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Sample records for antioxidant defense enzymes

  1. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  2. [Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the development of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonikov, A V; Ivanov, V P; Bogomazov, A D; Solodilova, M A

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed and summarized recent literature data on genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. It has been shown that the mechanisms of asthma development are linked with genetically determined abnormalities in the functioning of antioxidant defense enzymes. These alterations are accompanied by a systemic imbalance between oxidative and anti-oxidative reactions with the shift of the redox state toward increased free radical production and oxidative stress, a key element in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

  3. The potential medicinal value of plants from Asteraceae family with antioxidant defense enzymes as biological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Suheda; Isgor, Belgin S; Isgor, Yasemin G; Shomali Moghaddam, Naznoosh; Yildirim, Ozlem

    2015-05-01

    Plants and most of the plant-derived compounds have long been known for their potential pharmaceutical effects. They are well known to play an important role in the treatment of several diseases from diabetes to various types of cancers. Today most of the clinically effective pharmaceuticals are developed from plant-derived ancestors in the history of medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol, ethanol, and acetone extracts from flowers and leaves of Onopordum acanthium L., Carduus acanthoides L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., and Centaurea solstitialis L., all from the Asteraceae family, for investigating their potential medicinal values of biological targets that are participating in the antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In this study, free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the plant samples were assayed by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu, and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods. Also, the effects of extracts on CAT, GST, and GPx enzyme activities were investigated. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in the acetone extract of C. acanthoides flowers, with 90.305 mg GAE/L and 185.43 mg Q/L values, respectively. The highest DPPH radical scavenging was observed with the methanol leaf extracts of C. arvense with an IC50 value of 366 ng/mL. The maximum GPx and GST enzyme inhibition activities were observed with acetone extracts from the flower of C. solstitialis with IC50 values of 79 and 232 ng/mL, respectively.

  4. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that enhancing defensive enzymes' activities and inducing new isozymes may be related to mitigating pathogen-induced oxidative damage which result in the decrease of calli decay, and this implies that antioxidant defense response may be involved in the mechanisms of plant against fungal ...

  5. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

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    Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: hamdyaali@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Domènech, Òscar [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain); Banjar, Zainy M. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma

  6. Lycium chinensis Mill attenuates glutamate induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells by increasing antioxidant defense enzymes and down regulating ROS and Ca(2+) generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2016-03-11

    Lycium chinensis Mill is a famous traditional Chinese medicine which displays several medicinal activities including antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. However, the mechanism of action towards the neuroprotective action has not been fully elucidated. This work was aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effects of L. chinensis Mill against glutamate-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Oxidative cell death was induced with 5mM glutamate in PC12 cells. Cell viability, LDH release, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD antioxidant enzyme levels were measured. Our results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with L. chinensis Mill extracts markedly attenuated the loss of cell viability, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Ca(2+) overload, ROS generation, and cell apoptosis induced by glutamate toxicity. Furthermore, L. chinensis Mill extracts also significantly increased the levels of innate antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px, SOD and CAT in glutamate-induced PC12 cells. Conclusively, our results provided substantial evidence that L. chinensis Mill protected PC12 cells against glutamate-induced cell death by attenuating ROS generation, Ca(2+) influx, and increased the antioxidant defense capacity of PC12 cells against oxidative stress damages, suggesting the possible potential of extracts from the plant as sources of bioactive molecules in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Silicon improves seed germination and alleviates drought stress in lentil crops by regulating osmolytes, hydrolytic enzymes and antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Sajitha; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gupta, Dorin

    2017-10-01

    Silicon (Si) has been widely reported to have beneficial effect on mitigating drought stress in plants. However, the effect of Si on seed germination under drought conditions is still poorly understood. This research was carried out to ascertain the role of Si to abate polyethylene glycol-6000 mediated drought stress on seed germination and seedling growth of lentil. Results showed that drought stress significantly decreased the seed germination traits and increased the concentration of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars), reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion) and lipid peroxides in lentil seedlings. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes and antioxidant enzymes increased significantly under osmotic stress. The application of Si significantly enhanced the plants ability to withstand drought stress conditions through increased Si content, improved antioxidants, hydrolytic enzymes activity, decreased concentration of osmolytes and reactive oxygen species. Multivariate data analysis showed statistically significant correlations among the drought-tolerance traits, whereas cluster analysis categorised the genotypes into distinct groups based on their drought-tolerance levels and improvements in expression of traits due to Si application. Thus, these results showed that Si supplementation of lentil was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects of drought stress on seed germination and increased seedling vigour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of dietary copper on growth, digestive, and brush border enzyme activities and antioxidant defense of hepatopancreas and intestine for young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Q Q; Feng, L; Jiang, W D; Liu, Y; Jiang, J; Li, S H; Kuang, S Y; Tang, L; Zhou, X Q

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on fish growth, digestive and absorptive enzyme activities, and antioxidant status in the hepatopancreas and intestine, young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (282±2.8 g) were fed six diets containing 0.74 (basal diet), 2.26, 3.75, 5.25, 6.70, and 8.33 mg Cu /kg diet for 8 weeks. Results showed that percentage weight gain (PWG) and feed intake were increased with dietary Cu levels up to 3.75 mg/kg diet. In addition, the positive effects of dietary Cu at a level 3.75 or 5.25 mg/kg diet on trypsin, chymotrypsin, and lipase activities in the hepatopancreas and of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in three intestine segments produced significantly (Pdietary Cu levels up to 3.75 mg/kg diet (Pdietary Cu at 3.75 or 5.25 mg/kg diet decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content partly by significantly (Pdietary Cu improved growth and digestive and absorptive capacity and decreased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation partly by enhancing antioxidant defense in the hepatopancreas and intestine. The dietary Cu requirement for PWG, plasma ceruloplasmin activity, and FE of young grass carp (282-688 g) were 4.78, 4.95, and 4.70 mg/kg diet, respectively.

  9. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... induced oxidative damage which result in the decrease of calli decay, and this implies that antioxidant defense response may be ... fungal diseases occurring in pear plants and fruits. Periodic application of .... Changes in SOD activity and isozyme in pear calli infected with MFH and BBP. Lanes 1-10: After ...

  10. Role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes and extracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ChithrashreeGS

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... In the present work, we studied the role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes of plant pathogenic bacteria: catalase ... Key words: Paddy, plant pathogenic bacteria, antioxidant scavenging enzymes, exopolysaccharide, virulence, ..... the development of a non-host hypersensitive reaction in lettuce. Plant ...

  11. Antioxidant Defenses in the Brains of Bats during Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Ge, Hanxiao; Liao, Chen-Chong; Liu, Di; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH) were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats against oxidative

  12. Oral Nigella sativa oil and thymoquinone administration ameliorates the effect of long-term cisplatin treatment on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane, and antioxidant defense in rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faaiza; Farooqui, Zeba; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Khan, Farah

    2018-02-01

    We have previously shown that oral administration of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) ameliorates the deleterious gastrointestinal effects of cisplatin (CP), administered as a single dose. Since a typical clinical CP dosing regimen involves multiple cycles of CP administration in lower doses, in the present study we investigate the protective efficacy of NSO and its major bioactive constituent, thymoquinone (TQ), against multiple-dose CP treatment-induced deleterious biochemical and histological changes in rat intestine. Rats were divided into six groups, viz., control, CP, CP+NSO, CP+TQ, NSO, and TQ. Animals in CP+NSO and CP+TQ groups were pre-administered NSO (2 ml/kg bwt, orally) and TQ (1.5 mg/kg bwt, orally), respectively, daily for 14 days and were then treated with five repeated doses of CP (3 mg/kg bwt, i.p.), every fourth day for 20 days while still receiving NSO/TQ. CP treatment alone led to a significant decline in specific activities of brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes while NSO or TQ administration to CP-treated rats significantly prevented the decline in BBM enzyme activities in the isolated brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) as well as in mucosal homogenates. Furthermore, both NSO and TQ administration markedly ameliorated CP-induced alterations on carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters of antioxidant defense system in the intestinal mucosa. However, NSO appeared to be more efficacious than TQ in protecting against CP-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. Histopathological findings corroborated the biochemical results. Thus, NSO and TQ may prove clinically useful in amelioration of the intestinal toxicity associated with long-term CP chemotherapy.

  13. Relationships among alcoholic liver disease, antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-01-07

    Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a serious cause of liver disease worldwide. The metabolism of ethanol generates reactive oxygen species, which play a significant role in the deterioration of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Antioxidant phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, regulate the expression of ALD-associated proteins and peptides, namely, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. These plant antioxidants have electrophilic activity and may induce antioxidant enzymes via the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway and antioxidant responsive elements. Furthermore, these antioxidants are reported to alleviate cell injury caused by oxidants or inflammatory cytokines. These phenomena are likely induced via the regulation of mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by plant antioxidants, similar to preconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion models. Although the relationship between plant antioxidants and ALD has not been adequately investigated, plant antioxidants may be preventive for ALD because of their electrophilic and regulatory activities in the MAPK pathway.

  14. Role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes and extracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we studied the role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes of plant pathogenic bacteria: catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and a virulence factor; extracelluar polysaccharide production in determining the virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) isolates and its differential reaction to rice cultivars.

  15. Induction of Defense-Related Physiological and Antioxidant Enzyme Response against Powdery Mildew Disease in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentusL.) Plant by Using Chitosan and Potassium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Mona H; El-Mohamedy, Riad S R

    2017-12-01

    Foliar sprays of three plant resistance inducers, including chitosan (CH), potassium sorbate (PS) (C 6 H 7 kO 2 ), and potassium bicarbonates (PB) (KHCO 3 ), were used for resistance inducing against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC (powdery mildew) infecting okra plants. Experiments under green house and field conditions showed that, the powdery mildew disease severity was significantly reduced with all tested treatments of CH, PS, and PB in comparison with untreated control. CH at 0.5% and 0.75% (w/v) plus PS at 1.0% and 2.0% and/or PB at 2.0% or 3.0% recorded as the most effective treatments. Moreover, the highest values of vegetative studies and yield were observed with such treatments. CH and potassium salts treatments reflected many compounds of defense singles which leading to the activation power defense system in okra plant. The highest records of reduction in powdery mildew were accompanied with increasing in total phenolic, protein content and increased the activity of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase in okra plants. Meanwhile, single treatments of CH, PS, and PB at high concentration (0.75%, 2.0%, and/or 3.0%) caused considerable effects. Therefore, application of CH and potassium salts as natural and chemical inducers by foliar methods can be used to control of powdery mildew disease at early stages of growth and led to a maximum fruit yield in okra plants.

  16. Nitric Oxide Mediates Molybdenum-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Wheat under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songwei Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum (Mo has been reported to alleviate drought stress by enhancing antioxidant defense in plants, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that Mo mediates nitric oxide (NO-induced antioxidant defense through Mo-enzymes, particularly by nitrate reductase (NR in wheat under drought stress. The 30-day-old wheat seedlings cultivated in -Mo (0 μM Mo and +Mo (1 μM Mo Hoagland solutions were detached and then pretreated with Mo-enzyme inhibitors, NO scavengers, NO donors or their combinations according to demands of complementary experiment under 10% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-stimulated drought stress (PSD. Mo supplementation increased the activities and transcripts of antioxidant enzymes, decreased H2O2 and MDA contents, and elevated NO production, implying that Mo-induced antioxidant defense may be related to NO signal. Complementary experiment showed that NO production was induced by Mo, while suppressed by Mo-enzyme inhibitors and NO scavengers, but restored by NO donors, suggesting that Mo-induced increase of NO production may be due to the regulation by Mo-enzymes. Further experiment indicated that the increased activities and transcripts of antioxidant enzymes induced by Mo were suppressed by Mo-enzyme inhibitors and NO scavengers, and NO donors could eliminate their suppressing effects. Moreover, Mo application increased NR activity and inhibitors of Mo-enzymes inhibited NR activity in wheat leaves under PSD, suggesting that NR might involve in the regulation of Mo-induced NO production. These results clearly indicate that NO mediates Mo-induced antioxidant defense at least partially through the regulation of NR.

  17. [Features of influence adenosine, AMP and hyperadrenalinemiya on the immune status, metabolic enzymes of purine nucleotides and the antioxidant defense system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapbergenov, S O; Sovetov, B S; Tapbergenov, A T

    2016-11-01

    Administration of a large dose of adrenaline (4 mg/kg 60 min before analysis) increased blood levels of total leukocytes, lymphocytes, decreased T-cell suppressors, leukocyte migration inhibition reaction (LMIR) and NBT test, but increased the level of conjugated dienes (CD). Administration of AMPand adenosine increased levels of total leukocytes, lymphocytes, T- lymphocytes, T-helpers, decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), LMIR, and T-cell suppressors. Sympathetic hyperactivation induced by administration of a large dose of adrenaline (4 mg/kg 60 min before analysis) was accompanied by an increase in heart and liver activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, AMP deaminase (AMPD), and adenosine deaminase (AD). Administration of AMP or adenosine caused a decrease in activities of glutathione reductase (GR), GPx, catalase, a decrease in the MDA level and an increase in activities of AMPD and AD in the heart. In the liver AMP and adenosine also caused a decrease in activities of glutathione reductase (GR), GPx, a decrease in the MDA level and an increase in activities of AMPD and AD. The data obtained suggest that administration of adrenaline, AMP, and adenosine influences activity of enzymes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism. However, in contrast to adrenaline, administration of AMP or adenosine does not provoke stress reaction.

  18. The protective role of Scoparia dulcis on tissue antioxidant defense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... However, no significant effect was observed in the antioxidant enzyme activities and MDA levels in the ... exposed to this heavy metal by measuring the extent of oxidative damage and the status of two antioxidant enzymes, catalase and super oxide dismutase. METHOD ..... Isolation and characterization of.

  19. Antioxidant defenses and metabolic depression. The hypothesis of preparation for oxidative stress in land snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Lima, M; Storey, J M; Storey, K B

    1998-07-01

    The roles of enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the natural tolerance of environmental stresses that impose changes in oxygen availability and oxygen consumption on animals is discussed with a particular focus on the biochemistry of estivation and metabolic depression in pulmonate land snails. Despite reduced oxygen consumption and PO2 during estivation, which should also mean reduced production of oxyradicals, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, increased in 30 day-estivating snails. This appears to be an adaptation that allows the snails to deal with oxidative stress that takes place during arousal when PO2 and oxygen consumption rise rapidly. Indeed, oxidative stress was indicated by increased levels of lipid peroxidation damage products accumulating in hepatopancreas within minutes after arousal was initiated. The various metabolic sites responsible for free radical generation during arousal are still unknown but it seems unlikely that the enzyme xanthine oxidase plays any substantial role in this despite being implicated in oxidative stress in mammalian models of ischemia/reperfusion. We propose that the activation of antioxidant defenses in the organs of Otala lactea during estivation is a preparative mechanism against oxidative stress during arousal. Increased activities of antioxidant enzymes have also observed under other stress situations in which the actual production of oxyradicals should decrease. For example, antioxidant defenses are enhanced during anoxia exposure in garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis (10 h at 5 degrees C) and leopard frogs Rana pipiens (30 h at 5 degrees C) and during freezing exposure (an ischemic condition due to plasma freezing) in T. sirtalis parietalis and wood frogs Rana sylvatica. It seems that enhancement of antioxidant enzymes during either anoxia or freezing is used as a preparatory mechanism to deal with a physiological oxidative stress that occurs rapidly within the

  20. Induction of phenolics, lignin and key defense enzymes in eggplant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elicitors are capable of mimicking the perception of a pathogen by a plant, thereby triggering induction of a sophisticated defense response in plants. In this study, we investigated an induced resistance in eggplant in respect to cell wall strengthening and defense enzyme activation affected by four elicitors such as, chitosan ...

  1. Ultrasound effects on the antioxidative defense systems of Porphyridium cruentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bilian; Huang, Jian; Wang, Juan; Huang, Lingling

    2008-01-15

    Ultrasound is a special physical stimulus that has a variety of biological effects. This study provides a first systemic investigation on the ultrasound-induced oxidation and protection actions of the antioxidant defense system in Porphyridium cruentum. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging ability of the cells and the electrolyte leakage of the cell membrane were examined. The change of glutathione and carotenoids produced with/without ultrasonic processing were measured; the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and membrane bound ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase) were evaluated for either ultrasound-treated or untreated P. cruentum. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging ability of ultrasound-treated P. cruentum increase 49.8 and 76.0%, respectively, of which the electrolyte leakage and malonyldialdehyde accumulation are also found increased 48.6 and 48.0%, respectively, indicating a state of oxidative stress. A significant enhancement of the activities of superoxide dismutase by 53.5%, catalase, membrane bound ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase increased by 67.7 and 69.3%, respectively), and the increment of glutathione and carotenoids production are also observed. These results suggested that oxidative stress manifested by elevated reactive oxygen species levels and malonyldialdehyde contents might be resulted from the biophysical responses of P. cruentum to the physical stimuli, and most likely the enhanced antioxidation ability of the algal cells stimuli by ultrasonic comes from the enhancement of enzymatic and nonenzymatic preventive substances as observed in this work.

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of Picrorrhiza kurroa on antioxidant defense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatoprotective effect of the ethanol extract of Picrorrhiza kurroa rhizomes and roots (PK) on liver mitochondrial antioxidant defense system in isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatitis in rats was investigated. In liver mitochondria of antitubercular drugs administered rats, a significant elevation in the level of lipid ...

  3. LPO and antioxidant defense in the stomach of albino rats injected with angiotensin II and enalapril maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikalova, V M; Postupaev, V V; Timoshin, S S

    2003-04-01

    The effects of components of angiotensin II system on LPO and antioxidant defense in the stomach of adult albino rats were studied using biochemical and chemiluminescent methods. Five intraperitoneal injections of angiotensin II in a dose of 100 micro/kg activated LPO and inhibited antioxidant processes in the studied tissues. Oral therapy with enalapril maleate (inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme) in a daily dose of 10 mg/kg for 2 weeks normalized stress-activated LPO processes in gastric tissue.

  4. Antioxidant enzymes, presbycusis, and ethnic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bared, Anthony; Ouyang, Xiaomei; Angeli, Simon; Du, Li Lin; Hoang, Kimberly; Yan, Denise; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2010-08-01

    A proposed mechanism for presbycusis is a significant increase in oxidative stress in the cochlea. The enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST) and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) are two classes of antioxidant enzymes active in the cochlea. In this work, we sought to investigate the association of different polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and NAT2 and presbycusis and analyze whether ethnicity has an effect in the genotype-phenotype associations. Case-control study of 134 DNA samples. University-based tertiary care center. Clinical, audiometric, and DNA testing of 55 adults with presbycusis and 79 control patients with normal hearing. The GSTM1 null genotype was present in 77 percent of white Hispanics and 51 percent of white non-Hispanics (Fisher's exact test, 2-tail, P = 0.0262). The GSTT1 null genotype was present in 34 percent of control patients and in 60 percent of white presbycusis subjects (P = 0.0067, odds ratio [OR] = 2.843, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.379-5.860). The GSTM1 null genotype was more frequent in presbycusis subjects, i.e., 48 percent of control patients and 69 percent of white subjects carried this deletion (P = 0.0198, OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.163-5.067). The NAT2*6A mutant genotype was more frequent among subjects with presbycusis (60%) than in control patients (34%; P = 0.0086, OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.355-6.141). We showed an increased risk of presbycusis among white subjects carrying the GSTM1 and the GSTT1 null genotype and the NAT*6A mutant allele. Subjects with the GSTT1 null genotypes are almost three times more likely to develop presbycusis than those with the wild type. The GSTM1 null genotype was more prevalent in white Hispanics than in white non-Hispanics, but the GSTT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms were equally represented in the two groups. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Audioprofiles and antioxidant enzyme genotypes in presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Simon I; Bared, Anthony; Ouyang, Xiaomei; Du, Li Lin; Yan, Denise; Zhong Liu, Xue

    2012-11-01

    Audiometric patterns have been shown to indirectly provide information regarding the pathophysiology of presbycusis and be useful in the phenotyping of hereditary deafness. Hospital-based cohort study of adults with presbycusis, comparing the association of audiometric patterns and polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes that have been linked to presbycusis: GSTT1, GSTM1 and NAT2. All subjects underwent a clinical evaluation and completed questionnaires regarding ototoxicity and noise exposure. Pure-tone threshold audiometry was obtained and subjects' audiograms were classified into specific patterns. DNA was extracted from blood and the polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1, and the NAT2 variants (NAT2* 5A; NAT2* 6A,B) were analyzed by PCR. The audiometric patterns that were more prevalent in our cohort were "High-Frequency Steeply Sloping" or HFSS (33%), "High-Frequency Gently Sloping" or HFGS (31%), and "Flat" (27%), with other patterns being rare. We did not find a statistical significant effect of gender, age, hearing level, and ear side on the audiometric pattern. Subjects with mutant alleles for GSTT1 were more likely to have a HFSS audiogram than subjects with the wild type genotype. In this cohort, there was a similar prevalence for the three audiometric configurations HFSS, HFGS, and Flat, with other configurations being rare. Subjects with mutant alleles for GSTT1 were more likely to have a HFSS audiogram than subjects with the wild type genotype, suggesting that the basal turn of the cochlea is susceptible to GSTT1 regulated oxidative stress. However, further studies of audioprofiles with larger sample sizes may be needed to establish phenotype-genotype correlations in presbycusis. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Expression and Activity by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal toxicity produced by paraquat involves the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can overwhelm antioxidant defences, leading to oxidant injury. However, there are conflicting reports regarding the activity and/or expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) ...

