048). In black women, systolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.21; β = -0.24; p = 0.014), diastolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.11; β = -0.20; p = 0.044) and mean arterial pressure (R(2) = 0.20; β = -0.31; p = 0.002) were inversely associated with GPx activity. No associations were found in the white groups. The positive association between GR activity and cIMT in black men may be the result of a compensatory response to prevent arterial remodelling. The inverse association between GPx activity and blood pressure in black women may indicate a role for decreased GPx activity in hypertension development in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined effects of temperature and metal exposure on the fatty acid composition of cell membranes, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhlaoui, Mariem; Couture, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The fatty acid composition of yellow perch muscle at 9 °C was enhanced in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to fish maintained at 28 °C. • The thermal adjustment of muscle phospholipid fatty acid profiles is likely due to modifications of desaturase and elongase activities. • Exposure to Ni and Cd modified muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in a temperature-dependent manner. • The higher fatty polyinsaturation in cold-acclimated fish did not increase their vulnerability to peroxidation. • Lower concentrations of malondialdehyde were measured in warm-acclimated, Ni-exposed fish, suggesting an overcompensation of antioxidant mechanisms that could explain their lower condition. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of temperature and metal contamination (cadmium and nickel) on phospholipid fatty acid composition, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in fish. Yellow perch were acclimated to two different temperatures (9 °C and 28 °C) and exposed either to Cd or Ni (respectively 4 μg/L and 600 μg/L) for seven weeks. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione concentration were measured as indicators of antioxidant capacities, while malondialdehyde concentration was used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Poikilotherms including fish counteract the effects of temperature on phospholipid fatty acid ordering by remodelling their composition to maintain optimal fluidity. Accordingly, in our study, the fatty acid composition of yellow perch muscle at 9 °C was enhanced in monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to fish maintained at 28 °C, in agreement with the theory of homeoviscous adaptation. Using ratios of various fatty acids as surrogates for desaturase and elongase activities, our data suggests that modification of the activity of these enzymes is

  14. Combined effects of temperature and metal exposure on the fatty acid composition of cell membranes, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadhlaoui, Mariem; Couture, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.couture@ete.inrs.ca

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The fatty acid composition of yellow perch muscle at 9 °C was enhanced in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to fish maintained at 28 °C. • The thermal adjustment of muscle phospholipid fatty acid profiles is likely due to modifications of desaturase and elongase activities. • Exposure to Ni and Cd modified muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in a temperature-dependent manner. • The higher fatty polyinsaturation in cold-acclimated fish did not increase their vulnerability to peroxidation. • Lower concentrations of malondialdehyde were measured in warm-acclimated, Ni-exposed fish, suggesting an overcompensation of antioxidant mechanisms that could explain their lower condition. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of temperature and metal contamination (cadmium and nickel) on phospholipid fatty acid composition, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in fish. Yellow perch were acclimated to two different temperatures (9 °C and 28 °C) and exposed either to Cd or Ni (respectively 4 μg/L and 600 μg/L) for seven weeks. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione concentration were measured as indicators of antioxidant capacities, while malondialdehyde concentration was used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Poikilotherms including fish counteract the effects of temperature on phospholipid fatty acid ordering by remodelling their composition to maintain optimal fluidity. Accordingly, in our study, the fatty acid composition of yellow perch muscle at 9 °C was enhanced in monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to fish maintained at 28 °C, in agreement with the theory of homeoviscous adaptation. Using ratios of various fatty acids as surrogates for desaturase and elongase activities, our data suggests that modification of the activity of these enzymes is

  15. Methyl jasmonate counteracts boron toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and regulating antioxidant enzyme activities and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Moinuddin; Hashmi, Nadeem

    2011-07-01

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient, but it is phytotoxic if present in excessive amounts in soil for certain plants such as Artemisia annua L. that contains artemisinin (an important antimalarial drug) in its areal parts. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge. It is quite expensive compound because the only commercial source available is A. annua and the compound present in the plant is in very low concentration. Since A. annua is a major source of the antimalarial drug and B stress is a deadly threat to its cultivation, the present research was conducted to determine whether the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) could combat the ill effects of excessive B present in the soil. According to the results obtained, the B toxicity induced oxidative stress and reduced the stem height as well as fresh and dry masses of the plant remarkably. The excessive amounts of soil B also lowered the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content in the leaves. In contrast, the foliar application of MeJA enhanced the growth and photosynthetic efficiency both in the stressed and non-stressed plants. The excessive B levels also increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Endogenous H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) levels were also high in the stressed plants. However, the MeJA application to the stressed plants reduced the amount of lipid peroxidation and stimulated the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, enhancing the content and yield of artemisinin as well. Thus, it was concluded that MeJA might be utilized in mitigating the B toxicity and improving the content and yield of artemisinin in A. annua plant.

  16. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetic patients with and without diastolic dysfunction and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antioxidant systems are important factors affecting the oxidation of lipoproteins and thereby the progression of atherosclerotic disease. It has been suggested that physical activity might maintain and promote the antioxidant defence capacity against the oxidative stress. Left ventricular dysfunction (LVDD and hypertension are more common in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM type 2. Objective. To evaluate the oxidative stress in patients with DM type 2, particularly with LVDD and hypertension and to determine the influence of acute exercise training on the investigated parameters. Methods. To assess the oxidative stress of patients, we determined the following antioxidative parameters: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, low density cholesterol, OxLDL cholesterol, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, plasminogen activator-type 1 (PAI-1 which were measured at rest and immediately after the acute bout of the cardiopulmonary exercise cycle ergometer test. Results. In basal conditions, diabetic patients had a significant increase of TG (3.12±1.09 vs 1.74±0.9 mmol/l; p<0.01, OxLDL cholesterol (84.73±16.9 vs 79.00±29.26 mmol/l; p<0.05 and SOD enzyme activity (913.38±120.36 vs 877.14 ±153.18; p<0.05 compared to controls. During the acute exercise test, there were significantly greater levels of OxLDL (84.73±16.90 vs 92.33±23.29 mmol/l; p<0.05 in study patients. SOD significantly increased in both groups during exercise, in diabetic patients (913.38±120.36 vs 921.50±130.03 U/g Hb; p<0.05 and in controls (877.14±153.18 vs 895.00±193.49 U/g Hb; p<0.05. GSH-Px significantly increased only in diabetic patients after acute exercise (45.04±11.19 vs 51.81±15.07 U/g Hb; p<0.01, but not in controls. PAI significantly decreased during the exercise test only in healthy subjects (2.60±0.35 vs 2.22±0.65; p<0.05. Type 2 diabetic patients with cardiovascular complications (LVDD and hypertension had a significant

  17. Effect of Cu(II) coordination compounds on the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Katarzyna; Malinowska, Katarzyna; Langer, Ewa; Dziki, Łukasz; Dziki, Adam; Majsterek, Ireneusz

    2011-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious medical and economical problem of our times. It is the most common gastrointestinal cancer in the world. In Poland, the treatment and detection of CRC are poorly developed and the pathogenesis is still unclear. One hypothesis suggests a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of CRC. Experimental studies in recent years confirm the participation of ROS in the initiation and promotion of CRC. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the following coordination compounds coordination compounds: dinitrate (V) tetra(3,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dichloro di(3,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dinitrate (V) di(1,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dichloro di(1,3,4,5-tetramethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, ZnCu-SOD) and catalase (CAT) in a group of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and in the control group consisting of patients with minor gastrointestinal complaints. The study was conducted in 20 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at the age of 66.5±10.2 years (10 men and 10 women) versus the control group of 20 people (10 men and 10 women) aged 57.89±17.10 years without cancer lesions in the biological material - hemolysate prepared in a proportion of 1ml of water per 1 ml of blood. CAT activity was measured by the Beers method (1952), while SOD activity was measured by the Misra and Fridovich method (1972). We found that patients with CRC showed a statistically significant decrease of SOD and CAT activity (CAT - 12,75±1.97 U/g Hb, SOD - 1111.52±155.52 U/g Hb) in comparison with the control group (CAT - 19.65±2,17 U/g Hb, SOD - 2046.26±507.22 U/g Hb). Simultaneously, we observed that the investigated coordination compounds of Cu(II) significantly increased the antioxidant activity of CAT and SOD in patients with CRC (mean: CAT 25.23±4.86 U/g Hb, SOD - 3075.96±940.20 U/g Hb). Patients with

  18. Activating antioxidant enzymes, hyoscyamine and scopolamine biosynthesis of Hyoscyamus niger L. plants with nano-sized titanium dioxide and bulk application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour GHORBANPOUR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Application of nanotechnology is now widely distributed overall the life, especially in agricultural systems. This study intended to indicate the impacts of nano-sized titanium dioxide particles (NT and bulk (BT on antioxidant enzymes activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POX and catalase (CAT, and variations of two major tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine (HYO and scopolamine (SCO in Hyoscyamus niger L. Plants were treated with different concentrations of NT and BT (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg l-1. Alkaloids extracted were identified by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Results showed that SOD activity increased with increasing titanium dioxide concentration in both nano-particles and bulk treated plants. However, the highest and the lowest POX activity were observed in plants exposed to NT at 40 mg l-1 and control, respectively. Generally, all tested enzymes activities were higher in NT treated plants that those of BT except CAT activity at 80 mg l-1. The highest alkaloids content values, HYO: 0.286 g kg-1 and SCO: 0.126 g kg-1, were achieved in plants treated with NT at 80 and 20 mg l-1, respectively. The maximum and minimum plant biomass and subsequently total alkaloids yield were obtained in plants exposed to NT at 40 mg l-1 and controls, respectively. Our results suggest that NT in appropriate level (40 mg l-1 may act as an elicitor for biochemical responses and tropane alkaloids biosynthesis in H. niger plants. 

  19. Oxidative stress in deep scattering layers: Heat shock response and antioxidant enzymes activities of myctophid fishes thriving in oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Rita; Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Pires, Vanessa; Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-12-01

    Diel vertical migrators, such as myctophid fishes, are known to encounter oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) during daytime in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and, therefore, have to cope with temperature and oxidative stress that arise while ascending to warmer, normoxic surface waters at night-time. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant defense strategies and heat shock response (HSR) in two myctophid species, namely Triphoturus mexicanus and Benthosema panamense, at shallow and warm surface waters (21 kPa, 20-25 °C) and at hypoxic, cold (≤1 kPa, 10 °C) mesopelagic depths. More specifically, we quantified (i) heat shock protein concentrations (HSP70/HSC70) (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], and (iii) lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. HSP70/HSC70 levels increased in both myctophid species at warmer, well-oxygenated surface waters probably to prevent cellular damage (oxidative stress) due to increased oxygen demand under elevated temperatures and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. On the other hand, CAT and GST activities were augmented under hypoxic conditions, probably as preparatory response to a burst of oxyradicals during the reoxygenation phase (while ascending). SOD activity decreased under hypoxia in B. panamense, but was kept unchanged in T. mexicanus. MDA levels in B. panamense did not change between the surface and deep-sea conditions, whereas T. mexicanus showed elevated MDA and HSP70/HSC70 concentrations at warmer surface waters. This indicated that T. mexicanus seems to be not so well tuned to temperature and oxidative stress associated to diel vertical migrations. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how different species might respond to the impacts of environmental stressors (e.g. expanding mesopelagic hypoxia

  20. Clinical Efficacy Associated with Enhanced Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized Using Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract, Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Murine Model of Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khadragy, Manal; Alolayan, Ebtesam M; Metwally, Dina M; El-Din, Mohamed F Serag; Alobud, Sara S; Alsultan, Nour I; Alsaif, Sarah S; Awad, Manal A; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2018-05-22

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most significant vector-borne syndromes of individuals. This parasitic infection can be affected by many species of Leishmania, most of which are zoonotic. Natural products have made and are continuing to make important contributions to the search for new antileishmanial agents. The use of plants in the production assembly of silver nanoparticles has drawn attention because of its rapid, eco-friendly, non-pathogenic, economical protocol and provides a single step technique for the biosynthetic process. Hence, we aimed to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and investigated the antileishmanial activity of these nanoparticles in a murine model of Leishmania major infection. A total of 50 mice were used and divided into five groups-healthy control, infected, infected mice treated with pentostam, infected mice treated with Ag-NPs and infected mice pretreated with Ag-NPs. In the present study, the leaf extract of the plant species Moringa oleifera was found to be a good source for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, their formation being confirmed by color change and stability in solution. In the present murine model of Leishmania major infection, we found that oral treatment with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using Moringa oleifera extract resulted in a significant reduction in the average size of leishmaniasis cutaneous lesions compared with untreated mice. Furthermore, the clinical efficacy of Moringa oleifera extract was associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, treatment with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using Moringa oleifera extract has higher and faster clinical efficacy than standard pentavalent antimonial treatment, probably by boosting the endogenous antioxidant activity.

  1. Effect of Tea Saponin-Treated Host Plants on Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Larvae of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuo; Chen, Yixin; Bai, Yan; Cai, Hongjiao; Wei, Hui; Tian, Houjun; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Yong; Yang, Guang; Gu, Xiaojun; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2018-06-06

    Tea saponin (TS) is extracted from the seeds of the tea plant and is generally regarded as a safe compound that has insecticidal properties and can act synergistically with other compounds. In this study, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared in midgut tissues of third instar larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The larvae were fed on three different host plants, cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radiculus Persi [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), or rape (Brassica campestris L. [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), that had been treated with TS. Higher SOD, POD, and CAT activities were found in DBM larvae fed on cabbage after LC20 (concentration that induced 20% larval mortality) or LC50 (concentration that induced 50% larval mortality) treatment than on the control. On rape, TS treatments led to lower SOD and CAT activities than in the control and to higher POD activities after 24 h. MDA content increased in larvae fed on rape but decreased in larvae fed on radish after 12 h. Our results indicated that DBM larvae are more susceptible to TS on rape than on cabbage and radish, suggesting that this treatment may be an economic and effective means of controlling DBM on rape.

  2. Effects of low dose radiation on antioxidant enzymes after radiotherapy of tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Gao Gang; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Liu Xiaoqiu; Wang Zhiquan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To search for effects of low dose radiation on the activities of antioxidant enzymes after radiotherapy of tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were all determined by chemical colorimetry. Results: Low dose radiation increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) in serum of tumor-bearing mice more markedly than those in the unirradiated controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GST, CAT in serum of tumor-bearing mice (d 5 , d 3 ) irradiated with 5cGy 6h before 2.0 Gy radiation are obviously higher than those of the group (c 3 , c 5 ) given with radiotherapy only. Conclusion: The increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum of tumor-bearing mice triggered by low dose radiation could partly contribute to the protective mechanism. (authors)

  3. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus CSY-P13 Mitigates Stress of Ferulic and p-Hydroxybenzoic Acids in Cucumber by Affecting Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Soil Bacterial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghui Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid (FA and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA are main phenolic compounds accumulated in rhizosphere of continuously cropped cucumber, causing stress in plants. Microbial degradation of a mixture of FA and PHBA is not well understood in soil. We isolated a strain CSY-P13 of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, inoculated it into soil to protect cucumber from FA and PHBA stress, and explored a mechanism underlying the protection. CSY-P13 effectively degraded a mixture of FA and PHBA in culture solution under conditions of 39.37°C, pH 6.97, and 21.59 g L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate, giving rise to 4-vinyl guaiacol, vanillin, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. During FA and PHBA degradation, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase in CSY-P13 were induced. Inoculated into cucumber-planted soil containing 220 μg g-1 mixture of FA and PHBA, CSY-P13 degraded FA and PHBA in soil, increased plant height, and decreased malonaldehyde, superoxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide levels in leaves. CSY-P13 also enhanced SOD, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase activities; increased ascorbate and glutathione contents; and elevated transcript levels of copper/zinc SOD, manganese SOD, and catalase in leaves under FA and PHBA. Moreover, CSY-P13 increased phosphatase, catalase, urease, and sucrase activities and changed bacterial richness, diversity, and community composition by high throughput sequencing in cucumber-planted soil supplemented with the mixture of FA and PHBA. So CSY-P13 degrades the mixture of FA and PHBA in soil and mitigates stress from the two phenolic compounds in cucumber by activating antioxidant enzymes, changing soil bacterial community, and inducing soil enzymes.

  4. Investigation of lactic acid bacterial strains for meat fermentation and the product's antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting-enzyme inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shiro; Matsufuji, Hisashi; Nakade, Koji; Takenoyama, Shin-Ichi; Ahhmed, Abdulatef; Sakata, Ryoichi; Kawahara, Satoshi; Muguruma, Michio

    2017-03-01

    In the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains screened from our LAB collection, Lactobacillus (L.) sakei strain no. 23 and L. curvatus strain no. 28 degraded meat protein and tolerated salt and nitrite in vitro. Fermented sausages inoculated strains no. 23 and no. 28 showed not only favorable increases in viable LAB counts and reduced pH, but also the degradation of meat protein. The sausages fermented with these strains showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than those without LAB or fermented by each LAB type strain. Angiotensin-I-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was also significantly higher in the sausages fermented with strain no. 23 than in those fermented with the type strain. Higher ACE inhibitory activity was also observed in the sausages fermented with strain no. 28, but did not differ significantly from those with the type strain. An analysis of the proteolysis and degradation products formed by each LAB in sausages suggested that those bioactivities yielded fermentation products such as peptides. Therefore, LAB starters that can adequately ferment meat, such as strains no. 23 and no. 28, should contribute to the production of bioactive compounds in meat products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Insecticide exposure affects DNA and antioxidant enzymes activity in honey bee species Apis florea and A. dorsata: Evidence from Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Khizar; Afzal, Muhammad; Aqueel, Muhammad Anjum; Ali, Sajjad; Saeed, Muhammad Farhan; Khan, Qaiser M; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Damalas, Christos A

    2018-04-23

    Insecticide exposure can affect honey bees in agro-ecosystems, posing behavioral stresses that can lead to population decline. In this study, insecticide incidence, DNA damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity were studied in Apis florea and A. dorsata honey bee samples collected from insecticide-treated and insecticide-free areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Seven insecticides: chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, imidacloprid, phorate, emamectin, chlorfenapyr, and acetamiprid were detected in seven samples of A. florea and five samples of A. dorsata. In total, 12 samples (22.2%) of honey bees were found positive to insecticide presence out of 54 samples. The most frequently detected insecticide was chlorpyrifos, which was found in four samples (7.4%), with a concentration ranging from 0.01 to 0.05 μg/g and an average concentration 0.03 μg/g. The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis assay, a simple way to measure DNA strand breaks in eukaryotic cells, was used to microscopically find damage of DNA at the level of a single cell. Comet tail lengths of DNA in A. florea and A. dorsata samples from insecticide-treated areas were significantly higher (P honey bee samples from insecticide-treated and insecticide-free areas, while glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity showed a significant reduction in response to insecticide exposure. Significant positive correlations were detected between enzyme activity and insecticide concentration in honey bee species from insecticide-treated areas compared with control groups. Toxicity from pesticide exposure at sub-lethal levels after application or from exposure to pesticide residues should not be underestimated in honey bees, as it may induce physiological impairment that can decline honey bees' health. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Overexpression of the OsIMP Gene Increases the Accumulation of Inositol and Confers Enhanced Cold Tolerance in Tobacco through Modulation of the Antioxidant Enzymes' Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Xiang; Qin, Li-Jun; Zhao, De-Gang

    2017-07-20

    Inositol is a cyclic polyol that is involved in various physiological processes, including signal transduction and stress adaptation in plants. l- myo -inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) is one of the metal-dependent phosphatase family members and catalyzes the last reaction step of biosynthesis of inositol. Although increased IMPase activity induced by abiotic stress has been reported in chickpea plants, the role and regulation of the IMP gene in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) remains poorly understood. In the present work, we obtained a full-length cDNA sequence coding IMPase in the cold tolerant rice landraces in Gaogonggui, which is named as OsIMP . Multiple alignment results have displayed that this sequence has characteristic signature motifs and conserved enzyme active sites of the phosphatase super family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that IMPase is most closely related to that of the wild rice Oryza brachyantha , while transcript analysis revealed that the expression of the OsIMP is significantly induced by cold stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Meanwhile, we cloned the 5' flanking promoter sequence of the OsIMP gene and identified several important cis -acting elements, such as LTR (low-temperature responsiveness), TCA-element (salicylic acid responsiveness), ABRE-element (abscisic acid responsiveness), GARE-motif (gibberellin responsive), MBS (MYB Binding Site) and other cis -acting elements related to defense and stress responsiveness. To further investigate the potential function of the OsIMP gene, we generated transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the OsIMP gene and the cold tolerance test indicated that these transgenic tobacco plants exhibit improved cold tolerance. Furthermore, transgenic tobacco plants have a lower level of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and a higher content of total chlorophyll as well as increased antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidative enzymes are associated to FEV(1) in smokers independently of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, T H; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Charlotte Brasch

    2012-01-01

    ), GSTT1 (gene copy number), and GSTM1 (gene copy number). We found no associations between these genotypes and the asthma phenotypes. For the 201 subjects identified as current smokers and recruited via random sampling, an association was seen between increasing number of genotypes coding for high...... of genotypes coding for low antioxidative enzyme activity. The present study does not support the hypothesis that asthma is associated with genotypes of these major antioxidative enzymes. However, we speculate that since we see an impact of these genotypes on lung function in young adult smokers, polymorphisms...... in antioxidative enzymes may contribute to the range of susceptibility of smokers have to COPD....

  8. Salt tolerance and activity of antioxidative enzymes of transgenic finger millet overexpressing a vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase gene (SbVPPase) from Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyulu, Ediga; Reddy, Palle Surender; Sunita, Merla Srilakshmi; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Meriga, Balaji

    2014-06-15

    A vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase cDNA clone was isolated from Sorghum bicolor (SbVPPase) using end-to-end gene-specific primer amplification. It showed 80-90% homology at the nucleotide and 85-95% homology at the amino acid level with other VPPases. The gene was introduced into expression vector pCAMBIA1301 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter and transformed into Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain LBA4404 to infect embryogenic calli of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Successful transfer of SbVPPase was confirmed by a GUS histochemical assay and PCR analysis. Both, controls and transgenic plants were subjected to 100 and 200mM NaCl and certain biochemical and physiological parameters were studied. Relative water content (RWC), plant height, leaf expansion, finger length and width and grain weight were severely reduced (50-70%), and the flowering period was delayed by 20% in control plants compared to transgenic plants under salinity stress. With increasing salt stress, the proline and chlorophyll contents as well as the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased by 25-100% in transgenics, while malondialdehyde (MDA) showed a 2-4-fold decrease. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and the reduction in the MDA content suggest efficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in transgenics and, as a consequence, probably alleviation of salt stress. Also, the leaf tissues of the transgenics accumulated 1.5-2.5-fold higher Na(+) and 0.4-0.8-fold higher K(+) levels. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that overexpression of SbVPPase in transgenic finger millet enhances the plant's performance under salt stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Dicranostiga leptopodu (Maxim.) Fedde extracts attenuated CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Deping; Wang, Fang; Tang, Jinzhou; Mao, Aihong; Liao, Shiqi; Wang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Dicranostiga Leptodu (Maxim.) fedde (DLF), a poppy plant, has been reported have many benefits and medicinal properties, including free radicals scavenging and detoxifying. However, the protective effect of DLF extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced damage in mice liver has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function. In this study, the mice liver damage evoked by CCl 4 was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in lipid peroxidation, as well as alterations of mitochondrial respiratory function. Interestingly, pretreatment with DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced morphological damage and increasing of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. Additionally, DLF extracts improved mitochondrial function by preventing the disruption of respiratory chain and suppression of mitochondrial Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, administration with DLF extracts elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels and maintained the balance of redox status. This results showed that toxic protection effect of DLF extracts on mice liver is mediated by improving mitochondrial respiratory function and keeping the balance of redox status, which suggesting that DLF extracts could be used as potential toxic protection agent for the liver against hepatotoxic agent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation.

  11. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation.

  12. Audioprofiles and antioxidant enzyme genotypes in presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Simon I; Bared, Anthony; Ouyang, Xiaomei; Du, Li Lin; Yan, Denise; Zhong Liu, Xue

    2012-11-01

    Audiometric patterns have been shown to indirectly provide information regarding the pathophysiology of presbycusis and be useful in the phenotyping of hereditary deafness. Hospital-based cohort study of adults with presbycusis, comparing the association of audiometric patterns and polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes that have been linked to presbycusis: GSTT1, GSTM1 and NAT2. All subjects underwent a clinical evaluation and completed questionnaires regarding ototoxicity and noise exposure. Pure-tone threshold audiometry was obtained and subjects' audiograms were classified into specific patterns. DNA was extracted from blood and the polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1, and the NAT2 variants (NAT2* 5A; NAT2* 6A,B) were analyzed by PCR. The audiometric patterns that were more prevalent in our cohort were "High-Frequency Steeply Sloping" or HFSS (33%), "High-Frequency Gently Sloping" or HFGS (31%), and "Flat" (27%), with other patterns being rare. We did not find a statistical significant effect of gender, age, hearing level, and ear side on the audiometric pattern. Subjects with mutant alleles for GSTT1 were more likely to have a HFSS audiogram than subjects with the wild type genotype. In this cohort, there was a similar prevalence for the three audiometric configurations HFSS, HFGS, and Flat, with other configurations being rare. Subjects with mutant alleles for GSTT1 were more likely to have a HFSS audiogram than subjects with the wild type genotype, suggesting that the basal turn of the cochlea is susceptible to GSTT1 regulated oxidative stress. However, further studies of audioprofiles with larger sample sizes may be needed to establish phenotype-genotype correlations in presbycusis. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Effects of copper stress on antioxidative enzymes, chlorophyll and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of copper stress on antioxidative enzymes, chlorophyll and protein content in Atriplex ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 50 (2011) > ... The aim of this work was to investigate some enzymatic systems response of this plant to copper stress.

  14. l-Cysteine improves antioxidant enzyme activity, post-thaw quality and fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Riaz, A; Andrabi, S M H; Shahzad, Q; Durrani, A Z; Ahmad, N

    2016-11-01

    The effects of l-cysteine in extender on antioxidant enzymes profile during cryopreservation, post-thaw quality parameters and in vivo fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull spermatozoa were studied. Semen samples from 4 buffalo bulls were diluted in Tris-citric acid-based extender having different concentrations of l-cysteine (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm) and frozen in 0.5-ml French straws. The antioxidative enzymes [catalase, super oxide dismutase and total glutathione (peroxidase and reductase)] were significantly higher (P l-cysteine as compared to other groups. Post-thaw total motility (%), progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity (μm s -1 ), straight line velocity (μm s -1 ), curvilinear velocity (μm s -1 ), beat cross frequency (Hz), viable spermatozoa with intact plasmalemma (%), acrosome and DNA integrity (%) were higher with the addition of 2.0 mm l-cysteine as compared to other groups (P l-cysteine than in the control. In conclusion, the addition of 2.0 mm l-cysteine in extender improved the antioxidant enzymes profile, post-thaw quality and in vivo fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull spermatozoa. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Glutathione and antioxidant enzymes serve complementary roles in protecting activated hepatic stellate cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunning, Sandra; Rehman, Atta Ur; Tiebosch, Marjolein H.; Hannivoort, Rebekka A.; Haijer, Floris W.; Woudenberg, Jannes; van den Heuvel, Fiona A. J.; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han

    2013-01-01

    Background: In chronic liver disease, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are activated, highly proliferative and produce excessive amounts of extracellular matrix, leading to liver fibrosis. Elevated levels of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during chronic liver injury have been implicated

  16. EFFECT OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPLEX FROM WINE ON RATS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES ACTIVITY AT X-RAY IRRADIATION LOW DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. V. Datsyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the consumption of natural polyphenolic complex from grape wine in drinking water in the daily dose 2.5 ± 1.1 mg polyphenols/kg body mass of rats during the 10 day before exposure to radiation leads to increased of superoxide dismutase and gluthathione reductase activities in peripheral blood on 24 and 48 hours after full body X-ray irradiation (30 cGy. The of catalase, gluthathione peroxidase activities and the of the reactive thiobarbituric acid substances content in total lysates of peripheral blood within 72 hours after exposure are comparable to those in control rats. Marked decreased of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities at 24, 48 and 24 hours, respectively, was observed after exposure to ionizing radiation and increased content of lipid peroxidation products in all above mentioned time points. The decreased of superoxide dismutase and gluthathione peroxidase activities in lysates of rats aorta at 48 hour and increased content of the reactive thiobarbituric acid substances during 72 hours after radiation exposure were observed. The consumption of polyphenolic complex from wine did not change the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in lysates of aorta rats treated with ionizing radiation, whereas gluthathione reductase and gluthathione peroxidase activities was increased during 72 hours after radiation influence. The content of TBA reactive substances was significantly decreased in lysates of aorta rats that were exposed to radiation and polyphenols of grape wine, compared with those of animals that were exposed to radiation alone.

  17. Low pH-induced changes of antioxidant enzyme and ATPase activities in the roots of rice (Oryza sativa L. seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Kai Zhang

    Full Text Available Soil acidification is the main problem in the current rice production. Here, the effects of low pH on the root growth, reactive oxygen species metabolism, plasma membrane functions, and the transcript levels of the related genes were investigated in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. in a hydroponic system at pH 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. There were two hybrid rice cultivars in this trial, including Yongyou 12 (YY12, a japonica hybrid and Zhongzheyou 1 (ZZY1, an indica hybrid. Higher H+ activity markedly decreased root length, the proportion of fine roots, and dry matter production, but induced a significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and led to serious lipid peroxidation in the roots of the two varieties. The transcript levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (Cu/Zn SOD1, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 2 (Cu/Zn SOD2, catalase A (CATA and catalase B (CATB genes in YY12 and ZZY1 roots were significantly down-regulated after low pH exposure for two weeks. Meanwhile, a significant decrease was observed in the expression of the P-type Ca2+-ATPases in roots at pH 3.5. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and plasma membrane (PM Ca2+-ATPase in the two varieties were dramatically inhibited by strong rhizosphere acidification. However, the expression levels of ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1 and PM H+-ATPase isoform 7 were up-regulated under H+ stress compared with the control. Significantly higher activities of APX and PM H+-ATPase could contribute to the adaptation of rice roots to low pH.

  18. Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the antioxidant genes CAT, GR and SOD1, erythrocyte enzyme activities, dietary and life style factors and breast cancer risk in a Danish, prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Vogel, Ulla; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-01-01

    investigated in 703 breast cancer case-control pairs in the Danish, prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" cohort together with gene-environment interactions between the polymorphisms, enzyme activities and intake of fruits and vegetables, alcohol and smoking in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results...... showed that genetically determined variations in the antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD1, CAT and GSR were not associated with risk of breast cancer per se. However, intake of alcohol, fruit and vegetables, and smoking status interacted with some of the polymorphisms in relation to breast cancer risk...

