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Sample records for antioxidant defense system

  1. Antioxidant defense system in hibernating mammals

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    Antonova Ekaterina Petrovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibernation is one of the most striking examples of mammals’ phenotypic flexibility, allowing them to survive at low temperatures and in the conditions of insufficient food and water. During the torpor there is a decrease in both body temperature and metabolic rate that is accompanied by slowing respiration, significant drop of oxygen consumption as well as by the reduction of cerebral blood circulation and heart rate. In spite of a number of physiological adaptations to hibernation, the arousal from torpor is accompanied by the oxidative stress caused by the enormous rise of oxygen consumption. In these conditions, the antioxidant defense system which provides harmless transfer from torpor to arousal and vice versa, i.e., without any tissues’ oxidative damage, becomes especially important. Up to date, it is not fully elucidated how the antioxidant system acts during the periods of hibernation, but it deserves careful attention. In the review the information about the use of different strategies of antioxidant protection during hibernation in small mammals was collected

  2. Antioxidative defense

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    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  3. Pineal Proteins Upregulate Specific Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain

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    Vijay K. Bharti; Srivastava, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL), the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) on the antioxidant defense sys...

  4. Pineal Proteins Upregulate Specific Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain

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    Vijay K. Bharti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL, the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins (PP on the antioxidant defense system in the brain of female rats. The twenty-four rats were taken in present study and were divided into four groups: control (0 day, control (28 day, vehicle control and buffalo PP. The PP was injected 100 µg/kg BW intraperitoneal (i.p. daily for 28 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO in the brain tissue were measured to assess the antioxidant systems. These enzymes protect from adverse effects of free radicals and help in amelioration of oxidative stress. Buffalo pineal proteins administration did not cause any effect on brain LPO, whereas GPx, GR and GSH were significantly (p < 0.05 decreased. However, SOD and CAT activities were increased to significant levels than the control in PP treated rats. Our study herein suggested that buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins upregulates specific antioxidant defense systems and can be useful in control of various oxidative stress-induced neuronal diseases.

  5. The antioxidant defense system of Varroa destructor mites facilitates the infestation of Apis mellifera

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    Dmochowska-Ślęzak Kamila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite of the Western honey bee. The activity of five antioxidant enzymes of V. destructor were analysed. Glutathione content and total antioxidant status was also evaluated. Our results suggest that antioxidant enzymes constitute the main line of defense against ROS in V. destructor, whereas low-molecular-weight antioxidants play a limited role in the antioxidant system of mites.

  6. Ginsan activated the antioxidant defense systems in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, has hematopoietic activity and is also known as a good biological-response modifier. In this investigation, we studied the effects of ginsan on the γ-radiation induced alterations of some antioxidant systems in spleen of Balb/c mice. There are many data that irradiation induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which plays an important causative role in radiation damage of cell. The level of ROS in cells is regulated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems. The most powerful ones among them are superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide anion radical o2 to H2O2, catalase deactivating h-2O2 and reduced glutathion (GSH) detoxifying H2O2 and other ROS> At the 5th day after sublethal whole body irradiation, splenocytes of irradiated mice expressed only marginally increased levels of Mn-SOD, however, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase, thioredoxine reductase (TR) and thioredoxine (TRX) mRNA (135% increase compared to control), however, the combination of irradiation with ginsan increased the SODs and GPX production more effectively. In addition to the above results, we obtained the similar data of protein expression. The enzyme activities of SOD, catalase, and GPX of ginsan-treated and irradiated mice were significantly enhanced by 140, 115, 126% respectively, compared with those of irradiated mice. Based on these results, we propose that the induction of antioxidant enzymes of ginsan is at least in part due to its capacity to protect against radiation

  7. Whole body exposure to low-dose γ-radiation enhances the antioxidant defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is believed that the extent of cellular damage by low- radiation dose is proportional to the effects observed at high radiation dose as per the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. However, this notion may not be true at low-dose radiation exposure in the living system. Recent evidence suggest that the living organisms do not respond to ionizing radiations in a linear manner in the low dose range 0.01-0.5Gy and rather restore the homeostasis both in vivo and in vitro by normal physiological mechanisms such as cellular and DNA repair processes, immune reactions, antioxidant defense, adaptive responses, activation of immune functions, stimulation of growth etc. In this study, we have attempted to find the critical radiation dose range and the post irradiation period during which the antioxidant defense systems in the lungs, liver and kidneys remain stimulated in these organs after whole body exposure of the animals to low-dose radiation

  8. Brassinosteroids Denigrate the Seasonal Stress through Antioxidant Defense System in Seedlings of Brassica juncea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kumar; Geetika Sirhindi; Renu Bhardwaj; Manish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The present work has been undertaken to study the effect of exogenously application of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL on soluble protein, proline contents and antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. RLM 619 under the influence of seasonal stress. It was observed that 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL treatment enhance the soluble protein, dry weight and shoot length of B. juncea seedlings under seasonal stress. If seeds treated with the different concentrations (10-6, 10-8 and 10-10 M) of 24-epiBL and ...

  9. BRASSINOSTEROIDS DENIGRATE THE SEASONAL STRESS THROUGH ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM IN SEEDLINGS OF BRASSICA JUNCEA L

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sandeep; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Manish

    2014-01-01

    The present work has been undertaken to study the effect of exogenously application of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL on soluble protein, proline contents and antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. RLM 619 under the influence of seasonal stress. It was observed that 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL treatment enhance the soluble protein, dry weight and shoot length of B. juncea seedlings under seasonal stress. If seeds treated with the different concentrations (10 -6, 10 -8 and 10 -10 M) of 24-epiBL a...

  10. Effect of 3-bromopyruvic acid on human erythrocyte antioxidant defense system.

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    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2013-12-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a promising compound for anticancer therapy, its main mode of action being the inhibition of glycolytic enzymes, but this compound also induces oxidative stress. This study aimed at characterisation of the effect of 3-BP on the antioxidant defense system of erythrocytes. Suspensions of erythrocytes in PBS containing 5 mM glucose were treated with different concentration of 3-BP at 37°C for 1 h. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were estimated by standard colorimetric methods. The antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes was estimated using the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(•+)) decolorisation assay and ferricyanide reduction. The content of reduced and oxidized glutathione was estimated fluorimetrically with o-phtalaldehyde. 3-BP did not affect the integrity of the erythrocyte membrane (lack of changes in the osmotic fragility). However, it induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes, as evidenced by the decrease in the content of acid-soluble thiols and reduced glutathione (GSH). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly decreased. 3-BP also decreased the transmembrane reduction of ferricyanide. Thus induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes by 3-BP is due to depletion of glutathione and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23881849

  11. Responses of antioxidant defense system of Lespedeza davurica to enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different UV-B radiation intensity (CK, T1, T2) on antioxidant defense system and other related indicators of Lespedeza davurica (Laxm.) Schindl. Malonaldehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA) and carotenoid (Car) contents, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities of leaves from Lespedeza davurica under different UV-B radiation intensity were investigated. Samples were collected once every three days. The UV-B treatment was continued 15 days. Result indicated that SOD and POD activities decreased, APX and POD activities increased with UV-B radiation enhanced during the whole treatment time. SOD, POD and CAT activities decreased with UV-B radiation intensity increasing. APX activity increased during the first 9-day treatment with radiation intensity increasing then decreased with radiation intensity increasing. UV-B radiation increased AsA content, decreased Car content. Both AsA and Car contents decreased with radiation intensity increasing when compared with control. O2- and MDA increased with radiation intensity increasing. All other tested indicators increased except SOD and POD activity as well as AsA content decreased after UV-B radiation treatment. Comprehensive evaluation of subordinate function showed that UV-B radiation reduced the antioxidant capacity of Lespedeza davurica, and the antioxidant capacity decreased with UV-B radiation intensity increasing. (author)

  12. Brassinosteroids Denigrate the Seasonal Stress through Antioxidant Defense System in Seedlings of Brassica juncea L.

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    Sandeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been undertaken to study the effect of exogenously application of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL on soluble protein, proline contents and antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. RLM 619 under the influence of seasonal stress. It was observed that 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL treatment enhance the soluble protein, dry weight and shoot length of B. juncea seedlings under seasonal stress. If seeds treated with the different concentrations (10-6, 10-8 and 10-10 M of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL revealed batter growth, protein and proline contents as compare to untreated seedlings. Similarly the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, APOX, DHAR, PPO and Auxinases were enhanced by the application of different concentration of both brassinosteroids, whereas MDA content was decrease with both brassinosteroids treatments. Then we have concluded that both brassinolides have the seasonal stress ameliorative properties in B. juncea seedlings grown under the influence of seasonal stress. This study culminates to the role of brassinolides as an anti-stress property for protection of plant from various types of stresses.

  13. Imbalanced free radicals and antioxidant defense systems in schizophrenia: A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-chun; CHEN Qiao-zhen; MA Ying; ZHOU Jun-fu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes of blood oxidative-antiovidative level in schizophrenic patients and its relationship with clinical symptoms. Methods: Forty-six Chinese patients met DSM-Ⅳ (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Ⅳ) criteria for schizophrenia and fifty age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Baseline psychiatric symptom severity was assessed with brief psychiatric rating scale, positive and negative syndrome scale on the blood draw day. Fresh blood samples were collected to measure levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxide in plasma as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in red blood cells by spectrophotometric assays simultaneously. Results:Comparison of the biochemical parameters indicated that the level of nitric oxide and lipid peroxide increased in patient group,which represented a positive correlation with positive scale scores; while the activities of three critical enzymes decreased and showed a negative linear correlation. Conclusion: This study showed that there are dysregulation of free radical metabolism and poor activities of the antioxidant defense systems in schizophrenic patients. Excess free radicals formation may play a critical role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Using antioxidants might be an effective therapeutic approach to partially alleviate or prevent the symptoms of schizophrenia.

  14. [Peculiarities of antioxidant defense system in erythroid cells and tissues of pigs under action of chromium chloride].

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    Iskra, R Ia; Vlizlo, V V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of CrCI3 in the amount of 400 mg Cr/kg of feed on antioxidant defense in populations of erythrocytes, erythroid bone marrow cells and tissues of pigs was studied. The increasing of the antioxidant defense of swine organism, as evidenced by the increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the fractions of "young" erythrocytes, was shown. Superoxide dismutase activity decreases, while glutathione and catalase activity increases in the erythroid cells of the bone marrow after of CrCl3 action. Oxidative processes are intensified in the liver of pigs of the experimental group, in contrast to other tissues, leading to the increase of content of TBARS-products, growth of superoxide dismutase activity and reduction of glutathione peroxidase activity. At the same time, the action of CrCl3 in other tissues activates antioxidant system, including the kidneys, lungs and myocardium, increases superoxide dismutase activity, and catalase activity in the spleen and kidneys. A decrease of content of TBARS-products and reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, as well as the increase of katalase activity and reduction of glutathione content were discovered in the skeletal muscles of pigs of the experimental group. As a result of research it is suggested to add CrCl3 to the diet of pigs to enhance antioxidant defense during their intensive growth. PMID:23940874

  15. Consequences of Social Isolation in Rats on Their Antioxidant Defense System and Erythrocyte Deformability

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    Sami Aydoğan

    2009-02-01

    of the major oxidants for the erythrocyte membrane results in the decreased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, our results reveal that the social isolation stress causes alterations in the antioxidant defense system and these alteration results in the changes in erythrocyte deformability reflecting that some tissue perfusion problems can occur with long term and repeated loneliness and especially in the early stages of the life span.

  16. Protective Effects of Zinc Against Acute Arsenic Toxicity by Regulating Antioxidant Defense System and Cumulative Metallothionein Expression.

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    Ganger, Renuka; Garla, Roobee; Mohanty, Biraja Prasad; Bansal, Mohinder Pal; Garg, Mohan Lal

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid, is one of the major global concerns. The toxicity resulting from As exposure is linked to the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates during their redox cycling and metabolic activation processes that cause lipid peroxidation (LPO). Zinc (Zn), a redox-inactive metal, helps to maintain cellular functions because of its prominent role in antioxidant network through multiple mechanisms. The present study, therefore, explores the effectiveness of administered Zn to combat against acute As toxicity by analysis of antioxidant defense status, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, histological profile, MT expression, and elemental status in rat liver. To achieve this goal, four experimental groups, one control and three receiving different metal supplementations, were chosen (group 1, control; group 2, Zn supplemented; group 3, As substituted; group 4, Zn + As supplemented). The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and ALP were lowered, whereas LPO levels and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were elevated with no significant change in catalase (CAT) activity. Histopathological changes were also observed in the As substituted group in comparison to the control. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis showed decrease in Fe and S concentration in rat liver after As intoxication, whereas As was below detection limit, i.e., <1 ppm. Zn administration almost restored the antioxidants, ALP activity, histopathological changes, and elemental status. A cumulative increase in MT expression was found with the combined treatment of Zn and As. Also, Zn alone caused no significant change in the antioxidant defense system. It can be concluded that restoration of antioxidant activity and increased MT expression are the two independent protective mechanisms of Zn to reduce acute As toxicity. PMID:26113309

  17. Disruption of non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems in the brain of rats with water-immersion restraint stress

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta, Yoshiji; Yashiro, Koji; Ohashi, Koji; Imai, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems are disrupted in the brain of rats with water-immersion restraint stress. When rats were exposed to water-immersion restraint stress for 1.5, 3 or 6 h, the brain had decreased ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione contents and increased lipid peroxide and nitric oxide metabolites contents at 3 h and showed further changes in these components with a reduction of vitamin E content at 6 h. Increased serum levels of stress markers were...

  18. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na+/K+ Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings

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    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system.

  19. Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles

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    Yu Szu-Hsien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1 on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Methods Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20 and Rg1 (N = 20 groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats. Results Exhaustive exercise significantly (p Conclusions This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  20. Lead tolerance mechanism in Conyza canadensis: subcellular distribution, ultrastructure, antioxidative defense system, and phytochelatins.

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    Li, Ying; Zhou, Chuifan; Huang, Meiying; Luo, Jiewen; Hou, Xiaolong; Wu, Pengfei; Ma, Xiangqing

    2016-03-01

    We used hydroponic experiments to examine the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) on the performance of the Pb-tolerable plant Conyza canadensis. In these experiments, most of the Pb was accumulated in the roots; there was very little Pb accumulated in stems and leaves. C. canadensis is able to take up significant amounts of Pb whilst greatly restricting its transportation to specific parts of the aboveground biomass. High Pb concentrations inhibited plant growth, increased membrane permeability, elevated antioxidant enzyme activity in roots, and caused a significant increase in root H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Analysis of Pb content at the subcellular level showed that most Pb was associated with the cell wall fraction, followed by the nucleus-rich fraction, and with a minority present in the mitochondrial and soluble fractions. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis of root cells revealed that the cell wall and intercellular space in C. canadensis roots are the main locations of Pb accumulation. Additionally, high Pb concentrations adversely affected the cellular structure of C. canadensis roots. The increased enzyme activity suggests that the antioxidant system may play an important role in eliminating or alleviating Pb toxicity in C. canadensis roots. However, the levels of non-protein sulfhydryl compounds, glutathione, and phytochelatin did not significantly change in either the roots or leaves under Pb-contaminated treatments. Our results provide strong evidence that cell walls restrict Pb uptake into the root and act as an important barrier protecting root cells, while demonstrating that antioxidant enzyme levels are correlated with Pb exposure. These findings demonstrate the roles played by these detoxification mechanisms in supporting Pb tolerance in C. canadensis. PMID:26733305

  1. Role of Nrf2 antioxidant defense in mitigating cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the olfactory system of zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to trace metals can disrupt olfactory function in fish leading to a loss of behaviors critical to survival. Cadmium (Cd) is an olfactory toxicant that elicits cellular oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity while also inducing protective cellular antioxidant genes via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced olfactory injury have not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense pathway in protecting against Cd-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. A dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress was observed in the olfactory system of adult zebrafish following 24 h Cd exposure. Zebrafish larvae exposed to Cd for 3 h showed increased glutathione S-transferase pi (gst pi), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc), heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) mRNA levels indicative of Nrf2 activation, and which were blocked by morpholino-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. The inhibition of antioxidant gene induction in Cd-exposed Nrf2 morphants was associated with disruption of olfactory driven behaviors, increased cell death and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nrf2 morphants also exhibited a downregulation of OSN-specific genes after Cd exposure. Pre-incubation of embryos with sulforaphane (SFN) partially protected against Cd-induced olfactory tissue damage. Collectively, our results indicate that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated injury in the zebrafish olfactory system. Moreover, the Nrf2 pathway plays a protective role against cellular oxidative damage and is important in maintaining zebrafish olfactory function. -- Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated olfactory injury. ► Cd induces antioxidant gene expression in the zebrafish olfactory system. ► The

  2. Role of Nrf2 antioxidant defense in mitigating cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the olfactory system of zebrafish

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    Wang, Lu; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@uw.edu

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to trace metals can disrupt olfactory function in fish leading to a loss of behaviors critical to survival. Cadmium (Cd) is an olfactory toxicant that elicits cellular oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity while also inducing protective cellular antioxidant genes via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced olfactory injury have not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense pathway in protecting against Cd-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. A dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress was observed in the olfactory system of adult zebrafish following 24 h Cd exposure. Zebrafish larvae exposed to Cd for 3 h showed increased glutathione S-transferase pi (gst pi), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc), heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) mRNA levels indicative of Nrf2 activation, and which were blocked by morpholino-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. The inhibition of antioxidant gene induction in Cd-exposed Nrf2 morphants was associated with disruption of olfactory driven behaviors, increased cell death and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nrf2 morphants also exhibited a downregulation of OSN-specific genes after Cd exposure. Pre-incubation of embryos with sulforaphane (SFN) partially protected against Cd-induced olfactory tissue damage. Collectively, our results indicate that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated injury in the zebrafish olfactory system. Moreover, the Nrf2 pathway plays a protective role against cellular oxidative damage and is important in maintaining zebrafish olfactory function. -- Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated olfactory injury. ► Cd induces antioxidant gene expression in the zebrafish olfactory system. ► The

  3. CADMIUM AND NICKEL COMBINED EFFECT ON ASCORBATE-DEPENDENT MECHANISM OF ANTIOXIDATIVE DEFENSE SYSTEM OF PEA

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    Artiushenko Tetiana A.

    2014-04-01

    towards control level, i.e. there is a significant induction of the synthesis process. In addition, the amount of ascorbate oxidized forms, as in previous research period, continued to increase. After 24 hours of experiment we registered similar to 12 hours trend of changes in the content of ascorbic acid metabolites. Violation of pro-/antioxidant balance also accompanied by increased ascorbate peroxidase activity. In the pea root system there is the tendency to increase the ascorbate peroxidase activity and this is in concordance with the increasing content of ascorbic and dehydroascorbate acids. At the beginning of stressful activities caused by cadmium and nickel compounds in the leaves is not the case of ascorbate peroxidase activity changes, although 7-hour influence resulted in a statistically significant increase in activity specified oxidoreductase. By the action of heavy metals in low concentrations the content of ascorbic acid in pea leaves increased by 14%. High content in the medium of at least one of the metals since 7-hour exposure caused the depletion of antioxidant resources, as evidenced by the decrease of ascorbic acid in the assimilation organs. After 24 hours of experiment we observed a slowdown in ascorbate peroxidase activity, which could be explained by the lack of ascorbic acid under prolonged stress exposure.

  4. Antioxidant defense system and family environment in adolescents with family history of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Pinto Ana; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa Monica; Arango Celso; Baeza Immaculada; Otero-Cuesta Soraya; Graell-Berna Montserrat; Soutullo César; Leza Juan; Micó Juan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Our objective was to determine antioxidant defence activity in healthy controls (HC) and healthy unaffected second-degree relatives of patients with early onset psychosis (HC-FHP), and to assess its relationship with familiar environment measured using the Family Environment Scale (FES). Methods We included 82 HC and 14 HC-FHP aged between 9 and 17 years. Total antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione levels were determined in b...

  5. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning

  6. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  7. Heavy metal induced antioxidant defense system of green microalgae and its effective role in phycoremediation of tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M

    2012-11-15

    Investigation of tannery effluent toxicology in green microalgae is of great importance from ecological point of view, because heavy metal has become a major contaminant in recent years. The present study determined the effect of various concentrations (0, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent on cell growth and antioxidant defense system of two green microalgae. Treatment with effluent induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Lower tannery effluent concentrations increased algal growth, whereas higher concentration suppressed the growth and photosynthetic content. Both strains of the microalgae had proven effective in removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions with the highest removal efficiency being near 100% and it can be used for phycoremediation of wastewater in large scale. PMID:24261120

  8. Changes in Antioxidant Defense System Using Different Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition in Children after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Auxiliadora Baena-Gómez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally, lipids used in parenteral nutrition (PN are based on ω-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, with potential adverse effects involving oxidative stress. Methods: We evaluated the antioxidant defense system in children, after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, who were randomized to use a lipid emulsion with fish oil or soybean oil. Blood samples at baseline, at 10 days, and at the end of the PN were taken to analyze plasma retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, coenzyme Q9 and coenzyme Q10 levels, and catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPOX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in lysed erythrocytes. Results: An increase in plasma α-tocopherol levels in the group of patients receiving the fish oil-containing emulsion (FO compared with the group receiving the soybean emulsion was observed at day 10 of PN. Concurrently, plasma α-tocopherol increased in the FO group and β-carotene decreased in both groups at day 10 compared with baseline levels, being more significant in the group receiving the FO emulsion. Conclusion: FO-containing emulsions in PN could improve the antioxidant profile by increasing levels of α-tocopherol in children after HSCT who are at higher risk of suffering oxidative stress and metabolic disorders.

  9. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  10. Antioxidant defense system and family environment in adolescents with family history of psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Pinto Ana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to determine antioxidant defence activity in healthy controls (HC and healthy unaffected second-degree relatives of patients with early onset psychosis (HC-FHP, and to assess its relationship with familiar environment measured using the Family Environment Scale (FES. Methods We included 82 HC and 14 HC-FHP aged between 9 and 17 years. Total antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione levels were determined in blood samples. Results There was a significant decrease in the total antioxidant level in the HC-FHP group compared with the HC group (OR = 2.94; p = 0.009, but no between-group differences in the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scale scores. For the FES, the HC-FHP group had significantly higher scores in the cohesion (p = 0.007 and intellectual-cultural dimensions (p=0.025. After adjusting for these two FES dimensions, total antioxidant status remained significantly different between groups (OR = 10.86, p = 0.009. Conclusions Although causal relationships cannot be assumed, we can state that family environment is not playing a role in inducing oxidative stress in these healthy subjects. It could be hypothesized that families with affected relatives protect themselves from psychosis with positive environmental factors such as cohesion and intellectual-cultural activities.

  11. 24-epibrassinolide induced antioxidative defense system of Brassica juncea L. under Zn metal stress

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Priya; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar Kanwar, Mukesh

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the effects of 24-epibrassinolide on growth, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzyme activities, non-enzymatic antioxidants and protein content in 30 days old leaves of Brassica juncea (var. PBR 91) under zinc metal stress in field conditions. Surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea were given pre-soaking treatments of 24-EBL (10−10, 10−8 and 10−6 M) for 8 h. Different concentrations of zinc metal in the form of ZnSO4.7H2O (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) were added i...

  12. Response of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems of Polygonum hydropiper to Mn stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贤均; 邓冬梅; 刘可慧; 于方明

    2016-01-01

    The response of enzyme and non-enzymatic antioxidants of Mn hyperaccumuator,Polygonum hydropiper (P. hydropiper), to Mn stress was studied using hydroponics culture experiments to explore the mechanism of Mn tolerance in this species. Results showed that both chlorophyll and carotenoid contents significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increasing Mn treatment levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L) in hydroponics. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the root and shoot ofP. hydropiper were accumulated under Mn stress. Meanwhile, the anti-oxidative functions of several important enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) in plants were stimulated by Mn spike in leaves and roots, especially at low Mn stress; while sulfhydryl group (—SH) and glutathion (GSH) were likely involved in Mn detoxification ofP. hydropiper under high Mn stress.

  13. Effects of grape pomace on the antioxidant defense system in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chang-Sook; Chung, Hae-Kyung; CHOI, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Myung-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    The effects of grape seeds extract and grape peels extract prepared from grape pomace on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, degree of lipid peroxidation in serum and liver tissue were investigated in rabbits fed on high cholesterol diet. New Zealand white rabbits were divided as follows ; 1) NOR (normal group); 2) CHOL (cholesterol group); 3) GSH (cholesterol + grape seed extract group); 4) GPE (cholesterol + grape peel extract); 5) GSP (cholesterol + grape seed powder); 6) GPP (cholesterol...

  14. Effect of phosphogypsum on growth, physiology, and the antioxidative defense system in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Chaari, Leila; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Woodward, Steve; Kallel, Monem

    2015-10-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is the solid waste product of phosphate fertilizer production and is characterized by high concentrations of salts, heavy metals, and certain natural radionuclides. The work reported in this paper examined the influence of PG amendment on soil physicochemical proprieties, along with its potential impact on several physiological traits of sunflower seedlings grown under controlled conditions. Sunflower seedlings were grown on agricultural soil substrates amended with PG at rates of 0, 2.5, and 5 %. The pH of the soil decreased but electrical conductivity and organic matter, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and heavy metal contents increased in proportion to PG concentration. In contrast, no variations were observed in magnesium content and small increases were recorded in potassium content. The effects of PG on sunflower growth, leaf chlorophyll content, nutritional status, osmotic regulator content, heavy metal accumulation, and antioxidative enzymes were investigated. Concentrations of trace elements in sunflower seedlings grown in PG-amended soil were considerably lower than ranges considered phytotoxic for vascular plants. The 5 % PG dose inhibited shoot extension and accumulation of biomass and caused a decline in total protein content. However, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, proline and sugar contents, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase increased. Collectively, these results strongly support the hypothesis that enzymatic antioxidation capacity is an important mechanism in tolerance of PG salinity in sunflower seedlings. PMID:25994270

  15. Hypoxia tolerance and antioxidant defense system of juvenile jumbo squids in oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-10-01

    Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) is a large oceanic squid endemic off the Eastern Tropical Pacific that undertakes diel vertical migrations into mesopelagic oxygen minimum zones. One of the expected physiological effects of such migration is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the surface, promoted by the transition between hypoxia and reoxygenation states. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy expenditure rates and the antioxidant stress strategies of juvenile D. gigas under normoxia and hypoxia, namely by quantifying oxygen consumption rates, antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], heat shock protein expression (Hsp70/Hsc70), and lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. A high significant decrease (68%) in squid's metabolic rates was observed during hypoxia (pGST activity and MDA concentrations did not change significantly from normoxia to hypoxia (p>0.05), with the latter indicating no enhancement of lipid peroxidation (i.e. cellular damage) at the warmer and normoxic surface waters. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how this species is quickly responding to the impacts of environmental stressors coupled with global climate change.

  16. Chromium-induced modulation in the antioxidant defense system during phenological growth stages of Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Hema; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    Chromium-induced modulation in the enzymes and metabolites of antioxidants was investigated at various phenological stages of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. cv Pusa Jai Kisan)], grown with various levels of chromium (Cr) in pots under natural environmental conditions. Chromium accumulation in the root, stem and leaves increased with the advancement in the age of the plants. Growth of Indian mustard was not affected significantly by the supply of Cr up to the levels of 400 mg kg(-1) soil. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxide (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in the leaves of Cr-treated plants, when compared with control. High activities of antioxidant enzymes supported by high Cr concentrations in roots and aerial parts (except seeds) established the Indian mustard as a potential hyperaccumulator anda hypertolerant species to Cr stress. For this study, an edible crop was chosen intentionally so as to tap maximum benefit by remediating the contaminated site on one hand and getting uncontaminated seeds to raise the next generation, on the other. PMID:20734612

  17. Amelioration of Heat Stress Induced Disturbances of Antioxidant Defense System in Chicken by Brahma Rasayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramnath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the range of comfort zone or thermo neutral zone of domestic chickens is narrow, they become easily susceptible to heat and cold environmental stress. We evaluated Brahma Rasayana (BR supplementation on concentrations of certain oxidative stress markers associated with heat stress. A total of 48 egg type male chickens of local strain were divided into six groups (n = 8 for the study. Three groups were fed with BR orally at the rate of 2 g/kg bw daily for 10 days prior to and during the period of experiment. Two of the four groups that were exposed to heat stress (HST i.e. to a temperature of 40 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 80 ± 5% in an environmental chamber for 4 h daily for 5 or 10 days, received BR orally. The other two groups remained as BR treated and untreated non-heat stressed (NHST controls. There was a significant (P < 0.05 increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood such as catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as liver CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and glutathione reductase (GR in NHST-BR treated and HST-BR treated (both 5 and 10 days chickens when compared with untreated controls. A great deal of significant (P < 0.05 variations were seen in serum and liver reduced glutathione (GSH concentration in NHST-BR treated and HST-BR treated (both 5 and 10 days chickens. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were found to be significantly (P < 0.05 higher in HST-untreated (both 5 and 10 days chickens when compared with other groups. Thus BR supplementation during HST brings about enhanced action of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullified the undesired side effects of free radicals that are generated during HST.

  18. Influence of Different Doses of Levofloxacin on Antioxidant Defense Systems and Markers of Renal and Hepatic Dysfunctions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Levofloxacin (LFX is a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used in the treatment of infections such as pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, and sinusitis. The present study assessed the likely toxic effect of LFX on hepatic and renal tissues in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: A: control, B: 5 mg/kg bw LFX (half therapeutic dose, C: 10 mg/kg bw LFX (therapeutic dose, and D: 20 mg/kg bw LFX (double therapeutic dose. After seven days of administration, result indicated significant (P<0.05 increase in plasma ALT, AST, and ALP activities in the treated groups compared to control. Also, there was a significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, and total bilirubin in the treated groups relative to control. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides also increased significantly in the treated groups relative to control. Also, hepatic MDA level increased significantly in all the treated groups. However, hepatic SOD, catalase, and GST activities were significantly reduced in the LFX-treated animals. Moreover, GSH and ascorbic acid levels were significantly decreased in the LFX-treated groups relative to control. In conclusion, three doses of levofloxacin depleted antioxidant defense system and induced oxidative stress and hepatic and renal dysfunctions in rats.

  19. Heavy Metals and Human Health: Mechanistic Insight into Toxicity and Counter Defense System of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Arif Tasleem; Azam, Mudsser; Siddiqui, Kehkashan; Ali, Arif; Choi, Inho; Haq, Qazi Mohd. Rizwanul

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals, which have widespread environmental distribution and originate from natural and anthropogenic sources, are common environmental pollutants. In recent decades, their contamination has increased dramatically because of continuous discharge in sewage and untreated industrial effluents. Because they are non-degradable, they persist in the environment; accordingly, they have received a great deal of attention owing to their potential health and environmental risks. Although the toxic effects of metals depend on the forms and routes of exposure, interruptions of intracellular homeostasis include damage to lipids, proteins, enzymes and DNA via the production of free radicals. Following exposure to heavy metals, their metabolism and subsequent excretion from the body depends on the presence of antioxidants (glutathione, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, etc.) associated with the quenching of free radicals by suspending the activity of enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase). Therefore, this review was written to provide a deep understanding of the mechanisms involved in eliciting their toxicity in order to highlight the necessity for development of strategies to decrease exposure to these metals, as well as to identify substances that contribute significantly to overcome their hazardous effects within the body of living organisms. PMID:26690422

  20. Modulation of exogenous glutathione in antioxidant defense system against Cd stress in the two barley genotypes differing in Cd tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Wang, Fang; Wu, Feibo; Mao, Weihua; Zhang, Guoping; Zhou, Meixue

    2010-08-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. Greenhouse hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the modulation of exogenous GSH (reduced glutathione) in antioxidant defense system against the Cd-induced toxicity in plants exposed to 5 muM Cd using two barley genotypes differing in Cd tolerance. Addition of 20 mg L(-1) GSH in 5 muM Cd culture medium significantly alleviated Cd-induced growth inhibition, especially for the sensitive genotype Dong 17 and dramatically depressed O(2)(-), H(2)O(2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. GSH mediated intracellular GSH content to keep the level over the control especially in the case of Cd-induced GSH reduction. External GSH counteracted Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidant enzymes, e.g. brought root dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities of the both genotypes down towards the control level, but elevated the depressed ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) activities in Dong 17 after 10-15 d treatment. The examination of APX and superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes revealed GSH significantly increased MnSOD, sAPX and tAPX activities in the both genotypes, and strongly stimulated Cd-induced decrease in cAPX in the sensitive genotype. Furthermore, External GSH up-regulated root cAPX and leaf cAPX, CAT1, and CAT2 expression at transcript level in Dong 17 to achieve stimulation. These data, especially from the results of depressed O(2)(-), H(2)O(2) and MDA accumulation and elevated Cd-induced decrease in GSH content and APX (strongly stimulated cAPX, sAPX and tAPX) and CAT activities by GSH addition in the sensitive genotype, suggest that elevated intracellular GSH and stimulated APX (especially cAPX, sAPX and tAPX iosenzymes) and CAT activities, when concerning ROS scavenging systems, play an important role

  1. Role of garlic oil and selenium as stimulators to some antioxidant defense system in irradiated male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased level of lipid peroxide product; malondialdehyde (MDA) in various tissues of irradiated animals, may play a crucial role in damaging effects of exposure to ionizing radiation mediated by reactive free radicals generation. The protective efficiency of oral administration of garlic oil (500 mg/kg b.wt) three times weekly together with a single intraperitoneal injection of selenium (0.5 mg/kg b.wt) weekly for two weeks was examined on some antioxidant defense system as well as ultrastructural study in rats subjected to fractionated doses of gamma radiation up to a dose level of 6 Gy (1.5 Gy day after day). Exposure to gamma radiation induced a significant elevation in the level of malondialdehyde in plasma and liver and non-significant change was observed in superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). Also a significant increase was occurred in hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity. The pretreatment of irradiated rats with garlic oil and selenium caused a significant decrease in elevated level of MDA and a significant increase in the activity of SOD, GSHPx and GSH contents in both blood and liver. Concerning the ultrastructure studies, liver of irradiated rats showed abnormal shape of nucleus and nucleus membrane, swollen mitochondria with ruptured cristae, rupture of endoplasmic reticulum and vaculated cytoplasm, while intestine of irradiated rats exhibited deformed, shortened and abnormal structure of microvilli, accumulation of nuclear chromatin and dilatation of terminal web layer. In group of rats treated with garlic oil and selenium before exposure to gamma radiation, noticeable amelioration in ultrastructure changes of liver and intestine induced by irradiation was observed indicating a beneficial radioprotective role of both garlic oil and selenium

  2. Broad specificity AhpC-like peroxiredoxin and its thioredoxin reductant in the sparse antioxidant defense system of Treponema pallidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonage, Derek; Desrosiers, Daniel C.; Hazlett, Karsten R. O.; Sun, Yongcheng; Nelson, Kimberly J.; Cox, David L.; Radolf, Justin D.; Poole, Leslie B.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms by which Treponema pallidum (Tp), the causative agent of syphilis, copes with oxidative stress as it establishes persistent infection within its obligate human host. The Tp genomic sequence indicates that the bacterium’s antioxidant defenses do not include glutathione and are limited to just a few proteins, with only one, TP0509, offering direct defense against peroxides. Although this Tp peroxiredoxin (Prx) closely resembles AhpC-like Prxs, Tp lacks AhpF, the typical reductant for such enzymes. Functionally, TpAhpC resembles largely eukaryotic, nonAhpC typical 2-Cys Prx proteins in using thioredoxin (Trx, TP0919) as an efficient electron donor and exhibiting broad specificity toward hydroperoxide substrates. Unlike many of the eukaryotic Prxs, however, TpAhpC is relatively resistant to inactivation during turnover with hydroperoxide substrates. As is often observed in typical 2-Cys Prxs, TpAhpC undergoes redox-sensitive oligomer formation. Quantitative immunoblotting revealed that TpTrx and TpAhpC are present at very high levels (over 100 and 300 μM, respectively) in treponemes infecting rabbit testes; their redox potentials, at -242 ± 1 and -192 ± 2 mV, respectively, are consistent with the role of TpTrx as the cellular reductant of TpAhpC. Transcriptional analysis of select antioxidant genes confirmed the presence of high mRNA levels for ahpC and trx which diminish greatly when spirochetes replicate under in vitro growth conditions. Thus, T. pallidum has evolved an extraordinarily robust, broad-spectrum AhpC as its sole mechanism for peroxide defense to combat this significant threat to treponemal growth and survival during infection. PMID:20304799

  3. Calcium Mitigates Arsenic Toxicity in Rice Seedlings by Reducing Arsenic Uptake and Modulating the Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems and Stress Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of exogenous calcium (Ca on hydroponically grown rice seedlings was studied under arsenic (As stress by investigating the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems. Fourteen-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan29 seedlings were exposed to 0.5 and 1 mM Na2HAsO4 alone and in combination with 10 mM CaCl2 (Ca for 5 days. Both levels of As caused growth inhibition, chlorosis, reduced leaf RWC, and increased As accumulation in the rice seedlings. Both doses of As in growth medium induced oxidative stress through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS by disrupting the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems. Exogenous application of Ca along with both levels of As significantly decreased As accumulation and restored plant growth and water loss. Calcium supplementation in the As-exposed rice seedlings reduced ROS production, increased ascorbate (AsA content, and increased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and the glyoxalase I (Gly I and glyoxalase II (Gly II enzymes compared with seedlings exposed to As only. These results suggest that Ca supplementation improves rice seedlings tolerance to As-induced oxidative stress by reducing As uptake, enhancing their antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, and also improving growth and physiological condition.

  4. Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaofen; Yang, Xiaoe; Islam, Ejazul; Liu, Dan; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2008-08-15

    Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide radical (O(2)(*-)) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H. PMID:18242844

  5. Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Xiaofen [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yang Xiaoe [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: xyang@zju.edu.cn; Islam, Ejazul [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam 48800, Hyderabad (Pakistan); Liu Dan [School of Tourism and Health, Zhejiang Forestry College, 311300 Lin' an (China); Mahmood, Qaisar [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide radical (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H.

  6. Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical (O2·-) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H

  7. Markers of Antioxidant Defense in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gawlik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Diabetes is considered a state of increased oxidative stress. This study evaluates blood concentrations of selected markers of antioxidant defense in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The study included 80 type 2 diabetes patients and 79 apparently healthy controls. Measured markers included ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT and uric acid serum, and plasma and/or hemolysate levels. Results. FRAP, uric acid, CRP, and GGT levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes. Plasma and hemolysate GR was significantly higher whereas GPx activity was significantly lower in patients with diabetes. There were no significant differences in antioxidant defense markers between patients with and without chronic diabetes complications. Fasting serum glucose correlated with plasma GPx, plasma and hemolysate GR, FRAP, and serum GGT, and HbA1c correlated with serum GGT. Only FRAP and serum uric acid were significantly higher in obese (BMI>30 kg/m2 patients with diabetes than in nonobese patients. Conclusions. Some components of antioxidant defense such as GR, uric acid, and GGT are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the whole system cannot compensate for an enhanced production of ROS as reflected by the trend toward decreased erythrocytes GSH.

  8. Combined herbicide and saline stress differentially modulates hormonal regulation and antioxidant defense system in Oryza sativa cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Faisal; Ali, Basharat; Wang, Jian; Farooq, Muhammad A; Gill, Rafaqat A; Ali, Shafaqat; Wang, Danying; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-10-01

    Plants are simultaneously exposed to a combination of biotic and abiotic stresses in field conditions. Crops respond to the combined stress in a unique way which cannot be understood by extrapolating the results of individual stress. In the present study, effects of individual and combined stress of herbicide (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and salinity (NaCl) on two Oryza sativa cultivars (ZJ 88 and XS 134) were investigated. Both herbicide and saline stress affected the plant growth differentially and produced oxidative stress in rice cultivars. Interestingly, the combination of herbicide and salinity showed a significant protection to both rice cultivars by reducing ROS (H2O2, O2(-)) and lipid peroxidation through modulation of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT and APX) and non-enzymatic (TSP, sugars, phenolic and proline) antioxidants. In addition, active regulation of transcript levels of genes encoding Na(+) and K(+) (OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a,b, OsHKT2;1, OsSOS1, OsCNGC1, OsNHX1 and OsAKT1) transporter proteins reduced sodium and enhanced potassium accumulation under combined stress, resulted a better growth and ionic homeostasis in both rice cultivars. The production of ABA and IAA was significantly higher in cultivar XS 134 compared to cultivar ZJ 88 under control conditions. However, combined herbicide and saline stress enhanced the accumulation of phytohormones (IAA and ABA) and transcription of ethylene in cultivar ZJ 88, which might be one of the factors responsible for poor salt tolerance in sensitive cultivar. These findings indicated that herbicide application under saline stress confers tolerance to salinity in rice cultivars, likely by reducing oxidative damage, modulating mineral absorption, upgradation of antioxidant defense and by dynamic regulation of key genes involved in Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis in plants. PMID:27258572

  9. Increased Tolerance of Citrus (Citrus tangerina Seedlings to Soil Water Deficit after Mycorrhizal Inoculation: Changes in Antioxidant Enzyme Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Dan NI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can enhance tolerance of plants to soil water deficit, whereas morphological observations of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzyme system are poorly studied. The present study thereby evaluated temporal variations of the antioxidant enzyme system in citrus (Citrus tangerina seedlings colonized by Glomus etunicatum and G. mosseae over a 12-day period of soil drying. Root colonization by G. etunicatum and G. mosseae decreased with soil drying days from 32.0 to 1.0% and 50.1 to 4.5% in 0-day to 12-day, respectively. Compared to the non-AM controls, the AMF colonized plants had significantly lower tissue (both leaves and roots hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide anion radical (O2•– concentrations during soil water deficit, whereas 1.03–1.92, 1.25–1.84 and 1.18–1.69 times higher enzyme activity in superoxide dismutase, peroxidase (POD and catalase. In situ leaf H2O2 and root POD location also showed that AM seedlings had less leaf H2O2 but higher root POD accumulation. Furthermore, significantly higher root infection and antioxidant enzymatic activities in plants colonized with G. mosseae expressed than with G. etunicatum during the soil drying. These results demonstrated that the AMs could confer greater tolerance of citrus seedlings to soil water deficit through an enhancement in their antioxidant enzyme defence system whilst an decrease level in H2O2 and O2•–.

  10. Role of antioxidant defense system and biochemical adaptation on stress tolerance of high mountain and steppe plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öncel, Işıl; Yurdakulol, Ender; Keleş, Yüksel; Kurt, Latif; Yıldız, Atilla

    2004-12-01

    Eleven species were collected from Northwest Anatolian mountains (1500-2000 m) and 18 species were collected from the Central Anatolian steppes (850-1000 m) in June 1998 and 1999. In all the species investigated, the water and dry matter percentages and solute contents were measured. The chlorophyll, β-carotene, ascorbate and α-tocopherol contents and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) enzyme activities of the plants were also determined. The steppe plants had lower water content compared with alpine plants. The chlorophyll contents of the plants investigated did not change with altitude. However, the carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio of alpine plants was found to be significantly higher. The antioxidant/chlorophyll ratio of the trees and shrubs was higher than that of herbaceous plants. Carotenoid concentrations and SOD activity were higher in alpine plants than in steppe plants. Proline and soluble protein concentrations were significantly higher in alpine plants than in steppe plants. There was a significant difference between the plants as regards to antioxidant capacity at the family level. Though there was a high antioxidant capacity in alpine Poaceae, Lamiaceae species from steppe had very low concentrations of antioxidants. In conclusion, it was shown that although antioxidant protection was important in alpine plants, there were significant differences among the plant species. In addition to antioxidant protection, the higher soluble protein and proline contents have a very important role in the stress resistance of the alpine plants.

  11. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2•- generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  12. Toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil in aquatic environment on Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant defense system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuanyuan; ZHOU Qixing; PENG Shengwei; MA Lena Q; NIU Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    Under the indoor simulant conditions, toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil which was put into aquatic environment on the young fishes Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant system after a 20-d exposure were investigated. Results showed that the relationship between the mortality of C. auratus and the exposed doses could be divided to 3 phases: fishes exposed to the low dose groups (0.5--5.0 g/L) were dead due to the ingestion of crude-oil-contaminated soils in aquatic environment; at the medium dose groups (5.0--25.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to the penetration of toxic substances; at the high dose groups (25.0--50.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to environmental stress. The highest mortality and death speed were found in the 1.0 g/L dose group, and the death speed was sharply increased in the 50.0 g/L dose group in the late phase of the exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the content of malaondialdehyde (MDA) in the hepatic tissues of C. auratus were induced significantly. The activity of SOD was first increased and then decreased, and was significantly inhibited in the 50.0 g/L dose group. The activity of CAT was highly induced, and restored to a little more than the control level when the exposed doses exceeded 10.0 g/L. The activity of GST was the most sensitive, it was significantly induced in all dose groups, and the highest elevation was up to 6 times in the 0.5 g/L dose group compared with the control. The MDA content was significantly elevated in the 50.0 g/L dose group, and the changes of the MDA content were opposite with the changes of the GST activity.

  13. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in a dosimetric model derived from ERICA tool. This enabled a reliable comparison of dose-dependent endpoints between gamma- and beta radiation. Dose rates varied from 15 and 1500 mGy/hr, and 19 from 19000 μGy/hr for gamma- and beta radiation respectively. The classic growth related endpoints, like biomass and frond area, were measured and compared with biochemical and molecular endpoints. Therefore, DNA modifications were analyzed to evaluate biological DNA damage and ROS accumulation in plants together with activities of anti-oxidative enzymes to evaluate oxidative stress response. A dose-response curve with 60 percent growth inhibition was determined for gamma radiation and morphological growth effects in root system were observed for beta radiation. Preliminary results showed similar responses in peroxidase activities between both radiation types. These results and ongoing investigations will help to unravel the differences and similarities in response mechanisms for various radiation types in plant systems. As multiple levels in biological organisation of the organism were considered, and also different dose rates taken into account, this approach allows a better understanding the toxic mode of action of radiation stress in higher plants. This research was supported by the European Commission Contract Fission-2010-3.5.1-269672 to Strategy for Allied Radioecology (www.star-radioecology.org) and a project of the Fund for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen, G.A040.11N) (authors)

  14. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, Arne [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    frond have been implemented in a dosimetric model derived from ERICA tool. This enabled a reliable comparison of dose-dependent endpoints between gamma- and beta radiation. Dose rates varied from 15 and 1500 mGy/hr, and 19 from 19000 μGy/hr for gamma- and beta radiation respectively. The classic growth related endpoints, like biomass and frond area, were measured and compared with biochemical and molecular endpoints. Therefore, DNA modifications were analyzed to evaluate biological DNA damage and ROS accumulation in plants together with activities of anti-oxidative enzymes to evaluate oxidative stress response. A dose-response curve with 60 percent growth inhibition was determined for gamma radiation and morphological growth effects in root system were observed for beta radiation. Preliminary results showed similar responses in peroxidase activities between both radiation types. These results and ongoing investigations will help to unravel the differences and similarities in response mechanisms for various radiation types in plant systems. As multiple levels in biological organisation of the organism were considered, and also different dose rates taken into account, this approach allows a better understanding the toxic mode of action of radiation stress in higher plants. This research was supported by the European Commission Contract Fission-2010-3.5.1-269672 to Strategy for Allied Radioecology (www.star-radioecology.org) and a project of the Fund for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen, G.A040.11N) (authors)

  15. Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A. A.; John, Riffat; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. In the present study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in Brassica juncea and the protective role of Trichoderma harzianum (TH) was investigated. Salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. Higher conc...

  16. Responses of antioxidant defense system to polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) exposure in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenguang; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of ten polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) congeners to freshwater fish Carassius auratus, by determining the antioxidative responses and lipid peroxidation in the liver after the fish were injected with two different concentrations (10 and 100 µmol/kg) of individual PFDDs for 3 and 14 days. The results showed that oxidative stress was obviously induced in some PFDDs-treated groups, as implied by the significantly inhibited antioxidants levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase) and elevated malondialdehyde content. In addition, the oxidative stress inducing ability was variable for different PFDDs congeners, which was related with the substitution number and position of fluorine atom. Based on the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR) values, the toxicity was ranked as 2,3,7,8-FDD>Octa-FDD>1,2,3,4,7-FDD>1,3,6,8-FDD>1,2,3,4,6,7-FDD>1,2,6,7-FDD>1,2,7-FDD>DD>2,7-FDD>2-FDD. This study can enhance the general understanding of the PFDDs induced oxidative stress in aquatic organisms. PMID:26761781

  17. Effects of molybdenum on water utilization, antioxidative defense system and osmotic-adjustment ability in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songwei; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Nie, Zhaojun; Sun, Xuecheng

    2014-10-01

    Molybdenum (Mo), as an essential trace element in plants, plays an essential role in abiotic stress tolerance of plants. To obtain a better understanding of drought tolerance enhanced by Mo, a hydroponic trial was conducted to investigate the effects of Mo on water utilization, antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and osmotic-adjustment products in the Mo-efficient '97003' and Mo-inefficient '97014' under PEG simulated drought stress. Our results indicate that Mo application significantly enhanced Pn, chlorophyll, dry matter, grain yield, biomass, RWC and WUE and decreased Tr, Gs and water loss of wheat under drought stress, suggesting that Mo application improved the water utilization capacity in wheat. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants content such as ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, carotenoid were significantly increased and malonaldehyde contents were decreased by Mo application under PEG simulated drought stress, suggesting that Mo application enhanced the ability of scavenging active oxygen species. The osmotic-adjustment products such as soluble protein, proline and soluble sugar were also increased by Mo application under PEG simulated drought stress, indicating that Mo improved the osmotic adjustment ability in wheat. It is hypothesized that Mo application might improve the drought tolerance of wheat by enhancing water utilization capability and the abilities of antioxidative defense and osmotic adjustment. Similarities and differences between the Mo-efficient and Mo-inefficient cultivars wheat in response to Mo under drought stress are discussed. PMID:25221925

  18. Environmental exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and modulates the function of the antioxidant defense system and the immune system in the semen of males with normal semen profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the associations between environmental exposure to lead and a repertoire of cytokines in seminal plasma of males with normal semen profile according to the WHO criteria. Based on the median lead concentration in seminal plasma, 65 samples were divided into two groups: low (LE) and high exposure to lead (HE). Differences in semen volume and the pH, count, motility and morphology of sperm cells were not observed between the examined groups. The total oxidant status value and the level of protein sulfhydryl groups as well as the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly higher in the HE group, whereas the total antioxidant capacity value and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were depressed. IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the HE group compared with the LE group. Environmental exposure to lead is sufficient to induce oxidative stress in seminal plasma and to modulate antioxidant defense system. - Highlights: • Lead induces oxidative stress in seminal plasma in human. • Lead modulates antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma in human. • Lead does not change a Th1/Th2 imbalance in seminal plasma in human

  19. Environmental exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and modulates the function of the antioxidant defense system and the immune system in the semen of males with normal semen profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Czuba, Zenon P. [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Horak, Stanisław [I-st Chair and Clin. Dept. of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecological Oncology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Batorego 15, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the associations between environmental exposure to lead and a repertoire of cytokines in seminal plasma of males with normal semen profile according to the WHO criteria. Based on the median lead concentration in seminal plasma, 65 samples were divided into two groups: low (LE) and high exposure to lead (HE). Differences in semen volume and the pH, count, motility and morphology of sperm cells were not observed between the examined groups. The total oxidant status value and the level of protein sulfhydryl groups as well as the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly higher in the HE group, whereas the total antioxidant capacity value and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were depressed. IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the HE group compared with the LE group. Environmental exposure to lead is sufficient to induce oxidative stress in seminal plasma and to modulate antioxidant defense system. - Highlights: • Lead induces oxidative stress in seminal plasma in human. • Lead modulates antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma in human. • Lead does not change a Th1/Th2 imbalance in seminal plasma in human.