  7. Alterations in the antioxidant defense system in prepubertal children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Espejo, M; Gil-Campos, M; Mesa, M D; García-Rodríguez, C E; Muñoz-Villanueva, M C; Pérez-Navero, J L

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxidative stress is well known in the pathogenesis of acquired malnutrition. Intrauterine growth restriction has been associated with an imbalance in oxidative stress/antioxidant system. Therefore, early postnatal environment and, consequently, extrauterine growth restriction might be associated with alterations in the antioxidant defense system, even in the prepubertal stage. This is a descriptive, analytical, and observational case-control study. The study included two groups; 38 Caucasian prepubertal children born prematurely and with a history of extrauterine growth restriction as the case group, and 123 gender- and age-matched controls. Plasma exogenous antioxidant (retinol, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol) concentrations were measured by HPLC; antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were determined in lysed erythrocytes by spectrophotometric techniques. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase concentrations were significantly lower in extrauterine growth restriction children than in controls (P restriction prepubertal children as compared with controls. After correction by gestational age, birth weight, and length, statistically significant differences were also found, except for retinol. Prepubertal children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction present alterations in their antioxidant defense system. Knowing these alterations may be important in establishing pharmacological and nutritional treatments as this situation might be associated with higher metabolic disorders in adulthood.

  8. Effect of cadmium hyperaccumulation on antioxidative defense and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in cadmium (Cd) accumulation, the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll and free proline in Solanum nigrum, Cd-hyperaccumulator were examined and compared with a ...

  9. Cadmium accumulation and antioxidative defenses in leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn (Zea Mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) seedlings were grown in four cadmium (Cd) concentration levels (0 - 1 mg/l) in a hydroponic system to analyze the antioxidant enzyme system, Cd concentration in the shoots and roots of plants, proline contents, growth responses and chlorophyll contents in the leaves of ...

  10. Markers of Antioxidant Defense in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gawlik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Diabetes is considered a state of increased oxidative stress. This study evaluates blood concentrations of selected markers of antioxidant defense in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The study included 80 type 2 diabetes patients and 79 apparently healthy controls. Measured markers included ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT and uric acid serum, and plasma and/or hemolysate levels. Results. FRAP, uric acid, CRP, and GGT levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes. Plasma and hemolysate GR was significantly higher whereas GPx activity was significantly lower in patients with diabetes. There were no significant differences in antioxidant defense markers between patients with and without chronic diabetes complications. Fasting serum glucose correlated with plasma GPx, plasma and hemolysate GR, FRAP, and serum GGT, and HbA1c correlated with serum GGT. Only FRAP and serum uric acid were significantly higher in obese (BMI>30 kg/m2 patients with diabetes than in nonobese patients. Conclusions. Some components of antioxidant defense such as GR, uric acid, and GGT are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the whole system cannot compensate for an enhanced production of ROS as reflected by the trend toward decreased erythrocytes GSH.

  11. Enhancement of Antioxidant Enzymes Activities, Drought Stress Tolerances and Quality of Potato Plants as Response to Algal Foliar Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Baky, Hanaa H; Nofal, Osama A; El Baroty, Gamal S

    2016-01-01

    Different types of environmental stress may induce several physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in several crop plants. According to a patent study, several types of low antioxidant defense compounds and the activity of various antioxidant defense enzymes are induced in plants grown under various biotic and abiotic stress factors. In this work, the responses of potatoes plant treated with algae extract to drought stress were examined by evaluating the crop yield of tuber, cellular biological compounds (total carbohydrates and proteins), mineral composition and enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant systems and total oxidative compounds. The yield of tuber, concentration of low antioxidant defense compounds (glutathione, ascorbate, carotenoids, total phenol, flavonoids and tocopherols) and the activity of various antioxidant defense enzymes (catalase CAT; peroxidase POD; ascorbate peroxidase APX and superoxide dismutase SOD) in tuber of treated potato plants with algae extract were significantly increased compared with that in non-treated plants. In addition, essential elements: Fe, K, Ca, Mg and P were accumulated at high concentration in treated plant than that in untreated plants. The screening of antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of tubers potatoes treated with algae extracts using the di-(phenyl)-(2,4,6- trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium radical (DPPH) assay radical-scavenging showed an appreciable reduction of the stable radical DPPH with an IC50 of 75 µg/ml. The results suggest that the algae foliar extracts application can improve non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems in potatoes plant cultivated under drought stress conditions, and it may be recommended for application in arid and semiarid regions.

  12. G6pd Deficiency Does Not Affect the Cytosolic Glutathione or Thioredoxin Antioxidant Defense in Mouse Cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Karessa; Park, Hyo-Jin; Meneses, Zaimary; Salvi, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway; it catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate and NADP+ to NADPH and is thought to be the principal source of NADPH for the cytosolic glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant defense systems. We investigated the roles of G6PD in the cytosolic antioxidant defense in the cochlea of G6pd hypomorphic mice that were backcrossed onto normal-hearing CBA/CaJ mice. Young G6pd-deficient mice displayed a significant decrease in cytosolic G6PD protein levels and activities in the inner ears. However, G6pd deficiency did not affect the cytosolic NADPH redox state, or glutathione or thioredoxin antioxidant defense in the inner ears. No histological abnormalities or oxidative damage was observed in the cochlea of G6pd hemizygous males or homozygous females. Furthermore, G6pd deficiency did not affect auditory brainstem response hearing thresholds, wave I amplitudes or wave I latencies in young males or females. In contrast, G6pd deficiency resulted in increased activities and protein levels of cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate and NADP+ to NADPH, in the inner ear. In a mouse inner ear cell line, knockdown of Idh1, but not G6pd, decreased cell growth rates, cytosolic NADPH levels, and thioredoxin reductase activities. Therefore, under normal physiological conditions, G6pd deficiency does not affect the cytosolic glutathione or thioredoxin antioxidant defense in mouse cochlea. Under G6pd deficiency conditions, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 likely functions as the principal source of NADPH for cytosolic antioxidant defense in the cochlea. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway; it catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate and NADP+ to NADPH and is

  13. Antioxidant enzymes activities in obese Tunisian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfar Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxidant stress, expected to increase in obese adults, has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. It results when free radical formation is greatly increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are compromised. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant response to obesity-related stress in healthy children. Methods A hundred and six healthy children (54 obese and 52 controls, aged 6–12 years old, participated in this study. The collected data included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase: SOD, Catalase: CAT and Glutathione peroxidase: GPx. Results The first step antioxidant response, estimated by the SOD activity, was significantly higher in obese children compared with normal-weight controls (p  Conclusions The obesity-related increase of the oxidant stress can be observed even in the childhood period. In addition to the complications of an increased BMI, obesity itself can be considered as an independent risk factor of free radical production resulting in an increased antioxidant response.

  14. Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racchi, Milvia Luisa

    2013-01-01

    This short review briefly introduces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products of oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions, and the ways in which the antioxidant defense machinery is involved directly or indirectly in ROS scavenging. Major antioxidants, both enzymatic and non enzymatic, that protect higher plant cells from oxidative stress damage are described. Biochemical and molecular features of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) are discussed because they play crucial roles in scavenging ROS in the different cell compartments and in response to stress conditions. Among the non enzymatic defenses, particular attention is paid to ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The operation of ROS scavenging systems during the seasonal cycle and specific developmental events, such as fruit ripening and senescence, are discussed in relation to the intense ROS formation during these processes that impact fruit quality. Particular attention is paid to Prunus and Citrus species because of the nutritional and antioxidant properties contained in these commonly consumed fruits. PMID:26784469

  15. Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milvia Luisa Racchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This short review briefly introduces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS as by-products of oxidation/reduction (redox reactions, and the ways in which the antioxidant defense machinery is involved directly or indirectly in ROS scavenging. Major antioxidants, both enzymatic and non enzymatic, that protect higher plant cells from oxidative stress damage are described. Biochemical and molecular features of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX are discussed because they play crucial roles in scavenging ROS in the different cell compartments and in response to stress conditions. Among the non enzymatic defenses, particular attention is paid to ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The operation of ROS scavenging systems during the seasonal cycle and specific developmental events, such as fruit ripening and senescence, are discussed in relation to the intense ROS formation during these processes that impact fruit quality. Particular attention is paid to Prunus and Citrus species because of the nutritional and antioxidant properties contained in these commonly consumed fruits.

  16. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee; Mangmool, Supachoke

    2016-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla , Averrhoa bilimbi , Malpighia glabra , Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape , Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  17. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthinee Anantachoke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  18. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in male infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandekar S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mammalian spermatozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and are very susceptible to attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane lipid peroxide ion. Normally a balance is maintained between the amount of ROS produced and that scavenged. Cellular damage arises when this equilibrium is disturbed. A shift in the levels of ROS towards pro-oxidants in semen and vaginal secretions can induce an oxidative stress on spermatozoa. The aim was to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD and to correlate the same, with the ′water test′, in male infertility. SETTINGS: Experimental study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ejaculates from a total of 83 infertile and fertile healthy individuals were obtained. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels were studied and correlated with water test. RESULTS: The results indicate that (i the antioxidant enzyme catalase showed no significant changes in the various pathological samples, (ii antioxidant enzymes SOD and glutathione peroxidase correlate positively with asthenozoospermic samples and (iii the degree of lipid peroxidation also correlates positively with the poorly swollen sperm tails. The increase in SOD and glutathione peroxidase values, in the pathological cases represents an attempt made to overcome the reactive oxygen species. CONCLUSION: Water test could be used as a preliminary marker test for sperm tail damage by reactive oxygen species, since it correlates very well with lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes.

  19. Correlation between enzymes inhibitory effects and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and phytochemical content of fractions was investigated. The n-butanol fraction showed significant α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects (IC50 values 15.1 and 39.42 μg/ml, respectively) along with the remarkable antioxidant activity when compared to the other fractions. High performance liquid chromatography ...

  20. Improvement of antioxidant and defense properties of Tomato (var. Pusa Rohini) by application of bioaugmented compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shikha; Sharma, Anamika; Kumar, Raj; Kaur, Charanjit; Arora, Anju; Shah, Raghubir; Nain, Lata

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient management practices play a significant role in improving the nutritional quality of tomato. The present study deals with the evaluation of compost prepared using Effective Microorganisms (EM), on antioxidant and defense enzyme activities of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). A field experiment with five treatments (control, chemical fertilizer and EM compost alone and in combination) was conducted in randomized block design. An increment of 31.83% in tomato yield was recorded with the combined use of EM compost and half recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (N50P30K25 + EM compost at the rate of 5 t ha−1). Similarly, fruit quality was improved in terms of lycopene content (35.52%), antioxidant activity (24–63%) and defense enzymes activity (11–54%), in tomatoes in this treatment as compared to the application of recommended dose of fertilizers. Soil microbiological parameters also exhibited an increase of 7–31% in the enzyme activities in this treatment. Significant correlation among fruit quality parameters with soil microbiological activities reveals the positive impact of EM compost which may be adopted as an eco-friendly strategy for production of high quality edible products. PMID:25972746

  1. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of some Brassica Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica SOARE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper set out to comparatively study five species: white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata alba Alef., red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra Alef., Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. Acephala, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. cymosa in order to identify those with high enzymatic and antioxidant activities. The enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and soluble peroxidase (POX as well as the antioxidant activity against 2.2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation were determined. Total superoxide dismutase activity was measured spectrophotometrically based on inhibition in the photochemical reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Total soluble peroxidase was assayed by measuring the increase in A436 due to the guaiacol oxidation and the catalase activity was assayed through the colorimetric method. The capacity of extracts to scavenge the ABTS radical cation was assessed colorimetric using Trolox as a standard. The obtained results show that studied enzymatic activities and the antioxidant activity against ABTS vary depending on the analyzed species. So, among the studied Brassicaceae species, it emphasize red cabbage with the highest enzymatic activity (CAT 22.54 mM H2O2/min/g and POX 187.2 mM ΔA/1min/1g f.w. and kale with highest antioxidant activity, of 767 μmol TE/100g f.w. The results of this study recommendintroducing the studied varieties in diet due to the rich antioxidant properties.

  2. Phenolic antioxidants extraction from raspberry wastes assisted by-enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Laroze,Liza; Soto,Carmen; Zúñiga,María Elvira

    2010-01-01

    The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on phenolic antioxidant extraction was studied in raspberry solid wastes. This by-product possesses high content of crude fiber (60%) and low values of protein, oil and ash. Raspberry fiber composition suggests that biocatalysts with cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase activities would be useful for carrying out an enzymatically assisted antioxidant extraction. Hydro-alcoholic extraction was done using different commercial enzymes. Total phenol content an...

  3. Relationship between Estradiol and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity of Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests the neuroprotection of estrogen provided by the antioxidant activity of this compound. The main objective of this study was to determine the level of estradiol and its correlation with the activity of antioxidant enzymes, total antioxidant status and ferritin from ischemic stroke subjects. The study population consisted of 30 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 30 controls. There was no significant difference between estradiol in stroke and control group. The activity of superoxide dismutase and level of ferritin was higher in stroke compared with control group (<.05, <.001, resp.. There was no significant correlation between estradiol and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, total antioxidant status, and ferritin in stroke and control groups. We observed inverse correlation between estradiol with superoxide dismutase in males of stroke patients (=−0.54, =.029. Our results supported that endogenous estradiol of elderly men and women of stroke or control group has no antioxidant activity.

  4. [Activity of lipid peroxidation processes and the condition of antioxidative defense system in children with rheumatic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanidze, E; Zhvania, M

    2005-10-01

    Aim of study consists of establishing of some clinical-biological correlates for rheumatic fever (RF) in children, namely correlations between clinical status and lipoperoxidation products -- malonidialdehide (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes in the blood. In the neutralization process of superoxside anions ceruloplazmin (CP), catalase (CAT) and transferin (TF) are key antioxidant enzymes (AOE) of antioxidative defense system (AOD). We studied 38 patients 3-15 years of age with different variants of RF. We measured the levels of MDA, CAT, CP, TF in the plasma in patients with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD). In all of our cases AOE (CAT, CP, TF) were high at time of diagnosis, concomitant with increased MDA and inflammatory tests. Our study revealed intensified activity of AOD enzymes in children with RF.

  5. Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Glutathione Precursor on Antioxidant Enzyme and Cell Survival in Yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Roh, Changhyun; Ryu, Taeho; Park, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Michael A. [Oxiage Cosmeceutical Research Institute, Virginia (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Cells react to such an induced oxidative stress through scavenging the generated reactive oxygen species to reduce oxidative damage. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase are immediately triggered for reactive oxygen species. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, is one of the antioxidants. The effect of NAC as an antioxidant and/or a cell rescue agent was investigated in the present study. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular thiol, which involves in antioxidant defense via direct interaction with ROS or via activities of detoxication enzymes like glutathione peroxidases (GPx). NAC flowed in the cell is converted to cysteine by deacetylation, that is supplied to the depleted GSH by oxidative stress. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity such as GPx and alkaline phosphatase. Cell growth and survivorship and transcriptional level of glutathione gene are analyzed in two yeast strains exposed to combined treatment of NAC with gamma-rays. The effect of NAC on cell growth was measured during 72 hours. The cell growth was hampered by higher concentrations of NAC at stationary phase. NAC, however, didn't affect the cell division at the exponential phase. The survival of the cells decreased with radiation dose. The cell viability of the strain W303-1A was reduced significantly at the low dose (10 and 30 Gy). By comparison, the strain W303-1A was more sensitive to radiation with having a half lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of about 20 Gy. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional expression of antioxidant enzyme gene GPX1 increased after irradiation while the expression of the gene decreased by the combined treatment of NAC with 100 Gy radiation. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge ROS against oxidative stress in vivo. In conclusion, NAC can prevent radiation-induced oxidative

  6. Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Glutathione Precursor on Antioxidant Enzyme and Cell Survival in Yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Roh, Changhyun; Ryu, Taeho; Park, Jiyoung; Nili, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Cells react to such an induced oxidative stress through scavenging the generated reactive oxygen species to reduce oxidative damage. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase are immediately triggered for reactive oxygen species. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, is one of the antioxidants. The effect of NAC as an antioxidant and/or a cell rescue agent was investigated in the present study. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular thiol, which involves in antioxidant defense via direct interaction with ROS or via activities of detoxication enzymes like glutathione peroxidases (GPx). NAC flowed in the cell is converted to cysteine by deacetylation, that is supplied to the depleted GSH by oxidative stress. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity such as GPx and alkaline phosphatase. Cell growth and survivorship and transcriptional level of glutathione gene are analyzed in two yeast strains exposed to combined treatment of NAC with gamma-rays. The effect of NAC on cell growth was measured during 72 hours. The cell growth was hampered by higher concentrations of NAC at stationary phase. NAC, however, didn't affect the cell division at the exponential phase. The survival of the cells decreased with radiation dose. The cell viability of the strain W303-1A was reduced significantly at the low dose (10 and 30 Gy). By comparison, the strain W303-1A was more sensitive to radiation with having a half lethal dose (LD 50 ) of about 20 Gy. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional expression of antioxidant enzyme gene GPX1 increased after irradiation while the expression of the gene decreased by the combined treatment of NAC with 100 Gy radiation. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge ROS against oxidative stress in vivo. In conclusion, NAC can prevent radiation-induced oxidative stress by

  7. Therapeutic Hypothermia Reduces Oxidative Damage and Alters Antioxidant Defenses after Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenhaar, Fernanda S.; Medeiros, Tássia M.; Heemann, Fernanda M.; Behling, Camile S.; Putti, Jordana S.; Mahl, Camila D.; Verona, Cleber; da Silva, Ana Carolina A.; Guerra, Maria C.; Gonçalves, Carlos A. S.; Oliveira, Vanessa M.; Riveiro, Diego F. M.; Vieira, Silvia R. R.

    2017-01-01

    After cardiac arrest, organ damage consequent to ischemia-reperfusion has been attributed to oxidative stress. Mild therapeutic hypothermia has been applied to reduce this damage, and it may reduce oxidative damage as well. This study aimed to compare oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in patients treated with controlled normothermia versus mild therapeutic hypothermia during postcardiac arrest syndrome. The sample consisted of 31 patients under controlled normothermia (36°C) and 11 patients treated with 24 h mild therapeutic hypothermia (33°C), victims of in- or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Parameters were assessed at 6, 12, 36, and 72 h after cardiac arrest in the central venous blood samples. Hypothermic and normothermic patients had similar S100B levels, a biomarker of brain injury. Xanthine oxidase activity is similar between hypothermic and normothermic patients; however, it decreases posthypothermia treatment. Xanthine oxidase activity is positively correlated with lactate and S100B and inversely correlated with pH, calcium, and sodium levels. Hypothermia reduces malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, markers of oxidative damage. Concomitantly, hypothermia increases the activity of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase while decreasing the activity of serum paraoxonase-1. These findings suggest that mild therapeutic hypothermia reduces oxidative damage and alters antioxidant defenses in postcardiac arrest patients. PMID:28553435

  8. EFFECTS OF PROLONGED EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE IN ENDURANCE HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Kinnunen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress during prolonged endurance exercise may end up with muscle damage, fatigue and decreased physical performance. We have recently shown that acute exercise at moderate intensity induced lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC in trained trotters. The aim of this study was to measure the changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defense following an 80-km ride in the blood of endurance horses. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the ride. Unlike to our previous studies performed on trotters, in endurance horses there were no measurable changes in antioxidants or oxidative stress marker lipid hydroperoxides (LPO after prolonged exercise. ORAC, vitamin E and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO concentration or glutathione related enzyme activities were not altered due to the 80-km ride. However, the base line levels of oxidative stress marker were higher in endurance horses compared to trotters. A positive correlation between the pre-ride LPO concentration and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity after the ride was observed, which may indicate a protective response of glutathione peroxidase against exercise-induced oxidative stress. Our results suggest that endurance horses have higher oxidative stress levels compared to trotters and a single 80-km ride probably did not suffice to induce oxidative stress and to activate antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  9. Antioxidant properties, selected enzyme inhibition capacities, and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant properties, the inhibition of selected enzyme activities of ultrasonication-assisted mango seed kernel extract (MSKE), and to evaluate the physical stability and skin irritation properties of a cosmetic cream formulated with MSKE. Methods: Choke-Anan MSKE and a Kaew cultivar of Thai ...

  10. Water stress induced changes in antioxidant enzymes, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water stress induced changes in antioxidant enzymes membrane stablity index and seed protein profiling of four different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions (011251, 011417, 011320 and 011393) were determined in a pot study under natural condition during the wheat-growing season 2005 and 2006. Sampling was ...

  11. Diurnal gradual heat stress affects antioxidant enzymes, proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... stresses, heat stress influences photosynthesis, cellular and subcellular membrane components, protein content in cell and antioxidant enzyme activity; thereby signifi- cantly limiting crop production (Georgieva, 1999). Heat stress also induces oxidative stress in plants caused by the generation and the ...

  12. Inorganic Arsenic Induces NRF2-Regulated Antioxidant Defenses in Both Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Duan, Xiaoxu; Li, Jinlong; Zhao, Shuo; Li, Wei; Zhao, Lu; Li, Wei; Nie, Huifang; Sun, Guifang; Li, Bing

    2016-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic is reported to induce the reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress, which is supposed to be one of the main mechanisms of arsenic-related neurological diseases. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of antioxidant defense systems, up-regulates the expression of target genes to fight against oxidative damages caused by harmful substances, including metals. In the present study, mice were used as a model to investigate the oxidative stress levels and the expressions of NRF2-regulated antioxidant substances in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg NaAsO2 exposure intra-gastrically. Our results showed that acute NaAsO2 treatment resulted in decreased total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC) and increased maleic dialdehyde production in the nervous system. We also detected rapidly elevation of NRF2 protein levels by enhancement of Nrf2 transcription, especially at 20 mg/kg NaAsO2 exposure group. In the meantime, mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 encoding antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were consistently elevated time- and dose-dependently both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Taken together, the presence study demonstrated the activation of NRF2 pathway, an early antioxidant defensive response, in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus upon inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure in vivo. A better knowledge on the roles of NRF2 pathway in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis would be helpful for the strategies on improvement of neurotoxicity related to this metalloid.