  19. [Activity of antioxidative enzymes and concentration of malondialdehyde as oxidative status markers in women with non-autoimmunological subclinical hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybus-Kalinowska, Barbara; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Kalinowski, Mariusz; Kukla, Michał; Birkner, Ewa; Jochem, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    The recent investigations point out the significant role of oxidative stress in the development of thyroid gland disease. The present study was designed to investigate the variation of oxidative stae in women with non-autoimmunological subclinical hyperthyroidism. The study was conducted on 20 females with non-autoimmunological subclinical hyperthyroidism and 15 healthy women. Manganase-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) plasma activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) plasma concentration were measured. EC-SOD plasma activity was significantly higher in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism when compared with the control group (13.3 +/- 2.1 vs. 10.9 +/- 1.4 NU/ml; p < 0.05), unlike Mn-SOD (4.2 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.0 +/- 1.0 NU/ml). MDA plasma concentration increased significantly in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (3.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.6 micromol/l; p < 0.05). The increased EC-SOD plasma activity may reflect disturbances of oxidative state in subclinical hyperthyroidism. Parallel increase of MDA plasma concentration may indicate enhancement of lipid peroxidationin in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  20. Enzyme with rhamnogalacturonase activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kofod, L.V.; Andersen, L.N.; Dalboge, H.; Kauppinen, M.S.; Christgau, S.; Heldt-Hansen, H.P.; Christophersen, C.; Nielsen, P.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme exhibiting rhamnogalacturonase activity, capable of cleaving a rhamnogalacturonan backbone in such a manner that galacturonic acids are left as the non-reducing ends, and which exhibits activity on hairy regions from a soy bean material and/or on saponified hairy regions from a sugar beet

  1. Influence of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, K; Li, Y L; Yu, D Y; Rajput, I R; Li, W F

    2013-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens. Hy-Line Variety W-36 hens (n = 540; 28 wk of age) were randomized into 6 groups, each group with 6 replications (n = 15). The control group received the basal diet formulated with maize and soybean meal. The treatment groups received the same basal diets supplemented with 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09% Bacillus licheniformis powder (2 × 10(10) cfu/g) for an 8-wk trial. The results showed that dietary supplementation with 0.01 and 0.03% B. licheniformis significantly increased egg production and egg mass. However, no significant differences were observed in egg weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion efficiency among the 6 groups. Supplementation with different levels of B. licheniformis was found to be effective in improvement of egg quality by increasing egg shell thickness and strength. Compared with control, d-lactate content, diamine oxidase activity, and adrenocorticotropic hormone level in serum decreased significantly, and the level of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone increased significantly in plasma of all the experimental groups. Dietary supplementation with B. licheniformis increased the intestinal villus height and reduced the crypt depth. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of B. licheniformis could improve laying performance and egg quality significantly in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing the stress response, upregulating the growth hormone, and improving intestinal health.

  2. A novel copper complex induces ROS generation in doxorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascitis carcinoma cells and increases activity of antioxidant enzymes in vital organs in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, Ananda; Roy, Syamal; Choudhuri, Soumitra K; Basu, Jayati Mookerjee; Majumder, Surajit; Chatterjee, Shilpak; Panda, Gouri S; Dutta, Pranabananda; Pal, Smarajit; Mukherjee, Pratima; Efferth, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In search of a suitable GSH-depleting agent, a novel copper complex viz., copper N-(2-hydroxyacetophenone) glycinate (CuNG) has been synthesized, which was initially found to be a potential resistance modifying agent and later found to be an immunomodulator in mice model in different doses. The objective of the present work was to decipher the effect of CuNG on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidant enzymes in normal and doxorubicin-resistant Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC/Dox)-bearing Swiss albino mice. The effect of CuNG has been studied on ROS generation, multidrug resistance-associated protein1 (MRP1) expression and on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). CuNG increased ROS generation and reduced MRP1 expression in EAC/Dox cells while only temporarily depleted glutathione (GSH) within 2 h in heart, kidney, liver and lung of EAC/Dox bearing mice, which were restored within 24 h. The level of liver Cu was observed to be inversely proportional to the level of GSH. Moreover, CuNG modulated SOD, CAT and GPx in different organs and thereby reduced oxidative stress. Thus nontoxic dose of CuNG may be utilized to reduce MRP1 expression and thus sensitize EAC/Dox cells to standard chemotherapy. Moreover, CuNG modulated SOD, CAT and and GPx activities to reduce oxidative stress in some vital organs of EAC/Dox bearing mice. CuNG treatment also helped to recover liver and renal function in EAC/Dox bearing mice. Based on our studies, we conclude that CuNG may be a promising candidate to sensitize drug resistant cancers in the clinic

  3. Effect of exogenous melatonin and different photoperiods on oxidative status and antioxidant enzyme activity in Chhotanagpuri ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Pankaj Kumar; Ishwar, Ajay Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Niyogi, Debasish; Kumar, Mukesh

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin under different photoperiods on oxidative status in Chhotanagpuri ewe. A total of 42 non-pregnant, non-lactating Chhotanagpuri ewe, having body weight ranging between 14.11±0.09 and 15.38±0.06 kg, were selected and were isolated from rams 2 months before melatonin administration. The selected animals were allocated randomly into seven groups, namely, Group I (normal control), Group II (long day [LD] control), Group III (LD+melatonin administration orally, 3 mg/day), Group IV (LD+melatonin administration subcutaneously, 1 mg/day), Group V (short day [SD] control), Group VI (SD+melatonin administration orally, 3 mg/day), and Group VII (SD+melatonin administration subcutaneously, 1 mg/day) comprising six animals in each group. Rams were then introduced into each group after completion of exogenous administration of melatonin. Blood samples with anticoagulant in vials were collected from each animal day before the start of the experiment and thereafter every month up to 5 th month. Hemolysate was prepared for estimation of oxidative stress parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). It was observed that the level of MDA was significantly (pexogenous administration of melatonin was significantly (pexogenous administration of melatonin, SOD concentration was significantly (pexogenous administration of melatonin, CAT concentration was significantly (pexogenous melatonin was able to reduce significantly the level of MDA and increased the activity of SOD and CAT in Chhotanagpuri ewe.

  4. Measurement of enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Keshwani, M M

    2009-01-01

    To study and understand the nature of living cells, scientists have continually employed traditional biochemical techniques aimed to fractionate and characterize a designated network of macromolecular components required to carry out a particular cellular function. At the most rudimentary level, cellular functions ultimately entail rapid chemical transformations that otherwise would not occur in the physiological environment of the cell. The term enzyme is used to singularly designate a macromolecular gene product that specifically and greatly enhances the rate of a chemical transformation. Purification and characterization of individual and collective groups of enzymes has been and will remain essential toward advancement of the molecular biological sciences; and developing and utilizing enzyme reaction assays is central to this mission. First, basic kinetic principles are described for understanding chemical reaction rates and the catalytic effects of enzymes on such rates. Then, a number of methods are described for measuring enzyme-catalyzed reaction rates, which mainly differ with regard to techniques used to detect and quantify concentration changes of given reactants or products. Finally, short commentary is given toward formulation of reaction mixtures used to measure enzyme activity. Whereas a comprehensive treatment of enzymatic reaction assays is not within the scope of this chapter, the very core principles that are presented should enable new researchers to better understand the logic and utility of any given enzymatic assay that becomes of interest.

  5. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in male infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandekar S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mammalian spermatozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and are very susceptible to attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane lipid peroxide ion. Normally a balance is maintained between the amount of ROS produced and that scavenged. Cellular damage arises when this equilibrium is disturbed. A shift in the levels of ROS towards pro-oxidants in semen and vaginal secretions can induce an oxidative stress on spermatozoa. The aim was to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD and to correlate the same, with the ′water test′, in male infertility. SETTINGS: Experimental study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ejaculates from a total of 83 infertile and fertile healthy individuals were obtained. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels were studied and correlated with water test. RESULTS: The results indicate that (i the antioxidant enzyme catalase showed no significant changes in the various pathological samples, (ii antioxidant enzymes SOD and glutathione peroxidase correlate positively with asthenozoospermic samples and (iii the degree of lipid peroxidation also correlates positively with the poorly swollen sperm tails. The increase in SOD and glutathione peroxidase values, in the pathological cases represents an attempt made to overcome the reactive oxygen species. CONCLUSION: Water test could be used as a preliminary marker test for sperm tail damage by reactive oxygen species, since it correlates very well with lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes.

  6. Study of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in tobacco chewers and smokers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundru Venkata Naga Sirisha

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. Therefore an early intervention of tobacco habit and its related oxidative stress would prevent the development of tobacco induced lesions.

  7. Effect of functionalized and non-functionalized nanodiamond on the morphology and activities of antioxidant enzymes of lung epithelial cells (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarska-Ściuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Glińska, Sława; Michlewska, Sylwia; Balcerzak, Łucja; Jamrozik, Agnieszka; Skolimowski, Janusz; Burda, Květoslava; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-10-05

    The development of nanotechnology opens up new ways for biomedical applications of unmodified and modified diamond nanoparticles which are one of the most popular nanomaterials used in biology, biotechnology, medicine, cosmetics and engineering. They have been applied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents because they can be targeted to and localized in cells causing apoptosis and necrosis. The problem of biocompatibility of nanodiamonds at higher concentrations is thus of primary importance. The first step in the modification of DNPs is usually the introduction of hydrogen groups, which can bind other functional groups. The basic method to introduce -OH groups onto nanoparticles is the Fenton reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of unmodified nanodiamond particles and nanoparticles modified by introduction of -OH groups and etoposide onto their surface reaction on human non-small lung cancer cells. A549 cells were incubated with 2-100μg/ml nanopowders and at 0.6-24μg/ml etoposide in the DMEM medium. We observed a decrease of cells viability and generation of reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species in the cells after incubation, estimated by oxidation of H2DCF-DA and DAF-FM-DA. Modified detonation nanoparticles affected also the cellular content of glutathione and activities of main antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results of TEM microscopy show changes in cell morphology. These data demonstrate that modified nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the target cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of antioxidant enzymes and small molecular weight antioxidants in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Paulina; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

    2013-10-01

    Cells in aerobic condition are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may induce damage to biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. In normal circumstances, the amount of ROS is counterbalanced by cellular antioxidant defence, with its main components-antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair and small molecular weight antioxidants. An imbalance between the production and neutralization of ROS by antioxidant defence is associated with oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many age-related and degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), affecting the macula-the central part of the retina. The retina is especially prone to oxidative stress due to high oxygen pressure and exposure to UV and blue light promoting ROS generation. Because oxidative stress has an established role in AMD pathogenesis, proper functioning of antioxidant defence may be crucial for the occurrence and progression of this disease. Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in ROS scavenging and changes of their expression or/and activity are reported to be associated with AMD. Therefore, the enzymes in the retina along with their genes may constitute a perspective target in AMD prevention and therapy.

  9. Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Srivastava

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L-1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05 in LC10-90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ~10.600 mg·L-1, 1/8 LC50 = ~5.300 mg·L-1 and 1/10 LC50 = ~4.238 mg·L-1 induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes.

  10. Photoperiodism and Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Orlando; Morel, Claudine

    1974-01-01

    Metabolic readjustments after a change from long days to short days appear, in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, to be achieved through the operation of two main mechanisms: variation in enzyme capacity, and circadian rhythmicity. After a lag time, capacity in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and capacity in aspartate aminotransferase increase exponentially and appear to be allometrically linked during 50 to 60 short days; then a sudden fall takes place in the activity of the former. Malic enzyme and alanine aminotransferase behave differently. Thus, the operation of the two sections of the pathway (before and after the malate step) give rise to a continuously changing functional compartmentation in the pathway. Circadian rhythmicity, on the other hand, produces time compartmentation through phase shifts and variation in amplitude, independently for each enzyme. These characteristics suggest that the operation of a so-called biological clock would be involved. We propose the hypothesis that feedback regulation would be more accurate and efficient when applied to an already oscillating, clock-controlled enzyme system. PMID:16658749

  11. Water stress induced changes in antioxidant enzymes, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water stress induced changes in antioxidant enzymes membrane stablity index and seed protein profiling of four different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions (011251, 011417, 011320 and 011393) were determined in a pot study under natural condition during the wheat-growing season 2005 and 2006. Sampling was ...

  12. Effects of pectolytic enzyme treatment and microfiltration on antioxidant components of elderberry juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furulyás D.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pectolytic enzymes (Pectinex BE XXL, Trenolin Rot, and Fructozym P were investigated for their influence on phenolic, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activities of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. pulps during juice processing. Prior to pressing the berries, three different enzymes were added to pulps in order to evaluate the effect of different pectolytic enzyme treatments on the valuable components of elderberry juice. Control sample was prepared without enzyme. After treatment, squeezing, and clarification steps, microfiltration was carried out with ceramic membrane. The effect of this technology on the antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, and total anthocyanin content of the clarified elderberry juices has been evaluated in permeate and retentate samples, and membrane retention was calculated. Significantly lower antioxidant capacity was detected in the case of control sample than that obtained using enzyme-treated juices. Retention of antioxidant content on the microfiltration membrane was greatly reduced by using the enzymes. Higher valuable component yield was obtained using Fructozym P enzyme compared with Pectinex BE XXL used in industry.

  13. Effect of pre-cooling and heat treatment on antioxidant enzymes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of pre-cooling and heat treatment on antioxidant enzymes profile of mango and banana. ... In banana, pre-cooling treatment (8 ºC) and heat treatment followed by cooling reduced CAT activity in peel and pulp, whereas POX activity increased. Pre-cooling and heat treatments altered normal homeostasis of these fruits, ...

  14. Against Drought Stress Effect of Antioxidant Enzymes of Boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Doğan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soybean seeds (Glycine max. L., cv., “A3935 were grown under controlled conditions (25±2 C composed of different boron compounds. In the experiment, 5 groups were determined respectively as potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate (1 mg/1, ammonium tetraborate tetrahydrate (1 mg/1, sodium boron hydride (1 mg/1, lithium tetraborate tetrahydrate (100 mg/1, and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (100 mg/1. The doses used in this study were determined according to the results of a preliminary study. Soybean seeds were exposed to different amounts of drought stress based on time (control, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 days. Activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1, glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2, ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11 and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6 measured. According to the results stress+potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate environment has increased the amount of CAT, decreased the amount GR, APX and SOD. Potassium tetraborate 0.1 mg / l dose administration is the most appropriate critical value, and the most important indicator of drought CAT enzyme found to give the best results.

  15. Investigation of Baseline Antioxidant Enzyme Expression in Pocillopora damicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Richmond, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems in the world. Vital for maintaining ecological balance in coastal tropical environments, they also stand as the foundation for enormous cultural and economic resources. However, the continued degradation of coral reefs around the world, particularly within NOAA's Hawaii Marine Sanctuary, is an alarming call for action towards the identification of stressors and subsequent rehabilitation of these national treasures. Aligned with the goals of NOAA's National Marine Sanctuary to protect areas of the marine environment that are of special national significance to cultural, scientific, educational, and ecological values, this research targets addressing and standardizing antioxidant enzyme stress levels in Hawaiian coral over reproductive cycles in order to increase management aptitude and efficiency. By developing a greater understanding for biochemical biomarkers of stress in corals, specifically through the study of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity and expression, my research will aid in the adaptation and further development of biochemical tests to understand baseline thresholds of stress on coral reefs within Sanctuary waters. Slight, but significant variations in enzyme expression over reproductive time points alert us to modifications that must be made to consider fluctuating levels of coral susceptibility when sampling corals under stress. These findings will be applied to diagnostic tests describing the effect of different chemical pollutants on coral health in order to identify ecological issues and expand the knowledge of local communities and NOAA, so that steps can be taken to mitigate human Sanctuary impacts.

  16. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Shang

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin. The in vitro assays demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of inulin, including the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, were weak and significantly lower than those of Vitamin C (P < 0.05. The influence of dietary supplementation with inulin on the antioxidant status of laying hens was evaluated with in vivo antioxidant assays. The results indicated that inulin supplementation quadratically improved the egg production rate of the laying hens (P < 0.01. The antioxidant enzyme activities in the serum, including SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, and the total antioxidant capacity increased quadratically as inulin levels increased (P < 0.001. The levels of MDA in the serum decreased quadratically as inulin levels increased (P < 0.001. These findings suggest that inulin has the potential to improve the antioxidant status of laying hens.

  17. Interactive effects of aluminum and cadmium on phenolic compounds, antioxidant enzyme activity and oxidative stress in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plantlets cultivated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manquián-Cerda, K; Cruces, E; Escudey, M; Zúñiga, G; Calderón, R

    2018-04-15

    To evaluate the potential role of phenolic compounds in Al and Cd stress tolerance mechanisms, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. Legacy plantlets were exposed to different metal concentrations. The present study used an in vitro plant model to test the effects of the following treatments: 100μM Al; 100μMAl + 50μMCd; and 100μMAl + 100μMCd during periods of 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. The oxidative damage was determined by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The antioxidant activity values were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test (FRAP). Additionally, the phenolic compound concentrations were determined using HPLC-DAD. The exposure to Al and Cd increased the MDA and H 2 O 2 contents differentially, while the antioxidant capacity values showed differences between DPPH and FRAP with the largest changes in FRAP relative to Cd. SOD had the highest activity in the first 7 days, leading to a significant increase in phenolic compounds observed after 14 days, and chlorogenic acid was the major compound identified. Our results revealed that phenolic compounds seem to play an important role in the response to ROS. Therefore, the mechanisms of tolerance to Al and Cd in V. corymbosum will be determined by the type of metal and time of exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitomycin C induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme levels in a model insect species, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcabe, J P; MacGill, R S; Zaman, K; Ahmad, S; Pardini, R S

    1994-05-01

    1. An insect species, the southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania, was used as an in vivo model to examine mitomycin C's (MMC) pro-oxidant effect reflected in alterations of antioxidant enzymes. 2. Following a 2-day exposure to 0.01 and 0.05% w/w dietary concentrations, MMC only induced superoxide dismutase activity. All other enzyme activities were not affected, indicating oxidative stress was mild. 3. Following a 5-day exposure to 0.05% w/w dietary MMC, the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and its peroxidase activity and DT-diaphorase were induced. GR activity was not altered. The high constitutive catalase activity was also not affected. These responses of S. eridania's antioxidant enzymes are analogous to those of mammalian systems in alleviating MMC-induced oxidative stress. 4. S. eridania emerges as an appropriate non-mammalian model for initial and cost-effective screening of drug-induced oxidative stress.

  19. Stabilization of red fruit-based smoothies by high-pressure processing. Part A. Effects on microbial growth, enzyme activity, antioxidant capacity and physical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Adriana; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Picouet, Pierre; Jofré, Anna; Ros, José María; Bañón, Sancho

    2017-02-01

    Non-thermal pasteurization by high-pressure processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing thermal processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. However, most of the research on HPP-fruit products only partially addresses fruit-pressure interaction, which limits its practical interest. The objective of this study was to assess the use of a mild HPP treatment to stabilize red fruit-based smoothies (microbial, enzymatic, oxidative and physical stability). HPP (350 MPa/10 °C/5 min) was slightly less effective than TP (85 °C/7 min) in inactivating microbes (mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and moulds) in smoothies kept at 4 °C for up to 28 days. The main limitation of using HPP was its low efficacy in inactivating oxidative (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and hydrolytic (pectin methyl esterase) enzymes. Data on antioxidant status, colour parameters, browning index, transmittance, turbidity and viscosity confirmed that the HPP-smoothies have a greater tendency towards oxidation and clarification, which might lead to undesirable sensory and nutritional changes (see Part B). The microbial quality of smoothies was adequately controlled by mild HPP treatment without affecting their physical-chemical characteristics; however, oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes are highly pressure-resistant, which suggests that additional strategies should be used to stabilize smoothies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Inhibitor y effect on key enzymes relevant to acute type-2 diabetes and antioxidative activity of ethanolic extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus (A. heterophyllus stem bark and its inhibitory effect on a-amylase and a-glucosidase. Methods: The A. heterophyllus stem bark was extracted using methanol and tested for antioxidative activity. Results: The results revealed that the ethanolic extract has polyphenolics and free radical scavenging compounds which were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than their respective standard, at concentration dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of A. heterophyllus stem bark was observed to show inhibitory activities on a-amylase and a-glucosidase with IC50 of (4.18 ± 0.01 and (3.53 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that ethanolic extract of A. heterophyllus stem bark exhibited non-competitive inhibition for a-amylase and uncompetitive inhibition for a-glucosidase activities. Also, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry showed the presence of different bioactive compounds in extract. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be inferred from this study that ethanolic extract of A. heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in the management of diabetes mellitus probably due to bioactive compounds observed in the extract.

  1. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  2. Different responses of tobacco antioxidant enzymes to light and chilling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T; Willekens, H; Van Montagu, M; Inze, D; Van Camp, W; Toneva, [No Value; Minkov, [No Value

    The effect of elevated light treatment (25 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m(-2) sec(-1)) or chilling temperatures combined with elevated light (5 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m-2 sec-1) on the activity of six antioxidant enzymes, guaiacol peroxidases, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) protein

  3. Influence of different chemical agents (H2O2, t-BHP and MMS) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in human HepG2 and hamster V79 cells; relationship to cytotoxicity and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamenova, D; Kozics, K; Melusova, M; Horvathova, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigated activities of antioxidant enzymes (AEs), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in human HepG2 and hamster V79 cells treated with a scale of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of these substances were evaluated simultaneously. We have found out that H2O2, t-BHP and MMS predictably induce significant concentration-dependent increase of DNA lesions in both cell lines. Cytotoxicity detected in V79 cells with help of PE test was in a good conformity with the level of DNA damage. MTT test has proved unsuitable, except for MMS-treated V79 cells. Compared with human cells HepG2, hamster cells V79 manifested approximately similar levels of SOD and CAT but ten times higher activity of GPx. Across all concentrations tested the most significant increase of activity of the enzyme CAT was found in H2O2- and t-BHP-treated HepG2 cells, of the enzyme SOD in t-BHP- and MMS-treated V79 cells, and of the enzyme GPx in H2O2-treated V79 cells. We suggest that stimulation of enzyme activity by the relevant chemical compounds may result from transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation of the expression of the genes CAT, SOD and GPx. Several authors suggest that moderate levels of toxic reactants can induce increase of AEs activities, while very high levels of reactants can induce their decrease, as a consequence of damage of the molecular machinery required to induce AEs. Based on a great amount of experiments, which were done and described within this paper, we can say that the above mentioned principle does not apply in general. Only the reactions of t-BHP affected HepG2 cells were consistent with this idea.

  4. Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Glutathione Precursor on Antioxidant Enzyme and Cell Survival in Yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Roh, Changhyun; Ryu, Taeho; Park, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Michael A. [Oxiage Cosmeceutical Research Institute, Virginia (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Cells react to such an induced oxidative stress through scavenging the generated reactive oxygen species to reduce oxidative damage. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase are immediately triggered for reactive oxygen species. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, is one of the antioxidants. The effect of NAC as an antioxidant and/or a cell rescue agent was investigated in the present study. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular thiol, which involves in antioxidant defense via direct interaction with ROS or via activities of detoxication enzymes like glutathione peroxidases (GPx). NAC flowed in the cell is converted to cysteine by deacetylation, that is supplied to the depleted GSH by oxidative stress. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity such as GPx and alkaline phosphatase. Cell growth and survivorship and transcriptional level of glutathione gene are analyzed in two yeast strains exposed to combined treatment of NAC with gamma-rays. The effect of NAC on cell growth was measured during 72 hours. The cell growth was hampered by higher concentrations of NAC at stationary phase. NAC, however, didn't affect the cell division at the exponential phase. The survival of the cells decreased with radiation dose. The cell viability of the strain W303-1A was reduced significantly at the low dose (10 and 30 Gy). By comparison, the strain W303-1A was more sensitive to radiation with having a half lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of about 20 Gy. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional expression of antioxidant enzyme gene GPX1 increased after irradiation while the expression of the gene decreased by the combined treatment of NAC with 100 Gy radiation. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge ROS against oxidative stress in vivo. In conclusion, NAC can prevent radiation-induced oxidative

  5. Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Glutathione Precursor on Antioxidant Enzyme and Cell Survival in Yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Roh, Changhyun; Ryu, Taeho; Park, Jiyoung; Nili, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Cells react to such an induced oxidative stress through scavenging the generated reactive oxygen species to reduce oxidative damage. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase are immediately triggered for reactive oxygen species. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, is one of the antioxidants. The effect of NAC as an antioxidant and/or a cell rescue agent was investigated in the present study. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular thiol, which involves in antioxidant defense via direct interaction with ROS or via activities of detoxication enzymes like glutathione peroxidases (GPx). NAC flowed in the cell is converted to cysteine by deacetylation, that is supplied to the depleted GSH by oxidative stress. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity such as GPx and alkaline phosphatase. Cell growth and survivorship and transcriptional level of glutathione gene are analyzed in two yeast strains exposed to combined treatment of NAC with gamma-rays. The effect of NAC on cell growth was measured during 72 hours. The cell growth was hampered by higher concentrations of NAC at stationary phase. NAC, however, didn't affect the cell division at the exponential phase. The survival of the cells decreased with radiation dose. The cell viability of the strain W303-1A was reduced significantly at the low dose (10 and 30 Gy). By comparison, the strain W303-1A was more sensitive to radiation with having a half lethal dose (LD 50 ) of about 20 Gy. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional expression of antioxidant enzyme gene GPX1 increased after irradiation while the expression of the gene decreased by the combined treatment of NAC with 100 Gy radiation. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge ROS against oxidative stress in vivo. In conclusion, NAC can prevent radiation-induced oxidative stress by

  6. Antioxidant activity of banana flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of flavonoids from banana (Musa paradisiaca) was studied in rats fed normal as well as high fat diets. Concentrations of peroxidation products namely malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated diens were significantly decreased whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced significantly. Concentrations of glutathione were also elevated in the treated animals.

  7. Antioxidant activity of Potentilla fruticosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Waard, de P.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The molecular structures of the radical scavenging compounds present in extracts of Potentilla fruticosa blossoms were elucidated and the antioxidant activities of various extracts were determined. The activities of the different fractions were monitored by off-line and on-line RP-HPLC DPPH. and

  8. Catalase, a remarkable enzyme: targeting the oldest antioxidant enzyme to find a new cancer treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Christophe; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2017-09-26

    This review is centered on the antioxidant enzyme catalase and will present different aspects of this particular protein. Among them: historical discovery, biological functions, types of catalases and recent data with regard to molecular mechanisms regulating its expression. The main goal is to understand the biological consequences of chronic exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide leading to cellular adaptation. Such issues are of the utmost importance with potential therapeutic extrapolation for various pathologies. Catalase is a key enzyme in the metabolism of H2O2 and reactive nitrogen species, and its expression and localization is markedly altered in tumors. The molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of catalase, the oldest known and first discovered antioxidant enzyme, are not completely elucidated. As cancer cells are characterized by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a rather altered expression of antioxidant enzymes, these characteristics represent an advantage in terms of cell proliferation. Meanwhile, they render cancer cells particularly sensitive to an oxidant insult. In this context, targeting the redox status of cancer cells by modulating catalase expression is emerging as a novel approach to potentiate chemotherapy.

  9. Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, conjugated diene (CD, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl (PC, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P<0.05. The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P<0.05, P<0.01. Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P<0.01. And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis.

  10. Synergistic Exposure of Rice Seeds to Different Doses of γ-Ray and Salinity Stress Resulted in Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Gene-Specific Modulation of TC-NER Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Macovei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have underlined the potential of gamma (γ-rays as tools for seed priming, a process used in seed industry to increase seed vigor and to enhance plant tolerance to biotic/abiotic stresses. However, the impact of γ-rays on key aspects of plant metabolism still needs to be carefully evaluated. In the present study, rice seeds were challenged with different doses of γ-rays and grown in absence/presence of NaCl to assess the impact of these treatments on the early stages of plant life. Enhanced germination efficiency associated with increase in radicle and hypocotyl length was observed, while at later stages no increase in plant tolerance to salinity stress was evident. APX, CAT, and GR were enhanced at transcriptional level and in terms of enzyme activity, indicating the activation of antioxidant defence. The profiles of DNA damage accumulation were obtained using SCGE and the implication of TC-NER pathway in DNA damage sensing and repair mechanisms is discussed. OsXPB2, OsXPD, OsTFIIS, and OsTFIIS-like genes showed differential modulation in seedlings and plantlets in response to γ-irradiation and salinity stress. Altogether, the synergistic exposure to γ-rays and NaCl resulted in enhanced oxidative stress and proper activation of antioxidant mechanisms, thus being compatible with plant survival.

  11. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Oil Palm Seedlings Treated with Combination of NPK Fertilizers Infected with Ganoderma boninense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohidin, Hasmah; Idris, Abu Seman; Fariz, A.; Abiri, Rambod; Taheri, Sima; Moradpoor, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is one of the major sources of edible oil. Reducing the effect of Ganoderma, main cause of basal stem rot (BSR) on oil palm, is the main propose of this study. Understanding the oil palm defense mechanism against Ganoderma infection through monitoring changes in the secondary metabolite compounds levels before/after infection by Ganoderma under different fertilizing treatment is required. Oil palm requires macro- and microelements for growth and yield. Manipulating the nutrient for oil palm is a method to control the disease. The 3-4-month-old oil palm seedlings were given different macronutrient treatments to evaluate induction of defense related enzymes and production of secondary metabolite compounds in response to G. boninense inoculation. The observed trend of changes in the infected and uninfected seedlings was a slightly higher activity for β-1,3-glucanases, chitinase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase during the process of pathogenesis. It was found that PR proteins gave positive response to the interaction between oil palm seedlings and Ganoderma infection. Although the responses were activated systematically, they were short-lasting as the changes in enzymes activities appeared before the occurrence of visible symptoms. Effect of different nutrients doses was obviously observed among the results of the secondary metabolite compounds. Many identified/unidentified metabolite compounds were presented, of which some were involved in plant cell defense mechanism against pathogens, mostly belonging to alkaloids with bitter-tasting nitrogenous-compounds, and some had the potential to be used as new markers to detect basal stem rot at the initial step of disease. PMID:29721500

  12. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Oil Palm Seedlings Treated with Combination of NPK Fertilizers Infected with Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, Mahbod; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Mohidin, Hasmah; Rafii, M Y; Azizi, Parisa; Idris, Abu Seman; Fariz, A; Abiri, Rambod; Taheri, Sima; Moradpoor, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is one of the major sources of edible oil. Reducing the effect of Ganoderma, main cause of basal stem rot (BSR) on oil palm, is the main propose of this study. Understanding the oil palm defense mechanism against Ganoderma infection through monitoring changes in the secondary metabolite compounds levels before/after infection by Ganoderma under different fertilizing treatment is required. Oil palm requires macro- and microelements for growth and yield. Manipulating the nutrient for oil palm is a method to control the disease. The 3-4-month-old oil palm seedlings were given different macronutrient treatments to evaluate induction of defense related enzymes and production of secondary metabolite compounds in response to G. boninense inoculation. The observed trend of changes in the infected and uninfected seedlings was a slightly higher activity for β -1,3-glucanases, chitinase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase during the process of pathogenesis. It was found that PR proteins gave positive response to the interaction between oil palm seedlings and Ganoderma infection. Although the responses were activated systematically, they were short-lasting as the changes in enzymes activities appeared before the occurrence of visible symptoms. Effect of different nutrients doses was obviously observed among the results of the secondary metabolite compounds. Many identified/unidentified metabolite compounds were presented, of which some were involved in plant cell defense mechanism against pathogens, mostly belonging to alkaloids with bitter-tasting nitrogenous-compounds, and some had the potential to be used as new markers to detect basal stem rot at the initial step of disease.