  20. Effects of anthracene on filtration rates, antioxidant defense system, and redox proteomics in the Mediterranean clam Ruditapes decussatus (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Badreddine; Khazri, Abdelhafidh; Louati, Héla; Dellali, Mohamed; Driss, Mouhamed Ridha; Aïssa, Patricia; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Hamouda, Beyrem; Coelho, Ana Varela; Sheehan, David

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the impact of a toxic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), anthracene (ANT), on Ruditapes decussatus collected from a Tunisian coastal lagoon (Bizerte Lagoon). Filtration rates, several antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione transferase (GST)--as well as indices of protein oxidation status were determined in various tissues of this bivalve. Specimens were exposed to 100 μg/L of ANT for 2 days. ANT levels were evaluated using HPLC and were detected in the gill and digestive gland at different amounts. ANT exposure altered the behavior of bivalves by changing the siphon movement and decreasing filtration rate significantly. The enzymatic results indicated that ANT exposure affected the oxidative stress status of the gills of R. decussatus. In addition, modification of proteins was detected in the gills using redox proteomics after ANT treatment. Three protein spots were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). These proteins can be roughly related to muscle contraction function. In contrast, no significant modification of enzymatic and protein responses was detected in the digestive gland after ANT treatment. These data demonstrate that combined behavioral and biochemical analyses are a powerful tool to provide valuable insights into possible mechanisms of toxicity of anthracene in R. decussatus. Additionally, the results highlight the potential of the gill as a valuable candidate for investigating PAH toxicity. PMID:25779113

  1. Gallic Acid Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Neurotoxicity in Wistar Rats Through Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Improvement in Antioxidant Defense System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Saba, Adebowale Bernard; Olowu, Ebunoluwa Racheal; Dada, Racheal Omolola; Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is a widely used anticancer chemotherapeutic agent and its toxicity has been associated with its toxic metabolites phosphormide mustard. Therefore, the ameliorative effect of Gallic acid against neurotoxicity was examined in this study. Sixty rats were grouped into 10 rats per group. Group 1 received saline orally. Group 2 received CPA at 100 mg/kg single dose intraperitoneally on day 1. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with Gallic acid (GA) at 60 and 120 mg/kg body weight only for 10 days and also received a single dose of CPA (100 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on day 1, respectively. Rats in groups 5 and 6 received GA at 60 and 120 mg/kg body weight only for 10 days. Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 received GA orally. The cerebellar and cerebral malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and hydrogen peroxide generation were significantly (p GST) activities were significantly (p < .05) reduced in CPA treated group. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was significantly increased in rats that were treatment with CPA. Also, nitrite content was significantly elevated in the brain of rats that received the toxic dose of CPA. All these findings suggest that treatment with GA (60 and 120 mg/kg) ameliorated the neurotoxicity induced by CPA via reduction of oxidative stress and increase in antioxidant defense system. Combining all, chemotherapeutic agents with structure/function similar to GA could be of potential benefit to the pharmaceutical industries as an adjuvant in chemotherapy with little or no side effects. PMID:26716793

  2. Lipid Peroxidative Damage on Cisplatin Exposure and Alterations in Antioxidant Defense System in Rat Kidneys: A Possible Protective Effect of Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka I. Ognjanović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, CP is an important chemotherapeutic agent, useful in the treatment of several cancers, but with several side effects such as nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the possible protective effect of selenium (Se against CP-induced oxidative stress in the rat kidneys. Male Wistar albino rats were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (7 mg CP/kg b.m., i.p. and selenium (6 mg Se/kg b.m, as Na2SeO3, i.p., alone or in combination. The obtained results showed that CP increased lipid peroxidation (LPO and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH concentrations, suggesting the CP-induced oxidative stress, while Se treatment reversed this change to control values. Acute intoxication of rats with CP was followed by statistically significant decreased activity of antioxidant defense enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. Treatment with Se reversed CP-induced alterations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities and significantly prevented the CP-induced kidney damage.

  3. Waterborne gemfibrozil challenges the hepatic antioxidant defense system and down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) mRNA levels in male goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) is one of many human pharmaceuticals found in the aquatic environment. We previously demonstrated that GEM bioconcentrates in blood and reduces plasma testosterone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In this study, we address the potential of an environmentally relevant waterborne concentration of GEM (1.5 μg/l) to induce oxidative stress in goldfish liver and whether this may be linked to GEM acting as a peroxisome proliferator (PP). We also investigate the autoregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as a potential index of exposure. The three PPAR subtypes (α, β, and γ) were amplified from goldfish liver cDNA. Goldfish exposed to a concentration higher (1500 μg/l) than environmentally relevant for 14 and 28 days significantly reduce hepatic PPARβ mRNA levels (p < 0.001). Levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were unchanged. GEM exposure significantly induced the antioxidant defense enzymes catalase (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (p = 0.006) but not acyl-CoA oxidase or glutathione reductase. As GEM exposure failed to increase levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), we conclude that a sub-chronic exposure to GEM upregulates the antioxidant defense status of the goldfish as an adaptive response to this human pharmaceutical

  4. The immune system is limited by oxidative stress: Dietary selenium promotes optimal antioxidative status and greatest immune defense in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller-Takahashi, Jaqueline D; Takahashi, Leonardo S; Mingatto, Fábio E; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reactive molecules containing oxygen, that form as byproducts of aerobic metabolism, including immune system processes. Too much ROS may cause oxidative stress. In this study, we examined whether it can also limit the production of immune system compounds. To assess the relationship between antioxidant status and immunity we evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with organic selenium, given at various levels for 10 days, on the antioxidant and immune system of the pacu fish (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Fish fed a diet containing 0.6 mg Se-yeast kg(-1) showed significant improvement in antioxidant status, as well as in hematological and immunological profiles. Specifically, they had the highest counts for catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), red blood cells, and thrombocytes; the highest leukocyte count (particularly for monocytes); and the highest serum lysozyme activity. There was also a positive correlation between GPx and lysozyme in this group of fish. These findings indicate that short-term supplementation with 0.6 mg Se-yeast kg(-1) reestablished the antioxidative status, allowing the production of innate components which can boost immunity without the risk of oxidative stress. This study shows a relationship between oxidative stress and immunity, and, from a practical perspective, shows that improving immunity and health in pacu through the administration of selenium could improve their growth performance. PMID:26370542

  5. Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milvia Luisa Racchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This short review briefly introduces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS as by-products of oxidation/reduction (redox reactions, and the ways in which the antioxidant defense machinery is involved directly or indirectly in ROS scavenging. Major antioxidants, both enzymatic and non enzymatic, that protect higher plant cells from oxidative stress damage are described. Biochemical and molecular features of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX are discussed because they play crucial roles in scavenging ROS in the different cell compartments and in response to stress conditions. Among the non enzymatic defenses, particular attention is paid to ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The operation of ROS scavenging systems during the seasonal cycle and specific developmental events, such as fruit ripening and senescence, are discussed in relation to the intense ROS formation during these processes that impact fruit quality. Particular attention is paid to Prunus and Citrus species because of the nutritional and antioxidant properties contained in these commonly consumed fruits.

  6. Inorganic Arsenic Induces NRF2-Regulated Antioxidant Defenses in Both Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Duan, Xiaoxu; Li, Jinlong; Zhao, Shuo; Li, Wei; Zhao, Lu; Li, Wei; Nie, Huifang; Sun, Guifang; Li, Bing

    2016-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic is reported to induce the reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress, which is supposed to be one of the main mechanisms of arsenic-related neurological diseases. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of antioxidant defense systems, up-regulates the expression of target genes to fight against oxidative damages caused by harmful substances, including metals. In the present study, mice were used as a model to investigate the oxidative stress levels and the expressions of NRF2-regulated antioxidant substances in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg NaAsO2 exposure intra-gastrically. Our results showed that acute NaAsO2 treatment resulted in decreased total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC) and increased maleic dialdehyde production in the nervous system. We also detected rapidly elevation of NRF2 protein levels by enhancement of Nrf2 transcription, especially at 20 mg/kg NaAsO2 exposure group. In the meantime, mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 encoding antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were consistently elevated time- and dose-dependently both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Taken together, the presence study demonstrated the activation of NRF2 pathway, an early antioxidant defensive response, in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus upon inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure in vivo. A better knowledge on the roles of NRF2 pathway in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis would be helpful for the strategies on improvement of neurotoxicity related to this metalloid. PMID:27165637

  7. Systemic defense signaling in tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Changbao; SUN Jiaqiang; JIANG Hongling; WU Xiaoyan; LI Chuanyou

    2005-01-01

    The wound-inducible expression of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) genes in tomato provides a powerful model system to elucidate the signal transduction pathway of sys- temic defense response. An increasing body of evidence indi- cates that systemin and jasmonic acid (JA) work in the same signaling pathway to activate the expression of PIs and other defense-related genes. However, little is known about how systemin and JA interact to regulate cell to cell communica- tion over long distances. Genetic analysis of the systemin/JA signaling pathway in tomato plants provides a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanism by which peptide and oxylipin signals interact to coordinate systemic expression of defense-related genes. Previously, it has been proposed that systemin is the long-distance mobile signal for systemic expression of defense related genes. However, recent genetic approach provided new evidence that jasmonic acid, rather than systemin, functions as the systemic wound signal, and that the peptide systemin works to regulate the biosynthesis of JA.

  8. Modulatory influence of Phyllanthus niruri on oxidative stress, antioxidant defense and chemically induced skin tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluates the modulatory potential of Phyllanthus niruri on chemically induced skin carcinogenesis, and its influence on oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system. Oral administration of P. niruri extract (PNE), during peri- (Gr. III), post- (Gr. IV), or peri- and post- (Gr. V) initiational stages of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA)-croton oil–induced papillomagenesis considerably reduced tumor burden to 4.20, 4.00, and 3.33(positive control value 6.20); cumulative number of papillomas to 21, 16, and 10, respectively, (positive control value 62); and incidence of mice bearing papillomas to 50, 40, and 30%, respectively (positive control value 100%), but significantly increased the average latent period to 10.14, 10.62, and 11.60, and inhibition of tumor multiplicity to 66, 74,and 83%, respectively. Enzyme analysis of skin and liver showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05, ≤ 0.01, ≤ 0.001) elevation in antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and vitamin C in PNE-treated groups (Gr. III–V) when compared with the carcinogen-treated control (Gr. II). The elevated level of lipid peroxidation in the carcinogen-treated positive control group was significantly (p ≤ 0.05, ≤ 0.01, ≤ 0.001) inhibited by PNE administration. These results indicate that P. niruri extract has potentiality to reduce skin papillomas by enhancing antioxidant defense system. PMID:21609315

  9. Effects of heat stress on antioxidant defense system, inflammatory injury, and heat shock proteins of Muscovy and Pekin ducks: evidence for differential thermal sensitivities

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Tao; Li, Jin-jun; Wang, De-qian; Li, Guo-qin; Wang, Gen-lin; Lu, Li-zhi

    2014-01-01

    Rising temperatures are severely affecting the mortality, laying performance, and meat quality of duck. Our aim was to investigate the effect of acute heat stress on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs: HSP90, 70, 60, 40, and 10) and inflammatory factors (nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehybe (MDA), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) in livers of ducks and to compare the the...

  10. Endurance Training and Glutathione-Dependent Antioxidant Defense Mechanism in Heart of the Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Atalay; Osmo Hanninen; Mustafa Gul

    2003-01-01

    Regular physical exercise beneficially influences cardiac antioxidant defenses in normal rats. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training can strengthen glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism and decrease lipid peroxidation in heart of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox status of glutathione in blood of diabetic rats in response to training and acute exercise was also examined. Eight weeks of treadmill training increased the endurance in streptozoto...

  11. 黄柳菇总黄酮对过度训练大鼠抗氧化防御体系的影响%The Pholiota Adiposa Total Flavonoids on Exercise Capacity Andover- trained Rats the Antioxidant Defense System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智英; 吴鹤群

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the Pholiota adiposa total flavonoids on exercise capacity and over- trained rats the antioxidant defense system effects. The results showed that Pholiota adiposa total flavonoids in the intervention group exercise time to exhaustion was significantly longer than over- training exercise group, over- training exercise group decreased exercise capacity, and the tissue MDA content was significantly higher than the Pholiota adiposa total flavonoids in the intervention group ( P 〈 0.05 ) ; SOD, GSH - Px, and NOS activity were significantly lower than the Pholiota adiposa total flavonoids in the intervention group ( P 〈 0.05) . The Pholiota adiposa total flavonoids can significantly extend the time for exhaustive exercise in rats has increased the role of exercise capacity in rats, the Pholiota adiposa total flavonoids can mushroom movement in rat tissue SOD, GSH - Px, NOS activity increased, MDA content decreased, increased antioxidant capacity in rats, thus improving the antioxidant defense system in rat movement.%研究通过建立大鼠过度训练模型,观察黄柳菇总黄酮对过度训练大鼠运动能力及抗氧化防御体系的影响.研究结果表明,黄柳菇总黄酮千预下大鼠运动时间明显长于过度训练组,且各组织中丙二醛(MDA)含量显著低于过度训练组(P〈0.05),而超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH—Px)及一氧化氮合酶(NOS)的活性则显著高于过度训练组(P〈0.05).研究认为,黄柳菇总黄酮具有提高大鼠运动能力的作用,其机制可能与黄柳菇总黄酮通过提高大鼠抗氧化能力,改善运动大鼠抗氧化防御体系有关.

  12. Involvement of Polyamine Oxidase in Abscisic Acid induced Cytosolic Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beibei Xue; Aying Zhang; Mingyi Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, the role of maize polyamine oxidase (MPAO) in abscisic acid (ABA)induced antioxidant defense in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was investigated. Exogenous ABA treatment enhanced the expression of the MPAO gene and the activities of apoplastic MPAO. Pretreatment with two different inhibitors for apoplastic MPAO partly reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation induced by ABA and blocked the ABA-induced expression of the antioxidant genes superoxide dismutase 4 and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and the activities of the cytosolic antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with spermidine, the optimum substrate of MPAO, also induced the expression and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, and the upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes was prevented by two inhibitors of MPAO and two scavengers of H2O2. These results suggest that MPAO contributes to ABA-induced cytosolic antioxidant defense through H2O2, a Spd catabolic product.

  13. The antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Gustavo; Molson, John H

    2003-01-01

    The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system is the principal protective mechanism of the cell and is a crucial factor in the development of the immune response by the immune cells. Experimental data demonstrate that a cysteine-rich whey protein concentrate represents an effective cysteine delivery system for GSH replenishment during the immune response. Animal experiments showed that the concentrates of whey protein also exhibit anticancer activity. They do this via the GSH pathway, the induction of p53 protein in transformed cells and inhibition of neoangiogenesis. PMID:12820403

  14. Oxidative stress: molecular perception and transduction of signals triggering antioxidant gene defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Scandalios

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen (O2 is the premier biological electron acceptor that serves vital roles in fundamental cellular functions. However, with the beneficial properties of O2 comes the inadvertent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS such as superoxide (O2·-, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical (OH·. If unabated, ROS pose a serious threat to or cause the death of aerobic cells. To minimize the damaging effects of ROS, aerobic organisms evolved non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defenses. The latter include catalases, peroxidases, superoxide dismutases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST. Cellular ROS-sensing mechanisms are not well understood, but a number of transcription factors that regulate the expression of antioxidant genes are well characterized in prokaryotes and in yeast. In higher eukaryotes, oxidative stress responses are more complex and modulated by several regulators. In mammalian systems, two classes of transcription factors, nuclear factor kB and activator protein-1, are involved in the oxidative stress response. Antioxidant-specific gene induction, involved in xenobiotic metabolism, is mediated by the "antioxidant responsive element" (ARE commonly found in the promoter region of such genes. ARE is present in mammalian GST, metallothioneine-I and MnSod genes, but has not been found in plant Gst genes. However, ARE is present in the promoter region of the three maize catalase (Cat genes. In plants, ROS have been implicated in the damaging effects of various environmental stress conditions. Many plant defense genes are activated in response to these conditions, including the three maize Cat and some of the superoxide dismutase (Sod genes.

  15. Effects of heat stress on antioxidant defense system, inflammatory injury, and heat shock proteins of Muscovy and Pekin ducks: evidence for differential thermal sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tao; Li, Jin-jun; Wang, De-qian; Li, Guo-qin; Wang, Gen-lin; Lu, Li-zhi

    2014-11-01

    Rising temperatures are severely affecting the mortality, laying performance, and meat quality of duck. Our aim was to investigate the effect of acute heat stress on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs: HSP90, 70, 60, 40, and 10) and inflammatory factors (nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehybe (MDA), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) in livers of ducks and to compare the thermal tolerance of Pekin and Muscovy ducks exposed to acute heat stress. Ducks were exposed to heat at 39 ± 0.5 °C for 1 h and then returned to 20 °C for 1 h followed by a 3-h recovery period. The liver and other tissues were collected from each individual for analysis. The mRNA levels of HSPs (70, 60, and 40) increased in both species, except for HSP10, which was upregulated in Muscovy ducks and had no difference in Pekin ducks after heat stress. Simultaneously, the mRNA level of HSP90 decreased in the stress group in both species. Morphological analysis indicated that heat stress induced tissue injury in both species, and the liver of Pekin ducks was severely damaged. The activities of several antioxidant enzymes increased in Muscovy duck liver, but decreased in Pekin duck. The mRNA levels of inflammatory factors were increased after heat stress in both duck species. These results suggested that heat stress could influence HSPs, inflammatory factors expression, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the differential response to heat stress indicated that the Muscovy duck has a better thermal tolerance than does the Pekin duck. PMID:24796798

  16. Preventive role of lens antioxidant defense mechanism against riboflavin-mediated sunlight damaging of lens crystallins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbaraki, Afrooz; Khoshaman, Kazem; Ghasemi, Younes; Yousefi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    The main components of sunlight reaching the eye lens are UVA and visible light exerting their photo-damaging effects indirectly by the aid of endogenous photosensitizer molecules such as riboflavin (RF). In this study, lens proteins solutions were incubated with RF and exposed to the sunlight. Then, gel mobility shift analysis and different spectroscopic assessments were applied to examine the structural damaging effects of solar radiation on these proteins. Exposure of lens proteins to direct sunlight, in the presence of RF, leads to marked structural crosslinking, oligomerization and proteolytic instability. These structural damages were also accompanied with reduction in the emission fluorescence of Trp and Tyr and appearance of a new absorption peak between 300 and 400nm which can be related to formation of new chromophores. Also, photo-oxidation of lens crystallins increases their oligomeric size distribution as examined by dynamic light scattering analysis. The above mentioned structural insults, as potential sources of sunlight-induced senile cataract and blindness, were significantly attenuated in the presence of ascorbic acid and glutathione which are two important components of lens antioxidant defense system. Therefore, the powerful antioxidant defense mechanism of eye lens is an important barrier against molecular photo-damaging effects of solar radiations during the life span. PMID:27316765

  17. Effect of long dose exposure of Podophyllum hexandrum methanol extract on antioxidant defense system and body and organ weight changes of albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Showkat Ahmad Ganie; Bilal Ahmad Zargar; Akbar Masood; Mohmmad Afzal Zargar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of long dose administration of methanol rhizome extract of Podophyllum hexandrum and hydrogen peroxide on lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes, antioxidant enzyme status of rat liver, kidney, lung and brain tissue and body weight and organ weight changes of albino rats. Methods: The body and organ weight was monitored with digital scale balance and lipid peroxidation of RBC ghost membrane was monitored by measuring malonaldehyde (MDA). Antioxidant enzymes were assayed by standard procedures. Results: Our study showed that administration of H2O2 (0.1%) in drinking water of the rats for 25 weeks increased the malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes of all the rats. However, rats receiving Podophyllum hexandrum extract and α- tocopherol had lower MDA levels in a dose dependent manner, which indicates decreased lipid peroxidation in these rats. Our results also showed decrease in the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione levels in different organs of H2O2 treated rats. Rats receiving methanolic extract of Podophyllum hexandrum at the concentration of 5, 10 and 15mg% for 25 weeks increased the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione levels in different organs of the rats indicates the protective effect of the plant in combating oxidative stress undergone by the rats. No significant variation (P< 0.05) in the organ weights between the control and the treated groups was observed after 25 weeks of treatment. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study presents strong evidence of the nontoxic effect of the methanol extract of Podophyllumhexandrum. The findings also demonstrate that Podophyllum hexandrum methanol extract increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and decreased lipid peroxidation in albino rats and explained the extensive utilization of the plant in traditional medicine.

  18. Age-related learning and memory deficits in rats: role of altered brain neurotransmitters, acetylcholinesterase activity and changes in antioxidant defense system

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Perveen, Tahira; Tabassum, Saiqa; Batool, Zehra; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Madiha, Syeda

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress from generation of increased reactive oxygen species or free radicals of oxygen has been reported to play an important role in the aging. To investigate the relationship between the oxidative stress and memory decline during aging, we have determined the level of lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) in brain and plasma as well as biogenic amine levels in brain from Albino–Wistar rats at age of 4 and 24 months. Th...

  19. Cellular responses induced by environmental stress factors in Arctic Seabird chicks : Responses of the antioxidant defense system and autophagic lysosomal processes related to contaminant exposure and food restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Hegseth, Marit Nøst

    2011-01-01

    The papers of this thesis are not available in Munin: 1. Marit Nøst Hegseth, Lionel Camus, Lisa Bjørnsdatter Helgason, Raffaella Bocchetti, Geir Wing Gabrielsen and Francesco Regoli: 'Hepatic antioxidant responses related to levels of PCBs and metals in chicks of three Arctic seabird species', Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology (2011) 154: 28-35. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2011.02.008 2. Marit Nøst Hegseth, Lionel Camus, Stefania Go...

  20. A Systematic Review of Oxidative Stress and Safety of Antioxidants in Diabetes: Focus on Islets and Their Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayakumar Karunakaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic complications, especially β-cell dysfunction and failure. Under physiological conditions, reactive oxygen species serve as second messengers that facilitate signal transduction and gene expression in pancreatic β-cells. However, under pathological conditions, an imbalance in redox homeostasis leads to aberrant tissue damage and β-cell death due to a lack of antioxidant defense systems. Taking into account the vulnerability of islets to oxidative damage, induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes or exogenous antioxidant administration has been proposed as a way to protect β-cells against diabetic insults. Here, we consider recent insights into how the redox response becomes deregulated under diabetic conditions, as well as the therapeutic benefits of antioxidants, which may provide clues for developing strategies aimed at the treatment or prevention of diabetes associated with β-cell failure.

  1. Impact of proline application on cadmium accumulation, mineral nutrition and enzymatic antioxidant defense system of Olea europaea L. cv Chemlali exposed to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Mohamed; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Elloumi, Nada; Bellassoued, Khaled; Delmail, David; Labrousse, Pascal; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Ben Rouina, Bechir

    2016-06-01

    Proline plays an important role in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of exogenous proline (10 and 20mM) in alleviating cadmium induced inhibitory effects in young olive plants (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) exposed to two Cd levels (10 and 30mg CdCl2kg(-1) soil). The Cd treatment induced substantial accumulation of Cd in both root and leaf tissues and a decrease in gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments contents, uptake of essential elements (Ca, Mg and K) and plant biomass. Furthermore, an elevation of antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxydase) and proline content in association with relatively high amounts of hydrogen peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and electrolyte leakage were observed. Interestingly, the application of exogenous proline alleviated the oxidative damage induced by Cd accumulation. In fact, Cd-stressed olive plants treated with proline showed an increase of antioxidant enzymes activities, photosynthetic activity, nutritional status, plant growth and oil content of olive fruit. Generally, it seems that proline supplementation alleviated the deleterious effects of young olive plants exposed to Cd stress. PMID:26946284

  2. β-Radiation Stress Responses on Growth and Antioxidative Defense System in Plants: A Study with Strontium-90 in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Knapen, Dries; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    In the following study, dose dependent effects on growth and oxidative stress induced by β-radiation were examined to gain better insights in the mode of action of β-radiation induced stress in plant species. Radiostrontium (⁹⁰Sr) was used to test for β-radiation induced responses in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. The accumulation pattern of 90Sr was examined for L. minor root and fronds separately over a seven-day time period and was subsequently used in a dynamic dosimetric model to calculate β-radiation dose rates. Exposing L. minor plants for seven days to a ⁹⁰Sr activity concentration of 25 up to 25,000 kBq·L⁻¹ resulted in a dose rate between 0.084 ± 0.004 and 97 ± 8 mGy·h⁻¹. After seven days of exposure, root fresh weight showed a dose dependent decrease starting from a dose rate of 9.4 ± 0.5 mGy·h⁻¹. Based on these data, an EDR10 value of 1.5 ± 0.4 mGy·h⁻¹ was estimated for root fresh weight and 52 ± 17 mGy·h⁻¹ for frond fresh weight. Different antioxidative enzymes and metabolites were further examined to analyze if β-radiation induces oxidative stress in L. minor. PMID:26198226

  3. β-Radiation Stress Responses on Growth and Antioxidative Defense System in Plants: A Study with Strontium-90 in Lemna minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Knapen, Dries; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    In the following study, dose dependent effects on growth and oxidative stress induced by β-radiation were examined to gain better insights in the mode of action of β-radiation induced stress in plant species. Radiostrontium (90Sr) was used to test for β-radiation induced responses in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. The accumulation pattern of 90Sr was examined for L. minor root and fronds separately over a seven-day time period and was subsequently used in a dynamic dosimetric model to calculate β-radiation dose rates. Exposing L. minor plants for seven days to a 90Sr activity concentration of 25 up to 25,000 kBq·L−1 resulted in a dose rate between 0.084 ± 0.004 and 97 ± 8 mGy·h−1. After seven days of exposure, root fresh weight showed a dose dependent decrease starting from a dose rate of 9.4 ± 0.5 mGy·h−1. Based on these data, an EDR10 value of 1.5 ± 0.4 mGy·h−1 was estimated for root fresh weight and 52 ± 17 mGy·h−1 for frond fresh weight. Different antioxidative enzymes and metabolites were further examined to analyze if β-radiation induces oxidative stress in L. minor. PMID:26198226

  4. β-Radiation Stress Responses on Growth and Antioxidative Defense System in Plants: A Study with Strontium-90 in Lemna minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Van Hoeck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the following study, dose dependent effects on growth and oxidative stress induced by β-radiation were examined to gain better insights in the mode of action of β-radiation induced stress in plant species. Radiostrontium (90Sr was used to test for β-radiation induced responses in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. The accumulation pattern of 90Sr was examined for L. minor root and fronds separately over a seven-day time period and was subsequently used in a dynamic dosimetric model to calculate β-radiation dose rates. Exposing L. minor plants for seven days to a 90Sr activity concentration of 25 up to 25,000 kBq·L−1 resulted in a dose rate between 0.084 ± 0.004 and 97 ± 8 mGy·h−1. After seven days of exposure, root fresh weight showed a dose dependent decrease starting from a dose rate of 9.4 ± 0.5 mGy·h−1. Based on these data, an EDR10 value of 1.5 ± 0.4 mGy·h−1 was estimated for root fresh weight and 52 ± 17 mGy·h−1 for frond fresh weight. Different antioxidative enzymes and metabolites were further examined to analyze if β-radiation induces oxidative stress in L. minor.

  5. Protective effects of L-arginine on pulmonary oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses during exhaustive exercise in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-teng LIN; Suh-ching YANG; Kung-tung CHEN; Chi-chang HUANG; Ning-yuean LEE

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation on pulmonary oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in rats after exhaustive exercise. Methods:Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary control with L-Arg treatment (SC+Arg), exhaustive exercise with control diet (E)and exhaustive exercise with L-Arg treatment (E+Arg). Rats in groups SC+Arg and E+Arg received a 2% L-Arg diet. Rats in groups E and E+Arg underwent an exhaustive running test on a motorized treadmill. Pulmonary oxidative stress indices [xanthine oxidase (XO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and malondialdehyde (MDA)] and antioxidant defense systems [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH)] were investigated in this study. Results: L-Arg supplementation significantly reduced exercise-induced elevations of XO and MPO activities in lung. LArg reversed the exercise-induced increase in SOD and GR activities, but increased CAT and GPX activities. L-Arg administration also significantly increased the GSH levels in plasma. Conclusion: L-Arg supplementation can prevent elevations of XO and MPO activities in the lung and favorably influence pulmonary antioxidant defense systems after exhaustive exercise.

  6. Brain stem and thalamus antioxidative defense in experimental sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Ninković Milica; Maličević Ž.; Stojanović Dragica; Vasiljević Ivana; Jovanović Marina; Đukić Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Although brain complications in sepsis are not rare, early pathophysiologic events had not been made clear yet. We have considered antioxidative components-glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in two brain integrative centers, i.e the brain stem (BS) and thalamus. Sepsis was induced in adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g) by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) with inoculation of Escherichia coli suspension (ATCC 25922) (n=40). The control group w...

  7. Methyl jasmonate regulates antioxidant defense and suppresses arsenic uptake in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Farooq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyl jasmonate (MJ is an important plant growth regulator, involved in plant defense against abiotic stresses, however its possible function in response to metal stress is poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of MJ on physiological and biochemical changes of the plants exposed to arsenic (As stress were investigated in two Brassica napus L. cultivars (ZS 758 – a black seed type, and Zheda 622 – a yellow seed type. The As treatment at 200 µM was more phytotoxic, however its combined application with MJ resulted in significant increase in leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, biomass production and reduced malondialdehyde content compared with As stressed plants. The application of MJ minimized the oxidative stress, as revealed via a lower level of reactive oxygen species (ROS synthesis (H2O2 and OH- in leaves and the maintenance of high redox states of glutathione and ascorbate. Enhanced enzymatic activities and gene expression of important antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT, POD, secondary metabolites (PAL, PPO, CAD and induction of lypoxygenase gene suggest that MJ plays an effective role in the regulation of multiple transcriptional pathways which were involved in oxidative stress responses. The content of As was higher in yellow seeded plants (cv. Zheda 622 as compared to black seeded plants (ZS 758. The application of MJ significantly reduced the As content in leaves and roots of both cultivars. Findings of the present study reveal that MJ improves ROS scavenging through enhanced antioxidant defense system, secondary metabolite and reduced As contents in both the cultivars.

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam S. EL-BELTAGI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation can be defined as the oxidative deterioration of lipids containing any number of carbon-carbon double bonds. Lipid peroxidation is a well-established mechanism of cellular injury in both plants and animals, and is used as an indicator of oxidative stress in cells and tissues. Lipid peroxides are unstable and decompose to form a complex series of compounds including reactive carbonyl compounds. The oxidation of linoleates and cholesterol is discussed in some detail. Analytical methods for studying lipid peroxidation were mentioned. Various kinds of antioxidants with different functions inhibit lipid peroxidation and the deleterious effects caused by the lipid peroxidation products.

  9. Antioxidant System in Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Şemsettin Karaca; Hüsna Güder

    2009-01-01

    In healthy body, oxygen species and antioxidant defence mechanisms work in balance. Overproduction or inadequate removal of reactive oxygen species result in oxidative stress, leading to lipid peroxidation, DNA mutation or breakage, activation or inactivation of enzymes, protein oxidation. Clinically, these cause several unfavorable effects included erythema, edema, wrinkles, photoaging, inflammation, autoimmune reactions, hipersensitivity reactions, keratinization disorders, neoplastic or pr...

  10. Mejora de defensas antioxidantes mediante ejercicio aeróbico en mujeres con síndrome metabólico Aerobic training improves antioxidant defense system in women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rosety-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad se acepta que el daño oxidativo juega un papel esencial en la patogénesis del síndrome metabólico. Estudios recientes proponen al daño oxidativo como diana terapéutica frente al síndrome metabólico. Precisamente nuestro objetivo fue mejorar el estatus total antioxidante (TAS de mujeres con síndrome metabólico mediante ejercicio aeróbico. Participaron voluntariamente 100 mujeres con síndrome metabólico de acuerdo con los criterios del National Cholesterol Educational Program (Adult-Treatment-Panel-III distribuidas aleatoriamente en grupo experimental (n = 60 y control (n = 40. El grupo experimental desarrolló un programa de entrenamiento aeróbico sobre tapiz rodante de intensidad ligera/moderada de 12 semanas (5 sesiones/semana. La determinación del TAS plasmático se realizó mediante espectrofotometría utilizando kits comercializados por Randox Lab. Este protocolo fue aprobado por un Comité de Etica Institucional. Tras completar el programa de entrenamiento se incrementó significativamente el TAS (0.79 ± 0.05 vs.1.01 ± 0.03 mmol/l; p = 0.027. No hubo cambios en grupo control. El ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad ligera/moderada aumenta las defensas antioxidantes en mujeres con síndrome metabólico. Son necesarios futuros estudios longitudinales para conocer su impacto en la evolución clínica.A 12-week training protocol increased antioxidant defense system in young adult women with metabolic syndrome. It is generally accepted that oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, recent studies have reported that stress may be acting as a therapeutic target in metabolic syndrome. Consequently, this study was designed to explore whether aerobic training may increase plasmatic total antioxidant status in women with metabolic syndrome. A total of 100 young adult women with metabolic syndrome according to the criteria reported by the National Cholesterol Education Program

  11. Thyroid status and antioxidant defense in pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid function, lipid peroxidation (LPO) products content and antioxidant defense in pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus are studied. The levels of malonic dialdehyde, vitamins A, C and E, reduced glutathion, and activity of enzymatic antioxidants were measured in the blood of 60 women living in Minsk and 90 pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. The functions of the thyroid was assessed from the blood levels of tri-iodothyronine, thyroxin, thyroidbinding globulin, and T4/TSH ratio. It is shown that the content of LPO products is increased higher and the levels of antioxidant vitamins and reduced glutathion decreased lower in the residents of contaminated territories. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in pregnant women depend on the function of the thyroid

  12. Antioxidant System in Dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şemsettin Karaca

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In healthy body, oxygen species and antioxidant defence mechanisms work in balance. Overproduction or inadequate removal of reactive oxygen species result in oxidative stress, leading to lipid peroxidation, DNA mutation or breakage, activation or inactivation of enzymes, protein oxidation. Clinically, these cause several unfavorable effects included erythema, edema, wrinkles, photoaging, inflammation, autoimmune reactions, hipersensitivity reactions, keratinization disorders, neoplastic or preneoplastic lesions. Although reactive oxygen species play a role in various skin diseases, their biological targets and pathogenic mode of action are still not fully understood. In addition, strategies in the therapeutic management of reactive oxygen species effects in are still lacking. The aim of this review is to give information to readers about reactive oxygen species, antioxidants and skin disorders influenced by reactive oxygen species.

  13. Influence of fasting on muscle composition and antioxidant defenses of market-size Sparus macrocephalus *

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao-dong; Wu, Tian-xing; Cai, Li-sheng; Zhu, Yong-fei

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate fasting effects on flesh composition and antioxidant defenses of market-size Sparus macrocephalus. Two hundred fish (main initial weight 580 g) were divided into two groups (control and fasted) and reared in 6 cages. After two weeks of adaptation, group I fasted for 28 d; group II was fed normally as a control. In 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 d, 6 fish per group were sampled for proximate flesh composition, liver antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde ...

  14. Antioxidant defenses predict long-term survival in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal and pathological processes entail the production of oxidative substances that can damage biological molecules and harm physiological functions. Organisms have evolved complex mechanisms of antioxidant defense, and any imbalance between oxidative challenge and antioxidant protection can depress fitness components and accelerate senescence. While the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis and aging has been studied intensively in humans and model animal species under laboratory conditions, there is a dearth of knowledge on its role in shaping life-histories of animals under natural selection regimes. Yet, given the pervasive nature and likely fitness consequences of oxidative damage, it can be expected that the need to secure efficient antioxidant protection is powerful in molding the evolutionary ecology of animals. Here, we test whether overall antioxidant defense varies with age and predicts long-term survival, using a wild population of a migratory passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica, as a model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC of breeding individuals was measured using standard protocols and annual survival was monitored over five years (2006-2010 on a large sample of selection episodes. AOC did not covary with age in longitudinal analyses after discounting the effect of selection. AOC positively predicted annual survival independently of sex. Individuals were highly consistent in their relative levels of AOC, implying the existence of additive genetic variance and/or environmental (including early maternal components consistently acting through their lives. CONCLUSIONS: Using longitudinal data we showed that high levels of antioxidant protection positively predict long-term survival in a wild animal population. Present results are therefore novel in disclosing a role for antioxidant protection in determining survival under natural conditions, strongly demanding for more

  15. The mtDNA NARP mutation activates the actin-Nrf2 signaling of antioxidant defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient handling of superoxides by antioxidant defenses is a crucial issue for cells with respiratory chain deficient mitochondria. We used human cultured skin fibroblasts to delineate the mechanism controlling the expression of antioxidant defenses in the case of a severe ATPase deficiency resulting from an 8993T>G mutation in the mitochondrial ATPase6 gene. We observed the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor Nrf2 associated with thinning of the actin stress fibers. The mobilization of the Nrf2 signaling pathway could be mimicked by a chemical blockade of the ATPase with a specific inhibitor, oligomycin. Interestingly enough, Nrf2 nuclear translocation was not observed in the case of a severe cytochrome oxidase deficiency, indicating that studying the status of this signaling pathway could throw some light on the importance of the oxidative insult associated with different respiratory chain defects

  16. Dosakaya Juice Assuages Development of Sucrose Induced Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Imbalance in Antioxidant Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Dommati Anand; Pisupati S.R Sweeya; Shukla, Srishti; Anusha, Sanga Venkata; Akshara, Dasari; Madhusudana, Kuncha; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to explore the effect of Dosakaya (DK) (Cucumis melo var. chito) juice on sucrose induced dysglycemia and disturbances in antioxidant defense in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were preconditioned with DK juice before administration of sucrose beverage continuously for 1-month. Blood glucose tolerance test and glutathione (GSH) homeostasis pathways in kidney were analyzed in different group of animals at the end of the study. Results: DK juice diffused (P < 0.00...

  17. The Cryptococcus neoformans Catalase Gene Family and Its Role in Antioxidant Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Steven S.; Jason E. Stajich; Nichols, Connie; Gerrald, Quincy D.; Alspaugh, J. Andrew; Dietrich, Fred; Perfect, John R.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we sought to elucidate the contribution of the Cryptococcus neoformans catalase gene family to antioxidant defense. We employed bioinformatics techniques to identify four members of the C. neoformans catalase gene family and created mutants lacking single or multiple catalase genes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, CAT1 and CAT3 encode putative spore-specific catalases, CAT2 encodes a putative peroxisomal catalase, and CAT4 encodes a putative cytosolic catalase. Only Ca...

  18. ENDURANCE TRAINING AND GLUTATHIONE-DEPENDENT ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE MECHANISM IN HEART OF THE DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Atalay

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise beneficially influences cardiac antioxidant defenses in normal rats. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training can strengthen glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism and decrease lipid peroxidation in heart of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox status of glutathione in blood of diabetic rats in response to training and acute exercise was also examined. Eight weeks of treadmill training increased the endurance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It did not affect glutathione level in heart tissue at rest and also after exercise. On the other hand, endurance training decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in heart, while glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were not affected either by acute exhaustive exercise or endurance training. Reduced and oxidized glutathione levels in blood were not affected by either training or acute exercise. Conjugated dienes levels in heart tissue were increased by acute exhaustive exercise and also 8 weeks treadmill training. Longer duration of exhaustion in trained group may have contributed to the increased conjugated dienes levels in heart after acute exercise. Our results suggest that endurance type exercise may make heart more susceptible to oxidative stress. Therefore it may be wise to combine aerobic exercise with insulin treatment to prevent its adverse effects on antioxidant defense in heart in patients with diabetes mellitus

  19. Differential stimulation of antioxidant defense in various organs of mice after whole body exposure to low-dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been generally considered that any dose of ionizing radiation is detrimental to the living organisms, however low the radiation dose may be. The much relied upon 'Linear-No-Threshold' (LNT) hypothesis dose not have any convincing experimental evidence regarding the damaging effects at very low-doses and low-dose rates. Generally, the deleterious biological effects have been inferred theoretically by extrapolating the known effects of high radiation dose to low-dose range. Recently, it has been reported that the living organisms do not respond to ionizing radiations in a linear manner in the low-dose range 0.01-0.50 Gy and rather restore the homeostasis both in-vivo and in-vitro by normal physiological mechanisms such as, cellular and DNA repair processes, immune reactions, antioxidant defense, adaptive responses, activation of immune functions; stimulation of growth etc. In this study, we have attempted to find: (i) the critical radiation dose range and the post irradiation period during which the antioxidant defense systems in the lungs, liver and kidneys remain stimulated; and (ii) to evaluate the degree to which these defense mechanisms remain stimulated in these organs after whole body exposure of the animal to low-dose radiation

  20. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and of antioxidative defense: Relationship to intervention with antioxidant-rich foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars Ove; Young, Jette Feveile; Loft, Steffen;

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidant actions of single food items or extracts rich in flavonoids (e.g., apple and black currant juice, grape skin extract, tea extract and parsley) were evaluated in short-term human trials [Denmark; date not given]. An overall weak trend toward decreased lipid oxidation with increased...

  1. 达乌里胡枝子抗氧化防御系统对增强UV-B辐射的动态响应%Responses of Antioxidant Defense System of Lespedeza davurica to Enhanced UV-B Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝文芳; 杜润峰; 王龙飞

    2012-01-01

    为探究增强UV-B辐射对达乌里胡枝子(Lespedeza davrica)抗氧化能力的影响,采用盆栽试验研究其在不同UV-B辐射强度(CK=0,T1=1.944 kJ· m-2 ·d-1,T2=3.002 kJ·m-2·d-1)下的抗氧化保护系统相关指标的动态响应,UV-B辐射处理持续15 d,每3d取样一次至结束后第3d再取样一次.结果表明:随着处理时间的延长,增强UV-B辐射使超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性降低,抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性升高,且SOD,POD和CAT的活性随着辐射强度的增加而降低,APX活性在开始处理9d内随着辐射强度的增加而增加,此后随着辐射强度的增加而降低;增强UV-B辐射使抗坏血酸(AsA)含量增加,类胡萝卜素(Car)含量降低,且二者的含量均随着辐射强度的增加而降低;增强UV-B辐射使超氧阴离子(Oi-)、丙二醛(MDA)含量升高,O2·-含量和MDA含量均随着辐射强度的增加而增加.UV-B处理结束后,除SOD活性、POD活性、AsA含量呈下降趋势外,其他指标都呈上升趋势.通过隶属函数法综合评价得出:增强UV-B辐射降低了达乌里胡枝子的抗氧化能力,随着UV-B辐射强度的增加,抗氧化能力降低.%The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different UV-B radiation intensity (CK, T1. T2)on antioxidant defense system and other related indicators of Lespedeza davurica (Laxm. ) Schindl. Malonaldehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA) and carotenoid (Car) contents, as well as superox-ide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities of leaves from Lespedeza davurica under different UV-B radiation intensity were investigated. Samples were collected once every three days. The UV-B treatment was continued 15 days. Result indicated that SOD and POD activities decreased, APX and POD activities increased with UV-B radiation enhanced during the whole treatment time. SOD, POD and CAT activities decreased with UV

  2. Iron-ascorbate-mediated lipid peroxidation causes epigenetic changes in the antioxidant defense in intestinal epithelial cells: impact on inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Yara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The gastrointestinal tract is frequently exposed to noxious stimuli that may cause oxidative stress, inflammation and injury. Intraluminal pro-oxidants from ingested nutrients especially iron salts and ascorbic acid frequently consumed together, can lead to catalytic formation of oxygen-derived free radicals that ultimately overwhelm the cellular antioxidant defense and lead to cell damage. HYPOTHESIS: Since the mechanisms remain sketchy, efforts have been exerted to evaluate the role of epigenetics in modulating components of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants in the intestine. To this end, Caco-2/15 cells were exposed to the iron-ascorbate oxygen radical-generating system. RESULTS: Fe/Asc induced a significant increase in lipid peroxidation as reflected by the elevated formation of malondialdehyde along with the alteration of antioxidant defense as evidenced by raised superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 and diminished glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities and genes. Consequently, there was an up-regulation of inflammatory processes illustrated by the activation of NF-κB transcription factor, the higher production of interleukin-6 and cycloxygenase-2 as well as the decrease of IκB. Assessment of promoter's methylation revealed decreased levels for SOD2 and increased degree for GPx2. On the other hand, pre-incubation of Caco-2/15 cells with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent, or Trolox antioxidant normalized the activities of SOD2 and GPx, reduced lipid peroxidation and prevented inflammation. CONCLUSION: Redox and inflammatory modifications in response to Fe/Asc -mediated lipid peroxidation may implicate epigenetic methylation.

  3. Neonatal SSRI exposure improves mitochondrial function and antioxidant defense in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Glauber Ruda F; Freitas, Cristiane M; Nascimento, Luciana; Pedroza, Anderson A; da Silva, Aline Isabel; Lagranha, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Protein restriction during prenatal, postnatal, or in both periods has a close relationship with subsequent development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Elevated brain levels of serotonin and its metabolites have been found in malnourished states. The aim in the present study was to investigate whether treatment with fluoxetine (Fx), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, mimics the detrimental effect of low-protein diet during the perinatal period on the male rat heart. Our hypothesis is that increased circulating serotonin as a result of pharmacologic treatment with Fx leads to cardiac dysfunction similar to that observed in protein-restricted rats. Male Wistar rat pups received daily subcutaneous injection of Fx or vehicle from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 21. Male rats were euthanized at 60 days of age and the following parameters were evaluated in the cardiac tissue: mitochondrial respiratory capacity, respiratory control ratio, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. We found that Fx treatment increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity (123%) and membrane potential (212%) and decreased ROS production (55%). In addition we observed an increase in the antioxidant capacity (elevation in catalase activity (5-fold) and glutathione peroxidase (4.6-fold)). Taken together, our results suggest that Fx treatment in the developmental period positively affects the mitochondrial bioenergetics and antioxidant defense in the cardiac tissue. PMID:26939042

  4. EFFECTS OF PROLONGED EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE IN ENDURANCE HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Kinnunen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress during prolonged endurance exercise may end up with muscle damage, fatigue and decreased physical performance. We have recently shown that acute exercise at moderate intensity induced lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC in trained trotters. The aim of this study was to measure the changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defense following an 80-km ride in the blood of endurance horses. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the ride. Unlike to our previous studies performed on trotters, in endurance horses there were no measurable changes in antioxidants or oxidative stress marker lipid hydroperoxides (LPO after prolonged exercise. ORAC, vitamin E and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO concentration or glutathione related enzyme activities were not altered due to the 80-km ride. However, the base line levels of oxidative stress marker were higher in endurance horses compared to trotters. A positive correlation between the pre-ride LPO concentration and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity after the ride was observed, which may indicate a protective response of glutathione peroxidase against exercise-induced oxidative stress. Our results suggest that endurance horses have higher oxidative stress levels compared to trotters and a single 80-km ride probably did not suffice to induce oxidative stress and to activate antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  5. Defense system shortcuts and limits of scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewald, E; Francischetti, M M

    2000-10-01

    Defense, as a key factor of life, shares the biological tendencies of simplicity and energy saving. We propose that, like the mind, defense tends to rely on shortcuts via immune memes. Also, response repetition may induce the formation of virtual 'modules' [toolkits] to simplify and perfect performance. Engaged modules may expand by proliferating or by capturing immune components from the 'dormant' and even perhaps from active ones. With regard to recovery and/or survival, complexity of the integrated defense system (IDS) (1) requires to be inside of what we call the 'functional window'. In contrast to the physiological and common disease repair, energy is squandered when IDS perceives real danger. Our concern is the uncertain transition to conditions that do not fit into the IDS routine and, even worse, that are outside the functional window where the system is lacking. PMID:11000052

  6. Intelligent systems for strategic power infrastructure defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Hwan

    A fault or disturbance in a power system can be severe due to the sources of vulnerability such as human errors, protection and control system failures, a failure of communication networks to deliver critical control signals, and market and load uncertainties. There have been several catastrophic failures resulting from disturbances involving the sources of vulnerability while power systems are designed to withstand disturbances or faults. To avoid catastrophic failures or minimize the impact of a disturbance(s), the state of the power system has to be analyzed correctly and preventive or corrective self-healing control actions have to be deployed. This dissertation addresses two aspects of power systems: Defense system and diagnosis, both concerned with the power system analysis and operation during events involving faults or disturbances. This study is intended to develop a defense system that is able to assess power system vulnerability and to perform self-healing control actions based on the system-wide analysis. In order to meet the requirements of the system-wide analysis, the defense system is designed with multi-agent system technologies. Since power systems are dynamic and uncertain the self-healing control actions need to be adaptive. This study applies the reinforcement learning technique to provide a theoretical basis for adaptation. One of the important issues in adaptation is the convergence of the learning algorithm. An appropriate convergence criterion is derived and an application with a load-shedding scheme is demonstrated in this study. This dissertation also demonstrates the feasibility of the defense system and self-healing control actions through multi-agent system technologies. The other subject of this research is to investigate the methodology for on-line fault diagnosis using the information from Sequence-of-Events Recorders (SER). The proposed multiple-hypothesis analysis generates one or more hypothetical fault scenarios to interpret the

  7. Nonenzymatic antioxidants in saliva of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moori, M; Ghafoori, H; Sariri, R

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody-directed self-antigens, immune complex formation and immune deregulation, resulting in damage to essentially all the organs. SLE is associated with the increased production of free radicals. Increase in free radicals or impaired antioxidant defense system in SLE causes oxidative stress. Considering that saliva could be a reflection of the state of health, the purpose of this study was to evaluate some antioxidants in the saliva and serum of patients with SLE and compare these with healthy individuals. This could help us in obtaining a possible marker in saliva in the future. During the course of the practical part of the project, 30 patients with SLE and 30 healthy controls were investigated. After centrifugation of un-stimulated saliva and blood samples, they were examined using spectrophotometric methods and the results were analyzed by statistical software. According to the results, concentrations of malondialdehyde, uric acid and total antioxidants were significantly increased but the level of reduced glutathion was reduced significantly in the saliva and serum of SLE patients as compared to controls. It is therefore suggested that antioxidant power is impaired in saliva and serum of SLE patients. As there was a positive correlation between the antioxidant level of saliva and blood serum, the antioxidant status of saliva could be an indicator of serum antioxidants. PMID:26449364

  8. Gasoline effects on biotransformation and antioxidant defenses of the freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Juliana D; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso; Martinez, Cláudia B R

    2011-08-01

    Biochemical biomarkers in the Neotropical freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus were evaluated following acute exposures to the water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG). Fish were exposed to the WSFG diluted to 5% in water (WSFG group) or only to water (Control group) for 6, 24 and 96 h and the gills and liver were removed for the biochemical analyses. Fish exposed to WSFG for 24 and 96 h showed significant increase in the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) both in liver and gills, pointing toward phase I and phase II biotransformation of the compounds present in the WSFG. The results also indicated the activation of antioxidant defenses in both the liver and gills after fish exposure to WSFG. The liver showed activation of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) after 96 h exposure. An increase in hepatic content of reduced glutathione (GSH) together with decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity was observed after 24 and 96 h of exposure to WSFG. In the gills, only catalase (CAT) activity augmented after 6 and 24 h of exposure and GSH content increased after 24 h of WSFG exposure. However, in both the organs, activation of the antioxidant defenses was not enough to prevent oxidative damage since they showed lipid peroxidation (LPO) at one of the experimental times: the liver after 6 h and the gills only after 96 h of exposure to WSFG. This may indicate better adaptation of the liver to longer exposures, starting from 24 h. As the gills are the first organ to be exposed to xenobiotics, the antioxidant defenses were triggered immediately upon exposure to WSFG and were able to prevent the occurrence of LPO during the initial times. PMID:21560013

  9. DEFENSE MECHANISMS FOR COMPUTER-BASED INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Alshammari; Christian Bach

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, corporations and a government agencies relay on computer-based information system to manage their information, this information may be classified, so it will be dangerous if it is disclosed by unauthorized persons. Therefore, there is urgent need for defense. In this research, defense has been categorized into four mechanisms technical defense, operation defense, management defense, and physical defense based on the logic of computer and network security. Also, each mechanism has be...

  10. The role of disorders of the prooxidant-antioxidant system in diabetes etiopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mrowicka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of diabetic complications. It was found that hyperglycemia triggered a number of mechanisms that evoke overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased level of free radicals, disturbances of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system and lower concentration of exogenous antioxidants. In consequence, these abnormalities lead to a redox imbalance called oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to summarize the role of reactive oxygen species and changes in the antioxidant defense system in the development of diabetic complications.

  11. Variations in antioxidant defense during the development of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis

    OpenAIRE

    Dmochowska-Ślęzak, Kamila; Giejdasz, Karol; Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    An efficient antioxidant system is of particular importance for insects whose high metabolic rates promote increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amount of ROS can be additionally increased by environmental factors. This study investigates the ability of red mason bees (Osmia bicornis L.) to inactivate free radicals during insect development. Both male and female bees were studied, from the larval to the active imago stage. The activity of four antioxidant enzymes, superoxi...