  13. Antioxidant defense in Plasmodium falciparum – data mining of the transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginsburg Hagai

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The intraerythrocytic malaria parasite is under constant oxidative stress originating both from endogenous and exogenous processes. The parasite is endowed with a complete network of enzymes and proteins that protect it from those threats, but also uses redox activities to regulate enzyme activities. In the present analysis, the transcription of the genes coding for the antioxidant defense elements are viewed in the time-frame of the intraerythrocytic cycle. Time-dependent transcription data were taken from the transcriptome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Whereas for several processes the transcription of the many participating genes is coordinated, in the present case there are some outstanding deviations where gene products that utilize glutathione or thioredoxin are transcribed before the genes coding for elements that control the levels of those substrates are transcribed. Such insights may hint to novel, non-classical pathways that necessitate further investigations.

  14. Antioxidant enzymes in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval): are they enhanced to protect gut tissues during oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    The Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis is a polyphagous insect attacking a number of plant species including those belonging to the Solanaceae and Cruciferaceae families. Its digestive physiology must therefore adapt to the food plant to ensure maximum extraction of nutrients with minimum trade-off in terms of growth retardation by pro-oxidant allelochemicals. To investigate this, the caterpillars of S. littoralis were fed on a semi-artificial diet (Manduca Premix-Heliothis Premix) and for 24 h on potato plants (Solanum tuberosum), respectively, at the mature 6th instar, and the levels of oxidative radicals and antioxidant enzymes in their guts were compared. The gut pH, standard redox potential (Eh) and electron availability (pe) revealed that oxidizing conditions prevail which promote oxidation of pro-oxidant allelochemicals in foliage. Oxidative stress in the foregut and midgut tissue and the gut contents was assessed from the generation of superoxide radical, total peroxide content and protein carbonyl content. Antioxidant defense was measured by the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and glutathione S-transferase peroxidase (GSTpx). A significant (p enzymes SOD (in midgut tissues), CAT (in foregut, midgut tissue and contents), APOX (in foregut contents, midgut tissue and contents) and GSTpx (in foregut tissues) was recorded on the plant diet in comparison to the semi-artificial diet. The pro-oxidant allelochemicals in the plant diet are thus eliminated by the insect at the expense of up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes in response to increased oxidative stress from oxidizable allelochemicals. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased concentrations of antioxidants form an important component of the defense of herbivorous insects against both exogenous and endogenous oxidative radicals.

  15. Nigella sativa fixed and essential oil improves antioxidant status through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Karim, Roselina; Ahmad, Nisar; Ahmad, Rabia Shabbir; Ahmad, Waqas

    2015-03-01

    The onset of 21st century witnessed the awareness among the masses regarding the diet-health linkages. The researchers attempted to explore traditional products/plants were in the domain of pharmacy and nutrition focussing on their health benefits. In the present research intervention, we investigate the role of Nigella sativa fixed oil (NSFO) and essential oil (NSEO) in improving antioxidant status and modulation of enzymes. The National Institute of Health (NIH) provided us 30 Sprague Dawley rats that were equally placed in three groups. The groups were fed on their respective diets (56 days) two experimental diets i.e. D2 (NSFO @ 4.0%) and D3 (NSEO @ 0.30%) and control. The indices pertaining to antioxidant status, antioxidant enzymes, and parameters pertaining to immunity were evaluated at 4 weeks interval. The experimental diets (NSFO@ 4.0% & NSEO@ 0.30%) modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes i.e., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), positively. Indices of antioxidant status like tocopherols and glutathione were in linear relationship with that of GPx, GR and GST (PNigella sativa are effective in improving the indices pertaining to antioxidant status, however, the immune boosting potential needs further clarification. However, authors are of the view that there is need to explore the molecular targets of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils. Findings from such studies would be useful to validate this instant study for health promoting potential against diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders.

  16. A Systematic Review of Oxidative Stress and Safety of Antioxidants in Diabetes: Focus on Islets and Their Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayakumar Karunakaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic complications, especially β-cell dysfunction and failure. Under physiological conditions, reactive oxygen species serve as second messengers that facilitate signal transduction and gene expression in pancreatic β-cells. However, under pathological conditions, an imbalance in redox homeostasis leads to aberrant tissue damage and β-cell death due to a lack of antioxidant defense systems. Taking into account the vulnerability of islets to oxidative damage, induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes or exogenous antioxidant administration has been proposed as a way to protect β-cells against diabetic insults. Here, we consider recent insights into how the redox response becomes deregulated under diabetic conditions, as well as the therapeutic benefits of antioxidants, which may provide clues for developing strategies aimed at the treatment or prevention of diabetes associated with β-cell failure.

  17. EFFECTS OF SALT CONCENTRATIONS ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY OF GRAIN SORGHUM

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    Ridvan Temizgul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine salt response of grain sorghum (Sureno plants through antioxidant defense enzymes and to determine their salt resistanceat biochemical level. Sorghum plants were grown in climate chambers for 15 days in 3 replications in Hoagland growth medium under different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mM. At the end of growing period, roots and leaves were separated and the effects of salt stress were assessed spectrophotometrically through antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll and carotenes. Root CAT increased until 100 mM, SOD, APX and GST activities increased with increasing salt concentrations until 150 mM and then they all decreased. Increasing salt concentrations elevated MDA accumulation in sorghum roots. Leaf SOD and APX activities and proline contents increased until 150 mM and CAT, GR and GST activities increased until 100 mM and then they all decreased. Leaf MDA contents also increased with higher salt concentrations. However, increasing salt concentrations decreased chlorophyll contents at 100 mM, carotene contents increased until 150 mM and then decreased. Although ascending antioxidant enzyme activity improved salt resistance of sorghum plants, increasing concentrations were not found to be sufficient. Thus, further studies with higher concentrations should be carried out to elucidate the case.

  18. Ginsan activated the antioxidant defense systems in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Jung, In Sung; Yun, Yeon Sook [KIRMS Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, has hematopoietic activity and is also known as a good biological-response modifier. In this investigation, we studied the effects of ginsan on the {gamma}-radiation induced alterations of some antioxidant systems in spleen of Balb/c mice. There are many data that irradiation induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which plays an important causative role in radiation damage of cell. The level of ROS in cells is regulated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems. The most powerful ones among them are superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide anion radical o{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, catalase deactivating h-2O{sub 2} and reduced glutathion (GSH) detoxifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and other ROS> At the 5{sub th} day after sublethal whole body irradiation, splenocytes of irradiated mice expressed only marginally increased levels of Mn-SOD, however, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase, thioredoxine reductase (TR) and thioredoxine (TRX) mRNA (135% increase compared to control), however, the combination of irradiation with ginsan increased the SODs and GPX production more effectively. In addition to the above results, we obtained the similar data of protein expression. The enzyme activities of SOD, catalase, and GPX of ginsan-treated and irradiated mice were significantly enhanced by 140, 115, 126% respectively, compared with those of irradiated mice. Based on these results, we propose that the induction of antioxidant enzymes of ginsan is at least in part due to its capacity to protect against radiation.

  19. Pomegranate peel extract decreases small intestine lipid peroxidation by enhancing activities of major antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Blachier, François; Faure, Patrice; Garrel, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE) contains several compounds with antioxidative properties. PPE added to foods may interact with endogenous antioxidants and promote health. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanisms by which PPE exerts their actions on tissues of biological systems in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PPE on activities of antioxidant enzymes. Mice were used to investigate the effects of PPE on plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tissue MDA content and activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2 and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the small intestine, liver and skeletal muscle - different tissues involved in the digestion, absorption and metabolism of dietary nutrients. Control mice were fed a standard diet, whereas treated mice were fed for 40 days with the standard diet containing 5% or 10% PPE. Mice fed the 10% PPE diet exhibited lower plasma MDA concentrations, reduced content of MDA in the small intestine and liver and higher levels of SOD1 and GPX activities in the small intestine compared to mice fed the control diet. These findings demonstrate that intake of PPE in diet attenuates small intestine lipid peroxidation and strengthens the first line of small intestine antioxidant defense by enhancing enzymatic antioxidative pathways. PPE is worthy of further study as a therapeutic approach to prevent peroxidative stress-induced gut pathogenesis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Antioxidant defense parameters as predictive biomarkers for fermentative capacity of active dried wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    The production of active dried yeast (ADY) is a common practice in industry for the maintenance of yeast starters and as a means of long term storage. The process, however, causes multiple cell injuries, with oxidative damage being one of the most important stresses. Consequentially, dehydration tolerance is a highly appreciated property in yeast for ADY production. In this study we analyzed the cellular redox environment in three Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains, which show markedly different fermentative capacities after dehydration. To measure/quantify the effect of dehydration on the S. cerevisiae strains, we used: (i) fluorescent probes; (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities; (ii) intracellular damage; (iii) antioxidant metabolites; and (iv) gene expression, to select a minimal set of biochemical parameters capable of predicting desiccation tolerance in wine yeasts. Our results show that naturally enhanced antioxidant defenses prevent oxidative damage after wine yeast biomass dehydration and improve fermentative capacity. Based on these results we chose four easily assayable parameters/biomarkers for the selection of industrial yeast strains of interest for ADY production: trehalose and glutathione levels, and glutathione reductase and catalase enzymatic activities. Yeast strains selected in accordance with this process display high levels of trehalose, low levels of oxidized glutathione, a high induction of glutathione reductase activity, as well as a high basal level and sufficient induction of catalase activity, which are properties inherent in superior ADY strains. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Stage-specific distribution of oxidative radicals and antioxidant enzymes in the midgut of Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor; Turanli, Ferit; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2007-01-01

    The titers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represented by superoxide anion and general peroxides, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), are regulated in the midgut of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) relative to the gut compartment, developmental stage, and food intake. ROS concentration is low in the potato leaves but it is very high in their digest in insect's anterior midgut. It is proposed that intensive ROS production in this gut region is linked to the processing of allelochemicals. SOD and CAT activities, low oxygen tension, and unidentified redox systems that maintain a slightly reducing milieu in the midgut lumen (pe+pH=6.95 declining to 5.36), obviously contribute to the decrease of ROS concentration along the gut length to a minimum in the wall of posterior midgut region. SOD and CAT activities are higher in the potato leaves than in the midgut tissues but the role of plant enzymes in ROS elimination within the gut lumen remains to be shown. A lower level of ROS and a higher antioxidant potential in the adult than in the larval midgut indicate stage specificity in the management of oxidative stress. The antioxidant defense is high in the diapausing adults that contain no detectable superoxide and about ten times less peroxides than the reproducing adults.

  2. Assessment of the effect of silicon on antioxidant enzymes in cotton plants by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Moldes, Carlos; Fontão de Lima Filho, Oscar; Manuel Camiña, José; Gabriela Kiriachek, Soraya; Lia Molas, María; Mui Tsai, Siu

    2013-11-27

    Silicon has been extensively researched in relation to the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress, as an element triggering defense mechanisms which activate the antioxidant system. Furthermore, in some species, adding silicon to unstressed plants modifies the activity of certain antioxidant enzymes participating in detoxifying processes. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of unstressed cotton plants fertilized with silicon (Si). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponic culture and added with increasing doses of potassium silicate; then, the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Using multivariate analysis, we found that silicon altered the activity of GPOX, APX, and CAT in roots and leaves of unstressed cotton plants, whereas lipid peroxidation was not affected. The analysis of these four variables in concert showed a clear differentiation among Si treatments. We observed that enzymatic activities in leaves and roots changed as silicon concentration increased, to stabilize at 100 and 200 mg Si L(-1) treatments in leaves and roots, respectively. Those alterations would allow a new biochemical status that could be partially responsible for the beneficial effects of silicon. This study might contribute to adjust the silicon application doses for optimal fertilization, preventing potential toxic effects and unnecessary cost.

  3. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Hossain, Md Shahadat; Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Rahman, Anisur; Inafuku, Masashi; Oku, Hirosuke; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-20

    Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG), which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III), has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH) acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated action of

  4. Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

  5. Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plants. SNAP (50 μM was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt stress negatively affected growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

  6. Catalase, a remarkable enzyme: targeting the oldest antioxidant enzyme to find a new cancer treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Christophe; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2017-09-26

    This review is centered on the antioxidant enzyme catalase and will present different aspects of this particular protein. Among them: historical discovery, biological functions, types of catalases and recent data with regard to molecular mechanisms regulating its expression. The main goal is to understand the biological consequences of chronic exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide leading to cellular adaptation. Such issues are of the utmost importance with potential therapeutic extrapolation for various pathologies. Catalase is a key enzyme in the metabolism of H2O2 and reactive nitrogen species, and its expression and localization is markedly altered in tumors. The molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of catalase, the oldest known and first discovered antioxidant enzyme, are not completely elucidated. As cancer cells are characterized by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a rather altered expression of antioxidant enzymes, these characteristics represent an advantage in terms of cell proliferation. Meanwhile, they render cancer cells particularly sensitive to an oxidant insult. In this context, targeting the redox status of cancer cells by modulating catalase expression is emerging as a novel approach to potentiate chemotherapy.

  7. Threonine modulates immune response, antioxidant status and gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Ren, Mingchun; Liu, Bo; Ge, Xianping; Xie, Jun; Chen, Ruli

    2016-04-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of graded dietary threonine (Thr) levels (0.58-2.58%) on the hematological parameters, immune response, antioxidant status and hepatopancreatic gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream. For this purpose, 3 tanks were randomly arranged and assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were fed with their respective diet to apparent satiation 4 times daily. The results indicated that white blood cell, red blood cell and haemoglobin significantly responded to graded dietary Thr levels, while hematocrit didn't. Complement components (C3 and C4), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), immunoglobulin M (IgM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) increased with increasing dietary Thr levels up to 1.58-2.08% and thereafter tended to decrease. Dietary Thr regulated the gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CAT, GPx1, glutathione S-transferase mu (GST), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (ALDOB); while the gene expression of peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) was not significantly modified by graded Thr levels. These genes are involved in different functions including antioxidant, immune, and defense responses, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Therefore, this study could provide a new molecular tool for studies in fish immunonutrition and shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that dietary Thr improved the antioxidant and immune capacities of fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. PMID:16425366

  9. Trace minerals status and antioxidant enzymes activities in calves with dermatophytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, Khaled M; Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; Al-Shyyab, Maysa'a M

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of trace minerals Zn, Cu, and Se, the effect of dermatophytosis on the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, the status of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, and the relationship between the mentioned trace minerals and antioxidant defense system in calves with dermatophytosis. A total of 21 Holstein calves with clinically established diagnosis of dermatophytosis and an equal number of healthy ones were included in this study. Results showed that 81% of mycotic isolates were Trichophyton verrucosum, while 19% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The level of Zn, Cu, Se, and glutathione (GSH) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly (P antioxidant enzyme activities might be secondary to changes in their cofactor concentrations.

  10. YCF1-Mediated Cadmium Resistance in Yeast Is Dependent on Copper Metabolism and Antioxidant Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenzhong; Smith, Nathan; Wu, Xiaobin; Kim, Heejeong; Seravalli, Javier; Khalimonchuk, Oleh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Acquisition and detoxification of metal ions are vital biological processes. Given the requirement of metallochaperones in cellular copper distribution and metallation of cuproproteins, this study investigates whether the metallochaperones also deliver metal ions for transporters functioning in metal detoxification. Results: Resistance to excess cadmium and copper of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is conferred by PCA1 and CaCRP1 metal efflux P-type ATPases, respectively, does not rely on known metallochaperones, Atx1p, Ccs1p, and Cox17p. Copper deficiency induced by the expression of CaCRP1 encoding a copper exporter occurs in the absence of Atx1p. Intriguingly, CCS1 encoding the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1p) is necessary for cadmium resistance that is mediated by Ycf1p, a vacuolar cadmium sequestration transporter. This is attributed to Ccs1p's role in the maturation of Sod1p rather than its direct interaction with Ycf1p for cadmium transfer. Functional defect in Ycf1p associated with the absence of Sod1p as well as another antioxidant enzyme Glr1p is rescued by anaerobic growth or substitutions of specific cysteine residues of Ycf1p to alanine or serine. This further supports oxidative inactivation of Ycf1p in the absence of Ccs1p, Sod1p, or Glr1p. Innovation: These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of metal metabolism, interaction among metal ions, and the roles for antioxidant systems in metal detoxification. Conclusion: Copper metabolism and antioxidant enzymes maintain the function of Ycf1p for cadmium defense. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1475–1489. PMID:24444374

  11. Oncogenic STAT5 signaling promotes oxidative stress in chronic myeloid leukemia cells by repressing antioxidant defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeais, Jerome; Ishac, Nicole; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Brachet-Botineau, Marie; Desbourdes, Laura; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valerie; Pecnard, Emmanuel; Rouleux-Bonnin, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Domenech, Jorge; Mazurier, Frederic; Moriggl, Richard; Bunting, Kevin D; Herault, Olivier; Gouilleux, Fabrice

    2017-06-27

    STAT5 transcription factors are frequently activated in hematopoietic neoplasms and are targets of various tyrosine kinase oncogenes. Evidences for a crosstalk between STAT5 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism have recently emerged but mechanisms involved in STAT5-mediated regulation of ROS still remain elusive. We demonstrate that sustained activation of STAT5 induced by Bcr-Abl in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells promotes ROS production by repressing expression of two antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutaredoxin-1(Glrx1). Downregulation of catalase and Glrx1 expression was also observed in primary cells from CML patients. Catalase was shown not only to reduce ROS levels but also, to induce quiescence in Bcr-Abl-positive leukemia cells. Furthermore, reduction of STAT5 phosphorylation and upregulation of catalase and Glrx1 were also evidenced in leukemia cells co-cultured with bone marrow stromal cells to mimic a leukemic niche. This caused downregulation of ROS levels and enhancement of leukemic cell quiescence. These data support a role of persistent STAT5 signaling in the regulation of ROS production in myeloid leukemias and highlight the repression of antioxidant defenses as an important regulatory mechanism.

  12. Brassinosteroids Denigrate the Seasonal Stress through Antioxidant Defense System in Seedlings of Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been undertaken to study the effect of exogenously application of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL on soluble protein, proline contents and antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. RLM 619 under the influence of seasonal stress. It was observed that 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL treatment enhance the soluble protein, dry weight and shoot length of B. juncea seedlings under seasonal stress. If seeds treated with the different concentrations (10-6, 10-8 and 10-10 M of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL revealed batter growth, protein and proline contents as compare to untreated seedlings. Similarly the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, APOX, DHAR, PPO and Auxinases were enhanced by the application of different concentration of both brassinosteroids, whereas MDA content was decrease with both brassinosteroids treatments. Then we have concluded that both brassinolides have the seasonal stress ameliorative properties in B. juncea seedlings grown under the influence of seasonal stress. This study culminates to the role of brassinolides as an anti-stress property for protection of plant from various types of stresses.

  13. Aging modifies daily variation of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative status in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, María Gabriela; Ponce, Ivana Tamara; Golini, Rebeca Laura; Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Anzulovich, Ana Cecilia

    2017-02-01

    Aging is a complex and multifactorial biological process that leads to the progressive deterioration of physiological systems, including the circadian system. In addition, oxidative stress has been associated with the aging of the normal brain and the development of late-onset neurodegenerative diseases. Even though, functional weakening of circadian rhythms and antioxidant function has been observed during aging, the mechanisms by which the circadian system signaling and oxidative stress are interrelated have not yet been elucidated. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the consequences of aging on the temporal organization of the antioxidant defense system and oxidative status as well as to analyze the endogenous clock activity, in the hippocampus of aged rats. Young adults (3-month-old) or older (22-month-old) male Holtzman rats were maintained under constant darkness conditions, during 15days before the sacrifice. Levels of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mRNA and activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipoperoxidation (LPO) and BMAL1 protein were analyzed in hippocampus samples isolated every 4h during a 24-h period. Locomotor activity was recorded during 20days before the experiment. Our results show that aging modifies temporal patterns of CAT and GPx expression and activity in the hippocampus in a different way. On the one hand, it abolishes the oscillating CAT expression and specific enzymatic activity while, on the other, it increases the mesor of circadian GPx activity rhythm (paged rats. Moreover, the nocturnal locomotor activity was reduced in the older animals in comparison to the young adult rats (pAging also abolished circadian rhythms of the core clock BMAL1 protein. The loss of temporal organization of the antioxidant enzymes activity, the oxidative status and the cellular clock machinery could result in a temporally altered antioxidant defense system in the aging brain. Learning about how aging affects the circadian system

  14. Interplay Between Oncoproteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in Esophageal Carcinoma Treated Without and With Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Tranum; Gupta, Rajesh; Vaiphei, Kim; Kapoor, Rakesh; Gupta, N.M.; Khanduja, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression changes and examine their relationship with various antioxidant enzymes in esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods and Materials: Patients in Group 1 underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and those in Group 2 were administered chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant therapy. Results: The relationship analysis among the various protein markers and antioxidant enzymes showed an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and superoxide dismutase/catalase in tumor tissues, irrespective of the treatment arm followed. An important positive association was observed between bcl-2 and reduced glutathione levels in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Another apoptosis-modulating marker, c-myc, in the tumor tissue of Group 2 patients showed similar pattern levels (high and low) as that of superoxide dismutase/catalase. The association of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 with various antioxidant enzymes showed a significant positive correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and catalase activity and an inverse trend between p53 expression and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the tumor tissue of patients given neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, patients with overexpressed p53 protein levels had lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels and vice versa in the tumor tissue of patients who had undergone surgery as their main mode of treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study broaden the insight into the relationships shared among oncoproteins and the antioxidant defense system, and this could be helpful in the clinical management of esophageal carcinoma

  15. Altered Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vávrová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, an increase of oxidative stress could play an important role which is closely linked with insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and chronic inflammation. The aim of our study was to assess several parameters of the antioxidant status in MetS. Methods: 40 subjects with MetS and 40 age- and sex-matched volunteers without MetS were examined for activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1, glutathione reductase (GR, paraoxonase1 (PON1, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH, and conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein (CD-LDL. Results: Subjects with MetS had higher activities of CuZnSOD (p Conclusions: Our results implicated an increased oxidative stress in MetS and a decreased antioxidative defense that correlated with some laboratory (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and clinical (waist circumference, blood pressure components of MetS.