  13. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Oil Palm Seedlings Treated with Combination of NPK Fertilizers Infected with Ganoderma boninense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbod Sahebi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq is one of the major sources of edible oil. Reducing the effect of Ganoderma, main cause of basal stem rot (BSR on oil palm, is the main propose of this study. Understanding the oil palm defense mechanism against Ganoderma infection through monitoring changes in the secondary metabolite compounds levels before/after infection by Ganoderma under different fertilizing treatment is required. Oil palm requires macro- and microelements for growth and yield. Manipulating the nutrient for oil palm is a method to control the disease. The 3-4-month-old oil palm seedlings were given different macronutrient treatments to evaluate induction of defense related enzymes and production of secondary metabolite compounds in response to G. boninense inoculation. The observed trend of changes in the infected and uninfected seedlings was a slightly higher activity for β-1,3-glucanases, chitinase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase during the process of pathogenesis. It was found that PR proteins gave positive response to the interaction between oil palm seedlings and Ganoderma infection. Although the responses were activated systematically, they were short-lasting as the changes in enzymes activities appeared before the occurrence of visible symptoms. Effect of different nutrients doses was obviously observed among the results of the secondary metabolite compounds. Many identified/unidentified metabolite compounds were presented, of which some were involved in plant cell defense mechanism against pathogens, mostly belonging to alkaloids with bitter-tasting nitrogenous-compounds, and some had the potential to be used as new markers to detect basal stem rot at the initial step of disease.

  14. Antioxidative activity of Geranium macrorrhizum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Waard, de P.

    2004-01-01

    The composition of radical-scavenging compounds from Geranium macrorrhizum leaves was analyzed and the antioxidative activities of various extracts was determined. Seven compounds, namely gallic acid, ellagic acid, 4-galloyl quinic acid, the flavonoid quercetin and three of its glycosides,

  15. Antioxidant activities of Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sue-Jing; Ng, Lean-Teik; Huang, Yuan-Man; Lin, Doung-Liang; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Huang, Shan-Ney; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2005-06-01

    Physalis peruviana (PP) is a widely used medicinal herb for treating cancer, malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism. In this study, the hot water extract (HWEPP) and extracts prepared from different concentrations of ethanol (20, 40, 60, 80 and 95% EtOH) from the whole plant were evaluated for antioxidant activities. Results displayed that at 100 mug/ml, the extract prepared from 95% EtOH exhibited the most potent inhibition rate (82.3%) on FeCl2-ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate. At concentrations 10-100 microg/ml, this extract also demonstrated the strongest superoxide anion scavenging and inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase activities. In general, the ethanol extracts revealed a stronger antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol and HWEPP. Compared to alpha-tocopherol, the IC50 value of 95% EtOH PP extract was lower in thiobarbituric acid test (IC50=23.74 microg/ml vs. 26.71 microg/ml), in cytochrome c test (IC50=10.40 microg/ml vs. 13.39 microg/ml) and in xanthine oxidase inhibition test (IC50=8.97 microg/ml vs. 20.68 microg/ml). The present study concludes that ethanol extracts of PP possess good antioxidant activities, and the highest antioxidant properties were obtained from the 95% EtOH PP.

  16. Antioxidant properties, selected enzyme inhibition capacities, and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, H2O2 scavenging assay, ABTS), antityrosinase, anti 5-lipoxygenase, antihyaluronidase and anti α-glucosidase were determined. Cosmetic creams containing 0, 1, 2 and 3 % of MSKE were prepared and evaluated for physical stability. The most stable formulation was subjected to the ...

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenols from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the medicinal plants were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic micro organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Esherichia coli and Candida albicans). The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and antioxidant activities. In addition, varying ...

  18. Effect of enzyme/substrate ratio on the antioxidant properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant properties of African yam bean hydrolysates (AYH) produced at different enzyme to substrate (E/S) ratios of 1: 100 and 3: 100 (W/V) using pepsin (pH 2.0, 37°C) were studied. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates was significantly influenced by the E\\S ratio as ...

  19. Cadmium phytotoxicity: Quantitative sensitivity relationships between classical endpoints and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa Correa, Albertina Xavier da [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Roerig, Leonardo Rubi [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Verdinelli, Miguel A. [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Cotelle, Sylvie [Centre des Sciences de l' Environnement, Universite de Metz, 57000 Metz (France); Ferard, Jean-Francois [Centre des Sciences de l' Environnement, Universite de Metz, 57000 Metz (France); Radetski, Claudemir Marcos [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: radetski@univali.br

    2006-03-15

    In this work, cadmium phytotoxicity and quantitative sensitivity relationships between different hierarchical endpoints in plants cultivated in a contaminated soil were studied. Thus, germination rate, biomass growth and antioxidative enzyme activity (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in three terrestrial plants (Avena sativa L., Brassica campestris L. cv. Chinensis, Lactuca sativa L. cv. hanson) were analyzed. Plant growth tests were carried out according to an International Standard Organization method and the results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Williams' test. The concentration of Cd{sup 2+} that had the smallest observed significant negative effect (LOEC) on plant biomass was 6.25, 12.5 and 50 mg Cd/kg dry soil for lettuce, oat and Chinese cabbage, respectively. Activity of all enzymes studied increased significantly compared to enzyme activity in plant controls. For lettuce, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) for enzymic activity ranged from 0.05 (glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (catalase). For oat, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (for superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (for catalase and peroxidase). For Chinese cabbage, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (superoxide dismutase). Classical (i.e. germination and biomass) and biochemical (i.e. enzyme activity) endpoints were compared to establish a sensitivity ranking, which was: enzyme activity > biomass > germination rate. For cadmium-soil contamination, the determination of quantitative sensitivity relationships (QSR) between classical and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers showed that the most sensitive plant species have, generally, the lowest QSR values.

  20. Cadmium phytotoxicity: Quantitative sensitivity relationships between classical endpoints and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa Correa, Albertina Xavier da; Roerig, Leonardo Rubi; Verdinelli, Miguel A.; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-Francois; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos

    2006-01-01

    In this work, cadmium phytotoxicity and quantitative sensitivity relationships between different hierarchical endpoints in plants cultivated in a contaminated soil were studied. Thus, germination rate, biomass growth and antioxidative enzyme activity (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in three terrestrial plants (Avena sativa L., Brassica campestris L. cv. Chinensis, Lactuca sativa L. cv. hanson) were analyzed. Plant growth tests were carried out according to an International Standard Organization method and the results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Williams' test. The concentration of Cd 2+ that had the smallest observed significant negative effect (LOEC) on plant biomass was 6.25, 12.5 and 50 mg Cd/kg dry soil for lettuce, oat and Chinese cabbage, respectively. Activity of all enzymes studied increased significantly compared to enzyme activity in plant controls. For lettuce, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) for enzymic activity ranged from 0.05 (glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (catalase). For oat, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (for superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (for catalase and peroxidase). For Chinese cabbage, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (superoxide dismutase). Classical (i.e. germination and biomass) and biochemical (i.e. enzyme activity) endpoints were compared to establish a sensitivity ranking, which was: enzyme activity > biomass > germination rate. For cadmium-soil contamination, the determination of quantitative sensitivity relationships (QSR) between classical and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers showed that the most sensitive plant species have, generally, the lowest QSR values

  1. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity.

  2. Impact of ultraviolet radiation treatments on the physicochemical properties, antioxidants, enzyme activity and microbial load in freshly prepared hand pressed strawberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Stamminger, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    Freshly prepared, hand-pressed strawberry fruit juice was exposed to ultraviolet radiation (254 nm) at room temperature (25 ℃ ± 1 ℃) for 15, 30 and 60 min with 0 min serving as control. Results revealed decrease in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity, while colour parameters (L*, a* and b* values) and clarity of juice (% transmittance) increased significantly. All the results corresponded to exposure time to ultraviolet radiation. Bioactive compounds (total phenolics, ascorbic acid and anthocyanins) decreased along with a recorded reduction in polyphenol oxidase enzyme and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activities, which were again dependent on exposure time. Results on the microbial studies showed significant reduction by 2-log cycles in aerobic plate count as well as in total yeast and mould counts. Though negative results were observed for certain parameters, this is the first time it was endeavoured to demonstrate the impact of ultraviolet radiation radiation on freshly prepared, hand-pressed strawberries juice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Role of nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in the pathogenesis of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayendrakumar B; Shah, Franky D; Shukla, Shilin N; Shah, Pankaj M; Patel, Prabhudas S

    2009-01-01

    Oral cancer is the leading malignancy in India. Nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes play an important role in etiology of oral cancer. Therefore, the present study evaluates nitric oxide and antioxidant enzyme levels in healthy individual without tobacco habits (NHT, N=30) and healthy individuals with tobacco habits (WHT, n=90), patients with oral precancers (OPC, n=15) and oral cancer patients (n=126). Blood samples were collected from the subjects. NO2 + NO3 (nitrite+nitrate), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were estimated using highly specific spectrophotometeric methods. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS statistical software version 10. Mean plasma NO2 + NO3 levels were elevated in patients with OPC and oral cancer patients as compared to the controls. Mean activities of erythrocyte SOD and catalase were higher in WHT than NHT. Erythrocyte SOD and catalase levels were higher in WHT and patients with OPC as compared to NHT. The erythrocyte SOD and catalase activities were lower in oral cancer patients than patients with OPC. The erythrocyte SOD activity was higher in advanced oral cancer than the early disease. Erythrocyte catalase activity was lower in poorly differentiated tumors than well and moderately differentiated tumors. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that alterations in plasma NO2 + NO3 levels were negatively associated with changes in erythrocyte SOD activities. The data revealed that the alterations in antioxidant activities were associated with production of nitric oxide in oral cancer, which may have significant role in oral carcinogenesis.

  4. Assessment of the effect of silicon on antioxidant enzymes in cotton plants by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Moldes, Carlos; Fontão de Lima Filho, Oscar; Manuel Camiña, José; Gabriela Kiriachek, Soraya; Lia Molas, María; Mui Tsai, Siu

    2013-11-27

    Silicon has been extensively researched in relation to the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress, as an element triggering defense mechanisms which activate the antioxidant system. Furthermore, in some species, adding silicon to unstressed plants modifies the activity of certain antioxidant enzymes participating in detoxifying processes. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of unstressed cotton plants fertilized with silicon (Si). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponic culture and added with increasing doses of potassium silicate; then, the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Using multivariate analysis, we found that silicon altered the activity of GPOX, APX, and CAT in roots and leaves of unstressed cotton plants, whereas lipid peroxidation was not affected. The analysis of these four variables in concert showed a clear differentiation among Si treatments. We observed that enzymatic activities in leaves and roots changed as silicon concentration increased, to stabilize at 100 and 200 mg Si L(-1) treatments in leaves and roots, respectively. Those alterations would allow a new biochemical status that could be partially responsible for the beneficial effects of silicon. This study might contribute to adjust the silicon application doses for optimal fertilization, preventing potential toxic effects and unnecessary cost.

  5. Response of antioxidant enzymes in Nicotiana tabacum clones during phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Nehnevajova, Erika; Herzig, Rolf; Schröder, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, is a widely used model plant for growth on heavy-metal-contaminated sites. Its high biomass and deep rooting system make it interesting for phytoextraction. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidative activities and glutathione-dependent enzymes of different tobacco clones optimized for better Cd and Zn accumulation in order to characterize their performance in the field. The improved heavy metal resistance also makes the investigated tobacco clones interesting for understanding the plant defense enzyme system in general. Freshly harvested plant material (N. tabacum leaves) was used to investigate the antioxidative cascade in plants grown on heavy metal contaminated sites with and without amendments of different ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate fertilizers. Plants were grown on heavily polluted soils in north-east Switzerland. Leaves were harvested at the field site and directly deep frozen in liquid N(2). Studies were concentrated on the antioxidative enzymes of the Halliwell-Asada cycle, and spectrophotometric measurements of catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.9), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2), glutathione S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) were performed. We tried to explain the relationship between fertilizer amendments and the activity of the enzymatic defense systems. When tobacco (N. tabacum) plants originating from different mutants were grown under field conditions with varying fertilizer application, the uptake of cadmium and zinc from soil increased with increasing biomass. Depending on Cd and Zn uptake, several antioxidant enzymes showed significantly different activities. Whereas SOD and CAT were usually elevated, several other enzymes, and isoforms of GST were strongly inhibited. Heavy metal uptake represents severe stress to plants, and specific antioxidative enzymes are induced at the

  6. Transcriptional analysis of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) antioxidant enzymes against marine bacteria and virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2011-07-01

    Diverse antioxidant enzymes are essential for marine organisms to overcome oxidative stress as well as for the fine-tuning of immune reactions through activating different signal transduction pathways. This study describes the transcriptional analysis of antioxidant enzymes of disk abalone by challenging with bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Upon bacteria and VHSV challenge, Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Copper, Zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx), and thioredoxin-2 (TRx-2) expression levels were altered in gills, and hemocytes at different magnitudes. In gills, only MnSOD, catalase, and SeGPx genes were completely upregulated by post-challenge of bacterial and VHSV. Among them, SeGPx demonstrated strong upregulation by 16-fold (bacteria) and 2-fold (VHSV) in gills, and 5-fold (bacteria) and 3.0-fold (VHSV) in hemocytes. None of the genes examined were downregulated (in gills and hemocytes) by bacteria challenge even though CuZnSOD and TPx showed downregulation (completely) in hemocytes by VHSV. In general, abalone hemocytes had lower potential to induce antioxidant enzyme transcripts upon bacteria and VHSV challenge than gills. Based upon these results, we suggest that abalones induce oxidative stress in tissues during the bacteria and VHSV challenge, and the identified response of antioxidant enzymes could be supported for maintaining a low-level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may serve as a signal for activating immune reactions against pathogenic conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Supplementation with Sodium Selenite and Selenium-Enriched Microalgae Biomass Show Varying Effects on Blood Enzymes Activities, Antioxidant Response, and Accumulation in Common Barbel (Barbus barbus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, A.; Velíšek, J.; Stará, A.; Masojídek, Jiří; Kozák, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, Article ID 408270 (2014) ISSN 2314-6141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk LO1205; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0024 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 087/2013/Z Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : selenite * selenium * antioxidant response Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. Peroxiredoxin II is an antioxidant enzyme that negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Yong; Wang, Su Bin; Min, Ji Hyun; Chae, Yun Hee; Baek, Jin Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Collagen-induced platelet signaling is mediated by binding to the primary receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Reactive oxygen species produced in response to collagen have been found to be responsible for the propagation of GPVI signaling pathways in platelets. Therefore, it has been suggested that antioxidant enzymes could down-regulate GPVI-stimulated platelet activation. Although the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) has emerged as having a role in negatively regulating signaling through various receptors by eliminating H2O2 generated upon receptor stimulation, the function of PrxII in collagen-stimulated platelets is not known. We tested the hypothesis that PrxII negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet activation. We analyzed PrxII-deficient murine platelets. PrxII deficiency enhanced GPVI-mediated platelet activation through the defective elimination of H2O2 and the impaired protection of SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) against oxidative inactivation, which resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of key components for the GPVI signaling cascade, including Syk, Btk, and phospholipase Cγ2. Interestingly, PrxII-mediated antioxidative protection of SHP-2 appeared to occur in the lipid rafts. PrxII-deficient platelets exhibited increased adhesion and aggregation upon collagen stimulation. Furthermore, in vivo experiments demonstrated that PrxII deficiency facilitated platelet-dependent thrombus formation in injured carotid arteries. This study reveals that PrxII functions as a protective antioxidant enzyme against collagen-stimulated platelet activation and platelet-dependent thrombosis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. In vivo examination of the effects of hydroxycinnamic acid on xenobiotic metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semiz Asli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA have gained increasing attention from researchers due to their antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to examine in detail the impact of dietary HCA on particular types of P450 and also selected phase II and antioxidant enzymes in Wistar rat. HCA (10 mM/kg/day, i.p. was administered for ten continuous days. Examination of the activities and mRNA and protein levels revealed that CYP2B, 2C6 and 3A enzyme activities were not altered significantly, with Western blot and qRT-PCR results corroborating this result. While treatment with HCA led to a significant reduction in CYP1A1/CYP1A2-associated enzyme activities, CYP1A1 protein, and mRNA levels were found to be unchanged. Aromatase (CYP19 activity, as well as protein and mRNA levels, were significantly reduced with HCA treatment. On the other hand, the NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs activities were increased significantly. Also, HCA treatment significantly increased the GST-mu and GST-theta mRNA levels. These observations may be of importance given the potential use of HCA as a chemopreventive and as an anticancer agent.

  10. Oxidative stress in cancer and fibrosis: Opportunity for therapeutic intervention with antioxidant compounds, enzymes, and nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingga Morry

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, mainly contributed by reactive oxygen species (ROS, has been implicated in pathogenesis of several diseases. We review two primary examples; fibrosis and cancer. In fibrosis, ROS promote activation and proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, activating TGF-β pathway in an autocrine manner. In cancer, ROS account for its genomic instability, resistance to apoptosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Importantly, ROS trigger cancer cell invasion through invadopodia formation as well as extravasation into a distant metastasis site. Use of antioxidant supplements, enzymes, and inhibitors for ROS-generating NADPH oxidases (NOX is a logical therapeutic intervention for fibrosis and cancer. We review such attempts, progress, and challenges. Lastly, we review how nanoparticles with inherent antioxidant activity can also be a promising therapeutic option, considering their additional feature as a delivery platform for drugs, genes, and imaging agents.

  11. Diurnal gradual heat stress affects antioxidant enzymes, proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... to non-toxic levels by catabolizing it to water and oxygen. (Mittler ... within hours, unlike drought and salinity stresses. Therefore ... mechanism of response of cotton to elevated ..... Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts; polyphenol- .... transcription factor-dependent expression and activity of ascorbate.

  12. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda M.S.; Cintra R.G.; Barros S.B.M.; Mancini-Filho J.

    1998-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated ...

  13. Antioxidant activity of the exudate from Aloe barbadensis leaves in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the exudate of Aloe barbadensis leaves on oxidative stress and some antioxidant status of streptozotocin induced - diabetic rats were studied. There was significant reduction in scavenging enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and significant increase in signs of oxidative tissue damage, such as ...

  14. Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plants. SNAP (50 μM was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt stress negatively affected growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

  15. Effect of Alpinia zerumbet components on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chompoo Jamnian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin is chronically exposed to endogenous and environmental pro-oxidant agents, leading to the harmful generation of reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant is vital substances which possess the ability to protect the body from damage cause by free radicals induce oxidative stress. Alpinia zerumbet, a traditionally important economic plant in Okinawa, contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this regard, we carried out to test the inhibitory effect of crude extracts and isolated compounds from A. zerumbet on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Methods The antioxidant activities were examined by DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH radical scavenging. Collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase were designed for enzymatic activities to investigate the inhibitory properties of test samples using a continuous spectrophotometric assay. The inhibitory capacity of test samples was presented at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. Results The results showed that aqueous extract of the rhizome was found to have greater inhibitory effects than the others on both of antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Furthermore, 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK, dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK and 8(17,12-labdadiene-15,16-dial (labdadiene, isolated from rhizome, were tested for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitions. We found that DK showed higher inhibitory activities on DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH scavenging (IC50 = 122.14 ± 1.40, 110.08 ± 3.34 and 127.78 ± 4.75 μg/ml, respectively. It also had stronger inhibitory activities against collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase (IC50 = 24.93 ± 0.97, 19.41 ± 0.61, 19.48 ± 0.24 and 76.67 ± 0.50 μg/ml, respectively than DDK and labdadiene. Conclusion Our results indicate that the rhizome aqueous extract proved to be the source of bioactive compounds against enzymes responsible for

  16. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    to be affected by prior. lycopene exposure. The level of PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver or colon was likewise not affected by lycopene at any dose. Overall, the present study provides evidence that lycopene administered in the diet of young female rats exerts minor modifying effects toward antioxidant and drug......-metabolizing enzymes involved in the protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The fact that these enzymatic activities are induced at all of these very low plasma levels, could be taken to suggest that modulation of antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes map indeed be relevant to humans, which in general...

  17. Antioxidant enzymes expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to UV-C radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Kloula Ben Ghorbal; Lobna, Maalej; Sana, Khefacha; Kalthoum, Chourabi; Imene, Ouzari; Abdelwaheb, Chatti

    2016-07-01

    It was well known that, UV-C irradiation increase considerably the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. In the enzymatic ROS-scavenging pathways, superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX) were developed to deal with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of UV-C radiations on antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidases) expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidases activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Isozymes of superoxide dismutase were revealed by native gel activity staining method. Lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring malondialdehyde formation. Our results showed that superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities exhibited a gradual increase during the exposure time (30 min). However, the superoxide dismutase activity was maximized at 15 min. Native gel activity staining assays showed the presence of three superoxide dismutase isozymes. The iron-cofactored isoform activity was altered after exposure to UV-C stress. These finding suggest that catalase and peroxidase enzymes have the same importance toward UV-C rays at shorter and longer exposure times and this may confer additional protection to superoxide dismutase from damage caused by lipid peroxidation. Moreover, our data demonstrate the significant role of the antioxidant system in the resistance of this important human pathogen. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of whole plant extract of Micromeria fruticosa (L) Druce ssp Serpyllifolia F Lamiaceae against Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

  19. Health attributes of ethnic vegetables consumed in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey: Antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Dalar

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Among the investigated ethnic vegetables, P. lanceolata and C. intybus represent a valuable source of antioxidant phytochemicals of phenolic nature that modulated in vitro the activities of digestive enzymes. These ethnic food sources diversify diet and enhance health attributes of foods.

  20. Olive (Olea europaea) leaf methanolic extract prevents HCl/ethanol-induced gastritis in rats by attenuating inflammation and augmenting antioxidant enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Othman, Mohamed S; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat

    2017-07-01

    Gastritis is preponderantly characterized by inflammation of the lining epithelial layer and the chronic gastritis is considered as a pre-cancer lesion. For many centuries olive (Olea europaea) leaf has been used for its putative health potential, nonetheless, to date, the gastroprotective effects of olive leaves have not been studied yet. Hence, in this study we investigated whether olive leaf extract (OLE) could protect gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. Hcl/ethanol administration caused significant damage to the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by gastric ulcer index and histological evaluation. However, this damage was largely prevented by pre-administering 20mg/kg omeprazole or 100mg/kg OLE. Interestingly, the damage was completely prevented by pre-administering 200 and 300mg/kg OLE. Moreover, OLE attenuated the inflammatory response by decreasing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expressions, and down-regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in gastric mucosa. The gastroprotective mechanism of OLE involved the promotion of enzymatic and nonenzymatic molecules (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione reduced form), promoting nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression, halting lipid peroxidation and preventing the overproduction of nitric oxide. Together, our findings clearly demonstrated that OLE could prevent HCl/ethanol-induced gastritis by attenuating inflammation and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. Indeed, OLE could potentially be useful as a natural therapy for gastritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiac and renal antioxidant enzymes and effects of tempol in hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez Gómez, Isabel; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Osuna, Antonio; Bueno, Pablo; Vargas, Félix

    2005-11-01

    This study evaluated the activity of cardiac and renal antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and whether chronic treatment with tempol, a cell membrane-permeable SOD mimetic, ameliorates the hypertension of hyperthyroidism. Two experiments were performed. In experiment I, the following four groups of male Wistar rats were used: control group and three groups that received thyroxine (T4) at 10, 50, or 75 microg x rat(-1) x day(-1). In experiment II, tempol was orally administered (18 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) to control and T4-treated (75 microg x rat(-1) x day(-1)) rats. All treatments were maintained for 6 wk. Body weight, tail systolic blood pressure (BP), and heart rate were measured one time a week, and direct BP and morphological, metabolic, plasma, and renal variables were measured at the end of the experiment. Enzymatic activities were measured in renal cortex and medulla and right and left ventricles. In renal cortex, SOD activity was decreased in the T4-75 group, and there was a dose-related increase in CAT activity and decrease in GPX and GR activities in T4-treated groups. Activity of all antioxidant enzymes was reduced in left ventricle in T4-50 and T4-75 groups and in right ventricle in the T4-75 group. Tempol reduced BP, plasma malondialdehyde, and total urinary excretion of F2 isoprostanes in hypertensive hyperthyroid rats but not in controls. Tempol did not improve cardiac hypertrophy, proteinuria, or creatinine clearance in hyperthyroid rats. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that the activity of SOD, GPX, and GR in renal and cardiac tissues is decreased in hyperthyroidism and that antioxidant treatment with tempol ameliorates T4-induced hypertension.

  2. Phenolic profiling and therapeutic potential of local flora of Azad Kashmir; In vitro enzyme inhibition and antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Muhammad Asam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study supports the phytochemical screening, evaluation of antioxidant and enzyme inhibition potential and correlations between antioxidant activities and phenolics of Rumex dentatus (Family: Polygonaceae, Mentha spicata (Family: Lamiaceae, Withania somnifera (Family: Solanaceae, Nerium indicum (Family: Apocynaceae and Artemisia scoparia (Family: Asteraceae. The herbal materials were extracted in ethanol (90% and partitioned between several solvents based on polarities. Total phenols were determined with FC method and ranged 21.33 ± 1.53 - 355.67 ± 6.03 mg GAE/ mg of the extract. Antioxidant activities (DPPH, total iron reducing capacity, phosphomolybdate assay & FRAP and enzyme inhibition potential (Protease, AChE & BChE were performed by the standard protocols. The results showed that all extracts exhibited significant DPPH activity ranging from 12.67 ± 2.08 - 92.67 ± 1.53%. The extracts that were active in DPPH activity also potrayed marvelous FRAP, total iron reducing and phosphomolybdate values. Correlation studies of antioxidant activities and the content of phenolic compounds in plant materials exhibited positive correlation between them. The outcome of enzyme inhibition activity exhibited that about 80% of the fractions under surveillance plants intimated more than 50% inhibition. Isolation of bioactive compounds from these plants is in progress.

  3. Antioxidant enzymes as potential targets in cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Enzyme antioxidants: the next stage of pharmacological counterwork to the oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vavaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT, methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extracellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and bioeconomy.

  4. Foliar application of chlorocholine chloride improves leaf mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzyme activity, and tuber yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huigun; Xiao, Langtao; Tong, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    activity. Results showed that 1.5 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments significantly increased the contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in potato leaves. These treatments also increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves. A positive linear relationship...

  5. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  6. Elevation of antioxidant enzymes in the clinical effects of radon and thermal therapy for bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Hosaki, Yasuhiro; Ashida, Kozo; Tanizaki, Yoshiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Sugita, Katsuhiro; Kojima, Shuji

    2003-01-01

    An increased systemic production of oxygen-free radicals by activated inflammatory cells is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of asthma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effects of radon and thermal therapy on asthma in relation to antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide. Radon and thermal therapy were performed once a week. All subjects went to a hot bathroom with a high concentration of radon, and nasal inhalation of vapor from a hot spring was performed for 40 min once a day under conditions of high humidity. The room temperature was 48 deg C; the room radon concentration was 2,080 Bq/m 3 . Blood samples were collected at 2 h, 14, and 28 days after the first therapy. A blood sample also was collected before the first therapy (at body temperature and background radon level) to be used as the control. The forced expiratory volume in one second (%FEV 1 ) was significantly increased 28 days after the first therapy. On day 28, the catalase (CAT) activity was significantly increased in comparison with the control. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly increased compared to the control after first inhalation. On days 14 and 28, the lipid peroxide level was significantly decreased in comparison with the control. In conclusion, the present pilot study has shown that radon and thermal therapy improved the pulmonary function of asthmatics by increasing the reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes. (author)

  7. Measuring the Enzyme Activity of Arabidopsis Deubiquitylating Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, Kamila; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Deubiquitylating enzymes, or DUBs, are important regulators of ubiquitin homeostasis and substrate stability, though the molecular mechanisms of most of the DUBs in plants are not yet understood. As different ubiquitin chain types are implicated in different biological pathways, it is important to analyze the enzyme characteristic for studying a DUB. Quantitative analysis of DUB activity is also important to determine enzyme kinetics and the influence of DUB binding proteins on the enzyme activity. Here, we show methods to analyze DUB activity using immunodetection, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, and fluorescence measurement that can be useful for understanding the basic characteristic of DUBs.

  8. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. PMID:16425366

  9. Lignin-degrading enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-ru; Sarkanen, Simo; Wang, Yun-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the activities of four kinds of enzyme have been purported to furnish the mechanistic foundations for macromolecular lignin depolymerization in decaying plant cell walls. The pertinent fungal enzymes comprise lignin peroxidase (with a relatively high redox potential), manganese peroxidase, an alkyl aryl etherase, and laccase. The peroxidases and laccase, but not the etherase, are expressed extracellularly by white-rot fungi. A number of these microorganisms exhibit a marked preference toward lignin in their degradation of lignocellulose. Interestingly, some white-rot fungi secrete both kinds of peroxidase but no laccase, while others that are equally effective express extracellular laccase activity but no peroxidases. Actually, none of these enzymes has been reported to possess significant depolymerase activity toward macromolecular lignin substrates that are derived with little chemical modification from the native biopolymer. Here, the assays commonly employed for monitoring the traditional fungal peroxidases, alkyl aryl etherase, and laccase are described in their respective contexts. A soluble native polymeric substrate that can be isolated directly from a conventional milled-wood lignin preparation is characterized in relation to its utility in next-generation lignin-depolymerase assays.

  10. Differential effects of dietary flavonoids on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in female rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S.T.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    1. Gavage administration of the natural flavonoids tangeretin, chrysin, apigenin, naringenin, genistein and quercetin for 2 consecutive weeks to the female rat resulted in differential effects on selected phase 1 and 2 enzymes in liver, colon and heart as well as antioxidant enzymes in red brood......) significantly protected against, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced oxidative stress. Hepatic PhIP-DNA adduct formation was not affected by any of the administered flavonoids, whereas PhIP-DNA adduct formation in colon was slightly, but significantly, inhibited by quercetin......, genistein, tangeretin and BNF. 5. The observed effects of chrysin, quercetin and genistein on antioxidant enzymes, concurrently with a protection against oxidative stress, suggest a feedback mechanism on the antioxidant enzymes triggered by the flavonoid antioxidants. 6. Despite the use of high flavonoid...

  11. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total proteins in Wistar rats. Christian E Odo, Okwesili FC Nwodo, Parker E Joshua, Chibuike S Ubani, Okon E Etim, Okechukwu PC Ugwu ...

  12. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of bioactive peptides derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of buffalo milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Hamid, Mahmoud; Otte, Jeanette; De Gobba, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    was hydrolysed using papain, pepsin or trypsin. The papain hydrolysate showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity and radical scavenging capacity and was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and characterized by LC-MS analysis. A SEC-fraction with intermediate peptide size showed very high ACE...