  12. Uranium induced ROS and its antioxidant defense molecules, genotoxicity assessment in iridescent shark (Pangasius sutchi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential adverse effects of uranium (U) contamination in the aquatic environment to living organisms have been debated during the recent years. In order to understand the effect and mode of action (MoA) of U in vivo, the iridescent shark (Pangasius sutchi) were exposed to ¼ and ½ LC50 waterborne uranyl nitrate in a static system till 21 days. The accumulation of U concentrations in the muscle, brain, gill and liver were analyzed by ICP-MS.The results clearly showed higher accumulation of U in the gills, and the accumulation were in the order of magnitude as gills > liver> Brain> tissue. Dose dependent effects of uranium on hepatic antioxidant defenses like super oxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidase were observed and the ideal concentration-response relationships were observed at the highest U concentration. The DNA fragmentation analysis by comet assay and cell viability by flow cytometric analysis was performed at different time intervals. The whole blood analysis revealed aneuploidy-like patterns in the DNA histograms some fish, as well as hyper diploid shoulders of the G0/G1 peak. A significant differences in DNA damage occurred in fishes exposed protractedly and acutely to uranium compared to control. The higher the U concentration greater the effect observed suggested a close relationship between accumulation and effect. A possible ROS mediated U cytotoxic mechanism has been proposed. Studies on the uranium toxicity regulating genes can possibly be used as a tool to evaluate U toxicity which will be more sensitive than the enzymatic activities. However a multiple biomarker approach can be recommended as the perturbed pathways and the mode of action of this pollutant are not completely understood. (author)

  13. [Oxidative injury and its defense system in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Y

    1999-03-01

    We and other researchers verified that excessively produced free radicals by neutrophils induce various diseases such as Behçet's disease, MCLS, SLE (neutrophil-stimulated lymphocytes), RA (synovial fluid neutrophils), Crohn's disease, colitis ulcerosa, and dermatitis herpetiformis (Dühring). Recently, it was reported that environmental toxic agents including herbicides such as paraquat, insecticides, nitrogen oxide, and ultraviolet radiation produce free radicals. Nitrogen oxide, a main product of the combustion of petroleum, is a prominent component of exhaust from automobiles. Generation of 1O2 by ultraviolet radiation has also increased by breaks in the earth's ozone layer induced by halogenated hydrocarbon gas. Various diseases have been induced by these agents such as malignancies, severe adult atopic dermatitis, complication of cataract and retinolysis with atopic dermatitis, skin cancer, male infertility, severe collagen diseases, and lung fibrosis. It was also found that PCB, methyl-Hg and Mn, Cd induce neuropathic diseases through the increase in free radical production. On the other hand, a self-defense system exists against oxidative injuries; high-molecular-weight antioxidants such as SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px, and low-molecular-weight antioxidants such as vitamin C, E, A, polyphenols, flavonoids, and catechin. As protection from oxidative injury, various antioxidant products have been developed, however, the development of SOD injection was given up by all the pharmaceutical companies in the world on account of ineffectiveness due to rapid excretion from the kidney, low affinity to the receptor and weak penetration into the cell. A.M. Michelson, a French biochemist succeeded in developing an effective bovine liposomal-encapsulated SOD solving these problems, however, he also gave it up since French government prohibited bovine products due to the prion virus. Regarding low-molecular-weight antioxidants, synthetic products generally show low affinity

  14. Involvement of Protein Phosphorylation in Water Stress-induced Antioxidant Defense in Maize Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-cheng Xu; Hai-dong Ding; Feng-xia Su; A-ying Zhang; Ming-yi Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, the role of protein phosphorylation and the interrelationship between water stress-enhanced kinase activity, antioxidant enzyme activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and endogenous abscisic acid in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were investigated. Water-stress upregulated the activities of total protein phosphorylation and Ca2+ -dependent protein kinase, and the upregulation was blocked in abscisic acid-deficient vp5 mutant. Furthermore, pretreatments with a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor and a scavenger of H2O2 significantly reduced the increased activities of total protein kinase and Ca2+-dependent protein kinase in maize leaves exposed to water stress. Pretreatments with different protein kinase inhibitors also reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 production and the water stress-enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The data suggest that protein phosphorylation and H2O2 generation are required for water stress-induced antioxidant defense in maize leaves and that crosstalk between protein phosphorylation and H2O2 generation may occur.

  15. Influence of fasting on muscle composition and antioxidant defenses of market-size Sparus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate fasting effects on flesh composition and antioxidant defenses of market-size Sparus macrocephalus. Two hundred fish (main initial weight 580 g) were divided into two groups (control and fasted) and reared in 6 cages. After two weeks of adaptation, group Ⅰ fasted for 28 d; group Ⅱ was fed normally as a control. In 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 d,6 fish per group were sampled for proximate flesh composition, liver antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde flesh content analyses. In fasted fish, the reduction of lipid content in muscle occurred after day 3, and, compared to controls, the content of protein decreased from day 14, the activities of liver antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) increased from day 3, and flesh malondialdehyde levels increased from day 21. Flesh fat reduction shows that fasting may be used as a technique to reduce flesh lipid content in Sparus macrocephalus. However, considering flesh protein loss and the subsequent oxidative stress, the fasting technique should be used with precautions.

  16. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Naofumi Tamaki; Rita Cristina Orihuela-Campos; Makoto Fukui; Hiro-O Ito

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A cir...

  17. A Hierarchal System of Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Constructs a hierarchy of defense mechanisms through the addition of the concepts of secondary and tertiary defenses to the already existing psychoanalytic defenses and increases the explanatory power of the concept of defense. Research generated from this theoretical model is presented. (Author/BEF)

  18. Endogenous antioxidant defense induction by melon superoxide dismutase reduces cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Rugale, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Jover, Bernard

    2014-08-01

    We assessed the influence of SODB, a melon superoxide dismutase (SOD), on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in SHR. SODB (4 or 40U SOD) was given orally for 4 or 28 days to SHR. For each treatment period, LV weight index (LVWI) and cardiomyocytes size were measured. SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase expressions, and LV production and presence of superoxide anion were determined. Pro-inflammatory markers were also measured. SODB reduced LVWI and cardiomyocytes size after 4 or 28 days. Cardiac SOD and GPx increased by 30-40% with SODB. The presence but not production of superoxide anion was significantly reduced by SODB. No effect of SODB was detected on inflammatory status in any group. The beneficial effect of SODB on cardiac hypertrophy seems to be related to the stimulation of endogenous antioxidant defense, suggesting that SODB may be of interest as a dietary supplementation during conventional antihypertensive therapy. PMID:24601674

  19. Antioxidative defense enzymes in placenta protect placenta and fetus in inherited thrombophilia from hydrogen peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Bogdanovic Pristov; Ivan Spasojevic; Željko Mikovic; Vesna Mandic; Nikola Cerovic; Mihajlo Spasic

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the activities of antioxidative defense enzymes in the placenta, fetal blood and amnion fluid in inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilia was associated with nearly threefold increase of activity (p < 0.001) of the placental catalase (81.1 ± 20.6 U/mg of proteins in controls and 270.0 ± 69.9 U/mg in thrombophilic subjects), glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (C: 20.2 ± 10.1 U/mg; T: 60.0 ± 15.5 U/mg), and GSH reductase (C: 28.9 ± 5.6 U/mg; T: 72.7 ± 23.0 U/mg). The placenta...

  20. Influence of cadmium loading on the state of the antioxidant system in the organism of bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Gutyj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research on the influence of cadmium loading on the state level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant links of the antioxidant defense system of the organisms of young cattle, such as the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione levels, selenium, vitamins A and E. It was found that feeding bull calves with cadmium chloride at doses of 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg of body weight helped to reduce both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic link of antioxidant protection (superoxide dismutase 31%, catalase 13%, glutathione peroxidase 23%, reduced glutathione 10%, vitamin A 28%, vitamin E 31%, selenium 20%. Toxic effects of cadmium promotes change in steady-state concentrations of radical metabolites О2–,ОН˙, НО2˙, which, in turn, trigger the process of lipid peroxidation. The lowest level of indicators of antioxidant defense system in the blood of young cattle was registered on the sixteenth and twenty-fourth days of the experiment, which is associated with increased activation of lipid peroxidation and the disturbaance of the balance between the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation intensity. The activity of the antioxidant defense system in the blood was different for calves fed with cadmium chloride at doses of 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg of animal mass. The more cadmium chloride in the feed, the lower the activity of the antioxidant defense system of the calves’ organisms was registered. Thus cadmium chloride depresses the antioxidant defense system, which specifically involves lowering the activity of enzymatic links (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and non-enzymatic links (reduced glutathione, selenium, vitamins A and E.

  1. Effect of chromium (VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status and trace element homeostasis in acute experiment in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyzová, Dana; Hodková, Anna; Bludovská, Monika; Eybl, Vladislav

    2015-11-01

    Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds is of concern in many Cr-related industries and their surrounding environment. Cr(VI) is a proven toxin and carcinogen. The Cr(VI) compounds are easily absorbed, can diffuse across cell membranes, and have strong oxidative potential. Despite intensive studies of Cr(VI) pro-oxidative effects, limited data exist on the influence of Cr(VI) on selenoenzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-important components of antioxidant defense system. This study investigates the effect of Cr(VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status, with focus on these selenoenzymes, and on trace element homeostasis in an acute experiment in rat. Male Wistar rats (130-140g) were assigned to two groups of 8 animals: I. control; and II. Cr(VI) treated. The animals in Cr(VI) group were administered a single dose of K2Cr2O7 (20 mg /kg, intraperitoneally (ip)). The control group received saline solution. After 24 h, the animals were sacrificed and the liver and kidneys were examined for lipid peroxidation (LP; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration), the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of GPx-1, TrxR-1, and glutathione reductase (GR). Samples of tissues were also used to estimate Cr accumulation and alterations in zinc, copper, and iron levels. The acute Cr(VI) exposure caused an increase in both hepatic and renal LP (by 70%, p effect of Cr(VI) was found on TrxR-1 activity in both the liver and the kidneys. The ability of Cr(VI) to cause TrxR inhibition could contribute to its cytotoxic effects. Further investigation of oxidative responses in different in vivo models may enable the development of strategies to protect against Cr(VI) oxidative damage. PMID:23625905

  2. Methyl jasmonate effectively enhanced some defense enzymes activity and Total Antioxidant content in harvested "Sabrosa" strawberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammadreza; Hasanlooe, Ali Rashid

    2016-05-01

    The use of chemicals in postharvest technology of horticultural crops is highly restricted and it is necessary to introduce safe food preserving methods. Strawberry is very susceptible to postharvest losses and more than 50% of harvested fruit is lost in Iran. Effect of postharvest treatment with methyl jasmonate (at 0, 8, and 16 μmol L(-1)) on some quality attributes of Sabrosa strawberry fruit during storage at 1 ± 0.5°C with 90-95% RH for 14 days followed by 24 h at 20°C was studied. Methyl jasmonate, at both concentrations, decreased weight loss and retained marketability of fruits. Catalase activity of treated fruits was decreased during the first days, but showed a substantial increase during the second week. Methyl jasmonate, in a concentration-dependent manner, enhanced peroxidase activity. Fruit total antioxidant capacity was enhanced by methyl jasmonate treatment. The results indicated that methyl jasmonate plays a key role in establishing resistance against stresses, enhancing fruit defense systems, antioxidant capacity, and storage life leading to decreased postharvest losses. This phytochemical has a good potential to be used in postharvest technology of Sabrosa strawberry fruit and enhance the fruit postharvest life. PMID:27247768

  3. Improvement of phytoextraction and antioxidative defense in Solanum nigrum L. under cadmium stress by application of cadmium-resistant strain and citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remediation of plant-microorganism-chelates synergy has been proposed as an effective remediation method for enhancing the removal efficiency of heavy metal. Manipulation of the antioxidative system increases plant tolerance, thereby potentially enhancing the uptake capacity to heavy metal. In this study, we investigated the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd and the antioxidative defense of Solanum nigrum L. by application of a new isolated strain (Paecilomyces lilacinus NH1) (PLNH1) and citric acid (CA). The results showed that application of CA or PLNH1 significantly promoted S. nigrum's growth under Cd stress, but the synergistic effect of CA and PLNH1 on S. nigrum's growth was more obvious. The coexistence of CA and PLNH1 could enhance about 30% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum compared to the treatment without the addition of CA and PLNH1, whereas single CA or PLNH1 added treatment only enhanced about 10-15% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum. The antioxidative defense in S. nigrum under Cd stress was significantly improved as result of application of CA and PLNH1. The responses of antioxidative enzymes to Cd stress significantly decreased following application of CA and PLNH1, and the oxidative stress experienced by the plant due to Cd in the soil was significantly alleviated.

  4. Improvement of phytoextraction and antioxidative defense in Solanum nigrum L. under cadmium stress by application of cadmium-resistant strain and citric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yang, E-mail: gaoyang0898@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of Soil and Water Conservation and Desertification Control, College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Miao Chiyuan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Mao Liang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Zhou Pei [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jin Zhiguo; Shi Wanjun [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Remediation of plant-microorganism-chelates synergy has been proposed as an effective remediation method for enhancing the removal efficiency of heavy metal. Manipulation of the antioxidative system increases plant tolerance, thereby potentially enhancing the uptake capacity to heavy metal. In this study, we investigated the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd and the antioxidative defense of Solanum nigrum L. by application of a new isolated strain (Paecilomyces lilacinus NH1) (PLNH1) and citric acid (CA). The results showed that application of CA or PLNH1 significantly promoted S. nigrum's growth under Cd stress, but the synergistic effect of CA and PLNH1 on S. nigrum's growth was more obvious. The coexistence of CA and PLNH1 could enhance about 30% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum compared to the treatment without the addition of CA and PLNH1, whereas single CA or PLNH1 added treatment only enhanced about 10-15% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum. The antioxidative defense in S. nigrum under Cd stress was significantly improved as result of application of CA and PLNH1. The responses of antioxidative enzymes to Cd stress significantly decreased following application of CA and PLNH1, and the oxidative stress experienced by the plant due to Cd in the soil was significantly alleviated.

  5. Cadmium tolerance and antioxidative defenses in hairy roots of the cadmium hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boominathan, Rengasamy; Doran, Pauline M

    2003-07-20

    Plant species capable of hyperaccumulating heavy metals are of considerable interest for phytoremediation and phytomining. This work aims to identify the role of antioxidative metabolism in heavy metal tolerance in the Cd hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens. Hairy roots of T. caerulescens and the non-hyperaccumulator, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), were used to test the effects of high Cd environments. In the absence of Cd, endogenous activities of catalase were two to three orders of magnitude higher in T. caerulescens than in N. tabacum. T. caerulescens roots also contained significantly higher endogenous superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentrations. Exposure to 20 ppm (178 microM) Cd prevented growth of N. tabacum roots and increased hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels by a factor of five relative to cultures without Cd. In contrast, growth was maintained in T. caerulescens, and H(2)O(2) concentrations were controlled to low, nontoxic levels in association with a strong catalase induction response. Treatment of roots with the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), exacerbated H(2)O(2) accumulation in Cd-treated N. tabacum, but had a relatively minor effect on H(2)O(2) levels and did not reduce Cd tolerance in T. caerulescens. Lipid peroxidation was increased by Cd treatment in both the hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator roots. This work demonstrates that metal-induced oxidative stress occurs in hyperaccumulator tissues even though growth is unaffected by the presence of heavy metals. It also suggests that superior antioxidative defenses, particularly catalase activity, may play an important role in the hyperaccumulator phenotype of T. caerulescens. PMID:12768621

  6. Effects of Roundup Transorb on fish: hematology, antioxidant defenses and acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto, Kathya A; Martinez, Cláudia B R

    2010-10-01

    Roundup Transorb(RDT) is a glyphosate-based herbicide containing a mixture of surfactants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of this herbicide on the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Juvenile fish were acutely exposed (6, 24 and 96 h) to 1 mg L(-1) of RDT (RDT 1), 5 mg L(-1) of RDT (RDT 5) or only water (control) and blood samples for hematological analysis, liver for antioxidants analysis, and brain and muscle for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) determination, were collected. RDT effects were more evident in fish exposed to the higher concentration of the herbicide. Hematologic alterations appeared only after 96 h exposure, when fish showed an increase in the hematocrit and in the number of both red and white blood cells. After 6h exposure fish showed a transient reduction in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. RDT also inhibited glutathione-S-transferase, after 6 and 24h of exposure. The reduction in these enzymes is probably related to the occurrence of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in fish exposed to the herbicide for 6h. LPO returned to control levels after 24 and 96 h exposure to RDT, when fish showed an increased activity of glutathione peroxidase. The content of reduced glutathione also increased after 96 h exposure. Thus, after 24 and 96 h the antioxidant defenses were apparently enough to combat ROS, preventing the occurrence of oxidative damage. The exposure to RDT for 96 h led to an inhibition of AChE in brain and muscle at rates which may not be considered a life-threatening situation. PMID:20684975

  7. Nitric Oxide Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation Involved in Water Stress-induced Subcellular Anti-oxidant Defense in Maize Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrong Sang; Mingyi Jiang; Fan Lin; Shucheng Xu; Aying Zhang; Mingpu Tan

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) Is a bioactive molecule involved in many biological events, and has been reported as pro-oxidant as well as anti-oxidant in plants. In the present study, the sources of NO production under water stress, the role of NO in water stress-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and subcellular activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants were investigated. Water stress Induced defense increases in the generation of NO In maize mesphyll cells and the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the cytosolic and microsomal fractions of maize leaves. Water stress-induced defense increases in the production of NO were blocked by pretreatments with Inhibitors of NOS and nitrate reductase (NR), suggesting that NO is produced from NOS and NR in leaves of maize plants exposed to water stress. Water stress also induced increases in the activities of the chloroplastic and cytosolic anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidass (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), and the increases in the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes were reduced by pretreatments with inhibitors of NOS and NR. Exogenous NO increases the activities of water stress-induced subcellular anti-oxidant enzymes, which decreases accumulation of H2O2. Our results suggest that NOS and NR are involved in water strese-induced NO production and NOS is the major source of NO. The potential ability of NO to scavenge H2O2 is, at least in part, due to the induction of a subcellular anti-oxidant defense.

  8. Comparative genomics of defense systems in archaea and bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of prokaryotic defense systems has vastly expanded as the result of comparative genomic analysis, followed by experimental validation. This expansion is both quantitative, including the discovery of diverse new examples of known types of defense systems, such as restriction-modification or toxin-antitoxin systems, and qualitative, including the discovery of fundamentally new defense mechanisms, such as the CRISPR-Cas immunity system. Large-scale statistical analysis reveals that...

  9. THE DEFENSE PLANNING SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo STICZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense planning in the Alliance is a fundamental element of the arrangements which enable its member countries to enjoy the crucial political, military and resource advantages of collective defense and other common military efforts to enhance security and stability. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to outline the role of the Armed Forces and the specific processes aiming to achieve the ultimate goal of a nation regarding national security, with focus on defense planning and the PDPS.

  10. Effects of aerial exposure on antioxidant defenses in the brown mussel Perna perna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alves de Almeida

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant defenses in digestive gland of mussels Perna perna held in air for 4 hours, exposed to air for 4 hours followed by submersion in water for 30 minutes, and constantly submerged for 4.5 hours. No differences were observed in CAT and GPx activities and in the levels of total GSH. Mussels exposed to air had significantly higher SOD activity, possibly related to a preparative mechanism of defense against oxidative stress during reoxygenation.Mexilhões são periodicamente submetidos a condições de hipóxia seguido de normóxia, como resultado das oscilações nos níveis de maré. Tais condições podem causar um aumento na produção de espécies reativas de oxigenio (EROs nos tecidos, devido a um aumento no fluxo de oxigênio e de equivalentes redutores. Para proteger as células contra as EROs, os organismos possuem enzimas antioxidantes tais como a superóxido dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT e glutationa peroxidase (GPx, assim como o tripeptídeo glutationa (GSH. Neste trabalho, estas defesas antioxidantes foram avaliadas em glândulas digestivas de mexilhões Perna perna expostos ao ar por 4 horas seguido de re-submersão em água do mar por 30 minutos e constantemente submersos por 4,5 horas. Nenhuma diferença foi observada nas atividades da CAT e GPx, assim como nos níveis de GSH total. Mexilhões expostos ao ar tiveram atividade da SOD significativamente maior, possivelmente relacionado a um mecanismo de defesa preparativo contra o estresse oxidativo durante a reoxigenação.

  11. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  12. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance. PMID:27162773

  13. DIRECT EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE PARAMETERS IN EXPERIMENT WITH THE AXIAL PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kuncevich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is established that increased parameters of oxidative stress result from an imbalance between reactive oxygen molecules and endogenous antioxidants. Oxidative stress parameters may be considered to be biomarkers of heart failure. The aim of our study was to asses oxidative stress and antioxidant system parameters in experi- mental model with the axial pump. Our study included 7 calves (the mean age 120.33 days, the mean weight 99.17 kg. We used «FORM Plus CR3000» analyzer (Callegary, Italy and heparinized venous blood samples for the evaluation of the oxidative status (FORT test and the total antioxidant capacity (FORD test. In healthy animals oxidative system parameters differ from those in humans (FORT – 0.42 ± 0.11 versus 1.74 ± 0.32 mmol/l H2O2; FORD/FORT – 3.92 ± 1.30 versus 1.33 ± 0.27, p < 0.05 what should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of clinical and experimental studies. In three calves with experimental assisted circulation maximal oxidative stress values were observed on 1–3 days after the axial pump connection with the subsequent normalization of these parameters. Direct evaluation of oxidative stress parameters may be used as monitoring tool for estimation of assisted circulation adequacy in experiment (animal model. 

  14. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Orihuela-Campos, Rita Cristina; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-O

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:26798423

  15. Purple potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) anthocyanins attenuate alcohol-induced hepatic injury by enhancing antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhihui; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jian; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Meng; Li, Xinsheng; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious and challenging health issue. In the past decade, natural components possessing hepatoprotective properties have gained more attention for ALD intervention. In this study, the phytochemical components of anthocyanins from purple potato were assessed using UPLC-MS/MS, and the hepatoprotective effects of purple potato anthocyanins (PPAs) were investigated in the ALD mouse model. Serum and liver biochemical parameters were determined, along with histopathological changes in liver tissue. In addition, the major contributors to alcohol-induced oxidative stress were assessed. The results indicated that the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were lower in the serum of the PPA-treated group than the alcohol-treated group. PPAs significantly inhibited the reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione enzymes as well as a reduction in the formation of malondialdehyde occurred in mice fed with PPAs. In addition, PPAs protected against increased alcohol-induced levels and activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which demonstrates the effects of PPAs against alcohol-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. This study suggests that PPAs could be an effective therapeutic agent in alcohol-induced liver injuries by inhibiting CYP2E1 expression and thereby strengthening antioxidant defenses. PMID:26481011

  16. Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Placenta Protect Placenta and Fetus in Inherited Thrombophilia from Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Bogdanovic Pristov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the activities of antioxidative defense enzymes in the placenta, fetal blood and amnion fluid in inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilia was associated with nearly threefold increase of activity (p < 0.001 of the placental catalase (81.1 ± 20.6 U/mg of proteins in controls and 270.0 ± 69.9 U/mg in thrombophilic subjects, glutathione (GSH peroxidase (C: 20.2 ± 10.1 U/mg; T: 60.0 ± 15.5 U/mg, and GSH reductase (C: 28.9 ± 5.6 U/mg; T: 72.7 ± 23.0 U/mg. The placental activities of superoxide dismutating enzymes—MnSOD and CuZnSOD, did not differ in controls and thrombophilia. Likewise, the activities of catalase and SOD in the fetal blood, and the level of ascorbyl radical which represents a marker of oxidative status of amniotic fluid, were similar in controls and thrombophilic subjects. From this we concluded that in thrombophilia, placental tissue is exposed to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, which could be initiated by pro-thrombic conditions in maternal blood. Increased activity of placental H2O2-removing enzymes protects fetus and mother during pregnancy, but may increase the risk of postpartum thrombosis.

  17. Heat-shock response and antioxidant defense during air exposure in Patagonian shallow-water limpets from different climatic habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Pöhlmann, Kevin; Koenigstein, Stefan; Alter, Katharina; Abele, Doris; Held, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Climate warming involves not only a rise of air temperature means, but also more frequent heat waves in many regions on earth, and is predicted to intensify physiological stress especially in extremely changeable habitats like the intertidal. We investigated the heat-shock response (HSR) and enzymatic antioxidant defense levels of Patagonian shallow-water limpets, adapted to distinct tidal exposure conditions in the sub- and intertidal. Limpets were sampled in the temperate Northern Patagonia...

  18. Diet supplementation with a specific melon concentrate improves oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, J; Barbé, F; Barial, S; Saby, M; Sacy, A; Rouanet, J-M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a specific melon concentrate on oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics of laying hens.Lohmann Brown hens were assigned to 2 treatment groups (n = 16 in each). One group was supplemented with the melon concentrate (26 mg/kg of feed) during 6 wk. The other group was composed of untreated hens, which served as control. Eggs were collected, weighed (yolk, albumen, shell), and analyzed (Haugh unit and albumen pH relevant for egg freshness) at the end of the supplementation period. Antioxidant status was evaluated in the oviduct measuring antioxidant enzymes by western blotting.This study demonstrated that the melon concentrate could ameliorate egg weight, and particularly yolk contribution to egg weight and egg shell weight. An increase in endogenous antioxidant defenses in the oviduct after this melon concentrate supplementation could explain the better egg characteristics. The improvement of egg quality, due to melon concentrate, may have important economic implications for future breeding programs, particularly if these effects generalize from hens to other poultry species, or even other livestock animal species. PMID:27143774

  19. Role of vitamin B6 status on antioxidant defenses, glutathione, and related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yi-Chia; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Lee, Wan-Ju; Huang, Shih-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B6 may directly or indirectly play a role in oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system.Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of vitamin B6 status with cysteine, glutathione, and its related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress.Design: Four-week-old male BALB/c mice were weighed and divided into one of four dietary treatment groups fed either a normal diet (as a control group and a homocysteine group),...

  20. Phenolipids as antioxidants in emulsified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Bayrasy, Christelle; Laguerre, Mickäel;

    Lipid oxidation is a major issue in foods containing LC PUFA and substantial efforts have been made to protect lipids against oxidation. Recent studies carried out with phenolipids (lipophilized phenolics) in emulsified systems have shown that increased lipophilicity did not necessarily lead to an...... antioxidant effect has been shown to be influenced by the specific phenolic compound and the type of emulsion. The overall aim for our work was to evaluate phenolipids with different lipophilicity as antioxidants in emulsified food. In the study presented here caffeic, ferulic and coumaric acid were selected...... along with their corresponding alkyl esters (C4-C20). The methods used to evaluate the antioxidative effect of the different phenolipids were the CAT assay (o/w emulsion), antioxidant assays (DPPH, Iron chelating and reducing power) and partitioning studies. Moreover, the results from the CAT assay on...

  1. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  2. Phosphorous and sulfur nutrition modulate antioxidant defenses in Myracrodruom urundeuva plants exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M P; Soares, A M; Garcia, Q S

    2014-07-15

    We investigated if plant nutrition and antioxidant system activation are correlated features of arsenic (As)-tolerance in Myracrodruom urundeuva. Plants were grown for 120 days in substrates with 0, 10, 50 and 100mg Askg(-1) and its As-tolerance was demonstrated. As-concentrations greater than 10mgkg(-1) decreased plant growth and photosynthesis but did not induce plant death. Plants coupled alterations in stomatal conductance and transpiration to avoid As-deleterious effects to the photosynthetic apparatus. As-toxicity in M. urundeuva was due to lipid peroxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and gluthatione peroxidase (GPX) had central roles in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging in leaves, and their activities were linked to changes in redox potentials (ascorbate and glutathione pools). APX and GPX inactivation/degeneration led to H2O2 accumulation and related lipid peroxidation. Increased phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) concentrations in leaves were related to increased APX and GPX activities by stimulating increases in glutathione biosynthesis. We concluded that P and S nutrition were directly linked to As-tolerance in M. urundeuva plants by increasing antioxidant system activities. PMID:24866559

  3. Oxidative Stress Is Associated with an Increased Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Subjects: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Elosua, Roberto; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Basora-Gallisà, Josep; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Fiol, Miquel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Subirana, Isaac; Lapetra, José; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Sáez, Guillermo T.; Covas, Maria-Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs). We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) using multilevel statistical procedures. Results Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L), with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance = 1013.5; P<0.001). Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusion In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population. PMID:25269026

  4. Abscisic acid activates a Ca2+-calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase involved in antioxidant defense in maize leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shucheng Xu

    2010-01-01

     The role of a calcium-dependent and calmodulin(CaM)stimulated protein kinase in abscisic acid(ABA)-induced antioxidant defense was determined in leaves of maize (Zea mays).In-gel kinase assays showed that treatments with ABA or H2O2 induced the activation of a 49-kDa protein kinase and a 52-kDa protein kinase significantly.Furthermore,we showed that the 52-kDa protein kinase has the characteristics of CaM-stimulating activity and is sensitive to calcium-CaM-dependent protein kinase Ⅱ (CaMK Ⅱ)inhibitor KN-93 or CaM antagonist W-7.Treatments with ABA or H2O2 not only induced the acti vation of the 52-kDa protein kinase,but also enhanced the total activities of the antioxidant enzymes,including catalase,ascorbate peroxidase,glutathione reductase,and superoxide dismutase.Such enhancements were blocked by pretreatment with a CaMK inhibitor and a reactive oxygen species(ROS)inhibitor or scavenger.Pretreatment with the CaMK inhibitor also substantially arrested the ABA-induced H2O2 production.Kinase activity enhancements induced by ABA were attenuated by pretreatment with an ROS inhibitor or scavenger.These results suggest that the 52-kDa CaMK is involved in ABA-induced antioxidant defense and that cross-talk between CaMK and H2O2 plays a pivotal role in ABA signaling.We infer that CaMK acts both upstream and downstream of H2O2,but mainly acts between ABA and H2O2 in ABA-induced antioxidant-defensive signaling.

  5. Butyrate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in intestinal cells and Crohn's mucosa through modulation of antioxidant defense machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ilaria; Luciani, Alessandro; De Cicco, Paola; Troncone, Edoardo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CrD). High levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) induce the activation of the redox-sensitive nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB), which in turn triggers the inflammatory mediators. Butyrate decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by the lamina propria mononuclear cells in CrD patients via inhibition of NF-κB activation, but how it reduces inflammation is still unclear. We suggest that butyrate controls ROS mediated NF-κB activation and thus mucosal inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa by triggering intracellular antioxidant defense systems. Intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and colonic mucosa from 14 patients with CrD and 12 controls were challenged with or without lipopolysaccaride from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS) in presence or absence of butyrate for 4 and 24 h. The effects of butyrate on oxidative stress, p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation, p65-NF-κB activation and mucosal inflammation were investigated by real time PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy. Our results suggest that EC-LPS challenge induces a decrease in Gluthation-S-Transferase-alpha (GSTA1/A2) mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity; enhanced levels of ROS induced by EC-LPS challenge mediates p65-NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. Furthermore butyrate treatment was seen to restore GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity and to control NF-κB activation, COX-2, ICAM-1 and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In conclusion, butyrate rescues the redox machinery and controls the intracellular ROS balance thus switching off EC-LPS induced inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. PMID:22412931

  6. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) as a target of oxidative stress-mediated damage: cochlear and cortical responses after an increase in antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetoni, Anna Rita; De Bartolo, Paola; Eramo, Sara Letizia Maria; Rolesi, Rolando; Paciello, Fabiola; Bergamini, Christian; Fato, Romana; Paludetti, Gaetano; Petrosini, Laura; Troiani, Diana

    2013-02-27

    This study addresses the relationship between cochlear oxidative damage and auditory cortical injury in a rat model of repeated noise exposure. To test the effect of increased antioxidant defenses, a water-soluble coenzyme Q10 analog (Qter) was used. We analyzed auditory function, cochlear oxidative stress, morphological alterations in auditory cortices and cochlear structures, and levels of coenzymes Q9 and Q10 (CoQ9 and CoQ10, respectively) as indicators of endogenous antioxidant capability. We report three main results. First, hearing loss and damage in hair cells and spiral ganglion was determined by noise-induced oxidative stress. Second, the acoustic trauma altered dendritic morphology and decreased spine number of II-III and V-VI layer pyramidal neurons of auditory cortices. Third, the systemic administration of the water-soluble CoQ10 analog reduced oxidative-induced cochlear damage, hearing loss, and cortical dendritic injury. Furthermore, cochlear levels of CoQ9 and CoQ10 content increased. These findings indicate that antioxidant treatment restores auditory cortical neuronal morphology and hearing function by reducing the noise-induced redox imbalance in the cochlea and the deafferentation effects upstream the acoustic pathway. PMID:23447610

  7. Influence of season and pollution on the antioxidant defenses of the cichlid fish acará (Geophagus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wilhelm Filho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The livers of Geophagus brasiliensis collected from both a non-polluted site and a polluted site were analyzed for different antioxidant defenses, O2 consumption, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS levels, and histological damage. Compared to controls (116.6 ± 26.1 nmol g-1, TBARS levels were enhanced at the polluted site (284.2 ± 25.6 nmol g-1, as also was oxygen consumption (86.6 ± 11.3 and 128.5 ± 9.8 µmol O2 min-1 g-1, respectively. With respect to enzymatic antioxidants, increased catalase activities (8.7 ± 1.3 and 29.2 ± 2.4 mmol min-1 g-1, respectively, unchanged superoxide dismutase activities (767.2 ± 113.3 and 563.3 ± 70.2 U g-1, respectively, and diminished glutathione S-transferase activities (29.0 ± 3.2 and 14.9 ± 3.2 µmol min-1 g-1, respectively were detected. Reduced glutathione (1.91 ± 0.17 and 1.37 ± 0.25 mM, respectively, oxidized glutathione (1.50 ± 0.20 and 0.73 ± 0.17 mM, respectively, and total glutathione (3.40 ± 0.26 and 2.07 ± 0.27 mM, respectively concentrations were also below control values at the polluted site. Nevertheless, the observed ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities (1.34 ± 0.11 and 16.7 ± 0.21 pmol min-1 mg-1, respectively showed enhanced values at the polluted site. The main histological damage observed in the hepatocytes from fish collected at the polluted site was characterized by heavy lipid infiltration. Fish collected at the end of spring showed higher O2 consumption, higher superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase activities, and higher total and oxidized glutathione concentrations compared to the beginning of autumn. No seasonal changes were observed in catalase activities, glutathione or TBARS levels. Fish chronically exposed to relatively high pollution levels seem to be unable to set up adequate antioxidant defenses, probably due to severe injury to their hepatocytes. The higher antioxidant defenses found at the end of spring are probably related to the

  8. Efficacy of a Low Dose of Estrogen on Antioxidant Defenses and Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested whether a low dose (40% less than the pharmacological dose of 17-β estradiol would be as effective as the pharmacological dose to improve cardiovascular parameters and decrease cardiac oxidative stress. Female Wistar rats (n=9/group were divided in three groups: (1 ovariectomized (Ovx, (2 ovariectomized animals treated for 21 days with low dose (LE; 0.2 mg, and (3 high dose (HE; 0.5 mg 17-β estradiol subcutaneously. Hemodynamic assessment and spectral analysis for evaluation of autonomic nervous system regulation were performed. Myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities, redox ratio (GSH/GSSG, total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide anion concentrations were measured. HE and LE groups exhibited an improvement in hemodynamic function and heart rate variability. These changes were associated with an increase in the TRAP, GSH/GSSG, SOD, and CAT. A decrease in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion was also observed in the treated estrogen groups as compared to the Ovx group. Our results indicate that a low dose of estrogen is just as effective as a high dose into promoting cardiovascular function and reducing oxidative stress, thereby supporting the approach of using low dose of estrogen in clinical settings to minimize the risks associated with estrogen therapy.

  9. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  10. Effect of Rare Earths on Plants under Supplementary Ultraviolet-B Radiation: Ⅱ. Effect of Cerium on Antioxidant Defense System in Rape Seedlings under Supplementary Ultraviolet-B Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Effects of cerium (Ce3 + ) on membranous protective enzymes in rape seedlings exposed to two levels of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280 ~ 320 nm) were studied by hydroponics in the laboratory. The results show that the chlorophyll content decreases and membrane permeability increases in the leaves under UV-B irradiation with an intenposed to a low level of UV-B radiation. POD activity in leaves exposed to a high level of UV-B radiation is enhanced constantly. The sensitivities of these enzymes to UV-B radiation are SOD > CAT > POD. The injury by UV-B radiation on the functions of protective enzymes is lightened, their ability to scavenge radicals is improved, and the membrane permeability is maintained by Ce. Furthermore, the protective effect of cerium is more obvious in plants exposed to low levels of UV-B radiation than to high levels of it. Accordingly, all results prove that the protective effect of Ce on plants under UV-B radiation is realized through the protective system of plants.

  11. Role of Ginkgo Biloba Extract Supplement in Regulation of Rat Hepatic Tissue Antioxidant System after Chronic Ethanol Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚平; 宋方方; 周绍良; 李柯; 孙秀发; 刘烈刚

    2004-01-01

    THE FORMATION OF REACTIVE oxygen spe-cies (ROS) is a naturally occurring intracellular meta-bolic process. These harmful species are known tocause oxidative damage to a number of moleculesin cells, including membrane lipids, proteins, andnucleic acids.1 The potential harmful effects of thesespecies are controlled by the cellular antioxidant de-fense system.2 In addition, antioxidant enzymes, suchas superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glu-tathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathionereductase, are essen...

  12. Systemin/Jasmonate-Mediated Systemic Defense Signaling in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Qiang Sun; Hong-Ling Jiang; Chuan-You Li

    2011-01-01

    Wound-inducible proteinase inhibitors (Pis)in tomato plants provide a useful model system to elucidate the signal transduction pathways that regulate systemic defense response. Among the proposed intercellular signals for wound-induced Pis expression are the peptide systemin and the oxylipin-derived phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA).An increasing body of evidence indicates that systemin and JA work in the same signaling pathway to activate the ex-pression of Pis and other defense-related genes. However, relatively less is known about how these signals interact to promote cell-to-cell communication over long distances. Genetic analysis of the systemin/JA signaling pathway in tomato plants provides a unique opportunity to study, in a single experimental system, the mechanism by which peptide and oxylipin signals interact to coordinate systemic expression of defense-related genes. Previously, it has been proposed that systemin is the long-distance mobile signal for defense gene expression. Recently, grafting experiments with tomato mutants defective in JA biosynthesis and signaling provide new evidence that JA, rather than systemin, functions as the systemic wound signal, and that the biosynthesis of JA is regulated by the peptide systemin. Further understanding of the systemin/JA signaling pathway promises to provide new insights into the basic mechanisms governing plant de-fense to biotic stress.

  13. Changes in the mitochondrial antioxidant systems in neurodegenerative diseases and acute brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkiewicz, Joanna; Albrecht, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress (ONS) contributes to the pathogenesis of most brain maladies, and the magnitude of ONS is related to the ability of cellular antioxidants to neutralize the accumulating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). While the major ROS/RNS scavengers and regenerators of bio-oxidized molecules, superoxide dysmutases (SODs), glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx) and peroxiredoxin (Prx), are distributed in all cellular compartments. This review specifically focuses on the role of the systems operating in mitochondria. There is a growing consensus that the mitochondrial SOD isoform - SOD2 and GSH are critical for the cellular antioxidant defense. Variable changes of the expression or activities of one or more of the mitochondrial antioxidant systems have been documented in the brains derived from human patients and/or in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), cerebral ischemia, toxic brain cell damage associated with overexposure to mercury or excitotoxins, or hepatic encephalopathy. In many cases, ambiguity of the responses of the different antioxidant systems in one and the same disease needs to be more conclusively evaluated before the balance of the changes is viewed as beneficial or detrimental. Modulation of the mitochondrial antioxidant systems may in the future become a target of antioxidant therapy. PMID:25576182

  14. Nitric Oxide Mediates 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Elymus nutans Griseb. Exposed to Chilling Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Fu

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. In the present study, the role of NO in ALA-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of two sources of Elymus nutans Griseb. (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD was investigated. Chilling stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide radical in two E. nutans, which were substantially alleviated by exogenous ALA and NO application. Pretreatment with NO scavenger PTIO or NOS inhibitor L-NNA alone and in combination with ALA induced enhancements in electrolyte leakage and the accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and superoxide radical in leaves of DX and ZD exposed to chilling stress, indicating that the inhibition of NO biosynthesis reduced the chilling resistance of E. nutans and the ALA-enhanced chilling resistance. Further analyses showed that ALA and NO enhanced antioxidant defense and activated plasma membrane (PM H+-ATPase and decreased the accumulation of ROS induced by chilling stress. A pronounced increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity and NO release by exogenous ALA treatment was found in chilling-resistant DX plants exposed to chilling stress, while only a little increase was observed in chilling-sensitive ZD. Furthermore, inhibition of NO accumulation by PTIO or L-NNA blocked the protective effect of exogenous ALA, while both exogenous NO treatment and inhibition of endogenous NO accumulation did not induce ALA production. These results suggested that NO might be a downstream signal mediating ALA-induced chilling resistance in E. nutans.

  15. Possible role of glutamine synthetase in the NO signaling response in root nodules by contributing to the antioxidant defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Santos Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is emerging as an important regulatory player in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. The occurrence of NO during several steps of the symbiotic interaction suggests an important, but yet unknown, signaling role of this molecule for root nodule formation and functioning. The identification of the molecular targets of NO is key for the assembly of the signal transduction cascade that will ultimately help to unravel NO function. We have recently shown that the key nitrogen assimilatory enzyme Glutamine Synthetase (GS is a molecular target of NO in root nodules of Medicago truncatula, being post-translationally regulated by tyrosine nitration in relation to nitrogen fixation. In functional nodules of M. truncatula NO formation has been located in the bacteroid containing cells of the fixation zone, where the ammonium generated by bacterial nitrogenase is released to the plant cytosol and assimilated into the organic pools by plant GS. We propose that the NO-mediated GS post-translational inactivation is connected to nitrogenase inhibition induced by NO and is related to metabolite channeling to boost the nodule antioxidant defenses. Glutamate, a substrate for GS activity is also the precursor for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, which is highly abundant in root nodules of several plant species and known to play a major role in the antioxidant defense participating in the ascorbate/GSH cycle. Existing evidence suggests that upon NO-mediated GS inhibition, glutamate could be channeled for the synthesis of GSH. According to this hypothesis, GS would be involved in the NO-signaling responses in root nodules and the NO-signaling events would meet the nodule metabolic pathways to provide an adaptive response to the inhibition of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by reactive nitrogen species (RNS.

  16. A Comprehensive Review on Nickel (II And Chromium VI Toxicities - Possible Antioxidant (Allium Sativum Linn Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusal K.Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity associated with nickel (II and chromium (VI is mainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS with subsequent oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules. Both nickel and chromium can generate free radicals (FR directly from molecular oxygen in a two step process to produce superoxide anion and in continued process, produce highly toxic hydroxyl radical. The pro-oxidative effects are compounded by fact that they also inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione. Garlic (Allium sativum has played an important dietary and medicinal role throughout the history of mankind. Garlic has the potential to enhance the endogenous antioxidant status in nickel as well as hexavalent chromium induced lipid peroxidation in normal and diabetic rats.

  17. A Comprehensive Review on Nickel (II) And Chromium VI Toxicities - Possible Antioxidant (Allium Sativum Linn) Defenses

    OpenAIRE

    Kusal K. Das

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity associated with nickel (II) and chromium (VI) is mainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with subsequent oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules. Both nickel and chromium can generate free radicals (FR) directly from molecular oxygen in a two step process to produce superoxide anion and in continued process, produce highly toxic hydroxyl radical. The pro-oxidative effects are compounded by fact that they also inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete ...

  18. The effect of intestinal ischemia duration on changes in plasma antioxidant defense status in the rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížová, Hana; Lojek, Antonín; Kubala, Lukáš; Číž, Milan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2004), s. 523-531. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/99/D022; GA ČR GA524/01/1219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : antioxidants * small intestine * ischemia-reperfusion Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  19. Anti-hepatotoxic and anti-oxidant defense potential of Tridax procumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Reddipalli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tridax procumbens is a widely occurring medicinal herb used by ethnomedical practitioners. With increased use of chemicals and alcohol besides growing incidence of viruses and autoimmune diseases, the incidence of liver injury is growing for which conventional drugs used for treatment are often inadequate. Various models are adopted in pharmological studies for inducing hepatitis/ liver injury similar to those observed in human viral hepatitis, diabetes and oxidative stress. D-galactosamine with lipopolysacchride (LPS, carbontetrachloride (CCl 4 and paracetamol intoxication, diabetes induced with alloxan are widely used on rodents for this purpose. In vitro studies on Tridax procumbens (TP revealed the anti-oxidant potential of the herb with chloroform fraction of the ethanolic extract showing maximum activity. It is also reported to possess anti-oxidant minerals such as iron, magnesium, copper and zinc. In vivo studies on rodents on the anti-oxidant potential of TP induced through LPS, CCl 4, alloxan and paracetamol intoxication induced hepatitis confirmed the results from in vitro studies as a potential anti-hepatotoxic herb.

  20. Multiple operating system rotation environment moving target defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathaniel; Thompson, Michael

    2016-03-22

    Systems and methods for providing a multiple operating system rotation environment ("MORE") moving target defense ("MTD") computing system are described. The MORE-MTD system provides enhanced computer system security through a rotation of multiple operating systems. The MORE-MTD system increases attacker uncertainty, increases the cost of attacking the system, reduces the likelihood of an attacker locating a vulnerability, and reduces the exposure time of any located vulnerability. The MORE-MTD environment is effectuated by rotation of the operating systems at a given interval. The rotating operating systems create a consistently changing attack surface for remote attackers.

  1. The 6-a-day study: effects of fruit and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in healthy nonsmokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars Ove; Pedersen, A.; Hermetter, A.;

    2004-01-01

    and vegetables/d; the placebo group received a placebo pill, and the supplement group received a vitamin pill designed to contain vitamins and minerals corresponding to those in 600 g fruit and vegetables. Biomarkers of oxidative damage to protein and lipids and of antioxidant nutrients and defense enzymes were...

  2. The circadian clock regulates rhythmic activation of the NRF2/glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense pathway to modulate pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekovic-Vaughan, Vanja; Gibbs, Julie; Yoshitane, Hikari; Yang, Nan; Pathiranage, Dharshika; Guo, Baoqiang; Sagami, Aya; Taguchi, Keiko; Bechtold, David; Loudon, Andrew; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Chan, Jefferson; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T.J.; Fukada, Yoshitaka; Meng, Qing-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The disruption of the NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2)/glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense pathway is a critical step in the pathogenesis of several chronic pulmonary diseases and cancer. While the mechanism of NRF2 activation upon oxidative stress has been widely investigated, little is known about the endogenous signals that regulate the NRF2 pathway in lung physiology and pathology. Here we show that an E-box-mediated circadian rhythm of NRF2 protein is essential in regulating the rhythmic expression of antioxidant genes involved in glutathione redox homeostasis in the mouse lung. Using an in vivo bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model, we reveal a clock “gated” pulmonary response to oxidative injury, with a more severe fibrotic effect when bleomycin was applied at a circadian nadir in NRF2 levels. Timed administration of sulforaphane, an NRF2 activator, significantly blocked this phenotype. Moreover, in the lungs of the arrhythmic ClockΔ19 mice, the levels of NRF2 and the reduced glutathione are constitutively low, associated with increased protein oxidative damage and a spontaneous fibrotic-like pulmonary phenotype. Our findings reveal a pivotal role for the circadian control of the NRF2/glutathione pathway in combating oxidative/fibrotic lung damage, which might prompt new chronotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of human lung diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24637114

  3. System defense mechanisms in nuclear power generation control computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-redundant computers are used to control and monitor the production of power from Ontario Hydro's nuclear power reactors. Each computer must have the capability of monitoring its own performance and detecting faults. Upon fault detection, each computer must initiate corrective responses to ensure the integrity of critical control functions. This paper reviews those features the authors have termed system defense mechanisms

  4. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different

  5. The natural defense system and the normative self model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourilsky, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Infectious agents are not the only agressors, and the immune system is not the sole defender of the organism. In an enlarged perspective, the 'normative self model' postulates that a 'natural defense system' protects man and other complex organisms against the environmental and internal hazards of life, including infections and cancers. It involves multiple error detection and correction mechanisms that confer robustness to the body at all levels of its organization. According to the model, the self relies on a set of physiological norms, and NONself (meaning : Non Obedient to the Norms of the self) is anything 'off-norms'. The natural defense system comprises a set of 'civil defenses' (to which all cells in organs and tissues contribute), and a 'professional army ', made of a smaller set of mobile cells. Mobile and non mobile cells differ in their tuning abilities. Tuning extends the recognition capabilities of NONself by the mobile cells, which increase their defensive function. To prevent them to drift, which would compromise self/NONself discrimination, the more plastic mobile cells need to periodically refer to the more stable non mobile cells to keep within physiological standards. PMID:27303629

  6. Defense against common-mode failures in protection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of digital instrumentation and control into reactor safety systems creates a heightened concern about common-mode failure. This paper discusses the concern and methods to cope with the concern. Common-mode failures have been a ''fact-of-life'' in existing systems. The informal introduction of defense-in-depth and diversity (D-in-D ampersand D)-coupled with the fact that hardware common-mode failures are often distributed in time-has allowed systems to deal with past common-mode failures. However, identical software operating in identical redundant systems presents the potential for simultaneous failure. Consequently, the use of digital systems raises the concern about common-mode failure to a new level. A more methodical approach to mitigating common-mode failure is needed to address these concerns. Purposeful introduction of D-in-D ampersand D has been used as a defense against common-mode failure in reactor protection systems. At least two diverse systems are provided to mitigate any potential initiating event. Additionally, diverse displays and controls are provided to allow the operator to monitor plant status and manually initiate engineered safety features. A special form of conimon-mode failure analysis called ''defense-in-depth and diversity analysis'' has been developed to identify possible conimon-mode failure vulnerabilities in digital systems. An overview of this analysis technique is provided

  7. Defense and attack of complex and dependent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A framework is constructed for how to analyze the strategic defense of an infrastructure subject to attack by a strategic attacker. Merging operations research, reliability theory, and game theory for optimal analytical impact, the optimization program for the defender and attacker is specified. Targets can be in parallel, series, combined series-parallel, complex, k-out-of-n redundancy, independent, interdependent, and dependent. The defender and attacker determine how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human, and symbolic values, subjectively assessed by the defender and attacker. A contest success function determines the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the investments by the defender and attacker into each target, and on characteristics of the contest. The defender minimizes the expected damage plus the defense costs. The attacker maximizes the expected damage minus the attack costs. Each agent is concerned about how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Interdependent systems are analyzed where the defense and attack on one target impacts all targets. Dependent systems are analyzed applying Markov analysis and repeated games where a successful attack on one target in the first period impacts the unit costs of defense and attack, and the contest intensity, for the other target in the second period.

  8. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables. They are also available ... t clear whether this is because of the antioxidants, something else in the foods, or other factors. High-dose supplements of antioxidants ...

  9. Differences in associations between markers of antioxidative defense and asthma are sex specific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Tine Halsen; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Helle R;

    2010-01-01

    inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma. Sex-specific differences have been noted for asthma, which in postpubertal subjects is predominantly found in females. These sex-specific differences may be associated with differences on the molecular level as well. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study...... as either current asthma symptoms with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or a continuous asthma score based on 8 questions. RESULTS: A total of 1191 mostly white women and men (mean [SD] age, 34.0 [7.1] and 35.1 [7.1] years, respectively) were enrolled in the study. Current asthma symptoms were...... subjects (161 women, 134 men). Women had higher enzyme activities of most antioxidant enzymes (GPX, P = 0.006; GR, P < 0.001; and G6PD, P = 0.009) than did men. Although the serum selenium concentration was inversely associated with asthma in both sexes, there was a female preponderance, with 3.5% lower...

  10. Pistacia Atlantica Extract Enhances Exercise-Mediated Improvement of Antioxidant Defense in Vistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training causes increased oxidative stress. Pistacia Atlantica Extract (Mastic is known to have a protective effect against oxidative stress and inflammation. We examined the effects of exercise training with and without Pistacia Atlantica extract administration on antioxidant markers in vistar rats. Twenty-eight Vistar female rats (six to eight weeks old, 150-200 g weight allocated into training (n = 14 and control (n = 14 groups and further divided into saline + control (n = 7, saline + training (n = 7, mastic +control (n = 7, and mastic + raining (n = 7. The training groups were given exercise on a treadmill at 25 m/min (0% grade for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for eight weeks. Mastic groups were administered at a dose 100 mg/kg (7.5 μL/g of body weight, orally. Seventy-two hours after the last training session, the rats were sacrificed and their liver tissues were excised for tissue oxidative stress markers which were detected by ELISA method. Mastic, Exercise, and Exercise+ Mastic attenuated MDA compared to control (p<0.01. Exercise + Mastic showed a stronger suppressive effect than Mastic and exercise. Mastic and Exercise significantly the increase in SOD compared with control (p<0.05. Exercise + Mastic showed further additive effects on increasing SOD (p<0.001. These results suggest that Mastic supplementation and exercise alone induced positive adaptations in modulating oxidant and antioxidant levels without causing the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG in liver of vistar rats, but the combined intervention is more effective than either intervention alone.

  11. REQUIREMENTS FOR SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE MODELS FOR LARGE-SCALE DEFENSE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan DEMIR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available TLarge-scale defense system projects are strategic for maintaining and increasing the national defense capability. Therefore, governments spend billions of dollars in the acquisition and development of large-scale defense systems. The scale of defense systems is always increasing and the costs to build them are skyrocketing. Today, defense systems are software intensive and they are either a system of systems or a part of it. Historically, the project performances observed in the development of these systems have been signifi cantly poor when compared to other types of projects. It is obvious that the currently used systems development life cycle models are insuffi cient to address today’s challenges of building these systems. Using a systems development life cycle model that is specifi cally designed for largescale defense system developments and is effective in dealing with today’s and near-future challenges will help to improve project performances. The fi rst step in the development a large-scale defense systems development life cycle model is the identifi cation of requirements for such a model. This paper contributes to the body of literature in the fi eld by providing a set of requirements for system development life cycle models for large-scale defense systems. Furthermore, a research agenda is proposed.