  16. Gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in rice plants, cv. BRS AG, under saline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossatto, Tatiana; do Amaral, Marcelo Nogueira; Benitez, Letícia Carvalho; Vighi, Isabel Lopes; Braga, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel; de Magalhães Júnior, Ariano Martins; Maia, Mara Andrade Colares; da Silva Pinto, Luciano

    2017-10-01

    The rice cultivar ( Oryza sativa L.) BRS AG, developed by Embrapa Clima Temperado, is the first cultivar designed for purposes other than human consumption. It may be used in ethanol production and animal feed. Different abiotic stresses negatively affect plant growth. Soil salinity is responsible for a serious reduction in productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the gene expression and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR) and identify their functions in controlling ROS levels in rice plants, cultivar BRS AG, after a saline stress period. The plants were grown in vitro with two NaCl concentrations (0 and 136 mM), collected at 10, 15 and 20 days of cultivation. The results indicated that the activity of the enzymes evaluated promotes protection against oxidative stress. Although, there was an increase of reactive oxygen species, there was no increase in MDA levels. Regarding genes encoding isoforms of antioxidant enzymes, it was observed that OsSOD3 - CU/Zn , OsSOD2 - Cu/Zn , OsSOD - Cu/Zn , OsSOD4 - Cu/Zn , OsSODCc1 - Cu/Zn , OsSOD - Fe , OsAPX1 , OsCATB and OsGR2 were the most responsive. The increase in the transcription of all genes among evaluated isoforms, except for OsAPX6 , which remained stable, contributed to the increase or the maintenance of enzyme activity. Thus, it is possible to infer that the cv. BRS AG has defense mechanisms against salt stress.

  17. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Ameliorates Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and Improves Replicative Senescence-Associated Oxidative Stress in Human Myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Cian Khor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants (α-tocopherol (ATF and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC. Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our data showed that replicative senescence increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in myoblasts. Treatment with TRF significantly diminished ROS production and decreased lipid peroxidation in senescent myoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1 was modulated by TRF treatment, with increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione peroxidase in senescent myoblasts. In comparison to ATF and NAC, TRF was more efficient in heightening the antioxidant capacity and reducing free radical insults. These results suggested that TRF is able to ameliorate antioxidant defense mechanisms and improves replicative senescence-associated oxidative stress in myoblasts.

  18. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Ameliorates Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and Improves Replicative Senescence-Associated Oxidative Stress in Human Myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Shy Cian; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Abdul Karim, Norwahidah; Makpol, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants ( α -tocopherol (ATF) and N -acetyl-cysteine (NAC)). Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our data showed that replicative senescence increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation in myoblasts. Treatment with TRF significantly diminished ROS production and decreased lipid peroxidation in senescent myoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) , catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) was modulated by TRF treatment, with increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione peroxidase in senescent myoblasts. In comparison to ATF and NAC, TRF was more efficient in heightening the antioxidant capacity and reducing free radical insults. These results suggested that TRF is able to ameliorate antioxidant defense mechanisms and improves replicative senescence-associated oxidative stress in myoblasts.

  19. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AND FRESH-CUT ARRACACHA QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hêmina Carla Vilela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The arracacha is an alternative of fresh-cut product; however it can be easily degraded after the processing techniques. The objective of this work was to evaluate the useful life of fresh-cut arracacha submitted to two types of cuts and storage, as well as to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The roots were selected, sanitized and submitted to two cut types: cubed and grated. Then they were evaluated at 3 times: 0, 3 and 7 days. The cutting in cubes provided higher quality and lower SOD, CAT and APX activity. However, the grated product presented higher PG activity and lower PPO activity. The microbiological safety and the nutritional value were maintained in both cuts during the whole storage period. The useful life, regarding the physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological aspects, can be established at 7 days under refrigeration for fresh-cut arracacha.

  20. Cultivated Sea Lettuce is a Multiorgan Protector from Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress by Enhancing the Endogenous Antioxidant Defense System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Ranjala; Liu, Yanxia; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    The health-promoting effects of seaweeds have been linked to antioxidant activity that may counteract cancer-causing oxidative stress-induced damage and inflammation. While antioxidant activity is commonly associated with direct radical scavenging activity, an alternative way to increase the antioxidant status of a cell is to enhance the endogenous (phase II) defense system consisting of cytoprotective antioxidant enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). These enzymes are transcriptionally regulated by the antioxidant response element (ARE) via the transcription factor Nrf2. Extracts derived from cultivated Ulva sp., a green alga regarded as a marine vegetable (sea lettuce), potently activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in IMR-32 neuroblastoma and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. RNA interference studies demonstrated that Nrf2 and PI3 kinase are essential for the phase II response in IMR-32 cells. Activity-enriched fractions induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and target gene transcription, and boosted the cellular glutathione level and therefore antioxidant status. A single-dose gavage feeding of Ulva-derived fractions increased Nqo1 transcript levels in various organs. Nqo1 induction spiked in different tissues, depending on the specific chemical composition of each administered fraction. We purified and characterized four ARE inducers in this extract, including loliolide (1), isololiolide (2), a megastigmen (3), and a novel chlorinated unsaturated aldehyde (4). The ARE-active fractions attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and Cox2 gene expression in macrophagic RAW264.7 cells, decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, respectively. Nqo1 activity and NO production were abrogated in nrf2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, providing a direct link between the induction of phase II response and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24005795

  1. Involvement of an antioxidant defense system in the adaptive response to cadmium in maize seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Liu, Cuiying; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Renying; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were used to investigate the growth response and antioxidant defense mechanism of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) grown in soils with 0-100 mg kg(-1) Cd. Results showed that maize seedlings have strong abilities to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd. For soil with 50 mg kg(-1) Cd, the Cd contents in roots and shoots of maize seedlings are as large as 295.6 and 153.0 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, without visible symptoms of toxicity. Lower soil Cd concentrations lead to a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of maize seedlings, whereas higher soil Cd concentrations resulted in an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase. Maize seedlings have strong capacities to adapt to low concentrations of Cd by consuming GSH and to develop an antioxidative enzyme system to defend against high-Cd stress.

  2. YCF1-mediated cadmium resistance in yeast is dependent on copper metabolism and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenzhong; Smith, Nathan; Wu, Xiaobin; Kim, Heejeong; Seravalli, Javier; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Lee, Jaekwon

    2014-10-01

    Acquisition and detoxification of metal ions are vital biological processes. Given the requirement of metallochaperones in cellular copper distribution and metallation of cuproproteins, this study investigates whether the metallochaperones also deliver metal ions for transporters functioning in metal detoxification. Resistance to excess cadmium and copper of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is conferred by PCA1 and CaCRP1 metal efflux P-type ATPases, respectively, does not rely on known metallochaperones, Atx1p, Ccs1p, and Cox17p. Copper deficiency induced by the expression of CaCRP1 encoding a copper exporter occurs in the absence of Atx1p. Intriguingly, CCS1 encoding the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1p) is necessary for cadmium resistance that is mediated by Ycf1p, a vacuolar cadmium sequestration transporter. This is attributed to Ccs1p's role in the maturation of Sod1p rather than its direct interaction with Ycf1p for cadmium transfer. Functional defect in Ycf1p associated with the absence of Sod1p as well as another antioxidant enzyme Glr1p is rescued by anaerobic growth or substitutions of specific cysteine residues of Ycf1p to alanine or serine. This further supports oxidative inactivation of Ycf1p in the absence of Ccs1p, Sod1p, or Glr1p. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of metal metabolism, interaction among metal ions, and the roles for antioxidant systems in metal detoxification. Copper metabolism and antioxidant enzymes maintain the function of Ycf1p for cadmium defense.

  3. Differences in associations between markers of antioxidative defense and asthma are sex specific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Tine Halsen; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Helle R

    2010-01-01

    on a screening questionnaire, random sampling, or both. Serum selenium concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione reductase [GR], and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PD]) in erythrocytes were measured. Asthma was defined as either...

  4. Defense Enzyme Responses in Dormant Wild Oat and Wheat Caryopses Challenged with a Seed Decay Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds have well-established passive physical and chemical defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. However, there are few studies evaluating potential biochemical defenses of dormant seeds against pathogens. Caryopsis decay by the pathogenic Fusarium avenaceum strain F.a.1 was relatively rapid in wild oat (Avena fatua L. isoline “M73,” with >50% decay after 8 days with almost no decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. RL4137. Thus, this fungal strain has potential for selective decay of wild oat relative to wheat. To study defense enzyme activities, wild oat and wheat caryopses were incubated with F.a.1 for 2–3 days. Whole caryopses were incubated in assay reagents to measure extrinsic defense enzyme activities. Polyphenol oxidase, exochitinase, and peroxidase were induced in whole caryopses, but oxalate oxidase was reduced, in response to F.a.1 in both species. To evaluate whether defense enzyme activities were released from the caryopsis surface, caryopses were washed with buffer and enzyme activity was measured in the leachate. Significant activities of polyphenol oxidase, exochitinase, and peroxidase, but not oxalate oxidase, were leached from caryopses. Defense enzyme responses were qualitatively similar in the wild oat and wheat genotypes evaluated. Although the absolute enzyme activities were generally greater in whole caryopses than in leachates, the relative degree of induction of polyphenol oxidase, exochitinase, and peroxidase by F.a.1 was greater in caryopsis leachates, indicating that a disproportionate quantity of the induced activity was released into the environment from the caryopsis surface, consistent with their assumed role in defense. It is unlikely that the specific defense enzymes studied here play a key role in the differential susceptibility to decay by F.a.1 in these two genotypes since defense enzyme activities were greater in the more susceptible wild

  5. Defense Enzyme Responses in Dormant Wild Oat and Wheat Caryopses Challenged with a Seed Decay Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, E Patrick; James, Matthew S; Pollard, Anne T; Okubara, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    Seeds have well-established passive physical and chemical defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. However, there are few studies evaluating potential biochemical defenses of dormant seeds against pathogens. Caryopsis decay by the pathogenic Fusarium avenaceum strain F.a .1 was relatively rapid in wild oat ( Avena fatua L.) isoline "M73," with >50% decay after 8 days with almost no decay in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) var. RL4137. Thus, this fungal strain has potential for selective decay of wild oat relative to wheat. To study defense enzyme activities, wild oat and wheat caryopses were incubated with F.a .1 for 2-3 days. Whole caryopses were incubated in assay reagents to measure extrinsic defense enzyme activities. Polyphenol oxidase, exochitinase, and peroxidase were induced in whole caryopses, but oxalate oxidase was reduced, in response to F.a .1 in both species. To evaluate whether defense enzyme activities were released from the caryopsis surface, caryopses were washed with buffer and enzyme activity was measured in the leachate. Significant activities of polyphenol oxidase, exochitinase, and peroxidase, but not oxalate oxidase, were leached from caryopses. Defense enzyme responses were qualitatively similar in the wild oat and wheat genotypes evaluated. Although the absolute enzyme activities were generally greater in whole caryopses than in leachates, the relative degree of induction of polyphenol oxidase, exochitinase, and peroxidase by F.a .1 was greater in caryopsis leachates, indicating that a disproportionate quantity of the induced activity was released into the environment from the caryopsis surface, consistent with their assumed role in defense. It is unlikely that the specific defense enzymes studied here play a key role in the differential susceptibility to decay by F.a .1 in these two genotypes since defense enzyme activities were greater in the more susceptible wild oat, compared to

  6. Antioxidant Enzymes and Certain Trace Elements Values in Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kady, M.M.; Al-Maghraby, D.F.; Mohammed, S.K.; Anees, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and accumulation of oxygen free radicals is a pathophysiological process leading to disadvantageous outcomes in diabetic pregnancies. Diabetes in pregnancy increases perinatal morbidity and mortality of both mother and her newborn. This study aimed to gain a view of antioxidant defense in the blood of infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) and to clarify the relation among serum copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se) and antioxidant enzymes in these infants. For this reason, 25 infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) were investigated. Twenty five newborns of healthy mothers served as a control group. Anthropometric and clinical evaluations were assessed in both groups. Laboratory investigations were performed including complete blood picture, direct and total bilirubin, serum Cu, Zn and Se. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD)and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (E-GSHPx) were assisted. This study displayed highly significant reduction in levels of E-SOD and E-GSHPx in IDMs and in the mean serum levels of Cu, Zn and Se as compared to controls. There was a negative significant correlation between serum Zinc and blood glucose, there was a positive correlation between serum copper concentration and both gestational age and length. It also showed a significant positive correlation between GSHPx and both gestational age and Apgar 1, and a significant positive correlation between E-SOD, Apgar 1 and Apgar 5. These results proved that there is a state of oxidative stress in IDMs, therefore, their oxidant and antioxidant status should be carefully considered and appropriate management should be organized during the pregnancy and in the early postnatal period, including antioxidant and micro nutrients supplementation

  7. Investigation of Baseline Antioxidant Enzyme Expression in Pocillopora damicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Richmond, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems in the world. Vital for maintaining ecological balance in coastal tropical environments, they also stand as the foundation for enormous cultural and economic resources. However, the continued degradation of coral reefs around the world, particularly within NOAA's Hawaii Marine Sanctuary, is an alarming call for action towards the identification of stressors and subsequent rehabilitation of these national treasures. Aligned with the goals of NOAA's National Marine Sanctuary to protect areas of the marine environment that are of special national significance to cultural, scientific, educational, and ecological values, this research targets addressing and standardizing antioxidant enzyme stress levels in Hawaiian coral over reproductive cycles in order to increase management aptitude and efficiency. By developing a greater understanding for biochemical biomarkers of stress in corals, specifically through the study of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity and expression, my research will aid in the adaptation and further development of biochemical tests to understand baseline thresholds of stress on coral reefs within Sanctuary waters. Slight, but significant variations in enzyme expression over reproductive time points alert us to modifications that must be made to consider fluctuating levels of coral susceptibility when sampling corals under stress. These findings will be applied to diagnostic tests describing the effect of different chemical pollutants on coral health in order to identify ecological issues and expand the knowledge of local communities and NOAA, so that steps can be taken to mitigate human Sanctuary impacts.

  8. Differential effects of dietary flavonoids on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in female rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S.T.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    1. Gavage administration of the natural flavonoids tangeretin, chrysin, apigenin, naringenin, genistein and quercetin for 2 consecutive weeks to the female rat resulted in differential effects on selected phase 1 and 2 enzymes in liver, colon and heart as well as antioxidant enzymes in red brood......, genistein, tangeretin and BNF. 5. The observed effects of chrysin, quercetin and genistein on antioxidant enzymes, concurrently with a protection against oxidative stress, suggest a feedback mechanism on the antioxidant enzymes triggered by the flavonoid antioxidants. 6. Despite the use of high flavonoid...... doses, which by far exceed the human exposure levels, the effect on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes was still very minor. The role of singly administered flavonoids in the protection against cancer and heart disease is thus expected to be limited....

  9. The 5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK Is Involved in the Augmentation of Antioxidant Defenses in Cryopreserved Chicken Sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Mong Diep Nguyen

    Full Text Available Semen cryopreservation is a unique tool for the management of animal genetic diversity. However, the freeze-thaw process causes biochemical and physical alterations which make difficult the restoration of sperm energy-dependent functions needed for fertilization. 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK is a key sensor and regulator of intracellular energy metabolism. Mitochondria functions are known to be severely affected during sperm cryopreservation with deleterious oxidative and peroxidative effects leading to cell integrity and functions damages. The aim of this study was thus to examine the role of AMPK on the peroxidation/antioxidant enzymes defense system in frozen-thawed sperm and its consequences on sperm functions. Chicken semen was diluted in media supplemented with or without AMPK activators (AICAR or Metformin [MET] or inhibitor (Compound C [CC] and then cryopreserved. AMPKα phosphorylation, antioxidant enzymes activities, mitochondrial potential, ATP, citrate, viability, acrosome reaction ability (AR and various motility parameters were negatively affected by the freeze-thaw process while reactive oxygen species (ROS production, lipid peroxidation (LPO and lactate concentration were dramatically increased. AICAR partially restored superoxide dismutase (SOD, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx and Glutathione Reductase (GR, increased ATP, citrate, and lactate concentration and subsequently decreased the ROS and LPO (malondialdehyde in frozen-thawed semen. Motility parameters were increased (i.e., + 23% for motility, + 34% for rapid sperm as well as AR (+ 100%. MET had similar effects as AICAR except that catalase activity was restored and that ATP and mitochondrial potential were further decreased. CC showed effects opposite to AICAR on SOD, ROS, LPO and AR and motility parameters. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that, upon freeze-thaw process, AMPK stimulated intracellular anti-oxidative defense enzymes through ATP regulation

  10. Studies on the hepatic antioxidant defense system in λ cyhalothrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    induced oxidative stress in fresh water tilapia ... Key words: Antioxidant status, λ cyhalothrin, lipid peroxidation, Oreochromis mossambicus, oxidative stress, synthetic pyrethroid. ..... and Stress: A case history for red–sore disease in largemouth bass.

  11. Castasterone confers copper stress tolerance by regulating antioxidant enzyme responses, antioxidants, and amino acid balance in B. juncea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Poonam; Kaur, Ravdeep; Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Sharma, Anket; Verma, Vinod; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of exogenous application of castasterone (CS) on physiologic and biochemical responses in Brassica juncea seedlings under copper (Cu) stress. Seeds were pre-soaked in different concentrations of CS and grown for 7 days under various levels of Cu. The exposure of B. juncea to higher levels of Cu led to decrease of morphologic parameters, with partial recovery of length and fresh weight in the CS pre-treated seedlings. Metal content was high in both roots and shoots under Cu exposure while the CS pre-treatment reduced the metal uptake. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide anion radical (O 2 - ) were chosen as stress biomarker and higher levels of H 2 O 2 (88.89%) and O 2 - (62.11%) showed the oxidative stress in metal treated B. juncea seedlings, however, CS pre-treatment reduced ROS accumulation in Cu-exposed seedlings. The Cu exposures lead to enhance the plant's enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system. It was observed that enzymatic activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione perxoidase (GPOX) and gultrathione-s-transferase increased while activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) decreased under Cu stress. The pre-treatment with CS positively affected the activities of enzymes. RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNA transcript levels were correlated with total enzymatic activity of DHAR, GR, GST and GSH. Increase in the gene expression of DHAR (1.85 folds), GR (3.24 folds), GST-1 (2.00 folds) and GSH-S (3.18 folds) was noticed with CS pre-treatment. Overall, the present study shows that Cu exposure induced severe oxidative stress in B. juncea plants and exogenous application of CS improved antioxidative defense system by modulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and amino acid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electronic cigarette aerosols suppress cellular antioxidant defenses and induce significant oxidative DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengatesh Ganapathy

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (EC aerosols contain unique compounds in addition to toxicants and carcinogens traditionally found in tobacco smoke. Studies are warranted to understand the public health risks of ECs.The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxicity and the mechanisms induced by EC aerosol extracts on human oral and lung epithelial cells.Cells were exposed to EC aerosol or mainstream smoke extracts and DNA damage was measured using the primer anchored DNA damage detection assay (q-PADDA and 8-oxo-dG ELISA assay. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured using standard methods. mRNA and protein expression were evaluated by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively.EC aerosol extracts induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of nicotine concentration. Overall, EC aerosol extracts induced significantly less DNA damage than mainstream smoke extracts, as measured by q-PADDA. However, the levels of oxidative DNA damage, as indicated by the presence of 8-oxo-dG, a highly mutagenic DNA lesion, were similar or slightly higher after exposure to EC aerosol compared to mainstream smoke extracts. Mechanistically, while exposure to EC extracts significantly increased ROS, it decreased TAC as well as the expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1, an enzyme essential for the removal of oxidative DNA damage.Exposure to EC aerosol extracts suppressed the cellular antioxidant defenses and led to significant DNA damage. These findings emphasize the urgent need to investigate the potential long-term cancer risk of exposure to EC aerosol for vapers and the general public.

  13. Purple potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) anthocyanins attenuate alcohol-induced hepatic injury by enhancing antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhihui; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jian; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Meng; Li, Xinsheng; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious and challenging health issue. In the past decade, natural components possessing hepatoprotective properties have gained more attention for ALD intervention. In this study, the phytochemical components of anthocyanins from purple potato were assessed using UPLC-MS/MS, and the hepatoprotective effects of purple potato anthocyanins (PPAs) were investigated in the ALD mouse model. Serum and liver biochemical parameters were determined, along with histopathological changes in liver tissue. In addition, the major contributors to alcohol-induced oxidative stress were assessed. The results indicated that the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were lower in the serum of the PPA-treated group than the alcohol-treated group. PPAs significantly inhibited the reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione enzymes as well as a reduction in the formation of malondialdehyde occurred in mice fed with PPAs. In addition, PPAs protected against increased alcohol-induced levels and activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which demonstrates the effects of PPAs against alcohol-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. This study suggests that PPAs could be an effective therapeutic agent in alcohol-induced liver injuries by inhibiting CYP2E1 expression and thereby strengthening antioxidant defenses.

  14. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... the aim of the present study was to investigate its effects on serum glucose and lipid levels as well as its effects on oxidative/antioxidative .... responsible for neurological and behavioural disturbances in sensitive individuals .... mental group when compared to the control group (figure 2). The level of lipid ...

  15. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... Since aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, ASP) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners, the aim of the present study was to investigate its effects on serum glucose and lipid levels as well as its effects on oxidative/antioxidative status in erythrocytes of rats. The experiment ...

  16. The protective role of Scoparia dulcis on tissue antioxidant defense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible antioxidant property of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis was tested in rats exposed to cadmium. Different groups of animals were treated with CdCl2 alone or in combination with graded levels of S. dulcis (i.e. 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body wt, respectively). Cadmium, a known prooxidant was administered ...