  13. Effect of calcium and salicylic acid on quality retention in relation to antioxidative enzymes in radish stored under refrigerated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Jomika; Bhatia, Surekha; Alam, M S; Dhillon, Tarsem Singh

    2018-03-01

    Effect of post harvest treatments with calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) and salicylic acid (SA) on physiological and biochemical parameters in relation to activities of antioxidative enzymes were investigated in radish. Radish of variety Punjab Safed Mooli 2 was harvested, washed and treated with CaCl 2 (1, 1.5 and 2%) or SA (1, 1.5 and 2 mM). Treated as well as untreated radish were placed in open trays and stored under refrigerated (5 ± 1 °C, 90% RH) conditions for 42 days. Treatment of radish with CaCl 2 and SA slowed down changes in physiological weight, colour, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, titrable acidity, total phenolics and antioxidant activity. Treated samples exhibited higher enhancement in activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydro-ascorbate reductase (MDHAR) than untreated samples. However SA was found to be more effective in slowing down the metabolic activities of radish as compared to CaCl 2 treatment. Among all the treatments, 1.5 mM SA maintained the quality parameters to greater extent probably by reducing the oxidative stress to larger extent due to highest activities of antioxidative enzymes and can be used to enhance the shelf life of radish during refrigerated storage.

  14. Effect of turmeric and curcumin on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, Palla; Satyanarayana, Alleboena; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Kumar, Putcha Uday; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2007-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that complications related to diabetes are associated with increased oxidative stress. Curcumin, an active principle of turmeric, has several biological properties, including antioxidant activity. The protective effect of curcumin and turmeric on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced oxidative stress in various tissues of rats was studied. Three-month-old Wistar-NIN rats were made diabetic by injecting STZ (35 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally and fed either only the AIN-93 diet or the AIN-93 diet containing 0.002% or 0.01% curcumin or 0.5% turmeric for a period of eight weeks. After eight weeks the levels of oxidative stress parameters and activity of antioxidant enzymes were determined in various tissues. STZ-induced hyperglycemia resulted in increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in red blood cells and other tissues and altered antioxidant enzyme activities. Interestingly, feeding curcumin and turmeric to the diabetic rats controlled oxidative stress by inhibiting the increase in TBARS and protein carbonyls and reversing altered antioxidant enzyme activities without altering the hyperglycemic state in most of the tissues. Turmeric and curcumin appear to be beneficial in preventing diabetes-induced oxidative stress in rats despite unaltered hyperglycemic status.

  15. Antioxidant activity of lichen Cetraria aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Jovica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant properties of the lichen Cetraria aculeata. Antioxidant activity of the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of lichen was tested by different methods including determination of total phenolics content, determination of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, ferrous ion chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The extracts of the lichen C. aculeata showed significant antioxidant activity. The methanol extract showed higher values for total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity compared to the ethyl acetate extract, while the ethyl acetate extract demonstrated better results for DPPH radical scavenging, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging than the methanol extract. This is the first report of the antioxidant properties of Cetraria aculeata growing in Serbia. The results of antioxidant activity indicate the application of this lichen as source of natural antioxidants that could be used as a possible food supplement, in the pharmaceutical industry and in the treatment of various diseases.

  16. Interplay Between Oncoproteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in Esophageal Carcinoma Treated Without and With Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Tranum; Gupta, Rajesh; Vaiphei, Kim; Kapoor, Rakesh; Gupta, N.M.; Khanduja, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression changes and examine their relationship with various antioxidant enzymes in esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods and Materials: Patients in Group 1 underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and those in Group 2 were administered chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant therapy. Results: The relationship analysis among the various protein markers and antioxidant enzymes showed an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and superoxide dismutase/catalase in tumor tissues, irrespective of the treatment arm followed. An important positive association was observed between bcl-2 and reduced glutathione levels in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Another apoptosis-modulating marker, c-myc, in the tumor tissue of Group 2 patients showed similar pattern levels (high and low) as that of superoxide dismutase/catalase. The association of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 with various antioxidant enzymes showed a significant positive correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and catalase activity and an inverse trend between p53 expression and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the tumor tissue of patients given neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, patients with overexpressed p53 protein levels had lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels and vice versa in the tumor tissue of patients who had undergone surgery as their main mode of treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study broaden the insight into the relationships shared among oncoproteins and the antioxidant defense system, and this could be helpful in the clinical management of esophageal carcinoma

  17. Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M.V.; Paliyath, G.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (O 3 ) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and O 3 -induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure preferentially enhanced guaiacol-peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidases specific to coniferyl alcohol and modified the substrate affinity of ascorbate peroxidase. O 3 exposure enhanced superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase to a similar degree and modified the substrate affinity of both glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase. Both UV-B and O 3 exposure enhanced similar Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoforms. New isoforms of peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidase were synthesized in tt5 plants irradiated with UV-B. UV-B radiation, in contrast to O 3 , enhanced the activation oxygen species by increasing membrane-localized NADPH-oxidase activity and decreasing catalase activities. These results collectively suggest that (a) UV-B exposure preferentially induces peroxidase-related enzymes, whereas O 3 exposure invokes the enzymes of superoxide dismutase/ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and (b) in contrast to O 3 , UV-B exposure generated activated oxygen species by increasing NADPH-oxidase activity. 10 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice 1 Effect of existing production methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Apples are an important source of flavonoids in the human diet. The effect of processing apples into juice on polyphenolic antioxidant content and activity is described. Raw juice obtained from Jonagold apples by pulping and straight pressing or after pulp enzyming had an antioxidant activity that

  19. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89 pro...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...

  20. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of new bio-antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, V D; Saso, L; Angelova, S E; Foti, M C; Slavova-Kasakova, A; Daquino, C; Enchev, V; Firuzi, O; Nechev, J

    2012-02-01

    Antioxidants could be promising agents for management of oxidative stress-related diseases. New biologically active compounds, belonging to a rare class of natural lignans with antiangiogenic, antitumoral and DNA intercalating properties, have been recently synthesized. These compounds are benzo[kl]xanthene lignans (1,2) and dihydrobenzofuran neolignans (3,4). The radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant activities of compounds 1-4 were studied by applying different methods: radical scavenging activity by DPPH rapid test, chain-breaking antioxidant activity and quantum chemical calculations. All studied compounds were found to be active as DPPH scavengers but reaction time with DPPH and compounds' concentrations influenced deeply the evaluation. The highest values of radical scavenging activity (%RSAmax) and largest rate constants for reaction with DPPH were obtained for compounds 2 and 3. Comparison of %RSAmax with that of standard antioxidants DL-α-tocopherol (TOH), caffeic acid (CA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) give the following new order of %RSA max: TOH (61.1%) > CA (58.6%) > 3 (36.3%) > 2 (28.1%) > 4 (6.7%) > 1 (3.6%) = BHT (3.6%). Chain-breaking antioxidant activities of individual compounds (0.1-1.0 mM) and of their equimolar binary mixtures (0.1 mM) with TOH were determined from the kinetic curves of lipid autoxidation at 80 °C. On the basis of a comparable kinetic analysis with standard antioxidants a new order of the antioxidant efficiency (i.e., protection factor, PF) of compounds 1-4 were obtained: 2 (7.2) ≥ TOH (7.0) ≥ CA (6.7) > 1 (3.1) > 3 (2.2) > ferulic acid FA (1.5) > 4 (0.6); and of the antioxidant reactivity (i.e. inhibition degree, ID): 2 (44.0) > TOH (18.7) > CA (9.3) > 1 (8.4) > 3 (2.8) > FA (1.0) > 4 (0.9). The important role of the catecholic structure in these compounds, which is responsible for the high chain-breaking antioxidant activity, is discussed and a reaction

  1. Antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma hormone levels and serum metabolites of finishing broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature and fed lemon and orange peel extracts and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, A; Golian, A; Kermanshahi, H; De Smet, S; Michiels, J

    2015-02-01

    The negative effects of high ambient temperature during some months of the year on poultry production have been of great concern in many countries. Dietary modifications are among the most practical ways to alleviate the effects of high temperature. Possible effects of dietary supplementation with 200 or 400 mg/kg feed of lemon peel extract (LPE), orange peel extract (OPE) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil (CXEO) under hot conditions (34 °C with 50% relative humidity for 5 h daily starting from day 28 until day 38 of age) on blood antioxidant enzyme activities, biochemical parameters and antibody titres of broiler chickens were investigated. All extracts are rich in phenolic compounds and highly available. Compared to control, supplementation with OPE at 400 mg/kg and CXEO significantly increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, plasma growth hormone concentrations and serum phosphorus, total protein and chloride concentrations and decreased serum low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol concentrations in chickens at 38 days of age. Regarding antibody titres, CXEO supplementation at 400 mg/kg caused a significant increase in bronchitis antibody titres. Supplementation with LPE and OPE gave more inconsistent results. Most interesting, 400 mg/kg LPE significantly increased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and GH concentration as compared to the control. In conclusion, the herbal extracts tested in this study, in particular CXEO at 400 mg/kg, may relieve some of the changes in blood composition induced by increased ambient temperatures. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Protective Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Serum Biochemistry, Histopathological Changes and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Broilers Fed Moldy Peanut Meal Naturally Contaminated with Aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308 were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet; C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet; M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal; M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively. The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p < 0.05 serum aspartate transaminase activity, decreased (p < 0.05 serum glutathione peroxidase activity, and enhanced (p < 0.05 malondialdehyde contents in both the serum and liver. Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium hyperplasia, vacuolar degeneration and lymphocyte infiltration. The supplementation of ANSB060 reduced aflatoxin levels in the duodenum and counteracted the negative effects of aflatoxins, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis and this protection is dose-related.

  3. Impact of application of zinc oxide nanoparticles on callus induction, plant regeneration, element content and antioxidant enzyme activity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alharby Hesham F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of nanomaterials and their potential applications have been given considerable attention by researchers in various fields, especially agricultural biotechnology. However, not much has been done to evaluate the role or effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP in regulating physiological and biochemical processes in response to salt-induced stress. For this purpose, some callus growth traits, plant regeneration rate, mineral element (sodium, potassium, phosphorous and nitrogen contents and changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX in tissues of five tomato cultivars were investigated in a callus culture exposed to elevated concentrations of salt (3.0 and 6.0 g L-1NaCl, and in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles (15 and 30 mg L-1. The relative callus growth rate was inhibited by 3.0 g L-1 NaCl; this was increased dramatically at 6.0 g L-1. Increasing exposure to NaCl was associated with a significantly higher sodium content and SOD and GPX activities. Zinc oxide nanoparticles mitigated the effects of NaCl, and in this application of lower concentrations (15 mg L-1 was more effective than a higher concentration (30 mg L-1. This finding indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles should be investigated further as a potential anti-stress agent in crop production. Different tomato cultivars showed different degrees of tolerance to salinity in the presence of ZnO-NP. The cultivars Edkawy, followed by Sandpoint, were less affected by salt stress than the cultivar Anna Aasa.

  4. Antioxidant enzyme expression and reactive oxygen species damage in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, D G; Alexander, E E; Singh, R; Shan, A; Qian, J; Santella, R M; Oberley, L W; Yan, T; Zhong, W; Jiang, X; Oberley, T D

    2000-07-01

    Oxidative stress results in damage to cellular structures and has been linked to many diseases, including cancer. The authors sought to determine whether the expression of three major antioxidant enzymes, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), and catalase, was altered in human prostate carcinoma and its likely precursor, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). The level of reactive oxygen species damage was evaluated by measuring the expression of the DNA adduct 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. The authors evaluated the tissue expression of the antioxidant enzymes in prostate carcinoma by immunohistochemistry, immunogold electron microscopy, and enzymatic assay. The polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify and screen tissue specimens for the genes of SOD1, SOD2, and extracellular SOD (SOD3). Matched paraffin embedded tissue sections were evaluated by RNA in situ hybridization for expression of SOD1 and immunohistochemically for the DNA adduct 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. All prostatic tissues, including cancer, displayed immunoreactivity for the three antioxidant enzymes in epithelial cells, with no staining of the stroma, inflammatory cells, or endothelial cells. The number of immunoreactive cells was greater in benign epithelium than in PIN and cancer for each enzyme. The mean percentage and intensity of immunoreactive cells was greatest for SOD2, intermediate for SOD1, and lower for catalase. Staining in cancer was heterogeneous. Immunogold ultrasound studies revealed strong mitochondrial labeling for SOD2, which was greater in benign epithelium than in cancer; SOD1 labeling was invariably weaker, with nuclear labeling in benign epithelium and cytoplasmic labeling in cancer cells. There was no difference in enzyme activity for the three antioxidant enzymes between benign epithelium and cancer. No mutations were found in the 5 exons of SOD1, 5 exons of SOD2, and 3 exons of SOD3, except for 3 of 20 cases with

  5. The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Avila, Jesús A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; López-Díaz, José A; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Gómez-García, María Del Consuelo; de la Rosa, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Tree nuts such as pecans (Carya illinoinensis) contain mostly oil but are also a source of polyphenols. Nut consumption has been linked to a reduction in serum lipid levels and oxidative stress. These effects have been attributed to the oil while overlooking the potential contribution of the polyphenols. Because the evidence regarding each fraction's bioactivity is scarce, we administered high-fat (HF) diets to male Wistar rats, supplementing them with pecan oil (HF+PO), pecan polyphenols (HF+PP) or whole pecans (HF+WP), and analysed the effects of each fraction. The HF diet increased the serum leptin and total cholesterol (TC) with respect to the control levels. The HF+WP diet prevented hyperleptinemia and decreased the TC compared with the control. The HF+WP diet upregulated the hepatic expression of apolipoprotein B and LDL receptor mRNAs with respect to the HF levels. The HF+PO diet reduced the level of triacylglycerols compared with the control. The HF+PP diet stimulated the hepatic expression of liver X receptor alpha mRNA. The HF+WP diet increased the activities of hepatic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S transferase compared with the control, and decreased the degree of lipid peroxidation compared with the HF diet. The most bioactive diet was the WP diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of space flight on physiological indexes and antioxidant enzymes of Acer mono

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunfei; Yang Fan; Ren Yunhui

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of space flight on physiological indexes and antioxidant enzymes of Acer mono, seeds were divided into two groups, one was treated by carrying on Shijian No.8 breeding satellite for 15 d, and the other was kept on the ground as controls. 5 years old seedlings that derived from the seeds of space flight and the seeds of ground control were chosen as materials, then the growth characteristics, photosynthetic characteristics, soluble protein content and antioxidant enzymes activities were analyzed. The results showed that the plant growth, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and soluble protein content of seedlings after space flight were much higher than those of ground control. However, the changes of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidase (POD), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were not significantly changed. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), as well as the plant growth of seedlings after space flight were higher than those of the control. The improved ability of photosynthesis may be one of the reasons that seedlings from seeds of space flight have higher speed of growth. (authors)

  7. Widening and Elaboration of Consecutive Research into Therapeutic Antioxidant Enzyme Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Maksimenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Undiminishing actuality of enzyme modification for therapeutic purposes has been confirmed by application of modified enzymes in clinical practice and numerous research data on them. Intravenous injection of the superoxide dismutase-chondroitin sulfate-catalase (SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate in preventive and medicative regimes in rats with endotoxin shock induced with a lipopolysaccharide bolus has demonstrated that antioxidant agents not only effectively prevent damage caused by oxidative stress (as believed previously but also can be used for antioxidative stress therapy. The results obtained emphasize the importance of investigation into the pathogenesis of vascular damage and the role of oxidative stress in it. The effects of intravenous medicative injection of SOD-CHS-CAT in a rat model of endotoxin shock have demonstrated a variety in the activity of this conjugate in addition to prevention of NO conversion in peroxynitrite upon interaction with O2∙- superoxide radical. Together with the literature data, these findings offer a prospect for the study of NO-independent therapeutic effects of SOD-CHS-CAT, implying the importance of a better insight into the mechanisms of the conjugate activity in modeled cardiovascular damage involving vasoactive agents other than NO.

  8. Epigenetics of dominance for enzyme activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    dimer over a wide range of H+ concentrations accounts for the epigenetics of dominance for enzyme activity. [Trehan K S ... The present study has been carried on acid phosphatase .... enzyme activity over mid parent value (table 3, col. 13),.

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antioxidant enzyme system in human population exposed to radiation from mobile towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sachin; Yadav, Anita; Kumar, Neeraj; Priya, Kanu; Aggarwal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Ranjan

    2018-03-01

    In the present era, cellular phones have changed the life style of human beings completely and have become an essential part of their lives. The number of cell phones and cell towers are increasing in spite of their disadvantages. These cell towers transmit radiation continuously without any interruption, so people living within 100s of meters from the tower receive 10,000 to 10,000,000 times stronger signal than required for mobile communication. In the present study, we have examined superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation assay, and effect of functional polymorphism of SOD and CAT antioxidant genes against mobile tower-induced oxidative stress in human population. From our results, we have found a significantly lower mean value of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, and a high value of lipid peroxidation assay in exposed as compared to control subjects. Polymorphisms in antioxidant MnSOD and CAT genes significantly contributed to its phenotype. In the current study, a significant association of genetic polymorphism of antioxidant genes with genetic damage has been observed in human population exposed to radiations emitted from mobile towers.

  10. Castasterone confers copper stress tolerance by regulating antioxidant enzyme responses, antioxidants, and amino acid balance in B. juncea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Poonam; Kaur, Ravdeep; Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Sharma, Anket; Verma, Vinod; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of exogenous application of castasterone (CS) on physiologic and biochemical responses in Brassica juncea seedlings under copper (Cu) stress. Seeds were pre-soaked in different concentrations of CS and grown for 7 days under various levels of Cu. The exposure of B. juncea to higher levels of Cu led to decrease of morphologic parameters, with partial recovery of length and fresh weight in the CS pre-treated seedlings. Metal content was high in both roots and shoots under Cu exposure while the CS pre-treatment reduced the metal uptake. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide anion radical (O 2 - ) were chosen as stress biomarker and higher levels of H 2 O 2 (88.89%) and O 2 - (62.11%) showed the oxidative stress in metal treated B. juncea seedlings, however, CS pre-treatment reduced ROS accumulation in Cu-exposed seedlings. The Cu exposures lead to enhance the plant's enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system. It was observed that enzymatic activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione perxoidase (GPOX) and gultrathione-s-transferase increased while activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) decreased under Cu stress. The pre-treatment with CS positively affected the activities of enzymes. RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNA transcript levels were correlated with total enzymatic activity of DHAR, GR, GST and GSH. Increase in the gene expression of DHAR (1.85 folds), GR (3.24 folds), GST-1 (2.00 folds) and GSH-S (3.18 folds) was noticed with CS pre-treatment. Overall, the present study shows that Cu exposure induced severe oxidative stress in B. juncea plants and exogenous application of CS improved antioxidative defense system by modulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and amino acid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant enzymes response induced by static magnetic field in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chater, S.; Abdelmelek, H.; Garrel, C.; Favier, A.; Sakly, M.; Rhouma, K.B.

    2005-01-01

    Some recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that static magnetic fields (MF) affect human health and, in particular, that the incidence of certain types of cancer, depression, and miscarriage might increase among individuals living or working in environments exposed to such fields. However, despite numerous studies concerning MF, the mechanism of its adverse effect still remains unknown. So, our work hypothesis was that abortion effects induced by MF exposure could be due to an over production of reactive oxygen species produced by pregnant rats. The aim of our study was to examine if MF was able to induce an oxidative stress in pregnant-rats. Pregnant female Wistar rats were exposed to MF (128 mT/1h/day) on day 6 to 19 of gestation. Animals were sacrificed three days after delivery and plasma was collected to determine malondialdehyde (MDA), an indirect oxidative stress marker, glutathion peroxidase activity (GPX), an antioxydant enzyme, and the total antioxidant status (TAS). MF exposure had no effects on MDA level (2.97 ± 0.50 μmol/l vs 2.62 ±0.19 μmol/l, p>0.05) and plasma GPX activity (6936.00 ±109.59 U/l vs 6258.00 ±111.12 U/l, p>0.05). Interestingly, MF exposure induced elevation in the total antioxidant status values (0.716 ±0.018 mmol/l vs 0.646 ±0.023 mmol/l, p<0.05). The results indicated that sub-acute exposures to magnetic field during rat pregnancy have no effects on lipid peroxidation, probably related to the protection role of antioxidant enzymes

  12. Multigene families encode the major enzymes of antioxidant metabolism in Eucalyptus grandis L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Karam Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant metabolism protects cells from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS. In plants, several enzymes act jointly to maintain redox homeostasis. Moreover, isoform diversity contributes to the fine tuning necessary for plant responses to both exogenous and endogenous signals influencing antioxidant metabolism. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive view of the major classes of antioxidant enzymes in the woody species Eucalyptus grandis. A careful survey of the FORESTs data bank revealed 36 clusters as encoding antioxidant enzymes: six clusters encoding ascorbate peroxidase (APx isozymes, three catalase (CAT proteins, three dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, two glutathione reductase (GR isozymes, four monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, six phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PhGPx, and 12 encoding superoxide dismutases (SOD isozymes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all clusters (identified herein grouped with previously characterized antioxidant enzymes, corroborating the analysis performed. With respect to enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, both cytosolic and chloroplastic isoforms were putatively identified. These sequences were widely distributed among the different ESTs libraries indicating a broad gene expression pattern. Overall, the data indicate the importance of antioxidant metabolism in eucalyptus.

  13. Antioxidant activity of Rafflesia kerrii flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttipan, Rinrampai; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2014-02-01

    Rafflesia kerrii has been used in Thai traditional remedies for treatment of several diseases. However, scientific data particularly on biological activities of this plant is very rare. The present study explores an antioxidant activity of R. kerrii flower (RKF). Extracting solvent and extraction procedure were found to play an important role on the activity of RKF extract. The extract obtained from water-ethanol system showed higher antioxidant activity than that from water-propylene glycol system. Fractionated extraction using different solvents revealed that methanol fractionated extract (RM) possessed the highest antioxidant activity with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibitory concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50) values of approximately 39 mM/mg and 3 μg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical assays demonstrated that RM contained extremely high quantity of phenolic content with gallic antioxidant equivalent (GAE) and quercetin equivalent (QE) values of approximately 312 mg/g and 16 mg/g, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV- VIS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that gallic acid was a major component. RM which was stored at 40°C, 75% RH for 4 months showed slightly significant change (p antioxidant activity with zero order degradation. The results of this study could be concluded that R. kerrii flower was a promising natural source of strong antioxidant compounds.

  14. Antioxidant activity potential of gamma irradiated carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Racadio, Charles Darwin T.; Aranilla, Charito T.; De la Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of irradiated κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans were investigated using the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. The degree of oxidative inhibition increased with increasing concentration and dose. The type of carrageenan had also an influence on its antioxidant activity which followed the order of lambda< iota< kappa. Increase in oxidative property with radiation dose can be attributed mainly to the depolymerization of the carrageenans with corresponding increase in reducing sugar. The antioxidant properties of these carrageenan oligomers were lower than that of ascorbic acid and galactose sugar. - Highlights: • The antioxidant capacity of gamma irradiated κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans increased with increasing concentration and dose. • The type of carrageenan had an influence on its antioxidant activity which followed the order of lambda< iota< kappa. • Increase in oxidative property with radiation dose can be attributed mainly to the depolymerization of the carrageenans with corresponding increase in reducing sugar

  15. Induction of salt tolerance in Azolla microphylla Kaulf through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Gerard; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2010-09-01

    Azolla microphylla plants exposed directly to NaCl (13 dsm(-1)) did not survive the salinity treatment beyond a period of one day, whereas plants exposed directly to 4 and 9 dsm(-1) NaCl were able to grow and produce biomass. However, plants pre-exposed to NaCl (2 dsm(-1)) for 7 days on subsequent exposure to 13 dsm(-1) NaCl were able to grow and produce biomass although at a slow rate and are hereinafter designated as pre-exposed plants. The pre-exposed and directly exposed plants distinctly differed in their response to salt in terms of lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation, activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, APX, and CAT, and Na(+)/K(+) ratio. Efficient modulation of antioxidant enzymes coupled with regulation of ion transport play an important role in the induction of salt tolerance. Results show that it is possible to induce salt adaptation in A. microphylla by pre-exposing them to low concentrations of NaCl.

  16. Study of some antioxidant enzymes and selenium levels in children with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a complex of clinical, chemical and metabolic disturbances that resulted from chronic reduction in renal function. Despite of many investigations on the pathogenesis of CRF, much remains unexplained. Studies of disorders of oxidative metabolism have indicated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the development of symptoms and complications of this disease. Therefore, selenium (Se) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in 25 children (15 males and 10 females) with advanced CRF. They were diagnosed in the Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Children Hospital, Ain Shams University, Egypt. Their ages ranged from 6-17 years with mean of 11.4 ± 3.54 years. Fifteen healthy control subjects (8 males and 7 females) matched in age were served as controls. This study revealed a very high significant decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The level of plasma Se concentration in patients was very highly significantly decreased as compared to the control group. Also, there were significant positive correlations between Se and total protein and albumin. Furthermore, there were negative correlations between Se, SOD, GSH-Px and both of blood urea and serum creatinine among uremic children. It could be concluded that plasma Se concentration and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GSH-Px and SOD) in uremic children could be helpful in identifying the progress of kidney impairment and the response of the treatment

  17. Gelam Honey Protects against Gamma-Irradiation Damage to Antioxidant Enzymes in Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy of gamma rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Gamma-irradiation was shown to down-regulate SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPx1 gene expressions (p < 0.05. Conversely, HDFs treated with Gelam honey alone showed up-regulation of all genes studied. Similarly, SOD, CAT and GPx enzyme activities in HDFs decreased with gamma-irradiation and increased when cells were treated with Gelam honey (p < 0.05. Furthermore, of the three different stages of study treatment, pre-treatment with Gelam honey caused up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT genes expression and increased the activity of SOD and CAT. As a conclusion, Gelam honey modulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes at gene and protein levels in irradiated HDFs indicating its potential as a radioprotectant agent.

  18. The use of antioxidant enzymes in freshwater biofilms: temporal variability vs. toxicological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnineau, Chloé; Tlili, Ahmed; Faggiano, Leslie; Montuelle, Bernard; Guasch, Helena

    2013-07-15

    This study aims to investigate the potential of antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA) as biomarkers of oxidative stress in freshwater biofilms. Therefore, biofilms were grown in channels for 38 days and then exposed to different concentrations (0-150 μg L(-1)) of the herbicide oxyfluorfen for 5 more weeks. Under control conditions, the AEA of biofilms were found to change throughout time with a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity during the exponential growth and a more important role of catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities during the slow growth phase. Chronic exposure to oxyfluorfen led to slight variations in AEA, however, the ranges of variability of AEA in controls and exposed communities were similar, highlighting the difficulty of a direct interpretation of AEA values. After 5 weeks of exposure to oxyfluorfen, no clear effects were observed on chl-a concentration or on the composition of other pigments suggesting that algal group composition was not affected. Eukaryotic communities were structured clearly by toxicant concentration and both eukaryotic and bacterial richness were reduced in communities exposed to the highest concentration. In addition, during acute exposure tests performed at the end of the chronic exposure, biofilms chronically exposed to 75 and 150 μg L(-1) oxyfluorfen showed a higher CAT activity than controls. Chronic exposure to oxyfluorfen provoked then structural changes but also functional changes in the capacity of biofilm CAT activity to respond to a sudden increase in concentration, suggesting a selection of species with higher antioxidant capacity. This study highlighted the difficulty of interpretation of AEA values due to their temporal variation and to the absence of absolute threshold value indicative of oxidative stress induced by contaminants. Nevertheless, the determination of AEA pattern throughout acute exposure test is of high interest to compare oxidative stress levels

  19. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Canarium schweinfurthii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the -carotene bleaching test. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was employed as a positive control. The essential oil showed antioxidant and DPPH radical scavenging activities, and it displayed ...

  20. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Combretum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Combretum molle and Pericopsis laxiflora. Kossi-Kuma Agbalevon Koevi, Vinsoun Millogo, Jean Baptiste Hzounda Fokou, Abdou Sarr, Georges Anicet Ouedraogo, Emmanuel Bassene ...

  1. EXTRACTION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF TWO SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... Origanum vulgare were investigated and also the total phenolic and ... species majorana, and vulgare respectively; also the DPPH of essential oil of Origanum ... inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities[10] .

  2. Antioxidant potentialities and Antiradical Activities of Oxalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... biologically active chemicals of medical importance. These findings ... medicinal plant to treat different human ailments. A recent work by ..... antioxidants and nutrition. Nutr Res. ... from additive and synergistic combinations of.

  3. Influence and interaction of iron and cadmium on photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes in two rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Houjun; Zhang, Chengxin; Wang, Junmei; Zhou, Chongjun; Feng, Huan; Mahajan, Manoj D; Han, Xiaori

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a soil pot experiment was conducted to investigate the changes in photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes in two rice varieties (Shendao 6 and Shennong 265) supplied with iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), and Fe and Cd together. The concentrations of Fe and Cd in the soil were 0, 1.0 g Fe·kg -1 and 0, 2.0 mg Cd·kg -1 , respectively. Photosynthetic indices and antioxidative enzyme activities were recorded at different rice growth stages. At the early stage, Cd showed a transient stimulatory effect on the photosynthetic rate of Shennong 265. For Shendao 6, however, Cd showed a transient stimulatory effect on photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO 2 concentration, stomatal conductance and transpiration efficiency. In addition, the results show that Cd can also enhance the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, but reduce the malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble protein contents in the two rice cultivars. Subsequently, Cd starts to inhibit photosynthesis and SOD activity until the ripening stage, causing the lowest photosynthetic rate and SOD activity at this stage. In contrast, Fe alleviates the Cd-induced changes at earlier or later growth stage. Notably at the later growth stage, the results show that the interaction between Fe and Cd increases the SOD and catalase (CAT) activities, while decreasing the lipid peroxidation and promoting photosynthesis. As a result, it ultimately increases the biomass. The results from this study suggest that Fe (as Fe fertilizer) is a promising alternative for agricultural use to enhance the plant development and, simultaneously, to reduce Cd toxicity in extensively polluted soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Releases Antioxidative Phenolic Compositions from Guava Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wu, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-09-30

    Phenolics in food and fruit tree leaves exist in free, soluble-conjugate, and insoluble-bound forms. In this study, in order to enhance the bioavailability of insoluble-bound phenolics from guava leaves (GL), the ability of enzyme-assisted extraction in improving the release of insoluble-bound phenolics was investigated. Compared to untreated GL, single xylanase-assisted extraction did not change the composition and yield of soluble phenolics, whereas single cellulase or β -glucosidase-assisted extraction significantly enhanced the soluble phenolics content of PGL. However, complex enzyme-assisted extraction (CEAE) greatly improved the soluble phenolics content, flavonoids content, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP by 103.2%, 81.6%, 104.4%, 126.5%, and 90.3%, respectively. Interestingly, after CEAE, a major proportion of phenolics existed in the soluble form, and rarely in the insoluble-bound form. Especially, the contents of quercetin and kaempferol with higher bio-activity were enhanced by 3.5- and 2.2-fold, respectively. More importantly, total soluble phenolics extracts of GL following CEAE exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and protective effect against supercoiled DNA damage. This enzyme-assisted extraction technology can be useful for extracting biochemical components from plant matrix, and has good potential for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Releases Antioxidative Phenolic Compositions from Guava Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics in food and fruit tree leaves exist in free, soluble-conjugate, and insoluble-bound forms. In this study, in order to enhance the bioavailability of insoluble-bound phenolics from guava leaves (GL, the ability of enzyme-assisted extraction in improving the release of insoluble-bound phenolics was investigated. Compared to untreated GL, single xylanase-assisted extraction did not change the composition and yield of soluble phenolics, whereas single cellulase or β-glucosidase-assisted extraction significantly enhanced the soluble phenolics content of PGL. However, complex enzyme-assisted extraction (CEAE greatly improved the soluble phenolics content, flavonoids content, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP by 103.2%, 81.6%, 104.4%, 126.5%, and 90.3%, respectively. Interestingly, after CEAE, a major proportion of phenolics existed in the soluble form, and rarely in the insoluble-bound form. Especially, the contents of quercetin and kaempferol with higher bio-activity were enhanced by 3.5- and 2.2-fold, respectively. More importantly, total soluble phenolics extracts of GL following CEAE exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and protective effect against supercoiled DNA damage. This enzyme-assisted extraction technology can be useful for extracting biochemical components from plant matrix, and has good potential for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Yeon Shim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide (O2&#8226;-, hydroxyl radical (OH&#8226;, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx, is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application.