  12. 二溴海因对吉富罗非鱼血浆的氧化胁迫效应%Effects of 1,3- Dibromo- 5,5- Dimethylhydantoin(DBDMH)on Plasma Antioxidant Defense System in GIFT Nile Tilapia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙博; 瞿建宏; 裘丽萍; 郑尧; 陈家长

    2015-01-01

    1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin(DBDMH)is widely used as a disinfectant in aquaculture. However, it may pose toxicity to aquatic organisms. In this study, GIFT Nile tilapias were exposed to different DBDMH concentrations(0, 0.06, 0.3, and 1.5 mg·L-1)for 16 days, followed by a recover period of 10 days. A suit of plasma parameters were detected on days 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 26(after 10- day recovery). These parameters were:total-glutathione contents(T-GSH), oxidized glutathione content(GSSG), glutathione-S-transferase ac-tivity(GSTs), superoxide dismutase activity(SOD), catalase activity(CAT), glutathione reductase activity(GR), glutathione peroxidase ac-tivity(GPx)and total antioxidant capacity activity(T-AOC). Results indicated that SOD and GR activities decreased initially and then maintained stable. T-GSH content, GSH/GSSG ratio, and CAT and GST activities showed initial increase followed by reduction, whereas all these parameters had a significant increment on the day 16. GPx activity displayed a significant rise on day 1 and day 16. T-AOC activity increased only on day 16. The activities of CAT, GPx, T-GSH, and T-AOC and GSH/GSSG ratio revealed a dose-dependent pattern. T-AOC activity showed a dose-effect relationship with DBDMH concentrations. Ten day recovery in water free of DBDNH did not have antioxi-dant indicators return to the normal levels, except CAT and GR activities. The present study suggests that DBDMH significantly influences the plasma antioxidant defense system of GIFT Nile tilapia and that T-AOC activity can be used as a sensitive biomarker to monitor the DB-DMH pollution. DBDMH at high concentrations causes irreversible damages to GIFT Nile tilapia.%采用半静态水质接触染毒法,研究不同浓度(0、0.06、0.3、1.5 mg·L-1)、不同时间(1、2、4、8、16、26 d)下二溴海因对吉富罗非鱼血浆总还原性谷胱甘肽(T-GSH)、氧化型谷胱甘肽(GSSG)、谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶(GST)、超氧化物

  13. 达乌里胡枝子抗氧化防御系统对干旱及增强UV-B辐射的动态响应%Dynamic Responses of Antioxidative Defense System of Lespedeza davurica to Drought and Enhanced UV-B Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洁; 杜润峰; 王龙飞; 王钰莹; 郝文芳

    2013-01-01

    以达乌里胡枝子(Lespedeza davurica)为研究对象,通过对照、中度干旱以及干旱与增强UV-B辐射复合处理,对其超氧阴离子(O2-)、丙二醛(MDA)和抗氧化剂含量及抗氧化酶活性的动态变化进行研究,探讨其抗氧化能力及膜脂过氧化的动态响应.结果表明:与单因子干旱胁迫相比,复合胁迫使超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性降低,抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)及过氧化物酶(POD)活性升高,其中低强度UV-B辐射与干旱复合胁迫使SOD活性极显著低于单因子干旱胁迫下的(P<0.01),POD活性随UV-B辐射强度增加而降低,APX和CAT活性随UV-B辐射强度增加而增加.与单因子干旱胁迫相比,复合胁迫使抗坏血酸(AsA)含量增加,且随UV-B辐射强度的增加先增加后降低;使叶绿素(Chl)和类胡萝卜素(Car)含量降低,随UV-B辐射强度增加而降低.低强度UV-B辐射与干旱复合胁迫前6d花青素含量极显著高于对照(P<0.01).复合胁迫前期,MDA和O2-含量均比单因子干旱胁迫的低,后期则不同.隶属函数综合评价得出,中度干旱以及复合胁迫均能提高达乌里胡枝子的抗氧化能力,且与干旱胁迫相比,低强度UV B辐射与干旱复合胁迫下其抗氧化能力较高,而高强度UV-B辐射与干旱复合胁迫下则较低.%The effects of drought and enhanced UV-B radiation on the antioxidant defense system and membrane lipid peroxidation in Lespedeza davurica were investigated. Compared with the single-stress of drought, the co-stresses of drought and enhanced UV-B radiation decreased the activities of superoxide dis-mutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) , and increased the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxi-dase (POD). SOD activity under the co-stresses of drought and low UV-B radiation intensity was significantly lower than that under the single-stress of drought. With the increase of UV-B radiation intensity under co-stresses, POD activity decreased

  14. Effects of triploidy induction on antioxidant defense status in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipoor, Kaveh; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Salati, Amir Parviz; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein; Babaheydari, Samad Bahrami

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the early stages of development (fertilized egg, eyed egg, alevin and fry) as an effect of triploidy induction. Eggs and milt were taken from eight females and six males. After insemination, the eggs were incubated at 10°C for 10min. Half of the fertilized eggs were then subjected to heat-shock for 10min submerged in a 28°C water bath to induce triploidy. The remainder were incubated normally and used as diploid controls. Three batches of eggs were randomly selected from each group (control and heat-shocked) and were incubated at 10-11°C under the same environmental conditions in hatchery troughs until the fry stage. Triplicate samples of fertilized eggs from each experimental group were randomly selected 1.5h post-fertilization and at the eyed egg stage of development (18 days post-fertilization, dpf). At 27 dpf, triplicate samples of alevins were chosen from each group. Based on ploidy determination experiment performed on both groups, nine diploid and nine triploid fry (76 dpf) were also selected. The triploidy induction success rate was 87.1%. Vitamin C was in lesser concentrations in fertilized eggs and eyed eggs of the heat-shock treatment group as compared with eggs of the diploid group. Alevins of the heat-shock treatment group had a lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than alevins of the diploid group. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level was greater in fertilized eggs and alevins of the heat-shock treatment group as compared to diploids. Catalse (CAT) activity was greater in fertilized eggs, alevins and fry of the heat-shock treatment group than those of the diploid group. Malondialdehyde (MDA), as an index of lipid peroxidation, was in greater concentration in fertilized eggs of the group that was heat-shocked, but it was lesser in alevins and fry of the group in which the eggs were heat-shocked as compared to diploid counterparts

  15. The Effect of a 12-Week Moderate Intensity Interval Training Program on the Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile in Men Smoking Cigarettes or Hookah: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdessalem Koubaa; Moez Triki; Hajer Trabelsi; Hamza Baati; Zouhair Sahnoun; Ahmed Hakim

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To examine the impact of interval training program on the antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in men smoking cigarettes or hookah unable or unwilling to quit smoking. Methods. Thirty-five participants performed an interval training (2 : 1 work : rest ratio) 3 times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to a biochemical test session before and after the training program. Results. The increase of total antioxidant status (TAS), gluta...

  16. SOME ASPECTS OF ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN WOOD SPECIES EXPOSED TO ANTHROPIC POLLUTION IN SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Viorel Oniciuc

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased production of reactive oxygen species in plant tissues caused by unfavorableenvironmental conditions is early response to different stresses and may provide cells with resistance against theirformation. The subject of this paper is determination of catalase and peroxidase levels, components of the antioxidantdefense mechanism, in various types of woody plants in order to study the effect of pollution by sulphur and copperexploitation in mining areas on the antioxidant enzymes activity in the leaf material taken from different Gymnospermspecies as Picea abies L.Karst., Larix decidua Mill. and Angyosperms like Salix ssp alba L., Populus tremula, Betulaverrucosa Ehrh. şi Fagus sylvatica L. For this purpose, the measurement of catalase activity was performed using theSinha method (Artenie Vl. et al., 2008, the determination of peroxidase level was carried out on the basis of ortho-dianisidine method (Cojocaru D.C., 2009 and the determination of soluble proteins on Bradford method (Cojocaru etal.,2009. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that both catalase and peroxidase are effective biomarkers ofpollution with sulfur, copper ores and barite but especially the acclimatization of species studied in conditions of chronicexposure.

  17. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in erythrocytes of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokic, Marko D; Paunovic, Milica G; Matic, Milos M; Djordjevic, Natasa Z; Ognjanovic, Branka I; Stajn, Andras S; Saicic, Zorica S

    2014-12-01

    Since aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, ASP) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners, the aim of the present study was to investigate its effects on serum glucose and lipid levels as well as its effects on oxidative/antioxidative status in erythrocytes of rats. The experiment included two groups of animals: the control group was administered with water only, while the experimental group was orally administered with ASP (40 mg/kg b.w.) daily, for a period of six weeks. When compared with the control group, the group administrated with ASP indicated higher values of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Significantly increased concentrations of superoxide anion (O2 .-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (?N??-) and lipid peroxides (LPO) were recorded in the erythrocytes of ASP treated group in comparison to the control group. In the course of chronic ASP administration, the following was observed: the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of catalase (CAT) increased. Thus, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of ASP leads to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as to oxidative stress in erythrocytes. PMID:25431414

  18. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in erythrocytes of rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marko D Prokić; Milica G Paunović; Miloš M Matić; Nataša Z Djordjević; Branka I Ognjanović; Andraš Š Štajn; Zorica S Saičić

    2014-12-01

    Since aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, ASP) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners, the aim of the present study was to investigate its effects on serum glucose and lipid levels as well as its effects on oxidative/antioxidative status in erythrocytes of rats. The experiment included two groups of animals: the control group was administered with water only, while the experimental group was orally administered with ASP (40 mg/kg b.w.) daily, for a period of six weeks. When compared with the control group, the group administrated with ASP indicated higher values of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Significantly increased concentrations of superoxide anion (O2•−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (ОNОО−) and lipid peroxides (LPO) were recorded in the erythrocytes of ASP treated group in comparison to the control group. In the course of chronic ASP administration, the following was observed: the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of catalase (CAT) increased. Thus, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of ASP leads to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as to oxidative stress in erythrocytes.

  19. Passive automatic anti-piracy defense system of ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szustakowski, M.; Życzkowski, M.; Ciurapiński, W.; Karol, M.; Kastek, M.; Stachowiak, R.; Markowski, P.

    2013-10-01

    The article describes the technological solution for ship self-defense against pirate attacks. The paper presents the design solutions in the field of direct physical protection. All the solutions are connected with the latest optoelectronic and microwave systems and sensors to detect, recognize and the threat posed by pirates. In particular, tests of effectiveness and the detection-range of technology demonstrator developed by a team of authors were carried out.

  20. The design about the intrusion defense system for IHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of network technologies, limitations on traditional methods of network security protection are becoming more and more obvious. An individual network security product or the simple combination of several products can hardly complete the goal of keeping from hackers' intrusion. Therefore, on the basis of the analyses about the security problems of IHEPNET which is an open and scientific research network, the author designs an intrusion defense system especially for IHEPNET

  1. Effect of fraxetin on antioxidant defense and stress proteins in human neuroblastoma cell model of rotenone neurotoxicity. Comparative study with myricetin and N-acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone induces apoptosis through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Recently, it has been shown that fraxetin (coumarin) and myricetin (flavonoid) have significant neuroprotective effects against apoptosis induced by rotenone, increase the total glutathione levels in vitro, and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Thus, these considerations prompted us to investigate the way in which fraxetin and myricetin affect the endogenous antioxidant defense system, such as Mn and CuZn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, CuZnSOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) on rotenone neurotoxicity in neuroblastoma cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, was employed as a comparative agent. Also, the expression and protein levels of HSP70 by Northern and Western blot analysis were assayed in SH-SY5Y cells. After incubation for 16 h, rotenone significantly increased the expression and activity of MnSOD, GPx, and catalase. When cells were preincubated with fraxetin, there was a decrease in the protein levels and activity of both MnSOD and catalase, in comparison with the rotenone treatment. The myricetin effect was less pronounced. Activity and expression of GPx were increased by rotenone and pre-treatment with fraxetin did not modify significantly these levels. The significant enhancement in HSP70 expression at mRNA and protein levels induced by fraxetin was observed by pre-treatment of cells 0.5 h before rotenone insult. These data suggest that major features of rotenone-induced neurotoxicity are partially mediated by free radical formation and oxidative stress, and that fraxetin partially protects against rotenone toxicity affecting the main protection system of the cells against oxidative injury

  2. 76 FR 44293 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... presented by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics in a memorandum dated... are in support of contingency, humanitarian, or peacekeeping operations, or to facilitate defense...) At or below the simplified acquisition threshold; or (ii) In support of contingency, humanitarian...

  3. Possible allied ballistic missile defense systems: Related guidance and control requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, C.; Cotillard, C.

    1995-01-01

    This document discusses several different types of Ballistic Missile Defense Systems for NATO for both medium and long range attacks. The feasibility, technological assessment and forecasting, and defense architecture is presented, along with each system's capabilities.

  4. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma LDH was

  5. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MAJORANA HORTENSIS LEAVES SUBJECTED TO OXIDATIVE STRESS IN AN IN VITRO SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniswamy Radha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress can arise from an imbalance between the generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species leading to the excess levels, which in turn cause various diseases and cell death. Reactive oxygen species can be eliminated by a number of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant defense mechanisms. This was studied in Majorana hortensis using in vitro model simulating the in vivo system. Precision-cut goat liver slices were challenged with a standard oxidant (H2O2 both in the presence and in the absence of the different extracts of the leaves. The enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were analyzed in the homogenate of the liver slices after incubation. The oxidant treated liver slices showed a decrease in the levels of antioxidants compared to the untreated control. But in the presence of the leaf extracts, the antioxidant status was reverted back to a significant extent. Thus, the results showed that the leaf extracts of the candidate plant can improve the antioxidant status in the goat liver slices exposed in vitro to oxidative stress.

  6. Benfotiamine upregulates antioxidative system in activated BV-2 microglia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stevanovic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic microglial activation and resulting sustained neuroinflammatory reaction are generally associated with neurodegeneration. Activated microglia acquires proinflammatory cellular profile that generates oxidative burst. Their persistent activation exacerbates inflammation, which damages healthy neurons via cytotoxic mediators, such as superoxide radical anion and nitric oxide. In our recent study, we have shown that benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of benfotiamine on the pro-oxidative component of activity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells were investigated. The activation of microglia was accompanied by upregulation of intracellular antioxidative defense, which was further promoted in the presence of benfotiamine. Namely, activated microglia exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of benfotiamine showed increased levels and activities of hydrogen peroxide- and superoxide-removing enzymes – catalase and glutathione system, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, benfotiamine showed the capacity to directly scavenge superoxide radical anion. As a consequence, benfotiamine suppressed the activation of microglia and provoked a decrease in NO and •O2- production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, benfotiamine might silence pro-oxidative activity of microglia to alleviate/prevent oxidative damage of neighboring CNS cells.

  7. Benfotiamine upregulates antioxidative system in activated BV-2 microglia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Ivana; Pekovic, Sanja; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Lavrnja, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Chronic microglial activation and resulting sustained neuroinflammatory reaction are generally associated with neurodegeneration. Activated microglia acquires proinflammatory cellular profile that generates oxidative burst. Their persistent activation exacerbates inflammation, which damages healthy neurons via cytotoxic mediators, such as superoxide radical anion and nitric oxide. In our recent study, we have shown that benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of benfotiamine on the pro-oxidative component of activity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells were investigated. The activation of microglia was accompanied by upregulation of intracellular antioxidative defense, which was further promoted in the presence of benfotiamine. Namely, activated microglia exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of benfotiamine showed increased levels and activities of hydrogen peroxide- and superoxide-removing enzymes—catalase and glutathione system, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, benfotiamine showed the capacity to directly scavenge superoxide radical anion. As a consequence, benfotiamine suppressed the activation of microglia and provoked a decrease in NO and ·O−2 production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, benfotiamine might silence pro-oxidative activity of microglia to alleviate/prevent oxidative damage of neighboring CNS cells. PMID:26388737

  8. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smok...

  9. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  10. Minmax defense strategy for complex multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a general optimization methodology that merges game theory and multi-state system survivability theory. The defender has multiple alternatives of defense strategy that presumes separation and protection of system elements. The attacker also has multiple alternatives of its attack strategy based on a combination of different possible attack actions against different groups of system elements. The defender minimizes, and the attacker maximizes, the expected damage caused by the attack (taking into account the unreliability of system elements and the multi-state nature of complex series-parallel systems). The problem is defined as a two-period minmax non-cooperative game between the defender who moves first and the attacker who moves second. An exhaustive minmax optimization algorithm is presented based on a double-loop genetic algorithm for determining the solution. A universal generating function technique is applied for evaluating the losses caused by system performance reduction. Illustrative examples with solutions are presented

  11. Ethanol Extract of Ganoderma lucidum Augments Cellular Anti-oxidant Defense through Activation of Nrf2/HO-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-hwan Lee

    2016-03-01

    augments the cellular anti-oxidant defense capacity through activation of Nrf2/HO-1, thereby protecting C2C12 myoblasts from H2O2-induced oxidative cytotoxicity.

  12. Cytotoxic effects of zearalenone and its metabolites and antioxidant cell defense in CHO-K1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatay, Elena; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose

    2016-10-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) and its metabolites (α-zearalenol; α-ZOL, β-zearalenol; β-ZOL) are secondary metabolites of Fusarium fungi that produce cell injury. The present study explores mycotoxin-induced cell damage and cellular protection mechanisms in CHO-K1 cells. Cytotoxicity has been determined by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage. ROS production was determined using the fluorescein assay and DNA strand breakage by comet assay. Intracellular protection systems were glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results demonstrated that all mycotoxins increased the ROS levels up to 5.3-fold the control levels in CHO-K1 cells. Zearalenone metabolites, but not ZEA, increased DNA damage 43% (α-ZOL) and 28% (β-ZOL) compared to control cells. The GSH levels decreased from 18% to 36%. The GPx and SOD activities respectively increased from 26% to 62% and from 23% to 69% in CHO-K1 cells, whereas CAT activity decreased from 14% to 52%. In addition, intracellular ROS production was induced by ZEA and its metabolites. The endogenous antioxidant system components GSH, GPx and SOD were activated against ZEA and its metabolites. These antioxidant system components thus could contribute to decrease cell injury by ZEA and its metabolites. PMID:27465603

  13. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  14. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk). Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) consisted of repeated episodes o...

  15. Redesigning the Structure of Republic Indonesian Defense System; An Analysis of Systems Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of Shrinking Defense Capabilities is only the tip of the iceberg of Indonesian Defense System’s problem. The root of the problem that lies beneath and outside is keep untouched. This journal is the part of the efforts to reveal the phenomenon’s structure that binding as a system. The present structure is a cause of that phenomenon and the basis of the current organization responsible for Republic Indonesia Defense sector. With the Systems thinking analysis, the research has revealed the structure that become the problem cause and give a holistic solution trough redesigning new structure based on two theories namely the Strategic-Operational Management with Vision Dissemination of Prof. Dr. Jürgen Strohhecker and the Defense System Generic Dr. Ir. Muhammad Tasrif, M.Eng and Ir. Ade Muhammad, M.Han. The logical consequences would also changing of formation of Indonesian Defense Organization. Keywords : Design, Redesigning, Defense System, System, Defense, Holistic

  16. 77 FR 39125 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... at 76 FR 44293 on July 25, 2011, to address acquisitions using competitive procedures in which only..., 2011 (76 FR 59623) through October 7, 2011. DoD received comments on the proposed rule from 19... Supplement; Only One Offer (DFARS Case 2011-D013); Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation...

  17. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-09-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune privilege have been investigated for a long time. Increasing evidence shows that both a local immunosuppressive milieu and systemic immune tolerance are involved in maintaining testicular immune privilege status. The mechanisms underlying testicular innate immunity are emerging based on the investigation of the pattern recognition receptor-mediated innate immune response in testicular cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of testicular defense mechanisms and identifies topics that merit further investigation. PMID:24954222

  18. Effects of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the antioxidant defense system and the membrane functions in the rat intestine Efectos de los fármacos aniinflamatorios no esteroideos sobre el sistema de defensa antioxidante y las funciones de membrana en el intestino de rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nair

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effects of two cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2 selective inhibitors, celecoxib and nimesulide as compared to a non-selective COX inhibitor, aspirin was studied in the rat intestine. Female Wistar rats weighing between 150-175 g were divided into four groups having 8 animals each as follows: Group 1(Control, Group 2- Aspirin (40 mg/kg, Group 3- Nimesulide (10 mg/kg and Group 4- Celecoxib (10 mg/kg. After 35 days of treatment the animals were sacrificed, intestine removed and the effects on the antioxidant defense system, membrane composition and functions along with the membrane specific enzymes were studied in different regions of the intestine. The study showed a significant increase in the lipid peroxide levels as TBA-reactive substance as well as the conjugated dienes, except for celecoxib treated group which showed a decrease. Significant decrease was also observed in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase activities for aspirin and nimesulide group while Celecoxib caused an increase in glutathione reductase (GR. Aspirin and nimesulide exhibited an increase in the brush border membrane (BBM bound enzyme activities like sucrase, lactase, maltase and alkaline phosphatase in the small intestine while celecoxib showed decrease in lactase, maltase and alkaline phosphatase. The phospholipid content increased only for aspirin treated group while cholesterol decreased in all the treatment groups. Also celecoxib treatment brought about an increase in glycolipid content. The membrane fluidity was studied by the rotational diffusion of 1, 6, diphenyl, 1, 3, 5 hexatriene (DPH incorporated in the membrane and the fluorescence polarization (p, fluorescence anisotropy(r, anisotropy parameter [r0/r -1]-1 and order parameter [S² = (4/3r - 0.1/ r0] were recorded. No significant change in the fluorescence parameters were observed in the BBM and the liposomes made from the BBM

  19. Indices of the Oxidant andAntioxidant System and Endogenous Intoxication in the Convalescents After Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Reshetar, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study the peculiarities of metabolic processes in the system of lipid peroxidation - antioxidant defense and the manifestations of endogenous intoxication in patients with community acquired pneumonia in the acute stage of the disease and after antibiotic therapy in their interrelation with bronchial obstruction.Materials and methods. 81 patients with non-severe community acquired pneumonia at the age of 21 to 65 years were examined on the 2nd day of the hospitalization a...

  20. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense-in-Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Fabro

    2007-10-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: • Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems • Access to facilities via remote data link or modem • Public facing services for customer or corporate operations • A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  1. Theater ballistic missile defense: modeling and analysis of the Marine Corps "HAWK" Missile Defense System

    OpenAIRE

    Monroe, William James Fredrick.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis develops the concept of integrating IDEF modeling with matrix analysis to explore the current state of the Marine Corps, 'As Is', Theater Ballistic Missile Defense information architecture. It demonstrates the possibility of using matrix analysis in conjunction with IDEF modeling to identify deficiencies within an existing information architecture. Using this framework, new technologies and advancements can also be measured to ensure they accurately address deficiencies identified...

  2. The 6-a-day study: effects of fruit and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in healthy nonsmokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars Ove; Pedersen, A.; Hermetter, A.; Basu, S.; Hansen, Max; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Kall, M.; Breinholt, V.; Castenmiller, J. J. M.; Stagsted, J.; Jakobsen, Jette; Skibsted, L.; Rasmussen, Salka E.; Loft, S.; Sandstrom, B.

    2004-01-01

    and vegetables/d; the placebo group received a placebo pill, and the supplement group received a vitamin pill designed to contain vitamins and minerals corresponding to those in 600 g fruit and vegetables. Biomarkers of oxidative damage to protein and lipids and of antioxidant nutrients and defense......Background: Fruit and vegetables contain both nutritive and nonnutritive factors that might contribute to redox (antioxidant and prooxidant) actions. Objective: We investigated the relative influence of nutritive and nonnutritive factors in fruit and vegetables on oxidative damage and enzymatic...... enzymes were determined before and during intervention. Results: Plasma lipid oxidation lag times increased during intervention in the Fruveg and supplement groups, and the increase was significantly higher in the former. Plasma protein carbonyl formation at lysine residues also increased in both of these...

  3. OsDMI3 Is a Novel Component of Abscisic Acid Signaling in the Induction of Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Shi; Lan Ni; Aying Zhang; Jianmei Cao; Hong Zhang; Tingting Qin; Mingpu Tan; Jianhua Zhang; Mingyi Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM) have been shown to play an important role in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense.However,it is unknown whether Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is involved in the process.In the present study,the role of rice CCaMK,OsDMI3,in ABA-induced antioxidant defense was investigated in leaves of rice (Oryza sativa) plants.Treatments with ABA,H2O2,and polyethylene glycol (PEG) induced the expression of OsDMI3 and the activity of OsDMI3,and H2O2 is required for the ABA-induced increases in the expression and the activity of OsDMI3 under water stress.Subcellular localization analysis showed that OsDMI3 is located in the nucleus,the cytoplasm,and the plasma membrane.The analysis of the transient expression of OsDMI3 in rice protoplasts and the RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of OsDMI3 in rice protoplasts showed that OsDMI3 is required for ABA-induced increases in the expression and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).Further,the oxidative damage induced by higher concentrations of PEG and H2O2 was aggravated in the mutant of OsDMI3.Moreover,the analysis of the RNAi silencing of OsDMI3 in protoplasts and the mutant of OsDMI3 showed that higher levels of H2O2 accumulation require OsDMI3 activation in ABA signaling,but the initial H2O2 production induced by ABA is not dependent on the activation of OsDMI3 in leaves of rice plants.Our data reveal that OsDMI3 is an important component in ABA-induced antioxidant defense in rice.

  4. Influence of Various Antioxidants on the Characteristics of Plain Yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Blake Brignac; Kayanush J. Aryana

    2012-01-01

    Free radical damage has been implicated in ageing and in certain degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Ageing is also associated with a progressive decline in the function of the immune system and an increased susceptibility to infection. Antioxidants protect the body from free radical damage. Vitamin E is the major antioxidant vitamin in body tissues and is considered the first line of defense against cell membrane damage. Other antioxidant defenses...

  5. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  6. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  7. Role of vitamin B6 status on antioxidant defenses, glutathione, and related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chin Hsu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B6 may directly or indirectly play a role in oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of vitamin B6 status with cysteine, glutathione, and its related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress. Design: Four-week-old male BALB/c mice were weighed and divided into one of four dietary treatment groups fed either a normal diet (as a control group and a homocysteine group, a vitamin B6-deficient diet (as a B6-deficient group, or a B6-supplemented diet (a pyridoxine-HCl-free diet supplemented with 14 mg/kg of pyridoxine-HCl, as a B6 supplement group for 28 days. Homocysteine thiolactone was then added to drinking water in three groups for 21 days to induce oxidative stress. At the end of the study, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and blood and liver samples were obtained. Results: Mice with vitamin B6-deficient diet had the highest homocysteine concentration in plasma and liver among groups. Significantly increased hepatic malondialdehyde levels were observed in the vitamin B6-deficient group. Among homocysteine-treated groups, mice with vitamin B6-deficient diet had the highest plasma glutathione concentration and relatively lower hepatic glutathione concentration. The glutathione peroxidase activities remained relatively stable in plasma and liver whether vitamin B6 was adequate, deficient, or supplemented. Conclusions: Mice with deficient vitamin B6 intakes had an aggravate effect under homocysteine-induced oxidative stress. The vitamin B6-deficient status seems to mediate the oxidative stress in connection with the redistribution of glutathione from liver to plasma, but not further affect glutathione-related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress.

  8. Lipophilized phenolics as antioxidants in fish oil enriched food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    hypothesis is that lipophilization of such polar phenolic compounds may improve their efficacy in fish oil enriched food systems. Our study aimed at evaluating rutin and dihydrocaffeic acid and their esters as antioxidants in o/w emulsion model system and milk enriched with fish oil. Moreover, the effect of...

  9. A methodology for the derivation of survivability and reliability requirements for a Strategic Defense System

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wai H.

    1989-01-01

    Survivability and reliability have become important factors in the design of a mission effective Strategic Defense System (SDS) that protects the United States against a ballistic missile attack by the Soviet Union. The SDS must be reliable and responsive in providing this defense. It must also be survivable to counter the Soviet tactics of negating the defense. To ensure an effective, responsive and affordable system, survivability and reliability features must be incorporated...

  10. Defense Acquisition and Budgeting: Investigating the Adequacy of Linkage Between Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, L. R.; McCaffery, Jerry L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we assess evidence and test the hypothesis that the complicated architecture and processes of national defense planning, programming, budgeting and execution and the defense acquisition decision system produce system linkage weaknesses that lead to unintended and negative consequences for defense acquisition and procurement. The purpose of this article is to identify key points of linkage weakness and failure between DOD financial management and acquisition deci...

  11. The Effect of a 12-Week Moderate Intensity Interval Training Program on the Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile in Men Smoking Cigarettes or Hookah: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessalem Koubaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the impact of interval training program on the antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in men smoking cigarettes or hookah unable or unwilling to quit smoking. Methods. Thirty-five participants performed an interval training (2 : 1 work : rest ratio 3 times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to a biochemical test session before and after the training program. Results. The increase of total antioxidant status (TAS, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and α-tocopherol, is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS and hookah smokers (HS groups. The decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA and the increase of glutathione reductase (GR are more pronounced in smokers groups compared to those of nonsmokers (NS. Superoxide dismutase (SOD increases in NS, CS, and HS groups by 10.1%, 19.5%, and 13.3%, respectively (P<0.001. Likewise, a significant improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio was observed in CS and HS groups (P<0.05. Conclusion. Although the interval training program does not have a significant effect on blood lipid levels, it seems to be very beneficial in the defense and prevention programs of oxidative stress.

  12. Ornithine and Homocitrulline Impair Mitochondrial Function, Decrease Antioxidant Defenses and Induce Cell Death in Menadione-Stressed Rat Cortical Astrocytes: Potential Mechanisms of Neurological Dysfunction in HHH Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Ângela; Rodrigues, Marília Danyelle Nunes; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Souza, Débora Guerini; Quincozes-Santos, André; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-09-01

    Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is caused by deficiency of ornithine translocase leading to predominant tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of ornithine (Orn), homocitrulline (Hcit) and ammonia. Although affected patients commonly present neurological dysfunction manifested by cognitive deficit, spastic paraplegia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, stroke-like episodes, hypotonia and ataxia, its pathogenesis is still poorly known. Although astrocytes are necessary for neuronal protection. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of Orn and Hcit on cell viability (propidium iodide incorporation), mitochondrial function (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide-MTT-reduction and mitochondrial membrane potential-ΔΨm), antioxidant defenses (GSH) and pro-inflammatory response (NFkB, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in unstimulated and menadione-stressed cortical astrocytes that were previously shown to be susceptible to damage by neurotoxins. We first observed that Orn decreased MTT reduction, whereas both amino acids decreased GSH levels, without altering cell viability and the pro-inflammatory factors in unstimulated astrocytes. Furthermore, Orn and Hcit decreased cell viability and ΔΨm in menadione-treated astrocytes. The present data indicate that the major compounds accumulating in HHH syndrome impair mitochondrial function and reduce cell viability and the antioxidant defenses in cultured astrocytes especially when stressed by menadione. It is presumed that these mechanisms may be involved in the neuropathology of this disease. PMID:27161368

  13. Physiological antioxidative network of the bilirubin system in aging and age-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Young eKim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is detrimental to life processes and is particularly responsible for aging and age-related diseases. Thus, most organisms are well equipped with a spectrum of biological defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. The major efficient antioxidative mechanism is the glutathione system, operating a redox cycling mechanism for glutathione utilization, which consists of glutathione and its peroxidase and reductase. However, this system is mainly effective for hydrophilic oxidants, while lipophilic oxidants require another scavenging system. Since many age-related pathological conditions are related to lipid peroxidation, especially in association with the aging process, the physiological role of the scavenging system for lipophilic oxidants should be considered. In this regard, the biliverdin to bilirubin conversion pathway, via biliverdin reductase, is suggested to be another major protective mechanism that scavenges lipophilic oxidants because of the lipophilic nature of bilirubin. The efficiency of this bilirubin system might be potentiated by operation of the intertwined bicyclic systems of the suggested redox metabolic cycle of biliverdin and bilirubin and the transcriptional control cycle of biliverdin reductase and heme oxygenase-1. In order to combat oxidative stress, both anti-oxidative systems, against hydrophilic and lipophilic oxidants, respectively, are required to work cooperatively. In this regard, the roles of the bilirubin system in aging and age-related diseases are reassessed in this review, and their interacting networks are evaluated.

  14. Antioxidant defence systems in the protozoan pathogen Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicola, Daniela; Falabella, Micol; Forte, Elena; Testa, Fabrizio; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The microaerophilic protist Giardia intestinalis is the causative agent of giardiasis, one of the most common intestinal infectious diseases worldwide. The pathogen lacks not only respiratory terminal oxidases (being amitochondriate), but also several conventional antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In spite of this, since living attached to the mucosa of the proximal small intestine, the parasite should rely on an efficient antioxidant system to survive the oxidative and nitrosative stress conditions found in this tract of the human gut. Here, we review current knowledge on the antioxidant defence systems in G. intestinalis, focusing on the progress made over the last decade in the field. The relevance of this research and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:26672398

  15. Tea extracts antioxidative potential in emulsified lipid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves (Camelia sinensis L. extracts are source of polyphenols, i.e. antioxidant components. Research showed possible tea extracts use in food technology, influencing contained lipids stability improvement. The aim of the research was comparison of different teas extracts activity in emulsified lipid system. The present research examined different teas: white, green, yellow, oolong and black aqueous and ethanol extracts. To evaluate the most potent addition level different tea extracts concentrations were chosen. Linoleic acid oxidative stability was measured by linoleic acid conjugated dienes produc-tion monitoring. Emulsions with additives were incubated 19 hours at 37°C in darkness. Results showed different tea extracts antioxidant activity, dependent on its concentration in examined system. Highest antioxidant activity, comparable to BHT and rosemary ex-tract was found in lipid sample with addition of yellow tea ethanol extract.

  16. Interactions between Polymyxa betae and plant systemic defense ways

    OpenAIRE

    Desoignies, Nicolas; Schramme, Florence; Legrève, Anne; Vienna Interntational Plant Conference Association - Plant Diseases and resistance mechanisms

    2013-01-01

    Polymyxa betae is the vector of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the causal agent of sugar beet rhizomania disease. Because of the widespread use of cultivars partially resistant to BNYVV, resistance breaking BNYVV isolates have been reported. In order to develop alternative control strategies, we investigated interactions between P. betae and plant defenses. A first set of bioassays was conducted in order to assess P. betae infection after the elicitation of inducible defenses in sug...

  17. Piezomechatronic-based systems in aircraft, space, and defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, T.; Claeyssen, F.; LeLetty, R.; Sosnicki, O.; Pages, A.; Vazquez Carazo, A.

    2009-05-01

    In Space & Defense fields, there is a trend for miniaturisation in active optics, fine instruments, robotic missions, microsatellites, UAVs, MAVs which directly impact on the design of actuators. A new generation of small and smart actuators such like piezoelectric (piezo) actuators, are responding to this trend, thanks to their capacity to offer high energy density and to support both extreme and various requirements. In Space vehicles, UAVs, missiles, military vehicles, etc., onboard place and available electric power can be very limited. For instance, a micro satellite often must operate all its instruments with less than 100W of power. As a result, allocated electric power per actuator is typically between 0.1 to 10W. This is also the case in small UAVs and in MAVs. Because of the high cost of embedded mass, space & military actuators need also to offer high output energy to mass ratio. One of the main difficulties is often the ability to withstand launching vibrations and shocks. Space environments add other constrains. A clear example is the vacuum conditions, which can induce difficulties to release the heat out off the actuator or for out gassing near optics. Other critical spacerelated environmental conditions include the thermal operation range required as well as the radiation-resistant requirements. In other situations, actuator strength to humidity is often an issue, especially for piezoelectric ceramics. Thus, the success of the application relies not only on design issues but also on material reliability. Specific actions at this level are needed to be undertaken to secure space projects. To cope with these issues and to illustrate the trend, the piezo actuators and mechanisms from Cedrat are presented. They have been initially developed and qualified to meet space requirements but logically found also applications in defense and micro aerial vehicle fields, for various micromechatronic functions. The paper presents typical applications and piezo

  18. Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplement on Paraoxonase-1 Activity, Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein and Antioxidant Defense in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Rashidi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on serum paraoxonase (PON1 activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty two female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group (n=8 received a standard diet; streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats (n=12, received corn oil and physiological solution; and vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic rats (n=12 were treated with oral administration of vitamin E (300 mg/kg and sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Results: Significantly lower total antioxidant status (TAS, PON1and erythrocyte SOD activities and a higher fasting plasma glucose level were observed in the diabetic rats compared to the control. A significant increase in SOD and GPX activities in vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic group was observed after 5 weeks of the experiment. Compared to the normal rats, malondialdehyde (MDA and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL levels were higher in the diabetic animals; however, these values reduced significantly following vitamin E and selenium supplementation. Conclusion: Vitamin E and selenium supplementation in diabetic rats has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects and may slow down the progression of diabetic complications through its protective effect on PON1 activity and lipoproteins oxidation.

  19. Antioxidant Compounds from Vegetable Matrices: Biosynthesis, Occurrence, and Extraction Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, Antonietta; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, tocopherols and tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds are largely distributed in plant products. Most of them are not synthesized by human and need to be introduced with diet according to the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI). This work was aimed to give a comprehensive overview on the occurrence of these antioxidants in plants, in particular in plant foods, on the mechanisms of biosynthesis, and on conventional (liquid-liquid or solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet) and innovative (enzymatic-assisted, pressurized fluid, supercritical fluid, ultrasound-assisted, microwave-assisted, pulsed electric field) extraction systems. PMID:25751787

  20. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter. PMID:26621111

  1. PROVIDING FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR THE NATIONAL DEFENSE SYSTEM IN THE CURRENT GEOPOLITICAL CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    VASILE DINU

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the most important aspects, seen mainly from an economic and financial perspective, of the correlation between the needs of the national defense system with the possibilities conferred by the development stage of our country, considering that Romania is a NATO member, with certain commitments in this regard. Obviously, based on the recent Political Agreement on increasing national defense funding, we c...

  2. 75 FR 71560 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... the cost and software data reporting requirements. DoD published a proposed rule at 75 FR 25165 on May... from small entities and other interested parties (proposed rule at 75 FR 25165). No comments were... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 215, 234, 242, and 252 RIN 0750-AG46 Defense...

  3. Melatonin, a potent agent in antioxidative defense: Actions as a natural food constituent, gastrointestinal factor, drug and prodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandi-Perumal SR

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal food constituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, which can be released into the blood in response to food intake and stimuli by nutrients, especially tryptophan. Apart from its use as a commercial food additive, supraphysiological doses have been applied in medical trials and pure preparations are well tolerated by patients. Owing to its amphiphilicity, melatonin can enter any body fluid, cell or cell compartment. Its properties as an antioxidant agent are based on several, highly diverse effects. Apart from direct radical scavenging, it plays a role in upregulation of antioxidant and downregulation of prooxidant enzymes, and damage by free radicals can be reduced by its antiexcitatory actions, and presumably by contributions to appropriate internal circadian phasing, and by its improvement of mitochondrial metabolism, in terms of avoiding electron leakage and enhancing complex I and complex IV activities. Melatonin was shown to potentiate effects of other antioxidants, such as ascorbate and Trolox. Under physiological conditions, direct radical scavenging may only contribute to a minor extent to overall radical detoxification, although melatonin can eliminate several of them in scavenger cascades and potentiates the efficacy of antioxidant vitamins. Melatonin oxidation seems rather important for the production of other biologically active metabolites such as N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK, which have been shown to also dispose of protective properties. Thus, melatonin may be regarded as a prodrug, too. AMK interacts with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, conveys protection to mitochondria

  4. Response of Antioxidant Substances and Enzymes Activities as a Defense Mechanism Against Root-Knot Nematode Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI; Ahmed A FARAHAT; Alsayed A. ALSAYED; Nomer M. MAHFOUD

    2012-01-01

    The organic amendments, composts (1, 2, 3), neem and poultry as well as inorganic fertilizers (NPK compound and commercial, Athree®) and the nematicide nemacur 10 G applied singly were effective in reducing M. incognita number of galls, nematode reproductionand fecundity. The effectiveness seemed to be material origin dependent. Neem, compost 1, 3 (5 g/pot) gave the best results. Yet, achievedresults were less than those of nemacur 10% G. The antioxidant substances content and enzymes activit...

  5. Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase overexpression modifies antioxidant defense against heat, drought and their combination in Nicotiana tabacum plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lubovská, Zuzana; Dobrá, Jana; Štorchová, Helena; Wilhelmová, Naděžda; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 17 (2014), s. 1625-1633. ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/2062; GA MŠk LD14120 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antioxidant enzymes * Cytokinin * Drought Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25171514

  6. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed t...

  7. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  8. Imbalance of the antioxidative system by plumbagin and Plumbago indica L. extract induces hepatotoxicity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkasem, Nadta; Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Tatiya-aphiradee, Nitima; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Plumbago indica (PI) L. and its active constituent, plumbagin, has been traditionally claimed for several pharmacological activities; however, there is little information regarding their toxicity. The present study aims to examine the effects of plumbagin and PI extract (PI) on hepatic histomorphology and antioxidative system in mice. Materials and Methods: Adult male intelligent character recognition mice were intragastrically administered plumbagin (1, 5, and 15 mg/kg/day) or PI (20, 200, and 1,000 mg/kg/day) consecutively for 14 days. Hepatic histomorphology was examined. Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were determined. Results: Plumbagin and PI concentration-dependently induced hepatic injury based on histopathological changes via imbalance of antioxidative system. Plumbagin and PI significantly increased plasma ALT and AST levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and GPx activity but significantly decreased hepatic SOD and CAT activities. The GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly reduced by plumbagin. Conclusion: Plumbagin and PI caused hepatotoxic effects in the mice by unbalancing of the redox defense system. Therefore, plumbagin and PI-containing supplements should be used cautiously, especially when consumed in high quantities or for long periods. PMID:27104034

  9. Vitaminas y oxidorreductasas antioxidantes: defensa ante el estrés oxidativo Antioxidant vitamins and oxidoreductases: a defense against oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eugenio Benítez Zequeira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión que comprende aspectos morfológicos y funcionales de agentes oxidantes y antioxidantes, así como los mecanismos bioquímicos que los involucran en la defensa antioxidante del organismo. Se conoce como estrés oxidativo a los efectos morbosos debidos al desequilibrio entre la acción de agentes oxidantes sobre las células y la respuesta antioxidante de estas. Los agentes oxidantes pueden ser exógenos (fármacos y venenos y endógenos (como las especies reactivas del oxígeno y los peróxidos lipídicos. Por otra parte, la dotación antioxidante del organismo humano también cuenta con miembros externos e internos. Entre los primeros figuran las vitaminas antioxidantes y minerales como el hierro y el selenio, ingresados formando parte de los alimentos o como suplemento nutritivo; internamente, se encuentran hemoenzimas oxidorreductasas y metabolitos intermediarios como el glutatión. Muchos procesos patológicos como entidades nosológicas en sí, se acompañan de estrés oxidativo, expresándose en la peroxidación de biomembranas y la subsiguiente apoptosis, lo cual podría acarrear la muerte celularA review that includes morphological and functional aspects of oxidant and antioxidant agents, as well as the biochemical mechanisms involving them in the antioxidant defense of the body was made. Oxidative stress is known as the morbid effects due to the unbalance between the action of oxidant agents on the cells and the antioxidant response. Oxidant agents can be exogenous (drugs and poisons and endogenous (like the Reactive Oxygen Species and lipid peroxides. On the other hand, the antioxidant complement of the human organism has also both external and internal members. Among the first ones there are antioxidant vitamins and minerals, such as iron and selenium, which have come into the cell as part of food or as a diet supplement. Oxidoreductase hemoenzymes and intermediary metabolites as gluthatione are internally

  10. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo, E-mail: sjung@knu.ac.kr

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F{sub v}/F{sub m}, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and greater increases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress.

  11. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, Fv/Fm, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H2O2 production and greater increases in H2O2-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress

  12. Alpha-lipoic acid protects against indomethacin-induced gastric oxidative toxicity by modulating antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kursat Ali; Odabasoglu, Fehmi; Halici, Zekai; Halici, Mesut; Cadirci, Elif; Atalay, Fadime; Aydin, Ozlem; Cakir, Ahmet

    2012-11-01

    Gastroprotective effects of α-lipoic acid (ALA) against oxidative gastric damage induced by indomethacin (IND) have been investigated. All doses (50, 75, 100, 150, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) of ALA reduced the ulcer index with 88.2% to 96.1% inhibition ratio. In biochemical analyses of stomach tissues, ALA administration decreased the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and catalase (CAT) in gastric tissues, which were increased after IND application. ALA also increased the level of glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) that were decreased in gastric damaged stomach tissues. In conclusion, the gastroprotective effect of ALA could be attributed to its ameliorating effect on the antioxidant defense systems. PMID:23057764

  13. Tea extracts antioxidative potential in emulsified lipid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska; Marzenna Hęś; Józef Korczak

    2008-01-01

    Tea leaves (Camelia sinensis L.) extracts are source of polyphenols, i.e. antioxidant components. Research showed possible tea extracts use in food technology, influencing contained lipids stability improvement. The aim of the research was comparison of different teas extracts activity in emulsified lipid system. The present research examined different teas: white, green, yellow, oolong and black aqueous and ethanol extracts. To evaluate the most potent addition level different tea extracts c...

  14. Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome accelerates rat excisional wound healing: involvement of Hsp70/Bax proteins, antioxidant defense, and angiogenesis activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollahi E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Elham Rouhollahi,1 Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi,2 Fatemeh Hajiaghaalipour,3 Maryam Zahedifard,2 Faezeh Tayeby,2 Khalijah Awang,4 Mahmood Ameen Abdulla,3 Zahurin Mohamed1 1Pharmacogenomics Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, 3Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, 4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: Curcuma purpurascens BI. is a member of Zingiberaceae family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the wound healing properties of hexane extract of C. purpurascens rhizome (HECP against excisional wound healing in rats.Materials and methods: Twenty four rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: A negative control (blank placebo, acacia gum, B low dose of HECP, C high dose of HECP, and D positive control, with 6 rats in each group. Full-thickness incisions (approximately 2.00 cm were made on the neck area of each rat. Groups 1–4 were treated two-times a day for 20 days with blank placebo, HECP (100 mg/kg, HECP (200 mg/kg, and intrasite gel as a positive control, respectively. After 20 days, hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome stainings were employed to investigate the histopathological alterations. Protein expressions of Bax and Hsp70 were examined in the wound tissues using immunohistochemistry analysis. In addition, levels of enzymatic antioxidants and malondialdehyde representing lipid peroxidation were measured in wound tissue homogenates.Results: Macroscopic evaluation of wounds showed conspicuous elevation in wound contraction after topical administration of HECP at both doses. Moreover, histopathological analysis revealed noteworthy reduction in the scar width correlated with the enhanced collagen content and fibroblast cells, accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory cells in the granulation tissues. At the molecular level, HECP facilitates wound-healing process

  15. Response of Antioxidant Substances and Enzymes Activities as a Defense Mechanism Against Root-Knot Nematode Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic amendments, composts (1, 2, 3, neem and poultry as well as inorganic fertilizers (NPK compound and commercial, Athree® and the nematicide nemacur 10 G applied singly were effective in reducing M. incognita number of galls, nematode reproductionand fecundity. The effectiveness seemed to be material origin dependent. Neem, compost 1, 3 (5 g/pot gave the best results. Yet, achievedresults were less than those of nemacur 10% G. The antioxidant substances content and enzymes activities due to nematode infectionand application of organic and inorganic fertilizers pointed to significant increase of lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide as aresult of nematode infection and nemacur treatment. While all organic and inorganic fertilizers reduced such materials with significantdifferences among treatments. Likewise, nematode infection resulted in slight but significant increase in glutathione and ascorbic acidin tomato shoots and roots. All treatments increased antioxidant substances comparing to healthy and infected plants. Glutathione-Stransferaseactivity highly increased in infected roots but the lowest activities were achieved by organic fertilizers. Nematode infectionand nemacur treatment increased slightly phenylalaine ammonia lyase activity but enormous increase was observed in shoots and rootsof treated plants with organic fertilizers followed by NPK treatments.

  16. Characterization of antioxidant system parameters in four freshwater fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Gülüzar; Canli, Esin G; Eroglu, Ali; Canli, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The potential use of antioxidant system parameters has gained considerable interest due to their pivotal role of detoxification mechanisms in environmental studies and culture fish point of view. Fish with different ecological needs may have different antioxidant capacity and response to environmental contaminants. Thus, the optimal working conditions and specific enzyme activities (Vmax and Km) of antioxidant system parameters (Superoxide dismutase, SOD; Catalase, CAT; Glutathione peroxidase, GPX; Glutathione reductase, GR and Glutathione S-transferase, GST) and glutathione (GSH) were determined in four commonly cultured freshwater fish species (tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus, carp; Cyprinus carpio, trout; Onchorhynchus mykiss and catfish; Clarias garipienus). Data showed that optimal concentrations of different buffers, pH and specific chemicals for each enzyme and GSH were similar in most cases for all fish species, except a few differences. The highest Vmax and Km values were found in carp for GPX and GST, though these values were the highest in tilapia, catfish and trout for CAT, SOD and GR, respectively. As a conclusion, optimization assays of these parameters in different bioindicator organisms based on their physiological and ecological differences may be useful for the aquatic ecosystem biomonitoring studies and also present fundamental data for utilization in aquaculture. PMID:26707186

  17. Evaluating Defense Architecture Frameworks for C4I System Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah S. Alghamdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I Systems provided situational awareness about operational environment and supported in decision making and directed to operative environment. These systems had been used by various agencies like defense, police, investigation, road, rail, airports, oil and gas related department. However, the increase use of C4I system had made it more important and attractive. Consequently interest in design and development of C4I system had increased among the researchers. Many defense industry frameworks were available but the problem was a suitable selection of a framework in design and development of C4I system. Approach: This study described the concepts, tool and methodology being used for evaluation analysis of different frameworks by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results: We had compared different defense industry frameworks like Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DODAF, Ministry of Defense Architecture Framework (MODAF and NATO Architecture Framework (NAF and found that AHP is fairly good tool in terms of analysis. Conclusion: Different defense industry frameworks such as DODAF, MODAF and NAF had been evaluated and compared using AHP.

  18. Antioxidant activity of whey protein hydrolysates in milk beverage system

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Bimlesh; Kumari, Anuradha; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Rajan; Prajapati, Kishore; Mahboob, Shaik; Athira, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of flavoured milk enriched with antioxidative whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) by radical scavenging method. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was hydrolyzed by using three commercial proteases; flavouzyme, alcalase and corolase PP and these WPHs were analyzed for degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities of these WPHs were evaluated using ABTS method. Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity of a...

  19. Disruption of Nrf2, a key inducer of antioxidant defenses, attenuates ApoE-mediated atherosclerosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Sussan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are two critical factors that drive the formation of plaques in atherosclerosis. Nrf2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that upregulates a battery of antioxidative genes and cytoprotective enzymes that constitute the cellular response to oxidative stress. Our previous studies have shown that disruption of Nrf2 in mice (Nrf2(-/- causes increased susceptibility to pulmonary emphysema, asthma and sepsis due to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Here we have tested the hypothesis that disruption of Nrf2 in mice causes increased atherosclerosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the role of Nrf2 in the development of atherosclerosis, we crossed Nrf2(-/- mice with apoliporotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/- mice. ApoE(-/- and ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice were fed an atherogenic diet for 20 weeks, and plaque area was assessed in the aortas. Surprisingly, ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice exhibited significantly smaller plaque area than ApoE(-/- controls (11.5% vs 29.5%. This decrease in plaque area observed in ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice was associated with a significant decrease in uptake of modified low density lipoproteins (AcLDL by isolated macrophages from ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice. Furthermore, atherosclerotic plaques and isolated macrophages from ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice exhibited decreased expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. CONCLUSIONS: Nrf2 is pro-atherogenic in mice, despite its antioxidative function. The net pro-atherogenic effect of Nrf2 may be mediated via positive regulation of CD36. Our data demonstrates that the potential effects of Nrf2-targeted therapies on cardiovascular disease need to be investigated.

  20. Prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation: novel and safe strategy based on the modulation of the antioxidant system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón eRodrigo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia following cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The pathogenesis of postoperative AF is multifactorial. Oxidative stress, caused by the unavoidable ischemia-reperfusion event occurring in this setting, is a major contributory factor. ROS-derived effects could result in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation or DNA oxidation of cardiac tissue, thus leading to functional and structural myocardial remodeling. The vulnerability of myocardial tissue to the oxidative challenge is also dependent on the activity of the antioxidant system. High ROS levels, overwhelming this system, should result in deleterious cellular effects, such as the induction of necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy. Nevertheless, tissue exposure to low to moderate ROS levels could trigger a survival response with a trend to reinforce the antioxidant defense system. Administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, known to involve a moderate ROS production, is consistent with a diminished vulnerability to the development of postoperative AF. Accordingly, supplementation of n-3 PUFA successfully reduced the incidence of postoperative AF after coronary bypass grafting. This response is due to an up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, as shown in experimental models. In turn, non-enzymatic antioxidant reinforcement through vitamin C administration prior to cardiac surgery has also reduced the postoperative AF incidence. Therefore, it should be expected that a mixed therapy result in an improvement of the cardioprotective effect by modulating both components of the antioxidant system. We present available evidence supporting the view of an effective prevention of postoperative AF including a 2-step therapeutic strategy: n-3 PUFA followed by vitamin C supplementation to patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The present study should encourage the design of clinical

  1. 48 CFR 47.301-3 - Using the Defense Transportation System (DTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Using the Defense Transportation System (DTS). 47.301-3 Section 47.301-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Transportation System (DTS). (a) All military and civilian agencies shipping, or arranging for the...