  17. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, ASP) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners, the aim of the present study was to investigate its effects on serum glucose and lipid levels as well as its effects on oxidative/antioxidative status in erythrocytes of rats. The experiment included two groups of ...

  18. Geraniol Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability and Its Multiple Effects on the Liver Antioxidant and Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Geraniol is a natural monoterpene showing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer effects. No pharmacokinetic and bioavailability data on geraniol are currently available. We therefore performed a systematic study to identify the permeation properties of geraniol across intestinal cells, and its pharmacokinetics and bioavailability after intravenous and oral administration to rats. In addition, we systematically investigated the potential hepatotoxic effects of high doses of geraniol on hepatic phase I, phase II and antioxidant enzymatic activities and undertook a hematochemical analysis on mice. Permeation studies performed via HPLC evidenced geraniol permeability coefficients across an in vitro model of the human intestinal wall for apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical transport of 13.10 ± 2.3 × 10-3 and 2.1 ± 0.1⋅× 10-3 cm/min, respectively. After intravenous administration of geraniol to rats (50 mg/kg, its concentration in whole blood (detected via HPLC decreased following an apparent pseudo-first order kinetics with a half-life of 12.5 ± 1.5 min. The absolute bioavailability values of oral formulations (50 mg/kg of emulsified geraniol or fiber-adsorbed geraniol were 92 and 16%, respectively. Following emulsified oral administration, geraniol amounts in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats ranged between 0.72 ± 0.08 μg/mL and 2.6 ± 0.2 μg/mL within 60 min. Mice treated with 120 mg/kg of geraniol for 4 weeks showed increased anti-oxidative defenses with no signs of liver toxicity. CYP450 enzyme activities appeared only slightly affected by the high dosage of geraniol.

  19. Oxidative stress and antioxidative enzyme activities in chronic kidney disease and different types of renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniewska, Joanna; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Domański, Maciej; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is on the rise all over the world. CKD is related to ageing of the society and high morbidity due to lifestyle diseases like diabetes, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. CKD is associated with increased oxidative stress generated by uremic toxicity, chronic inflammatory state, lack of vitamins and microelements, parenteral iron administration, and dialysis procedure itself. In terms of cellular physiology, erythrocytes and blood platelets in particular have effective enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative system. The most efficient enzymatic antioxidants include superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Glutathione is the leading non-enzymatic free radical scavenger. In CKD, antioxidative defense is impaired and the abnormal activity of the enzymes and glutathione concentration is described in literature. The imbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidative system efficiency takes part in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications. It contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. The severity of these processes depends on the type of renal replacement therapy; haemodialysis (HD) is more predisposing to such disorders than peritoneal dialysis (PD), or even conservative treatment. This can influence the outcome and the possibility of kidney transplantation. Moreover, the early function of kidney allograft seems to be dependent on perioperative antioxidative ability of platelets, which can play a potential protective role in kidney transplantation.

  20. Antioxidant enzymes as potential targets in cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Enzyme antioxidants: the next stage of pharmacological counterwork to the oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vavaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT, methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extracellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and bioeconomy.

  1. EFFECTS OF AGE INCREMENT AND 36-WEEK EXERCISE TRAINING ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND APOPTOSIS IN RAT HEART TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Ahmadiasl

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the onset of age-related changes in the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis and the vulnerability of the myocardium to oxidative stress following exercise training. Few studies have investigated the influence of the most prevalent life-prolonging strategy physical exercise, on the age increment alterations in the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis at mid age and to determine whether exercise-induced antioxidant defense system could attenuate lipid peroxidation. Thirty six male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to exercise trained (n = 18 and sedentary (n = 18 groups. The rats in the training group went under 12, 24 and 36 weeks of moderate exercise trainings (25 m·min-1 for 60-min with a 0% slope. Six sedentary controls were killed together with each exercise group at the end of the training programs. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and catalase (CAT activity in myocardial homogenates were unchanged by training irrespective of the protocol duration. However, an increased content of the TBARS was detected in hearts from both the 24 and 36-week trained and sedentary control rats when compared with their corresponding 12-week groups (p<0.01. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD remained unchanged after the 12-week training period whereas a significant increase was observed in heart homogenates of 24-week trained animals as compared with their sedentary controls (p<0.05. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX remained unchanged. The rates of apoptosis which was detected by ELISA assays, were significantly modified after 24 and 36-week of training (p<0.05. These results demonstrate that a long-term endurance training (24 weeks induced increases in SOD activities in rat myocardium and elicited a marked reduction in apoptosis rate. However, a shorter training program (12 weeks was not effective in increasing heart antioxidant defenses

  2. Role of antioxidant enzymes and small molecular weight antioxidants in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Paulina; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

    2013-10-01

    Cells in aerobic condition are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may induce damage to biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. In normal circumstances, the amount of ROS is counterbalanced by cellular antioxidant defence, with its main components-antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair and small molecular weight antioxidants. An imbalance between the production and neutralization of ROS by antioxidant defence is associated with oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many age-related and degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), affecting the macula-the central part of the retina. The retina is especially prone to oxidative stress due to high oxygen pressure and exposure to UV and blue light promoting ROS generation. Because oxidative stress has an established role in AMD pathogenesis, proper functioning of antioxidant defence may be crucial for the occurrence and progression of this disease. Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in ROS scavenging and changes of their expression or/and activity are reported to be associated with AMD. Therefore, the enzymes in the retina along with their genes may constitute a perspective target in AMD prevention and therapy.

  3. Sex hormones modulate circulating antioxidant enzymes: Impact of estrogen therapy

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    Francesco Bellanti

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Menopause is associated with significant change in antioxidant gene expression that in turn affects circulating redox state. Estrogens replacement therapy is able to prevent and counteract such modifications by acting as regulators of key antioxidant gene expression. These findings suggest that antioxidant genes are, almost in part, under the control of sex hormones, and that pathophysiology of the difference in gender disease may depend on the redox biology.

  4. Definition of regional dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes means of the dispersive analysis

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    Anatoly T. Bykov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In article application of the dispersive analysis for an estimation of dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes from region of constant residing, age, sex and the disease diagnosis is considered.

  5. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total proteins in Wistar rats. Christian E Odo, Okwesili FC Nwodo, Parker E Joshua, Chibuike S Ubani, Okon E Etim, Okechukwu PC Ugwu ...

  6. Effects of low dose radiation on antioxidant enzymes after radiotherapy of tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Gao Gang; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Liu Xiaoqiu; Wang Zhiquan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To search for effects of low dose radiation on the activities of antioxidant enzymes after radiotherapy of tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were all determined by chemical colorimetry. Results: Low dose radiation increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) in serum of tumor-bearing mice more markedly than those in the unirradiated controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GST, CAT in serum of tumor-bearing mice (d 5 , d 3 ) irradiated with 5cGy 6h before 2.0 Gy radiation are obviously higher than those of the group (c 3 , c 5 ) given with radiotherapy only. Conclusion: The increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum of tumor-bearing mice triggered by low dose radiation could partly contribute to the protective mechanism. (authors)

  7. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....

  8. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

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    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  9. Antioxidant properties, selected enzyme inhibition capacities, and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    components of a healthy and balanced diet. [3]. Currently, the use of natural antioxidants in cosmetics is of increasing interest. Previous studies show that oxidative stress, is the major cause of skin ageing and is an over production of ROS and a reduction of antioxidant activity with age [4]. Moreover, plant polyphenols have ...

  10. Strain-Related Differences on Response of Liver and Kidney Antioxidant Defense System in Two Rat Strains Following Diazinon Exposure

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    Maryam Salehi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diazinon (DZN is one of the most organophosphates that widely used in agriculture and ectoparasiticide formulations. Its extensive use as an effective pesticide was associated with the environmental deleterious effects on biological systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of DZN to affect serum biochemical parameters and the antioxidant defense system in the liver and kidney of two rat strains. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 30 female Wistar and 30 female Norway rats were randomly divided into control and DZN groups. DZN group was divided into four subgroups: 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of DZN administered groups by i.p. injection. The parameters were evaluated after 24 hours. Results At higher doses of DZN, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney of Wistar rats were higher than Norway rats. At these concentrations, DZN increased some serum biochemical indices such as liver enzymes activities and levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in Wistar rat. Conclusions DZN at higher doses alters the oxidant-antioxidant balance in liver and kidney of both rat strains and induces oxidative stress, which is associated with a depletion of GSH and increased lipid peroxidation. However, Wistar rats are found to be more sensitive to the toxicity of DZN compared to Norway rats. In addition, the effect of DZN on liver antioxidant system was more than kidney.

  11. Physiological and pharmacological inductors of HSP70 enhance the antioxidative defense mechanisms of the liver and pancreas in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrovska, Maja; Dervisevik, Mirsada; Cipanovska, Natasa; Gerazova, Katerina; Dinevska-Kjovkarovska, Suzana; Miova, Biljana

    2018-02-01

    Heat preconditioning (HP) is a powerful adaptive and protective phenomenon and the heat stress proteins (HSPs) it produces are an important determinant for the development of diabetic complications. Aspirin has been reported to modulate heat shock response in different organisms through increased induction of HSPs and is also known to exert antioxidative and radical scavenging effects in diabetes. We estimated the effect of physiological (heat stress: 45 min at 41 ± 0.5 °C) and pharmacological (aspirin treatment) induction of HSP70 on several parameters of oxidative state in the pancreas and liver of diabetic rats. Diabetes increased HSP70 level and decreased poly(ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the pancreas. In the liver, there was reduction of HSP70 level, GSH concentration, and CAT activity, while GPx and GR activity were enhanced. HP of diabetic rats caused an additional increase of HSP70, GSH, and antioxidant enzymes in both organs. Pre-treatment of HP-diabetic animals with aspirin led to an additional increase of PARP and HSP70. Both HP and aspirin, as physiological and pharmacological inductors of HSP70, respectively, enhanced the antioxidative defense mechanisms of the liver and pancreas in diabetic rats.

  12. Caffeic acid and ferulic acid inhibit UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 through regulation of antioxidant defense system in keratinocyte HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Panich, Uraiwan

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of premature skin aging through keratinocyte cytotoxicity and degradation of collagen, a main component of the extracellular matrix providing structural support. Oxidative stress caused by UVA irradiation can mediate induction of matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1), a major enzyme responsible for collagen damage. Protection against UV-mediated disturbance of antioxidant defense system has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which botanical compounds slow down skin aging process. This study therefore aimed to assess inhibitory effects of caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), powerful plant-based phenolic antioxidants, on UVA-induced cytotoxicity and MMP-1 activity and mRNA level through modulation of antioxidant defense mechanism in immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Pretreatment of the cells with CA or FA prior to UVA irradiation inhibited cytotoxicity, induction of MMP-1 activity and mRNA and oxidant formation. Moreover, CA and FA were able to up-regulate glutathione (GSH) content, γ-glutamate cysteine ligase (γ-GCL) mRNA as well as activities and mRNA expression of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in irradiated cells. In conclusion, CA and FA provided protective effects on UVA-mediated MMP-1 induction in HaCaT cells possibly through restoration of antioxidant defense system at the cellular and molecular level. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  13. Antioxidant enzyme responses to hyperoxia in preterm and term rats after prenatal dexamethasone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, S E; Mathews, M J; Rassin, D K

    1993-02-01

    Although prenatal steroid therapy is known to enhance in utero maturation of the surfactant and antioxidant enzyme systems, little is known about the effects of steroids on the antioxidant system after birth. We measured activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, in lung homogenates from both preterm and term rat pups after prenatal dexamethasone treatment. Enzyme activities were measured at birth and after exposure to > 98% oxygen. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in significantly higher survival of the preterm pups at 24 h (91.3% for dexamethasone versus 57% for saline). In preterm pups, the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase at birth were higher after dexamethasone treatment (p < 0.05). However, after 24 h of hyperoxic exposure, there were no differences in activities of any of the antioxidant enzymes between the dexamethasone and control groups of prematurely born pups. In term pups, antioxidant enzyme activities did not differ significantly at birth; nor did they differ after 24 to 72 h of hyperoxic exposure in the dexamethasone and control treatment groups. Our results indicate that although prenatal dexamethasone treatment augments survival and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities at birth in preterm rat pups, dexamethasone does not result in altered early postnatal antioxidant enzyme activities after exposure to hyperoxia.

  14. Mechanisms of beauvericin toxicity and antioxidant cellular defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallebrera, Beatriz; Juan-Garcia, Ana; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose

    2016-03-30

    Beauvericin (BEA) is a secondary metabolite produced by many species of fungus Fusarium. This study determines the injury (cell viability, cell proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death and DNA damage) and the intracellular defense mechanisms (catalase and superoxide dismutase) in Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells after BEA exposure. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that BEA induces cytotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner in CHO-K1 cells. Moreover, disruption in mitochondrial enzymatic activity and cell proliferation has been observed after BEA exposure, which can lead or be consequence of cell death. BEA inhibits cell proliferation by arresting cells in G0/G1 and increasing apoptosis. Moreover, at higher exposure times, BEA induces differentiation of CHO-K1 cells through G2/M arrest, preventing that cells entry into mitosis. DNA strand breaks were observed at 1 μM after 24h of exposure. On the other hand, the SOD and CAT activities were increased after BEA exposure and as a defense system they could contribute to eliminate damage produced by BEA and oxidants products generated in CHO-K1 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The 6-a-day study: effects of fruit and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in healthy nonsmokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars Ove; Pedersen, A.; Hermetter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Fruit and vegetables contain both nutritive and nonnutritive factors that might contribute to redox (antioxidant and prooxidant) actions. Objective: We investigated the relative influence of nutritive and nonnutritive factors in fruit and vegetables on oxidative damage and enzymatic...... defense. Design: A 25-d intervention study with complete control of dietary intake was performed in 43 healthy male and female nonsmokers who were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. In addition to a basic diet devoid of fruit and vegetables, the fruit and vegetables (Fruveg) group received 600 g fruit...... and vegetables/d; the placebo group received a placebo pill, and the supplement group received a vitamin pill designed to contain vitamins and minerals corresponding to those in 600 g fruit and vegetables. Biomarkers of oxidative damage to protein and lipids and of antioxidant nutrients and defense enzymes were...

  16. Effects of dietary oxidized fish oil supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Larroquet, Laurence; Dias, Karine; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Heraud, Cécile; Corlay, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the response of the antioxidant defense system against dietary prooxidant conditions in rainbow trout juveniles. Fish (initial mean weight: 62 ± 1 g) were fed three fishmeal and plant-derived protein-based diets supplemented with 15% fresh fish oil (CTL diet), 15% fresh fish oil from tuna by-products (BYP diet) or 15% autooxidized fish oil (OX diet) over a 12-week growth trial at 17.5 ± 0.5 °C. No significant differences in growth performance were recorded between dietary groups. Muscle lipid content was reduced and n-6 PUFA levels were increased in rainbow trout fed diets BYP and OX compared to CTL. After 12 weeks of feeding, the level of lipid peroxidation products in muscle was not affected whereas the 8-isoprostane content in liver was increased in fish fed diet OX as well as plasma total and oxidized glutathione contents. The hepatic and muscle contents for α-tocopherol were decreased in fish fed BYP and OX. Hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and mRNA levels were not affected after 12 weeks of feeding, except for catalase and glutathione peroxidase 1b2 mRNA levels that were decreased in trout fed diet OX. Fish fed diet OX and BYP displayed also reduced cytosolic Nrf2 and both cytosolic and nuclear NF-κB protein levels in liver. The present work indicates that feeding rainbow trout juveniles with fresh fish oil from by-products or moderately oxidized lipid appears not to be detrimental to the growth performance of fish. The mechanisms beyond the control of the antioxidant defense system by moderately oxidized lipid require further investigations in rainbow trout juveniles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidative stress is associated with an increased antioxidant defense in elderly subjects: a multilevel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Flores-Mateo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs. We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px using multilevel statistical procedures. RESULTS: Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L, with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance =  013.5; P<0.001. Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively. CONCLUSION: In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population.

  18. Oxidative Stress Is Associated with an Increased Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Subjects: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Elosua, Roberto; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Basora-Gallisà, Josep; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Fiol, Miquel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Subirana, Isaac; Lapetra, José; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Sáez, Guillermo T.; Covas, Maria-Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs). We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) using multilevel statistical procedures. Results Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L), with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance = 1013.5; P<0.001). Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusion In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population. PMID:25269026

  19. Broad specificity AhpC-like peroxiredoxin and its thioredoxin reductant in the sparse antioxidant defense system of Treponema pallidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonage, Derek; Desrosiers, Daniel C.; Hazlett, Karsten R. O.; Sun, Yongcheng; Nelson, Kimberly J.; Cox, David L.; Radolf, Justin D.; Poole, Leslie B.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms by which Treponema pallidum (Tp), the causative agent of syphilis, copes with oxidative stress as it establishes persistent infection within its obligate human host. The Tp genomic sequence indicates that the bacterium’s antioxidant defenses do not include glutathione and are limited to just a few proteins, with only one, TP0509, offering direct defense against peroxides. Although this Tp peroxiredoxin (Prx) closely resembles AhpC-like Prxs, Tp lacks AhpF, the typical reductant for such enzymes. Functionally, TpAhpC resembles largely eukaryotic, nonAhpC typical 2-Cys Prx proteins in using thioredoxin (Trx, TP0919) as an efficient electron donor and exhibiting broad specificity toward hydroperoxide substrates. Unlike many of the eukaryotic Prxs, however, TpAhpC is relatively resistant to inactivation during turnover with hydroperoxide substrates. As is often observed in typical 2-Cys Prxs, TpAhpC undergoes redox-sensitive oligomer formation. Quantitative immunoblotting revealed that TpTrx and TpAhpC are present at very high levels (over 100 and 300 μM, respectively) in treponemes infecting rabbit testes; their redox potentials, at -242 ± 1 and -192 ± 2 mV, respectively, are consistent with the role of TpTrx as the cellular reductant of TpAhpC. Transcriptional analysis of select antioxidant genes confirmed the presence of high mRNA levels for ahpC and trx which diminish greatly when spirochetes replicate under in vitro growth conditions. Thus, T. pallidum has evolved an extraordinarily robust, broad-spectrum AhpC as its sole mechanism for peroxide defense to combat this significant threat to treponemal growth and survival during infection. PMID:20304799

  20. Analyses of antioxidant status and nucleotide alterations in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in patients with benign and malignant thyroid disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Siti Fatimah Ramli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Synthesis of thyroid hormones and regulation of their metabolism involve free radicals that may affect redox balance in the body. Thyroid disorders causing variations in the levels of thyroid hormones may alter cellular oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to measure the antioxidant activities and biomarkers of oxidative stress in serum and red blood cells (RBC of patients with benign and malignant thyroid disorders and to investigate if changes in the antioxidant activities in these patients were linked to alterations in genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes. Methods Forty-one patients with thyroid disorders from University of Malaya Medical Centre were recruited. They were categorised into four groups: multinodular goitre (MNG (n = 18, follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA (n = 7, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC (n = 10, and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC (n = 6. Serum and RBC of patients were analysed for antioxidant activities, antioxidant enzymes, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Alterations in genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes were analysed using whole exome sequencing and PCR–DNA sequencing. Results Patients with thyroid disorders had significantly higher serum superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities compared to control, but had lower activities in RBC. There were no significant changes in serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity. Meanwhile, GPx activity in RBC was reduced in PTC and FTC, compared to control and the respective benign groups. Antioxidant activities in serum were decreased in the thyroid disorder groups when compared to the control group. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA were elevated in the serum of FTA group when compared to controls, while in the RBC, only the MNG and PTC groups showed higher MDA equivalents than control. Serum reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in PTC group of both serum and RBC were significantly higher than control group. Whole exome sequencing has resulted in

  1. Antioxidant defenses predict long-term survival in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal and pathological processes entail the production of oxidative substances that can damage biological molecules and harm physiological functions. Organisms have evolved complex mechanisms of antioxidant defense, and any imbalance between oxidative challenge and antioxidant protection can depress fitness components and accelerate senescence. While the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis and aging has been studied intensively in humans and model animal species under laboratory conditions, there is a dearth of knowledge on its role in shaping life-histories of animals under natural selection regimes. Yet, given the pervasive nature and likely fitness consequences of oxidative damage, it can be expected that the need to secure efficient antioxidant protection is powerful in molding the evolutionary ecology of animals. Here, we test whether overall antioxidant defense varies with age and predicts long-term survival, using a wild population of a migratory passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica, as a model.Plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC of breeding individuals was measured using standard protocols and annual survival was monitored over five years (2006-2010 on a large sample of selection episodes. AOC did not covary with age in longitudinal analyses after discounting the effect of selection. AOC positively predicted annual survival independently of sex. Individuals were highly consistent in their relative levels of AOC, implying the existence of additive genetic variance and/or environmental (including early maternal components consistently acting through their lives.Using longitudinal data we showed that high levels of antioxidant protection positively predict long-term survival in a wild animal population. Present results are therefore novel in disclosing a role for antioxidant protection in determining survival under natural conditions, strongly demanding for more longitudinal eco-physiological studies of life-histories in

  2. Comparative effects of captopril and l-carnitine on blood pressure and antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Carrasco, José L; Monserrat, María T; Mate, Alfonso; Vázquez, Carmen M

    2010-04-25

    It has been shown that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. The aim of this work was to study and compare the molecular mechanisms of the antioxidant properties of l-carnitine and captopril in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Antioxidant enzyme activity/regulation (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) was measured in the erythrocytes and hearts of SHR. The molecular expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), NADPH oxidase, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT(1) receptor) and NF-kappaB/IkappaB system was also measured in the hearts of these animals. Both l-carnitine and captopril augmented the antioxidant defense capacity in SHRs. This effect was mediated by an upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, an increase in the plasma total antioxidant capacity and a reduction of lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion production in the heart. The administration of both compounds to hypertensive animals also produced an upregulation of eNOS and a normalization of ACE, angiotensin AT(1) receptor, and the NF-kappaB/IkappaB system expression. In addition, captopril reduced the arterial blood pressure and the relative heart weights back to control values, whereas l-carnitine caused only a partial reduction of blood pressure values and did not alter the cardiac hypertrophy found in SHRs. In conclusion, we have found that l-carnitine and captopril have a similar antioxidant effect in the hearts of hypertensive rats. The molecular regulation of antioxidant enzymes through an inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system and a modulation of the NF-kappaB/IkappaB system seems to be responsible for this antioxidant effect. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Whole body exposure to low-dose γ-radiation enhances the antioxidant defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, C.M.; Avti, P.K.; Khanduja, K.L.; Sharma, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that the extent of cellular damage by low- radiation dose is proportional to the effects observed at high radiation dose as per the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. However, this notion may not be true at low-dose radiation exposure in the living system. Recent evidence suggest that the living organisms do not respond to ionizing radiations in a linear manner in the low dose range 0.01-0.5Gy and rather restore the homeostasis both in vivo and in vitro by normal physiological mechanisms such as cellular and DNA repair processes, immune reactions, antioxidant defense, adaptive responses, activation of immune functions, stimulation of growth etc. In this study, we have attempted to find the critical radiation dose range and the post irradiation period during which the antioxidant defense systems in the lungs, liver and kidneys remain stimulated in these organs after whole body exposure of the animals to low-dose radiation

  4. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.