  7. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and without the extract at 37oC. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of oxidation of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. The production of oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37oC was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment, the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The amounts of phenolic acids, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts. The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems.

  8. EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON RAT (Rattus norvegicus ERYTHROCYTES ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Friščić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the last century, maximum in herbicide production was achieved. Growing use of herbicides initiated the need for continuous evaluation of damaging effects of herbicides on human health and environment. Paraquat is the trade name for N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride and one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Although mechanism of paraquat toxicity remains undefined, a great portion of toxicity is attributed to the process of redox cycling. In this research, rat erythrocytes were exposed to various paraquat concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.25 mM. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activity, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined, and also the activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. Obtained results show damaging effects of paraquat on erythrocytes due to oxidative stress.

  9. Understanding salt tolerance mechanisms in wheat genotypes by exploring antioxidant enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amjad, M.; Akhtar, J.; Haq, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed in six wheat genotypes under different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100 and 200 mM). Plants were harvested after either 15 or 30 days of salt stress. The most salt tolerant genotype (SARC-1) maintained lower Na+ and higher relative growth rate (RGR......), shoot fresh weight (SFW), shoot-root ratio, and K+:Na+ ratio, compared to the most salt sensitive genotypes (S-9189 and S-9476). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly in SARC-1 and SARC-2 with increasing salt stress, while there was no difference in S-9189 and S- 9476....... Additionally, glutathione reductase (GR) activity was decreased in salt sensitive (S-9189 and S-9476) than salt tolerant (SARC-1) genotypes. Under salt stress conditions a negative relationship between SOD and leaf Na+, and a positive between SOD and shoot fresh weight (SFW), were observed. The higher...

  10. Production of starch with antioxidative activity by baking starch with organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Shoji; Nakamura, Megumi; Okuno, Michiko; Miyazaki, Hisako; Watanabe, Jun; Ishikawa-Takano, Yuko; Miura, Makoto; Takase, Nao; Hayakawa, Sachio; Kobayashi, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    A starch ingredient with antioxidative activity, as measured by the DPPH method, was produced by baking corn starch with an organic acid; it has been named ANOX sugar (antioxidative sugar). The baking temperature and time were fixed at 170 °C and 60 min, and the organic acid used was selected from preliminary trials of various kinds of acid. The phytic acid ANOX sugar preparation showed the highest antioxidative activity, but the color of the preparation was almost black; we therefore selected L-tartaric acid which had the second highest antioxidative activity. The antioxidative activity of the L-tartaric acid ANOX sugar preparation was stable against temperature, light, and enzyme treatments (α-amylase and glucoamylase). However, the activity was not stable against variations in water content and pH value. The antioxidative activity of ANOX sugar was stabilized by treating with boiled water or nitrogen gas, or by pH adjustment.

  11. Actividades enzimáticas antioxidativas em Cistus Ladanifer L. provenientes de áreas não contaminadas em elementos vestigiais Antioxidant enzymes activity of Cistus Ladanifer L. from areas non contaminated in trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a actividade das enzimas antioxidativas (catalase, peroxidase e superóxido dismutase e as concentrações em As, Cu, Pb e Zn nas folhas de duas populações de Cistus ladanifer L. colhidas, na Primavera e no Verão, em solos não contaminados em elementos vestigiais (Caldeirão e Pomarão e com condições climáticas diferentes. Nos solos das duas áreas, as concentrações totais e disponíveis (extracção com DTPA em elementos vestigiais foram baixas. A distribuição dos elementos pelas folhas novas e maduras foi semelhante entre áreas e estações do ano. As actividades enzimáticas variaram consoante a população. As folhas colhidas nas duas estações do ano, excepto as folhas novas de Verão do Pomarão, apresentaram actividade enzimática na fracção solúvel e iónica. Comparando as estações do ano e áreas de amostragem, constatou-se que as actividades enzimáticas representam um mecanismo de tolerância a vários factores de stresse (radiação UV, temperatura do ar elevada no verão, défice hídrico no verão, baixa-média fertilidade do solo e conteúdo de elementos vestigiais no solo, o que confere uma elevada plasticidade à espécie.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant enzymes activity (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and the concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in leaves from two populations of Cistus ladanifer growing on soils non-contaminated with trace elements (Caldeirco and Pomarco, but with different climatic conditions and in two different seasons (spring and summer. In both areas, total and available concentrations (DTPA extraction of trace elements in soils were low. The distribution of elements for young and mature leaves was similar between areas and seasons. The enzyme activities varied with the plant population. Leaves collected in the two seasons, except young leaves from Pomarco collected in summer, showed enzymatic activity in the soluble and ionic fractions

  12. Responses of the antioxidative and biotransformation enzymes in the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis exposed to cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsano, Evelyn; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Hoque, Enamul; Lima, Stephan Pflugmacher

    2017-08-01

    To investigate antioxidative and biotransformation enzyme responses in Mucor hiemalis towards cyanotoxins considering its use in mycoremediation applications. Catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in M. hiemalis maintained their activities at all tested microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exposure concentrations. Cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity decreased with exposure to 100 µg MC-LR l -1 while microsomal GST remained constant. Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) at 100 µg l -1 led to an increase in CAT activity and inhibition of GR, as well as to a concentration-dependent GPx inhibition. Microsomal GST was inhibited at all concentrations tested. β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) inhibited GR activity in a concentration-dependent manner, however, CAT, GPx, and GST remained unaffected. M. hiemalis showed enhanced oxidative stress tolerance and intact biotransformation enzyme activity towards MC-LR and BMAA in comparison to CYN, confirming its applicability in bioreactor technology in terms of viability and survival in their presence.

  13. Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Placenta Protect Placenta and Fetus in Inherited Thrombophilia from Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Bogdanovic Pristov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the activities of antioxidative defense enzymes in the placenta, fetal blood and amnion fluid in inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilia was associated with nearly threefold increase of activity (p < 0.001 of the placental catalase (81.1 ± 20.6 U/mg of proteins in controls and 270.0 ± 69.9 U/mg in thrombophilic subjects, glutathione (GSH peroxidase (C: 20.2 ± 10.1 U/mg; T: 60.0 ± 15.5 U/mg, and GSH reductase (C: 28.9 ± 5.6 U/mg; T: 72.7 ± 23.0 U/mg. The placental activities of superoxide dismutating enzymes—MnSOD and CuZnSOD, did not differ in controls and thrombophilia. Likewise, the activities of catalase and SOD in the fetal blood, and the level of ascorbyl radical which represents a marker of oxidative status of amniotic fluid, were similar in controls and thrombophilic subjects. From this we concluded that in thrombophilia, placental tissue is exposed to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, which could be initiated by pro-thrombic conditions in maternal blood. Increased activity of placental H2O2-removing enzymes protects fetus and mother during pregnancy, but may increase the risk of postpartum thrombosis.

  14. Comparison of the effects of three different Baccaurea angulata whole fruit juice doses on plasma, aorta and liver MDA levels, antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Hazali, Norazlanshah; Abdul Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Abdul Ghani, Radiah; Hashim, Ridzwan; Arief, Solachuddin Jahuari; Md Isa, Muhammad Lokman; Draman, Samsul

    2017-05-17

    Baccaurea angulata (common names: belimbing dayak or belimbing hutan) is a Malaysian underutilized fruit. The preliminary work on B. angulata fruit juice showed that it possesses antioxidant properties. Therefore, further work is needed to confirm the efficacy and proper dosage of B. angulata as a potential natural antioxidant. The present study was thus carried out to compare the effects of three different B. angulata whole fruit (WF) juice doses administered at nutritional doses of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 ml/kg/day on plasma, aorta and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) as well as total antioxidant capacity in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet. Thirty-five male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to seven groups. For 12 weeks, group CH was fed 1% cholesterol diet only; group C1 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C2 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C3 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group N was fed standard pellet only; group N1 was fed standard pellet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; and group N2 was fed standard pellet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice. The three doses reduced the formation of MDA and enhanced the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The highest dose used (1.50 ml/kg/day) was, however, seen as the most potent. Higher doses of B. angulata juice exerted better antioxidant activity.

  15. Antioxidant activities of Parquetina nigrescens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid. 1990 ... lifespan of animals (Cutlar, 1991; Rikans and Hornbook,. 1997). Sources of natural antioxidants are generally plant phenols. ... Mitochondria pellet equivalent to 1 g (wet weight) of liver ... flavonoid extract of P. nigrescens, dissolved in corn oil for 9 days. Group D ...

  16. The interactive effects of mercury and selenium on metabolic profiles, gene expression and antioxidant enzymes in halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Lai, Yongkai; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Zou, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Suaeda salsa is the pioneer halophyte in the Yellow River Delta and was consumed as a popular vegetable. Mercury has become a highly risky contaminant in the sediment of intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta. In this work, we investigated the interactive effects of mercury and selenium in S. salsa on the basis of metabolic profiling, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression quantification. Our results showed that mercury exposure (20 μg L(-1)) inhibited plant growth of S. salsa and induced significant metabolic responses and altered expression levels of INPS, CMO, and MDH in S. salsa samples, together with the increased activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and POD. Overall, these results indicated osmotic and oxidative stresses, disturbed protein degradation and energy metabolism change in S. salsa after mercury exposures. Additionally, the addition of selenium could induce both antagonistic and synergistic effects including alleviating protein degradation and aggravating osmotic stress caused by mercury. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Wright

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

  18. Daconate Herbicide Toxicity on Lipid Peroxidation And Antioxidant Enzymes in Blood of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of daconate herbicide on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme systems was investigated in rats after one and two weeks post-treatment. Animals were treated daily with an oral dose of 18 mg/kg body weight or 90 mg/kg body weight daconate for one and two consecutive weeks. Lipid peroxide content, as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), was determined in blood of rats as indication for cytotoxicity. Blood glutathion (GSH), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ GT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated as indication of antioxidant status. Also, daconate effect on peroxidase action of catalase in rats was studied using 14 C -formate. The results revealed significant elevation in TBARS level and γ GT activity accompanied by reduced level of GSH content and SOD activity after treatment of rats with a daily oral dose of 90 mg/kg for one and two weeks and also in rats treated with 18 mg/kg daconate for two weeks. Rats treated with daconate at the dose level of 18 mg/kg for one week revealed non-appreciable changes in the tested parameters of blood as compared to the control ones. Radioactivities eliminated in both the expired air and in urine were reduced at the dose level of 90 mg/kg after one and two weeks, while it were reduced only after two weeks at the dose level of 18 mg/kg daconate. The data revealed that daconate had a marked effect on the activities of catalase enzyme in blood and liver of treated rats

  19. Efficacy of lycopene on modulation of renal antioxidant enzymes, ACE and ACE gene expression in hyperlipidaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazish Iqbal; Noori, Shafaq; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of lycopene on renal tissue antioxidant enzymes and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression and serum activity in diet-induced hyperlipidaemia. Thirty-two female Wistar albino rats (200-250 g weight), 5-6 months of age, were randomly selected and divided into four groups. Group I received normal diet; group II received 24 g high fat diet/100 g of daily diet; group III received 24 g high fat diet/100 g daily diet and 200 ml of lycopene extract (twice a week) for 8 weeks; and group IV received 200 ml oral lycopene extract twice a week for 8 weeks. A marked increase was observed in plasma urea and creatinine levels, serum C-reactive protein, kidney weight, tissue renal malonyldialdehyde level, ACE gene expression and serum level, while a decrease catalase level among hyperlipidaemic rats was observed. Histologically, interstitial inflammation and proliferation was seen. Lycopene supplementation significantly decreased plasma urea and creatinine, serum ACE, renal tissue malonyldialdehyde level and C-reactive protein level, while it increased tissue antioxidant enzymes level and total protein. Tissue inflammation and proliferation was improved. This finding suggests that supplementation of lycopene is effective for renal antioxidant enzymes, ACE gene expression and ACE serum level in hyperlipidaemic rats. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Differential antioxidative enzyme responses of Jatropha curcas L. to chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Dhote, Monika; Kumar, Phani; Sharma, Jitendra; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2010-08-15

    Chromium (Cr) tolerant and accumulation capability of Jatropha curcas L. was tested in Cr spiked soil amended with biosludge and biofertilizer. Plants were cultivated in soils containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 250 mg kg(-1) of Cr for one year with and without amendment. Plant tissue analysis showed that combined application of biosludge and biofertilizer could significantly reduce Cr uptake and boost the plant biomass, whereas biofertilizer alone did not affect the uptake and plant growth. Antioxidative responses of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased with increasing Cr concentration in plant. Hyperactivity of the CAT and GST indicated that antioxidant enzymes played an important role in protecting the plant from Cr toxicity. However, APX took a little part in detoxification of H(2)O(2) due to its sensitivity to Cr. Therefore, reduced APX activity was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH) activity was recorded in plant grown on/above 100 mg kg(-1) of Cr in soil. The study concludes that J. curcas could grow under chromium stress. Furthermore, the results encouraged that J. curcas is a suitable candidate for the restoration of Cr contaminated soils with the concomitant application of biosludge and biofertilizer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Kurtis D; Tattersall, Glenn J; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2010-11-01

    Estivation is an adaptive response to environments characterized by elevated temperatures and desiccative stress, as may occur during summer dry seasons. Similar to diapause and hibernation, it is characterized by low levels of activity, a drastically suppressed metabolic rate and enhanced stress resistance. We tested the hypothesis that Achatina fulica, a pulmonate land snail, enhances stress resistance during estivation and/or arousal by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defenses in the heart, kidney, hepatopancreas and foot tissues. No statistically significant changes in mitochondrial or cytosolic superoxide dismutase levels or activities, or glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase or catalase activities were associated with estivation in any tissue, however. In contrast, during arousal from estivation, activities of several antioxidant enzymes increased in heart, hepatopancreas and foot. In heart, a rapid increase in MnSOD protein levels was observed that peaked at 2h post arousal, but no such change was observed in CuZnSOD protein levels. Glutathione peroxidase activity was upregulated at 1h post arousal and remained elevated until 8h post arousal in heart tissue. Glutathione peroxidase was also upregulated at 24h post arousal in foot tissue. Glutathione reductase activity was upregulated at 4h post arousal in heart and foot tissues whereas catalase activity showed no changes. Markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage revealed no significant increases during estivation or arousal. Therefore, antioxidant enzymes may play a role in oxidative stress defense specifically during arousal from estivation in A. fulica. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of interfacial enzymes at membrane surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Halperin, Avi

    2006-01-01

    A host of water-soluble enzymes are active at membrane surfaces and in association with membranes. Some of these enzymes are involved in signalling and in modification and remodelling of the membranes. A special class of enzymes, the phospholipases, and in particular secretory phospholipase A2 (s...

  3. Geraniol Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability and Its Multiple Effects on the Liver Antioxidant and Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Geraniol is a natural monoterpene showing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer effects. No pharmacokinetic and bioavailability data on geraniol are currently available. We therefore performed a systematic study to identify the permeation properties of geraniol across intestinal cells, and its pharmacokinetics and bioavailability after intravenous and oral administration to rats. In addition, we systematically investigated the potential hepatotoxic effects of high doses of geraniol on hepatic phase I, phase II and antioxidant enzymatic activities and undertook a hematochemical analysis on mice. Permeation studies performed via HPLC evidenced geraniol permeability coefficients across an in vitro model of the human intestinal wall for apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical transport of 13.10 ± 2.3 × 10-3 and 2.1 ± 0.1⋅× 10-3 cm/min, respectively. After intravenous administration of geraniol to rats (50 mg/kg, its concentration in whole blood (detected via HPLC decreased following an apparent pseudo-first order kinetics with a half-life of 12.5 ± 1.5 min. The absolute bioavailability values of oral formulations (50 mg/kg of emulsified geraniol or fiber-adsorbed geraniol were 92 and 16%, respectively. Following emulsified oral administration, geraniol amounts in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats ranged between 0.72 ± 0.08 μg/mL and 2.6 ± 0.2 μg/mL within 60 min. Mice treated with 120 mg/kg of geraniol for 4 weeks showed increased anti-oxidative defenses with no signs of liver toxicity. CYP450 enzyme activities appeared only slightly affected by the high dosage of geraniol.

  4. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: dynamics of the main antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase and catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreva, Mariya N; Penev, Atanas P; Georgiev, Svetoslav Zh; Aleksandrova, Albena A

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have a particularly strong interest in the mechanisms implicated in the clinical manifestation of atrial fibrillation. To examine dynamically the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (duration enzyme activity was determined by a spectrophotometric method. The average duration of atrial fibrillation episodes until the time of hospitalization was 8.14 hours (from 2 to 24 hours). During patient hospitalization the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was considerably higher compared to that of the controls (8.46 +/- 0.26 vs 5.81 +/- 0.14 U/mg Hb; 7.36 +/- 0.25 vs 4.76 +/- 0.12 E240/min/mg Hb; P catalase remained increased (5.11 +/- 0.08 vs 4.76 +/- 0.12 E240/min/mg Hb, p catalase even in the early hours of clinical manifestation of the disorder, which then slowly decreased with the restoration of sinus rhythm. Therefore, we can conclude that changes in oxidative status are closely related to the disease and are probably a part of the intimate mechanisms related to its initiation and clinical course.

  5. GLUTATHIONE AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN THE HEPATOPANCREAS OF CRAYFISH PROCAMBARUS CLARKII (GIRARD, 1852 OF LAKE TRASIMENO (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIA A. C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant parameters, such as total glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glyoxalases, catalase, and some heavy metals such as, lead, cadmium and chromium were examined in hepatopancreas of both sexes of Procambarus clarkii collected seasonally from Lake Trasimeno, from winter 2002-2003 to autumn 2003. Heavy metals content in hepatopancreas in males and females of P. clarkii was low and did not vary through the sampling periods and between sexes. On the contrary, crayfish exhibited sex-dependent differences in levels of some enzyme activities and of total glutathione, and no apparent relationship was found between contaminant burdens and antioxidant indexes in hepatopancreas. Because measured metal concentrations were low, other factors, presumably, were involved in antioxidant variations in P. clarkii and these latter seemed to be affected more by biological and environmental factors, other than those related to pollutants body burdens.

  6. Abiotic stress and antioxidant enzymes expression in sunflower leaf discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannarelli, G.G.; Azpilicueta, C.E.; Gallego, S.M.; Benavides, M.P.; Tomaro, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occur in plants under abiotic stress conditions. Although ROS act as mediators of oxidative damage, a signalling role for O 2 - and H 2 O 2 has been proposed. In the present work, the effect of cadmium (300 and 500 μM CdCl 2 ) or UVB radiation (30 KJ/m 2 ) on expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (sod3) and catalase (cat1 and cat3) was evaluated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf discs. Samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 h of Cd treatments or white light recuperation after UVB treatment. RNA extractions and semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis were performed. Treatment of 300 μM Cd induced 6.4, 2.9 and 6 fold the expression of sod3, cat1 and cat3 over the controls, respectively, after 8 h of treatment, but 500 μM Cd showed lesser induction levels. Immediately after UVB irradiation, the mRNA of the three enzymes decreased. After 8 h of white light recovery, cat1 and cat3 were induced (1.9 and 3.5 fold, respectively) and the maximum sod3 expression was observed at 12 h (7 fold), respect to control. In conclusion, the balance between superoxide dismutase and peroxidases activities in cells is crucial for determining the steady-state level of O 2 - and H 2 O 2 . In our assay conditions, sod3, cat1 and cat3 were induced in response to abiotic stress at a late phase (8-12 h). The main induction of cat3 suggests that core-catalases of peroxisomes might play a key regulatory role in controlling H 2 O 2 level. (author)

  7. Antioxidant and wound healing activity of Lavandula aspic L. ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Djemaa, Ferdaous Ghrab; Bellassoued, Khaled; Zouari, Sami; El Feki, Abdelfatteh; Ammar, Emna

    2016-11-01

    Lavandula aspic L. is a strongly aromatic shrub plant of the Lamiaceae family and traditionally used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several skin disorders, including wounds, burns, and ulcers. The present study aimed to investigate the composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of lavender essential oil. In addition, it aimed to evaluate the excision wound healing activity and antioxidant property of a Lavandula aspic L. essential oil formulated in ointment using a rat model. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. The test groups were topically treated with the vehicle, lavender ointment (4%) and a reference drug, while the control group was left untreated. Wound healing efficiency was determined by monitoring morphological and biochemical parameters and skin histological analysis. Wound contraction and protein synthesis were also determined. Antioxidant activity was assessed by the determination of MDA rates and antioxidant enzymes (GPx, catalase and superoxide dismutase). The treatment with lavender ointment was noted to significantly enhance wound contraction rate (98%) and protein synthesis. Overall, the results provided strong support for the effective wound healing activity of lavender ointment, making it a promising candidate for future application as a therapeutic agent in tissue repairing processes associated with skin injuries. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of high dietary copper on growth, antioxidant and lipid metabolism enzymes of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxing Meng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to test the responses of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus to high Cu intake. Experimental diets were formulated containing three levels of Cu: low Cu (3.67 mg/kg, middle Cu (13.65 mg/kg and high Cu (25.78 mg/kg, and each diet were fed to large yellow croaker in triplicate for 10 weeks. Final body weight, weight gain and feed intake were the lowest in high Cu group, but hepatosomatic index was the highest; Cu concentrations in the whole-body, muscle and liver of fish fed low Cu diet was the lowest; Liver superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in fish fed high Cu diet were lower than those in fish fed other diets; The higher content of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content was found in high Cu group, followed by middle Cu group, and the lowest in low Cu group; Liver 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase activities were the lowest in high Cu group, but lipoprotein lipase activity was the highest. This study indicated that high copper intake reduced growth of juvenile larger yellow croaker, inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid synthetases, and led to energy mobilization. Keywords: Larger yellow croaker, Copper, Antioxidant enzyme, Lipid metabolism enzyme

  9. Sodium nitroprusside may modulate Escherichia coli antioxidant enzyme expression by interacting with the ferric uptake regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, R; Danielson, D; Gong, V; Olynik, B; Eze, M O

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to explore possible relationships between nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant enzymes in an Escherichia coli model have uncovered a possible interaction between sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a potent, NO-donating drug, and the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron(II)--dependent regulator of antioxidant and iron acquisition proteins present in Gram-negative bacteria. The enzymatic profiles of superoxide dismutase and hydroperoxidase during logarithmic phase of growth were studied via non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and activity staining specific to each enzyme. Though NO is known to induce transcription of the manganese-bearing isozyme of SOD (MnSOD), treatment with SNP paradoxically suppressed MnSOD expression and greatly enhanced the activity of the iron-containing equivalent (FeSOD). Fur, one of six global regulators of MnSOD transcription, is uniquely capable of suppressing MnSOD while enhancing FeSOD expression through distinct mechanisms. We thus hypothesize that Fur is complacent in causing this behaviour and that the iron(II) component of SNP is activating Fur. E. coli was also treated with the SNP structural analogues, potassium ferricyanide (PFi) and potassium ferrocyanide (PFo). Remarkably, the ferrous PFo was capable of mimicking the SNP-related pattern, whereas the ferric PFi was not. As Fur depends upon ferrous iron for activation, we submit this observation of redox-specificity as preliminary supporting evidence for the hypothesized Fur-SNP interaction. Iron is an essential metal that the human innate immune system sequesters to prevent its use by invading pathogens. As NO is known to inhibit iron-bound Fur, and as activated Fur regulates iron uptake through feedback inhibition, we speculate that the administration of this drug may disrupt this strategic management of iron in favour of residing Gram-negative species by providing a source of iron in an otherwise iron-scarce environment capable of encouraging its own uptake

  10. Effects of Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings on Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System of Strawberry during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a nutritious, but highly perishable fruit. Three polysaccharide-based edible coatings (alginate, chitosan, and pullulan were applied to postharvest strawberry fruit during cold storage (4°C, and their effects on fruit quality and antioxidant enzyme system were investigated in the present study. The results showed that polysaccharide coatings showed a significant delay in fruit softening and rot and reduced changes in total soluble solid and titratable acidity content during 16 d storage. Polysaccharide coatings also maintained higher ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents than control from day 2 and significantly inhibited fruit decay and respiration after 12 d storage (p<0.05. Polysaccharide treatments enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and ascorbate peroxidase so as to prevent lipid peroxidation and reduce membrane damage. Additionally, chitosan coating had the most positive effects on fruit quality amongst three polysaccharide-based edible coatings and presented the highest relative activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results indicated that polysaccharide-based edible coatings were helpful in postharvest quality maintenance of strawberry fruit.

  11. Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb resistant and susceptible malarial vectors ( Anopheles gambiae ) breeding in Bichi agricultural and residential sites, Kano state, Nigeria.

  12. Effects of Puerariae Radix extract on the activity of antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Joon Eun; Ki Rok Kwon; Tae Jin Rhim; Yun-Kyung Song; Hyung-Ho Lim

    2007-01-01

    Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of Puerariae Radix extract. Method : Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Total antioxidant response (TAR), Total phenolic content, Reactive oxygen species (ROS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activities, lipid peroxidation were examined. Result : Total antioxidant status was examined by total antioxidant capacity(TAC) and total antioxidant response(TAR) against potent free r...

  13. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  14. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks׳ gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; Gill, Carolyn A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Seed, Paul T; Hesketh, John E; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2-7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks׳ gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both Ppreeclampsia. The modest elevation in copper may contribute to oxidative stress, later in pregnancy, in those women that go on to develop preeclampsia. The lack of evidence to support the hypothesis that functional SNPs influence antioxidant enzyme activity in pregnant women argues against a role for these genes in the etiology of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant activity directed isolations form punica granatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.; Saeed, M.G.; Sayeed, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The extracts derived from pomegranate juice following antioxidant activity directed isolation were screened for their antioxidant activity through their ability to scavenge 2,2- diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Only fractions which exhibited >50 / 0 DPPH scavenging effect at each step of isolation were selected for further purification and their ability to reduce peroxide formation (peroxide value) in heated com oil. Phytochemical analysis of the pure compounds finally obtained, revealed the presence of pelargonidin-3- galactose (Pg-3-galactose), cyanidin-3-glucose (Cy-3-Glucose), gallic acid, quercetin and myricetin in the fractions exhibiting >50% DPPH scavenging potential. The order of antioxidant activity of these pure compounds by DPPH method was found to be gallic acid> quercetin> myricetin> Cy-3-galactose> Pg-3-Glucose while order with respect to reduction in peroxide value (PV) was the reverse of DPPH. (author)

  16. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GAE) and the reducing power of 0.071±0.03nm was obtained. The DPPH scavenging activity of the extract was found to be promising. There is no significant difference (p<0.05) in the antioxidant activity between the extract and those of the ...

  17. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiño-Blanco Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GRD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system.

  18. Antioxidant enzyme gene delivery to protect from HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, L; Louboutin, J-P; Reyes, B A S; Van Bockstaele, E J; Strayer, D S

    2006-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to neuronal loss and progressively deteriorating CNS function: HIV-1 gene products, especially gp120, induce free radical-mediated apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), are among the potential mediators of these effects. Neurons readily form ROS after gp120 exposure, and so might be protected from ROS-mediated injury by antioxidant enzymes such as Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and/or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1). Both enzymes detoxify oxygen free radicals. As they are highly efficient gene delivery vehicles for neurons, recombinant SV40-derived vectors were used for these studies. Cultured mature neurons derived from NT2 cells and primary fetal neurons were transduced with rSV40 vectors carrying human SOD1 and/or GPx1 cDNAs, then exposed to gp120. Apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Transduction efficiency of both neuron populations was >95%, as assayed by immunostaining. Transgene expression was also ascertained by Western blotting and direct assays of enzyme activity. Gp120 induced apoptosis in a high percentage of unprotected NT2-N. Transduction with SV(SOD1) and SV(GPx1) before gp120 challenge reduced neuronal apoptosis by >90%. Even greater protection was seen in cells treated with both vectors in sequence. Given singly or in combination, they protect neuronal cells from HIV-1-gp120 induced apoptosis. We tested whether rSV40 s can deliver antioxidant enzymes to the CNS in vivo: intracerebral injection of SV(SOD1) or SV(GPx1) into the caudate putamen of rat brain yielded excellent transgene expression in neurons. In vivo transduction using SV(SOD1) also protected neurons from subsequent gp120-induced apoptosis after injection of both into the caudate putamen of rat brain. Thus, SOD1 and GPx1 can be delivered by SV40 vectors in vitro or in vivo. This approach may merit consideration for

  19. Enzymes and Enzyme Activity Encoded by Nonenveloped Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Kimi; Banerjee, Manidipa; Johnson, John E

    2017-09-29

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on host cell machineries for their replication and survival. Although viruses tend to make optimal use of the host cell protein repertoire, they need to encode essential enzymatic or effector functions that may not be available or accessible in the host cellular milieu. The enzymes encoded by nonenveloped viruses-a group of viruses that lack any lipid coating or envelope-play vital roles in all the stages of the viral life cycle. This review summarizes the structural, biochemical, and mechanistic information available for several classes of enzymes and autocatalytic activity encoded by nonenveloped viruses. Advances in research and development of antiviral inhibitors targeting specific viral enzymes are also highlighted.