  2. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations

  3. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  4. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  5. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L-1 Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H2O2 concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  6. Antioxidant Activity of Flaxseed Extracts in Lipid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Slavova-Kazakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant activity of the extract of flaxseed and its alkaline hydrolysate in two model systems: lipid autoxidation of triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO—in a homogeneous lipid media and during β-carotene-linoleate emulsion system. In addition, pure lignans were tested. The material was defatted with hexane and then phenolic compounds were extracted using dioxane-ethanol (50:50, v/v mixture. Carbohydrates were removed from the crude extract using an Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. The content of total phenolic compounds in the crude extract and after alkaline hydrolysis was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent. Individual phenolic compounds were determined by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (RP-HPLC method in gradient system. The alkaline hydrolysis increased the content of total phenolics in the extract approximately by 10%. In the extracts of flaxseed, phenolic compounds were present in the form of macromolecular complex. In the alkaline hydrolysate, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG was found as the main phenolic compound. Small amounts of p-coumaric and ferulic acids were also determined. SDG and both extracts were not able to inhibit effectively lipid autoxidation. The kinetics of TGSO autoxidation at 80 °C in absence and in presence of the extract before hydrolysis (EBH and after hydrolysis (EAH was monitored and compared with known standard antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT showed much higher antioxidant efficiency and reactivity than that of both extracts. Secoisolariciresinol (SECO showed a higher activity in both model systems than SDG. However, the activity of SECO was much lower than that of nordihydroquaiaretic acid (NDGA.

  7. Zinc cystein as an enhancer to natural antioxidant defense mechanism (s) in whole body gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malonaldehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver and blood, were measured in whole body gamma irradiated rats with a dose of 6.5 Gy before and after administration of zinc cystein. Zinc cystein (Zn/cyst) was administrated intraperitoneally at a concentration of 30 mg/kg, b.w. 30 min pre-irradiation and measurements were done at 24 and 72 hr after irradiation. These results were compared with non-irradiated. These results were compared with non-irradiated, non Zn/cyst treated group (control group). After irradiation, the activity of SOD and the level of GSH in both liver and blood were decreased, while in Zn/cyst protected groups this decrease was less but did not reach to that of control group level till the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, MDA markedly increased after irradiation. Nevertheless, and in protected group with Z0/cyst reveled less increase. It can be concluded that pre-treatment with Zn/cyst protects rats against sublethal effect of radiation, by improving the natural antioxidant mechanism (s)

  8. Gestational diabetes mellitus impairs Nrf2-mediated adaptive antioxidant defenses and redox signaling in fetal endothelial cells in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xinghua; Chapple, Sarah J; Patel, Bijal; Puszyk, William; Sugden, David; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel; Siow, Richard C M; Mann, Giovanni E

    2013-12-01

    In utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We examined the effects of GDM on the proteome, redox status, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant gene expression in human fetal endothelial cells. Proteomic analysis revealed that proteins involved in redox homeostasis were significantly altered in GDM and associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide generation, protein oxidation, DNA damage, and diminished glutathione (GSH) synthesis. In GDM cells, the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) failed to induce nuclear Nrf2 accumulation and mRNA and/or protein expression of Nrf2 and its target genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), Bach1, cystine/glutamate transporter, and glutamate cysteine ligase. Although methylation of CpG islands in Nrf2 or NQO1 promoters was unaltered by GDM, decreased DJ-1 and increased phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β levels may account for impaired Nrf2 signaling. HNE-induced increases in GSH and NQO1 levels were abrogated by Nrf2 small interfering RNA in normal cells, and overexpression of Nrf2 in GDM cells partially restored NQO1 induction. Dysregulation of Nrf2 in fetal endothelium may contribute to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in offspring. PMID:23974919

  9. A two-level formal specification of a defense communications system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, G.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Kemmerer, R.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Reliable Software Group

    1994-04-01

    Computer systems are being used in critical situations with sensitive data, which makes it very important to ensure that these systems perform as desired. The defense communications system contains particularly sensitive data. A two-level ASLAN formal specification of a defense communications system is presented. The ASLAN model is designed to enhance the understanding of critical requirements and demands of the defense communications system. For the top-level (high-level) specifications, the structural details of the actual network are actual network are abstracted to allow more time for examining the interactions between the sites and the network. At this level, DataGrams move through the network, although the actual routing decisions are not specified. More details are added in the second-level specification. At this level, structure is added to the network.

  10. HERBAL REMEDIES AS ANTIOXIDANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj S. Charde; Shukla, A.; V. Bukhariya; J. Mehta; R. Chakole

    2012-01-01

    The primary cause of degenerative disease is not due to damaging free radicals, but rather it is due to the requirement of highly ordered cell biochemistry becoming disordered due to insufficient cellular energy to maintain the normal state of order. There is a complex defense system in the body, in which vitamins, minerals, amino acids and certain enzymes play a central role called the antioxidant system. Antioxidants are weapons for combating free radicals and mop up damaging chemicals in t...

  11. Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.A. Gadallah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2, agricultural runoff (Site 4 and oils and detergents factory (Site 3 on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ascorbic acid (Asc A, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl content, soluble sugars (SS, soluble proteins (SP and total free amino acids (TAA of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinochloa stagnina. Concentration of H2O2, MDA and TAA were higher in the three plants collected from polluted sites as compared with those of plants grown in control Nile site (Site1. The opposite was true for Asc A, SS and SP where their concentrations reduced significantly in response to water pollution. Leaf membrane was more damaged (high injury % in plants exposed to wastes from different sources than in plants growing at control site. The results of this study indicated that water pollution reduced the oxidative defense abilities in the three plants through reduction of Asc A activities, enhancement of H2O2 production and increasing MDA accumulation. In addition it impaired the metabolic activity through lowering the SS and SP contents and enhancement of TAA accumulation and increase membrane injury. The over production of hydrogen peroxide by the studied aquatic plants under water pollution could be used as an oxygen source needed to oxidize the more resistant organic and inorganic pollutants and used for pollution control and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

  12. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessalem Koubaa

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR and Superoxide dismutase (SOD is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS and hookah smokers (HS groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01, 2% (p< 0.05 and 1.7% (p< 0.05 respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG. Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC for CS group (p< 0.01 and HS groups (p< 0.05. This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation.

  13. Resistance to the Beneficial Metabolic Effects and Hepatic Antioxidant Defense Actions of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Treatment in Growth Hormone-Overexpressing Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravneet K. Boparai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 modulates a diverse range of biological functions, including glucose and lipid metabolism, adaptive starvation response, and energy homeostasis, but with limited mechanistic insight. FGF21 treatment has been shown to inhibit hepatic growth hormone (GH intracellular signaling. To evaluate GH axis involvement in FGF21 actions, transgenic mice overexpressing bovine GH were used. Expectedly, in response to FGF21 treatment control littermates showed metabolic improvements whereas GH transgenic mice resisted most of the beneficial effects of FGF21, except an attenuation of the innate hyperinsulinemia. Since FGF21 is believed to exert its effects mostly at the transcriptional level, we analyzed and observed significant upregulation in expression of various genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis, and antioxidant defense in FGF21-treated controls, but not in GH transgenics. The resistance of GH transgenic mice to FGF21-induced changes underlines the necessity of normal GH signaling for the beneficial effects of FGF21.

  14. Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway is involved in the neuroprotective effects of Sirt1 against focal cerebral ischemia in rats after hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fen; Huang, Jin-Wen; Ding, Pei-Yan; Zang, Hong-Gang; Kou, Zhi-Jian; Li, Ting; Fan, Juan; Peng, Zheng-Wu; Yan, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is a class III histone deacetylase involved in neuroprotection induced by hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) in animal models of ischemia. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be illustrated. In the present study, rats exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were used to establish an ischemic stroke model. The infarct volume ratio, neurobehavioral score, and expressions of Sirt1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were evaluated at 7 days after reperfusion, and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was used to assess oxidative stress. HBO-PC increased the expression of Sirt1 and reduced infarct volume ratio and neurobehavioral deficit in MCAO rats. Meanwhile, HBO-PC also increased expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and SOD1 and decreased MDA content. Furthermore, either Sirt1 or Nrf2 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and SOD1 and eliminated the neuroprotective effects of HBO-PC. Taken together, the results suggest that the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway is involved in the long lasting neuroprotective effects of Sirt1 induced by HBO-PC against transient focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:27131779

  15. Development of Sample Pretreatment and Liquid Chromatographic Techniques for Antioxidative Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kivilompolo, Maarit

    2009-01-01

    In this study, novel methodologies for the determination of antioxidative compounds in herbs and beverages were developed. Antioxidants are compounds that can reduce, delay or inhibit oxidative events. They are a part of the human defense system and are obtained through the diet. Antioxidants are naturally present in several types of foods, e.g. in fruits, beverages, vegetables and herbs. Antioxidants can also be added to foods during manufacturing to suppress lipid oxidation and formation of...

  16. Commonly Used Antioxidant Botanicals: Active Constituents and their Potential Role in Cardiovascular Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; MEHENDALE, SANGEETA R.; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the US. Recent studies found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been incriminated in the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic heart disease. Many botanicals possess antioxidant properties, and these herbal antioxidants may protect against cardiovascular diseases by contributing to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body. In this article, we reviewed the antioxidant components and properties of four puta...

  17. Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control a...

  18. Antioxidative activity of whey protein hydrolysates in a liposomal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Ramos, E A; Xiong, Y L

    2001-12-01

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) with or without preheating (90 degrees C for 5 min) was hydrolyzed for 0.5 to 6 h using four pure enzymes (pepsin, papain, trypsin, and chymotrypsin) and three commercial crude proteases. After determining the degree of hydrolysis, the hydrolysates were incubated (37 degrees C, 1 h) with a liposome oxidizing system (50 mM FeCl3/0.1 mM ascorbate, pH 7.0). Lipid oxidation was measured by determining the concentrations of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS). The degree of hydrolysis of WPI ranged from 4 to 37% depending on the enzymes used and whether the substrate was heated or not. WPI hydrolysates prepared by pure enzyme treatments did not prevent TBARS formation in the oxidative model system, but WPI hydrolyzed by the commercial crude enzymes, especially protease F, exhibited antioxidant activity. The antioxidative potential of hydrolyzed WPI was not affected by the degree of hydrolysis, and it was improved by preheat treatment in only some samples. PMID:11814013

  19. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Adrian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Mitchell Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamlet, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stout, William M.S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  20. The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways: The Road to Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Elisheva

    2010-01-01

    The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways was an innovation that changed America. The highway system, the greatest public works project in American history, made travel faster, easier, and safer. However, there were serious negative effects of the highways; they hindered the growth of cities, destroyed…

  1. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity

  2. The coagulation system and its function in early immune defense.

    OpenAIRE

    T. van der Poll; Herwald, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Blood coagulation has a Janus-faced role in infectious diseases. When systemically activated, it can cause serious complications associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, coagulation is also part of the innate immune system and its local activation has been found to play an important role in the early host response to infection. Though the latter aspect has been less investigated, phylogenetic studies have shown that many factors involved in coagulation have ancestral origins whi...

  3. Microbial community induces a plant defense system under growing on the lunar regolith analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaetz, Irina; Mytrokhyn, Olexander; Lukashov, Dmitry; Mashkovska, Svitlana; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Foing, Bernard H.

    The lunar rock considered as a potential source of chemical elements essential for plant nutrition, however, this substrate is of a low bioavailability. The use of microorganisms for decomposition of silicate rocks and stimulation of plant growth is a key idea in precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for a lunar base (Kozyrovska et al., 2004; 2006; Zaetz et al., 2006). In model experiments a consortium of well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, analogous to a lunar rock. Inoculated plants appeared better seed germination, more fast development and also increased accumulation of K, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu and lowered level of the toxic Zn, Ni, Cr, comparing to control tagetes'. Bacteria regulate metal homeostasis in plants by changing their bioavailability and by stimulating of plant defense mechanisms. Inoculated plants were being accommodated to growth under stress conditions on anorthosite used as a substrate. In contrast, control plants manifested a heavy metal-induced oxidative stress, as quantified by protein carbonyl accumulation. Depending on the plant organ sampled and developmental stage there were increases or loses in the antioxidant enzyme activities (guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase). These changes were most evident in inoculated plants. Production of phenolic compounds, known as antioxidants and heavy metal chelators, is rised in variants of inoculated marigolds. Guaiacol peroxidase plays the main role, finally, in a reducing toxicity of heavy metals in plant leaves, while glutathione-S-transferase and phenolics overcome stress in roots.

  4. Vulnerability And Risk Assessment Using The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over ten years, the Counterproliferation Analysis and Planning System (CAPS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a planning tool used by U.S. combatant commands for mission support planning against foreign programs engaged in the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). CAPS is endorsed by the Secretary of Defense as the preferred counterproliferation tool to be used by the nation's armed services. A sister system, the Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging CAPS expertise designed to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities is presented

  5. Risk Assessment Using The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over ten years, the Counterproliferation Analysis and Planning System (CAPS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a planning tool used by U.S. combatant commands for mission support planning against foreign programs engaged in the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). CAPS is endorsed by the Secretary of Defense as the preferred counterproliferation tool to be used by the nation's armed services. A sister system, the Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging CAPS expertise designed to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities will be presented

  6. Risk Assessment Using The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durling, R L; Price, D E; Spero, K K

    2005-06-06

    For over ten years, the Counterproliferation Analysis and Planning System (CAPS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a planning tool used by U.S. combatant commands for mission support planning against foreign programs engaged in the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). CAPS is endorsed by the Secretary of Defense as the preferred counterproliferation tool to be used by the nation's armed services. A sister system, the Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging CAPS expertise designed to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities will be presented.

  7. Vulnerability And Risk Assessment Using The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durling, Jr., R L; Price, D E; Spero, K K

    2005-01-03

    For over ten years, the Counterproliferation Analysis and Planning System (CAPS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a planning tool used by U.S. combatant commands for mission support planning against foreign programs engaged in the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). CAPS is endorsed by the Secretary of Defense as the preferred counterproliferation tool to be used by the nation's armed services. A sister system, the Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging CAPS expertise designed to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities is presented.

  8. Cardioprotective and nonprotective regimens of chronic hypoxia diversely affect the myocardial antioxidant systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašparová, D.; Neckář, Jan; Dabrowská, L.; Novotný, J.; Mráz, J.; Kolář, František; Žurmanová, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2015), s. 612-620. ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adaptation to hypoxia * cardioprotection * ischemia -reperfusion injury * oxidative stress * antioxidant defense Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.374, year: 2014

  9. Antioxidant effect of seaweed extracts in food emulsion systems enriched with fish oil

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Natural antioxidants derived from marine algae have a high content of bioactive components with potential for improving oxidative stability of lipids in food systems. In this presentation we will discuss results from our ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains a wide range of polyphenols with potential antioxidant activity. Thus, in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts have been found to be related to the total polyphenolic content. It has b...

  10. Changes in the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system in Brassica juncea cotyledons during seedling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S K; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2002-02-01

    Optimal defense theory (ODT) predicts that plant defenses will be allocated to plant organs and tissues in proportion to their relative fitness values and susceptibilities to attack. This study was designed to test ODT predictions on the myrosinase-glucosinolate defense system in Brassica juncea by examining the relationships between the fitness value of B. juncea cotyledons and the levels and effectiveness of cotyledon defenses. Specifically, we estimated fitness value of cotyledons during plant development by measuring plant growth and seed production after cotyledon damage or removal at successive seedling ages. Cotyledon removal within five days of emergence had a significant impact on growth and seed production, but cotyledon removal at later stages did not. Consistent with ODT, glucosinolate and myrosinase levels in cotyledons also declined with seedling age, as did relative defenses against a generalist herbivore, Spodoptera eridania, as estimated by bioassay. Declines in glucosinolates were as predicted by a passive, allometric dilution model based on cotyledon expansion. Declines in myrosinase activity were significantly more gradual than predicted by allometric dilution, suggesting active retention of myrosinase activity as young cotyledons expand. PMID:11925065

  11. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune...

  12. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, Fv/Fm, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H2O2 production and greater increases in H2O2-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. PMID:25735982

  13. Dietary alpha-ketoglutarate increases cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and enhances protein pool and antioxidant defense in sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliak, Maria M; Lylyk, Maria P; Shmihel, Halyna V; Sorochynska, Oksana M; Manyukh, Oksana V; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is an important intermediate in Krebs cycle which bridges the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates. Its effects as a dietary supplement on cold tolerance were studied in Drosophila melanogaster Canton S. Two-day-old adult flies fed at larval and adult stages with AKG at moderate concentrations (5-10mM) recovered faster from chill coma (0°C for 15min or 3h) than control ones. The beneficial effect of AKG on chill coma recovery was not found at its higher concentrations, which suggests hormetic like action of this keto acid. Time of 50% observed mortality after 2h recovery from continuous cold exposure (-1°C for 3-31h) (LTi50) was higher for flies reared on 10mM AKG compared with control ones, showing that the diet with AKG enhanced insect cold tolerance. In parallel with enhancement of cold tolerance, dietary AKG improved fly locomotor activity. Metabolic effects of AKG differed partly in males and females. In males fed on AKG, there were no differences in total protein and free amino acid levels, but the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity and low molecular mass thiol content were higher than in control animals. In females, dietary AKG promoted higher total antioxidant capacity and higher levels of proteins, total amino acids, proline and low molecular mass thiols. The levels of lipid peroxides were lower in both fly sexes reared on AKG as compared with control ones. We conclude that both enhancement of antioxidant system capacity and synthesis of amino acids can be important for AKG-promoted cold tolerance in D. melanogaster. The involvement of AKG in metabolic pathways of Drosophila males and females is discussed. PMID:27503710

  14. Summary note on report TR-61-B: EMP protective systems by the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EMP Protective Systems report presents a description of representative problems and solutions associated with providing protection against nuclear electromagnetic pulse for communication facilities. The protection techniques shown for the Emergency Operating Centers (usually small radio and telephone communication facilities) of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency are applicable to many facilities. Numerous photos and diagrams augment the information in the text

  15. Second Line of Defense Virtual Private Network Guidance for Deployed and New CAS Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surya V.; Thronas, Aaron I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of remote access via virtual private network (VPN) for the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Central Alarm System (CAS) sites, the requirements for maintaining secure channels while using VPN and implementation requirements for current and future sites.

  16. Antioxidant activity of whey protein hydrolysates in milk beverage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Bimlesh; Kumari, Anuradha; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Rajan; Prajapati, Kishore; Mahboob, Shaik; Athira, S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of flavoured milk enriched with antioxidative whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) by radical scavenging method. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was hydrolyzed by using three commercial proteases; flavouzyme, alcalase and corolase PP and these WPHs were analyzed for degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities of these WPHs were evaluated using ABTS method. Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity of all the hydrolysates i.e. flavourzyme (0.81 ± 0.04), alcalase (1.16 ± 0.05) and corolase (1.42 ± 0.12) was higher than the WPC (0.19 ± 0.01). Among these, whey protein hydrolysates prepared using corolase showed maximum antioxidant activity. Total 15 β-lactoglobulin, 1 α-lactoalbumin, and 6 β-casein derived peptide fragments were identified in the WPHs by LC-MS/MS. Due to their size and characteristic amino acid composition, all the identified peptides may contribute for the antioxidant activity. The strawberry and chocolate flavoured milk was supplemented with WPC and WPHs and 2 % addition has shown increase in antioxidant activity upto 42 %. The result suggests that WPH could be used as natural biofunctional ingredients in enhancing antioxidant properties of food products. PMID:26028704

  17. Y-12 defense programs. Nuclear Packaging Systems testing capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Packaging Systems (NPS) Department can manage/accomplish any packaging task. The NPS organization is responsible for managing the design, testing, certification, procurement, operation, refurbishment, maintenance, and disposal of packaging used to transport radioactive materials, other hazardous materials, and general cargoes on public roads and within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Additionally, the NPS Department has developed a Quality Assurance plan for all packaging, design and procurement of nonweapon shipping containers for radioactive materials, and design and procurement of performance-oriented packaging for hazardous materials. Further, the NPS Department is responsible for preparation and submittal of Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP). The NPS Department coordinates shipping container procurement and safety certification activities that have lead-times of up to two years. A Packaging Testing Capabilities Table at the Oak Ridge complex is included as a table

  18. Towards an integrated defense system for cyber security situation awareness experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Sixiao; Ge, Linqiang; Shen, Dan; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, an implemented defense system is demonstrated to carry out cyber security situation awareness. The developed system consists of distributed passive and active network sensors designed to effectively capture suspicious information associated with cyber threats, effective detection schemes to accurately distinguish attacks, and network actors to rapidly mitigate attacks. Based on the collected data from network sensors, image-based and signals-based detection schemes are implemented to detect attacks. To further mitigate attacks, deployed dynamic firewalls on hosts dynamically update detection information reported from the detection schemes and block attacks. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed system. A future plan to design an effective defense system is also discussed based on system theory.

  19. Apple extracts as modulators of DNA methylation and inducers of Nrf2-ARE-associated antioxidant defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    far known individual constituents. Furthermore, using a digestive mimetic system a decrease of bioactivity with an increase in fermentation time of extracts became apparent. Nevertheless, the bioactivity is not completely lost, which is of special importance with respect to ongoing in vivo studies. (author)

  20. Study of oxidative stress, homocysteine, copper & zinc in nephrotic syndrome: therapy with antioxidants, minerals and B-complex vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Dwivedi; Purnima Dey Sarkar

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as one of the possible mechanism involved in the nephrotic syndrome. Strengthening the defense system by antioxidants may provide protection against oxidative damage. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate oxidant and antioxidant status with copper, zinc and homocysteine in nephrotic syndrome patients and the effect of antioxidants, minerals and B-complex vitamins on oxidant and antioxidant status. The blood samples were analyzed for quantitati...

  1. Motivational cues predict the defensive system in team handball: A model based on regulatory focus theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debanne, T; Laffaye, G

    2015-08-01

    This study was based on the naturalistic decision-making paradigm and regulatory focus theory. Its aim was to model coaches' decision-making processes for handball teams' defensive systems based on relevant cues of the reward structure, and to determine the weight of each of these cues. We collected raw data by video-recording 41 games that were selected using a simple random method. We considered the defensive strategy (DEF: aligned or staged) to be the dependent variable, and the three independent variables were (a) numerical difference between the teams; (b) score difference between the teams; and (c) game periods. We used a logistic regression design (logit model) and a multivariate logistic model to explain the link between DEF and the three category independent variables. Each factor was weighted differently during the decision-making process to select the defensive system, and combining these variables increased the impact on this process; for instance, a staged defense is 43 times more likely to be chosen during the final period in an unfavorable situation and in a man advantage. Finally, this shows that the coach's decision-making process could be based on a simple match or could require a diagnosis of the situation based on the relevant cues. PMID:25262855

  2. Lung and systemic oxidant and antioxidant activity after graded smoke exposure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, C; Picard, L; Campbell, C; Demling, R

    1994-01-01

    We wanted to determine the effect of a graded smoke inhalation on lung and systemic oxidant stress, and its relationship to physiological and histological change. Male Wistar rats were given 12 breaths of 10 ml/kg (n = 8) (group 1) or 20 ml/kg (n = 8) (group 2) tidal volume, using cotton toweling smoke through the trachea using positive pressure. Rats were monitored, then killed at 24 hr. Data were compared to controls (n = 8). Peak group 1 and group 2 carboxyhemoglobins were 22 +/- 6 and 46 +/- 6%, with a mortality prior to 24 hr of 14% and 50%, respectively. Group 1 rats showed only moderate lung dysfunction but with severe airway inflammation and edema, alveolar inflammation and atelectasis, with a decrease in PaO2 from the control of 96 +/- 4 to 72 +/- 5 torr. No increase in lung, liver, or kidney oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation, measured as malondialdehyde lung, liver, or kidney oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation, measured as malondialdehyde (MDA), or decrease in the antioxidant defenses catalase was noted. Group 2 rats demonstrated severe airways edema, alveolar atelectasis, and alveolar edema, and a PaO2 decreasing below 60 torr, corresponding with a 3-fold increase in lung tissue MDA and 35% decrease in catalase. In addition, liver and kidney tissue MDA doubled, and catalase activity decreased by 40%. Increased oxygen consumption was also demonstrated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8149511

  3. Toxic effects of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole exposure to the antioxidant system in Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tested antioxidant responses of the green microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata exposed to different concentrations of the three antibiotics erythromycin (ETM), ciprofloxacin (CPF) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ). Measurements included the level of lipid peroxidation, the total antioxidative capacity and three major antioxidant mechanisms: the ascorbate–glutathione cycle, the xanthophyll cycle and the enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Three antibiotics significantly affect the antioxidant system of P. subcapitata, but in different ways the alga was more tolerant to CPF and SMZ exposures than to ETM exposure. ETM caused reductions in AsA and GSH biosynthesis, ascorbate–glutathione cycle, xanthophylls cycle and antioxidant enzyme activities. The toxicity of CPF seems to be mainly overcome via induction of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle and CAT, SOD and GPX activities, while the toxicity of SMZ on the photosynthetic apparatus is predominantly reduced by the xanthophyll cycle and GST activity. - Highlights: ► Antibiotics may affect the antioxidant system of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. ► Erythromycin decreased AsA, GSH biosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities. ► Ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole were lower toxic than erythromycin. - Antibiotics (Erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole) cause the change of antioxidant system and lead to oxidative stress to a green microalga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

  4. Antioxidant properties of a new antioxidative peptide from algae protein waste hydrolysate in different oxidation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheih, I-Chuan; Wu, Tung-Kung; Fang, Tony J

    2009-07-01

    Microalgae have been a popular edible food, but there are no known reports on the antioxidative peptides derived from microalgae. The algae protein waste, which is normally discarded as animal feed, is a by-product during production of algae essence from microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris. Algae protein waste was hydrolyzed using pepsin, and a potent antioxidative peptide of VECYGPNRPQF was separated and isolated. The peptide could efficiently quench a variety of free radicals, including hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, peroxyl radical, DPPH radical and ABTS radicals, and performed more efficiently than that observed for BHT, Trolox and peptides from marine protein sources in most cases. The purified peptide also has significant protective effects on DNA and prevents cellular damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. In addition, the peptide has gastrointestinal enzyme-resistance and no cytotoxicity observed in human lung fibroblasts cell lines (WI-38) in vitro. These results demonstrate that inexpensive algae protein waste could be a new alternative to produce antioxidative peptides. PMID:19299123

  5. Analysis and design of a cooperative weapon assignment module for advanced battle manager of a ballistic missile defense system

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Willie D.

    2006-01-01

    The United States is in the midst of an ambitious effort to build and deploy a wide range of ballistic missile defense systems. These ballistic missile defense systems will be effective against a host of current and postulated threats from ballistic missiles. In this thesis study, we explore the process of enhancing the effectiveness of weapon assignment for a system of systems. First, analysis of information is drawn from current proposed system of the ABM and its construction from the ...

  6. Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on antioxidant defense and sperm quality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under regular stripping conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köprücü, Kenan; Yonar, Muhammet Enis; Özcan, Sinan

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels; semen and liver fatty acid compositions; and spermatological values (semen volume and pH, sperm density, percentage and duration of sperm motility) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under regular stripping conditions. For this purpose, one control and two experimental diets were prepared as isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The control diet did not contain n-3 PUFA. However, the D1 and D2 diets were supplemented with n-3 PUFA concentrated anchovy oil at a 1% and 2% level, respectively. The n-3 PUFA content in the semen and liver, semen volume, initial sperm motility, duration of 50% sperm motility, total duration of sperm motility and sperm density values of the control fish fed the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet were decreased and were accompanied by a reduction of the antioxidant defense (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and GSH) and an elevation of MDA in the blood, gonad, liver and kidney at all of the sampling periods (P0.01). However, supplementation with n-3 PUFA protected the fish from these adverse effects. The modulations were clearly observed in the fish fed the D2 diet because they were under lower oxidative stress, as indicated by MDA. The increased enzyme activity corresponds with the physiological mechanisms combating the elevation of free radicals under oxidative stress. The highest n-3 PUFA levels in the semen and liver and spermatological values were obtained from the fish fed the D2 diet at all of the sampling periods. On the other hand, the effects of the sampling stage on the spermatological values of the fish fed the D1 and D2 diets were not significant (P>0.01). However, the effects of the sampling stage in the fish fed the control diet on these values (with the exception of semen pH) were significant (Preproduction. PMID:26530952

  7. Risk Assessment Using The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's expertise in weapons systems and in sparse information analysis to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities will be presented

  8. Use of the Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS) for Emergency Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's expertise in weapons systems and in sparse information analysis to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities will be presented

  9. Safety assessment of inter-channel / inter-system digital communications: A defensive measures approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inappropriately designed inter-channel and inter-system digital communications could initiate common cause failure of multiple channels or multiple systems. Defensive measures were introduced in EPRI report TR-1002835 (Guideline for Performing Defense-in-Depth and Diversity Assessments for Digital Upgrades) to assess, on a deterministic basis, the susceptibility of digital systems architectures to common-cause failures. This paper suggests how this approach could be applied to assess inter-channel and inter-system digital communications from a safety standpoint. The first step of the approach is to systematically identify the so called 'influence factors' that one end of the data communication path can have on the other. Potential factors to be considered would typically include data values, data volumes and data rates. The second step of the approach is to characterize the ways possible failures of a given end of the communication path could affect these influence factors (e.g., incorrect data values, excessive data rates, time-outs, incorrect data volumes). The third step is to analyze the designed-in measures taken to guarantee independence of the other end. In addition to classical error detection and correction codes, typical defensive measures are one-way data communication, fixed-rate data communication, fixed-volume data communication, validation of data values. (authors)

  10. Use of the Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS) for Emergency Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durling, Jr., R L; Price, D E

    2005-12-16

    The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's expertise in weapons systems and in sparse information analysis to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities will be presented.

  11. Risk Assessment Using The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D E; Durling, R L

    2005-10-10

    The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's expertise in weapons systems and in sparse information analysis to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities will be presented.

  12. Antioxidant system parameters in children from different follow-up groups who suffered from Chernobyl accident and their changes at application of antioxidants (vitamin E and iskador)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-dose radiation causes changes in the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant protective system in children who frequently suffer from acute respiratory virus infections. To improve the general condition and to normalize the metabolic disturbances it is advisable to administer antioxidants (vitamin E, Iskador)

  13. Effect of ethanol on liver antioxidant defense systems: Adose dependent study

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subir Kumar; Vasudevan, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol induced oxidative stress is linked to the metabolism of ethanol. In this study it has been observed that administration of ethanol in lower concentration caused gain in body and liver weight. while higher concentration of ethanol caused lesser gain in body and liver weight. Ethanol treatment enhanced lipid peroxidation significantly, depletion in levels of hepatic glutathione and ascorbate, accompanied by a decline in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase,...

  14. Exposure to Petroleum Hydrocarbon: Implications in Lung Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Azeez, Oyebisi M; Akhigbe, Roland E; Anigbogu, Chikodi N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Various studies have implicated automobile exhausts as risk factors in cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases; however, there is little or no documentation on the role of the main source of the exhausts, petroleum hydrocarbons, on cardiopulmonary pathologies. Thus, we investigated the effect of petroleum hydrocarbons, using various petroleum products, on histomorphology of the lung and the role of lipid peroxidation in it. Materials and Methods: Control rats were not exposed to any ...

  15. Neurogenesis of cough, other airway defensive behaviors and breathing: A holarchical system?☆

    OpenAIRE

    Bolser, Donald C.; Poliacek, Ivan; Jakus, Jan; Fuller, David D.; Paul W Davenport

    2006-01-01

    Cough and breathing are generated by a common muscular system. However, these two behaviors differ significantly in their mechanical features and regulation. The current conceptualization of the neurogenic mechanism for these behaviors holds that the multifunctional respiratory pattern generator undergoes reconfiguration to produce cough. Our previous results indicate the presence of a functional cough gate mechanism that controls the excitability of this airway defensive behavior, but is not...

  16. Defense and intelligence technologies applied to law enforcement: remote consultation information system (RCIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninger, Robert B.

    1995-05-01

    The Remote Consultation Information System is a body-worn fully integrated communication system that provide secure two-way voice-quality audio, secure full-color video transmission, automatic position location (APL) via Global Positioning System, and vital life signs moitoring, all linked to an adaptable base station via spread-spectrum low-probability-of- intercept, Broadband Code Division Multiple Access radio link. All of these technologies have been developed by the defense and intelligence communities and are now availbale for law enforcement agencies.

  17. Free radicals and antioxidant systems in reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Pilar; Piazuelo, Elena; Sánchez, M. Teresa; Ortego, Javier; Soteras, Fernando; Lanas, Angel

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Experimental studies suggest that free radicals are involved in acid and pepsin-induced damage of esophageal mucosa. The profile and balance between free radicals and antioxidant systems in human esophagitis are unknown.

  18. Antioxidant activity stimulated by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation produces biological damage, principally oxidative stress. • We analyzed oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS) of a crab. • The damage was evaluated using biochemical tests and immunohistochemistry. • We verified the occurrence of apoptosis in the brain of the UV-exposed crabs. • Environmental doses of UV can cause oxidative damage to CNS, including apoptosis. - Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, principally oxidative stress, by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study evaluated biochemical impairments related to the oxidative stress induced by UVA, UVB and UVA + UVB (solar simulator-SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain and eyestalk of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated these regions by sampling on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days of UV exposure for lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant capacity against the peroxyl radical (ACAP), and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays were performed for anti-activated-caspase 3 in the brains. After the first day of exposure, LPO increased in the eyestalks and brains of the UV-exposed animals; ACAP, and CAT, GPX and GST activities also increased in the brains. On the third day, the LPO values in the eyestalk remained high in the UV-exposed groups, while ACAP decreased in the brain and eyestalk and CAT activity remained high in all irradiated groups in both regions. On the fifth day, LPO decreased in the eyestalk and brain of the UV-exposed groups. These results may have been a consequence of the antioxidant defense system (ADS) activity, since CAT activity was high in both regions, ACAP was high in the eyestalks of the SIM group, and GPX activity remained high in the eyestalks of the UVA and UVB groups. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting

  19. Antioxidant activity stimulated by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, Gabriela, E-mail: gabrielahollmann@biof.ufrj.br [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Ferreira, Gabrielle de Jesus, E-mail: gabi_ferreiira@hotmail.com [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Geihs, Márcio Alberto, E-mail: geihs@hotmail.com [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas-Fisiologia Animal Comparada. Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande-FURG, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900 (Brazil); Vargas, Marcelo Alves, E-mail: biovargas@gmail.com [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas-Fisiologia Animal Comparada. Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande-FURG, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900 (Brazil); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation produces biological damage, principally oxidative stress. • We analyzed oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS) of a crab. • The damage was evaluated using biochemical tests and immunohistochemistry. • We verified the occurrence of apoptosis in the brain of the UV-exposed crabs. • Environmental doses of UV can cause oxidative damage to CNS, including apoptosis. - Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, principally oxidative stress, by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study evaluated biochemical impairments related to the oxidative stress induced by UVA, UVB and UVA + UVB (solar simulator-SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain and eyestalk of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated these regions by sampling on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days of UV exposure for lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant capacity against the peroxyl radical (ACAP), and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays were performed for anti-activated-caspase 3 in the brains. After the first day of exposure, LPO increased in the eyestalks and brains of the UV-exposed animals; ACAP, and CAT, GPX and GST activities also increased in the brains. On the third day, the LPO values in the eyestalk remained high in the UV-exposed groups, while ACAP decreased in the brain and eyestalk and CAT activity remained high in all irradiated groups in both regions. On the fifth day, LPO decreased in the eyestalk and brain of the UV-exposed groups. These results may have been a consequence of the antioxidant defense system (ADS) activity, since CAT activity was high in both regions, ACAP was high in the eyestalks of the SIM group, and GPX activity remained high in the eyestalks of the UVA and UVB groups. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting

  20. Role of Antagonistic Microorganisms and Organic Amendment in Stimulating the Defense System of Okra Against Root Rotting Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Hafiza Asma; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed; Athar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Without application of chemical pesticides control of soilborne diseases is a great challenge. Stimulation of natural plant's defense is considered as one of the most promising alternative strategy for crop protection. Organic amendment of soil besides direct suppressing the pathogen, has been reported to have an influence on phytochemicals in plants. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and Paecilomyces lilacinus, an egg parasite of root knot and cysts nematodes were examined individually and in combination in soil amended with cotton cake for suppressing the root rotting fungi and stimulating the synthesis of polyphenols and improving the antioxidant status in okra. Application of P. aeruginosa and P. lilacinus in soil amended with cotton cake significantly (P Rhizoctonia solani. Combine use of biocontrol agents in cotton cake amended soil showed maximum positive impact on plant growth, polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity in okra. PMID:26373176

  1. Antioxidant and gene expression responses of Eisenia fetida following repeated exposure to BDE209 and Pb in a soil-earthworm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuangqing; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jing; Lin, Kuangfei; Ji, Rong

    2016-06-15

    This study first adopted repeated treatment model to investigate stress responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) following exposure to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and lead (Pb), which are the mainly co-existed contaminants at e-waste recycling sites. We evaluated the impacts of BDE209-Pb on antioxidative enzyme (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and transcriptional levels of three target genes (SOD, CAT and Hsp70), and further explored the relationships among these biomarkers. Results demonstrated that almost all the parameters were generally induced and the responses followed certain dose-effect relationships. Compared to the controls, a significant (P0.64). The observations could provide important information of ecotoxicological effects of BDE209-Pb in a soil-earthworm system as well as the mechanism of antioxidant defense. PMID:26971217

  2. Effects of Rhizobium inoculation on Trifolium resupinatum antioxidant system under sulfur dioxide pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Bayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plant growth stimulating rhizobacteria are beneficial bacteria that can cause resistance to various stresses in plants. One of these stresses is SO2 air pollution. SO2 is known as a strong damaging air pollutant that limits growth of plants. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effects of bacterial inoculation with native and standard Rhizobium on Persian clover root growth and antioxidants activity and capacity under air SO2 pollution. Materials and methods: In this study, 31 days plants (no-inoculated and inoculated with two strains of Rhizobium exposed to the different concentrations of SO2 (0 as a control, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 ppm for 5 consecutive days and 2 hours per day. Results: Results showed different concentrations of SO2 had a significant effect on Persian clover root weight and antioxidant system. Increasing SO2 stress decreased root fresh and dry weight and antioxidant capacities (IC50 and increased antioxidant activities (I% of Persian clover leaves significantly in comparison to the control plants (under 0 ppm and increased SOD, CAT and GPX activity. Inoculation of Persian clover plants with native and standard Rhizobium increased root weight and did not show a significant effect on antioxidants activity and capacity, but interaction between Rhizobium inoculation and SO2 treatment reduced significantly the stress effects of high concentration of SO2 on root growth and antioxidants activity and capacity. In fact, level of this change of root growth and antioxidant system under SO2 pollution stress in inoculated plants was lower than in the non-inoculated plants. Discussion and conclusion: As a result, an increase in SO2 concentration caused a decrease in root weight, increase in antioxidants activity and capacity of Persian clover. Inoculation with Rhizobium strains could alleviate the effect of SO2 pollution on antioxidant system by effects on root growth.

  3. Augmenting defense-in-depth with the concepts of observability and diagnosability from Control Theory and Discrete Event Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defense-in-depth is a fundamental principle/strategy for achieving system safety. First conceptualized within the nuclear industry, defense-in-depth is the basis for risk-informed decisions by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and is recognized under various names in other industries (e.g., layers of protection in the Chemical industry). Accidents typically result from the absence or breach of defenses or violation of safety constraints. Defense-in-depth is realized by a diversity of safety barriers and a network of redundancies. However, this same redundancy and the intrinsic nature of defense-in-depth - the multiple lines of defense or 'protective layers' along a potential accident sequence - may enhance mechanisms concealing the occurrence of incidents, or that the system has transitioned to a hazardous state (accident pathogens) and that an accident is closer to being released. Consequently, the ability to safely operate the system may be hampered and the efficiency of defense-in-depth may be degraded or worse may backfire. Several accidents reports identified hidden failures or degraded observability of accidents pathogens as major contributing factors. In this work, we begin to address this potential theoretical deficiency in defense-in-depth by bringing concepts from Control Theory and Discrete Event Systems to bear on issues of system safety and accident prevention. We introduce the concepts of controllability, observability, and diagnosability, and frame the current understanding of system safety as a 'control problem' handled by defense-in-depth and safety barriers (or safety constraints). Observability and diagnosability are information-theoretic concepts, and they provide important complements to the energy model of accident causation from which the defense-in-depth principle derives. We formulate a new safety-diagnosability principle for supporting accident prevention, and propose that defense-in-depth be augmented with this principle, without

  4. Modulation of the Antioxidant System Efficacy in Irradiated Rats Supplemented with Vitamin B12 cobalamin and Folic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study has been performed to investigate the possible curative and protective role of supplemented vitamin B12 and folic acid in the irradiation induced changes in certain biochemical parameters in hepatic tissue and blood. The biochemical analysis was done at one and fourteen days post irradiation. The data revealed serious effects of radiation exposure on the membrane integrity as reflected by increased serum potassium associated with decreased sodium levels. Oxidation of lipid and protein with antioxidant disorders were recorded after radiation exposure as reflected by increased contents of carbonyl and Gamma glutamyl transferase. The results showed significant increase in the level of lipid peroxide product (malonaldehyde) and significant decrease in the level of antioxidant defense system (glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, super oxid dismutase, catalase and glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase) after one and fourteen day's supplementation with vitamin B12 and folic acid. Supplemented of vitamin B12 and folic acid before radiation exposure attenuated the harmful effects of irradiation on the most chosen parameters. The beneficial role of supplemented vitamin B12 and folic acid may be related to its ability in quenching free radicals scavenging reactive oxygen species and improving regeneration in the biological tissues

  5. Antioxidant measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Anikó; Rosta, Klára; Pusztai, Péter; Tulassay, Zsolt; Nagy, Géza

    2007-04-01

    Chemical reactions, including oxidation and reduction of molecules, occur in every cell. These reactions can lead to the production of free radicals. Free radicals react with organic substrates such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Through oxidation free radicals cause damage to these molecules, disturbing their normal function, and may therefore contribute to a variety of diseases. The anti-oxidation system, which consists of enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants, defends against oxidative stress. The aim of this review is to summarize general aspects of methods to measure the antioxidant defence system all in one (total antioxidant capacity) and discuss a number of methods which are currently used for detection of antioxidant properties. PMID:17395989

  6. Antioxidant effect of seaweed extracts in food emulsion systems enriched with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    wide range of polyphenols with potential antioxidant activity. Thus, in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts have been found to be related to the total polyphenolic content. It has been suggested that the primary antioxidant activity comes from secondary metabolites such as...... phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different extracts of F. Vesiculosus in a range of different food models will be...

  7. Antioxidant Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Vitro and in Food Emulsion Systems Enriched With Fish Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains a wide range of polyphenols with potential antioxidant activity. Thus, in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts have been found to be related to the total polyphenolic content. It has been suggested that the primary...... antioxidant activity comes from secondary metabolites such as phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different...... extracts of F. Vesiculosus in a range of different food models will be presented....

  8. Total Antioxidant Concentrations of Breastmilk—An Eye-opener to the Negligent

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Arun Mamachan; Rai, Kavita; Amitha M Hegde

    2011-01-01

    The balance between free radical production and antioxidant defenses in the body has important systemic and oral health implications. There is convincing evidence that breastmilk containing antioxidants is important in the prevention of diseases in infancy. This study compared the total antioxidant concentration of human breastmilk expressed at different stages of lactation, stored at various temperatures and durations. Expressed breastmilk (EBM) samples of the third, seventh and 30th day wer...

  9. Novel Therapeutic Targets in Depression and Anxiety: Antioxidants as a Candidate Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ying; Wang, Chuang; Klabnik, Jonathan J; O’Donnell, James M

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system may be associated with the development neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Major depression and anxiety are presently correlated with a lowered total antioxidant state and by an activated oxidative stress (OS) pathway. The classical antidepressants may produce therapeutic effects other than regulation of monoamines by increasing the antioxidant levels and normalizin...

  10. Department of Defense picture archiving and communication system acceptance testing: results and identification of problem components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Scott A; Sweet, Clifford F; Beall, Douglas P; Lewis, Thomas E; Monroe, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The PACS implementation process is complicated requiring a tremendous amount of time, resources, and planning. The Department of Defense (DOD) has significant experience in developing and refining PACS acceptance testing (AT) protocols that assure contract compliance, clinical safety, and functionality. The DOD's AT experience under the initial Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support System contract led to the current Digital Imaging Network-Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (DIN-PACS) contract AT protocol. To identify the most common system and component deficiencies under the current DIN-PACS AT protocol, 14 tri-service sites were evaluated during 1998-2000. Sixteen system deficiency citations with 154 separate types of limitations were noted with problems involving the workstation, interfaces, and the Radiology Information System comprising more than 50% of the citations. Larger PACS deployments were associated with a higher number of deficiencies. The most commonly cited systems deficiencies were among the most expensive components of the PACS. PMID:15924273

  11. [Lipid peroxidation and the system of antioxidant protection in rats following a 13-day space flight on the Kosmos-1887 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, A A; Delenian, N V

    1992-01-01

    After a 13-day space mission, in the rats flown on Cosmos-1887 biosatellite the parameters of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system--the contents of diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases, tocopherol, total antioxidant activity (in blood plasma only), antioxidant enzyme activity (in tissues only)--superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathio peroxidase, glutathio reductase have been measured in the blood plasma, myocardium, skeletal muscles and liver. The liver level of diene conjugates, Schiff bases and tocopherol decreased, and an activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased. In the skeletal muscles there was an elevation of diene conjugate contents followed by the decreases in malonic dialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity. In rat myocardium, superoxide dismutase activity and tocopherol levels increased significantly. In the blood plasma the levels of tocopherol, malonic dialdehyde and total antioxidant activity were elevated. It is concluded that the observed changes in lipid peroxidation developed probably in response to an effect of the last dynamic stage of space flight and during re-adapting to the Earth environments. PMID:1299445

  12. A Study on Anti-oxidative Activity of Soybean Peptides with Linoleic Acid Peroxidation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soybean bioactive peptides(SBPs) were prepared from the isolated soybean protein by proteolysis with an alkaline protease, alcalase, at 50 ℃ and pH = 8. 0. The dependence of hydrolysis time on hydrolysis degree and molecular weight distribution were examined. The hydrolysate was fractionated on a Sephadex G-25 column and the anti-oxidative activities of the fractions were detected by the method of pyrogallol auto-oxidation. The average chain length of soybean peptides that have anti-oxidative activity was estimated to be about 7. The anti-oxidative properties of the soybean peptide were also studied by using linoleic acid peroxidation systems. The optimal condition of the peroxidation system was set up, Vc/Cu2 + as the inducer at pH = 7.4 and 25 ℃. In addition, soybean peptides show higher antioxidative activity compared with GSH.

  13. Physicochemical Changes of Antioxidant Peptides Hydrolyzed From Porcine Plasma Protein Subject to Free Hydroxyl Radical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant peptides have attracted much attention for potential application as natural food ingredients but the fate of them, as well as oxidized proteins in foods during processing, is still poorly understood. Physicochemical changes in antioxidant peptides hydrolysated from porcine plasma protein were discussed in a free hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation system. Porcine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates (PPH was prepared by hydrolyzing porcine plasma protein with Alcalase for 5 h at pH 8.0, 55°C. The content of carbonyl groups increased significantly at various degrees when PPH exposed to free radical-mediated oxidation for different time and different concentrations of H2O2, while total sulfhydryls, reactive sulfhydryls and free amines contents decreased. It was concluded that PPH played an antioxidant role in the radical-mediated oxidation system. This provides a potential way for antioxidation in food production.

  14. Physiological antioxidant system and oxidative stress in stomach cancer patients with normal renal and hepatic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Prabhakar Reddy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Role of free radicals has been proposed in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, and leading cause of cancer death in India. Severe oxidative stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS and induces uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. Albumin, uric acid (UA and Bilirubin are important physiological antioxidants. We aimed to evaluate and assess the role of oxidative stress (OS and physiological antioxidant system in stomach cancer patients. Lipid peroxidation measured as plasma Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive substances (TBARS, was found to be elevated significantly (p=0.001 in stomach cancer compared to controls along with a decrease in plasma physiological antioxidant system. The documented results were due to increased lipid peroxidation and involvement of physiological antioxidants in scavenging free radicals but not because of impaired hepatic and renal functions.

  15. Cellular Defense System Gene Expression Profiling of Human Whole Blood: Opportunities to Predict Health Benefits in Response to Diet12

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, Janice E.

    2012-01-01

    Diet is a critical factor in the maintenance of human cellular defense systems, immunity, inflammation, redox regulation, metabolism, and DNA repair that ensure optimal health and reduce disease risk. Assessment of dietary modulation of cellular defense systems in humans has been limited due to difficulties in accessing target tissues. Notably, peripheral blood gene expression profiles associated with nonhematologic disease are detectable. Coupled with recent innovations in gene expression te...

  16. Physicochemical Changes of Antioxidant Peptides Hydrolyzed From Porcine Plasma Protein Subject to Free Hydroxyl Radical System

    OpenAIRE

    Hehong Yang; Yanqing Li; Peijun Li; Qian Liu; Baohua Kong; Xu Huang; Zengbao Wu

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant peptides have attracted much attention for potential application as natural food ingredients but the fate of them, as well as oxidized proteins in foods during processing, is still poorly understood. Physicochemical changes in antioxidant peptides hydrolysated from porcine plasma protein were discussed in a free hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation system. Porcine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates (PPH) was prepared by hydrolyzing porcine plasma protein with Alcalase for 5 h at pH 8.0, 5...

  17. Physiological antioxidant system and oxidative stress in stomach cancer patients with normal renal and hepatic function

    OpenAIRE

    E Prabhakar Reddy; V Seshadri Reddy; K. CHANDRA MOULI; PVLN Srinivasa Rao

    2010-01-01

    Role of free radicals has been proposed in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, and leading cause of cancer death in India. Severe oxidative stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. Albumin, uric acid (UA) and Bilirubin are important physiological antioxidants. We aimed to evaluate and assess the role of oxidative stress (OS) and physiological antioxidant system in stomach cancer patients. Lipid pero...

  18. Antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of some food grain powder in meat model system

    OpenAIRE

    Yogesh, K.; Jha, S. N.; Ahmad, Tanbir

    2012-01-01

    In-vitro antioxidant activity of some food grains [sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata), mung bean, sprouted chana (Cicer arietinum), chana, corn (Zea mays), methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and rajma (Phaseolus vulgaris)] powder extracts (FGE) was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity (SA) method. Total phenolics and reducing power were also estimated in these extracts. The antioxidant potential of these extracts was also estimated in a meat model system. Total phenolics in FGE r...

  19. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M.; Griensven, Van Leo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic

  20. Antioxidant system responses in two co-occurring green-tide algae under stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-01-01

    Green tides have occurred every year from 2007 to 2014 in the Yellow Sea. Ulva prolifera (Müller) J. Agardh has been identified as the bloom-forming alga, co-occurring with U. intestinalis. We observed distinct strategies for both algal species during green tides. U. prolifera exhibited a high abundance initially and then decreased dramatically, while U. intestinalis persisted throughout. The antioxidant system responses of these two macroalgae were compared in the late phase of a green tide (in-situ) and after laboratory acclimation. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system responses differed significantly between the two. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents increased significantly in-situ in U. prolifera, but not in U. intestinalis. In U. prolifera, we observed a significant decrease in total antioxidant ability (T-AOC), antioxidant enzymes (SOD and Apx), and non-enzyme antioxidants (GSH and AsA) in-situ. U. intestinalis showed the same pattern of T-AOC and SOD, but its Gpx, Apx, and GSH responses did not differ significantly. The results suggest that U. prolifera was more susceptible than U. intestinalis to the harsh environmental changes during the late phase of a Yellow Sea green tide. The boom and bust strategy exhibited by U. prolifera and the persistence of U. intestinalis can be explained by differences in enzyme activity and antioxidant systems.