  5. The Cryptococcus neoformans Catalase Gene Family and Its Role in Antioxidant Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Steven S.; Stajich, Jason E.; Nichols, Connie; Gerrald, Quincy D.; Alspaugh, J. Andrew; Dietrich, Fred; Perfect, John R.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we sought to elucidate the contribution of the Cryptococcus neoformans catalase gene family to antioxidant defense. We employed bioinformatics techniques to identify four members of the C. neoformans catalase gene family and created mutants lacking single or multiple catalase genes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, CAT1 and CAT3 encode putative spore-specific catalases, CAT2 encodes a putative peroxisomal catalase, and CAT4 encodes a putative cytosolic catalase. Only Ca...

  6. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  7. ENDURANCE TRAINING AND GLUTATHIONE-DEPENDENT ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE MECHANISM IN HEART OF THE DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Atalay

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise beneficially influences cardiac antioxidant defenses in normal rats. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training can strengthen glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism and decrease lipid peroxidation in heart of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox status of glutathione in blood of diabetic rats in response to training and acute exercise was also examined. Eight weeks of treadmill training increased the endurance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It did not affect glutathione level in heart tissue at rest and also after exercise. On the other hand, endurance training decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in heart, while glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were not affected either by acute exhaustive exercise or endurance training. Reduced and oxidized glutathione levels in blood were not affected by either training or acute exercise. Conjugated dienes levels in heart tissue were increased by acute exhaustive exercise and also 8 weeks treadmill training. Longer duration of exhaustion in trained group may have contributed to the increased conjugated dienes levels in heart after acute exercise. Our results suggest that endurance type exercise may make heart more susceptible to oxidative stress. Therefore it may be wise to combine aerobic exercise with insulin treatment to prevent its adverse effects on antioxidant defense in heart in patients with diabetes mellitus

  8. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and of antioxidative defense: Relationship to intervention with antioxidant-rich foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars Ove; Young, Jette Feveile; Loft, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    polyphenol intake was observed. There was an increased oxidative stress response toward plasma proteins from food items rich in polyphenols and vitamin C and a decreased response when fruits and vegetables were omitted using a controlled diet. There also was a similar trend toward increased antioxidant......The antioxidant actions of single food items or extracts rich in flavonoids (e.g., apple and black currant juice, grape skin extract, tea extract and parsley) were evaluated in short-term human trials [Denmark; date not given]. An overall weak trend toward decreased lipid oxidation with increased...

  9. Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in Rice Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golam Kibria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the role of antioxidant responses in salinity tolerance in rice genotypes under salt stress, experiments were conducted using four rice varieties, including salt-sensitive BRRI dhan 28 and three salt-tolerant varieties BRRI dhan 47, BINA dhan 8 and BINA dhan 10. Thirty-day-old rice seedlings were transplanted into pots. At the active tillering stage (35 d after transplanting, plants were exposed to different salinity levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 mmol/L NaCl. Salt stress caused a significant reduction in growth for all the rice genotypes. Growth reduction was higher in the salt-sensitive genotype than in the salt-tolerant ones, and BINA dhan 10 showed higher salt tolerance in all measured physiological parameters. The reduction in shoot and root biomass was found to be minimal in BINA dhan 10. Chlorophyll content significantly decreased under salt stress except for BINA dhan 10. Proline content significantly increased in salt-tolerant rice genotypes with increased salt concentration, and the highest proline content was obtained from BINA dhan 10 under salt stress. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities significantly decreased in salt-sensitive genotype whereas significantly increased in salt-tolerant ones with increasing salt concentration. However, salt stress significantly decreased guaiacol peroxidase activity in all the rice genotypes irrespective of salt tolerance. K+/Na+ ratio also significantly decreased in shoots and roots of all the rice genotypes. The salt-tolerant genotype BINA dhan 10 maintained higher levels of chlorophyll and proline contents as well as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities under salt stress, thus, this might be the underlying mechanism for salt tolerance.

  10. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  11. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and of antioxidative defense: Relationship to intervention with antioxidant-rich foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars Ove; Young, Jette Feveile; Loft, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidant actions of single food items or extracts rich in flavonoids (e.g., apple and black currant juice, grape skin extract, tea extract and parsley) were evaluated in short-term human trials [Denmark; date not given]. An overall weak trend toward decreased lipid oxidation with increased...

  12. Thioredoxin 1 in Prostate Tissue Is Associated with Gleason Score, Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Dietary Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence M. Vance

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the US. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in prostate cancer. Methods. In this study, thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1, an enzyme and subcellular indicator of redox status, was measured in prostate biopsy tissue from 55 men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. A pathologist blindly scored levels of Trx 1. The association between Trx 1 and the Gleason score, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, and dietary antioxidant intake was determined using Fisher’s exact test. Results. Trx 1 levels in benign prostate tissue in men with incident prostate cancer were positively associated with the Gleason score (P=0.01 and inversely associated with dietary antioxidant intake (P=0.03. In prostate cancer tissue, Trx 1 levels were associated with erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (P=0.01. No association was found for other erythrocyte enzymes. Greater Gleason score of malignant tissue corresponds to a greater difference in Trx 1 levels between malignant and benign tissue (P=0.04. Conclusion. These results suggest that the redox status of prostate tissue is associated with prostate cancer grade and both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.

  13. Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Yeon Shim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide (O2&#8226;-, hydroxyl radical (OH&#8226;, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx, is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application.

  14. Activity of the Antioxidant Defense System in a Typical Bioinsecticide-and Synthetic Insecticide-treated Cowpea Storage Beetle F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems play a major role in detoxification of pro-oxidant endobiotics and xenobiotics. The possible involvement of beetle non-enzymatic [α-tocopherol, glutathione (GSH, and ascorbic acid] and enzymatic [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POX, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO] antioxidant defense system on the insecticidal activity of synthetic insecticides (cypermethrin, 2,2-dicholorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, and λ-cyhalothrin and ethanolic plant extracts of Tithonia diversifolia, Cyperus rotundus, Hyptis suaveolens leaves , and Jatropha Curcas seeds was investigated. 2,2-Dicholorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP; 200 ppm, LC 50 = 13.24 ppm and T. diversifolia (20,000 ppm resulted in 100% beetle mortality at 96-hour post-treatment. The post-treatments significantly increased the beetle α-tocopherol and GSH contents. Activities of CAT, SOD, POX, and PPO were modulated by the synthetic insecticides and bioinsecticides to diminish the adverse effect of the chemical stresses. Quantitative and qualitative allelochemical compositions of bioinsecticides and chemical structure of synthetic insecticides possibly account and for modulation of their respective enzyme activities. Altogether, oxidative stress was enormous enough to cause maladaptation in insects. This study established that oxidative imbalance created could be the molecular basis of the efficacy of both insecticides and bio-insecticides. Two, there was development of functional but inadequate antioxidant defense mechanism in the beetle.

  15. Diurnal gradual heat stress affects antioxidant enzymes, proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though high temperatures significantly reduce both vegetative growth and yield in cotton, very little is known about the effects of heat stress on cotton antioxidant system. Thus, the effects of gradual heat stress on cotton growth in controlled conditions were investigated in the present study. At squaring stage, cotton ...

  16. Enzyme-Enhanced Extraction of Antioxidant Ingredients from Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalbjörnsson, Björn V; Jónsdóttir, Rósa

    2015-01-01

    Marine algae are not only a rich source of dietary fibre, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, but also contain a great variety of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities. Marine macroalgae are a rich source of various natural antioxidants such as polyphenols, especially phlorotannins (made of polyphloroglucinol units) derived from brown algae, which play an important role in preventing lipid peroxidation. In recent years, a number of potent antioxidant compounds have been isolated and identified from different types of edible seaweeds. Extraction methods commonly used for the isolation of antioxidants are based on conventional water or organic solvent extractions. However, recent advances have shown that enzymatic hydrolysis can achieve higher yield of bioactive compounds from algae. Here we describe a method based on enzymatic hydrolysis which both increases yield and decreases cost associated with organic solvents. This method achieves cell wall disruption and breakdown of internal storage components for more effective release of intracellular bioactive compounds. In addition, hydrolysis of proteins produces peptides which may have antioxidant properties, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the algal extract. The method described can be used for production of extracts from red and brown macroalgal species.

  17. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semsang, Nuananong, E-mail: nsemsang@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, LiangDeng [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  18. Resistance-related gene transcription and antioxidant enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two tobacco relatives of Nicotiana alata and Nicotiana longiflora display a high level of resistance against Colletotrichum nicotianae and the two genes NTF6 and NtPAL related to pathogen defense transcription were higher in N. alata and N. longiflora than the commercial cv. K326. Inoculation with C. nicotianae ...

  19. Anti-oxidative stress regulator NF-E2-related factor 2 mediates the adaptive induction of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes by lipid peroxidation metabolite 4-hydroxynonenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2 regulates a battery of antioxidative and phase II drug metabolizing/detoxifying genes through binding to the antioxidant response elements (ARE. NRF2-ARE signaling plays a central role in protecting cells from a wide spectrum of reactive toxic species including reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS. 4-hydroxylnonenal (4-HNE is a major end product from lipid peroxidation of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA induced by oxidative stress, and it is highly reactive to nucleophilic sites in DNA and proteins, causing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. In this study, we examined the role of NRF2 in regulating the 4-HNE induced gene expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Results When HeLa cells were treated with 4-HNE, NRF2 rapidly transloated into the nucleus, as determined by the distribution of NRF2 tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and increased NRF2 protein in the nuclear fraction. Transcriptional activity of ARE-luciferase was significantly induced by 0.01-10 μM of 4-HNE in a dose-dependent manner, and the induction could be blocked by pretreatment with glutathione (GSH. 4-HNE induced transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST A4, aldoketone reductase (AKR 1C1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and the induction was attenuated by knocking down NRF2 using small interfering RNA. Conclusions NRF2 is critical in mediating 4-HNE induced expression of antioxidant and detoxifying genes. This may account for one of the major cellular defense mechanisms against reactive metabolites of lipids peroxidation induced by oxidative stress and protect cells from cytotoxicity.

  20. Protective effect of thymoquinone against lead-induced antioxidant defense system alteration in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Aymen

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of the antioxidant system may be related to lead (Pb) hepatotoxicity. This study was carried out to investigate the possible beneficial effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the major active ingredient of volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, against Pb-induced liver antioxidant defense system impairment. Adult male rats were randomized into four groups: control group received no treatment, Pb group was exposed to 2000 ppm of Pb acetate in drinking water, Pb-TQ group was cotreated with Pb plus TQ (5 mg/kg/day, per os) and TQ group receiving only TQ. All treatments were applied for five weeks. TQ alone did not induce any significant changes in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. By contrast, Pb exposure significantly decreased not only reduced glutathione level, but also superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities in the liver tissue. Interestingly, when coadministrated with Pb, TQ significantly improved the affected antioxidant parameters. In conclusion, our results indicate a protective effect of TQ against Pb-induced liver antioxidant capacity impairment and suggest that this component might be a clinically promising alternative in Pb hepatotoxicity.

  1. Improvement of phytoextraction and antioxidative defense in Solanum nigrum L. under cadmium stress by application of cadmium-resistant strain and citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yang; Miao Chiyuan; Mao Liang; Zhou Pei; Jin Zhiguo; Shi Wanjun

    2010-01-01

    Remediation of plant-microorganism-chelates synergy has been proposed as an effective remediation method for enhancing the removal efficiency of heavy metal. Manipulation of the antioxidative system increases plant tolerance, thereby potentially enhancing the uptake capacity to heavy metal. In this study, we investigated the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd and the antioxidative defense of Solanum nigrum L. by application of a new isolated strain (Paecilomyces lilacinus NH1) (PLNH1) and citric acid (CA). The results showed that application of CA or PLNH1 significantly promoted S. nigrum's growth under Cd stress, but the synergistic effect of CA and PLNH1 on S. nigrum's growth was more obvious. The coexistence of CA and PLNH1 could enhance about 30% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum compared to the treatment without the addition of CA and PLNH1, whereas single CA or PLNH1 added treatment only enhanced about 10-15% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum. The antioxidative defense in S. nigrum under Cd stress was significantly improved as result of application of CA and PLNH1. The responses of antioxidative enzymes to Cd stress significantly decreased following application of CA and PLNH1, and the oxidative stress experienced by the plant due to Cd in the soil was significantly alleviated.

  2. Protective effect of the antioxidant enzyme on sperm from Bubalus bubalis type after cryoconservation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov R.; Sabev M.; Ivanova-Kicheva M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies were carried out in order to determine the presence of damaged intracellular proteins in sperm from water buffalo as a result of toxic action of free radicals and their attitude towards the vitality of the gametes. Experiments were performed with thawed semen samples as the trial has been added antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. It was found that added to the test sample exogenous antioxidant makes inoffensive much of the available free radica...

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidative enzymes are associated to FEV(1) in smokers independently of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, T H; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Charlotte Brasch

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that the genotypes coding for low antioxidative enzyme activity are associated with asthma and reduced lung function. Using the ECRHS protocol, we enlisted 1,091 Danish subjects in this cross-sectional study. Asthma phenotypes were defined as asthma symptoms......), GSTT1 (gene copy number), and GSTM1 (gene copy number). We found no associations between these genotypes and the asthma phenotypes. For the 201 subjects identified as current smokers and recruited via random sampling, an association was seen between increasing number of genotypes coding for high...... of genotypes coding for low antioxidative enzyme activity. The present study does not support the hypothesis that asthma is associated with genotypes of these major antioxidative enzymes. However, we speculate that since we see an impact of these genotypes on lung function in young adult smokers, polymorphisms...

  4. Mitochondrial respiratory and antioxidative enzyme activities in turkey meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Krischek, C

    2012-02-01

    Meat quality and (anti)oxidative metabolism of m. pectoralis superficialis (MPS), m. gastrocnemius (MG) and m. iliotibilialis lateralis (MIL) from turkey toms were analysed. After slaughter, pH of MPS and MG decreased and electrical conductivity of the MPS increased. The MG had generally higher pH values. The meat lightness (L) and redness (a) increased in MG and MPS after slaughter. The MPS always had higher L and lower a values. Mitochondrial respiratory activities (MRA) were higher in the MIL than the MPS. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase, analysed in the MPS, increased and the glutathione reductase activity decreased after slaughter. Meat samples with lower pH24 h p.m. had higher drip loss and L values. The MRA were tendentially lower and the SOD activities higher in these samples. These results indicate a relation between the meat quality, the antioxidative metabolism and mitochondrial respiration.

  5. Possible role of glutamine synthetase in the NO signaling response in root nodules by contributing to the antioxidant defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Santos Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is emerging as an important regulatory player in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. The occurrence of NO during several steps of the symbiotic interaction suggests an important, but yet unknown, signaling role of this molecule for root nodule formation and functioning. The identification of the molecular targets of NO is key for the assembly of the signal transduction cascade that will ultimately help to unravel NO function. We have recently shown that the key nitrogen assimilatory enzyme Glutamine Synthetase (GS is a molecular target of NO in root nodules of Medicago truncatula, being post-translationally regulated by tyrosine nitration in relation to nitrogen fixation. In functional nodules of M. truncatula NO formation has been located in the bacteroid containing cells of the fixation zone, where the ammonium generated by bacterial nitrogenase is released to the plant cytosol and assimilated into the organic pools by plant GS. We propose that the NO-mediated GS post-translational inactivation is connected to nitrogenase inhibition induced by NO and is related to metabolite channeling to boost the nodule antioxidant defenses. Glutamate, a substrate for GS activity is also the precursor for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, which is highly abundant in root nodules of several plant species and known to play a major role in the antioxidant defense participating in the ascorbate/GSH cycle. Existing evidence suggests that upon NO-mediated GS inhibition, glutamate could be channeled for the synthesis of GSH. According to this hypothesis, GS would be involved in the NO-signaling responses in root nodules and the NO-signaling events would meet the nodule metabolic pathways to provide an adaptive response to the inhibition of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by reactive nitrogen species (RNS.

  6. Leaf senescence and activities of the antioxidant enzymes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Dagmar; Wilhelmová, Naděžda

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2007), s. 401-406 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP522/05/P558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : ageing * enzymatic antioxidant s * lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.259, year: 2007

  7. Effect of Turmeric and Carrot Seed Extracts on Serum Liver Biomarkers and Hepatic Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Total Antioxidant Status in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei-Moghadam, Adel; Mohajeri, Daryoush; Rafiei, Behnam; Dizaji, Rana; Azhdari, Asghar; Yeganehzad, Mahdi; Shahidi, Maryamossadat; Mazani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Pathogenic role of free radicals are well known in various metabolic diseases. They originate from internal and external sources of body. Essential roles of antioxidant defense system for cellular redox regulation and free radical scavenging activity were described in this study. Many in vitro investigations have shown that turmeric (TE) and carrot seed extract (CSE) exhibits to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potentials of ethanolic T...

  8. Antioxidative defense and oxidative stress in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from differently polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Mirella; Routti, Heli; Tamuz, Yael; Nyman, Madeleine; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2012-06-15

    High contaminant levels detected in Baltic seals have been associated with various health effects. In this study several parameters related to antioxidative defense and oxidative stress (concentrations of reduced and oxidised glutathione, lipid hydroperoxide and vitamin E, activities of glutathione reductase, peroxidase and S-transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and superoxidedismutase) were measured in the livers of ringed seals from the Baltic Sea and from a less contaminated reference area, Svalbard, Norway. Seals were caught during two different time periods 1996-1997 and 2002-2007, which represent different levels of contamination. No signs of oxidative damage were found in the Baltic seals. However, glutathione metabolism was enhanced in the ringed seals from the Baltic Sea compared to the seals from Svalbard. The adaptation to dive where repetitive ischemia/reperfusion occurs naturally may contribute to the resistance of oxidative stress and to the capacity to increase enzymatic antioxidant defense in phocid seals. This could explain the similarities in oxidative stress levels despite the differences in antioxidant responses between the ringed seals from the Baltic Sea and Svalbard. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lifestyle predictors of oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity in healthy women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Amjad A; Zhang, Yali; Zhao, Hua; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and modifiable lifestyle factors that may be related to endogenous oxidant and antioxidant activity measured in blood specimens from putatively healthy women recruited at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY, USA). Total glutathione (TGSH), catalase (CAT), CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in 124 healthy women, and associations with epidemiological factors were tested using general linear models. There were significant differences in oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities according to lifestyle factors, after adjusting for duration of blood storage and season of blood draw. Compared to women who consumed ≤2.8 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, those consuming >5.3 servings had on average 31 % lower MPO activity (p-trend = 0.02), as a marker of oxidative stress, 16 % higher antioxidant GPx activity (p-trend = 0.08), and 9 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.05). Obese women (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30) in contrast showed 17 % lower antioxidant GPx activity, 44 % higher MPO activity (p-trend = 0.03), and 10 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.03) compared to women with normal BMI lifestyle factors and, therefore, may be potentially modifiable, with implications for risk reduction of chronic conditions related to oxidative stress.

  10. NADPH oxidase-dependent H2O2 production is required for salt-induced antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rejeb, Kilani; Benzarti, Maâli; Debez, Ahmed; Bailly, Christophe; Savouré, Arnould; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-02-01

    The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase) in the antioxidant defense system was assessed in salt-challenged Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. In the wild-type, short-term salt exposure led to a transient and significant increase of H2O2 concentration, followed by a marked increase in catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.16), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) activities. Pre-treatment with either a chemical trap for H2O2 (dimethylthiourea) or two widely used NADPH oxidase inhibitors (imidazol and diphenylene iodonium) significantly decreased the above-mentioned enzyme activities under salinity. Double mutant atrbohd/f plants failed to induce the antioxidant response under the culture conditions. Under long-term salinity, the wild-type was more salt-tolerant than the mutant based on the plant biomass production. The better performance of the wild-type was related to a significantly higher photosynthetic activity, a more efficient K(+) selective uptake, and to the plants' ability to deal with the salt-induced oxidative stress as compared to atrbohd/f. Altogether, these data suggest that the early H2O2 generation by NADPH oxidase under salt stress could be the beginning of a reaction cascade that triggers the antioxidant response in A. thaliana in order to overcome the subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, thereby mitigating the salt stress-derived injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant defense in quiescent cells determines selectivity of electron transport chain inhibition-induced cell death

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blecha, Jan; Novais, Silvia Magalhaes; Rohlenová, Kateřina; Novotná, Eliška; Lettlová, Sandra; Schmitt, S.; Zischka, H.; Neužil, Jiří; Rohlena, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 112, NOV 2017 (2017), s. 253-266 ISSN 0891-5849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22823S; GA ČR GA17-20904S; GA ČR GA16-12719S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-31604A; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Electron transport chain * Supercomplexes * Antioxidant defense * SOD2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 5.606, year: 2016

  12. Gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme: Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were evaluated. All antioxidant activity indices of hydrolysates increased with increasing DH (Pshark skin (40%DH) can potentially be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in tobacco chewers and smokers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundru Venkata Naga Sirisha

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. Therefore an early intervention of tobacco habit and its related oxidative stress would prevent the development of tobacco induced lesions.