  20. Effects of smokeless dipping tobacco (Naswar) consumption on antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in its users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Faiza; Bano, Samina

    2015-09-01

    Dipping tobacco, traditionally referred to as moist snuff, is a type of finely ground, moistened smokeless tobacco product. Naswar is stuffed in the floor of the mouth under the lower lip, or inside the cheek, for extended periods of time. Tobacco use causes dyslipidemia and also induces oxidative stress, leading to alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in turn play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conducted on smokeless tobacco products reveal contradictory findings regarding its effects on lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. As use of Naswar is quite common in Pakistan, the current study aimed to evaluate levels of the antioxidant enzymes viz glutathione per oxidase (GPx) and super oxide dismutase (SOD), alongside lipid profile parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in Naswar users.90 Healthy males aged 16-43 years, who consumed Naswar daily, were selected for the study, alongside 68 age-matched non-tobacco users as controls. Both GPx and SOD levels as well as serum HDL-C were significantly reduced (Pprofile and antioxidant enzymes thereby placing its consumers at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Antioxidant enzymes in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval): Are they enhanced to protect gut tissues during oxidative stress?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2006), s. 11-20 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/05/0151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : antioxidant enzyme * oxidative stress * allelochemicals Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.019, year: 2006

  2. Association of antioxidative enzymes with the synergistic effect of selenium and UV irradiation in enhancing plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. XUE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is able to defend human and animal cells against UV(B stress. Higher plants are generally considered not to require Se but to have a low tolerance to it. However, recently it has been demonstrated that Se is able to protect also plants against UV-induced oxidative stress and even to promote the growth of plants subjected to high-energy light. In the present study the effects of Se on antioxidative enzymes possibly associated with this synergistic effect were investigated. Ryegrass and lettuce were grown in soil supplemented with Se at 0, 0.1 or 1.0 mg kg-1 under normal light or subjected to UV episodes. Lipid peroxidation and the changes of antioxidative enzymes were measured at two growing stages. The positive synergistic effect of the lower Se dosage and UV was found to be at least partly associated with the antioxidative role of Se through increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT activity, whereas ascorbate peroxidase (APX responded negatively to both factors. The contribution of the other enzymes studied seemed to be plant-specific: glutathione S-transferase (GST increased in both ryegrass assays and superoxide dismutase (SOD in the first lettuce assay. At the higher addition level Se acted as a pro-oxidant and diminished fresh weight yields. UV irradiation alleviated the toxicity coincidently with increase of CAT in ryegrass and SOD in lettuce.;

  3. Effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum anti-oxidant enzymes and vitamins of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict C. Eke, BSc, MSc

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum antioxidant enzymes and vitamins in albino rats was investigated. In the study, thirty two (32 male wistar albino rats were obtained and grouped into four groups (A, B, C and D of eight animals each. The animals were acclimatized for 7 days on commercial rat feed. The animals in groups B, C and D were all fed ad libitum with porridge yam, porridge beans and jellof rice with meat/fish reheated for 2 min, 4 min and 6 min for groups B, C and D respectively for 42 days. Group A was fed with un-microwaved food and water for the duration of the study (42 days and served as control. Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT activities, vitamins A and E concentrations were determined using standard methods. Result obtained from the study showed that microwaved food consumption resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in SOD and CAT activity in rats fed with the microwaved food. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity were more significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in rats exposed to food microwaved for 6 min compared to the control group (A. Also, serum vitamins A and E concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in rats fed with food exposed to microwaves for 6 min as compared to the control group. Microwaves and increased microwaving time resulted to a significant reduction in SOD, CAT, vitamin A and E in fed rats. Therefore our study demonstrated that consumption of microwaved foods resulted in a significant decrease in antioxidant protection and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress and degenerative diseases.

  4. Enzyme Activity Experiments Using a Simple Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Experimental procedures for studying enzyme activity using a Spectronic 20 spectrophotometer are described. The experiments demonstrate the effect of pH, temperature, and inhibitors on enzyme activity and allow the determination of Km, Vmax, and Kcat. These procedures are designed for teaching large lower-level biochemistry classes. (MR)

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Purified Active Peptide Derived from Spirulina platensis Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Maulida Safitri; Endang Yuli Herawati; Jue Liang Hsu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate the antioxidative peptide from Spirulina platensis. Peptide was obtained by proteolytic digestion, ultrafiltration, fractionation by RP-HPLC, identified by LC-MS/MS—MASCOT Distiller and measured its antioxidant activity by DPPH (2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Results showed that thermolysin was the most effective enzyme to digest this algae. The active peptide Phe-Ser-Glu-Ser-Ser-Ala-Pro-Glu-Gln-His-Tyr (m/z 1281.51) was identified and synthetized, w...

  6. Enzymes with activity toward Xyloglucan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Xyloglucans are plant cell wall polysaccharides, which belong to the hemicellulose class. Here the structural variations of xyloglucans will be reviewed. Subsequently, the anchoring of xyloglucan in the plant cell wall will be discussed. Enzymes involved in degradation or modification of xyloglucan

  7. Size distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles in cell culture medium and their influence on antioxidative enzymes in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđenović Branislava U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenol (C60(OH24 nanoparticles (FNP have a significant role in biomedical research due to their numerous biological activities, some of which are cytoprotective and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to measure distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles and zeta potential in cell medium RPMI 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and to investigate the influence of FNP on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 survival, as well as to determine the activity of three antioxidative enzymes: superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-reductase and glutathione-S-transferase in mitomycin C-treated cell line. Our investigation implies that FNP, as a strong antioxidant, influence the cellular redox state and enzyme activities and thus may reduce cell proliferation, which confirms that FNP could be exploited for its use as a cytoprotective agent.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45005 i Pokrajinski Sekretarijat za nauku i tehnološki razvoj Vojvodine, grant number 114-451-2056/2011-01

  8. Antioxidative sulphated polygalactans from marine macroalgae as angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Fasina; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2017-08-17

    Antioxidant and antihypertensive potential of the sulphated polygalactans isolated from the marine macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria opuntia were assessed by utilising different in vitro systems. The galactans isolated from K. alvarezii possessed significantly greater antioxidative properties as determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH IC 90 0.97 mg/mL) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS .+ IC 90 0.72 mg/mL) scavenging activities than those isolated from G. opuntia (DPPH IC 90 1.2 mg/mL and ABTS 0.86 mg/mL). The sulphated polygalactan →4)-4-O-sulphonato-(2-O-methyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-methyl)-α-D-galactopyranan from K. alvarezii showed greater angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (IC 50 0.02 μg/mL) than →3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-xylosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranan motif extracted from G. opuntia (IC 50 0.70 μg/mL). Structure activity correlation studies displayed that the ACE inhibitory properties of titled polygalactans were directly proportional to their electronic properties and inversely with the steric and hydrophobic characteristics. Putative ACE inhibitory mechanism of action of sulphated galactans from marine macroalgae corroborated the structure bioactivity correlation analysis.

  9. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, Riffat A.; Ahmad, Masood

    2005-01-01

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H 2 O 2 continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 μM, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also showed enhanced

  10. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase activities of fatty acids found in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Geneive E; Momin, Rafikali A; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Dewitt, David L

    2002-04-10

    Several commercially available C-8 to C-24 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (1-29) were assayed for cyclooxygenase-I (COX-I) and cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II) inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Among the saturated fatty acids tested at 60 microg mL(-1), there was an increase in antioxidant activity with increasing chain length from octanoic acid to myristic acid (C-8-C-14) and a decrease thereafter. All unsaturated fatty acids tested at 60 microg mL(-1) showed good antioxidant activity except for undecylenic acid (12), cis-5-dodecenoic acid (13), and nervonic acid (29). The highest inhibitory activities among the saturated fatty acids tested on cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-I and COX-II were observed for decanoic acid to lauric acid (3-5) at 100 microg mL(-1). Similarly, among the unsaturated fatty acids tested, the highest activities were observed for cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid (25) and cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid (27) at 100 microg mL(-1).

  11. Antioxidant activity of rice plants sprayed with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André Nohatto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the physiological defense behavior of plants subjected to herbicide application may help to identify products with higher or lower capacity to cause oxidative stress in crops. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of herbicides in the antioxidant activity of rice plants. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Treatments consisted of the herbicides bentazon (photosystem II inhibitor; 960 g ha-1, penoxsulam (acetolactate synthase inhibitor; 60 g ha-1, cyhalofop-butyl (acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase inhibitor; 315 g ha-1 and a control. After the herbicides application, samples of rice shoots were collected at 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after application (HAA. The components evaluated were hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Bentazon (up to 24 HAA and penoxsulam (48 and 96 HAA reduced the CAT activity. Moreover, these herbicides increased the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and SOD activity, indicating a condition of oxidative stress in rice plants. The cyhalofop-butyl herbicide did not alter the antioxidant activity, showing that it causes less stress to the crop.

  12. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase and antioxidative activity of Gentiana lutea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasijević, Branislav; Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara; Dimitrijević-Branković, Suzana; Pašti, Igor; Vujačić, Ana; Joksić, Gordana; Vasić, Vesna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of Gentiana lutea extracts on the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), as well as the antioxidant activity of these extracts and their correlation with the total polyphenol content. Extracts were prepared using methanol (100%), water and ethanol aqueous solutions (96, 75, 50 and 25%v/v) as solvents for extraction. Also, isovitexin, amarogentin and gentiopicroside, pharmacologically active constituents of G. lutea were tested as potential inhibitors of MPO. Antioxidant activity of extracts was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test and also using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Among all extracts, the antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanol aqueous extract was the highest, both when measured using the DPPH test, with IC(50)=20.6 μg/ml, and when using CV. Also, 50% ethanol extract, showed the best inhibition of MPO activity in comparison with other extracts. In the group of the selected G. lutea constituents, gentiopicroside has proved to be the strongest inhibitor of MPO, with IC(50)=0.8 μg/ml. Also, the concentration of G. lutea constituents were determined in all extracts, using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant activity of puha (Sonchus oleraceus L.) as assessed by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Arlene; Thompson, Scott; Stark, Mirjam; Ou, Zong-Quan; Gould, Kevin S

    2011-12-01

    There is considerable interest in antioxidant dietary components that can be protective against degenerative diseases in humans. Puha (Sonchus oleraceus L.) is a rich source of polyphenols, and exhibits strong antioxidant activity as measured by the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. However, the potential of puha to protect against degenerative diseases requires that low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) are absorbed by, and active in, human cells. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was used to investigate the antioxidant activity of puha leaf extracts. Preparation methods of freezing and freeze-drying reduced the total polyphenolic content compared with fresh puha, but did not affect the LMWA potential as determined by the DPPH assay. The IC(50) values were 0.012 ± 0.003 mg/mL and 0.010 ± 0.005 mg/mL for freeze-dried and fresh puha leaves, respectively. Using the CAA assay, it was shown that LMWAs from foliar extracts of puha were effectively absorbed into HepG2 cells, and exerted antioxidant activity at levels comparable to those of extracts from blueberry fruits, the much-touted antioxidant superfood. Methylene blue staining of HepG2 cells indicated that puha extracts were not cytotoxic at concentrations below 100 mg DW/mL. The data indicate the potential of puha as a nutraceutical supplement for human health. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Status in Anorexia Nervosa: Effects of Weight Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Jesús Oliveras-López

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN. Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0 and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI (T1. The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years. Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01. Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01. Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05 and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.

  15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS. MELLIFERA BEE POLLEN FROM NORTHWEST ALGERIA. A. Rebiai* and T.Lanez. University of El Oued, VTRS Laboratory, P.O. Box 789, 39000, El Oued, Algeria. Received: 08 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 December 2012 / Published online: 31 ...

  16. Polyphenols content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    25 wild plants were collected from the south of Tunisia. The dried aerial parts were extracted under a continuous reflux set-up in a Soxhlet extractor with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The extracts were screened for total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Total phenolic contents were ...

  17. Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile. Components of Two Salvia spp. F Forouzin*, R Jamei and R Heidari. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, West Azerbaijan, Iran. *For correspondence: Email: f_forouzin@yahoo.com, rjamei274@gmail.com, r.heidari@mail.urmia.ac.ir; Tel: ...

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-08

    Dec 8, 2015 ... Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant. Studies of ... Transition metal complexes of Co(II) and Ni(II) with Schiff base ligand (HL) derived from condensation of 2- ..... 2-((5mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-.

  19. Carotenoids from Phaffia rhodozyma : Antioxidant activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this work was to establish the stability and antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained through different techniques for recovering carotenoids from Phaffia rhodozyma NRRL-Y 17268. The best conditions for extracting carotenoids through cell rupture with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were found to be a ...

  20. Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Ichnocarpus frutescens (Linn.) R.Br. on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. D K Dash, V C Yeligar, S S Nayak, T Ghosh, R Rajalingam, P Sengupta, B C Maiti, T K Maity ...

  1. Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blood glucose level, serum lipid profile, and significantly (p < 0.05) increased antioxidant activity as evidenced by ... remove spots and blemishes from the face. The root is used as ... and the dry extract dissolved in normal saline prior to further ...

  2. The potential medicinal value of plants from Asteraceae family with antioxidant defense enzymes as biological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Suheda; Isgor, Belgin S; Isgor, Yasemin G; Shomali Moghaddam, Naznoosh; Yildirim, Ozlem

    2015-05-01

    Plants and most of the plant-derived compounds have long been known for their potential pharmaceutical effects. They are well known to play an important role in the treatment of several diseases from diabetes to various types of cancers. Today most of the clinically effective pharmaceuticals are developed from plant-derived ancestors in the history of medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol, ethanol, and acetone extracts from flowers and leaves of Onopordum acanthium L., Carduus acanthoides L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., and Centaurea solstitialis L., all from the Asteraceae family, for investigating their potential medicinal values of biological targets that are participating in the antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In this study, free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the plant samples were assayed by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu, and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods. Also, the effects of extracts on CAT, GST, and GPx enzyme activities were investigated. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in the acetone extract of C. acanthoides flowers, with 90.305 mg GAE/L and 185.43 mg Q/L values, respectively. The highest DPPH radical scavenging was observed with the methanol leaf extracts of C. arvense with an IC50 value of 366 ng/mL. The maximum GPx and GST enzyme inhibition activities were observed with acetone extracts from the flower of C. solstitialis with IC50 values of 79 and 232 ng/mL, respectively.

  3. Development of microalgae biomaterials with enhanced antioxidant activity using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Younghwa; Park, Hyunjin; Choi, Soojeong; Lee, Jaehwa [Silla Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    By increasing the antioxidant products (e. g. antioxidant enzyme, carotenoid, phycobiliproteins, chlorophyll, lipid phenolic compounds, etc.) in microalgae, it could be useful for industry. In this study, mutants of fresh water microalgae Arthrospira platensis (A. platensis) by high energy electron beam were isolated and characterized. Those selected mutants showed higher growth rate than parental strain. The antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and POD), flavonoid, phenolic compound and phycocyanin of mutants were increased about 2 times compared to wild type. Moreover, DPPH radical scavenging activity was increased about 20%. Microalgae species with improved growth rate and enhanced active compounds make the commercial process more feasible in industry. Using microalgae mutants with increased antioxidant products, it is useful to develop microalgae biomaterials for neutraceuticals.

  4. Development of microalgae biomaterials with enhanced antioxidant activity using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghwa; Park, Hyunjin; Choi, Soojeong; Lee, Jaehwa

    2013-01-01

    By increasing the antioxidant products (e. g. antioxidant enzyme, carotenoid, phycobiliproteins, chlorophyll, lipid phenolic compounds, etc.) in microalgae, it could be useful for industry. In this study, mutants of fresh water microalgae Arthrospira platensis (A. platensis) by high energy electron beam were isolated and characterized. Those selected mutants showed higher growth rate than parental strain. The antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and POD), flavonoid, phenolic compound and phycocyanin of mutants were increased about 2 times compared to wild type. Moreover, DPPH radical scavenging activity was increased about 20%. Microalgae species with improved growth rate and enhanced active compounds make the commercial process more feasible in industry. Using microalgae mutants with increased antioxidant products, it is useful to develop microalgae biomaterials for neutraceuticals

  5. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  6. Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

    2014-10-15

    The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of antioxidants and associate changes in antioxidant enzymes in controlling browning and necrosis of proliferating shoots of elite Jatropha curcas L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Pratibha; Toppo, Dibya D.; Gupta, Neha; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tuli, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    A high yielding elite plant of Jatropha curcas was established under aseptic condition from field-grown nodal explants. Shoots were proliferated in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg dm -3 benzyladenine and 0.1 mg dm -3 indolebutyric acid along with 10 mg dm -3 adenine sulphate and a combination of 15 mg dm -3 each of L-glutamine and L-arginine. However, within 15-20 d of culture incubation, tissue browning/necrosis leading to poor plant regeneration in vitro was observed. A set of different antioxidants, namely, reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, tocopherol and cysteine were used in the medium individually and in combination to solve the problem of tissue browning and necrosis. The addition of antioxidants proved beneficial for the growth of the shoots. The optimum medium comprised of 25 mg dm -3 reduced glutathione and 10 mg dm -3 ascorbic acid, where proliferating shoots having highest leaf canopy area, remained fresh, green and regenerative up to 40 d of culture incubation without any subculture. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase was higher in control shoots, indicating that tissue browning/necrosis was associated with oxidative stress which was further supported by higher contents of H 2 O 2 and phenolics in control shoots compared to the other treatments. Similarly glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase and guiacol peroxidase was higher in treated shoots than control indicating that these shoots have developed antioxidant enzymatic protective system which determine the ability to survive in oxidative stress and up regulation of these enzymes would help to reduce the built up of reactive oxygen species.

  8. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-02-16

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.

  9. Black tea (camellia sinensis ) role in modulating antioxidant enzymes and biochemical changes in γ -irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, N.N.; Hussien, E.M.; Farag, M.F.S.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the efficacy of camellia sinensis beverage in reducing gamma-irradiation - induced oxidative damage to the liver, lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats. Animals were received the black tea beverage (BTB) as a sole source of potable liquid for seven consecutive days before exposing them to single dose of 6 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation . The irradiated rats continued to receive BTB for 21 days before sacrifice. The effect of BTB was assessed by monitoring the plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), acid phosphatase (AcP), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high, low and very low density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C,LDL-C and VLDL-C) as well as protein carbonyl content (PCC). In addition, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) in blood and liver of experimental rats. It was observed that tea administration lowers significantly (p< 0.05), the plasma AST, ALT, AcP activities and TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and PCC concentration as well as blood and liver TBARS. The level of GSH and activity of CAT in the blood and liver tissue were however shown to be significantly elevated (p< 0.05).The results provide useful information for future investigations and strongly implicate the beneficial application of BTB

  10. Studies on antioxidative enzymes induced by cadmium in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nalini; Singh, Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Swati) exposed to different concentration of cadmium (50,100, 200 microM Cd) under controlled glass house conditions were quantified for different physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes. In pea plants, Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth and induced chlorosis, marginal yellowing and necrosis in young leaves, the effect being most pronounced at 200 microM Cd supply. An alteration in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected as evidenced by an increase in concentration of H2O2 and TBARS along with decrease in the chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration in leaves. Cadmium toxicity induced an increase in non-protein thiol, ascorbate, proline and cysteine concentration. A significant increment in the activity of SOD, APX and GR, and a decrease in CAT was observed as a result of Cd treatment. The enhanced activity of SOD and inhibition of CAT and POD produces a high build up of H2O2 which appears to be the main cause of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity in pea plants.

  11. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M R; Mishra, A; Pradhan, D K; Panda, A K; Behera, R K; Jha, S

    2013-09-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase) found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug.

  12. Conversion of shrimp shell by using Serratia sp. TKU017 fermentation for the production of enzymes and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, San-Lang; Li, Jeng-Yu; Liang, Tzu-Wen; Hsieh, Jia-Lin; Tseng, Wan-Nine

    2010-01-01

    A chitinase (CHT), and a protease (PRO) were purified from the culture supernatant of Serratia sp. TKU017 with shrimp shell as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. The molecular masses of CHT and PRO determined by SDS-PAGE were approximately 65 kDa and 53 kDa, respectively. CHT was inhibited by Mn2+, Cu2+ and PRO was inhibited by most tested divalent metals, EDTA. The optimum pH, optimum temperature, pH stability, and thermal stability of CHT and PRO were (pH 5, 50 degrees , pH 5 degrees ) and (pH 9, 40 degrees , pH 5 degrees ), respectively. PRO retained 95% of its protease activity in the presence of 0.5 mM SDS. The result demonstrates that PRO is SDS-resistant protease and probably has a rigid structure. The 4th day supernatant showed the strongest antioxidant activity (70%, DPPH scavenging ability) and the highest total phenolic content (196+/-6.2 microng of gallic acid equival/mL). Significant associations between the antioxidant potency and the total phenolic content, as well as between the antioxidant potency and free amino groups, were found for the supernatant. With this method, we have shown that shrimp shell wastes can be utilized and it's effective in the production of enzymes and antioxidants, facilitating its potential use in industrial applications and functional foods.

  13. The effects of aqueous extract of white tea on serum antioxidant enzymes in rats exposed to arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadhassan rasoulifard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a condition is which the biological system's ability to detoxify and eliminate harmful effects of free radicals is not sufficient and oxidative damages to cells or tissues  leads to the development of diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis and degenerative changes. Phenolic compounds due to their high antioxidant capacity, have an important role in health and increase the antioxidant defense against oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of white tea on status of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx, MDA (malondialdehyde and TAC (total antioxidant capacity in rats treated with sodium arsenite. In this study, 32 adult male rats weighing 200-250 g were used in four groups of eight. The first group included healthy normal rats (control group, the second group of rats were treated with sodium arsenite (100 ppm in drinking water the third group of rats were treated with aqueous extract of white tea at a concentration of 1/5%, via gavage, the fourth group of rats were treated with aqueous extract of white tea (1/5% via gavage with sodium arsenite (100 ppm in drinking water. The rats were killed at the end of the 28th day of treatment and blood samples were collected and the antioxidant enzymes of CAT (catalase, SOD (superoxide dismutase, GPx (glutathione peroxidase, and MDA and TAC were measured. The results indicate that the aqueous extract of white tea significantly increased the activities of SOD, GPx, CAT and TAC and decreased   MDA concentration (p

  14. Ultraviolet Radiation: Cellular Antioxidant Response and the Role of Ocular Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitti, Satori A.; Chen, Ying; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposes the human eye to near constant oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that UVR is the most important environmental insult leading to the development of a variety of ophthalmoheliosis disorders. UVR-induced reactive oxygen species are highly reactive with DNA, proteins and cellular membranes, resulting in cellular and tissue damage. Antioxidant defense systems present in ocular tissues function to combat reactive oxygen species and protect the eye from oxidative damage. Important enzymatic antioxidants are the superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase and members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily. Glutathione, ascorbic and uric acids, α-tocopherol, NADPH and ferritin serve as small molecule, nonenzymatic antioxidants. Ocular tissues have high levels of these antioxidants which are essential for the maintenance of redox homeostasis in the eye and protection against oxidative damage. ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1, present abundantly in the cornea and lens, have been shown to have unique roles in the defense against UVR and the downstream effects of oxidative stress. This review presents the properties and functions of ocular antioxidants that play critical roles in the cellular response to UVR exposure, including a focused discussion of the unique roles that the ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 enzymes have as multi-functional ocular antioxidants. PMID:21670692

  15. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Hai-Zhu; Yang, Jun-Yan; Li, Ran; Song, Hui; Wu, Hong-Xin

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin. The in vitro assays demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of inulin, including the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, were weak and significantly lower than those of Vitamin C (P < 0.05). The influence of dietary supplementation with inulin on the antioxidant status of laying hens was evaluated with in vivo antioxidant assays. The results ...

  16. Pre-harvest UV-C irradiation triggers VOCs accumulation with alteration of antioxidant enzymes and phytohormones in strawberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqun; Luo, Zisheng; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Rolland, Daniel; Roussel, Dominique

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the biological and physiological effects of pre-harvest ultraviolet (UV)-C treatment on growing plants. However, little is known about the involvement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their response to this treatment. In this study, strawberry plants were exposed to three different doses of UV-C radiation for seven weeks (a low dose: 9.6kJm -2 ; a medium dose: 15kJm -2 ; and a high-dose: 29.4kJm -2 ). Changes in VOC profiles were investigated and an attempt was made to identify factors that may be involved in the regulation of these alterations. Principle compounds analysis revealed that VOC profiles of UV-C treated samples were significantly altered with 26 VOCs being the major contributors to segregation. Among them, 18 fatty acid-derived VOCs accumulated in plants that received high and medium dose of UV-C treatments with higher lipoxygenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. In treated samples, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase was inhibited, resulting in a reduced antioxidant capacity and higher lipid peroxidation. Simultaneously, jasmonic acid level was 74% higher in the high-dose group while abscisic acid content was more than 12% lower in both the medium and high-dose UV-C treated samples. These results indicated that pre-harvest UV-C treatment stimulated the biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived VOCs in strawberry leaf tissue by upregulating the activity of enzymes of the LOX biosynthetic pathway and downregulating antioxidant enzyme activities. It is further suggested that the mechanisms underlying fatty acid-derived VOCs biosynthesis in UV-C treated strawberry leaves are associated with UV-C-induced changes in phytohormone profiles. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant properties, selected enzyme inhibition capacities, and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, it is a potentially natural functional ingredient for use in food and cosmetic industries. ... components of a healthy and balanced diet. [3]. Currently, the use of ..... polyunsaturated fatty acids to biologically active metabolites, which are active mediators in a variety of .... as a source of food additives. Food Res Int 2011; 44:.

  18. Antioxidant activity of the exudate from Aloe barbadensis leaves in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    ... peroxidation products levels. Keywords: Diabetes, Aloe barbadensis, oxidative stress, Antioxidant enzymes ... Many minor components of foods, such as secondary plant ... different doses of the extract to 5 groups of rats. (6 rats per group).

  19. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: contardo@igb-berlin.de; Klingelmann, Eva [Technische Universitaet Berlin/Berlin Institute of Technology, Department of Ecology, Chair of Soil Protection, Salzufer 12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: eva.klingelmann@TU-Berlin.de; Wiegand, Claudia [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt University Berlin, Faculty of Biology, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: cwiegand@igb-berlin.de

    2009-01-15

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L{sup -1} pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using {sup 14}C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from log P{sub ow}. Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. - Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the active ingredient, glyphosate, to Lumbriculus variegatus regarding accumulation potential and enzymatic responses.

  20. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Klingelmann, Eva; Wiegand, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L -1 pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using 14 C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from log P ow . Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. - Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the active ingredient, glyphosate, to Lumbriculus variegatus regarding accumulation potential and enzymatic responses

  1. Silicon improves seed germination and alleviates drought stress in lentil crops by regulating osmolytes, hydrolytic enzymes and antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Sajitha; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gupta, Dorin

    2017-10-01

    Silicon (Si) has been widely reported to have beneficial effect on mitigating drought stress in plants. However, the effect of Si on seed germination under drought conditions is still poorly understood. This research was carried out to ascertain the role of Si to abate polyethylene glycol-6000 mediated drought stress on seed germination and seedling growth of lentil. Results showed that drought stress significantly decreased the seed germination traits and increased the concentration of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars), reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion) and lipid peroxides in lentil seedlings. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes and antioxidant enzymes increased significantly under osmotic stress. The application of Si significantly enhanced the plants ability to withstand drought stress conditions through increased Si content, improved antioxidants, hydrolytic enzymes activity, decreased concentration of osmolytes and reactive oxygen species. Multivariate data analysis showed statistically significant correlations among the drought-tolerance traits, whereas cluster analysis categorised the genotypes into distinct groups based on their drought-tolerance levels and improvements in expression of traits due to Si application. Thus, these results showed that Si supplementation of lentil was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects of drought stress on seed germination and increased seedling vigour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenolic content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu test, and antioxidant activity measured using cyclic voltammetry. Correlations between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were also examined. Within each cultivar, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were highest in the peels, followed by ...

  3. Determination of antioxidant activity of milk - vegetable extracts byliquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Rudnichenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of milk-plant extract of natural sweetener yakon has been established. To extract yakon solid tubers for the first time as an extractant used ultrafiltrate of cheese whey - a product of the extraction separation of whey. Antioxidant activity of extracts was measured amperometrically yakon on the liquid chromatograph "Colour-Yauza-01-AA."A technique for measuring the content of antioxidant. The equations for calculating antioxidant activityyakon. The total content of natural antioxidants can be recommended extract yakon to create new foods with high antioxidant activity.

  4. Antioxidant Activity during Tumor Progression: A Necessity for the Survival of Cancer Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mark A; McCallister, Chelsea; Schafer, Zachary T

    2016-10-13

    Antioxidant defenses encompass a variety of distinct compounds and enzymes that are linked together through their capacity to neutralize and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the relationship between ROS and tumorigenesis is clearly complex and context dependent, a number of recent studies have suggested that neutralizing ROS can facilitate tumor progression and metastasis in multiple cancer types through distinct mechanisms. These studies therefore infer that antioxidant activity may be necessary to support the viability and/or the invasive capacity of cancer cells during tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we discuss some of the accumulating evidence suggesting a role for antioxidant activity in facilitating tumor progression.

  5. Antioxidant Activity during Tumor Progression: A Necessity for the Survival of Cancer Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Hawk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defenses encompass a variety of distinct compounds and enzymes that are linked together through their capacity to neutralize and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS. While the relationship between ROS and tumorigenesis is clearly complex and context dependent, a number of recent studies have suggested that neutralizing ROS can facilitate tumor progression and metastasis in multiple cancer types through distinct mechanisms. These studies therefore infer that antioxidant activity may be necessary to support the viability and/or the invasive capacity of cancer cells during tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we discuss some of the accumulating evidence suggesting a role for antioxidant activity in facilitating tumor progression.

  6. Water stress induced changes in antioxidant enzymes, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... membrane stability index occurred under water stress. Accession 320 ... yielding wheat varieties for areas affected by water stress. (Mujtaba ...... Peroxidase activity in golden delicious apples as a ... Food Chem. 24: 200-201.

  7. Changes of antioxidative enzymes in Impatiens walleriana L. shoots in response to genetic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens walleriana L. shoots were inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4M70GUS and the effects of genetic transformation on the catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POX activities in wounded region of stems and unwounded leaves were evaluated 10, 24, 240 and 720 hours after inoculation. Following Agrobacterum infection activities of plant antioxidative enzymes changed in a time-dependent manner indicating that dynamic processes occurred during plant-Agrobacterium interaction, plant cell transformation and formation of hairy roots. Appearance of hairy roots on wound sites of shoots was observed ten days after inoculation with A. rhizogenes and the root induction frequency was 100%. Among selected hairy root lines significant differences in growth rate and biomass production were observed and an average 3-fold increase in biomass production was observed for the best growing hairy root line compared with the untransformed roots. PCR analysis showed presence of uidA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes in all analyzed I. walleriana L. hairy root lines, while amplification fragment of rolA gene was detected in 83.3% transformed lines. Efficient transformation protocol for I. walleriana L described in this work offer possibilities to generate hairy root cultures for in vitro propagation of plant viruses. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31019

  8. Antioxidant enzyme level response to prooxidant allelochemicals in larvae of the southern armyworm moth, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, C A; Ahmad, S; Elliott, A J; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    Larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, are highly polyphagous feeders which frequently encounter and feed upon plants containing high levels of prooxidant allelochemicals. While ingestion of moderate quantities of prooxidants can be tolerated by these larvae, ingestion of larger quantities can result in toxicity. Studies were conducted to assess the role of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the protection of S. eridania against redox active prooxidant plant allelochemicals. Dietary exposure of mid-fifth-instar larvae to either quercetin (a flavonoid) or xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin), which generate superoxide radical, and singlet oxygen, respectively, resulted in an increase in SOD levels. CAT levels increased in all groups of S. eridania including control insects. This may have been due to the sudden exposure to food following an extended fast of 18 h (to insure that larvae would not reject the diet because of the prooxidants' bitter taste) with an eventual lowering of CAT values with time. GR activities did not significantly change except for a slight inhibition at the highest prooxidant concentrations used at 12-h post-ingestion. The data from these studies suggest that SOD responds to prooxidant challenges in these insects and together with CAT and GR contributes to the insect's defense against potentially toxic prooxidant compounds.