  1. Transcriptional response of genes involved in cell defense system in human cells stressed by H2O2 and pre-treated with (Tunisian) Rhamnus alaternus extracts: combination with polyphenolic compounds and classic in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Rebai Ben; Bouhlel, Ines; Valenti, Kita; Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Kilani, Soumaya; Mariotte, Anne-Marie; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Geneviève; Laporte, François; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-07-20

    The ability of three Rhamnus alaternus leaves extracts on antigenotoxic and gene expression level effects was respectively investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e. the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37 and in human K562 lymphoblast cell line. Total oligomers flavonoids (TOF) enriched, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared from powdered R. alaternus leaves and characterized quantitatively for the presence of polyphenolic compounds. We explored the response to oxidative stress using the transcriptional profile of genes in K562 cells stressed with H2O2 after incubation with plant extracts. For this purpose, we used a cDNA microarrays containing 82 genes related to cell defense, essentially represented by antioxidant and DNA repair genes. Analysis revealed that SOD1, AOE 372, TXN genes involved in the antioxidant defense system and XPC, LIG4, POLD2, PCNA genes implied in the DNA repair system were among the most expressed ones in the presence of the tested extracts. These results were in accordance with those obtained when we tested the antigenotoxic and antioxidant effects of the same extracts with, respectively the SOS chromotest and the xanthine/xanthine oxidase enzymatic assay system. The effect of the tested extracts on SOS response induced by both Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1: 10 microg/assay) and nifuroxazide (20 microg/assay) showed that the TOF extract exhibited the highest antimutagenic level towards the indirect mutagen AFB1. Whereas ethyl acetate extract showed the highest antimutagenic effect towards the direct mutagen, nifuroxazide. None of the tested extracts induced mutagenic activity. However all the tested extracts exhibited xanthine oxidase inhibiting and superoxide anions scavenging effects. R. alaternus extracts contain compounds with significant antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities. These compounds modulate gene expression as detected by using cDNA arrays. PMID:17512922

  2. TRUSYSTEM - A computerized system for the management of defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is embarking on a program to dispose of defense transuranic waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. In order to ensure that WIPP receives the waste at the required rate, the careful management of a logistic system involving numerous DOE facilities and specialized waste transports is required. TRUSYSTEM is being used in the design and operation of this complex system. TRUSYSTEM consists of a computerized database (PRIMS), a system simulation program (TRUSIM), and software for the monitoring and dispatching of waste transports (PHOENIX). This system designed to operate on the new generation of microcomputers, is being written in machine independent code (FORTRAN and ''C''). It is easily maintained and can be moved between different types of computers. TRUSYSTEM resides entirely within computer memory. This provides the speed necessary for real-time operations

  3. TRUSYSTEM: A computerized system for the management of defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is embarking on a program to dispose of defense transuranic waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. In order to ensure that WIPP receives the waste at the required rate, the careful management of a logistic system involving numerous DOE facilities and specialized transports is required. TRUSYSTEM is being used in the design and operation of this complex system. TRUSYSTEM consists of a computerized database, a system simulation program, and software for the monitoring and dispatching of waste transport. This system, designed to operate on new generation of microcomputers, is being written in machine independent code (FORTRAN and ''C''). It is easily maintained and can be moved among different types of computers. TRUSYSTEM resides entirely within computer memory. This provides the speed necessary for real-time operations

  4. Method for performing diversity and defense-in-depth analyses of reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this NUREG is to describe a method for analyzing computer-based nuclear reactor protection systems that discovers design vulnerabilities to common-mode failure. The potential for common-mode failure has become an important issue as the software content of protection systems has increased. This potential was not present in earlier analog protection systems because it could usually be assumed that common-mode failure, if it did occur, was due to slow processes such as corrosion or premature wear-out. This assumption is no longer true for systems containing software. It is the purpose of the analysis method described here to determine points of a design for which credible common-mode failures are uncompensated either by diversity or defense-in-depth

  5. Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Yeon Shim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide (O2&#8226;-, hydroxyl radical (OH&#8226;, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx, is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application.

  6. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  7. Viral RNA Silencing Suppressors (RSS): Novel Strategy of Viruses to Ablate the Host RNA Interference (RNAi) Defense System

    OpenAIRE

    Bivalkar-Mehla, Shalmali; Vakharia, Janaki; Mehla, Rajeev; Abreha, Measho; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh; Tikoo, Akshay; Chauhan, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Pathogenic viruses have developed a molecular defense arsenal for their survival by counteracting the host anti-viral system known as RNA interference (RNAi). Cellular RNAi, in addition to regulating gene expression through microRNAs, also serves as a barrier against invasive foreign nucleic acids. RNAi is conserved across the biological species, including plants, animals and invertebrates. Viruses in turn, have evolved mechanisms that can counteract this anti-viral defense of the host. Recen...

  8. Antioxidative enzymes in the response of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench to complete submergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević N.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and antioxidative defense system activity were studied in buckwheat leaves after complete submergence and re-aeration. The levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation were found to be significantly higher in stressed than in untreated buckwheat leaves. Enzymes catalyzing the degradation of H2O2 and peroxides were shown to participate actively, whereas superoxide dismutase did not take part in the buckwheat leaf response to flooding stress. The most prominent increase in antioxidative enzyme activities was noticed upon return to air, when the strongest oxidative stress occurred and the need for antioxidative defense was the greatest.

  9. Configuration of Risk Monitor System by PLant Defense-In.Depth Monitor and Relability Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Lind, Morten; Yang, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    A new method of risk monitor system of a nuclear power plant has been proposed from the aspect by what degree of safety functions incorporated in the plant system is maintained by multiple barriers of defense-in-depth (DiD). Wherein, the central idea is plant DiD risk monitor and reliability...... monitor derived from the four aspects of (i) design principle of nuclear safety to realize DiD concept, (ii) definition of risk and risk to be monitored, (iii) severe accident phenomena as major risk, (iv) scheme of risk ranking, and (v) dynamic risk display. In this paper, the overall frame of the...... proposed frame on risk monitor system is summarized and the detailed discussion is made on the definitions of major terminologies of risk, risk ranking, anatomy of fault occurrence, two-layer configuration of risk monitor, how to configure individual elements of plant DiD risk monitor and its example...

  10. Bifurcation and complex dynamics of a discrete-time predator-prey system involving group defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sohel Rana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a discrete-time predator-prey system involving group defense. The existence and local stability of positive fixed point of the discrete dynamical system is analyzed algebraically. It is shown that the system undergoes a flip bifurcation and a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the interior of R+2 by using bifurcation theory. Numerical simulation results not only show the consistence with the theoretical analysis but also display the new and interesting dynamical behaviors, including phase portraits, period-7, 20-orbits, attracting invariant circle, cascade of period-doubling bifurcation from period-20 leading to chaos, quasi-periodic orbits, and sudden disappearance of the chaotic dynamics and attracting chaotic set. The Lyapunov exponents are numerically computed to characterize the complexity of the dynamical behaviors.

  11. High power and efficiency quantum cascade laser systems for defense and security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekoun, A.; Lyakh, A.; Maulini, R.; Lane, M.; Macdonald, T.; Go, R.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-05-01

    Leveraging Pranalytica's fundamental research into high power and high wallplug efficiency QCL devices and high performance/reliability QCL packaging technologies, we developed several models of turn-key QCL systems for security-related applications. Our tabletop high power system produces, at room temperature, more than 2W of nominally collimated continuous wave radiation at 4.6 μm. Our flashlight-size portable illuminator at 4.6 μm produces over 100 mW average power portable illuminator at 9.6 μm produces more than 20 mW, both with runtime of ~10 hrs. These systems are opening the window of QCL acceptance into real-world security and defense applications. At chip level, we have demonstrated 3W of CW power at room temperature from a single, high reflectivity coated chip.

  12. Chronic exposure to MDMA (ecstasyinduces DNA damage, impairs functional antioxidant cellular defenses, enhances the lipid peroxidation process and alters testes histopathology in male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Gamal Zaki, ** Laila Abdel Kawy

    2013-04-01

    decreased testosterone secretion. The results suggested that graded doses of ecstasy elicit depletion of antioxidant defence system and induce oxidative stress in testis of rats. In conclusion: the adverse effect of ecstasy on male reproduction may be due to induction of oxidative stress

  13. Short-term anoxic conditioning hormesis boosts antioxidant defenses, lowers oxidative damage following irradiation and enhances male sexual performance in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most organisms are repeatedly exposed to oxidative stress from multiple sources throughout their lifetimes, potentially affecting all aspects of organismal performance. Here we test whether exposure to a conditioning bout of anoxia early in adulthood induces a hormetic response that confers resistance to oxidative stress and enhances male sexual performance later in life in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. Anoxic conditioning of adults prior to emergence led to an increase in antioxidant capacity driven by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. When exposed to gamma irradiation, a strong oxidative stressor, males that received anoxic conditioning had lower lipid and protein oxidative damage at sexual maturity. Anoxia conditioning led to greater male sexual competitiveness compared with unconditioned males when both were irradiated, although there was no effect of anoxia conditioning on mating competitiveness in unirradiated males. Anoxia also led to higher adult emergence rates and greater flight ability in irradiation-stressed flies while preserving steriity. Thus, hormetic treatments that increased antioxidant enzyme activity also improved male performance after irradiation, suggesting that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in mediating the relationship between oxidative stress and sexual selection. Furthermore, our work has important applied implications for the sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method of insect pest control where males are sterilized by irradiation and deployed in the field to disrupt pest populations via mating. We suggest that hormetic treatments specifically designed to enhance antioxidant activity may produce more sexually competitive sterile males, thus improving the efficacy and economy of SIT programs. (author)

  14. Human erythrocytes as a system for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of vegetable extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbos, Kettelin A; Claro, Ligia M; Borges, Lucielly; Santos, Cid A M; Weffort-Santos, Almeriane M

    2008-07-01

    Free radicals are fairly unstable and highly reactive substances, able of causing oxidation and sometimes-irreversible damage to cells, compromising their function. The Brassicaceae family has many important species for the regular human diet as they provide several antioxidant constituents. In this study, the antioxidant potential of the hydroethanolic extracts prepared from the edible parts of kale, broccoli, and radish was investigated in vitro using human erythrocytes under oxidative stress imposed by phenylhydrazine as an experimental model, in which the methemoglobin levels were measured. When the results were compared with the antioxidant capacity shown by the traditional 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate free radical and phosphomolybdenum complex methods, the extracts tested showed significant and correspondent antioxidant activity. Broccoli extract presented the highest antioxidant activity, followed closely by the kale, whereas the radish extract occupied the lowest position. The results derived from the human erythrocyte system have shown it as an alternative method for evaluating the antioxidant properties of vegetable extracts. PMID:19083446

  15. Changing the paradigm: a radiation protection model for utilizing active systems in homeland defense applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The emerging threat from non-state actors and terrorist organizations openly asserting the use of weapons of mass destruction has led to an increased global emphasis on homeland defense and national security. The threat is real and thus many states are spending large amounts of resources to combat the problem. Issues such as unsecured radioactive sources, illicit movement of nuclear material, the use of radioactive sources in the medical and industrial sectors are just a few of the areas being examined. Countering these threats involves a major paradigm shift in the manner in which radiation is viewed. Radiation-based technologies are playing a key role in this emerging area from the development of new passive detection modalities to the use of active systems for detecting illicit materials. The screening of humans, baggage and cargo present overwhelming challenges. With these developments comes the concern from both governmental agencies and the public as to the safety of such systems. This paper will explore one such modality; the employment of radiation-based illicit material detection systems. The authors will present a review of the international (IAEA) and US regulatory and statutory documents as well as recommendations from scientific bodies such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. This review coupled with sound scientific data are used to develop a proposed framework for the future employment of active systems for homeland defense applications. Issues considered include the ability to effectively measure and/or predict dose, is the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept appropriate?, how much dose should be allowed relative to national security?, where does the linear-no-threshold hypothesis fit in? The authors use this analysis to develop a model which examines the trade-offs and cost-benefits in using the proposed systems. The major findings of

  16. Antioxidant Vitamins and Their Use in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Mazlum

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress can be defined as imbalance between prooxidant molecules produced during body metabolism and members of antioxidant system for favor of former. Oxidative stress, which is included in the pathogenesis of cancer, aging, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, is also considered for pathogenetic mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Due to important role of antioxidant vitamins in antioxidant defense mechanisms, vitamin supplementation therapies are considered in addition to conventional treatment choices for psychiatric disorders. This paper will attempt to review the biochemical, molecular and genetic data on biological processes related to vitamins A, C and E. Besides, the circumstances under which the antioxidant vitamin supplementation could be used in psychiatry and the factors that should be taken into consideration during these therapies will be discussed.

  17. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringingspecificity to the innate-immune system. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15075354 Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringings... the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringingspecificity to the innate-...immune system. PubmedID 15075354 Title Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringings

  18. Influence of attacker's target recognition ability on defense strategy in homogeneous parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article considers defense resource allocation in a system exposed to external intentional attack. The defender distributes its resource between deploying redundant elements and their protection from attacks. The attacker observes all the elements and tries to detect the unprotected elements. All the detected unprotected elements are destroyed with negligible effort. The attacker then distributes its effort evenly among all of the undetected elements or among elements from a chosen subset of undetected elements. The vulnerability of each element is determined by an attacker-defender contest success function depending on the resources allocated to protection and attack efforts and on the contest intensity. The expected damage caused by the attack is evaluated as system unsupplied demand. The article studies the influence of the unprotected elements' detection probability on the optimal resource distribution.

  19. Two satellite image sets for the training and validation of image processing systems for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael R.; Aldridge, Shawn; Herzog, Britny; Moore, Frank

    2010-04-01

    Many image processing algorithms utilize the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to provide efficient compression and near-perfect reconstruction of image data. Defense applications often require the transmission of data at high levels of compression over noisy channels. In recent years, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been utilized to optimize image transform filters that outperform standard wavelets for bandwidth-constrained compression of satellite images. The optimization of these filters requires the use of training images appropriately chosen for the image processing system's intended applications. This paper presents two robust sets of fifty images each intended for the training and validation of satellite and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) reconnaissance image processing algorithms. Each set consists of a diverse range of subjects consisting of cities, airports, military bases, and landmarks representative of the types of images that may be captured during reconnaissance missions. Optimized algorithms may be "overtrained" for a specific problem instance and thus exhibit poor performance over a general set of data. To reduce the risk of overtraining an image filter, we evaluate the suitability of each image as a training image. After evolving filters using each image, we assess the average compression performance of each filter across the entire set of images. We thus identify a small subset of images from each set that provide strong performance as training images for the image transform optimization problem. These images will also provide a suitable platform for the development of other algorithms for defense applications. The images are available upon request from the contact author.

  20. Antioxidant system correction in the persons with chronic gastroduodenitis exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the results of investigation of lipids peroxide oxidation (LPO) and antioxidant system of leukocytes and blood serum in 103 patients with chronic gastroduodenitis. In 56 patients, the disease was diagnosed after exposure to radiation during 48 ± 4.5 days (total dose -19 ± 2.3 cGy). The control group included 48 patients with the same disease of similar age and sex which were not exposed to ionizing radiation. Unithiolum and vitamin E in generally accepted doses were used to control the state of the antioxidant system. Administration of the preparations produced a positive clinical effect which was confirmed by the data of biochemical studies (activization of antioxidant system under the background of LPO inhibition

  1. Nitric oxide mediates isoflavone accumulation and the antioxidant system enhancement in soybean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Caifeng; Yang, Runqiang; Zhou, Yulin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships between endogenous NO signal transduction pathways, the antioxidant system and isoflavone accumulation induced by UV-B radiation in soybean sprouts. Results showed that UV-B-triggered NO generation induced isoflavone accumulation by up-regulating the activity and gene expression of key enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL; chalcone isomerase, CHI; chalcone synthase, CHS; isoflavone synthase, IFS) that participate in isoflavone biosynthesis and enhanced the antioxidant system by regulating levels of antioxidants (glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione S-transferase, GST; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione GSH; ascorbic acid, ASC), antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT) and their gene expression. These effects were inhibited by the addition of a specific NO-scavenger, carboxy-PTIO (cPTIO). The inhibition was reversed through application of the exogenous NO donor, SNP. Overall, NO is an essential signaling molecule, mediating UV-B-induced isoflavone accumulation and the antioxidant system enhancement in soybean sprouts. PMID:26988515

  2. A multi-biomarker risk assessment of the impact of brominated flame retardant-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) on the antioxidant system of earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Kou; Chen, Lin; Chen, Lei; Lin, Kuangfei; Fu, Rongbing

    2014-07-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) is the major contaminant at e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs), and its potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts of BDE209 on the antioxidant defense system in terrestrial organisms remain vague. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed systematically on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of BDE209 on the antioxidant system of earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that compared to the controls, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in all treated groups were elevated significantly after 21 and 28 days exposure; catalase (CAT) activities were much higher in all tests during the entire exposure period; peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities generally decreased and indicated contrary response trend; the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) after exposure to low level of BDE209 (1 mg kg(-1)) was induced, whereas at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) concentrations it showed suppression status; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggested that hydroxyl radicals (OH) in earthworms were significantly induced by BDE209; the changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) contents suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation in earthworms. The results of these observations suggested that severe oxidative stress occurred in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the BDE209 toxicity to earthworms. PMID:25016100

  3. System for retrieval of solidified Hanford high-level defense wastes: a design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of the Hanford defense waste retrieval activity is to design, develop, demonstrate, and qualify the equipment, staff, and methods required for the safe retrieval of solidified high-level radioactive wastes from the 133 large (75-foot-diameter) single-shell, underground storage tanks at Hanford. The program is currently limited to research, development, and demonstration of systems and technology in support of selecting an alternative for disposal of Hanford high-level defense waste. This report relates the requirements and sets forth much of the data and criteria currently known. It describes the preliminary design of a remotely operated, self-contained, mobile system which incorporates a mechanical, articulated mining boom. This boom, when equipped with a variety of suitable tools, can remotely cut up in-tank equipment, remove the debris, recover the solid wastes, clean the tank walls, and deposit the waste into a bucket elevator. The bucket elevator automatically removes the waste from the tank and deposits it into shielded shipping containers. The containers are remotely sealed, washed, and deposited into sealing containers. The containers are remotely sealed, washed, and deposited into sealing containers which are sealed and placed on a transfer vehicle for transport. All of the retrieval equipment is installed on a mobile platform which bridges the tank domes to avoid loading the dome structure. Mobility provides for progressing from tank to tank until all of the 75-foot-diameter, single-shell tanks have been emptied. Ancillary equipment includes in-tank viewing and lighting systems, positive filtered ventilation equipment for contamination control, equipment for washing tools and mining equipment, and includes provisions for remote maintenance of contaminated equipment, and quick removal and replacement of parts

  4. Lipoamide Acts as an Indirect Antioxidant by Simultaneously Stimulating Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Phase II Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in ARPE-19 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    Full Text Available In our previous study, we found that pretreatment with lipoamide (LM more effectively than alpha-lipoic acid (LA protected retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells from the acrolein-induced damage. However, the reasons and mechanisms for the greater effect of LM than LA are unclear. We hypothesize that LM, rather than the more direct antioxidant LA, may act more as an indirect antioxidant. In the present study, we treated ARPE-19 cells with LA and LM and compared their effects on activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and induction of phase II enzyme systems. It is found that LM is more effective than LA on increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and inducing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and its translocation to the nucleus, leading to an increase in expression or activity of phase II antioxidant enzymes (NQO-1, GST, GCL, catalase and Cu/Zn SOD. Further study demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis and phase II enzyme induction are closely coupled via energy requirements. These results suggest that LM, compared with the direct antioxidant LA, plays its protective effect on oxidative damage more as an indirect antioxidant to simultaneously stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes.

  5. Immunity, suicide or both? Ecological determinants for the combined evolution of anti-pathogen defense systems

    OpenAIRE

    Iranzo, Jaime; Lobkovsky, Alexander E.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parasite-host arms race is one of the key factors in the evolution of life. Most cellular life forms, in particular prokaryotes, possess diverse forms of defense against pathogens including innate immunity, adaptive immunity and programmed cell death (altruistic suicide). Coevolution of these different but interacting defense strategies yields complex evolutionary regimes. Results We develop and extensively analyze a computational model of coevolution of different defense strategie...

  6. Defense-in-depth and diversity assessment of the RESAR-414 Integrated Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the defense-in-depth and diversity principles as they apply to safety related instrumentation and presents guidelines which can be used to assess the degree to which the designs of complex, interconnected safety systems conform to these principles. These guidelines are based on the use of the block concept, an approach in which the components and modules of the system are aggregated into a small number of functional units, or blocks, to simplify the analysis. It is believed that the use of the block concept and the guidelines will result in a conservative assessment of the capability of such systems to function when subjected to postulated to common-mode failures. A preliminary assessment of the RESAR-414 Integrated Protection System by means of the guidelines is also presented. The results of this assessment support the conclusion that, for purposes of a preliminary design approval, the RESAR-414 Integrated Protection System is acceptable. However, the assessment, has also resulted in requirements for additional analyses and tests, the results of which must demonstrate conformance to the guidelines prior to the issuance of a Final Design Approval

  7. Influence of organic selenium supplementation on the accumulation of toxic and essential trace elements involved in the antioxidant system of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Athanasios C; Zoidis, Evangelos; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Demiris, Nikolaos; Surai, Peter F; Fegeros, Konstantinos

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the interactions between selenium (Se) and various trace elements, both toxic and essential, involved in the antioxidant system. A total of 128 day-old chicks (Gallus gallus, broilers) were used to investigate the effect of Se yeast supplementation on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). There were four replicates of four dietary treatments: T1 (basal diet with no added Se, analyzed to contain 0.21 mg kg(-1)), T2 (T1 with 0.15 mg kg(-1) Se added), T3 (T1 with 0.3 mg kg(-1) Se) and T4 (T1 with 3.0 mg kg(-1) Se). At week 4 and 6, two chickens per replicate pen were sacrificed for whole blood, breast muscle and liver sampling. Samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Supplementation with Se-yeast, not only increased Se concentration but also reduced Cd concentration in the tissues. Selenium was negatively correlated with Cd and positively correlated with Zn, Cu and Fe. Cadmium was negatively correlated with Zn and Cu. Zinc was positively correlated with Cu. Iron was negatively correlated with Cu and uncorrelated with Zn and Cd. The balance between Se, Cu, Fe and Zn is important for proper antioxidant defense since they are an integral part of various antioxidant enzymes. PMID:21337231

  8. Simulating of Top-Cross system for enhancement of antioxidants in maize grain

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Vancetovic; Sladjana Zilic; Sofija Bozinovic; Dragana Ignjatovic-Micic

    2014-01-01

    Blue maize (Zea mays L.) is grown for its high content of antioxidants. Conversion of yellow and white to blue maize is time consuming because several genes affect blue color. After each backcross selfing is needed for color to be expressed. In order to overcome the problem of time and effort needed for conversion to blue kernel color, we have set a pilot experiment simulating a Top-cross system for increasing antioxidants in maize grain. The idea is to alternately sow six rows of sterile sta...

  9. Influence of pectin on radiation changes in free radical and antioxidant system in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the influence of apple and orange pectin on the metabolic processes, free radical oxidation and antioxidant systems state in rats exposed to the dose of 1 Gy of external gamma-irradiation. Favourable effect of the investigated pectins on the proteins, enzyme activity, peroxide-resistant erythrocytes as well as induced activity of blood serum peroxidation processes in the blood serum and liver of the exposed animals was established. Apple pectin influenced more effectively the blood globulins whereas orange one-enzyme activity, anti peroxide and antioxidant state of the organism

  10. Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Protective System in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Endometritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorodetskaya O.S.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reveal the changes in “lipid peroxidation—antioxidant protection” system in chronic endometritis. Materials and Methods. 40 female patients of fertile age with chronic endometritis were examined. A screening method of induced chemiluminescence of serum was used to assess the intensity of free-radical oxidation. Results and Discussion. The patients with chronic endometritis are revealed to have an increased level of lipid peroxidation combined with the decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. A marked imbalance stated requires an appropriate correction.

  11. Defense Travel System use of restricted airfare in conjunction with the GSA City Pair Program to effectively reduce TDY travel costs within DoD

    OpenAIRE

    Feehan, Ashton F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis discusses the Naval Postgraduate School's use of the Defense Travel System (DTS) and examines a process of using the GSA City Pair Program in conjunction with restricted airfare as a means to effectively reduce travel costs and conserve Department of Defense dollars. The thesis starts off with a brief introduction of travel at NPS, and is followed by a section on the Defense Travel System to include NPS's history with electronic travel systems. The third chapter highlights NPS's c...

  12. Ozone Therapy on Rats Submitted to Subtotal Nephrectomy: Role of Antioxidant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Calunga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal failure (CRF represents a world health problem. Ozone increases the endogenous antioxidant defense system, preserving the cell redox state. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ozone/oxygen mixture in the renal function, morphology, and biochemical parameters, in an experimental model of CRF (subtotal nephrectomy. Ozone/oxygen mixture was applied daily, by rectal insufflation (0.5 mg/kg for 15 sessions after the nephrectomy. Renal function was evaluated, as well as different biochemical parameters, at the beginning and at the end of the study (10 weeks. Renal plasmatic flow (RPF, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, the urine excretion index, and the sodium and potassium excretions (as a measurement of tubular function in the ozone group were similar to those in Sham group. Nevertheless, nephrectomized rats without ozone (positive control group showed the lowest RPF, GFR, and urine excretion figures, as well as tubular function. Animals treated with ozone showed systolic arterial pressure (SAP figures lower than those in the positive control group, but higher values compared to Sham group. Serum creatinine values and protein excretion in 24 hours in the ozone group were decreased compared with nephrectomized rats, but were still higher than normal values. Histological study demonstrated that animals treated with ozone showed less number of lesions in comparison with nephrectomized rats. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were significantly increased in nephrectomized and ozone-treated nephrectomized rats in comparison with Sham group. In the positive control group, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT showed the lowest figures in comparison with the other groups. However, ozone/oxygen mixture induced a significant stimulation in the enzymatic activity of CAT, SOD, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as reduced glutathione in relation with Sham and positive control groups. In this animal model of CRF, ozone

  13. Potential Role of Sulfur-Containing Antioxidant Systems in Highly Oxidative Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mukwevho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available All forms of life maintain a reducing environment (homeostasis within their cells. Perturbations in the normal redox state can lead to an oxidative environment which has deleterious effects, especially in health. In biological systems, metabolic activities are dependent mainly on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, a metabolic pathway that uses energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to produce ATP. In the process of oxidative phosphorylation, electrons are transferred from electron donors to electron acceptors such as oxygen in redox reactions and often results to the generation of reactive species. Reactive oxygen species consist of a class of radical and non-radical oxygen derivatives. The imbalance between the reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defence systems leads to oxidative burden and hence, damage biological molecules. Antioxidants help to prevent or fix the deleterious effects of reactive species. Sulfur is an important element in biological systems. This atom is usually integrated into proteins as the redox-active cysteine residue and in molecules such as glutathione, thioredoxin and glutaredoxin which are vital antioxidant molecules and are therefore essential for life. This review covers the role of sulfur containing antioxidant systems in oxidative environments.

  14. Consequences for central nervous system functional state of exposure to ionizing radiation modification with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: to estimate the pattern of ionizing radiation effects modification by antioxidants using central nervous system functional state indices. The studies were carried out using 84 rats. Beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol were found to significantly improve conditioned activity indices level of the animals exposed to ionizing radiation and emotional-pain stress

  15. 32 CFR 37.1025 - Must I report information to the Defense Assistance Awards Data System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required by 31 U.S.C. 6101-6106 (see 32 CFR part 21, subpart E). ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I report information to the Defense... Award Reporting Information About the Award § 37.1025 Must I report information to the...

  16. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Kanter; Omer Coskun; Mustafa Budancamanak

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS)and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats.METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals.All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc,twice a week for 60 d). Tn addition, B, C and D groups also received daily J.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand,received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d.Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment.RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased thelipid peroxidation and liver enzymes,and also decreasedthe antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (aloneor combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipidperoxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increasedthe reduced antioxidant enzyme levels.The weight ofrats decreased in group A,and increased in groups B, Cand D.CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the antioxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats.

  17. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  18. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a potent immunoregulator of the periodontal host defense system and alveolar bone homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, B A; Novince, C M; Kirkwood, K L

    2016-06-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a perio-pathogenic bacteria that has long been associated with localized aggressive periodontitis. The mechanisms of its pathogenicity have been studied in humans and preclinical experimental models. Although different serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans have differential virulence factor expression, A. actinomycetemcomitans cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), leukotoxin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been most extensively studied in the context of modulating the host immune response. Following colonization and attachment in the oral cavity, A. actinomycetemcomitans employs CDT, leukotoxin, and LPS to evade host innate defense mechanisms and drive a pathophysiologic inflammatory response. This supra-physiologic immune response state perturbs normal periodontal tissue remodeling/turnover and ultimately has catabolic effects on periodontal tissue homeostasis. In this review, we have divided the host response into two systems: non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic. Non-hematopoietic barriers include epithelium and fibroblasts that initiate the innate immune host response. The hematopoietic system contains lymphoid and myeloid-derived cell lineages that are responsible for expanding the immune response and driving the pathophysiologic inflammatory state in the local periodontal microenvironment. Effector systems and signaling transduction pathways activated and utilized in response to A. actinomycetemcomitans will be discussed to further delineate immune cell mechanisms during A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Finally, we will discuss the osteo-immunomodulatory effects induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans and dissect the catabolic disruption of balanced osteoclast-osteoblast-mediated bone remodeling, which subsequently leads to net alveolar bone loss. PMID:26197893

  19. Time-dependent alterations in growth, photosynthetic pigments and enzymatic defense systems of submerged Ceratophyllum demersum during exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We examined time-dependent metabolic changes in C. demersum exposed to anatoxin-a. •Biotransformation and antioxidative defense mechanisms responded positively to anatoxin-a. •Decline in chlorophylls contents was detected in company with irreversible plant growth inhibition during exposure to anatoxin-a. •Anatoxin-a exhibits phytotoxic allelopathy by provoking oxidative stress. •Macrophytes may have interactions with anatoxin-a in aquatic environments. -- Abstract: Recently, aquatic macrophytes have been considered as promising tools for eco-friendly water management with a low running cost. However, only little information is available thus far regarding the metabolic capacity of macrophytes for coping with cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins) in the aquatic environment. Cyanotoxins have become emerging contaminants of great concern due to the high proliferation of cyanobacteria (cyanobacterial bloom) accelerated by eutrophication and climate change. Anatoxin-a, one of the common and major cyanotoxins, is suggested as a high priority water pollutant for regulatory consideration owing to its notoriously rapid mode of action as a neurotoxin. In this study, the time-course metabolic regulation of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) was investigated during exposure to anatoxin-a at an environmentally relevant concentration (15 μg/L). Biotransformation and antioxidative systems in C. demersum responded positively to anatoxin-a through the promoted synthesis of most of the involved enzymes within 8 h. Maximum enzyme activities were exhibited after 24 or 48 h of exposure to anatoxin-a. However, an apparent decline in enzyme activities was also observed at longer exposure duration (168 and 336 h) in company with high steady-state levels of cell internal H2O2, which showed its highest level after 48 h. Meanwhile, irreversible inhibitory influence on chlorophyll content (vitality) was noticed, whereas the ratio of carotenoids

  20. Time-dependent alterations in growth, photosynthetic pigments and enzymatic defense systems of submerged Ceratophyllum demersum during exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Mi-Hee; Pflugmacher, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.pflugmacher@tu-berlin.de

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •We examined time-dependent metabolic changes in C. demersum exposed to anatoxin-a. •Biotransformation and antioxidative defense mechanisms responded positively to anatoxin-a. •Decline in chlorophylls contents was detected in company with irreversible plant growth inhibition during exposure to anatoxin-a. •Anatoxin-a exhibits phytotoxic allelopathy by provoking oxidative stress. •Macrophytes may have interactions with anatoxin-a in aquatic environments. -- Abstract: Recently, aquatic macrophytes have been considered as promising tools for eco-friendly water management with a low running cost. However, only little information is available thus far regarding the metabolic capacity of macrophytes for coping with cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins) in the aquatic environment. Cyanotoxins have become emerging contaminants of great concern due to the high proliferation of cyanobacteria (cyanobacterial bloom) accelerated by eutrophication and climate change. Anatoxin-a, one of the common and major cyanotoxins, is suggested as a high priority water pollutant for regulatory consideration owing to its notoriously rapid mode of action as a neurotoxin. In this study, the time-course metabolic regulation of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) was investigated during exposure to anatoxin-a at an environmentally relevant concentration (15 μg/L). Biotransformation and antioxidative systems in C. demersum responded positively to anatoxin-a through the promoted synthesis of most of the involved enzymes within 8 h. Maximum enzyme activities were exhibited after 24 or 48 h of exposure to anatoxin-a. However, an apparent decline in enzyme activities was also observed at longer exposure duration (168 and 336 h) in company with high steady-state levels of cell internal H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which showed its highest level after 48 h. Meanwhile, irreversible inhibitory influence on chlorophyll content (vitality) was noticed, whereas the ratio of

  1. SERPINA3K plays antioxidant roles in cultured pterygial epithelial cells through regulating ROS system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Zhu

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that SERPINA3K, a serine proteinase inhibitor, has antioxidant activity in the cornea. Here we investigated the antioxidant effects of SERPINA3K on the pterygial, which is partially caused by oxidative stress in pathogenesis. The head part of primary pterygial tissue was dissected and then cultured in keratinocyte serum-free defined medium (KSFM. The cultured pterygial epithelial cells (PECs were treated with SERPINA3K. The cell proliferation and migration of PECs were measured and analyzed. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay were performed. It showed that SERPINA3K significantly suppressed the cell proliferation of PECs in a concentration-dependent manner, compared with cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells. SERPINA3K also inhibited the cell migration of PECs. Towards its underlying mechanism, SERPINA3K had antioxidant activities on the PECs by significantly inhibiting NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4, which is an important enzyme of ROS generation, and by elevating the levels of key antioxidant factors of ROS: such as NAD(PH dehydrogenase (quinone 1 (NQO1, NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2 and superoxide dismutases (SOD2. Meanwhile, SERPINA3K down-regulated the key effectors of Wnt signaling pathway: β-catenin, nonphospho-β-catenin, and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6. We provided novel evidence that SERPINA3K had inhibitory effects on pterygium and SERPINA3K played antioxidant role via regulating the ROS system and antioxidants.

  2. Analysis of the NATO Fleet Air-Defense System%北约舰队防空体系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐强; 王瑞麒

    2001-01-01

    介绍了以美国为首的北约舰队防空体系的构成、任务和主要防御对象。对北约舰队防空体系的最新发展动向进行了分析。针对目前北约舰队防空体系中的薄弱环节,提出了突防的具体构想。%This paper introduces the construction, tasks ,targets and analyzed the future developing tendency of the fleet air-defense system of NATO led by U.S.. According to the weak links of the defense system,this paper presents a idea to break through the defense net.

  3. A miniature mimic of host defense peptides with systemic antibacterial efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oligomers of acylated lysines (OAKs) are synthetic mimics of host defense peptides (HDPs) with promising antimicrobial properties. Here we challenged the OAK concept for its ability to generate both systemically efficient and economically viable lead compounds for fighting multidrug-resistant bacteria. We describe the design and characterization of a miniature OAK composed of only 3 lysyls and 2 acyls (designated C12(ω7)K-β12) that preferentially targets gram-positive species by a bacteriostatic mode of action. To gain insight into the mechanism of action, we examined the interaction of OAK with various potential targets, including phospholipid bilayers, using surface plasmon resonance, and Langmuir monolayers, using insertion assays, epifluorescence microscopy, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, in a complementary manner. Collectively, the data support the notion that C12(ω7)K-β12 damages the plasma-membrane architecture similarly to HDPs, that is, following a near-classic 2-step interaction including high-affinity electrostatic adhesion and a subsequent shallow insertion that was limited to the phospholipid head group region. Notably, preliminary acute toxicity and efficacy studies performed with mouse models of infection have consolidated the potential of OAK for treating bacterial infections, including systemic treatments of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Such simple yet robust chemicals might be useful for various antibacterial applications while circumventing potential adverse effects associated with cytolytic compounds.

  4. Teaching Clinical (and Nonclinical) Psychology through Applications to the Legal System: Violence Risk Assessment and the Insanity Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Marina L.; Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of dangerousness and the insanity defense are two areas where psychologists provide research-based expertise to the courts. Teachers of psychology can use these topics to capture the attention of students and to show how psychological research and theory can inform and influence the legal system. Specifically, teachers can use the…

  5. Joint-Service Integration: An Organizational Culture Study of the United States Department of Defense Voluntary Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the descriptive case study with a multiple case framework was to (a) describe the organizational cultures of education programs and leaders in the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) voluntary education system on Oahu, Hawaii; (b) determine if an overlapping common organizational culture exists; and (c) assess the…

  6. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO] on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals’ diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins.

  7. Antioxidant activities of Juniperus foetidissima essential oils against several oxidative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Emami

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of essential oils obtained from branchlets of male and female trees as well as fruits of Juniperus foetidissima Willd., Cupressaceae, from Iran. For this purpose, essential oils of J. foetidissima were phytochemically analyzed and different concentrations of them were tested in five oxidative systems: 1 low-density lipoprotein oxidation; 2 linoleic acid peroxidation; 3 red blood cell hemolysis; 4 hemoglobin glycation; and 5 insulin glycation assays. In all employed systems, antioxidant effects were observed from the three tested oils though in varying degrees. The most promising activities of the oils were observed against hemoglobin and insulin glycation. Antioxidant activities of the oils did not appear to be dose-dependent. In addition, no consistent superiority in antioxidant effects was observed from a single oil in different assays. In view of the current results, J. foetidissima branchlet and fruit oils could be regarded as effective natural products with anti-glycation activity.

  8. [Toxic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons and copper on polychaete Nereis diversicolor and on its antioxidant enzyme systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fu-hong; Zhou, Qi-xing; Zhang, Qian-ru

    2006-07-01

    Under the condition of the laboratory simulation, the toxic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons and various concentrations of copper (Cu2+) on the polychaete Nereis diversicolor and on its antioxidant enzyme defense systems were examined. The results indicate that both petroleum hydrocarbons and CU2+ have high toxicity to the polychaete. After a 3-day exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons and Cu2+, the value of LD50 was 117.5 microL x L(-1) and 864.0 microg x L(-1), respectively. The activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were influenced significantly through a 5-day exposure to single pollution of Cu2+. The activity of POD was inhibited at first and then enhanced gradually; on the contrary, the activity of SOD showed a tendency of induction firstly and then inhibition. After exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons at the concentration of the value of LD50 for 5 days, POD activity of the polychaete was not significantly induced, and the activity of SOD was lower than that of control. A 5-day exposure to the joint-pollution of petroleum hydrocarbons and Cu2+ could bring out a decrease in the activities of POD and SOD firstly and then an increase. The changes in the activity of SOD can better reflect the toxic effects of pollutants on the polychaete. PMID:16881321

  9. Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Donghua

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electron microscopy (EM techniques enable identification of the main accumulations of lead (Pb in cells and cellular organelles and observations of changes in cell ultrastructure. Although there is extensive literature relating to studies on the influence of heavy metals on plants, Pb tolerance strategies of plants have not yet been fully explained. Allium sativum L. is a potential plant for absorption and accumulation of heavy metals. In previous investigations the effects of different concentrations (10-5 to 10-3 M of Pb were investigated in A. sativum, indicating a significant inhibitory effect on shoot and root growth at 10-3 to 10-4 M Pb. In the present study, we used EM and cytochemistry to investigate ultrastructural alterations, identify the synthesis and distribution of cysteine-rich proteins induced by Pb and explain the possible mechanisms of the Pb-induced cellular defense system in A. sativum. Results After 1 h of Pb treatment, dictyosomes were accompanied by numerous vesicles within cytoplasm. The endoplasm reticulum (ER with swollen cisternae was arranged along the cell wall after 2 h. Some flattened cisternae were broken up into small closed vesicles and the nuclear envelope was generally more dilated after 4 h. During 24-36 h, phenomena appeared such as high vacuolization of cytoplasm and electron-dense granules in cell walls, vacuoles, cytoplasm and mitochondrial membranes. Other changes included mitochondrial swelling and loss of cristae, and vacuolization of ER and dictyosomes during 48-72 h. In the Pb-treatment groups, silver grains were observed in cell walls and in cytoplasm, suggesting the Gomori-Swift reaction can indirectly evaluate the Pb effects on plant cells. Conclusions Cell walls can immobilize some Pb ions. Cysteine-rich proteins in cell walls were confirmed by the Gomori-Swift reaction. The morphological alterations in plasma membrane, dictyosomes and ER reflect the features of detoxification

  10. Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Shyam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upper respiratory tract functions to protect lower respiratory structures from chemical and biological agents in inspired air. Cellular oxidative stress leading to acute and chronic inflammation contributes to the resultant pathology in many of these exposures and is typical of allergic disease, chronic sinusitis, pollutant exposure, and bacterial and viral infections. Little is known about the effective means by which topical treatment of the nose can strengthen its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses. The present study was undertaken to determine if naturally-occurring plant oils with reported antioxidant activity can provide mechanisms through which upper respiratory protection might occur. Methods Controlled exposure of the upper respiratory system to ozone and nasal biopsy were carried out in healthy human subjects to assess mitigation of the ozone-induced inflammatory response and to assess gene expression in the nasal mucosa induced by a mixture of five naturally-occurring antioxidant oils - aloe, coconut, orange, peppermint and vitamin E. Cells of the BEAS-2B and NCI-H23 epithelial cell lines were used to investigate the source and potential intracellular mechanisms of action responsible for oil-induced anti-inflammatory activity. Results Aerosolized pretreatment with the mixed oil preparation significantly attenuated ozone-induced nasal inflammation. Although most oil components may reduce oxidant stress by undergoing reduction, orange oil was demonstrated to have the ability to induce long-lasting gene expression of several antioxidant enzymes linked to Nrf2, including HO-1, NQO1, GCLm and GCLc, and to mitigate the pro-inflammatory signaling of endotoxin in cell culture systems. Nrf2 activation was demonstrated. Treatment with the aerosolized oil preparation increased baseline levels of nasal mucosal HO-1 expression in 9 of 12 subjects. Conclusions These data indicate that selected oil-based antioxidant

  11. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eGómez-Lama Cabanás

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets, many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR experiments aiming to: (i validate the induction of these genes, and (ii shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days. Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lypoxigenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e. jerf, bHLH, WRKYs, as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mount a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves. This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the ‘non-hostile’ colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7.

  12. Characterization and antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin and sulforaphane complex in different solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xueyan; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Hao, E-mail: h200521@cau.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Modes and influencing factors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sulforaphane (SFN) interaction will help us understand the interaction mechanisms and functional changes of bioactive small molecule and biomacromolecule. This study investigated interaction mechanisms of BSA and SFN and associated antioxidant activity in three solvent systems of deionized water (dH{sub 2}O), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH), using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The results revealed that SFN had ability to quench BSA's fluorescence in static modes, and to interact with BSA at both tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues, while the Trp residues were highly sensitive, which was demonstrated by fluorescence at 340 nm. Hydrophobic forces, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions were all involved in BSA and SFN interaction, which were not significantly changed by three solvents. The binding constant values and binding site numbers were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. The values of free energy change were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH, which indicated that the binding forces were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. There was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between SFN and BSA–SFN. Moreover, three solvents had not significant influence on antioxidant activity of SFN and BSA–SFN. -- Highlights: • We report interaction mechanisms of BSA and sulforaphane in three solvent systems. • We report antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane complex in three solvent systems. • Decreasing the solvent polarity will decrease the binding of BSA and sulforaphane. • Three solvents had not influence on antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane.

  13. Improved Antioxidant Capacity of Optimization of a Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Resveratrol

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Chen; Huiyong Zhang; Jing Yang; Haiyan Sun

    2015-01-01

    The use of nano-encapsulated resveratrol (RSV) in self-micro-emulsified drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) formulations was investigated. Self-emulsifying grading tests were used to establish the optimal ratio of oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant. The optimized system was further investigated for the droplet size and zeta potential at the different medium pH values by a Malvern Zetasizer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity of the formulation were...

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids differentially modulate enzymatic anti-oxidant systems in skeletal muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    E. P. da Silva; Nachbar, R. T.; Levada-Pires, A. C.; Hirabara, S. M.; Lambertucci, R. H.

    2015-01-01

    During physical activity, increased reactive oxygen species production occurs, which can lead to cell damage and in a decline of individual’s performance and health. The use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a supplement to protect the immune system has been increasing; however, their possible benefit to the anti-oxidant system is not well described. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid) can be bene...

  15. Colorado potato beetle manipulates plant defenses in local and systemic leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore microbial associates can affect diverse interactions between plants and insect herbivores. Some insect symbionts enable herbivores to expand host plant range or to facilitate host plant use by modifying plant physiology. However, little attention has been paid to the role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses. We have recently shown that Colorado potato beetle secrete the symbiotic bacteria to suppress plant defenses. The bacteria in oral secretions from th...

  16. Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide inhibit cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Bing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cherr, Gary N

    2016-06-01

    Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are considered to be environmentally safe. In this study, we analyzed the potential effects of graphene and GO at relatively low concentrations on cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters. The results showed that graphene (<0.5 μg/mL) and GO (<20 μg/mL) did not decrease cell viability, generate reactive oxygen species, or disrupt mitochondrial function. However, graphene and GO at the nontoxic concentrations could increase calcein-AM (CAM, an indicator of membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter) activity) accumulation, indicating inhibition of ABC transporters' efflux capabilities. This inhibition was observed even at 0.005 μg/mL graphene and 0.05 μg/mL GO, which are 100 times and 400 times lower than their lowest toxic concentration from cytotoxicity experiments, respectively. The inhibition of ABC transporters significantly increased the toxicity of paraquat and arsenic, known substrates of ABC transporters. The inhibition of ABC transporters was found to be based on graphene and GO damaging the plasma membrane structure and fluidity, thus altering functions of transmembrane ABC transporters. This study demonstrates that low levels of graphene and GO are not environmentally safe since they can significantly make cell more susceptible to other xenobiotics, and this chemosensitizing activity should be considered in the risk assessment of graphene and GO. PMID:26554512

  17. Plant natriuretic peptides: Systemic regulators of plant homeostasis and defense that can affect cardiomyoblasts

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A

    2010-09-01

    Immunologic evidence has suggested the presence of biologically active natriuretic peptide (NPs) hormones in plants because antiatrial NP antibodies affinity purify biologically active plant NPs (PNP). In the model plant, an Arabidopsis thaliana PNP (AtPNP-A) has been identified and characterized. AtPNP-A belongs to a novel class of molecules that share some similarity with the cell wall loosening expansins but do not contain the carbohydrate-binding wall anchor thus suggesting that PNPs and atrial natriuretic peptides are heterologs. AtPNP-A acts systemically, and this is consistent with its localization in the apoplastic extracellular space and the conductive tissue. Furthermore, AtPNP-A signals via the second messenger cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate and modulates ion and water transport and homeostasis. It also plays a critical role in host defense against pathogens. AtPNP-A can be classified as novel paracrine plant hormone because it is secreted into the apoplastic space in response to stress and can enhance its own expression. Interestingly, purified recombinant PNP induces apo-ptosis in a dose-dependent manner and was most effective on cardiac myoblast cell lines. Because PNP is mimicking the effect of ANP in some instances, PNP may prove to provide useful leads for development of novel therapeutic NPs. Copyright © 2013 by The American Federation for Medical Research.

  18. Contemporary strategic management approach in the defense system by U.S. methodology concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin I. Mrdak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to emphasize the importance of contemporary strategic management approachs in the defense system. Displays the work of American author Leslie Lewis and C. Robert Roll "Strategy-to- tasks: a methodology for resource allocation and management". It were used by parts of the discussion above, in order to describe the strategy-to-tasks methodology for planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS. In developed Western countries adopted some elements of strategic management to determine and monitor the execution of strategic plans in the defense system. This trend is spreading to other countries as a result of the necessity of obeying certain methodological and technological achievements. The uncritical acceptance of a strategic management approach can cause great confusion and problems, and the terminology and scientific explanation for this trend is of great importance. Introduction PPBS is a resource management framework based on force planning concept. It was developed at the lRand Company during the late eighties and is adapted to the special needs of several DoD organization. The planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS PPBS is DoD`ş primary system for planning and managing defense resources. It links the overall U.S. national security strategy to specific programs. It was designed to facilitate fiscally-constrained planning, programming and budgeting in terms of complete programs (i.e. forces and systems rather than through artificial budget categories. The goal is to determine forces, systems and program costs. Strategy-to-tasks and the PPBS The Strategy-To-Tasks methodology, regardless of its application, it must be consistent and supportive of each phase of the PPBS. This section describes the basics frameworks of which are adapted to resource allocation and management activities for the Special Operations Command (USSOCOM. The authors have used it during the various phases of the PPBS. The National Security

  19. A survey of COTS wireless transceiver solutions for unmanned/unattended homeland defense systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurth, Timothy J.; Wells, Jeffrey S.; Trimble, Michael L.

    2004-08-01

    As the war on terrorism continues abroad, the need to maintain security at home remains a major concern. Every aspect of the security effort can benefit from rapid information transfer. Advances in Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) radios make them valuable in applications ranging from deployed sensors on unsecured borders, to organizing an emergency response team. Additionally, the reduced cost and availability of these transceivers make them a viable alternative to custom developments. As an example, COTS radios can serve as the communication element in Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) and munitions systems. Other applications include networked sonobuoys and networked RFID tracking. An additional advantage of COTS solutions is that they are available in a small form factor. They have extremely small mechanical outlines and are easily installed in systems requiring miniature designs and light payloads such as man-pack emplaced radios for the Army"s Future Combat System (FCS), as well as missions carried out by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The availability of the COTS radios result in a low-cost alternative for communication links that are applicable to military and Homeland Defense projects. They provide an easily obtainable, low-cost radio alternative enabling quick design cycles to meet mission timeliness. COTS solutions eliminate months from a typical design cycle and have many features already implemented such as ad-hoc routing and encryption. This enables robust hardware to be fielded quickly when a new need arises. The focus of this paper is to identify different COTS modules that can efficiently and cost effectively be applied to these and other various applications.

  20. Multilevel Access Control in a MANET for a Defense Messaging system using Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Nafeesa Begum, K.Kumar, Dr.V.Sumathy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The trend of the Civilian society has moved from the industrial age focus onautomation and scale towards information based on computing andcommunication. Today’s Warfare is also moving towards an information ageparadigm based on information sharing, situational awareness, and distributedpoints of intelligence, command and control. A widely-networked fighting force isbetter able to share information about tactical situations that may begeographically widespread, asymmetric, and rapidly changing. Commandersmust be able to better assess situations across broad theaters, with extensivedata, voice, and especially video feeds as strategic inputs. Thus, network-centricwarfare improves effectiveness at both the tactical "point of the spear" and in theachievement of broader strategic goals. Broadly disseminated knowledge assetsenable fighting forces that must self-synchronize, even as they physicallydisperse to address dynamic battlefield conditions. The speed of decision hasincreased and command decisions must be rapidly relayed and implemented, toimprove battlefield outcomes. Multilevel access control in a MANET for aDefense messaging system is used to have the command decisions relayed toall people who are active in the group and also to all people who have beenidentified as higher in the hierarchy instead of sending one to one messages toeach individual.. The system developed is secure, multi site and allows for globalcommunication using the inherent properties of Elliptic Curve cryptography .Elliptic Curve cryptography provides a greater security with less bit size and it isfast when compared to other schemes. The implementation suggests that it is asecure system which occupies fewer bits and can be used for low power devices.

  1. Tert-butylhydroquinone attenuates the ethanol-induced apoptosis of and activates the Nrf2 antioxidant defense pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaojing; Li, Yang; Hu, Jun; Yu, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an inducer of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), has been demonstrated to attenuate oxidative stress-induced injury and the apoptosis of human neural stem cells and other cell types. However, whether tBHQ is able to exert a protective effect against oxidative stress and the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes has not yet been determined. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine whether tBHQ protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes against ethanol-induced apoptosis. For this purpose, four sets of experiments were performed under standard culture conditions as follows: i) untreated control cells; ii) cell treatment with 200 mM ethanol; iii) cell treatment with 5 µM tBHQ; and iv) cell pre-treatment with 5 µM tBHQ for 24 h, followed by medium change and co-culture with 200 mM ethanol containing 5 µM tBHQ for a further 24 h. The viability of the cardiomyocytes was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol‑2-yl)‑2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Protein expression was measured by western blot analysis, and Nrf2 nuclear localization was observed by immunofluorescence. Exposure to ethanol led to a decrease in the protein expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant enzymes, accompanied by an increase in ROS generation and in the apoptosis of H9c2 cells. Pre-treatment with tBHQ significantly prevented the H9c2 cells from undergoing ethanol‑induced apoptosis. tBHQ also increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), whereas Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) expression was decreased. tBHQ promoted Nrf2 nuclear localization and increased the expression of Nrf2, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and simultaneously inhibited the ethanol‑induced overproduction of intracellular ROS. Therefore, tBHQ confers protection against the ethanol

  2. Defensive Armor of Potato Tubers: Nonpolar Metabolite Profiling, Antioxidant Assessment, and Solid-State NMR Compositional Analysis of Suberin-Enriched Wound-Healing Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Kallash, Linda; Wang, Isabel; Phan, Van C.; Huang, Wenlin; Serra, Olga; Stark, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    The cultivation, storage, and distribution of potato tubers are compromised by mechanical damage and suboptimal healing. To investigate wound-healing progress in cultivars with contrasting russeting patterns, metabolite profiles reported previously for polar tissue extracts were complemented by GC/MS measurements for nonpolar extracts and quantitative 13C NMR of interfacial solid suspensions. Potential marker compounds that distinguish cultivar type and wound-healing time point included fatty acids, fatty alcohols, alkanes, glyceryl esters, α,ω-fatty diacids, and hydroxyfatty acids. The abundant long-chain fatty acids in nonpolar extracts and solids from the smooth-skinned Yukon Gold cultivar suggested extensive suberin biopolymer formation; this hypothesis was supported by high proportions of arenes, alkenes, and carbonyl groups in the solid and among the polar markers. The absence of many potential marker classes in nonpolar Atlantic extracts and interfacial solids suggested a limited extent of suberization. Modest scavenging activities of all nonpolar extracts indicate that the majority of antioxidants produced in response to wounding are polar. PMID:26166447

  3. Budgeting for National Defense Acquisition: assessing system linkage and the impact of transformation / by Jones, Lawrence R., and Jerry McCaffery.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lawrence R.; McCaffery, Jerry; Fierstine, Kory L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we conduct a processual analysis (Barzelay, 2003; Barzelay & Gallego, 2005) to assess evidence and test the following hypothesis: the complicated architecture and processes of national defense planning, programming, budgeting and execution and the defense acquisition decision system lead to unintended and negative consequences for defense acquisition and procurement. The purpose of this article is to identify key points of linkage weakness or failure between DoD financial mana...