  14. Changes in element accumulation, phenolic metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities in the red-skin roots of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Hence, higher element accumulation, particularly Al and Fe, activated multiple enzymes related to accumulation of phenolic compounds and their oxidation. This might contribute to red-skin symptoms in ginseng. It is proposed that antioxidant and antioxidative enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate–glutathione cycles, are activated to protect against phenolic compound oxidation.

  15. Antioxidant enzymes in the needles of different omorika lines

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović Jelena; Dučić Tanja M.; Milosavić Nenad B.; Vujčić Z.; Šijačić Mirjana; Isajev Vasilije; Radotić Ksenija

    2005-01-01

    Picea omorika (Panč) Purkyně (Serbian spruce) is a Balkan endemic coniferous species. We studied soluble peroxidase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase, and superoxide-dismutase activity in the needles of five omorika lines grown in a generative seed orchard. The peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase isoenzyme patterns were also investigated. Activity of the studied enzymes varied among different lines. The highest activity of peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase was found in the A3 ("borealis")...

  16. Metformin attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    Full Text Available The objective was to examine the protective effect of metformin (Met on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury and whether the mechanism was related to the AMPK/ antioxidant enzymes signaling pathway. Rat Langendorff test and H2O2-treated rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2 were used in this study. Met treatment significantly improved left ventricular (LV function, reduced infarct size and CK-MB release in comparison with IR group. Decreased TUNEL staining positive cells were also observed in IR+Met group ex vivo. Met treatment markedly inhibited IR inducing cell death and significantly decreased apoptosis with few generations of reactive oxygen species (ROS in H9c2 cells in comparison with IR group. Up-regulated expressions of phosphorylated LKB1/AMPK/ACC, as well as down-regulated expressions of apoptotic proteins (Bax and cleaved caspase 3 were found in IR+Met group when compared to the IR group. Importantly, Met significantly up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD and catalase during IR procedure either ex vivo or in vitro. Compound C, a conventional inhibitor of AMPK, abolished the promoting effect of Met on antioxidant enzymes, and then attenuated the protective effect of Met on IR injury in vitro. In conclusion, Met exerted protective effect on myocardial IR injury, and this effect was AMPK/ antioxidant enzymes dependent.

  17. Effects of Zinc supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in healthy old subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, E.; Mangialasche, F.; Feliziani, F.T.; Cecchetti, R.; Malavolta, M.; Bastiani, P.; Baglioni, M.; Dedoussis, G.; Fulop, T.; Herbein, G.; Jajte, J.; Monti, Dominique; Rink, L.; Mocchegiani, E.; Mecocci, P.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Zinc supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in healthy old subjects correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 075 578 3270; fax: +39 075 573 0259. (Mecocci, P.) (Mecocci, P.) Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia - ITALY (Mariani, E.) Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia - ITALY (Mangialasche, F.) Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Unive...

  18. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINEDU

    The ingestion of crude oil either orally or through polluted marine species represents a pathway for the delivery of potential toxicants to the human system. The study, therefore, analysed the effects of bonny light crude oil on the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-.

  19. Effects of smokeless dipping tobacco (Naswar) consumption on antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in its users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Faiza; Bano, Samina

    2015-09-01

    Dipping tobacco, traditionally referred to as moist snuff, is a type of finely ground, moistened smokeless tobacco product. Naswar is stuffed in the floor of the mouth under the lower lip, or inside the cheek, for extended periods of time. Tobacco use causes dyslipidemia and also induces oxidative stress, leading to alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in turn play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conducted on smokeless tobacco products reveal contradictory findings regarding its effects on lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. As use of Naswar is quite common in Pakistan, the current study aimed to evaluate levels of the antioxidant enzymes viz glutathione per oxidase (GPx) and super oxide dismutase (SOD), alongside lipid profile parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in Naswar users.90 Healthy males aged 16-43 years, who consumed Naswar daily, were selected for the study, alongside 68 age-matched non-tobacco users as controls. Both GPx and SOD levels as well as serum HDL-C were significantly reduced (Pprofile and antioxidant enzymes thereby placing its consumers at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Cytokinin-induced activity of antioxidant enzymes in transgenic Pssu-ipt tobacco during plant ontogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synková, Helena; Semorádová, Šárka; Schnablová, Renáta; Witters, E.; Hušák, M.; Valcke, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2006), s. 31-41 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1061; GA ČR GA206/03/0310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokinins * antioxidant enzymes * ontogenesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2006

  1. Effect of “Tai Chi” exercise on antioxidant enzymes activities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: “Tai Chi” is a useful exercise that increases physical strength and relax the mind. Materials and Methods: The study investigates effect of “tai chi” exercise on antioxidant enzymes activities and immunity function in participants. These participants were randomly divided into two groups: “tai chi” exercise group ...

  2. Antioxidant enzymes in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval): Are they enhanced to protect gut tissues during oxidative stress?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2006), s. 11-20 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/05/0151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : antioxidant enzyme * oxidative stress * allelochemicals Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.019, year: 2006

  3. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  4. n vitro precultivation of tobacco affects the response of antioxidative enzymes to ex vitro acclimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synková, Helena; Pospíšilová, Jana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 159, - (2002), s. 781-789 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1099; GA ČR GA206/01/1061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : abscisic acid * antioxidant enzyme s * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2002

  5. Effect of bleaching on mercury release from amalgam fillings and antioxidant enzyme activities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Filiz Yalcin; Ergin, Esra; Gurgan, Sevil; Sabuncuoglu, Suna; Arpa, Cigdem Sahin; Tokgoz, İlknur; Ozgunes, Hilal; Kiremitci, Arlin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot clinical study was to determine the mercury release from amalgam fillings and antioxidant enzyme activities (Superoxide Dismutase [SOD] and Catalase[CAT] ) in body fluids after exposure to two different vital tooth bleaching systems. Twenty eight subjects with an average age of 25.6 years (18-41) having at least two but not more than four Class II amalgam fillings on each quadrant arch in the mouth participated in the study. Baseline concentrations of mercury levels in whole blood, urine, and saliva were measured by a Vapor Generation Accessory connected to an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Erythrocyte enzymes, SOD, and CAT activities in blood were determined kinetically. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of 14 volunteers. Group 1 was treated with an at-home bleaching system (Opalescence PF 35% Carbamide Peroxide, Ultradent), and Group 2 was treated with a chemically activated office bleaching system (Opalescence Xtra Boost 38% Hydrogen Peroxide, Ultradent) according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Twenty-four hours after bleaching treatments, concentrations of mercury and enzymes were remeasured. There were no significant differences on mercury levels in blood, urine, and saliva before and after bleaching treatments (p > 0.05). No differences were also found in the level of antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD and CAT) before and after treatments (p > 0.05). Mercury release did not affect the enzyme activities (p > 0.05). Bleaching treatments either office or home did not affect the amount of mercury released from amalgam fillings in blood, urine, and saliva and the antioxidant-enzyme activities in blood. Bleaching treatments with the systems tested in this pilot study have no deleterious effect on the mercury release from amalgam fillings and antioxidant enzymes in body fluids. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of antioxidant potential of tropical fruit juices on antioxidant enzyme profiles and lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Carolina da Silva; Dionísio, Ana Paula; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Alves, Ricardo Elesbão; de Brito, Edy Souza; e Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Mancini Filho, Jorge

    2014-08-15

    Fruits are a rich source of a variety of biologically active compounds that can have complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action, including detoxification, enzyme modulation and antioxidant effects. Although the effects of tropical fruits have been examined individually, the interactive antioxidant capacity of the bioactive compounds in these formulations has not been sufficiently explored. For this reason, this study investigated the effect of two tropical fruit juices (FA and FB) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rats. Seven groups, with eight rats each, were fed a normal diet for 4 weeks, and were force-fed daily either water (control), 100, 200, or 400 mg of FA or FB per kg. The results showed that the liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (FA200), erythrocytes glutathione peroxidase (FB400) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (FB100, FA400, FB200, FB400) were efficiently reduced by fruit juices when compared with control; whereas HDL-c increased (FB400). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Elevation of Oxidative Stress and Decline in Endogenous Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Individuals with Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naregal, Govindanagouda V; Devaranavadagi, Basavaraj B; Patil, Satish G; Aski, Basavaraj S

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is becoming an important medical and public health problem all over the world and is the most common disorder of ageing. There is a growing evidence of involvement of vascular oxidative stress in the development of hypertension from animal studies. However, studies on humans with hypertension, particularly in elderly are least and data remained controversial. Moreover, studies in elderly people with hypertension are scarce. To investigate the possible role of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the pathogenesis of hypertension in elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted on elderly males (n=60) with newly diagnosed hypertension and with normal blood pressure. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status were evaluated by assessing the following parameters: plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidants: Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced Glutathione (GSH), and vitamin C levels; and total Nitric Oxide concentration in plasma (NOx). Difference between groups was determined by using unpaired t-test/Mann-Whitney U test. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between variables. A significant rise in plasma MDA (p-value=0.013) and lower levels of endogenous antioxidants: SOD (p-value≤0.001) and GSH (p-value≤0.001) were observed in elderly individuals with hypertension when compared to healthy controls. Though not significant, there was a mean decrease in plasma NOx in hypertensive subjects than normotensive ones. While vitamin C showed no significant difference between two groups. Decrease in GSH (β=-0.398; p-value=0.001) and SOD (β=-0.423; p-value≤0.001) were the significant determinants of hypertension in elderly individuals. Above findings indicate that elevation in oxidative stress and decrease in endogenous antioxidant level may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, it remains unclear whether oxidative stress causes or augments hypertension.

  8. INFLUENCE OF CHRONIC EXERCISE ON RED CELL ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE, PLASMA MALONDIALDEHYDE AND TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Alipour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the knowledge on the antiatherogenic effects of exercise, the mechanism by which exercise reduces atherogenic risk remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that chronic exercise-induced oxidative stress may increase plasma total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant defense in the red cells. For 8 weeks, 60 male Dutch rabbits were fed rabbit chow with or without the addition of 2% cholesterol. The animals were further divided into rest and exercise groups (n = 15 for each group. Animals in exercise groups ran on a rodent treadmill at 15 m/min for 10 to 60 minutes gradually for 5 days per week for a total of 8 weeks. At the end of experiments, blood samples were collected and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities were determined in red blood cells. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC, malondialdehyde (MDA and total thiol (T-SH levels were measured in plasma. Thoracic aorta and carotid arteries were isolated for histological examination to evaluate atherosclerosis. Eight weeks of chronic exercise reduced atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in all the arteries studied, along with positive changes in cholesterol profile, especially increase of serum HDL-C level. Plasma MDA, TAC and T-SH concentrations were enhanced by exercise in both control and hypercholesterolemic diet groups. Erythrocyte catalase activity was significantly increased by chronic exercise (p < 0.05, whereas total SOD activity rose with exercise only in the control group. Surprisingly, GPX activity was significantly reduced (P < 0.05 in response to exercise in the control group and also in the high cholesterol diet group. Exercise is a useful tool for the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis which is evident by our findings of the enhancement of plasma TAC and positive change in serum cholesterol profile. However, the effect of exercise on red cell antioxidant activities is limited in the

  9. Short-term overcrowding of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua: effects on serum-mediated antibacterial activity and transcription of glucose transport and antioxidant defense related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Brinchmann, Monica F; Kiron, Viswanath

    2008-12-01

    Serum-mediated control of Listonella anguillarum and transcriptional profiles of selected glucose transport and antioxidant defense genes, following short-term overcrowding in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua were determined. Fish were subjected to overcrowding by reducing the water level in the tank for 1 h and this was repeated thrice over a 12 h period. Blood samples were collected before overcrowding (initial group) and at 2, 24 and 72 h post-crowding. The sera from fish obtained at 2 h post-crowding caused a significant reduction in L. anguillarum counts compared to the initial samples. There was a transcriptional upregulation of the glucose transport-4 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes at 2 h after crowding. Gene transcripts of the antioxidant enzymes, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), catalase and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase also significantly increased at 2 h post-crowding, but thereafter they returned to their pre-crowding levels with the exception of Cu/Zn SOD that remained significantly higher than the initial group until 72 h. Thus, short-term overcrowding of Atlantic cod leads to a transient enhancement of in vitro serum antibacterial activity and enhanced transcriptional activity of glucose transport and antioxidant defense genes.

  10. Effect of sprint cycle training on activities of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Apple, F. S.; Sjödin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intermittent sprint cycle training on the level of muscle antioxidant enzyme protection was investigated. Resting muscle biopsies, obtained before and after 6 wk of training and 3, 24, and 72 h after the final session of an additional 1 wk of more frequent training, were analyzed...... for activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Activities of several muscle metabolic enzymes were determined to assess the effectiveness of the training. After the first 6-wk training period, no change in GPX, GR, or SOD...... (P capacity in the trained muscle. The present study demonstrates that intermittent sprint cycle training that induces an enhanced capacity for anaerobic energy generation also improves...

  11. Effect of sprint cycle training on activities of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Apple, F. S.; Sjödin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intermittent sprint cycle training on the level of muscle antioxidant enzyme protection was investigated. Resting muscle biopsies, obtained before and after 6 wk of training and 3, 24, and 72 h after the final session of an additional 1 wk of more frequent training, were analyzed...... (P trained muscle. The present study demonstrates that intermittent sprint cycle training that induces an enhanced capacity for anaerobic energy generation also improves...... for activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Activities of several muscle metabolic enzymes were determined to assess the effectiveness of the training. After the first 6-wk training period, no change in GPX, GR, or SOD...

  12. Effect of phosphogypsum on growth, physiology, and the antioxidative defense system in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Chaari, Leila; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Woodward, Steve; Kallel, Monem

    2015-10-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is the solid waste product of phosphate fertilizer production and is characterized by high concentrations of salts, heavy metals, and certain natural radionuclides. The work reported in this paper examined the influence of PG amendment on soil physicochemical proprieties, along with its potential impact on several physiological traits of sunflower seedlings grown under controlled conditions. Sunflower seedlings were grown on agricultural soil substrates amended with PG at rates of 0, 2.5, and 5 %. The pH of the soil decreased but electrical conductivity and organic matter, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and heavy metal contents increased in proportion to PG concentration. In contrast, no variations were observed in magnesium content and small increases were recorded in potassium content. The effects of PG on sunflower growth, leaf chlorophyll content, nutritional status, osmotic regulator content, heavy metal accumulation, and antioxidative enzymes were investigated. Concentrations of trace elements in sunflower seedlings grown in PG-amended soil were considerably lower than ranges considered phytotoxic for vascular plants. The 5 % PG dose inhibited shoot extension and accumulation of biomass and caused a decline in total protein content. However, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, proline and sugar contents, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase increased. Collectively, these results strongly support the hypothesis that enzymatic antioxidation capacity is an important mechanism in tolerance of PG salinity in sunflower seedlings.

  13. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    the MT-I+II-mediated antioxidant capacity and its response to exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes, biopsies and blood samples were taken from 13 matched subjects (type 2 diabetes n = 8, control subjects n = 5) both before and after 8 weeks of exercise training......-I+II in muscle and plasma, as well as the deficient MT-I+II response to exercise, indicate that this antioxidant defense is impaired. This study presents a novel candidate in the pathogenesis of complications related to oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes.......Oxidative stress is implicated in diabetes complications, during which endogenous antioxidant defenses have important pathophysiological consequences. To date, the significance of endogenous antioxidants such as metallothioneins I and II (MT-I+II) in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. To examine...

  14. The impact of cold acclimation and hibernation on antioxidant defenses in the ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus): an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Milica; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Korac, Aleksandra; Markelic, Milica; Velickovic, Ksenija; Golic, Igor; Buzadzic, Biljana; Storey, Kenneth B; Korac, Bato

    2013-12-01

    Any alteration in oxidative metabolism is coupled with a corresponding response by an antioxidant defense (AD) in appropriate subcellular compartments. Seasonal hibernators pass through circannual metabolic adaptations that allow them to either maintain euthermy (cold acclimation) or enter winter torpor with body temperature falling to low values. The present study aimed to investigate the corresponding pattern of AD enzyme protein expressions associated with these strategies in the main tissues involved in whole animal energy homeostasis: brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT, respectively), liver, and skeletal muscle. European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) were exposed to low temperature (4 ± 1 °C) and then divided into two groups: (1) animals fell into torpor (hibernating group) and (2) animals stayed active and euthermic for 1, 3, 7, 12, or 21 days (cold-exposed group). We examined the effects of cold acclimation and hibernation on the tissue-dependent protein expression of four enzymes which catalyze the two-step detoxification of superoxide to water: superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD 1 and 2), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The results showed that hibernation induced an increase of AD enzyme protein expressions in BAT and skeletal muscle. However, AD enzyme contents in liver were largely unaffected during torpor. Under these conditions, different WAT depots responded by elevating the amounts of specific enzymes, as follows: SOD 1 in retroperitoneal WAT, GSH-Px in gonadal WAT, and CAT in subcutaneous WAT. Similar perturbations of AD enzymes contents were seen in all tissues during cold acclimation, often in a time-dependent manner. It can be concluded that BAT and muscle AD capacity undergo the most dramatic changes during both cold acclimation and hibernation, while liver is relatively unaffected by either condition. Additionally, this study provides a basis for further metabolic study that will illuminate the causes

  15. Antioxidant enzymes in the needles of different omorika lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Picea omorika (Panč Purkyně (Serbian spruce is a Balkan endemic coniferous species. We studied soluble peroxidase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase, and superoxide-dismutase activity in the needles of five omorika lines grown in a generative seed orchard. The peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase isoenzyme patterns were also investigated. Activity of the studied enzymes varied among different lines. The highest activity of peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase was found in the A3 ("borealis" and B5 ("semidichotomous" lines. Four acidic and two basic peroxidase isoenzymes and one polyphenol oxidase isoenzyme were detected. There was no variation in either the peroxidase or the polyphenol oxidase isoenzyme pattern among the different lines.

  16. Ecotoxicological effects of a veterinary food additive, copper sulphate, on antioxidant enzymes and mRNA expression in earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenguang; Ding, Xueyao; Zhang, Yiming; Sun, Yongxue

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of the veterinary food additive copper sulphate (CuSO₄) on the eco-toxicological responses of earthworms Eisenia fetida (E. fetida). The following biomarkers were measured: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Gene expression analyses such as metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were also examined. A time-dependent increase of CAT activity was found at 400 mg/kg and SOD activity at 200 and 400 mg/kg. The highest expression of Hsp70 (4.4-fold) was observed at day 15 at 400 mg/kg. Our results indicated that the measured antioxidant enzymes (except GST) had the ability to provide antioxidant defenses against the stressor; and compared to expression of MT, expression of Hsp70 could be more reliable molecular tools with predictive possibilities to monitor the eco-toxicity of stressors such as feed additive CuSO₄. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, conjugated diene (CD, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl (PC, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P<0.05. The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P<0.05, P<0.01. Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P<0.01. And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis.

  18. Influence of radiation dose in computed tomography on antioxidant enzyme activity in rabbit erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Marko B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the radiation dose in computed tomography examinations of rabbits using different examination protocols and to correlate these values with the activity of antioxidant enzymes in their red blood cells following irradiation. The presented results revealed that a single, routine computed tomography scan exposure led to a different response of the activity of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells regarding both dose and time. The results indicate that there is a dose threshold that is about 25 mGy. Doses below that level do not produce any significant changes in the level of antioxidant enzymes activity. On the other hand, the level just above that threshold had a significant impact on the antioxidant defence, but in a relatively short time period (2 hours after exposure, compared to the higher dose that requires a longer adaptive period. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173014: Molecular mechanisms of redox signalling in homeostasis: adaptation and pathology

  19. Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

    2014-10-15

    The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: Responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Yijun; Wan, Xiaochun [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China); Yang, Chung S. [Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Zhang, Jinsong, E-mail: zjs@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China)

    2015-02-15

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. - Highlights: • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose does not disturb hepatic major antioxidant defense. • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose modestly upregulates hepatic Nrf2 target genes. • EGCG at toxic dose suppresses hepatic major antioxidant enzymes. • EGCG at non-lethal toxic dose pronouncedly activates hepatic Nrf2 rescue response. • EGCG at

  1. S-nitrosoglutathione spraying improves stomatal conductance, Rubisco activity and antioxidant defense in both leaves and roots of sugarcane plants under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Neidiquele M; Marcos, Fernanda C C; Frungillo, Lucas; Moura, Bárbara B; Seabra, Amedea B; Salgado, Ione; Machado, Eduardo C; Hancock, John T; Ribeiro, Rafael V

    2017-08-01

    Water deficit is a major environmental constraint on crop productivity and performance and nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule associated with many biochemical and physiological processes in plants under stressful conditions. This study aims to test the hypothesis that leaf spraying of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an NO donor, improves the antioxidant defense in both roots and leaves of sugarcane plants under water deficit, with positive consequences for photosynthesis. In addition, the roles of key photosynthetic enzymes ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in maintaining CO 2 assimilation of GSNO-sprayed plants under water deficit were evaluated. Sugarcane plants were sprayed with water or GSNO 100 μM and subjected to water deficit, by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG-8000) to the nutrient solution. Sugarcane plants supplied with GSNO presented increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase in leaves and catalase in roots, indicating higher antioxidant capacity under water deficit. Such adjustments induced by GSNO were sufficient to prevent oxidative damage in both organs and were associated with better leaf water status. As a consequence, GSNO spraying alleviated the negative impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rates, with plants also showing increases in Rubisco activity under water deficit. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Acute intake of red wine does not affect antioxidant enzymes activities in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Bakkali, F; Villaño, D; Troncoso, A M; García-Parrilla, M C

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to test if the acute intake of red wine has an effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Eight healthy, non-alcoholic, non-smoking human volunteers took part in the study. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Ethical Research Committee of the University Hospital Virgen Macarena from Seville. Each subject fasted 12-14 hours before the experiment started. Volunteers were asked to consume 300 mL of red wine in 5 minutes. Venous blood sample was obtained by antecubital venipuncture, with heparin vacutainer. Blood extraction was performed before wine ingestion (baseline value) and 30, 55, and 120 minutes after wine intake. Blood samples were immediately centrifuged at 12,000 x g for 3 minutes, avoiding unnecessary exposure to light. Antioxidant enzymes under study were: superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes, glutathione peroxidase in whole blood, and glutathione reductase in plasma. Determinations were performed spectrophotometrically with commercial available enzymatic kits. No statistically significant changes were observed on the activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase assayed at any of the times after wine intake. The intake of red wine did not modify the short-term activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Effect of Green Tea Extract-Enriched Diets on Insulin and Leptin Levels, Oxidative Stress Parameters and Antioxidant Enzymes Activities in Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bártíková Hana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and green tea extracts (GTE are often incorporated into diet intended to weight reduction, although the information about their efficacy in obese individuals is insufficient. The present study was designed to follow up the effect of defined and standardized GTE in mice with obesity induced by monosodium L-glutamate. Obese mice were fed with GTE-supplemented diet in three dosage regimens: 28-day and 3-day intake of 1 g GTE in 1 kg of diet and 28-day intake of 0.1 g GTE in 1 kg of diet. The information on body weight, food intake, oxidation stress parameters in blood and antioxidant enzymes activity in liver and small intestine was obtained. High doses of GTE decreased the specific activities of glutathione reductase and catalase and increased concentrations of malondialdehyde in blood. Specific activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and small intestine were not altered after GTE treatment except the decrease of NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase activity. Our results showed that GTE did not affect average body weight and did not markedly improve antioxidant status in glutamate-induced obese mice. Moreover, intake of high doses of GTE made antioxidant defense in obese animals even worse.