  9. Relationships between mycorrhizas and antioxidant enzymes in citrus (citrus tangerina) seedlings inoculated with glomus mosseae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.Y.; Wu, Q.S.

    2014-01-01

    A potted experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus mosseae, on growth performance and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of citrus (Citrus tangerina) seedlings. After five months of AMF inoculation, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles, but not arbuscules and entry points, increased with the increase of inoculated mycorrhizal dosages among 5-40 g (32 spores/g dosage). Mycorrhizal inoculation with 10-40 g dosages significantly increased plant growth traits, including plant height, stem diameter, and shoot, root and total fresh weights. Higher leaf chlorophyll content was found in all the mycorrhizal plants, compared with the non-mycorrhizal plants. Inoculation with G. mosseae markedly decreased SOD and CAT activities of leaf and root, except an increase of either root CAT with the 20 g mycorrhizal treatment or root SOD with the 20 and 40 g mycorrhizal treatments. In addition, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles significantly positively correlated with root SOD and without root CAT. We also discussed the relationships between mycorrhizal effects on antioxidant enzymes and growth environment of host plants. (author)

  10. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.

    2015-04-01

    In extremely dynamic microhabitats as bio-pores made by earthworm, the in situ enzyme activities are assumed as a footprint of complex biotic interactions. Our study focused on the effect of earthworm on the enzyme activities inside bio-pores and visualizing the differences between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil by zymography technique (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013). For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in bio-pores. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (15×20×15cm). After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworms, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phosphatase. Zymography showed higher activity of β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. However, the differences in activity of cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase between bio-pore and bulk soil were less pronounced. This demonstrated an applicability of zymography approach to monitor and to distinguish the in situ activity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil biopores.

  11. The ultrasound technology for modifying enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliza Lindsay Rojas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are protein complexes compounds widely studied and used due to their ability to catalyze reactions. The food processing mainly a ims the inactivation of enzymes due to various undesirable effects. However, there are many processes that can be optimized by its catalytic activity. In this context, different technologies have been applied both to inactivate or to improve the enzymes ef ficiency. The Ultrasound technology emerges as an alternative mainly applied to achieve the enzyme inactivation. On the contrary, very few investigations show the ability of this technology under certain conditions to achieve the opposite effect (i.e. increase the catalytic activity of enzymes. The objective of this study was to correlate the ultrasonic energy delivered to the sample (J/mL with the residual enzymatic activity and explain the possible mechanisms which results in the enzymatic activation/in activation complex behavior. The activity of POD in coconut water was evaluated as a model. The enzymatic activity initially increased, followed by reduction with a trend to enzyme inactivation. This complex behavior is directly related to the applied ultr asonic energy and their direct mechanical effects on the product, as well as the effect in the enzymatic infinite intermediate states and its structural conformation changes. The obtained results are useful for both academic and industrial perspectives.

  12. Influence of Piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpavalli, Ganesan; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2008-01-01

    D-galactosamine is a well-established hepatotoxicant that induces a diffuse type of liver injury closely resembling human viral hepatitis. D-galactosamine by its property of generating free radicals causes severe damage to the membrane and affects almost all organs of the human body. The leaves of Piper betle L., a commonly used masticatory in Asian countries, possess several biological properties. Our aim is to investigate the in vivo antioxidant potential of P. betle leaf-extract against oxidative stress induced by D-galactosamine intoxication in male albino Wistar rats. Toxicity was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine, 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 21 days. Rats were treated with P. betle extract (200 mg/kg BW) via intragastric intubations. We assessed the activities of liver marker enzymes (aspartate amino-transferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) and levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione. The extract significantly improved the status of antioxidants and decreased TBARS, hydroperoxides, and liver marker enzymes when compared with the D-galactosamine treated group, demonstrating its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties.

  13. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar Maurya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  14. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar; Trigun, Surendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase) level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:26682000

  15. for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... The CCl4 extract was active against six out of the nine microbial strains used and was .... Briefly, 10 µl of 0.3 mM DPPH in ethanol was added to 25 µl of ..... compounds: correlation among electrochemical, visible spectroscopy.

  16. The ultrasound technology for modifying enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliza Lindsay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are protein complexes compounds widely studied and used due to their ability to catalyze reactions. The food processing mainly aims the inactivation of enzymes due to various undesirable effects. However, there are many processes that can be optimized by its catalytic activity. In this context, different technologies have been applied both to inactivate or to improve the enzymes efficiency. The Ultrasound technology emerges as an alternative mainly applied to achieve the enzyme inactivation. On the contrary, very few investigations show the ability of this technology under certain conditions to achieve the opposite effect (i.e. increase the catalytic activity of enzymes. The objective of this study was to correlate the ultrasonic energy delivered to the sample (J/mL with the residual enzymatic activity and explain the possible mechanisms which results in the enzymatic activation/inactivation complex behavior. The activity of POD in coconut water was evaluated as a model. The enzymatic activity initially increased, followed by reduction with a trend to enzyme inactivation. This complex behavior is directly related to the applied ultrasonic energy and their direct mechanical effects on the product, as well as the effect in the enzymatic infinite intermediate states and its structural conformation changes. The obtained results are useful for both academic and industrial perspectives.

  17. Lysosomal enzyme activation in irradiated mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.; Wills, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    Lysosomal enzyme activity of C3H mouse mammary tumors was measured quantitatively by a histochemical method. Following whole-body doses of 3600 rad or less no changes were observed in the lysosomal enzyme activity for 12 hr after the irradiation, but very large increases in acid phosphatase and β-naphthylamidase activity were, however, observed 24 hr after irradiation. Significant increases in enzyme activity were detected 72 hr after a dose of 300 rad and the increases of enzyme activity were dose dependent over the range 300 to 900 rad. Testosterone (80 mg/kg) injected into mice 2 hr before irradiation (850 rad) caused a significant increase of lysosomal enzyme activity over and above that of the same dose of irradiation alone. If the tumor-bearing mice were given 95 percent oxygen/5 percent carbon dioxide to breathe for 8 min before irradiation the effect of 850 rad on lysosomal acid phosphatase was increased to 160 percent/that of the irradiation given alone. Activitation of lysosomal enzymes in mammary tumors is an important primary or secondary consequence of radiation

  18. Antioxidative Activity of Tobacco Leaf Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Rao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Discarded tobacco leaf protein hydrolysate (DTLPH was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using papain and then separated using ultrafiltration (UF membranes with molecular mass cut-off (MMCO of 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa. Four permeate fractions including 10-K, 5-K, 3-K and 1-K (the permeate fractions from 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa hydrolysate fractions were obtained. The 5-K hydrolysate fraction had high oxidation inhibilitory ratio (42.62 %, which was about twofold higher than the original hydrolysate and as high as that of vitamin E (α-tocopherol. The fractionated hydrolysates were superior to the original hydrolysate in the antioxidative activity tested. Moreover, these separated hydrolysates showed the enhanced functional property. The amino acid composition of 5-K hydrolysate was analyzed and the results show that the high antioxidative activity of 5-K hydrolysate was derived from high content of histidine, methionine, cystine and tryptophan.

  19. Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC essential oil: chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbah, Habib; Chahdoura, Hassiba; Kammoun, Jannet; Hlila, Malek Besbes; Louati, Hanen; Hammami, Saoussen; Flamini, Guido; Achour, Lotfi; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2018-03-05

    α-glucosidase is a therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus (DM) and α-glucosidase inhibitors play a vital role in the treatments for the disease. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a key enzyme that catalyzes hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid which at high levels can lead to hyperuricemia which is an important cause of gout. Pancreatic lipase (PL) secreted into the duodenum plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of fats. For its importance in lipid digestion, PL represents an attractive target for obesity prevention. The flowers essential oil of Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC (R. acaule) was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activities of R. acaule essential oil (RaEO) were also determined using 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), reducing power, phosphomolybdenum, and DNA nicking assays. The inhibitory power of RaEO against α-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase and pancreatic lipase was evaluated. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and the derived Lineweaver-Burk (LB) plots were performed to understand the possible mechanism of inhibition exercised by the components of this essential oil. The result revealed the presence of 26 compounds (97.4%). The main constituents include germacrene D (49.2%), methyl eugenol (8.3%), (E)-β-ionone (6.2%), β-caryophyllene (5.7%), (E,E)-α-farnesene (4.2%), bicyclogermacrene (4.1%) and (Z)-α-bisabolene (3.7%). The kinetic inhibition study showed that the essential oil demonstrated a strong α-glucosidase inhibiton and it was a mixed inhibitor. On the other hand, our results evidenced that this oil exhibited important xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, behaving as a non-competitive inhibitor. The essential oil inhibited the turkey pancreatic lipase, with maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 2 mg/mL. Furthermore, the inhibition of turkey pancreatic lipase by RaEO was an irreversible one. The results revealed that the RaEO is a new

  20. Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and inhibitory action of unripe plantain ( M. Paradisiacae ) flour. ... of dry matter (48.00 ± 3.96%) and starch (31.10 ± 0.44%) but was low in phenol (1.42 ± 0.03%), protein (3.15 ± 0.042%), ash (5.50 ± 0.42%) and total soluble sugar (0.64 ± 0.001%) (p < 0.05).

  1. Antioxidant activity of Paraguayan plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, E; Tournier, H A; Mordujovich de Buschiazzo, P; Saavedra, G; Schinella, G R

    2003-02-01

    The antioxidant properties of six medical herbs used in the traditional Paraguayan medicine were studied using free radical-generating systems. The methanol extracts from Aristolochia giberti, Cecropia pachystachya, Eugenia uniflora, Piper fulvescens, Schinus weinmannifolia and Schinus terebinthifolia protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat. C. pachystachya, E. uniflora, S. weinmannifolia and S. terebinthifolia showed the highest scavenging activity on the superoxide and DPPH radicals.

  2. Attenuation of stress induced memory deficits by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in rats: Role of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, Shaista; Qadeer, Sara; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira

    2017-04-01

    Repeated stress paradigms have been shown to cause devastating alterations on memory functions. Stress is linked with inflammation. Psychological and certain physical stressors could lead to neuroinflammation. Inflammatory process may occur by release of mediators and stimulate the production of prostaglandins through cyclooxygenase (COX). Treatment with COX inhibitors, which restrain prostaglandin production, has enhanced memory in a number of neuroinflammatory states showing a potential function for raised prostaglandins in these memory shortfalls. In the present study, potential therapeutic effects of indomethacin and diclofenac sodium on memory in both unrestraint and restraint rats were observed. Two components, long term memory and short term memory were examined by Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively. The present study also demonstrated the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of antioxidant enzymes along with the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Results of MWM and EPM showed significant effects of drugs in both unrestraint and restraint rats as escape latency and transfer latency, in respective behavioral models were decreased as compared to that of control. This study also showed NSAIDs administration decreased LPO and increased antioxidant enzymes activity and decreased AChE activity in rats exposed to repeated stress. In conclusion this study suggests a therapeutic potential of indomethacin and diclofenac against repeated stress-induced memory deficits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  3. Metallothionein and antioxidant enzymes in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats treated with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, Valentina; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; D' Inca, Renata [Department of Surgical and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padua, Padua (Italy); Santon, Alessandro; Giannetto, Sabrina; Albergoni, Vincenzo; Irato, Paola [Department of Biology, University of Padua, via U. Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padua (Italy)

    2002-09-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant animal model for Wilson's disease. It is known that an abnormal accumulation of Cu and Fe in the liver and low concentrations of both ceruloplasmin and Cu in the serum occur in these rats. The accumulation of Cu is explained by the defective expression of the Cu-transporting P-type ATPase gene, homologous to the gene for Wilson's disease (ATP7B). The aim of this work was to clarify the action mechanism of Zn, and to verify the role that this metal plays in LEC rats in short-term treatment experiments (1 and 2 weeks) on concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, metallothionein (MT), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (oh{sup 8}dG) and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is well known that Zn induces MT and has the ability to prevent redox-active metals, Cu and Fe, binding to and causing oxidative damage at active sites of Zn metalloenzymes and nonspecific binding sites on proteins. Zn administration reduces Cu and Fe transport from mucosal to serosal intestinal sides through competitive mechanisms. Our findings show that treatment with zinc acetate increases tissue Zn and MT contents and decreases Cu and Fe concentrations in the liver and kidneys, even if hepatic Zn and MT concentrations decrease with treatment period. Induction of MT synthesis by Zn contributes to the reduction in free radicals produced by Cu and Fe. We also observed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD)activity in liver decreases with treatment duration in association with the Cu and Fe liver decrease. However, the SOD activity in kidney increases in untreated rats at 2 weeks relative to those untreated for 1 week. (orig.)

  4. Photobiomodulation Therapy Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Lung Tissue after Formaldehyde Exposure: Role of Oxidant/Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Silva Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is ubiquitous pollutant that induces oxidative stress in the lung. Several lung diseases have been associated with oxidative stress and their control is necessary. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT has been highlighted as a promissory treatment, but its mechanisms need to be better investigated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PBMT on the oxidative stress generated by FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were submitted to FA exposure of 1% or vehicle (3 days and treated or not with PBMT (1 and 5 h after each FA exposure. Rats treated only with laser were used as control. Twenty-four hours after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the effects of PBMT on the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide, oxidative burst, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, S-transferase enzyme activities, the gene expression of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, superoxide dismutase, the catalase enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1. PBMT reduced the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide and increased oxidative burst in the lung cells. A decreased level of oxidant enzymes was observed which were concomitantly related to an increased level of antioxidants. This study provides new information about the antioxidant mechanisms of PBMT in the lung and might constitute an important tool for lung disease treatment.

  5. In Vitro Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Oxalis Corniculata Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Vitro Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Oxalis Corniculata Linn. Fractions in Various Solvents. D Ahmed, S Zara, H Baig. Abstract. As part of our search for natural antioxidants, this work presents an evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata and its sub-fractions in hexane, chloroform, ...

  6. Antimutagenic activity of oxidase enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agabeili, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    By means of a cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in plant cells (Welsh onion, wheat) it was found that the cofactors nicotinamide adenine phosphate (NAD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and riboflavin possess antimutagenic activity

  7. Influence of In vitro Digestion on Antioxidative Activity of Coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: CMPHs are high value-added antioxidants and possess a potential ..... side chain groups were expected to be exposed, ..... enzymatic digestion on antioxidant activity of coffee ... yam bean seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) protein.

  8. Antioxidant activity of the inflorescents of Vernonia calvoana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lipid, superoxide, phosphomolybdate activities of the inflorescents. However, the percentage antioxidant capacity was low in the inflorescents using FRAP, whereas the antioxidant capacity increased with increase in concentration compared to ...

  9. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. ..... H., Sahu, A. & Bora, U. (2008) Indian medicinal herbs as sources of antioxidants. ... analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Journal of Ethnopharmacology ...

  10. Radioprotective effects of ginsan through the stimulation hematopoiesis and antioxidant enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Yun, Yeon Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    An immunomodulator ginsan which was isolated from Panax ginseng showed the mitogenic activity, generation of LAK cells, and secretion of several cytokines. In the extended effort to search other immunostimulatory effects, we evaluated protective effects of in vivo injected Ginsan against irradiation, by measuring the recovery of CFU-S, and the functioning of bone marrow (BM) and spleen cells. Ginsan was found to significantly increase the number of BM cells, spleen cells, granulocytes macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFC), and the number of circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets in irradiated mice. In addition, it induced endogenous production of cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IFN-g and IL-12, which are required for hematopoietic recovery, and was able to enhance Th1 function while interfering with the Th2 response in irradiated mice. We demonstrated that the pretreatment with Ginsan protected mice from lethal effects of ionizing radiation more effectively than given immediately or after the irradiation. A significant increase of the survival of Ginsan-treated group (100mg/kg) from LD50/30 7.54 Gy of PBS-injection to 10.93 Gy was observed. Moreover, the levels of the antioxidant enzymes such as SODs, catalase and gluthathion peroxidase were increased 1.5-2 fold in ginsan treated mice compared to the irradiated mice. These findings indicate that ginsan may be a promising agent to be used in reducing the time needed for reconstituting of hematopoietic cells after irradiation treatment.

  11. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibit hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage, antioxidants, invasion and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Manikandan, Palrasu; Kumar, Gurram Harish; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2009-05-01

    The neem tree has attracted considerable research attention as a rich source of limonoids that have potent antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of the neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide based on in vitro antioxidant assays and in vivo inhibitory effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Both azadirachtin and nimbolide exhibited concentration-dependent anti-radical scavenging activity and reductive potential in the order: nimbolide > azadirachtin > ascorbate. Administration of both azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibited the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by influencing multiple mechanisms including prevention of procarcinogen activation and oxidative DNA damage, upregulation of antioxidant and carcinogen detoxification enzymes and inhibition of tumour invasion and angiogenesis. On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antioxidant and chemopreventive agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer.

  12. Antioxidant activity and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: effects of weight recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-03-30

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.

  13. Enzyme Enzyme activities in relation to sugar accumulation in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.J.; Rahman, M.H.; Mamun, M.A.; Islam, K.

    2006-01-01

    Enzyme activities in tomato juice of five different varieties viz. Ratan, Marglove, BARI-1, BARI-5 and BARI-6, in relation to sugar accumulation were investigated at different maturity stages. The highest amount of invertase and beta-galactosidase was found in Marglove and the lowest in BARI- 6 at all maturity stages. Total soluble sugar and sucrose contents were highest in BARI-1 and lowest in BARI-6. The activity of amylase was maximum in Ratan and minimum in Marglove. Protease activity was highest in Ratan and lowest in BARI-6. BARI-1 contained the highest cellulase activity and the lowest in BARI-5. The amount of total soluble sugar and sucrose increased moderately from premature to ripe stage. The activities of amylase and cellulase increased up to the mature stage and then decreased drastically in the ripe stage. The activities of invertase and protease increased sharply from the premature to the ripe stage while the beta-galactosidase activity decreased remarkably. No detectable amount of reducing sugar was present in the premature stage in all cultivars of tomato but increased thereafter upto the ripe stage. The highest reducing sugar was present in BARI-5 in all of the maturity stages. (author)

  14. Antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Helichrysum foetidum Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirillini, Bruno; Menghini, Luigi; Leporini, Lidia; Scanu, Nadia; Marino, Stefania; Pintore, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Methanol extract of Helichrysum foetidum Moench (Asteraceae) was investigated for antioxidative properties. The antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging, ß-carotene/linoleic acid assay, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide (HRPO test), superoxide anion scavenging (S.A.S. test) and hypochlorous acid scavenging (taurine test). The antioxidant activity was reported as IC50 and reveals Trolox-like antioxidative effects.

  15. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Hai-Zhu; Yang, Jun-Yan; Li, Ran; Song, Hui; Wu, Hong-Xin

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin. The in vitro assays demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of inulin, including the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, were weak and significantly lower than those of Vitamin C (P inulin on the antioxidant status of laying hens was evaluated with in vivo antioxidant assays. The results indicated that inulin supplementation quadratically improved the egg production rate of the laying hens (P inulin levels increased (P inulin levels increased (P inulin has the potential to improve the antioxidant status of laying hens.

  16. Ginsan activated the antioxidant defense systems in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Jung, In Sung; Yun, Yeon Sook [KIRMS Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, has hematopoietic activity and is also known as a good biological-response modifier. In this investigation, we studied the effects of ginsan on the {gamma}-radiation induced alterations of some antioxidant systems in spleen of Balb/c mice. There are many data that irradiation induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which plays an important causative role in radiation damage of cell. The level of ROS in cells is regulated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems. The most powerful ones among them are superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide anion radical o{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, catalase deactivating h-2O{sub 2} and reduced glutathion (GSH) detoxifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and other ROS> At the 5{sub th} day after sublethal whole body irradiation, splenocytes of irradiated mice expressed only marginally increased levels of Mn-SOD, however, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase, thioredoxine reductase (TR) and thioredoxine (TRX) mRNA (135% increase compared to control), however, the combination of irradiation with ginsan increased the SODs and GPX production more effectively. In addition to the above results, we obtained the similar data of protein expression. The enzyme activities of SOD, catalase, and GPX of ginsan-treated and irradiated mice were significantly enhanced by 140, 115, 126% respectively, compared with those of irradiated mice. Based on these results, we propose that the induction of antioxidant enzymes of ginsan is at least in part due to its capacity to protect against radiation.

  17. Threonine modulates immune response, antioxidant status and gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Ren, Mingchun; Liu, Bo; Ge, Xianping; Xie, Jun; Chen, Ruli

    2016-04-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of graded dietary threonine (Thr) levels (0.58-2.58%) on the hematological parameters, immune response, antioxidant status and hepatopancreatic gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream. For this purpose, 3 tanks were randomly arranged and assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were fed with their respective diet to apparent satiation 4 times daily. The results indicated that white blood cell, red blood cell and haemoglobin significantly responded to graded dietary Thr levels, while hematocrit didn't. Complement components (C3 and C4), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), immunoglobulin M (IgM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) increased with increasing dietary Thr levels up to 1.58-2.08% and thereafter tended to decrease. Dietary Thr regulated the gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CAT, GPx1, glutathione S-transferase mu (GST), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (ALDOB); while the gene expression of peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) was not significantly modified by graded Thr levels. These genes are involved in different functions including antioxidant, immune, and defense responses, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Therefore, this study could provide a new molecular tool for studies in fish immunonutrition and shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that dietary Thr improved the antioxidant and immune capacities of fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activities of Ganoderma lucidum Grown on Germinated Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  19. Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaz Pervin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the anthocyanin rich extract of grape skin. Grape skin anthocyanin (GSA neutralized free radicals in different test systems, such as 2,-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays, to form complexes with Fe2+ preventing 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative DNA damage. Moreover, GSA decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in isolated mitochondria thus inhibiting 2',-7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH oxidation. In an in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were administered GSA, at 12.5, 25, and 50 mg per kg per day orally for 30 consecutive days. Herein, we demonstrate that GSA administration significantly elevated the level of antioxidant enzymes in mice sera, livers, and brains. Furthermore, GSA inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the in vitro assay with an IC50 value of 363.61 µg/mL. Therefore, GSA could be an excellent source of antioxidants and its inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest with regard to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  20. Anti-oxidative stress regulator NF-E2-related factor 2 mediates the adaptive induction of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes by lipid peroxidation metabolite 4-hydroxynonenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2 regulates a battery of antioxidative and phase II drug metabolizing/detoxifying genes through binding to the antioxidant response elements (ARE. NRF2-ARE signaling plays a central role in protecting cells from a wide spectrum of reactive toxic species including reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS. 4-hydroxylnonenal (4-HNE is a major end product from lipid peroxidation of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA induced by oxidative stress, and it is highly reactive to nucleophilic sites in DNA and proteins, causing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. In this study, we examined the role of NRF2 in regulating the 4-HNE induced gene expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Results When HeLa cells were treated with 4-HNE, NRF2 rapidly transloated into the nucleus, as determined by the distribution of NRF2 tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and increased NRF2 protein in the nuclear fraction. Transcriptional activity of ARE-luciferase was significantly induced by 0.01-10 μM of 4-HNE in a dose-dependent manner, and the induction could be blocked by pretreatment with glutathione (GSH. 4-HNE induced transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST A4, aldoketone reductase (AKR 1C1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and the induction was attenuated by knocking down NRF2 using small interfering RNA. Conclusions NRF2 is critical in mediating 4-HNE induced expression of antioxidant and detoxifying genes. This may account for one of the major cellular defense mechanisms against reactive metabolites of lipids peroxidation induced by oxidative stress and protect cells from cytotoxicity.

  1. ACTIVITY OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE ENZYME IN YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

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    Blažena Lavová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS with reactive nitrogen species (RNS are known to play dual role in biological systems, they can be harmful or beneficial to living systems. ROS can be important mediators of damage to cell structures, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids termed as oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzymes protect the organism against the oxidative damage caused by active oxygen forms. The role of superoxide dismutase (SOD is to accelerate the dismutation of the toxic superoxide radical, produced during oxidative energy processes, to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. In this study, SOD activity of three yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined. It was found that SOD activity was the highest (23.7 U.mg-1 protein in strain 612 after 28 hours of cultivation. The lowest SOD activity from all tested strains was found after 56 hours of cultivation of strain Gyöng (0.7 U.mg-1 protein.

  2. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in orbital fibroadipose tissue in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondur, Ahmet; Konuk, Onur; Dincel, Aylin Sepici; Bilgihan, Ayse; Unal, Mehmet; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in the orbit in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Orbital fibroadipose tissue samples were obtained from 13 cases during orbital fat decompression surgery. All cases demonstrated features of moderate or severe GO according to the European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy classification. The disease activity was evaluated with the Clinical Activity Score, and the clinical features of GO were evaluated with the Ophthalmopathy Index. Orbital fibroadipose tissue samples of 8 patients without any thyroid or autoimmune disease were studied as controls. In the tissue samples, lipid hydroperoxide level was examined to determine the level of oxidative stress; glutathione level to determine antioxidant level; superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activities to determine antioxidant activity. Lipid hydroperoxide level and all three antioxidant enzyme activities were found to be significantly elevated, while glutathione level significantly diminished in tissue samples from GO cases compared to controls (p < 0.05). Glutathione levels in tissue samples of GO cases showed negative correlation with Ophthalmopathy Index (r = -0.59, p < 0.05). The antioxidant activity in the orbit is enhanced in GO. However, the oxidative stress appears to be severe enough to deplete the tissue antioxidants and leads to oxidative tissue damage. This study may support the possible value of antioxidant treatment in GO.

  3. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in yeast cells after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, Ji Young; Ryu, Tae Ho; Roh, Chang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Ionizing radiation induces water radiolysis, which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause apoptosis and cell damage. When exposed to ionizing radiation, cells activates ROS scavenging detoxifying enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. SOD scavenges superoxide radicals by catalyzing the conversion of two of these radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The hydrogen peroxide formed by superoxide dismutase and by other processes is scavenged by catalase, a ubiquitous heme protein that catalyzes the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen. Yeast has two catalase and three GPx proteins. The biochemical function of GPx is to reduce lipid-hydroperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and to reduce free hydrogen peroxide to water. N-acetylL-cysteine (NAC) having a thiol, a precursor for glutathione (GSH), is known as one of the antioxidants. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity and alkaline phosphatase. In this study, the role of NAC as an antioxidant and a radioprotector was examined on cell survival, transcriptional level, and protein level. through observing viability of cells, analyzing the gene expression of antioxidant enzyme, measuring the SOD activity and intracellular GSH levels in yeast W303-1A strain The cell viability of haploid S. cerevisiae W303-1A strain was reduced significantly at the low dose (10∼30 Gy). The half-lethal dose of the strain was about 20 Gy. The CFU assay result confirmed that NAC could not rescue the cells from radiation-induced death. When irradiated with 100 Gy, an increase in the transcriptional expression was observed in the antioxicant genes. The expression of these genes decreased by treatment of NAC in irradiated cells. NAC decline SOD activity and intracellular GSH levels. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge

  4. Antioxidant activity in cooked and simulated digested eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remanan, M K; Wu, J

    2014-07-25

    The avian egg is an excellent source of nutrients consisting of components with beneficial properties but there is limited knowledge on the effect of cooking methods and gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of eggs. The present study was focused on the effect of cooking and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on antioxidant activity of eggs using ORAC, ABTS and DPPH assays. The results suggest that fresh egg yolk has higher antioxidant activity than fresh egg white and whole eggs. Cooking reduced whereas simulated gastrointestinal digestion increased the antioxidant activity of eggs. Boiled egg white hydrolysate showed the highest antioxidant activity; a total of 63 peptides were identified, indicative of the formation of novel antioxidant peptides upon simulated gastrointestinal digestion. This study suggests the potential role of eggs as a dietary source of antioxidants.

  5. Activity assessment of microbial fibrinolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Essam

    2013-08-01

    Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin inside blood vessels results in thrombosis, leading to myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. In general, there are four therapy options: surgical operation, intake of antiplatelets, anticoagulants, or fibrinolytic enzymes. Microbial fibrinolytic enzymes have attracted much more attention than typical thrombolytic agents because of the expensive prices and the side effects of the latter. The fibrinolytic enzymes were successively discovered from different microorganisms, the most important among which is the genus Bacillus. Microbial fibrinolytic enzymes, especially those from food-grade microorganisms, have the potential to be developed as functional food additives and drugs to prevent or cure thrombosis and other related diseases. There are several assay methods for these enzymes; this may due to the insolubility of substrate, fibrin. Existing assay methods can be divided into three major groups. The first group consists of assay of fibrinolytic activity with natural proteins as substrates, e.g., fibrin plate methods. The second and third groups of assays are suitable for kinetic studies and are based on the determination of hydrolysis of synthetic peptide esters. This review will deal primarily with the microorganisms that have been reported in literature to produce fibrinolytic enzymes and the first review discussing the methods used to assay the fibrinolytic activity.

  6. Enzyme specific activity in functionalized nanoporous supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu Jun; Ackerman, Eric J

    2008-01-01

    Here we reveal that enzyme specific activity can be increased substantially by changing the protein loading density (P LD ) in functionalized nanoporous supports so that the enzyme immobilization efficiency (I e , defined as the ratio of the specific activity of the immobilized enzyme to the specific activity of the free enzyme in solution) can be much higher than 100%. A net negatively charged glucose oxidase (GOX) and a net positively charged organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) were entrapped spontaneously in NH 2 - and HOOC-functionalized mesoporous silica (300 A, FMS) respectively. The specific activity of GOX entrapped in FMS increased with decreasing P LD . With decreasing P LD , I e of GOX in FMS increased from 150%. Unlike GOX, OPH in HOOC-FMS showed increased specific activity with increasing P LD . With increasing P LD , the corresponding I e of OPH in FMS increased from 100% to>200%. A protein structure-based analysis of the protein surface charges directing the electrostatic interaction-based orientation of the protein molecules in FMS demonstrates that substrate access to GOX molecules in FMS is limited at high P LD , consequently lowering the GOX specific activity. In contrast, substrate access to OPH molecules in FMS remains open at high P LD and may promote a more favorable confinement environment that enhances the OPH activity

  7. Flixweed is more competitive than winter wheat under ozone pollution: evidences from membrane lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Hong Li

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of ozone on winter wheat and flixweed under competition, two species were exposed to ambient, elevated and high [O3] for 30 days, planted singly or in mixculture. Eco-physiological responses were examined at different [O3] and fumigating time. Ozone reduced the contents of chlorophyll, increased the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in both wheat and flixweed. The effects of competition on chlorophyll content of wheat emerged at elevated and high [O3], while that of flixweed emerged only at high [O3]. The increase of H2O2 and malondialdehyde of flixweed was less than that of wheat under the same condition. Antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and flixweed were seriously depressed by perennial and serious treatment using O3. However, short-term and moderate fumigation increased the activities of SOD and POD of wheat, and CAT of flixweed. The expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes provided explanation for these results. Furthermore, the increase of CAT expression of flixweed was much higher than that of SOD and POD expression of wheat. Ozone and competition resulted in significant reductions in biomass and grain yield in both winter wheat and flixweed. However, the negative effects on flixweed were less than wheat. Our results demonstrated that winter wheat is more sensitive to O3 and competition than flixweed, providing valuable data for further investigation on responses of winter wheat to ozone pollution, in particular combined with species competition.