  4. Angiotensin II and vasopressin are involved in the defense system against anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mofei; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Kuda, Yuhichi; Sun, Lingling; Tanida, Mamoru; Kurata, Yasutaka

    2014-05-15

    Anaphylactic shock is sometimes life-threatening, but the defense system against this circulatory failure was not fully understood. Ameliorating roles of angiotensin (ANG) II and vasopressin in anaphylactic hypotension were investigated in anesthetized ovalbumin-sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats. The sensitized rats were randomly allocated to the following pretreatment groups (n=7/group): (1) control (non-pretreatment), (2) ANG II synthesis inhibitor captopril, (3) ANG II receptor antagonist losartan, and (4) V1a vasopressin receptor antagonist. Anaphylactic shock was induced by an intravenous injection of the antigen. The systemic arterial pressure (SAP), central venous pressure (CVP), portal venous pressure (PVP) and portal venous blood flow (PBF) were measured, and splanchnic vascular resistance (Rspl: (SAP-PVP)/PBF) was determined. In the control group, SAP markedly decreased, followed by a gradual recovery toward baseline. Rspl transiently decreased immediately after antigen, and then increased 1.5-fold at 15 min and thereafter. The pretreatment with either losartan, captopril or V1a receptor antagonist augmented the initial fall of SAP and attenuated the SAP recovery along with augmentation of the late increase in Rspl. The 2-h survival rate was significantly smaller in either pretreatment group than in the control group (100%). Plasma levels of ANG II and vasopressin increased to 3.8- and 9.8-fold, respectively, at 30 min after antigen in the control group, whereas captopril pretreatment inhibited the increase in ANG II. In conclusion, inhibition of ANG II or vasopressin exacerbates anaphylaxis-induced hypotension in anesthetized rats. PMID:24650734

  5. Immune multi-agent model using vaccine for cooperative air-defense system of systems for surface warship formation based on danger theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Xiaozhe Zhao; Beiping Xu; Wei Wang; Zhiyong Niu

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problem on cooperative air-defense of surface warship formation, this paper maps the cooperative air-defense system of systems (SoS) for surface warship formation (CASoSSWF) to the biological immune system (BIS) according to the similarity of the defense mechanism and characteristics be-tween the CASoSSWF and the BIS, and then designs the mo-dels of components and the architecture for a monitoring agent, a regulating agent, a kil er agent, a pre-warning agent and a com-municating agent by making use of the theories and methods of the artificial immune system, the multi-agent system (MAS), the vaccine and the danger theory (DT). Moreover a new immune multi-agent model using vaccine based on DT (IMMUVBDT) for the cooperative air-defense SoS is advanced. The immune response and immune mechanism of the CASoSSWF are analyzed. The model has a capability of memory, evolution, commendable dy-namic environment adaptability and self-learning, and embodies adequately the cooperative air-defense mechanism for the CA-SoSSWF. Therefore it shows a novel idea for the CASoSSWF which can provide conception models for a surface warship forma-tion operation simulation system.

  6. Natural Antioxidants, Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes of Different Vegetable Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Dauqan, Eqbal M. A.; Aminah Abdullah; Halimah Abdullah Sani

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant plays a very important role in the body defense system against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The free radicals also play an important role in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, biochemistry and biotechnology including human physiology. Fats and oils are energy sources that are composed mostly of triacylglycerols. Lipid ptofile are risk indicators of coronary heart disease. Various types of lipoproteins exist, but the two most abundant are Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High-de...

  7. Deciphering Staphylococcus sciuri SAT-17 Mediated Anti-oxidative Defense Mechanisms and Growth Modulations in Salt Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohsin; Azeem, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad T; Saleem, Seemab; Riaz, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity severely affects plant nutrient use efficiency and is a worldwide constraint for sustainable crop production. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, with inherent salinity tolerance, are able to enhance plant growth and productivity by inducing modulations in various metabolic pathways. In the present study, we reported the isolation and characterization of a salt-tolerant rhizobacterium from Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth]. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed its lineage to Staphylococcus sciuri and it was named as SAT-17. The strain exhibited substantial potential of phosphate solubilization as well as indole-3-acetic acid production (up to 2 M NaCl) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (up to 1.5 M NaCl). Inoculation of a rifampicin-resistant derivative of the SAT-17 with maize, in the absence of salt stress, induced a significant increase in plant biomass together with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes. The derivative strain also significantly accumulated nutrients in roots and shoots, and enhanced chlorophyll and protein contents in comparison with non-inoculated plants. Similar positive effects were observed in the presence of salt stress, although the effect was more prominent at 75 mM in comparison to higher NaCl level (150 mM). The strain survived in the rhizosphere up to 30 days at an optimal population density (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1)). It was concluded that S. sciuri strain SAT-17 alleviated maize plants from salt-induced cellular oxidative damage and enhanced growth. Further field experiments should be conducted, considering SAT-17 as a potential bio-fertilizer, to draw parallels between PGPR inoculation, elemental mobility patterns, crop growth and productivity in salt-stressed semi-arid and arid regions. PMID:27375588

  8. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus: antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyrethroid class of insecticides, including deltamethrin, is being used as substitutes for organochlorines and organophosphates in pest-control programs because of their low environmental persistence and toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin on the blood and tissue oxidative stress level in catfish (Clarias gariepinus; in addition to the protective effect of α-tocopherol on deltamethrin induced oxidative stress. Catfish were divided into three groups, 1st control group include 20 fish divided into two tanks each one contain 10 fish, 2nd deltamethrin group, where Fish exposed to deltamethrin in a concentration (0.75 μg/l and 3rd Vitamin E group, Fish exposed to deltamethrin and vitamin E at a dose of 12 μg/l for successive 4 days. Serum, liver, kidney and Gills were collected for biochemical assays. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdhyde (MDA and catalase activity in liver, kidney and gills tissues, serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST, serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine were analysed. Results Our results showed that 48 h. exposure to 0.75 μg/l deltamethrin significantly (p  Conclusions It could be concluded that deltamethrin is highly toxic to catfish even in very low concentration (0.75 μg/l. Moreover the effect of deltamethrin was pronounced in the liver of catfish in comparison with kidneys and gills. Moreover fish antioxidants and oxidative stress could be used as biomarkers for aquatic pollution, thus helping in the diagnosis of pollution. Adminstration of 12 μg/l α-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so supplementation of α-tocopherol consider an effective way to counter the toxicity of deltamethrin in the catfish.

  9. Imbalance of the antioxidative system by plumbagin and Plumbago indica L. extract induces hepatotoxicity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkasem, Nadta; Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Tatiya-aphiradee, Nitima; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Plumbago indica (PI) L. and its active constituent, plumbagin, has been traditionally claimed for several pharmacological activities; however, there is little information regarding their toxicity. The present study aims to examine the effects of plumbagin and PI extract (PI) on hepatic histomorphology and antioxidative system in mice. Materials and Methods: Adult male intelligent character recognition mice were intragastrically administered plumbagin (1, 5, and 15 mg/kg/day) o...

  10. Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Protective System in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Endometritis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to reveal the changes in “lipid peroxidation—antioxidant protection” system in chronic endometritis. Materials and Methods. 40 female patients of fertile age with chronic endometritis were examined. A screening method of induced chemiluminescence of serum was used to assess the intensity of free-radical oxidation. Results and Discussion. The patients with chronic endometritis are revealed to have an increased level of lipid peroxidation combined with the decrea...

  11. THE STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACTIVITY OF MEAT ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Patrakova, I.; Gurinovich, G.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation of lipids and myoglobin in raw meat are interrelated processes that affect the overall meat quality. The intensity of oxidation processes in meat raw material is regulated by its own antioxidant system (catalase, peroxidase, glutathione, etc.), the activity of which should be considered in the development of new technological solutions. Oxidation of lipids and myoglobin, directly affect the quality and safety of meat products, and reducing of the intensity of these processes contrib...

  12. Effect of Cytotoxic Compounds on Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme System in MCF-7 and H1299 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumyatova, V A; Balakina, A A; Filatova, N V; Sen', V D; Korepin, A G; Terentev, A A

    2016-05-01

    We studied the function of the antioxidant system in tumor cell lines MCF-7 and H1299 that differ by the state of tumor suppressor gene p53. Exposure to different classes of cytotoxic compounds induced several types of antioxidant system responses that depend on the type of cell line. The effects of platinum(II) and platinum(IV) complexes on activity of antioxidant enzymes vary, which can be explained by differences in their accumulation and biotransformation in tumor cells. Triazole and oxazolidinone derivatives had little effect on activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in H1299 cells, but increased superoxide dismutase activity in MCF-7 cells. PMID:27265137

  13. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide-induced upregulation of antioxidant defense is involved in the enhancement of cross talk between CREB and Nrf2 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Wang, Zhan-You; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xu; Xu, Ye; Cai, Jian-Hui

    2016-02-01

    Synapse impairment in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain is an early event leading to cognitive dysfunction. Most oxidative stress localizes to the synapse, and synapse loss is the basis of cognitive decline in AD. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (Dl-NBP), a small molecule compound has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress. We evaluated the effects of a 5-month oral delivery with Dl-NBP on oxidative stress and cognitive function in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Dl-NBP treatment reduced oxidative stress in the APP/PS1 mouse brain and alleviated learning and memory deficits. Dl-NBP supplementation meliorated synaptic plasticity, diminished soluble amyloid beta and amyloid beta oligomer in the APP/PS1 mouse brain. Dl-NBP administration caused an increase of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP)-associated Ser133-phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) protein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Dl-NBP increased the recruitment of CBP to the promoters of best-characterized genes downstream of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) quinone oxidoreductase 1, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase modifier subunit. We demonstrate that the Dl-NBP-triggered upregulation of antioxidant defenses is involved in the enhancement of cross talk between CREB and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 via CBP. Our results suggest that Dl-NBP may be a useful agent for the treatment of AD. PMID:26827641

  14. Influence of brassinosteroids on plant cell alternative respiration pathway and antioxidant systems activity under abiotic stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derevyanchuk M. V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the brassinosteroids (BRs influence on the plant alternative respiration pathway and antioxidant systems to regulate the ROS (reactive oxygen species production under optimal and abiotic stress conditions. Methods. Respiration measurement experiments were done with the polarographic technique. Original methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant systems activity. Results. Treatment with BRs increased the inten- sity of plant alternative respiration pathway under control and stress conditions. BRs had no effect on alternative respiration of the BR-insensitive bri1–6 plants. Brassinosteroids also increased the activity of a range of antioxidant systems under osmotic stress. Conclusions. BRs are involved in the regulation of alternative respiration pathway and antioxidant systems activity in plant cells under optimal and abiotic stress conditions.

  15. Defense remote-handled transuranic waste implementation plan: Transuranic Waste Program System Integration Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a detailed schedule for the implementation of the strategy for managing defense remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste. The baseline management strategy was defined in the Defense Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Cost/Schedule Optimization Study and is summarized in this document. Also included are revised RH TRU waste inventory projections, current site management plans, a list of key decision points and milestones, and a discussion of uncertainties associated with management of RH TRU waste. The plans are summarized in a detailed schedule diagram and in an RH TRU waste work off diagram. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  16. The evaluation of non-enzymatic antioxidants effects in limiting tumor- associated oxidative stress, in a tumor rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorescu, R; Gruia, M I; Nacea, V; Nitu, C; Negoita, V; Glavan, D

    2015-01-01

    Active oxygen species are produced as a consequence of normal aerobic metabolism. Of these, free radicals are usually metabolized or inactivated in vivo by a team of antioxidants. Individual members are a trained team fighting antioxidants to prevent the generation of ROS, destroy or oxidizing potential of capture. In terms of physiological oxidative stress, induced tissue attack is minimal. A relative or absolute deficiency in the antioxidant defense may lead to increased oxidative stress and this event is associated with both the causes and consequences of diseases and cancer, included here. The aim of the study is to identify the role of antioxidant defense systems and the reduction of oxidative stress in dynamic growth and development of malignant tumors. Our in vivo study was developed and referred to carcinosarcoma carriers Wistar rats treated with non-enzymatic antioxidants: vitamin C, vitamin A, zinc salt (II), and arginine in various combinations. Treatment was initiated three weeks before tumor induction. PMID:26664481

  17. Evaluation the effect of topical and systemic celecoxib on serum antioxidant in induction of tongue neoplasm in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Arbabi-Kalati; Mehran Mesgari-Abbasi; Narjes Akbari

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), may play a key role in human cancer development. Inflammation occurs in cancers and increases oxidative stress agent COX2 over expression in oral premalignant lesions. Several studies showed COX2 inhibitors con improve antioxidant system. The aim of this study is the evaluation the effect of topical and systemic celecoxib on serum antioxidant in induction of tongue neoplasm in rat. Materi...

  18. Compact, readily deployable reactor systems for secure power for civilian and defense applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. electricity system is a very complex, highly interdependent network of large power plants and long transmission lines that requires constant and precise control. Disruption can rapidly propagate through the infrastructure, causing major portions to fail, as seen in the past. Such events have been triggered by natural causes. Global terrorism raises the possibility of deliberate physical attacks on the system against power plants, transmission lines, sub-stations, etc. - or cyber attacks against computers and controls to shut it down for long periods. Domestic military bases that depend on the civilian electric grid cannot function if it goes down for extended times. Natural disasters like hurricanes Katrina and Rita have shown the need for secure emergency power. If nuclear, biological, or chemical attacks on cities were to occur, panic and evacuations would shut down much of the U.S. electric system for many months. A new reactor system, DEER (Deployable Electric Energy Reactor) can provide secure emergency power for civilian and defense needs. The DEER system is compact and quickly deployable using existing types of transport vehicles. The DEER reactors have integral gamma shields, and can be transported from their deployment site after shutdown, with very low and acceptable radiation doses to handling and transport personnel. Two DEER system concepts are described with detailed neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of 10 and 50 MW(e) designs for each concept. The baseline DEER-1 system uses commercial TRIGA fuel, with water coolant at standard PWR conditions. The sealed DEER-1 reactor operates for several years without refueling. After shutdown, it is removed to appropriate site for refueling or disposal. If needed, a new DEER-1 reactor can be installed at the location. The advanced DEER-2 system uses existing TRISO fuel particles in porous fuel elements with direct water cooling of the particles. After shutdown, the spent TRISO fuel particles are

  19. Protective effect of supercritical fluid rosemary extract, , on antioxidants of major organs of aged rats

    OpenAIRE

    Posadas, S.J.; Caz, V.; Largo, C. (Cristina); De La Gándara, B.; Matallanas, B.; G. Reglero; Miguel, E.

    2009-01-01

    International audience Rosemary leaves, “”, possess a variety of antioxidant, anti-tumoral and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. We hypothesized that rosemary extract could enhance antioxidant defenses and improve antioxidant status in aged rats.

  20. 75 FR 32122 - Revisions to Defense Priorities and Allocations System Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ..., emergency preparedness, and recovery from natural disasters. BIS has extensive experience using its... (Emergency Preparedness) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C..., Transportation, Health and Human Services, Defense, and Agriculture, will comprise the Federal Priorities...

  1. 78 FR 28756 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: System for Award Management Name Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Management (SAM) database (see FAR subpart 4.11) and does not have a CAGE code, DLA Logistics Information... by the Defense Logistics Information Service (DLIS) to identify a commercial or Government entity; or...-7011 Payments in Support of Emergencies and Contingency Operations. * * * * * (c) * * * (2) * * *...

  2. The Roles of 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana on the Nrf2-Anti-Oxidant System and the Cell Cycle in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chieh Yu; You, Bang Jau; Lee, Chia Lin; Wu, Yang Chang; Lin, Wen Hsin; Lu, Te Ling; Chang, Fei-Ching; Lee, Hong Zin

    2016-01-01

    4[Formula: see text]-Hydroxywithanolide E is an active component of the extract of Physalis peruviana that has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects. Although the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM)-dependent DNA damage signaling pathway in 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced apoptosis of breast cancer MCF-7 cells was demonstrated in our previous study, the relationship between ROS production and the cellular defense system response in 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced cell death requires further verification. The present study suggests that ROS play an important role in 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced MCF-7 cell death in which anti-oxidants, such as glutathione or N-acetylcysteine, can resist the 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced accumulation of ROS and cell death. Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine or glutathione can reverse the 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced changes in the cell cycle distribution and the expression of cell cycle regulators. We found that the 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced ROS accumulation was correlated with the upregulation of Nrf2 and Nrf2-downstream genes, such as antioxidative defense enzymes. In general, the activity of Nrf2 is regulated by the Ras signalling pathway. However, we demonstrated that Nrf2 was activated during 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced MCF-7 cell death in spite of the 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced inhibition of the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway. The activity and protein expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase were involved in the 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E-induced ROS production in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, 4[Formula: see text]-hydroxywithanolide E was demonstrated to significantly reduce the sizes of the tumor nodules in the human breast cancer MDA-MB231 xenograft tumor model. PMID:27109152

  3. Prevention of lipid oxidation in omega-3 enriched oofds by antioxidants and the use of delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Due to the health beneficial effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids there is an increasing interest in developing functional foods containing these healthy fatty acids. However, such foods are very susceptible to lipid oxidation, which will give rise to undesirable off-flavours and unhealthy...... oxidation products. Efficients strategies to prevent lipid oxidation are therefore required. Such strategies include addition of antioxidants or the use of omega-3 delivery emulsions. However, antioxidant efficacy in complex omega-3 enriched foods are influenced by many factors including the lipophilicity...... of the antioxidants. Selection of the optimal antioxidant system is therefore a major challenge. Likewise, a range of factors can influence the ability of omega-3 delivery systems to protect the omega-3 fatty acids against oxidation after addition to food systems. These challenges will be discussed...

  4. Revolutionizing the United States Army's chemical defense through the acquisition of software and software-intensive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelhut, Jonas.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of how the United States Army can revolutionize the passage of critical chemical defense information on the battlefield. The current process for passage of this critical information is heavily dependent on short-range and stand-alone chemical detection systems, transmitted over secure radio vertically throughout the chain of command. These factors result in inaccurate, time-lagged information reaching command decision- makers, increasing the risk of contaminat...

  5. Purification and antioxidant properties of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) dark muscle peptide on free radical-mediated oxidative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Jae-Young; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Byun, Hee-Guk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2008-12-01

    To produce bioactive peptides from by-products of fish processing, bigeye tuna dark muscle was hydrolyzed using various enzymes (alcalase, alpha-chymotrypsin, neutrase, papain, pepsin, and trypsin), and the hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Considering the results of degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant activities, peptic hydrolysate was used for further studies to identify a potent antioxidant peptide. Antioxidant peptide was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods and was identified as being H-Leu-Asn-Leu-Pro-Thr-Ala-Val-Tyr-Met-Val-Thr-OH (MW 1,222 Da) by quantitative time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Purified antioxidant peptide from bigeye tuna dark muscle (APTDM) was investigated for its antioxidant activities using both free radical scavenging effects and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation inhibitory activity. The results showed that APTDM effectively quenched with low 50% inhibitory concentration values compared to vitamin C as a positive control against four different free radicals: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide, and alkyl radical. APTDM also inhibited PUFA peroxidation in a linoleic acid emulsion system, and the activity was similar to that of alpha-tocopherol. We further investigated its antioxidant activities on cellular systems, and the results showed that APTDM significantly scavenged cellular radicals and enhanced the viability of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cytotoxicity. These results indicate that APTDM or a peptide fraction containing APTDM would be a beneficial ingredient for functional food and/or pharmaceuticals. PMID:19053853

  6. Effect of methoxychlor on antioxidant system of goat epididymal sperm in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bindu Gangadharan; M. Arul Murugan; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of methoxychlor on the antioxidant system of goat epididymal sperm. Methods:Epididymis of adult goat was obtained from local slaughter houses and sperm were collected by chopping the epididymis in modified Ringer's phosphate solution (RPS). After several washings, the sperm samples were dispersed in RPS and incubated with methoxychlor (1 μnol/L, 10 μmol/L and 100 μmol/L) and methoxychlor + vitamin C (100μmol/L each) for 3 h at 32℃. After incubation, the sperm motility and viability were assessed. An aliquot of sperm sample was homogenized, centrifuged and used for the assay of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation. Results: In methoxychlor-incubated sperm and in sperm co-incubated with methoxychlor and vitamin C, the sperm motility and viability showed no significant changes as compared to the corresponding controls. In methoxychlor-incubated sperm the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased while lipid peroxidation was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Co-incubation of sperm with methoxychlor and vitamin C showed no changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase and in the level of lipid peroxidation. Conclusion: Methoxychlor induced oxidative stress in epididymal sperm of goats by decreasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Co-incubation of sperm with methoxychlor and vitamin C, a natural antioxidant, reversed the effect of methoxychlor.

  7. Effects of Hg(II) exposure on MAPK phosphorylation and antioxidant system in D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, M T; Zemolin, A P; Vargas, A P; Golombieski, R M; Loreto, E L S; Saidelles, A P; Picoloto, R S; Flores, E M M; Pereira, A B; Rocha, J B T; Merritt, T J S; Franco, J L; Posser, T

    2014-06-01

    The heavy metal mercury is a known toxin, but while the mechanisms involved in mercury toxicity have been well demonstrated in vertebrates, little is known about toxicological effects of this metal in invertebrates. Here, we present the results of our study investigating the effects associated with exposure of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to inorganic mercury (HgCl2 ). We quantify survival and locomotor performance as well as a variety of biochemical parameters including antioxidant status, MAPK phosphorylation and gene expression following mercury treatment. Our results demonstrate that exposure to Hg(II) through diet induced mortality and affected locomotor performance as evaluated by negative geotaxis, in D. melanogaster. We also saw a significant impact on the antioxidant system including an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (Ache), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. We found no significant alteration in the levels of mRNA of antioxidant enzymes or NRF-2 transcriptional factor, but did detect a significant up regulation of the HSP83 gene. Mercury exposure also induced the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, without altering p38(MAPK) and the concentration of these kinases. In parallel, Hg(II) induced PARP cleavage in a 89 kDa fragment, suggesting the triggering of apoptotic cell death in response to the treatment. Taken together, this data clarifies and extends our understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating Hg(II) toxicity in an invertebrate model. PMID:22700419

  8. Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sujatha; K.C. Chitin; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and testicular steroidogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered with lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed using anesthetic ether. Testes, epididymis,seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were removed and weighed. A 10% testicular homogenate was prepared and cen trifuged at 4°C. The supematant was used for various biochemical estimations. Results: The body weight and the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were reduced in lindane-treated rars. There was asignificant decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reduc tase while an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation was observed. The specific activities of testicular steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were decreased. The levels of DNA, RNA and protein were also decreased in lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane induces oxida tive stress and decreases antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats.

  9. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF IPOEMA BILOBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Tagde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomolecules can be oxidized by free radicals. This oxidative damage has an important etiological role in aging and the development of diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, and other inflammatory disorders. Synthetic antioxidants, like butylated hydroxyanisole, are good free radical scavengers; however, the synthetic antioxidants can be carcinogenic. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in searching for antioxidants of natural origin.   Antioxidants with different chemical properties may recharge each other in an antioxidant network. The total antioxidant content of dietary plants may therefore be a useful tool for testing the 'antioxidant network' hypothesis. Several berries, fruits, nuts, seeds, vegetables, drinks and spices have been found to be high in total antioxidants. Initial studies in animals and humans are supportive as to the beneficial effects of dietary plants rich in total antioxidants. Additionally, antioxidants and other plant compounds may also improve the endogenous antioxidant defense through induction of antioxidant and phase 2 enzymes.1,2 Dietary plants rich in such compounds include broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, kale, cauliflower, carrots, onions, tomatoes, spinach and garlic , antioxidants and other plant compounds may also improve the endogenous antioxidant defense through induction of antioxidant and phase 2 enzymes.

  10. Simulating of Top-Cross system for enhancement of antioxidants in maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vancetovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blue maize (Zea mays L. is grown for its high content of antioxidants. Conversion of yellow and white to blue maize is time consuming because several genes affect blue color. After each backcross selfing is needed for color to be expressed. In order to overcome the problem of time and effort needed for conversion to blue kernel color, we have set a pilot experiment simulating a Top-cross system for increasing antioxidants in maize grain. The idea is to alternately sow six rows of sterile standard quality hybrid and two rows of blue maize in commercial production. Five commercial ZP hybrids were crossed with a blue pop-corn population. Xenia effect caused by cross-pollination produced blue grain on all hybrids in the same year. Chemical analyses of the grains of five selfed original hybrids, five cross-pollinated hybrids and selfed blue popcorn pollinator were performed. Cross-fertilization with blue popcorn had different impact on antioxidant capacity and phytonutrients, increasing them significantly in some but not all cross-pollinated hybrids. Popcorn blue pollinator had higher values for all the analyzed traits than either selfed or cross-pollinated hybrids. Selfed vs. pollinated hybrids showed significant difference for total antioxidant capacity (p<0.1, total phenolics and total yellow pigments (p<0.01, with the increase of total phenolics and decrease of total yellow pigments in pollinated ones. Total flavonoids showed a little non-significant decrease in pollinated hybrids, while total anthocyanins were not detected in selfed yellow hybrids. Blue maize obtained this way has shown good potential for growing high quality phytonutrient genotypes.

  11. An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

  12. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmah A Matough

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered to be one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. There is a growing scientific and public interest in connecting oxidative stress with a variety of pathological conditions including diabetes mellitus (DM as well as other human diseases. Previous experimental and clinical studies report that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of complications of both types of DM. However, the exact mechanism by which oxidative stress could contribute to and accelerate the development of complications in diabetic mellitus is only partly known and remains to be clarified. On the one hand, hyperglycemia induces free radicals; on the other hand, it impairs the endogenous antioxidant defense system in patients with diabetes. Endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways. Their functions in human cells are to counterbalance toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS. Common antioxidants include the vitamins A, C, and E, glutathione (GSH, and the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GRx. This review describes the importance of endogenous antioxidant defense systems, their relationship to several pathophysiological processes and their possible therapeutic implications in vivo.

  13. Putative Antiparasite Defensive System Involving Ribosomal and Nonribosomal Oligopeptides in Cyanobacteria of the Genus Planktothrix

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrlack, Thomas; Christiansen, Guntram; Kurmayer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic chytrid fungi can inflict significant mortality on cyanobacteria but frequently fail to keep cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation in check. Our study tested whether oligopeptide production, a common feature in many cyanobacteria, can be a defensive mechanism against chytrid parasitism. The study employed the cyanobacterial strain Planktothrix NIVA-CYA126/8 and its mutants with knockout mutations for microcystins, anabaenopeptins, and microviridins, major oligopeptide classes...

  14. Natural Antioxidants, Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes of Different Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eqbal M.A. Dauqan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant plays a very important role in the body defense system against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. The free radicals also play an important role in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, biochemistry and biotechnology including human physiology. Fats and oils are energy sources that are composed mostly of triacylglycerols. Lipid ptofile are risk indicators of coronary heart disease. Various types of lipoproteins exist, but the two most abundant are Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL and High-density Lipoprotein (HDL. Lipid peroxidation is the introduction of a functional group containing two catenated oxygyen atomsinto unsturated fatty acids in a free radical reaction. Life in oxygen has led to the evolution of biochemical adaptations that exploit the reactivity of Active Oxygen Species (AOS. Antioxidant enzymes are an important protective mechanism ROS. This paper highlight the functions of antioxidants in the blood and selected organs associated with health.

  15. Cooperative function of antioxidant and redox systems against oxidative stress in male reproductive tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunichiFujii; YoshihitoIuchi; ShingoMatsuki; TatsuyaIshii

    2003-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced under oxidative stress, such as high oxygen concentration and during the metabolic consumption of oxygen molecules. Male reproductive tissues appear to be continuously exposed to ROS produced by active metabolism. In addition, spermatozoa must pass through a high oxygen environ-ment during the mating process. Thus, to maintain viable reproductive ability, a protective mechanism against oxida-tive stress is of importance. Here, we overview our current understanding of the cooperative function of antioxidative and redox systems that are involved in male fertility. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase are major enzymes that scavenge harmful ROS in male reproductive organs. In turn, glutathione and thioredoxin systems constitute the main redox systems that repair oxidized and damaged molecules and also play a role in regulating a variety of cellular functions. While glutathione functions as an antioxidant by donating electrons to glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin donates electrons to peroxiredoxin as a counterpart of glutathione peroxidase. In addition,aldo-keto reductases, which detoxify carbonyl compounds produced by oxidative stress, are present at high levels in the epithelia of the genital tract and Sertoli cells of the testis. Since these systems are involved in cross-talk, a comprehensive understanding will be required to maintain the physiological functions of male reproductive system.( Asian J Andro12003 Sep; 5: 231-242)

  16. PHENOMENON OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DEFENSE

    OpenAIRE

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psychological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organization (style), sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of defense mechanis...

  17. ELR chemokine signaling in host defense and disease in a viral model of central nervous system disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Hosking

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial infection of the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV into the central nervous system (CNS of susceptible strains of mice results in an acute encephalomyelitis, accompanied by viral replication in glial cells and robust infiltration of virus-specific T cells that contribute to host defense through cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity. Mice that survive the acute stage of disease develop an immune-mediated demyelinating diseases characterized by viral persistence in white matter tracts and a chronic neuroinflammatory response dominated by T cells and macrophages. Early following JHMV infection, there is a dynamic expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors that contribute to neuroinflammation by regulating innate and adaptive immune responses as well influencing glial biology. In response to JHMV infection, we have shown that signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2 contributes to host defense through recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs to the CNS that enhance permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and facilitating entry of virus-specific T cells into the parenchyma. Further, CXCR2 promotes the protection of oligodendroglia from cytokine-induced apoptosis and restricts the severity of demyelination. This review covers aspects related to the role of CXCR2 in host defense and disease in response to JHMV infection.

  18. Antioxidant activity of spice extracts in a liposome system and in cooked pork patties and the possible mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Baohua; Zhang, Huiyun; Xiong, Youling L

    2010-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the antioxidant efficacy of spice extracts in cooked meat. In experiment 1, antioxidant activity of 13 common spice extracts was screened in a liposome system. Six of the extracts (clove, rosemary, cassia bark, liquorice, nutmeg, and round cardamom), identified to have the greatest total phenolic contents, were strongly inhibitory of TBARS formation. In experiment 2, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing power, and metal chelation of these six spice extracts were evaluated. Clove exhibited the greatest reducing power, and all had strong DPPH scavenging activity. In experiment 3, clove, rosemary, and cassia bark extracts were further tested for in situ antioxidant efficacy. Cooked pork patties containing these spice extracts had markedly reduced TBARS formation and off-flavour scores but a more stable red colour, during storage. The results demonstrated strong potential of spice extracts as natural antioxidants in cooked pork products. PMID:20430533

  19. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants. PMID:26230263

  20. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanbo Zhang

    Full Text Available Rare earth element pollution (REEs and acid rain (AR pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+, one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  1. Actions of Adjunctive Nutritional Antioxidants in Periodontitis and Prevalent Systemic Inflammatory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shinnawi, U; Soory, M

    2015-01-01

    Common risk markers for periodontitis and prevalent systemic comorbidities indicate similarities in their progression and molecular mechanisms involved. Resultant pro-oxidant disease profiles provide scope for attenuating their pathogeneses with appropriate adjunctive antioxidants. Levels of oxidative stress markers 8-hydroxy-deoxguanosine (8-HOdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) are significantly higher in periodontitis and other chronic inflammatory conditions. There is a clear link between periodontitis and diseases associated with significant systemic inflammatory loading, such as metabolic syndrome. Micro- and macro-nutrients have proven to be effective in curbing molecular mechanisms that generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. A Mediterranean diet rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grain, nuts, fish, olive oil and red wine in moderation, could be attributed to the lower occurrence of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and other inflammatory diseases in this region. A significant number of naturally occurring flavonoids have been identified in these products. Flavonoids comprising flavonols, flavones and isoflavones are potent free radical scavengers, effective in inhibiting lipid peroxidation, with anti-atherosclerotic and antihypertensive effects.The phenolic compound oleocanthal isolated in virgin olive oil has similar anti-inflammatory actions to that of ibuprofen. The anti-atherogenic effects of MUFA and PUFA in nuts, enhance endothelial function by reducing total cholesterol, oxidized LDL, hs-CRP, sVCAM-1 levels, lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers. Epigenetics influenced by environmental factors and interactions between genes and nutrients, are important considerations in influencing these effects. Using antioxidants as therapeutic adjuncts could enhance the antioxidant capacity of an inherent glutathione system and overcome oxidative effects, thereby mitigating therapeutic side-effects. PMID:25922082

  2. Chemistry and pharmacological properties of some natural and synthetic antioxidants for heavy metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, S J S; Shrivastava, Rupal; Mittal, Megha

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals are known to cause oxidative deterioration of bio-molecules by initiating free radical mediated chain reaction resulting in lipid per-oxidation, protein oxidation and oxidation of nucleic acid like DNA and RNA. The development of effective dual functioning antioxidants, possessing both metal-chelating and free radical-scavenging properties should bring into play. Administration of natural and synthetic antioxidants like, quercetin, catechin, taurine, captopril, gallic acid, melatonin, N-acetyl cysteine, α- lipoic acid and others have been recognized in the disease prevention and clinical recovery against heavy metal intoxication. These antioxidants affect biological systems not only through direct quenching of free radicals but also via chelation of toxic metal(s). These antioxidants also, have the capacity to enhance cellular antioxidant defense mechanism by regenerating endogenous antioxidants, such as glutathione and vitamin C and E. They also influence cellular signaling and trigger redox sensitive regulatory pathways. The reactivity of antioxidants in protecting against heavy metal induced oxidative stress depends upon their structural properties, their partitioning abilities between hydrophilic and lipophilic environment and their hydrogen donation antioxidant properties. Herein, we review the structural, biochemical and pharmacological properties of selected antioxidants with particular reference to their ability to (i) chelate heavy metals from its complex (ii) ameliorate free radical (iii) terminate heavy metal induced free radical chain reaction (iv) regenerate endogenous antioxidants and, (v) excretion of metal without its redistribution. PMID:24206124

  3. Interactive effects of early and later nutritional conditions on the adult antioxidant defence system in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, José C; Monaghan, Pat; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-07-01

    In vertebrates, antioxidant defences comprise a mixture of endogenously produced components and exogenously obtained antioxidants that are derived mostly from the diet. It has been suggested that early-life micronutritional conditions might influence the way in which the antioxidant defence system operates, which could enable individuals to adjust the activity of the endogenous and exogenous components in line with their expected intake of dietary antioxidants if the future environment resembles the past. We investigated this possibility by experimentally manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet during different periods of postnatal development in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Birds that had a low micronutrient diet during the growth phase initially had a lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC) than those reared under a high micronutrient diet, but then showed a compensatory response, so that by the end of the growth phase, the TAC of the two groups was the same. Interestingly, we found an interactive effect of micronutrient intake early and late in development: only those birds that continued with the same dietary treatment (low or high) throughout development showed a significant increase in their TAC during the period of sexual maturation. A similar effect was also found in the level of enzymatic antioxidant defences (glutathione peroxidase; GPx). No significant effects were found in the level of oxidative damage in lipids [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. These findings demonstrate the importance of early and late developmental conditions in shaping multiple aspects of the antioxidant system. Furthermore, they suggest that young birds may adjust their antioxidant defences to enable them to 'thrive' on diets rich or poor in micronutrients later in life. PMID:25987737

  4. Antioxidant Effects of Cranberry Powder in Lipopolysaccharide Treated Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Joung; Kim, Jung Hee; Kwak, Ho-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cranberry power on antioxidant defense system in rats fed an atherogenic diet and injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 5 groups: normal diet+saline (NS), atherogenic diet+saline (AS), atherogenic diet+LPS (AL), atherogenic diet with 5% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C5), and atherogenic diet with 10% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C10). Total antioxidant status measured by ferric reducing ability...

  5. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids differentially modulate enzymatic anti-oxidant systems in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, E P; Nachbar, R T; Levada-Pires, A C; Hirabara, S M; Lambertucci, R H

    2016-01-01

    During physical activity, increased reactive oxygen species production occurs, which can lead to cell damage and in a decline of individual's performance and health. The use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a supplement to protect the immune system has been increasing; however, their possible benefit to the anti-oxidant system is not well described. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid) can be beneficial to the anti-oxidant system in cultured skeletal muscle cells. C2C12 myocytes were differentiated and treated with either eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid for 24 h. Superoxide content was quantified using the dihydroethidine oxidation method and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity, and expression was quantified. We observed that the docosahexaenoic fatty acids caused an increase in superoxide production. Eicosapentaenoic acid induced catalase activity, while docosahexaenoic acid suppressed superoxide dismutase activity. In addition, we found an increased protein expression of the total manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes when cells were treated with eicosapentaenoic acid. Taken together, these data indicate that the use of eicosapentaenoic acid may present both acute and chronic benefits; however, the treatment with DHA may not be beneficial to muscle cells. PMID:26386577

  7. Porous antioxidant polymer microparticles as therapeutic systems for the airway inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dahee; Kang, Changsun; Jung, Eunkyeong; Yoo, Donghyuck; Wu, Dongmei; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-07-10

    Inhaling steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is the most common treatment for airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. However, frequent steroid administration causes adverse side effects. Therefore, the successful clinical translation of numerous steroidal drugs greatly needs pulmonary drug delivery systems which are formulated from biocompatible and non-immunogenic polymers. We have recently developed a new family of biodegradable polymer, vanillyl alcohol-containing copolyoxalate (PVAX) which is able to scavenge hydrogen peroxide and exert potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this work, we report the therapeutic potential of porous PVAX microparticles which encapsulate dexamethasone (DEX) as a therapeutic system for airway inflammatory diseases. PVAX microparticles themselves reduced oxidative stress and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the lung of ovalbumin-challenged asthmatic mice. However, DEX-loaded porous PVAX microparticles showed significantly enhanced therapeutic effects than PVAX microparticles, suggesting the synergistic effects of PVAX with DEX. In addition, PVAX microparticles showed no inflammatory responses to lung tissues. Given their excellent biocompatibility and intrinsic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, PVAX microparticles hold tremendous potential as therapeutic systems for the treatment of airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PMID:27151077

  8. Erosion/corrosion concerns in feed preparation systems at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950's to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the high level radioactive waste resulting from these processes as a durable borosilicate glass. The DWPF, after having undergone extensive testing, has been approved for operations and is currently immobilizing radioactive waste. To ensure reliability of the DWPF remote canyon processing equipment, a materials evaluation program was performed prior to radioactive operations to determine to what extent erosion/corrosion would impact design life of equipment. The program consisted of performing pre-service baseline inspections on critical equipment and follow-up inspections after completion of DWPF cold chemical demonstration runs. Non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques were used to assess erosion/corrosion as well as evaluation of corrosion coupon racks. These results were used to arrive at predicted equipment life for selected feed preparation equipment. It was concluded with the exception of the coil and agitator for the slurry mix evaporator (SME), which are exposed to erosive glass frit particles, all of the equipment should meet its design life

  9. Improved Antioxidant Capacity of Optimization of a Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of nano-encapsulated resveratrol (RSV in self-micro-emulsified drug delivery systems (SMEDDS formulations was investigated. Self-emulsifying grading tests were used to establish the optimal ratio of oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant. The optimized system was further investigated for the droplet size and zeta potential at the different medium pH values by a Malvern Zetasizer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity of the formulation were detected by DCFH-DA and a CCK-8 assays. The results showed that the nano-emulsion based on ethyl oleate, Tween-80, and PEG-400 (35:40:25, w/w/w was the most stable formulation due to the small droplet size (approximately 50 nm and high zeta potential in a neutral environment. Furthermore, this formulation also exhibited a greater antioxidant capacity with less toxicity than free RSV. Taken together, considering these results and the simple fabrication process, this formulation could be used to deliver nutritional food supplements in a stable, efficient, and safe manner.

  10. Improved Antioxidant Capacity of Optimization of a Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Huiyong; Yang, Jing; Sun, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The use of nano-encapsulated resveratrol (RSV) in self-micro-emulsified drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) formulations was investigated. Self-emulsifying grading tests were used to establish the optimal ratio of oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant. The optimized system was further investigated for the droplet size and zeta potential at the different medium pH values by a Malvern Zetasizer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity of the formulation were detected by DCFH-DA and a CCK-8 assays. The results showed that the nano-emulsion based on ethyl oleate, Tween-80, and PEG-400 (35:40:25, w/w/w) was the most stable formulation due to the small droplet size (approximately 50 nm) and high zeta potential in a neutral environment. Furthermore, this formulation also exhibited a greater antioxidant capacity with less toxicity than free RSV. Taken together, considering these results and the simple fabrication process, this formulation could be used to deliver nutritional food supplements in a stable, efficient, and safe manner. PMID:26633319

  11. [Alterations of prooxidant-antioxidant system of rat liver at ethanol and tetracycline action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoshytko, Kh Iu

    2013-01-01

    The state of antioxidant system and fatty acid composition of lipids in the liver tissues of rats of different sex at the ethanol and tetracycline action and at the influence of biologically active additives (BAA) "Alpha + Omega" at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per os was investigated. It was found that the contet of lipid peroxidation products in the liver was increased at the action of 40% ethanol at a dose of 7 ml/kg b.w. per os and tetracycline--500 mg/kg and more profound at their joint using. However, the content of diene conjugates was stronger increased in the liver of females at the action of ethanol, while in the liver of males at the action of tetracycline (P tetracycline and more profound at their joint usage (P tetracycline unidirectionally changed fatty acid composition of total lipids of rat liver, but at the ethanol action the changes were more expressed in females while at the tetracycline action in males. The application during 14 days of BAA "Alpha + Omega" to male and female rats with an acute tetracycline damage at subacute ethanol action led to partial normalization of prooxidant-antioxidant system and the relative content of total lipids fatty acids of the liver of both sexes animals. PMID:24479333

  12. Multisensor system based on bisphthalocyanine nanowires for the detection of antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sensors based on LnPc2 nanowires can be prepared by electrodeposition (EDP). ► An electronic tongue can be constructed by combining EDP sensors with a data treatment system. ► The e-tongue is able to discriminate antioxidants of interest in the food industry. ► The fast preparation and excellent performance of these nanostructured sensors is an advantage. - Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition has been used to prepare thin films based on nanowires of three lanthanoid bisphthalocyaninates (including dysprosium, gadolinium and lutetium). Nanowires of similar structural characteristics have been obtained for the three compounds by tuning the electrophoretic conditions according to the redox properties of each phthalocyanine. The three electrodes have been used to form an array of sensors that has been employed to discriminate phenolic antioxidants of interest in the food industry including caffeic, gallic, vanillic and ferulic acids. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of the electrochemical signals has allowed a clear discrimination of the four phenols analyzed according to the number of phenolic groups attached to the structure (monophenol, diphenol or triphenol). The PCA loading plots indicate that the three electrodes bring complementary information facilitating the discrimination of the studied solutions. In addition, good correlations between the intensity of the redox processes observed in the electrodes and the concentration of phenolic compounds have been found with detection limits in the range of 10−5–10−6 mol L−1 and good reproducibility. The fast preparation of these nanowires based films and their excellent performance offer a new sensing platform for the detection of antioxidants in a fast, reliable way.

  13. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Bak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal.

  14. Antioxidant Defenses in the Ocular Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ying; Mehta, Gaurav; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2009-01-01

    The human eye is subjected constantly to oxidative stress due to daily exposure to sunlight, high metabolic activities, and oxygen tension. Reactive oxygen species generated from environmental insults and pathological conditions render the human eye particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage. The ocular surface composed of the tear film, the cornea, and the aqueous humor forms the first physical and biochemical barrier of the eye and plays a pivotal role in combating free radicals. These ocu...

  15. Plasma antioxidant status and cell injury after severe physical exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Chevion, Shlomit; Moran, Danny S.; Heled, Yuval; Shani, Yoav; Regev, Gilad; Abbou, Benny; Berenshtein, Eduard; Stadtman, Earl R.; Epstein, Yoram

    2003-01-01

    Strenuous exercise leads to an increase in metabolic rate, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and compromised antioxidant defense systems. To study the effects of oxidative stress during strenuous exercise, a homogeneous group of 31 male subjects participated in a 6-month, 5 days/week training schedule involving two extreme marches of 50 km and 80 km at sea level, separated by 2 weeks of regular training. Each participant carried 35 kg of extra weight. Blood samples were drawn i...

  16. Protective Action of Antioxidants on Hepatic Damage Induced by Griseofulvin

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, M. del C.; Afonso, S. G.; Buzaleh, A. M.; Batlle, A.

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a disease associated with ferrochelatase deficiency and characterized by the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PROTO IX) in erythrocytes, liver, and skin. In some cases, a severe hepatic failure and cholestasis were observed. Griseofulvin (Gris) develops an experimental EPP with hepatic manifestations in mice such as PROTO IX accumulation followed by cellular damage as wells as necrotic and inflammatory processes. The antioxidant defense system was also...

  17. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. V Luximon-Ramma; Mr. MA Soobrattee; Dr. T Bahorun; Prof. OI Aruoma

    2006-01-01

    Current hypotheses favour the concept that lowering oxidative stress can have a health benefit. Free radicals can be overproduced or the natural antioxidant system defenses weakened, first resulting in oxidative stress, and then leading to oxidative injury and disease. Cardiovascular disease is one example of this process. This disorder continues to be the major cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins is considered an early step in the progression and e...

  18. [Cellular defense system of some synanthropic dipterans inhabitant of bacterially aggressive environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, T V

    2014-01-01

    The hemocytic count and defense reaction within 4 families of higher Diptera: Tabanidae, Syrphidae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae, whose larvae inhabit bacterially aggressive environment, were investigated. The least hemocytes types (3) were revealed in Tabanidae and Syrphidae larvae--prohemocytes, plasmatocytes and prophenoloxydase-containing unstable hyaline cells (oenocytoids). In Sarcophaga crassipalpis and Musca domestica stable hyaline cells and thrombocytoids or podocytoid-like cells can be added to this set. At the time of pupariation in Sarcophaga, new generation of prohemocytes is segregated into the hemolymph, which form small round or spindle-shaped hyaline cells. So, the number of plasmatocyte types in Sarcophaga increase to six. Typical to Calliphoridae juvenile plasmatocytes in the members of investigated families are absent. Among the one hemocyte type morphology also can vary, especially in unstable prophenoloxydase hyaline cells. In Drosophila there are crystal cells containing in the cytoplasm paracrystalloidal inclusions. In Calliphoridae there are big hyaline cells with homogenous cytoplasm producing circumferential bubbles. Both in Sarcophaga and Tabanidae they contain in their cytoplasm big globules. However in Sarcophaga they rapidly disintegrate, while in Tabanidae are maintained unchanged during hours. In Muscidae and Syrphidae prophenoloxydase extrusion occurs very early and these cells obtain pycnotic nuclei and very liquid cytoplasm with strings of granules. Thrombocytoids in Musca larvae are represented by big flattened anucleated irregular cytoplasm and "naked" nuclei and cytoplasmic fragments often with fan-like projections. Plasmatocytes in all species studied are the cells with pronounced phylopodies. In larvae they contain cytoplasmic catabolic inclusions and in pupa--ragments of apoptotic tissues. Clearance of hemolymph from alien particles in Sarcophagidae and Muscidae occur by thrombocytoides, while in Tabanidae by plasmatocyte

  19. Reform of the planning, programming, budgeting system, and management control in the U.S. Department of Defense: insights fom budget theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, L R; McCaffery, Jerry L.

    2005-01-01

    Resource decision making for the Department of Defense (DOD) is one of the most challenging tasks in all of public financial management. DOD coordinates national security threat assessment, long- and intermediate-range planning and programming with annual budget formulation and execution. Between 2001 and 2004, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld changed the system significantly, simplifying, and synchronizing it with presidential terms of office. We assess Planning, Programming, Budgeting S...

  20. Host-pathogen interactions between the human innate immune system and Candida albicans - Understanding and modeling defense and evasion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille eDühring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The diploid, polymorphic yeast Candida albicans is one of the most important humanpathogenic fungi. C. albicans can grow, proliferate and coexist as a commensal on or within thehuman host for a long time. Alterations in the host environment, however, can render C. albicansvirulent. In this review, we describe the immunological cross-talk between C. albicans and thehuman innate immune system. We give an overview in form of pairs of human defense strategiesincluding immunological mechanisms as well as general stressors such as nutrient limitation,pH, fever etc. and the corresponding fungal response and evasion mechanisms. FurthermoreComputational Systems Biology approaches to model and investigate these complex interactionare highlighted with a special focus on game-theoretical methods and agent-based models. Anoutlook on interesting questions to be tackled by Systems Biology regarding entangled defenseand evasion mechanisms is given.

  1. Application of the defense-in-depth concept to qualify computer-based instrumentation and control systems important to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In parallel to the technological development, the authorities and expert organisations are preparing the application of computer-based I and C to NPPs from the regulatory point of view. Generally the associated world-wide procedure follows steps like identification of safety issues, completion of the regulatory framework particularly regarding the licensing requirements and furthermore, recommendation of an appropriate set of qualification methods to prove that the requirements are met. The paper's intention is to show from the regulatory point of view that the choice as well as the combination of the qualification methods depend on system design features and development strategy. Similar as for the safety system design required, a defense-in-depth qualification concept is suggested to be helpful in order to prove that the computer-based system meets the licensing requirements. (author)

  2. Redox Homeostasis and Cellular Antioxidant Systems: Crucial Players in Cancer Growth and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marengo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and their products are components of cell signaling pathways and play important roles in cellular physiology and pathophysiology. Under physiological conditions, cells control ROS levels by the use of scavenging systems such as superoxide dismutases, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione that balance ROS generation and elimination. Under oxidative stress conditions, excessive ROS can damage cellular proteins, lipids, and DNA, leading to cell damage that may contribute to carcinogenesis. Several studies have shown that cancer cells display an adaptive response to oxidative stress by increasing expression of antioxidant enzymes and molecules. As a double-edged sword, ROS influence signaling pathways determining beneficial or detrimental outcomes in cancer therapy. In this review, we address the role of redox homeostasis in cancer growth and therapy and examine the current literature regarding the redox regulatory systems that become upregulated in cancer and their role in promoting tumor progression and resistance to chemotherapy.

  3. Modulation of Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis by Nitric Oxide and Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Dooley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma: SSc is a multisystem, connective tissue disease of unknown aetiology characterized by vascular dysfunction, autoimmunity, and enhanced fibroblast activity resulting in fibrosis of the skin, heart, and lungs, and ultimately internal organ failure, and death. One of the most important and early modulators of disease activity is thought to be oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that the free radical nitric oxide (NO, a key mediator of oxidative stress, can profoundly influence the early microvasculopathy, and possibly the ensuing fibrogenic response. Animal models and human studies have also identified dietary antioxidants, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, to function as a protective system against oxidative stress and fibrosis. Hence, targeting EGCG may prove a possible candidate for therapeutic treatment aimed at reducing both oxidant stress and the fibrotic effects associated with SSc.

  4. Markers of antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation in peripheral blood of female patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja; Brzoza, Zenon; Polaniak, Renata; Rogala, Barbara; Birkner, Ewa

    2007-03-01

    Oxidative stress is an important event in lesional skin of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). In the present study, we assessed blood oxidant/antioxidant status of patients suffering from CIU with positive response to autologous serum skin test (ASST) and with negative ASST, to improve our understanding of biological processes and the part of oxidative stress in this disease. Activities of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and catalase (CAT) as indices of enzymatic antioxidant capacity, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) level as a maker of lipid peroxidation were measured in plasma and erythrocytes from 14 CIU female patients showing positive ASST, 31 CIU female patients with negative ASST and in 19 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. The antioxidant enzyme activity in plasma and in erythrocytes did not differ significantly among the three groups. Also, the plasma and erythrocytes MDA levels were similar in the three groups. Based on our results, it seems that systemic activity of the enzymatic antioxidants (CuZn/SOD, MnSOD, GSH-Px, and CAT) as well as level of lipid peroxidation determined by MDA may not be increased in the course of immune-inflammatory processes associated with CIU. We also suggest that the systemic oxidant/antioxidant status of CIU patients, showing positive response to ASST, may not be different from that of CIU patients with negative ASST. PMID:17171548

  5. Rationale for Antioxidant Supplementation in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Marion

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, which results from an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS production and antioxidant defense mechanisms, is now a well recognized pathogenic process in hemodialysis (HD patients that could be involved in dialysis-related pathologies such as accelerated atherosclerosis, amyloidosis and anemia. This review is aimed at evaluating the rationale for preventive intervention against oxidative damage during HD as well as the putative causal factors implicated in this imbalance. The antioxidant system is severely impaired in uremic patients and impairment increases with the degree of renal failure. HD further worsens this condition mainly by losses of hydrophilic unbound small molecular weight substances such as vitamin C, trace elements and enzyme regulatory compounds. Moreover, inflammatory state due to the hemo-incompatibility of the dialysis system plays a critical role in the production of oxidants contributing further to aggravate the pro-oxidant status of uremic patients. Prevention of ROS overproduction can be achieved by improvement of dialysis biocompatibility, a main component of adequate dialysis, and further complimented by antioxidant supplementation. This could be achieved either orally or via the extracorporeal circuit. Antioxidants such as vitamin E could be bound on dialyzer membranes. Alternatively, hemolipodialysis consisting of loading HD patients with vitamin C or E via an ancillary circuit made of vitamin E-rich liposomes may be used.