  8. Antioxidant properties of digestive enzyme-treated fibre-rich fractions from wheat, finger millet, pearl millet and sorghum: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Siddiq A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole grains are rich in antioxidant components (AC, most of which are bound to fibre fraction and released during digestion. The study investigated the effect of digestive enzymes on the antioxidant properties of fibre-rich fractions from wheat (Triticum aestivum, finger millet (Eleusine coracana, pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. Coarse (CF and fine fractions (FF of milled flour were separated using a standard sieve and analysed for nutritional composition, AC extractable in different solvents and antioxidant activity (AA in untreated and enzyme-treated fractions. The CF had a higher range of insoluble dietary fibre (17.26–20.93% than FF (10.65–17.29%. The highest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids was extractable in different solvents from finger millet and pearl millet, respectively. FF of pearl millet showed higher total AA in all solvents. Enzyme-treated samples had a much higher content of AC as well as higher total AA. Free radical scavenging assay revealed that enzyme-treated millet flours had higher activity in comparison to wheat. Between fractions, wheat exhibited variable results. Among millets, CF of finger millet and FF of pearl millet and sorghum had higher AA. In conclusion, digestive enzyme treatment released more AC from grains, and exhibited a higher AA.

  9. In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Daneshvar, Bahram; Pulido, Raquel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2003-08-27

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), an edible vegetable from the Mediterranean area, is a good source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavones. The antioxidant activity of aqueous-organic extracts of artichoke were determined using three methods: (a) free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) scavenging, (b) ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and (c) inhibition of copper(II)-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In addition, the present study was performed to investigate the ability of the edible portion of artichoke to alter in vivo antioxidative defense in male rats using selected biomarkers of antioxidant status. One gram (dry matter) had a DPPH(*) activity and a FRAP value in vitro equivalent to those of 29.2 and 62.6 mg of vitamin C and to those of 77.9 and 159 mg of vitamin E, respectively. Artichoke extracts showed good efficiency in the inhibition in vitro of LDL oxidation. Neither ferric-reducing ability nor 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity was modified in the plasma of the artichoke group with respect to the control group. Among different antioxidant enzymes measured (superoxide dismutase, gluthatione peroxidase, gluthatione reductase, and catalase) in erythrocytes, only gluthatione peroxidase activity was elevated in the artichoke group compared to the control group. 2-Aminoadipic semialdehyde, a protein oxidation biomarker, was decreased in plasma proteins and hemoglobin in the artichoke-fed group versus the control group. In conclusion, the in vitro protective activity of artichoke was confirmed in a rat model.

  10. Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant and Enzymatic Activity of Brines from Scandinavian Marinated Herring Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Osman, Ali; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2014-01-01

    Brines generated during the last marination step in the production of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) were chemically characterized and analyzed for antioxidant and enzyme activities. The end-products were vinegar cured, spice cured and traditional barrel-salted herring with either salt...... or spices. The chemical characterization encompassed pH, dry matter, ash, salt, fatty acids, protein, polypeptide pattern, iron and nitrogen. The antioxidant activity was tested with three assays measuring: iron chelation, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. The enzymatic activity for peroxidase...

  11. Sempervivum davisii: phytochemical composition, antioxidant and lipase-inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Yusuf; Dalar, Abdullah; Konczak, Izabela

    2017-12-01

    Sempervivum davisii Muirhead (Crassulaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb from Eastern Anatolia. To date the composition of phytochemicals and physiological properties of this herb were not subjected to any research. This study identifies compounds in S. davisii hydrophilic extracts and evaluates their potential biological properties. Ethanol-based lyophilized extracts were obtained from aerial parts of plant (10 g of ground dry plant material in 200 mL of acidified aqueous ethanol, shaken for 2 h at 22 °C with supernatant collected and freeze-dried under vacuum). Phytochemical composition was investigated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, phenolics) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, volatiles). Phenolic compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Subsequently, antioxidant capacity [ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays] and enzyme inhibitory properties (isolated porcine pancreatic lipase) of the extracts were determined. Polyphenolic compounds were the main constituents of lyophilized extracts, among which kaempferol glycosides and quercetin hexoside dominated. The extracts exhibited potent antioxidant (FRAP values of 1925.2-5973.3 μM Fe 2+ /g DW; ORAC values of 1858.5-4208.7 μM Trolox Eq./g DW) and moderate lipase inhibitory (IC 50 : 11.6-2.96 mg/mL) activities. Volatile compounds (nonanal, dehydroxylinalool oxide isomers, 2-decenal, 2-undecenal, 2,6-di-tetr-butylphenol) were also found. Phenolic compounds with the dominating kaempferol and quercetin derivatives are the sources of potent antioxidant properties of S. davisii hydrophilic extracts. The extracts exhibit moderate inhibitory properties towards isolated pancreatic lipase.

  12. Alterations of the Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are not General Characteristics of the Colonization Process by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Alteraciones de las Actividades de Enzimas Antioxidantes no son Características Generales del Proceso de Colonización por Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakelin Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant system is involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, but its role during the colonization process is still poorly understood. To gain new insights into the role of antioxidant system during root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the activities of key antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. roots inoculated with six strains of different genera and species: two Glomus mosseae, Glomus cubense, Glomus intraradices, Glomus sp. and Acaulospora scrobiculata. Glomus cubense and A. scrobiculata strains reached the highest infectivity levels with maximum values of colonization frequency and intensity of 29-10.88% and 18-9.20%, respectively; G. mosseae strains showed an intermediate infectivity, both with 15% of colonization frequency and maximum intensities of 7.647.06%, respectively; while the infectivity levels of Glomus sp. and G. intraradices strains were the lowest with colonization frequency- 13% and intensities- 5.07 and 5.41, respectively. Some activity patterns of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and polyphenol oxidase enzymes were not specific for early or late colonization stages neither for the colonization level and type of strain. However, a unique superoxide dismutase-band presents at early colonization and the low level of guaiacol-peroxidase activity at later stages presents in all inoculated roots indicate that these antioxidant responses are independent of colonization degree and strain. Taking together, our data suggest that alterations of the antioxidant enzyme activities are not general characteristics of the colonization process by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, probably having the key role on those responses the specific feature of each strain rather than colonization per se.El sistema antioxidante está involucrado en la simbiosis micorrízico-arbuscular, pero su rol durante el proceso de colonización es aún escasamente comprendido. Para esclarecer el papel del sistema

  13. Characterization and antioxidant activity of gallic acid derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinda, Krissan; Sutanto, Hery; Darmawan, Akhmad

    2017-11-01

    Peroxidase enzyme was used to catalyze the dimerization process of gallic acid. The structure of the dimerization product was characterized by 1H NMR and LC-MS-MS. The mechanism of gallic acid dimerization was also discussed. It was proposed that ellagic acid was formed through an oxidative coupling mechanism that lead to the formation of a C-C bond and followed by an intramolecular Fischer esterification mechanism that lead to the formation of two C-O bonds. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of gallic acid and ellagic acid were also studied. Gallic acid and ellagic acid exhibited the DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 13.2 μM and 15.9 μM, respectively.

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of helinus lanceolatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.

    2015-01-01

    The extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous of Helinus lanceolatus were tested for their antioxidant potential, antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results revealed that the methanolic extract showed the highest zone of inhibition 50 ± 1.15 mm against Escherichia coli and aqueous extract shows excellent inhibition for fungi Aspergillus niger 17 ± 2.6 mm. The water extract showed highest DPPH radical scavenging activity i.e. 91.8 - 0.0.09% at a concentration of 500 mu g/ml with IC50 value 12.29 ± 0.59 micro g/ml relative to butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT) having IC50 value 12.52 ± 0.89 micro g/ml. Chloroform extract showed highest antioxidant activity 0.840 ± 0.13 micro g/ml relative to standard 0.891 ± 0.13 micro g/ml while the highest FRAP value i.e. 90.66 ± 4.54 TE micro g/ml was shown by petroleum ether fraction. Methanolic extract also showed good value of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, i.e. 59.11 ± 0.12%. (author)

  15. Toxicity tests, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasih, M.; Purwati; Dewi, R. S.

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan is a naturally occurring cationic biopolymer, obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. This research aims to investigate the toxicity, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity of chitosan from shrimp chitin. In this study, chitin extracted from shrimp waste material. Chitin is then deacetylation with 60% NaOH so that chitosan produced. Degrees of deacetylation, molecular weight, toxicity test, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of chitosan then evaluated. Toxicity test using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. The antioxidant analysis was performed using DPPH method (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FTC method (ferric thiocyanate) in which the radical formed will reduce Ferro to Ferri resulting in a complex with thiocyanate. To determine the antibacterial activity of Staphylococcus aureus, antifungal in Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by measuring antimicrobial effects and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Based on the result of research, the value of degrees of deacetylation, molecular weight, and LC50 values of chitosan synthesis was 94,32, 1052.93 g/mol and 1364.41 ppm, respectively. In general, the antioxidative activities increased as the concentration of chitosan increased. MIC value of chitosan against S. aureus, C. albicans, and A. niger was 10 ppm, 15.6 ppm, and 5 ppm, respectively.

  16. Transcription and activity of antioxidant proteins after ionization irradiation of radiation-resistant and radiation-sensitive mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardmeier, R.

    1998-03-01

    The involvernent of antioxidant proteins catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH px), and thioredoxin (TRX) in radiobiological processes has been described at the enzyme activity level. We were interested in examining the transcription of these proteins in a mammalian system following ionizing irradiation. In order to answer the question whether radiation effects in sensitive mice (Balb/c) (RS) showed differences at the transcriptional level from radiation effects in resistant mice (C3H) (RR). We exposed the whole body of these strains to X/rays doses of 2, 4, and 6 Gy and sacrificed the animals 5, 15, and 30 minutes after irradiation. The mRNA was isolated from liver and hybrized with probes for antioxidant enzymes and thioredoxin, β-actin was used as a housekeeping gene control. Antioxidant enzyme activities were determined by standard assays. Parameters for aromatic hydroxylation (o-Tyr) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were determined by HPLC methods. Antioxidant transcription was unchanged in contrast to antioxidant activities. SOD and CAT activities were elevated within 15 minutes in RR animals but not in RS at all radiation doses. Glutathione peroxidase activity was not different between RR and RS mice, and was only moderately elevated after irradiation. No significant differences were found between RR and RS animals at the oxidation level, although a radiation dose-dependent increase of oxidation products was detected in both groups. Quantification of thioredoxin mRNA revealed that RR mice transcribed this protein at a significantly higher level at an earlier time point (5 minutes) than did RS mice. This delay may well be responsible for the radioresistance although no quantitative differences were found. As unchanged transcription of antioxidant enzymes could not have been responsible for the increased antioxidant enzyme activities, preformed antioxidant enzymes may have been released by irradiation. This would be in agreement

  17. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of citharexylum spinosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.; Mehk, T.; Shah, S.; Fareed, S.

    2017-01-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of different parts of Citharexylum spinosum L. was evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by agar well diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activity (44.5 +- 0.5 mm) was observed by methanolic bark extract against Staphylococcus aureus while the minimum activity (10.5 +- 0.5 mm) was exhibited by the chloroform leaves extract against Staphylococcus aureus. The highest antifungal activity (41.83 +- 0.76 mm) reported by distilled water extract of leaves against A. niger while petroleum ether extract of bark showed minimum activity (11.16 +- 0.28 mm) against A. oryzae. The most resistant value of MIC was observed at concentration of 0.3125 mg/mL of methanol leaves extract against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa. The antioxidant potential was analyzed by using five techniques included total phenolic content (TPC), total flavanoids content (TFC), ABTS, metal chelating activity, and DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The results displayed that petroleum ether bark extract showed maximum TPC value (60.24 +- 0.03 mu g/mL). Petroleum ether extract of bark exhibited maximum TFC value (1350.07 +- 0.01 mu g/mL). ABTS results showed that distilled water extract of bark exhibited maximum TEAC value (7.92 +- 0.06 mm). Metal chelating results showed that maximum % inhibition (64.2 +- 0.05 %) was observed by distilled water extract of bark. The highest scavenging effects (82.59 +- 0.66 %) was observed by chloroform extract of leaves. The phytochemical analysis of Citharexylum spinosum L showed the presence of alkaloids, tannin, terpenoids, saponins, reducing sugar, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids. (author)

  18. Tissue levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in fish Astyanax bimaculatus from the Una River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Oliveira Batista

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available STRACT This paper seeks to identify the biomarker response to oxidative stress in Astyanax bimaculatus, a freshwater fish, collected from the Una River and its associated water bodies. The fish were collected using fishing nets at three different points on the river basin, namely Fazenda Piloto (FP, Ipiranga (IP and Remédios (RM, during the period from December 2013 to March 2014. Physical and chemical analyses of the water at the sample locations indicate that IP and RM possibly have larger concentration of either natural or anthropic pollutants as compared to FP. FP can therefore be considered as the point less impacted by pollutants than other points. Hepatic activity of antioxidant stress enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, were measured in the specimens. The levels of SOD were reduced at RM while they were elevated in fish collected at IP. The CAT levels for the fish at RM and IP were about 148.9% and 202.4% above the values at FP, respectively. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes could be used as biomarkers to measure oxidative stress caused by pollutants in the Una River Basin.

  19. Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Activities of Flavonoids from Puerariae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix (FPR). In vitro antioxidant activities of FPR were investigated through hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of FPR was investigated through loaded swimming exercise of mice. Results ...

  20. Enzyme activity of a Phanerochaete chrysosporium cellobiohydrolase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to produce a secreted, heterologously expressed Phanerochaete chrysosporium cellobiohydrolase (CBHI.1) protein that required no in vitro chemical refolding and to investigate the cellulolytic activity of the clone expressing the glutathione S-transferase (GST) fused CBHI.1 protein. Plate enzyme ...

  1. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymes in diaphragm muscle does not alter contraction-induced fatigue or recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Joseph M.; DeRuisseau, Keith C.; Whidden, Melissa A.; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan; Song, Wook; Vrabas, Ioannis S.; Powers, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are necessary to optimize muscle force production in unfatigued muscle. In contrast, sustained high levels of ROS production have been linked to impaired muscle force production and contraction-induced skeletal muscle fatigue. Using genetically engineered mice, we tested the hypothesis that the independent transgenic overexpression of catalase (CAT), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD; SOD1) or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD; SOD2) antioxidant enzymes would negatively affect force production in unfatigued diaphragm muscle but would delay the development of muscle fatigue and enhance force recovery after fatiguing contractions. Diaphragm muscle from wild-type littermates (WT) and from CAT, SOD1 and SOD2 overexpressing mice were subjected to an in vitro contractile protocol to investigate the force–frequency characteristics, the fatigue properties and the time course of recovery from fatigue. The CAT, SOD1 and SOD2 overexpressors produced less specific force (in N cm−2) at stimulation frequencies of 20–300 Hz and produced lower maximal tetanic force than WT littermates. The relative development of muscle fatigue and recovery from fatigue were not influenced by transgenic overexpression of any antioxidant enzyme. Morphologically, the mean cross-sectional area (in μm2) of diaphragm myofibres expressing myosin heavy chain type IIA was decreased in both CAT and SOD2 transgenic animals, and the percentage of non-contractile tissue increased in diaphragms from all transgenic mice. In conclusion, our results do not support the hypothesis that overexpression of independent antioxidant enzymes protects diaphragm muscle from contraction-induced fatigue or improves recovery from fatigue. Moreover, our data are consistent with the concept that a basal level of ROS is important to optimize muscle force production, since transgenic overexpression of major cellular antioxidants is associated with

  2. Impact of haloperidol and quetiapine on the expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas Johannes; Hemmeter, Ulrich Michael; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Vedder, Helmut; Heiser, Philip

    2009-05-01

    Antipsychotics are known to alter antioxidant activities in vivo. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line the impact of a typical (haloperidol) and an atypical (quetiapine) antipsychotic on the expression of genes encoding the key enzymes of the antioxidant metabolism (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase; Mn superoxide dismutase; glutathione peroxidase; catalase) and enzymes of the glutathione metabolism (gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, glutathione-S-transferase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, glutathione reductase). The cells were incubated for 24h with 0.3, 3, 30 and 300microM haloperidol and quetiapine, respectively; mRNA levels were measured by polymerase chain reaction. In the present study, we observed mostly significant decreases of mRNA contents. With respect to the key pathways, we detected mainly effects on the mRNA levels of the hydrogen peroxide detoxifying enzymes. Among the enzymes of the glutathione metabolism, glutathione-S-transferase- and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase-mRNA levels showed the most prominent effects. Taken together, our results demonstrate a significantly reduced expression of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes after treatment with the antipsychotics, haloperidol and quetiapine.

  3. The profound effects of microcystin on cardiac antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial function and cardiac toxicity in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Tong; Xie Ping; Liu Ying; Li Guangyu; Xiong Qian; Hao Le; Li Huiying

    2009-01-01

    Deaths from microcystin toxication have widely been attributed to hypovolemic shock due to hepatic interstitial hemorrhage, while some recent studies suggest that cardiogenic complication is also involved. So far, information on cardiotoxic effects of MC has been rare and the underlying mechanism is still puzzling. The present study examined toxic effects of microcystins on heart muscle of rats intravenously injected with extracted MC at two doses, 0.16LD 50 (14 μg MC-LReq kg -1 body weight) and 1LD 50 (87 μg MC-LReq kg -1 body weight). In the dead rats, both TTC staining and maximum elevations of troponin I levels confirmed myocardial infarction after MC exposure, besides a serious interstitial hemorrhage in liver. In the 1LD 50 dose group, the coincident falls in heart rate and blood pressure were related to mitochondria dysfunction in heart, while increases in creatine kinase and troponin I levels indicated cardiac cell injury. The corresponding pathological alterations were mainly characterized as loss of adherence between cardiac myocytes and swollen or ruptured mitochondria at the ultrastructural level. MC administration at a dose of 1LD 50 not only enhanced activities and up-regulated mRNA transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes, but also increased GSH content. At both doses, level of lipid peroxides increased obviously, suggesting serious oxidative stress in mitochondria. Simultaneously, complex I and III were significantly inhibited, indicating blocks in electron flow along the mitochondrial respiratory chain in heart. In conclusion, the findings of this study implicate a role for MC-induced cardiotoxicity as a potential factor that should be considered when evaluating the mechanisms of death associated with microcystin intoxication in Brazil

  4. Antioxidant activity of Vitex agnus-castus L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Hüsniye; Pabuçcuoğlu, Aysun; Kivçak, Bijen

    2007-11-01

    The ethanol, n-hexane and water extracts of Vitex agnus-castus L. leaves and fruits were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of plant extracts was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS.+). The water and ethanol extracts showed stronger antioxidant activity than the n-hexane extracts. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  6. Concentration profiles near an activated enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyung; Agmon, Noam

    2008-09-25

    When a resting enzyme is activated, substrate concentration profile evolves in its vicinity, ultimately tending to steady state. We use modern theories for many-body effects on diffusion-influenced reactions to derive approximate analytical expressions for the steady-state profile and the Laplace transform of the transient concentration profiles. These show excellent agreement with accurate many-particle Brownian-dynamics simulations for the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The steady-state profile has a hyperbolic dependence on the distance of the substrate from the enzyme, albeit with a prefactor containing the complexity of the many-body effects. These are most conspicuous for the substrate concentration at the surface of the enzyme. It shows an interesting transition as a function of the enzyme turnover rate. When it is high, the contact concentration decays monotonically to steady state. However, for slow turnover it is nonmonotonic, showing a minimum due to reversible substrate binding, then a maximum due to diffusion of new substrate toward the enzyme, and finally decay to steady state. Under certain conditions one can obtain a good estimate for the critical value of the turnover rate constant at the transition.

  7. Antioxidative activities of hydrolysates from edible birds nest using enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Nurul Nadia; Babji, Abdul Salam; Ayub, Mohd Khan

    2015-09-01

    Edible bird's nest protein hydrolysates (EBN) were prepared via enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate its antioxidant activity. Two types of enzyme (alcalase and papain) were used in this study and EBN had been hydrolysed with different hydrolysis time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Antioxidant activities in EBN protein hydrolysate were measured using DPPH, ABTS+ and Reducing Power Assay. From this study, increased hydrolysis time from 30 min to 120 min contributed to higher DH, as shown by alcalase (40.59%) and papain (24.94%). For antioxidant assay, EBN hydrolysed with papain showed higher scavenging activity and reducing power ability compared to alcalase. The highest antioxidant activity for papain was at 120 min hydrolysis time with ABTS (54.245%), DPPH (49.78%) and Reducing Power (0.0680). Meanwhile for alcalase, the highest antioxidant activity was at 30 min hydrolysis time. Even though scavenging activity for EBN protein hydrolysates were high, the reducing power ability was quite low as compared to BHT and ascorbic Acid. This study showed that EBN protein hydrolysate with alcalase and papain treatments potentially exhibit high antioxidant activity which have not been reported before.

  8. Changes of enzyme activities in lens after glaucoma trabecular resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ping Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the change of lens antioxidant enzyme activity after glaucoma trabecular resection. METHODS: Thirty-two eyes of sixteen New-Zealand rabbits(2.2-2.4kgwere divided into two groups. The left eyes of rabbits underwent standard glaucoma trabecular resection were treatment group, and the normal right eyes served as controls. Transparency of lenses was monitored by a slit-lamp biomicroscopy before and after glaucoma trabecular resection. The morphology of lens cells was observed under the light microscope.The activities of Na+-K+-ATPase,catalase(CAT, glutathion peroxidase(GSH-px, glutathione reductase(GR, superoxide dismutase(SODand content of malondialdehyde(MDAin lenses were detected six months after trabecular resection. RESULTS: Lenses were clear in both treatment group and normal control group during the six months after operation. The morphology and structure of lens cells were normal under the light microscope in both operation group and normal group. The activity of lens cells antioxidant enzyme activity were significantly decreased in operation group compared with control group, Na+-K+-ATPase declined by 20.97%, CAT declined by 16.36%, SOD declined by 4.46%, GR declined by 4.85%, GSH-px declined by 10.02%, and MDA increased by 16.31%. CONCLUSION: Glaucoma trabecular resection can induce the change of Na+-K+-ATPase, CAT, GSH-px, GR, SOD and MDA in lens of rabbit. Glaucoma filtration surgery for the occurrence of cataract development mechanism has important guiding significance.

  9. Tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate are folates with high antioxidant activity. Identification of the antioxidant pharmacophore.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezk, BM; Haenen, GR; Vijgh, van der W.J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The presumed protective effect of folic acid on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular, hematological and neurological diseases and cancer has been associated with the antioxidant activity of folic acid. Peroxynitrite (PON) scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO) of the

  10. Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the antioxidant genes CAT, GR and SOD1, erythrocyte enzyme activities, dietary and life style factors and breast cancer risk in a Danish, prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Vogel, Ulla; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to estrogens and alcohol consumption - the two only well-established risk factors for breast cancer - are capable of causing oxidative stress, which has been linked to progression of breast cancer. Here, five functional polymorphisms in the antioxidant genes SOD1, CAT and GSR were...

  11. Benfotiamine upregulates antioxidative system in activated BV-2 microglia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva eBozic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic microglial activation and resulting sustained neuroinflammatory reaction are generally associated with neurodegeneration. Activated microglia acquires proinflammatory cellular profile that generates oxidative burst. Their persistent activation exacerbates inflammation, which damages healthy neurons via cytotoxic mediators, such as superoxide radical anion and nitric oxide. In our recent study, we have shown that benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of benfotiamine on the pro-oxidative component of activity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells were investigated. The activation of microglia was accompanied by upregulation of intracellular antioxidative defense, which was further promoted in the presence of benfotiamine. Namely, activated microglia exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of benfotiamine showed increased levels and activities of hydrogen peroxide- and superoxide-removing enzymes – catalase and glutathione system, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, benfotiamine showed the capacity to directly scavenge superoxide radical anion. As a consequence, benfotiamine suppressed the activation of microglia and provoked a decrease in NO and •O2- production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, benfotiamine might silence pro-oxidative activity of microglia to alleviate/prevent oxidative damage of neighboring CNS cells.

  12. Benfotiamine upregulates antioxidative system in activated BV-2 microglia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Ivana; Pekovic, Sanja; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Lavrnja, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Chronic microglial activation and resulting sustained neuroinflammatory reaction are generally associated with neurodegeneration. Activated microglia acquires proinflammatory cellular profile that generates oxidative burst. Their persistent activation exacerbates inflammation, which damages healthy neurons via cytotoxic mediators, such as superoxide radical anion and nitric oxide. In our recent study, we have shown that benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of benfotiamine on the pro-oxidative component of activity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells were investigated. The activation of microglia was accompanied by upregulation of intracellular antioxidative defense, which was further promoted in the presence of benfotiamine. Namely, activated microglia exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of benfotiamine showed increased levels and activities of hydrogen peroxide- and superoxide-removing enzymes-catalase and glutathione system, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, benfotiamine showed the capacity to directly scavenge superoxide radical anion. As a consequence, benfotiamine suppressed the activation of microglia and provoked a decrease in NO and (·)O(-) 2 production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, benfotiamine might silence pro-oxidative activity of microglia to alleviate/prevent oxidative damage of neighboring CNS cells.

  13. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  14. ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity of different part of Channa striata prepared by various cooking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasanah, E.; Budiari, S.; Thenawijaya, M.; Palupi, N. S.

    2018-03-01

    Channa striata (snakehead) extract has been known possessing positive activity, one of which is the ability to inhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) activity in vitro. Aims of this study were to determine the effect of cooking and parts of C. striata, i.e. meat/fillet, gonad, skin, gill against the ACE inhibition activity and antioxidant activity in vitro. Heat processing methods used were direct boiling and indirect boiling and steamed at 100 °C for 10 min. ACE inhibition activity was analyzed using hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) as substrate and antioxidant activity was analyzed using DPPH method. The result shows that the higher the concentration of the extract (5 %, 20 %, 35 % and 50 %), the higher the antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity was shown by gonad followed by meat extract, skin, and gill. Cooking treatment affected antioxidant activity, being the detrimental treatment were steam and direct boiling. The egg/gonad of C. striata showed the highest capability to inhibit ACE activity followed by meat/fillet, gill and skin. In concentration of 10 mg, extract of C. striata gonad was comparable to captopril, a commercial hypertension drug. While uncooked fillet showed the highest ACE inhibition activity followed by indirect boiling, direct boiling and steaming.

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Purified Active Peptide Derived from Spirulina platensis Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Maulida Safitri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to isolate the antioxidative peptide from Spirulina platensis. Peptide was obtained by proteolytic digestion, ultrafiltration, fractionation by RP-HPLC, identified by LC-MS/MS—MASCOT Distiller and measured its antioxidant activity by DPPH (2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results showed that thermolysin was the most effective enzyme to digest this algae. The active peptide Phe-Ser-Glu-Ser-Ser-Ala-Pro-Glu-Gln-His-Tyr (m/z 1281.51 was identified and synthetized, which exhibited 45.98 ± 1.7% at concentration 128.15 µg/mL. Therefore, S. platensis is indicated as a potential therapeutic source for combating oxidative stress.

  16. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM RUMEX CRISTATUS DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel KAHRAMAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used for many years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. R. cristatus DC (Polygonaceae is widely spread in Turkey and used as both herbal medicine and food. This study examined the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus DC using different tests. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus leaves was analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The results were compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results suggest that consumption of R. cristatus DC can be beneficial effects due to its antioxidant properties

  17. Curcumin Induces Nrf2 Nuclear Translocation and Prevents Glomerular Hypertension, Hyperfiltration, Oxidant Stress, and the Decrease in Antioxidant Enzymes in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilia Tapia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal injury resulting from renal ablation induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NX is associated with oxidant stress, glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, and impaired Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. The purpose of this work was to know if the bifunctional antioxidant curcumin may induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and prevents 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress, renal injury, decrease in antioxidant enzymes, and glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration. Four groups of rats were studied: (1 control, (2 5/6NX, (3 5/6NX +CUR, and (4 CUR (n=8–10. Curcumin was given by gavage to NX5/6 +CUR and CUR groups (60 mg/kg/day starting seven days before surgery. Rats were studied 30 days after NX5/6 or sham surgery. Curcumin attenuated 5/6NX-induced proteinuria, systemic and glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. This protective effect was associated with enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and with prevention of 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that the protective effect of curcumin against 5/6NX-induced glomerular and systemic hypertension, hyperfiltration, renal dysfunction, and renal injury was associated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the prevention of both oxidant stress and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes.

  18. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Chen, Wei; Sheng, G Daniel; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Weiping; Fu, Zhengwei

    2008-07-30

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris.

  19. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haifeng; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Xu Xiaoyan; Liu Weiping; Fu Zhengwei

    2008-01-01

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12 h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris

  20. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Haifeng; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Xu Xiaoyan; Liu Weiping [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Fu Zhengwei [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)], E-mail: azwfu2003@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-07-30

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12 h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris.

  1. The effects of an instant haw beverage on lipid levels, antioxidant enzyme and immune function in hyperlipidemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidi; Xue, Bin; Li, Keji; Shi, Jingda; Krempin, D; Zhu, M; Garland, C

    2002-05-01

    To determine the effectiveness of an instant haw beverage in regulating lipid disturbance, enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and immune function. Data was collected from 60 hyperlipidemic subjects. In this crossover design, each subject randomly received either the instant haw beverage (100 ml corresponding to 3 g of haw powder or 30 g of fresh haw fruit plus the carrier-guar gum plus some starch) or placebo (guar gum 1.5 g plus some starch as the carrier of the beverage) twice daily. Each supplementation lasted 31 days with a 28-day washout period between treatments. The instant haw beverage significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (9.6%), triglyceride (12.1%), LDLC (18%) while significantly increased SOD activities (7.5%). The placebo was shown to have positive results in some of the lipid profiles, though the effects of the instant haw beverage demonstrated greater significance. Serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased and SOD activity significantly increased only as subjects were supplemented with the instant haw beverage while no significant changes were seen with placebo. Supplementation with the instant haw beverage positively affects blood lipid profile, antioxidant status and immune function in individuals with hyperlipidemia.

  2. Antiobesity, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of red Ginseng plant extract in obese diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE on adiposity index, some serum biochemical parameters and tissue antioxidant activity in obese diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Group (1 was negative control and the other 4 groups were fed on high fat-diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. The obese rats were then rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan for 5 days. Group (2 was kept obese diabetic (positive control and the other 3 groups were orally given RGE at 100, 200 and 400 mg /kg /day, respectively, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and kidneys were taken to assay of activities of antioxidant enzymes. Results: oral dosage of RGE to obese diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.05 reduced adiposity index; decreased serum levels of aspartate am