  6. HERBAL REMEDIES AS ANTIOXIDANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Charde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary cause of degenerative disease is not due to damaging free radicals, but rather it is due to the requirement of highly ordered cell biochemistry becoming disordered due to insufficient cellular energy to maintain the normal state of order. There is a complex defense system in the body, in which vitamins, minerals, amino acids and certain enzymes play a central role called the antioxidant system. Antioxidants are weapons for combating free radicals and mop up damaging chemicals in the body and guard against many chronic diseases. Heart disease, arthritis, cancer and many other common chronic diseases derive from the same source: fortuitous mutations caused largely by free radicals. Under optimum conditions, cells are protected against free radicals and lipid per oxidation. Antioxidants are substances, which react chemically with free radicals and render them harmless and at the same time break the vicious circle, which involves the decomposition of fatty acids & proteins, the creation of new free radicals and eventual cell death. Because free radical damage accumulates with age, people should start supplementing with antioxidants early to achieve long-term benefits. The scientific community has begun to unveil some of  the  mysteries surrounding this topic, and the media has begun whetting our thirst for knowledge.

  7. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Bak; Joel Fürstenberg-Hägg; Mika Zagrobelny

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged...

  8. Capturing asteroids into bound orbits around the earth: Massive early return on an asteroid terminal defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear explosives may be used to capture small asteroids (e.g., 20--50 meters in diameter) into bound orbits around the earth. The captured objects could be used for construction material for manned and unmanned activity in Earth orbit. Asteroids with small approach velocities, which are the ones most likely to have close approaches to the Earth, require the least energy for capture. They are particularly easy to capture if they pass within one Earth radius of the surface of the Earth. They could be intercepted with intercontinental missiles if the latter were retrofit with a more flexible guiding and homing capability. This asteroid capture-defense system could be implemented in a few years at low cost by using decommissioned ICMs. The economic value of even one captured asteroid is many times the initial investment. The asteroid capture system would be an essential part of the learning curve for dealing with larger asteroids that can hit the earth

  9. 77 FR 11355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... systems, purchasing systems, earned value management systems (EVMS), material management and accounting... 252.215-7002, to clarify that the contractor's accounting system shall provide for management reviews...) assessing and approving/disapproving the six business systems, (2) making the decision to withhold...

  10. Cyber security level assignment for research reactor digital instrumentation and control system architecture using concept of defense in depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to recent aging of the analog instrumentation of many nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors, the system reliability decreases while maintenance and testing costs increase. In addition, it is difficult to find the substitutable analog equipment s due to obsolescence. Therefore, the instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have changed from analog system to digital system due to these facts. With the introduction of digital systems, research reactors are forced to care for the problem of cyber attacks because I and C systems have been digitalized using networks or communication systems. Especially, it is more issued at research reactors due to the accessibility of human resources. In the real world, an IBM researcher has been successful in controlling the software by penetrating a NPPs network in U.S. on July 2008 and acquiring the control right of nuclear facilities after one week. Moreover, the malignant code called 'stuxnet' impaired the nearly 1,000 centrifugal separators in Iran according to an IAEA report. The problem of cyber attacks highlights the important of cyber security, which should be emphasized. Defense.in.depth (DID) is a significant concept for the cyber security to work properly. DID institutes and maintains a hardy program for critical digital asset (CDA) by implementing multiple security boundaries. In this work, we assign cyber security levels to a typical digital I and C system using DID concept. This work is very useful in applying the concept of DID to nuclear industry with respect to cyber security

  11. Antioxidant protective effect of flavonoids on linoleic acid peroxidation induced by copper(II)/ascorbic acid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beker, Bilge Yıldoğan; Bakır, Temelkan; Sönmezoğlu, Inci; Imer, Filiz; Apak, Reşat

    2011-11-01

    Antioxidants are compounds that can delay or inhibit lipid oxidation. The peroxidation of linoleic acid (LA) in the absence and presence of Cu(II) ion-ascorbate combinations was investigated in aerated and incubated emulsions at 37°C and pH 7. LA peroxidation induced by copper(II)-ascorbic acid system followed first order kinetics with respect to hydroperoxides concentration. The extent of copper-initiated peroxide production in a LA system assayed by ferric thiocyanate method was used to determine possible antioxidant and prooxidant activities of the added flavonoids. The effects of three different flavonoids of similar structure, i.e. quercetin (QR), morin (MR) and catechin (CT), as potential antioxidant protectors were studied in the selected peroxidation system. The inhibitive order of flavonoids in the protection of LA peroxidation was: morin>catechin≥quercetin, i.e. agreeing with that of formal reduction potentials versus NHE at pH 7, i.e. 0.60, 0.57 and 0.33V for MR, CT, and QR, respectively. Morin showed antioxidant effect at all concentrations whereas catechin and quercetin showed both antioxidant and prooxidant effects depending on their concentrations. The structural requirements for antioxidant activity in flavonoids interestingly coincide with those for Cu(II)-induced prooxidant activity, because as the reducing power of a flavonoid increases, Cu(II)-Cu(I) reduction is facilitated that may end up with the production of reactive species. The findings of this study were evaluated in the light of structure-activity relationships of flavonoids, and the results are believed to be useful to better understand the actual conditions where flavonoids may act as prooxidants in the preservation of heterogeneous food samples containing traces of transition metal ions. PMID:21925488

  12. Microencapsulation of natural antioxidants from Pterospartum tridentatum in different alginate and inulin systems

    OpenAIRE

    Isailović, B.; Kalušević, A.; Žuržul, N; Coelho, M.T.; Đorđević, V.; Alves, V; Sousa, I; M. M. MARTINS; Bugarski, B.; Nedović, V.

    2012-01-01

    The bioactivity of natural antioxidants from plant extracts is well known. Still, the effectiveness of these natural antioxidants, namely polyphenols, depends on preserving their stability, which can be increased by microencapsulation. The aim of this study was to protect natural antioxidants from the aqueous extract of Portuguese wild herb Pterospartum tridentatum by encapsulation in alginate hydrogel microbeads. Microbeads were prepared by electrostatic extrusion technique: p...

  13. Abrus precatorius Leaves: Antioxidant Activity in Food and Biological Systems, pH, and Temperature Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Vanitha Reddy Palvai; Sowmya Mahalingu; Asna Urooj

    2014-01-01

    Natural antioxidants present in foods and other biological materials have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional and therapeutic effects. Antioxidant constituents of plant materials act as radical scavengers and convert the radicals to less reactive species. Abrus precatorius (AP) was analyzed for its proximate and phytochemical composition. The leaves were extracted with methanol (ME) and analyzed for antioxidant activity by radical scaven...

  14. Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Y; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly S; Quintero-Lira, Aurora; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Cervantes-Elizarrarás, Alicia; Güemes-Vera, Norma; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X₁: 80%-90%) and extraction time (X₂: 10-15 min), and results were compared with conventional extraction methods. The optimal conditions for antioxidants extraction were 91% amplitude for 15 min. The results for total phenolic content and anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH were of 1201.23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g dry weight basis (dw); 379.12 mg/100 g·dw; 6318.98 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g·dw and 9617.22 µmol TE/100 g·dw, respectively. Compared to solvent extraction methods (water and ethanol), ultrasound achieved higher extraction of all compounds except for anthocyanins. The results obtained demonstrated that ultrasound is an alternative to improve extraction yield of antioxidants from fruit residues such as blackberry. PMID:27455210

  15. Nano-jewels in biology. Gold and platinum on diamond nanoparticles as antioxidant systems against cellular oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Roberto; Menchón, Cristina; Apostolova, Nadezda; Victor, Victor M; Alvaro, Mercedes; Herance, José Raúl; García, Hermenegildo

    2010-11-23

    Diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) obtained by explosive detonation have become commercially available. These commercial DNPs can be treated under Fenton conditions (FeSO(4) and H(2)O(2) at acidic pH) to obtain purer DNP samples with a small average particle size (4 nm) and a large population of surface OH groups (HO-DNPs). These Fenton-treated HO-DNPs have been used as a support of gold and platinum nanoparticles (≤2 nm average size). The resulting materials (Au/HO-DNP and Pt/HO-DNP) exhibit a high antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen species induced in a hepatoma cell line. In addition to presenting good biocompatibility, Au/HO- and Pt/HO-DNP exhibit about a two-fold higher antioxidant activity than glutathione, one of the reference antioxidant systems. The most active material against cellular oxidative stress was Au/HO-DNP. PMID:20939514

  16. Analysis of effects of a new environmental pollutant, bisphenol A, on antioxidant systems in soybean roots at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiazhi; Li, Xingyi; Zhou, Li; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial raw material. Because of its widespread use and increasing release into environment, BPA has become a new environmental pollutant. Previous studies about BPA’s effects in plants focus on a certain growth stage. However, the plant’s response to pollutants varies at different growth stages. Therefore, in this work, BPA’s effects in soybean roots at different growth stages were investigated by determining the reactive oxygen species levels, membrane lipid fatty acid composition, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant systems. The results showed that low-dose BPA exposure slightly caused membrane lipid peroxidation but didn’t activate antioxidant systems at the seedling stage, and this exposure did not affect above process at other growth stages; high-dose BPA increased reactive oxygen species levels and then caused membrane lipid peroxidation at all growth stages although it activated antioxidant systems, and these effects were weaker with prolonging the growth stages. The recovery degree after withdrawal of BPA exposure was negatively related to BPA dose, but was positively related to growth stage. Taken together, the effects of BPA on antioxidant systems in soybean roots were associated with BPA exposure dose and soybean growth stage.

  17. Characteristics of Antioxidant Systems of Yellow Fraction of Red Deer's (Cervus elaphus L.) Semen During the Rutting Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Szurnicka, M; Dziekonska, A; Kordan, W; Giżejewski, Z; Filipowicz, K

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to make the preliminary characterization of the antioxidant defence systems of the yellow fraction (YF) of red deer's (Cervus elaphus L.) semen during the rutting period. The semen was collected using artificial vagina (AV). The studies included spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We also analysed the contents of low-molecular antioxidants such as L-glutathione (GSH + GSSG), L-ascorbate (ASC) and total antioxidant status (TAS). Additionally, the samples were subjected to PAGE and stained for SOD and GPx activities. It was demonstrated that the yellow fraction exhibited activities of SOD and GPx, with the highest activities in September and October. CAT activity was not detected. Staining for the SOD and GPx activities confirmed three protein bands with SOD activity and one protein band with GPx activity. The content of GSH + GSSG was similar in trials dating from October to December contrary to the content of ASC which was high in samples from September and October. The stable rate of TAS was observed during the whole rutting period. The results of this study showed that the YF of red deer semen is equipped with basic battery of antioxidant enzymes comprising SOD and GPx, with the supporting role of GSH + GSSG and ASC. Moreover, the samples obtained at the peak of the rutting period occurring from September to October had the highest enzymatic activity in comparison with remaining months of the rutting period, which contributed to the high quality of the semen by preventing it from the formation of oxidative stress during the short period of intense sexual activity of male red deer. The better understanding of the mechanisms of antioxidant defence systems in the YF of deer's semen may contribute to the potential use of this fraction in technology of wild ruminant semen preservation. PMID:26854018

  18. Effectiveness Evaluation of Air Defense System Based on Queuing Theory%基于排队论的防空作战效能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志华; 唐金国; 文建国; 李木易; 刘志豪; 王雷

    2012-01-01

    文章分析了防空体系对空袭目标的拦截次数计算方法,通过排队论的方法,建立了防空体系效能评估模型。最后通过仿真计算,得出影响防空体系作战效能的重要因素,为决策提供一定的理论依据。%This text analyzes the computing technology of intercepting numbers of air defense system to the goal. Through the queuing theory method, have set up the evaluation efficiency model of air defense system. Finally simulation results show the important factors of in- fluencing the fighting efficiency of air defense system, and offer certain theoretical foundation for people who making policy.

  19. Free radicals and antioxidant systems in reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pilar Jiménez; Elena Piazuelo; M. Teresa Sánchez; Javier Ortego; Fernando Soteras; Angel Lanas

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Experimental studies suggest that free radicals are involved in acid and pepsin-induced damage of esophageal mucosa. The profile and balance between free radicals and antioxidant systems in human esophagitis are unknown. METHODS: Superoxide anion and its powerful oxidant reaction with nitric oxide (peroxynitrite) generation were determined in esophageal mucosal biopsies from 101 patients with different gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and 28 controls. Activity of both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels,were also assessed. Expression of Cu,ZnSOD, MnSOD and tyrosine-nitrated MnSOD were analyzed by Western blot and/or immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: The highest levels of superoxide anion generation were found in patients with severe lesions of esophagitis. Peroxynitrite generation was intense in Barrett's biopsies, weaker in esophagitis and absent/weak in normal mucosa. Expression of Cu,ZnSOD and MnSOD isoforms were present in normal mucosa and increased according to the severityof the lesion, reaching the highest level in Barrett's esophagus. However, SOD mucosal activity significantly decreased in patients with esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus, which was, at least in part, due to nitration of its tyrosine residues. Catalase activity and GSH levels were significanUy increased in mucosal specimens from patients with esophagitis and/or Barrett's esophagus.CONCLUSION: A decrease in SOD antioxidant activity leading to increased mucosal levels of superoxide anion and peroxynitrite radicals may contribute to the development of esophageal damage and Barrett's esophagus in patients with gastroesophageal reflux. Administration of SOD may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of patients with esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus.

  20. [Effects of ozone stress upon winter wheat photosynthesis, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-fei; Hu, Cheng-da; Wu, Rong-jun; Liu, Rui-na; Zhao, Ze; Zhang, Jin-en

    2010-07-01

    Stress effects of surface increased ozone concentration on winter wheat photosynthesis, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in varied growth stages (jointing stage, booting stage, blooming stage and grain filling stage) were studied, the winter wheat was exposed to open top chambers (OTCs) in an open field conditions to three levels ozone concentrations (CK, 100 nmol x mol(-1), 150 nmol x mol(-1)). The results revealed that within 150 nmol x mol(-1) ozone concentration, as the ozone concentration and time increased,total chlorophyll content,chlorophyll a and b contents of winter wheat leaves were general declined,but compared to CK, the total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a content of T1 treatment groups were a little higher at booting and blooming stage; the conductance of stomatal was affected, the activation of unit leaf area decreased, intercellular CO2 concentration and stomatal limitation value showed a fluctuation change tendency. At the same time, a self-protective mechanism of winter wheat were launched. Concrete expression of SOD activity first increased rapidly and then gradually decreased, the activity of POD showed a decrease firstly and then rapidly increased. From the jointing stage to the blooming stage and from the grain filling stage one to grain filling stage two, the activity of CAT rapidly increased first and then comparatively decreased, but the content of MDA kept steadily rising. The carotenoid content increased first and then decreased, heat dissipation of unit leaf area increased. These results indicate that antioxidant enzymes can not completely eliminate excessive reactive oxygen species in vivo of winter wheat, then lead to accumulation of reactive oxygen species, further exacerbate the lipid peroxidation, that result in the increase of membrane permeability, degradation of chlorophyll, reduction of net photosynthetic rate, imposing on the winter wheat leaves senescence process. PMID:20825039

  1. Graphical Methods for Defense Against False-data Injection Attacks on Power System State Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Suzhi; Jun, Ying; Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The normal operation of power system relies on accurate state estimation that faithfully reflects the physical aspects of the electrical power grids. However, recent research shows that carefully synthesized false-data injection attacks can bypass the security system and introduce arbitrary errors to state estimates. In this paper, we use graphical methods to study defending mechanisms against false-data injection attacks on power system state estimation. By securing carefully selected meter ...

  2. Influence of genotype, cultivation system and irrigation regime on antioxidant capacity and selected phenolics of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Muriel, José Luis; Moreno, Diego A; Moreno-Rojas, José M

    2016-07-01

    Demand for and availability of blueberries has increased substantially over recent years, driven in part by their health-promoting properties. Three blueberry varieties ('Rocío', V2, and V3) were grown under two cultivation systems (open-field and plastic tunnels) and subjected to two irrigations regimes (100% and 80% of crop evapotranspiration) in two consecutive years (2011-2012). They were evaluated for their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Genotype influenced the antioxidant capacity and the content of the three groups of phenolics in the blueberries. The antioxidant activity and total flavonols content increased when the blueberries were grown under open-field conditions. Deficit irrigation conditions led to additional positive effects on their phenolics (delphinidn-3-acetilhexoside content was increased under plastic tunnel with deficit irrigation). In conclusion, the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of blueberries were not negatively affected by water restriction; Moreover, several changes were recorded due to growing system and genotype. PMID:26920295

  3. Effective activation of antioxidant system by immune-relevant factors reversely correlates with apoptosis of Eisenia andrei coelomocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, J; Stalmach, M; Wilczek, G; Kolaczkowska, E

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative stress is harmful to the microbes but also to the host, and may result in bystander damage or death. Because of this, respiratory burst triggered in phagocytes by pathogens is counteracted by production of antioxidative factors. The aim of this work was to examine effectiveness of the latter system in earthworms Eisenia andrei by induction of reactive oxygen species, lipofuscin and phenoloxidase by natural (LPS, zymosan, Micrococus luteus) and synthetic (phorbol ester, PMA) stimulants. The compounds impaired numbers, viability (increased apoptosis) and composition of coelomocytes, and triggered the antioxidant activity of catalase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase. The natural pathogenic compounds, unlike PMA, strongly activated antioxidative responses that diminished cell apoptosis. Moreover, repeated exposure to the same or different pathogenic compounds did not induce respiratory burst exhausted phenotype showing that coelomocytes are constantly at bay to withstand numerous infections. The current study reveals importance and efficiency of the oxidative-antioxidative systems in annelids but also confirms its evolutionary conservatism and complexity even in lower taxa of the animal kingdom. PMID:26922789

  4. System Re-set: High LET Radiation or Transient Musculoskeletal Disuse Cause Lasting Changes in Oxidative Defense Pathways Within Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, A.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Six months post-IR, there were no notable changes in skeletal expression of 84 principal genes in the p53 signaling pathway due to low dose IR (0.5Gy), HU, or both. In contrast, numerous genes relevant to oxidative stress were regulated by the treatments, typically in a direction indicative of increased oxidative stress and impaired defense. IR and HU independently reduced (between 0.46 to 0.88 fold) expression levels of Noxa1, Gpx3, Prdx2, Prdx3, and Zmynd17. Surprisingly, transient HU alone (sham-irradiated) decreased expression of several redox-related genes (Gpx1,Gstk1, Prdx1, Txnrd2), which were not affected significantly by IR alone. Irradiation increased (1.13 fold) expression of a gene responsible for production of superoxides by neutrophils (NCF2). Of interest, only combined treatment with HU and IR led to increased expression levels of Ercc2, (1.19 fold), a DNA excision repair enzyme. Differences in gene expression levels may reflect a change in gene expression on a per cell basis, a shift in the repertoire of specific cell types within the tissue, or both. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels were elevated to comparable levels (1.6-fold) due to IR, HU or both, indicative of elevated systemic nitrosyl stress. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of changes in skeletal expression of oxidative stress-related genes six months after irradiation and/or transient unloading tended to be relatively modest (0.46-1.15 fold), whereas the p53 pathway was not affected. The finding that many different oxidative stress-related genes differed from controls at this late time point implicates a generalized impairment of oxidative defense within skeletal tissue, which coincides with both profound radiation damage to osteoprogenitors/stem cells in bone marrow and impaired remodeling of mineralized tissue.

  5. 75 FR 75549 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...-D038) in the Federal Register on January 15, 2010 (75 FR 2457). The public comment period closed March... to evaluate the adequacy of contractor business systems. Furthermore, to reduce the subjectivity...

  6. Multi-modal low cost mobile indoor surveillance system on the Robust Artificial Intelligence-based Defense Electro Robot (RAIDER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Binu M.; Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-10-01

    We present an autonomous system capable of performing security check routines. The surveillance machine, the Clearpath Husky robotic platform, is equipped with three IP cameras with different orientations for the surveillance tasks of face recognition, human activity recognition, autonomous navigation and 3D reconstruction of its environment. Combining the computer vision algorithms onto a robotic machine has given birth to the Robust Artificial Intelligencebased Defense Electro-Robot (RAIDER). The end purpose of the RAIDER is to conduct a patrolling routine on a single floor of a building several times a day. As the RAIDER travels down the corridors off-line algorithms use two of the RAIDER's side mounted cameras to perform a 3D reconstruction from monocular vision technique that updates a 3D model to the most current state of the indoor environment. Using frames from the front mounted camera, positioned at the human eye level, the system performs face recognition with real time training of unknown subjects. Human activity recognition algorithm will also be implemented in which each detected person is assigned to a set of action classes picked to classify ordinary and harmful student activities in a hallway setting.The system is designed to detect changes and irregularities within an environment as well as familiarize with regular faces and actions to distinguish potentially dangerous behavior. In this paper, we present the various algorithms and their modifications which when implemented on the RAIDER serves the purpose of indoor surveillance.

  7. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  8. Radioprotective action of beta-carotin and vitamin A, C and E complexes at reproductive system and indices of antioxidant system in male rat blood and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of total irradiation in low dose at the state of rat mail reproductive system, lipid peroxidation processes and antioxidant system in rat blood and liver tissues as well as radioprotective capacity of beta-carotin with vitamin A, C and E complexes were investigated. It was established that injection of this substances to rat's organism one day before irradiation in 1.0 Gy dose led to normalization of spermatogenic cells number, increase of nucleic acids content in testes and significant improvement of antioxidant status of blood and liver tissue. (authors)

  9. The DEFENSE (debris Flows triggEred by storms - nowcasting system): An early warning system for torrential processes by radar storm tracking using a Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Davide; Cremonini, Roberto; Marco, Federica; Gaeta, Armando Riccardo; Barbero, Secondo

    2014-09-01

    Debris flows, responsible for economic losses and occasionally casualties in the alpine region, are mainly triggered by heavy rains characterized by hourly peaks of varying intensity, depending on the features of the basin under consideration. By integrating a recent classification of alpine basins with the radar storm tracking method, an innovative early warning system called DEFENSE (DEbris Flows triggEred by storms - Nowcasting SystEm) was developed using a Geographical Information System (GIS). Alpine catchments were classified into three main classes based on the weathering capacity of the bedrock into clay or clay-like minerals, the amount of which, in unconsolidated material, directly influences the debris flow rheology, and thus the sedimentary processes, the alluvial fan architecture, as well as the triggering frequency and seasonal occurrence probability of debris flows. Storms were identified and tracked by processing weather radar observations; subsequently, rainfall intensities and storm severity were estimated over each classified basin. Due to rainfall threshold values determined for each basin class, based on statistical analysis of historical records, an automatic corresponding warning could be issued to municipalities.

  10. In defense of unified health system: discourses of health professionals, municipal counselors and aldermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly Garcia Delamuta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of municipal health counselors, primary care professionals and aldermen about the Unified Health System and the Brazilian Primary Care Policy. From these, we intend to analyze their involvement to improve the system and verify participation in projects that foster discussions about the challenges of this issue. The investigation took a qualitative approach, the data being collected through 28 semi-structured interviews conducted between November and December 2010 in Londrina-PR. Between the interviewed groups, it becomes apparent that health professionals have better conceptual approach of public health policies. However, all groups demonstrate misconceptions and distance for the principles and guidelines of the Unified Health System, as well as provisions of the Brazilian Primary Care Policy. The findings pointed indicate focus on disease, prioritization of medical consultations and greater value of hospital structures. Although conceptualized with misconceptions, limitations are noted at the public health services. However, the proposals to change the frame remain with distorted connotations. In these groups no practical actions or projects were found to improve the public health scenario. It is concluded the need for ownership of theoretical knowledge about policies involving health organization, by stakeholders, to change the paradigms of the traditional model to the Primary Health care become valued and understood as form of organization of the system.

  11. Purification and in vitro antioxidative effects of giant squid muscle peptides on free radical-mediated oxidative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Niranjan; Mendis, Eresha; Byun, Hee-Guk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2005-09-01

    Low molecular weight peptides obtained from ultrafiltration (UF) of giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle protein were studied for their antioxidative effects in different in vitro oxidative systems. The most potent two peptides, Asn-Ala-Asp-Phe-Gly-Leu-Asn-Gly-Leu-Glu-Gly-Leu-Ala (1307 Da) and Asn-Gly-Leu-Glu-Gly-Leu-Lys (747 Da), exhibited their antioxidant potential to act as chain-breaking antioxidants by inhibiting radical-mediated peroxidation of linoleic acid, and their activities were closer to highly active synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene. Addition of these peptides could enhance the viability of cytotoxic embryonic lung fibroblasts significantly (P<.05) at a low concentration of 50 microg/ml, and it was presumed due to the suppression of radical-induced oxidation of membrane lipids. Electron spin trapping studies revealed that the peptides were potent scavengers of free radicals in the order of carbon-centered (IC(50) 396.04 and 304.67 microM), hydroxyl (IC(50) 497.32 and 428.54 microM) and superoxide radicals (IC(50) 669.34 and 573.83 microM). Even though the exact molecular mechanism for scavenging of free radicals was unclear, unusually high hydrophobic amino acid composition (more than 75%) of giant squid muscle peptides was presumed to be involved in the observed activities. PMID:16115545

  12. The Association among Antioxidant Enzymes, Autoantibodies, and Disease Severity Score in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Comparison of Neuropsychiatric and Nonneuropsychiatric Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jih Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antioxidative capacity plays an important role in the severity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which is characterized by autoantibodies. This study aimed to determine the relationship among autoantibody titers, antioxidative stress reserve, and severity of SLE. Methods. The autoantibody titers, clinical markers, antioxidant enzyme levels, and disease activity index (SLEDAI-2k of 32 SLE patients and 16 healthy controls were compared. We also compared both the neuropsychiatric (NPSLE and nonneuropsychiatric (non-NPSLE groups. Results. Superoxide dismutase in red blood cells was significantly lower in the SLE than in the control group. CRP levels are significant higher in SLE patients than in control group (P=0.034. Among the autoantibodies, anti-U1RNP P=0.008, a-Sm P=0.027, and anti-ribosomal p P=0.028 significantly negatively correlated with glutathione levels. There has no significant correlation between SLE disease activity indexes (SLEDAI and levels of C3, C4, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase is significantly lower in both NPSLE and non-NPSLE groups. SLE patients have both higher CRP and autoantibodies level and decreased superoxide dismutase level than the healthy control group.

  13. Implications of free radicals and antioxidant levels in carcinoma of the breast: A never-ending battle for survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Sinha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Under normal circumstances, there is a steady balance between the production of oxygen derived free radicals and their destruction by the cellular antioxidant system inside the human body. However, any imbalance between the levels of these oxidants and antioxidants might cause DNA damage and may lead to cancer development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of antioxidants and free radicals in blood and tissue of cancer patients and compare these levels at different TNM stages to derive the possible role of free radicals and antioxidant enzymes in the etiology of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: This study includes 30 patients suffering from cancer breast and 20 patients as controls who had benign breast diseases. Circulating lipid peroxide (Malonyldialdehyde [MDA] levels and activities of the defensive enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase [SOD] and Catalase [CAT] were estimated in the blood and breast tissue of these patients. Results: Increased levels of free radicals and low levels of antioxidants were observed in malignant tissue. An elevated lipid peroxide concentration was found in the tissue of all the cancer breast patients as evidenced by an increase in the mean MDA level seen with increasing TNM stage of carcinoma breast. Levels of antioxidants SOD and CAT were decreased in cancer patients. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that free radical activity is enhanced in cancer breast patients while the antioxidant defense mechanism is weakened. This activity is enhanced with the increasing severity of cancer as depicted in different TNM stages of breast cancer.

  14. Dissertation Defense: Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional validation by test only mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions.Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations. This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics predictions

  15. Dissertation Defense Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional "validation by test only" mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions. Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in "Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations". This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics

  16. Effects of Manganese on Enzymatic and Non-enzymatic Antioxidative Defenses of the Hyperaccumulator Polygonum pubescens Blume%Mn对超富集植物短毛蓼(Polygonum pubescens Blume)抗氧化机理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 刘可慧; 于方明; 邓华; 杨栋林; 周振明; 刘华; 李明顺

    2011-01-01

    were increased with the increment of Mn treatment concentrations, and the Mn concentration in the leaves were higher than that in the stems and roots under all treatments. Mn pollution induced antioxidant stress which expressed as the accumulation of H2O2, and MDA in plant tissues. Mn treatment raised superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity, however, activities of peroxidase(POD), catalase(CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase(APX) in leaves firsT1y rose and then dropped with Mn exposure, showing that the enzymatic system was interrupted. The contents of GSH, and -SH rose with the increment of Mn treatment concentrations. Compared with the control, the contents of GSH and -SH in leaves increased significant P<0.05) under high Mn exposure(8 mmol·L-1), indicating that the non-enzymatic antioxidants( -SH, GSH) played an important role in the detoxification of Mn in this plant.

  17. A Systems Biology Approach to the Coordination of Defensive and Offensive Molecular Mechanisms in the Innate and Adaptive Host-Pathogen Interaction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chou; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Infected zebrafish coordinates defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms in response to Candida albicans infections, and invasive C. albicans coordinates corresponding molecular mechanisms to interact with the host. However, knowledge of the ensuing infection-activated signaling networks in both host and pathogen and their interspecific crosstalk during the innate and adaptive phases of the infection processes remains incomplete. In the present study, dynamic network modeling, protein interaction databases, and dual transcriptome data from zebrafish and C. albicans during infection were used to infer infection-activated host-pathogen dynamic interaction networks. The consideration of host-pathogen dynamic interaction systems as innate and adaptive loops and subsequent comparisons of inferred innate and adaptive networks indicated previously unrecognized crosstalk between known pathways and suggested roles of immunological memory in the coordination of host defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms to achieve specific and powerful defense against pathogens. Moreover, pathogens enhance intraspecific crosstalk and abrogate host apoptosis to accommodate enhanced host defense mechanisms during the adaptive phase. Accordingly, links between physiological phenomena and changes in the coordination of defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms highlight the importance of host-pathogen molecular interaction networks, and consequent inferences of the host-pathogen relationship could be translated into biomedical applications. PMID:26881892

  18. A low cost maritime control aircraft-ship-weapons system. [antiship missile defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluk, H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the long-range antiship standoff missile is emerging as the foremost threat on the seas. Delivered by high speed bombers, surface ships, and submarines, a missile attack can be mounted against selected targets from any point on the compass. An investigation is conducted regarding the configuration of a system which could most efficiently identify and destroy standoff threats before they launch their weapons. It is found that by using ships for carrying and launching missiles, and employing aircraft with a powerful radar only for search and missile directing operations, aircraft cost and weight can be greatly reduced. The employment of V/STOL aircraft in preference to other types of aircraft makes it possible to use ships of smaller size for carrying the aircraft. However, in order to obtain an all-weather operational capability for the system, ships are selected which are still big enough to display the required stability in heavy seas.

  19. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  20. Exogenous and endogenous antioxidants attenuate the lipid peroxidation in workers occupationally exposed to paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charão, Mariele F; Moro, Angela M; Valentini, Juliana; Brucker, Natália; Bubols, Guilherme B; Bulcão, Rachel P; Baierle, Marília; Freitas, Fernando A; Nascimento, Sabrina N; Barth, Anelise; Linden, Rafael; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-01-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents present in paints is responsible for an increased production of reactive species, thus enabling the development of several diseases. Besides, both exo- and endogenous antioxidant defense systems are necessary to avoid oxidative tissue damage. This study investigated possible protective effects of the exo- and endogenous antioxidants on oxidative damage in painters occupationally exposed to organic solvents (n = 42) and controls (n = 28). Retinol, lycopene and β-carotene were significantly lower in the exposed group. Despite the fact that blood toluene was below the biological exposure limits, malondialdehyde levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were increased, whereas reduced glutathione levels were decreased in painters, compared to nonexposed subjects. Moreover, multivariate regression models showed that reduced glutathione and carotenoids (mainly β-carotene) have the major influence on lipid peroxidation (LPO). The present work suggests that the exogenous antioxidants, such as carotenoids, could protect occupationally exposed subjects to xenobiotics from LPO. PMID:23841515

  1. Fungal Culture Systems for Production of Antioxidant Phenolics Using Pecan Nut Shells as Sole Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Medina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many agro-industrial wastes have little or none utilization, when these materials could be a very rich source of several value-added compounds, such as: the pecan nut shells, which contain Antioxidant Phenolic (AP molecules like tannins. Approach: In this study, a bioprocess for the liberation of AP from Pecan Nut Shells (PNS was described. A chemical characterization of raw material was evaluated to determine polyphenolic content of PNS, among other components. Several fungal culture systems were evaluated at 96 h fermentation processes and using PNS as sole carbon source. Solid (SSC and Submerged (SmC fermentations were carried out using three strains of Aspergillus niger. Culture medium was composed of a solid (10-50% and a liquid (90- 50% part in order to complete the 100% of the medium. Results: A high concentration (19% of tannins was found in PNS on a dry basis, from which condensed tannins and their monomers were found as the main fraction (14% of tannins of PNS, also on a dry basis. In the strain selection step, Aspergillus niger GH1 showed better growth on pecan nut shells compared to A. niger PSH strain, therefore, A. niger GH1 was used for later experiments. The highest concentration of AP was obtained with SSC inoculated with spores of A. niger GH1 on the 40% of solids system and in 20% solids system where, among the other systems both presented 114 mg TP g-1 of phenolics liberation at 24 h of fermentation. PNS is an important source of catechin, being this kind of compound which can be liberated in higher proportion compared to other phenolics compounds. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that fermenting PNS represent a good alternative to both use residues and obtaining AP.

  2. Canthium parviflorum Leaves: Antioxidant Activity in Food and Biological Systems, pH, and Temperature Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Reddy Palvai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canthium parviflorum leaves were analyzed for their proximate and phytochemical composition. The leaves were extracted with methanol (ME and analyzed for antioxidant activity by radical scavenging method, reducing power, ferric reducing capacity, and in vitro inhibition of Fenton’s reagent induced oxidation in oil emulsion and microsomes. In addition, the effect of high temperature (100°C, 15 and 30 min and pH (4.5, 7, and 9 on the antioxidant activity of ME was investigated. The leaves were rich in polyphenols, flavonoids β-carotene, glutathione, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. The ME exhibited varying degree of antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The RSA was 68%–500 μg. Reducing potency was 0.34 and FRAP was 1.377. Canthium exhibited greater inhibition of oxidation in microsomes (73% than in the oil emulsion (21%. Heat treatment resulted in reduction of radical scavenging activity of extract from 68% to 40%. At pH 4.5 and 7 methanol extract exhibited some percent of antioxidant activity which ranged between 18 and 32%. Data indicates Canthium as a good source of antioxidants and methanol extract exhibited good antioxidant activity.

  3. Active cyber defense: enhancing national cyber defense

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Tiong Pern.

    2011-01-01

    With increased dependency on the Internet, cyber attacks are fast becoming an attractive option for state adversaries, in part because of the ease of hiding one's identity. In response, governments around the world are taking measures to improve their national cyber defenses. However, these defenses, which are generally passive in nature, have been insufficient to address the threat. This thesis explores the possibility of employing active cyber defenses to improve cyber defenses at the na...

  4. The Regional Dimension of Romania's Participation to the Anti-Missile Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current security environment is characterized by a high degree of instability and unpredictability, through the manifestation of new risks and threats, especially those with asymmetrical nature, by redefining the relations between the great powers, and increasing freedom of action of the regional actors (state and non-state. At the international level, the end of the Cold War has led to a fragmentation of efforts in the security field, with direct implications on the need for further efforts of the international community coordination. In this era of profound change and transformation it is not possible the adoption of an isolationist policy of security, but only in a broader context of interdependencies and relationships between general trends, threats or challenges specific to a particular area or geographic areas. Swift operationalization of the anti-missile system will strengthen the national security both directly, through the protection it provides for the entire national territory, and indirectly, as the system will have a deterrent important role, able to mitigate risks of possible attacks by ballistic missiles. The role of deterrence will remove the risk of attack against any Allied territory on which, by virtue of membership in NATO and obligations involved according to article 5 of the Washington Treaty, Romania has also responsibilities.

  5. In the presence of danger:the extracellular matrix defensive response to central nervous system injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lyn B. Jakeman; Kent E. Williams; Bryan Brautigam

    2014-01-01

    Glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to formation of the extracellular matrix, which provides adhesive sites, signaling molecules, and a diffusion barrier to enhance efifcient neurotransmission and axon potential propagation. In the normal adult CNS, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is relatively stable except in selected regions characterized by dynamic remodel-ing. However, after trauma such as a spinal cord injury or cortical contusion, the lesion epicenter becomes a focus of acute neuroinlfammation. The activation of the surrounding glial cells leads to a dramatic change in the composition of the ECM at the edges of the lesion, creating a perile-sion environment dominated by growth inhibitory molecules and restoration of the peripheral/central nervous system border. An advantage of this response is to limit the invasion of damaging cells and diffusion of toxic molecules into the spared tissue regions, but this occurs at the cost of inhibiting migration of endogenous repair cells and preventing axonal regrowth. The following review was prepared by reading and discussing over 200 research articles in the ifeld published in PubMed and selecting those with signiifcant impact and/or controversial points. This article highlights structural and functional features of the normal adult CNS ECM and then focuses on the reactions of glial cells and changes in the perilesion border that occur following spinal cord or contusive brain injury. Current research strategies directed at modifying the inhibitory perile-sion microenvironment without eliminating the protective functions of glial cell activation are discussed.

  6. Effects of parasite pressure on parasite mortality and reproductive output in a rodent-flea system: inferring host defense trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Kam, Michael; Bar-Shira, Enav; Friedman, Aharon; Khokhlova, Irina S; Koren, Lee; Asfur, Mustafa; Geffen, Eli; Kiefer, Daniel; Krasnov, Boris R; Degen, A Allan

    2016-09-01

    Evaluating host resistance via parasite fitness helps place host-parasite relationships within evolutionary and ecological contexts; however, few studies consider both these processes simultaneously. We investigated how different levels of parasite pressure affect parasite mortality and reproductive success in relationship to host defense efforts, using the rodent Gerbillus nanus and the flea Xenopsylla conformis as a host-parasite system. Fifteen immune-naïve male rodents were infested with 20, 50, or 100 fleas for four weeks. During this time number of new imagoes produced per adult flea (our flea reproductive output metric), flea mortality, and change in circulating anti-flea immunoglobulin G (our measure of adaptive immune defense) were monitored. Three hypotheses guided this work: (1) increasing parasite pressure would heighten host defenses; (2) parasite mortality would increase and parasite reproductive output would decrease with increasing investment in host defense; and (3) hosts under high parasite pressure could invest in behavioral and/or immune responses. We predicted that at high infestation levels (a) parasite mortality would increase; (b) flea reproductive output per individual would decrease; and (c) host circulating anti-flea antibody levels would increase. The hypotheses were partially supported. Flea mortality significantly increased and flea reproductive output significantly decreased as flea pressure increased. Host adaptive immune defense did not significantly change with increasing flea pressure. Therefore, we inferred that investment in host behavioral defense, either alone or in combination with density-dependent effects, may be more efficient at increasing flea mortality and decreasing flea reproductive output than antibody production during initial infestation in this system. PMID:27130319

  7. Polyhydroxylated fullerene attenuates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via a fortifying Nrf2-regulated cellular antioxidant defence system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye SF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shefang Ye,1 Min Chen,1 Yuanqin Jiang,1,2 Mingliang Chen,3 Tong Zhou,1 Yange Wang,1 Zhenqing Hou,1 Lei Ren11Department of Biomaterials, Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China; 2First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China; 3Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Polyhydroxylated derivatives of fullerene C60, named fullerenols (C60[OH]n, have stimulated great interest because of their potent antioxidant properties in various chemical and biological systems, which enable them to be used as a new promising pharmaceutical for the future treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases, but the details remain unknown. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a principal transcription factor that regulates expression of several antioxidant genes via binding to the antioxidant response element and plays a crucial role in cellular defence against oxidative stress. In this study we investigated whether activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway contributes to the cytoprotective effects of C60(OH24. Our results showed that C60(OH24 enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and upregulated expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, NAD(PH: quinine oxidoreductase 1, and γ-glutamate cysteine ligase in A549 cells. Treatment with C60(OH24 resulted in phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinases. By using inhibitors of cellular kinases, we showed that pretreatment of A549 cells with SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, abolished nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and induction of HO-1 protein induced by C60(OH24, indicating an involvement of p38 MAPK in Nrf2/HO-1 activation by C60

  8. Comparison of enzymatic antioxidant defence systems in different metabolic types of yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Dafinka I; Petrova, Ventsislava Y; Kujumdzieva, Anna V

    2008-11-01

    The enzymatic defence system in the 2 yeasts Kluyveromyces marxianus and Rhodotorula glutinis, differing in their mode of oxygen uptake and energy generation, was characterized and compared with the well-studied facultatively fermentative Crabtree-positive Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Twofold higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were detected in K. marxianus and R. glutinis when cells were cultured on glucose. Further increases of 10%-15% in SOD activity and 30%-50% in catalase were measured in all studied yeasts strains after transfer to media containing ethanol. An evaluation of the ratio of Cu/Zn SOD / Mn SOD was performed as a measure of the oxidative metabolism. A 20% decrease was observed when the respiratory source of energy was ethanol, with the lowest ratio being observed for the oxidative type of K. marxianus yeasts. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that all tested strains possess active Cu/Zn and Mn SODs. A reverse electrophoretic mobility pattern of K. marxianus and R. glutinis SOD enzymes was observed in comparison with the same couple in S. cerevisiae. The investigation of electrophoretic profile of catalase enzymes showed that alongside their different taxonomic status and fermentative capacity, all tested strains possess 2 separate catalases. The role of antioxidant enzymes in preventing oxidant-induced cytotoxicity (treatment with hydrogen peroxide, paraquat, and menadione) was shown. PMID:18997852

  9. Influenza Viral Manipulation of Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling to Modulate Host Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuvanthi Vijayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses attempt to create a distinctive cellular environment to favor viral replication and spread. Recent studies uncovered new functions of the sphingolipid signaling/metabolism during pathogenic virus infections. While sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide were reported to influence the entry step of several viruses, sphingolipid-metabolizing enzymes could directly alter viral replication processes. Influenza virus was shown to increase the level of sphingosine kinase (SK 1 to promote virus propagation. The mechanism involves regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, leading to the amplification of influenza viral RNA synthesis and nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex. However, bovine viral diarrhea virus inhibits SK1 to enhance the efficacy of virus replication, demonstrating the presence of virus-specific strategies for modulation of the sphingolipid system. Therefore, investigating the sphingolipid metabolism and signaling in the context of virus replication could help us design innovative therapeutic approaches to improve human health.

  10. ABC transporters and xenobiotic defense systems in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Christian; Segner, Helmut; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of oviparous fish, in contrast to (ovo) viviparous species, develop in the aquatic environment, and therefore need solute transport systems at their body surfaces for maintaining internal homeostasis and defending against potentially harmful substances. We hypothesized that solute transporters undergo changes in tissue distribution from the embryo to the larval stage. We therefore studied the mRNA profiles of eight ABC transporters (abcb1a, abcb1b, abcc1, abcc2, abcc3, abcc4, abcc5, abcg2) and three solute carriers (oatp1d, putative oatp2 putative, mate1) in different body regions (head, yolk sac epithelium, abdominal viscera, skin/muscles) of developing rainbow trout. Additionally, we investigated mRNA levels of phase I (cyp1a, cyp3a) and phase II (gstp, putative ugt1, putative ugt2) biotransformation enzymes. The study covered the developmental period from the eleuthero-embryo stage to the first-feeding larval stage (1-20days post-hatch, dph). At 1dph, transcripts of abcc2, abcc4, abcg2, cyp3a, gstp, putative mate1, and putative oatp2 occurred primarily in the yolk sac epithelium, whereas at later stages expression of these genes was predominantly observed in the abdominal viscera. The functional activity of ABC transporters in fish early life stages was assessed by rhodamine B accumulation assays. Finally, we investigated the potential impact of xenobiotics (clotrimazole, clofibric acid) on the ABC and biotransformation systems of trout early life stages. While clofibric acid had no effect, clotrimazole lead to an increased rhodamine B accumulation. The results provide evidence that the transition from the eleuthero-embryo to the larval stage is accompanied by a major alteration in tissue expression of ABC transporters. PMID:26945521

  11. Brassinosteroids alleviate high-temperature injury in Ficus concinna seedlings via maintaining higher antioxidant defence and glyoxalase systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Song Heng; Li, Xue Qin; Wang, G. Geoff; Zhu, Xiang Tao

    2015-01-01

    Although brassinosteroids (BRs) play crucial roles in plant development and stress tolerance, the mechanisms by which they have these effects are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the possible mechanism of exogenously applied BRs on reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems in Ficus concinna seedlings grown under high-temperature (HT) stress for 48 h. Our results showed that the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide ...

  12. Trichosanthes dioica root extract induces tumor proliferation and attenuation of antioxidant system in albino mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2011-01-01

    Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), called pointed gourd in English, is a dioecious climber grown widely in the Indian subcontinent. The present study assessed the influence of treatment of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica root (TDA) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice with effects on antioxidant systems. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor (EAC) cells in mice, TDA was administered at 25 and 50 mg/kg for 8 consecutive days. On...

  13. Effective activation of antioxidant system by immune-relevant factors reversely correlates with apoptosis of Eisenia andrei coelomocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Homa, J.; Stalmach, M.; Wilczek, G.; Kolaczkowska, E.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is harmful to the microbes but also to the host, and may result in bystander damage or death. Because of this, respiratory burst triggered in phagocytes by pathogens is counteracted by production of antioxidative factors. The aim of this work was to examine effectiveness of the latter system in earthworms Eisenia andrei by induction of reactive oxygen species, lipofuscin and phenoloxidase by natural (LPS, zymosan, Micrococus luteus) and synthetic (phorbol ester, PMA) stimulan...

  14. Self-synthesizing transposons: unexpected key players in the evolution of viruses and defense systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupovic, Mart; Koonin, Eugene V

    2016-06-01

    Self-synthesizing transposons are the largest known transposable elements that encode their own DNA polymerases (DNAP). The Polinton/Maverick family of self-synthesizing transposons is widespread in eukaryotes and abundant in the genomes of some protists. In addition to the DNAP and a retrovirus-like integrase, most of the polintons encode homologs of the major and minor jelly-roll capsid proteins, DNA-packaging ATPase and capsid maturation protease. Therefore, polintons are predicted to alternate between the transposon and viral lifestyles although virion formation remains to be demonstrated. Polintons are related to a group of eukaryotic viruses known as virophages that parasitize on giant viruses of the family Mimiviridae and another recently identified putative family of polinton-like viruses (PLV) predicted to lead a similar, dual life style. Comparative genomic analysis of polintons, virophages, PLV and the other viruses with double-stranded (ds)DNA genomes infecting eukaryotes and prokaryotes suggests that the polintons evolved from bacterial tectiviruses and could have been the ancestors of a broad range of eukaryotic viruses including adenoviruses and members of the proposed order 'Megavirales' as well as linear cytoplasmic plasmids. Recently, a group of predicted self-synthesizing transposons was discovered also in prokaryotes. These elements, denoted casposons, encode a DNAP and a homolog of the CRISPR-associated Cas1 endonuclease that has an integrase activity but no capsid proteins. Thus, unlike polintons, casposons appear to be limited to the transposon life style although they could have evolved from viruses. The casposons are thought to have played a pivotal role in the origin of the prokaryotic adaptive immunity, giving rise to the adaptation module of the CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:26836982

  15. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  16. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Wei; Liu, Fu-Chao; Wang, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system. PMID:26637174

  17. Antioxidant role of zinc in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyria Jayanne Clímaco Cruz; Ana Raquel Soares de Oliveira; Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia statue noticed in diabetes mellitus favors the manifestation of oxidative stress by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species and/or by reducing the antioxidant defense system activity. Zinc plays an important role in antioxidant defense in type 2 diabetic patients by notably acting as a cofactor of the superoxide dismutase enzyme, by modulating the glutathione metabolism and metallothionein expression, by competing with iron and copper in the cell membrane and by inhibiting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotidephosphate-oxidase enzyme. Zinc also improves theoxidative stress in these patients by reducing chronichyperglycemia. It indeed promotes phosphorylation ofinsulin receptors by enhancing transport of glucose intocells. However, several studies reveal changes in zincmetabolism in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitusand controversies remain regarding the effect of zincsupplementation in the improvement of oxidative stressin these patients. Faced with the serious challengeof the metabolic disorders related to oxidative stressin diabetes along with the importance of antioxidantnutrients in the control of this disease, new studies maycontribute to improve our understanding of the roleplayed by zinc against oxidative stress and its connectionwith type 2 diabetes mellitus prognosis. This could serveas a prelude to the development of prevention strategiesand treatment of disorders associated with this chronicdisease.

  18. Effects of ionizing radiation on the antioxidant system of microscopic fungi with radioadaptive properties found in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugay, Tatyana I; Zheltonozhskaya, Marina V; Sadovnikov, Leonid V; Tugay, Andrei V; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    Some microscopic fungi found in the area of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone appear to have unique radioadaptive properties associated with their capability to respond positively to the effects of ionizing irradiation. On the one hand, this capability can be used potentially in bio-remediation technologies, and on the other hand, it requires additional, more thorough studies to identify its underlying mechanisms. Practically, no data are currently available on mechanisms for implementation of these radioadaptive properties by microscopic fungi. The objective of the completed study was to evaluate the functioning of the antioxidant system of a microscopic fungus as one of potential mechanisms for implementation of its radioadaptive properties. The study was performed using a model system simulating the soil radioactivity in the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, with the ratio of the radioactive isotopes matching the radionuclide content in the fuel component of the Chernobyl fallout. The completed study was the first ever performed to identify a comprehensive response of the major components of the antioxidant system of the microscopic fungi to ionizing radiation, resulting in an induced melanin synthesis and increased activity of the known enzymes of antioxidant protection. Their response to ionizing radiation depended on the presence or absence of radioadaptive properties and phase of the fungal growth. Fungi with radioadaptive properties have a much higher susceptibility for inducing synthesis of melanin and antioxidant enzymes than fungi without radioadaptive properties (hereinafter referred to as the reference species or strains), which illustrates the contribution of these processes to "radiophilia" of the fungi. PMID:21878763

  19. Modulatory role of allopurinol on xanthine oxidoreductase system and antioxidant status in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, used for management of hyperuricaema. It acts on purine catabolism without disrupting the biosynthesis of purine. The present work was conducted to examine the role of xanthine oxidase inhibitor (allopurinol) in minimizing radiation injuries in male albino rats. Allopurinol was given to rats via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection at a dose of 30 mg/kg body wt/day for 7 successive days before starting irradiation and 14 successive days during and in between exposure to gamma radiation. Rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation, delivered as 1 Gy every other day up to total dose 8 Gy. Results demonstrate that treatment with allopurinol by the regime assumed in the present study minimized significantly the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), product of lipid peroxidation, in liver, intestine and plasma. This effect was associated with significant amelioration in xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) system as observed on the 1st and 7th days post last radiation fraction. The severity of changes in antioxidant parameters namely: superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were less manifested in liver, intestine and blood as compared to irradiated rats. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) were significantly improved in plasma and the two investigated tissues as compared to irradiated rats. A significant decrease in plasma uric acid concentration was recorded on the 1st and 7th days post last allopurinol dose. However, significant amelioration was recorded in the plasma uric acid of rats treated with allopurinol before and during radiation exposure as compared to irradiated rats. Accordingly, it could be concluded that XO inhibitor (allopurinol) play a significant role in minimizing the tissue damages upon exposure to ionizing radiation via preventing the over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated cells through the XOR system of irradiation rats

  20. Mogućnosti implementacije savremenih sistema upravljanja saobraćajem u sistem odbrane / Possibilities of implementation of contemporary traffic management systems in the defense system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Ljubojević

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Savremeni trendovi u upravljanju saobraćajem okrenuti su ka efikasnijem iskorišćenju postojećih kapaciteta. Ovaj rad je izraz težnje da se sagleda uloga inteligentnih transportnih sistema u takvom pristupu upravljanju saobraćajem, kao i da se ukaže na budućnost sistema odbrane na tom polju. / The latest trends in traffic management focus on more efficient usage of existing capacities. This paper tries to perceive the role of Intelligent Transportation Systems within such an approach to traffic management as well as to point out to the future of the Defense System in this field.