  4. Sexual dimorphism in the effect of maternal obesity on antioxidant defense mechanisms in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, LaShauna; Myatt, Leslie

    2017-03-01

    Maternal obesity creates an adverse intrauterine environment, negatively impacts placental respiration, is associated with a higher incidence of pregnancy complications and programs the offspring for disease in adult life in a sexually dimorphic manner. We defined the effect of maternal obesity and fetal sex on pro- and anti-oxidant status in placenta and placental mitochondria. Placental villous tissue was collected at term via c-section prior to labor from four groups of patients based on fetal sex and prepregnancy/1st trimester body mass index: lean - BMI 22.1 ± 0.3 (6 male, 6 female) and obese - BMI 36.3 ± 0.4 (6 male, 6 female). Antioxidant enzyme activity, mitochondrial protein carbonyls, nitrotyrosine residues, total and nitrated superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthesis were measured. Maternal obesity was associated with decreased SOD and catalase activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), but increased oxidative (protein carbonyls) and nitrative (nitrotyrosine) stress in a sexually dimorphic manner. Placentas of lean women with a male fetus had higher SOD activity and TAC (p < 0.05) than other groups whereas obese women with a male fetus had highest carbonyls and nitrotyrosine (p < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase activity increased with obesity, significantly with a male fetus, perhaps as a compensatory response. Maternal obesity affects oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in the placenta in a sexually dimorphic manner. The male fetus of a lean women has the highest antioxidant activity, a protection which is lost with obesity perhaps contributing to the increased incidence of adverse outcomes with a male fetus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of the PDE5 inhibitor tadalafil on redox status and antioxidant defense system in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranti, Guglielmo; Ceci, Roberta; Sgrò, Paolo; Sabatini, Stefania; Di Luigi, Luigi

    2017-05-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is), widely known for their beneficial effects onto male erectile dysfunction, seem to exert favorable effects onto metabolism as well. Tadalafil exposure increases oxidative metabolism of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. A rise in fatty acid (FA) metabolism, requiring more oxygen, could induce a larger reactive oxygen species (ROS) release as a byproduct thus leading to a redox imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine how PDE5I tadalafil influences redox status in skeletal muscle cells to match the increasing oxidative metabolism. To this purpose, differentiated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells were treated with tadalafil and analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione levels as marker of redox status; enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) engaged in antioxidant defense; and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PrCar) as markers of oxidative damage. Tadalafil increased total intracellular glutathione (tGSH), CAT, SOD, and GPx enzymatic activities while no changes were found in TAC. A perturbation of redox status, as showed by the decrease in the ratio between reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), was observed. Nevertheless, it did not cause any change in TBARS and PrCar levels probably due to the enhancement in the antioxidant enzymatic network. Taken together, these data indicate that tadalafil, besides improving oxidative metabolism, may be beneficial to skeletal muscle cells by enhancing the enzymatic antioxidant system capacity.

  6. Effect of Calendula officinalis Flower Extract on Acute Phase Proteins, Antioxidant Defense Mechanism and Granuloma Formation During Thermal Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Preethi K.; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2008-01-01

    Effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract was investigated against experimentally induced thermal burns in rats. Burn injury was made on the shaven back of the rats under anesthesia and the animals were treated orally with different doses of the flower extract (20 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight). The animals treated with the extract showed significant improvement in healing when compared with the control untreated animals. The indicators of the wound healing such as collagen-hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents were significantly increased in the treated group indicating accelerated wound healing in the treated animals. The acute phase proteins—haptoglobin and orosomucoid which were increased due to burn injury were found to be decreased significantly in 200 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The antioxidant defense mechanism, which was decreased in the liver during burn injury, was found to be enhanced in treated animals. The lipid peroxidation was significantly lowered in the treated group when compared to control animals. Tissue damage marker enzymes- alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases were significantly lowered in the treated groups in a dose dependant manner. The histopathological analyses of skin tissue also give the evidence of the increased healing potential of the extract after burn injury. PMID:18818737

  7. Effects of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuifeng; Wang Bingliang; Guan Xueyu; Zhang Yan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed was studied. The results showed that the germination potentiality and germination rate of hot pepper seed after boarding return satellite were increased by 3.5% and 5.3%, respectively. During seed germination, soluble protein and MDA contents decreased, however, the SOD activities increased. SOD activity of treated seeds was higher than that of the control especially during the initial period of germination, while the content of soluble and MDA contents were much lower than those of control. The activities of SOD, G-POD, APX and CAT in 13d seedlings of treated seeds were increased by 14.29%, 25.23%, 1.84% and 21.52%, respectively. It was concluded that space flight enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities of seeds and seedlings, which were very important to prevent membrane lipid superoxide. (authors)

  8. Enzyme Inhibitory Properties, Antioxidant Activities, and Phytochemical Profile of Three Medicinal Plants from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Zengin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of three medicinal plants (Hedysarum varium, Onobrychis hypargyrea, and Vicia truncatula from Turkey against key enzymes involved in human pathologies, namely, diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase, neurodegenerative disorders (tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase, and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase. The antioxidant potential, phenolic and flavonoid content of ethyl acetate, and methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated using in vitro assays. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH•, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and metal chelating activity on ferrous ions were used to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of the extracts. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of the extracts on cholinesterase, tyrosinase, and α-amylase were significantly higher than the references, galantamine, kojic acid, and acarbose, respectively. The half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50 of the extracts on TAC, CUPRAC, and FRAP were significantly higher than trolox. The phenol and flavonoid contents of the plant extracts were in the range 20.90±0.190–83.25±0.914 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 1.45±0.200–39.71±0.092 mg rutin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The plants were found to possess moderate antioxidant capacities and interesting inhibitory action against key enzymes.

  9. The circadian clock regulates rhythmic activation of the NRF2/glutathionemediated antioxidant defense pathway to modulate pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Pekovic-Vaughan (Vanja); J. Gibbs (Raphael); H. Yoshitane (Hikari); N. Yang (Nan); D. Pathiranage (Dharshika); B. Guo (Boliang); A. Sagami (Aya); K. Taguchi (Keiko); D. Bechtold (David); S.E. Loudon (Sjoukje); M. Yamamoto (Masayuki); J. Chan (Jefferson); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); Y. Fukada (Yoshitaka); Q. Meng (Qingyue)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe disruption of the NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2)/glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense pathway is a critical step in the pathogenesis of several chronic pulmonary diseases and cancer. While the mechanism of NRF2 activation upon oxidative stress has been widely

  10. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense mechanisms linked to exercise during cardiopulmonary and metabolic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bell, Heather K

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple human diseases, in addition to the aging process. Although various stimuli exist, acute exercise is known to induce a transient increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), evident by several reports of increased oxidative damage following acute bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Although the results are somewhat mixed and appear disease dependent, individuals with chronic disease experience an exacerbation in oxidative stress following acute exercise when compared to healthy individuals. However, this increased oxidant stress may serve as a necessary “signal” for the upregulation in antioxidant defenses, thereby providing protection against subsequent exposure to prooxidant environments within susceptible individuals. Here we present studies related to both acute exercise-induced oxidative stress in those with disease, in addition to studies focused on adaptations resulting from increased RONS exposure associated with chronic exercise training in persons with disease. PMID:20046644

  11. Endogenous antioxidant defense induction by melon superoxide dismutase reduces cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Rugale, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Jover, Bernard

    2014-08-01

    We assessed the influence of SODB, a melon superoxide dismutase (SOD), on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in SHR. SODB (4 or 40U SOD) was given orally for 4 or 28 days to SHR. For each treatment period, LV weight index (LVWI) and cardiomyocytes size were measured. SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase expressions, and LV production and presence of superoxide anion were determined. Pro-inflammatory markers were also measured. SODB reduced LVWI and cardiomyocytes size after 4 or 28 days. Cardiac SOD and GPx increased by 30-40% with SODB. The presence but not production of superoxide anion was significantly reduced by SODB. No effect of SODB was detected on inflammatory status in any group. The beneficial effect of SODB on cardiac hypertrophy seems to be related to the stimulation of endogenous antioxidant defense, suggesting that SODB may be of interest as a dietary supplementation during conventional antihypertensive therapy.

  12. Effects of Launaea procumbens on brain antioxidant enzymes and cognitive performance of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rahmat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Launaea procumbens is used in the treatment of oxidative stress and mental disorders. The effects of Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPMEs, i.e., 100 and 200 LPME mg/kg body weight (b.w., on cognitive performance as well as on the activity of acetylcholinesterase, and antioxidant enzymes in rat brain tissue homogenates were evaluated. Methods Thirty male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided equally into three groups. Rats in group I (control were given saline (vehicle, group II received LPME (100 mg/kg b.w., p.o., and group III were treated with LPME (200 mg/kg b.w., p.o. in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO for 7 days. Antioxidant potential was assessed by measuring the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx, glutathione reductase (GSR and glutathione-S-transferase (GST as well as lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH contents in brain tissue homogenates. Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and cognitive performance were also assessed. Results LPME administration reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation products (TBARS contents, increased GSH levels and enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT, GSHpx, GSR and GST. AChE activity was reduced by LPME treatment compared with untreated controls. Conclusion These findings suggested the significant impact of LPMEs on brain function. These effects could be through the antioxidant effects of the bioactive constituents present in LPME.

  13. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Dekdouk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects.

  14. Transcriptional and biochemical analysis of antioxidant enzymes in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis during experimental exposures to the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prego-Faraldo, M V; Vieira, L R; Eirin-Lopez, J M; Méndez, J; Guilhermino, L

    2017-08-01

    The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins have been widely investigated in bivalve molluscs, representing the main vectors of these compounds in the Atlantic coast of Europe. DSP toxins are produced by Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Dinophysis and Prorocentrum dinoflagellates, being subsequently accumulated by marine organisms and biomagnified throughout trophic webs. Yet, bivalves display increased resistance to the harmful effects of these toxins during HAB episodes. While previous reports have suggested that such resilience might be the result of an increased activity in the bivalve antioxidant system, very little is still known about the specific mechanism underlying the protective effect observed in these organisms. The present work aims to fill this gap by studying transcriptional expression levels and biochemical activities of antioxidant enzymes in different tissues the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis during experimental exposures to DSP toxins produced by the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima. Results are consistent with the presence of a compensatory mechanism involving a down-regulation in the expression of specific genes encoding antioxidant enzymes [i.e., SuperOxide Dismutase (SOD) and CATalase (CAT)] which is counterbalanced by the up-regulation of other antioxidant genes such as Glutathione S-Transferase pi-1 (GST-pi) and Selenium-dependent Glutathione PeroXidase (Se-GPx), respectively. Enzymatic activity analyses mirror gene expression results, revealing high antioxidant activity levels (consistent with a protective role for the antioxidant system) along with reduced lipid peroxidation (increasing the defense against oxidative stress). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of enzyme/substrate ratio on the antioxidant properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant properties of African yam bean hydrolysates (AYH) produced at different enzyme to substrate (E/S) ratios of 1: 100 and 3: 100 (W/V) using pepsin (pH 2.0, 37°C) were studied. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates was significantly influenced by the E\\S ratio as ...

  16. Methyl jasmonate regulates antioxidant defense and suppresses arsenic uptake in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Farooq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyl jasmonate (MJ is an important plant growth regulator, involved in plant defense against abiotic stresses, however its possible function in response to metal stress is poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of MJ on physiological and biochemical changes of the plants exposed to arsenic (As stress were investigated in two Brassica napus L. cultivars (ZS 758 – a black seed type, and Zheda 622 – a yellow seed type. The As treatment at 200 µM was more phytotoxic, however its combined application with MJ resulted in significant increase in leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, biomass production and reduced malondialdehyde content compared with As stressed plants. The application of MJ minimized the oxidative stress, as revealed via a lower level of reactive oxygen species (ROS synthesis (H2O2 and OH- in leaves and the maintenance of high redox states of glutathione and ascorbate. Enhanced enzymatic activities and gene expression of important antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT, POD, secondary metabolites (PAL, PPO, CAD and induction of lypoxygenase gene suggest that MJ plays an effective role in the regulation of multiple transcriptional pathways which were involved in oxidative stress responses. The content of As was higher in yellow seeded plants (cv. Zheda 622 as compared to black seeded plants (ZS 758. The application of MJ significantly reduced the As content in leaves and roots of both cultivars. Findings of the present study reveal that MJ improves ROS scavenging through enhanced antioxidant defense system, secondary metabolite and reduced As contents in both the cultivars.

  17. Antioxidant defense system responses and DNA damage of earthworms exposed to Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Dongmei; Li, Chandan; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    The use of earthworms as a sublethal endpoint has significantly contributed to the ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. Few studies have focused on the potential toxicity of PFOS to earthworms in the soil. In this work, artificial soils were tested, and contact filter paper studies were used. The results showed that earthworm growth was generally inhibited. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were initially activated and then inhibited. Reduced glutathione content was observed, and malondialdehyde content was elevated over the duration of the exposure. These results suggested that PFOS induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, the values of olive tail moment, tail DNA% and tail length using SCGE showed similar frequency distributions and increased with increases in the PFOS concentration. These results suggest that all concentrations of PFOS cause DNA damage. Highlights: ► We studied the potential ecotoxicity of PFOS to earthworm in soil. ► Eisenia foetida was used as a model organism and its growth was generally inhibited. ► Antioxidant enzyme activities were initially activated and then inhibited. ► Reduced glutathione content was observed and malondialdehyde content was elevated. ► PFOS induced DNA damage in earthworms. -- Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in earthworms

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jing Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2∙- in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  19. Vaccination with antioxidant enzymes confers protective immunity against challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip T LoVerde

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni, an intravascular parasite, lives in a hostile environment in close contact with host humoral and cellular cytotoxic factors. To establish itself in the host, the parasite has evolved a number of immune evasion mechanisms, such as antioxidant enzymes. Our laboratory has demonstrated that the expression of antioxidant enzymes is developmentally regulated, with the highest levels present in the adult worm, the stage least susceptible to immune elimination, and the lowest levels in the larval stages, the most susceptible to immune elimination. Vaccination of mice with naked DNA constructs containing Cu/Zn cytosolic superoxide dismutase (CT-SOD, signal-peptide containing SOD or glutathione peroxidase (GPX showed significant levels of protection compared to a control group. We have further shown that vaccination with SmCT-SOD but not SmGPX results in elimination of adult worms. Anti-oxidant enzyme vaccine candidates offer an advance over existing vaccine strategies that all seem to target the larval developmental stages in that they target adult worms and thus may have therapeutic as well as prophylactic value. To eliminate the potential for cross-reactivity of SmCT-SOD with human superoxide dismutase, we identified parasite-specific epitope-containing peptides. Our results serve as a basis for developing a subunit vaccine against schistosomiasis.

  20. Activity changes of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae infected by the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis beicherriana (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyue; Liu, Qizhi; Lewis, Edwin E; Tarasco, Eustachio

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are lethal parasites of many insect species. To investigate defensive mechanisms towards EPNs in relation to antioxidative and detoxifying enzymes, we chose Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as experimental insect. We studied the activity changes of superoxide dismutases (SODs), peroxidases (PODs), and catalases (CATs), as well as tyrosinase (TYR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CarE), and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) for 40 h in T. molitor larvae infected with Heterorhabditis beicherriana infective juveniles (IJs) at 5 rates (0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 IJs/larva). We found that when T. molitor larvae infected with H. beicherriana at higher rates (80 and 160 IJs/larva), SOD activity quickly increased to more than 70 % higher than that control levels. The activities of POD and CAT increased after 24 h. TYR activity increased slowly at lower rates of infection for 16 h, followed by a slight decrease, and then increasing from 32 to 40 h. The other detoxifying enzymes (GST, CarE, and AChE) were enhanced at lower infection rates, but were inhibited at higher rates. Our results suggested that host antioxidative response and detoxification reactions played a central role in the defensive reaction to EPNs, and that this stress which was reflected by the higher level enzymes activity contributed to the death of hosts. Further study should explore the exact function of these enzymes using different species of EPNs and investigate the links between enzyme activity and host susceptibility to EPNs.

  1. Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemipour, H.; Kermanshahi, H.; Golian, A.; Veldkamp, T.

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities,

  2. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in response to oxidative stresses and hormones in paraquat-tolerant Rehmannia glutinosa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Geun; Yoo, Nam Hee; Yu, Chang Yeon; de Los Reyes, Benildo; Yun, Song Joong

    2004-09-30

    All members of R. glutinosa show the unique characteristic of intrinsic tolerance to paraquat (PQ). Antioxidant enzymes have been proposed to be the primary mechanism of PQ resistance in several plant species. Therefore, the antioxidant enzyme systems of R. glutinosa were evaluated by comparatively analyzing cellular antioxidant enzyme levels, and their responses of oxidative stresses and hormones. The levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), non-specific peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were 7.3-, 4.9-, 2.7- and 1.6-fold higher in PQ-tolerant R. glutinosa than in PQ-susceptible soybeans. However, the activity of catalase (CAT) was about 12-fold higher in the soybeans. The activities of antioxidant enzymes reduced after PQ treatment in the two species, with the exception of POX and SOD in R. glutinosa, which increased by about 40 %. Interestingly, the activities of APX, SOD and POX in R. glutinosa, relative to those in soybeans, were further increased by 49, 67 and 93 % after PQ treatment. The considerably higher intrinsic levels, and increases in the relative activities of antioxidant enzymes in R. glutinosa under oxidative stress support the possible role of these enzymes in the PQ tolerance of R. glutinosa. However, the relatively lower levels of SOD versus PQ tolerance, and the mixed responses of antioxidant enzymes to stresses and hormones, suggest a possible alternative mechanism(s) for PQ tolerance in R. glutinosa.

  3. 6-Shogaol-Rich Extract from Ginger Up-Regulates the Antioxidant Defense Systems in Cells and Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE pathway in vitro and in vivo. 6-Shogaol-rich extract was produced by extracting ginger powder with 95% ethanol at 80 °C after drying at 80 °C (GEE8080. GEE8080 contained over 6-fold more 6-shogaol compared to the room temperature extract (GEE80RT. In HepG2 cells, GEE8080 displayed much stronger inductions of ARE-reporter gene activity and Nrf2 expression than GEE80RT. GEE8080 stimulated phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs such as ERK, JNK, and p38. Moreover, the GEE8080-induced expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were attenuated by treatments of SB202190 (a p38 specific inhibitor and LY294002 (an Akt specific inhibitor. In a mouse model, the GEE8080 decreased the diethylnitrosamine (DEN-mediated elevations of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the DEN-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Inductions of Nrf2 and HO-1 by GEE8080 were also confirmed in the mice. In addition, the administration of GEE8080 to the mice also restored the DEN-reduced activity and protein expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. In conclusion, GEE8080, a 6-shogaol-rich ginger extract, may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of Nrf2 and HO-1 regulated by p38 MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Cadmium phytotoxicity: Quantitative sensitivity relationships between classical endpoints and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa Correa, Albertina Xavier da [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Roerig, Leonardo Rubi [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Verdinelli, Miguel A. [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Cotelle, Sylvie [Centre des Sciences de l' Environnement, Universite de Metz, 57000 Metz (France); Ferard, Jean-Francois [Centre des Sciences de l' Environnement, Universite de Metz, 57000 Metz (France); Radetski, Claudemir Marcos [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: radetski@univali.br

    2006-03-15

    In this work, cadmium phytotoxicity and quantitative sensitivity relationships between different hierarchical endpoints in plants cultivated in a contaminated soil were studied. Thus, germination rate, biomass growth and antioxidative enzyme activity (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in three terrestrial plants (Avena sativa L., Brassica campestris L. cv. Chinensis, Lactuca sativa L. cv. hanson) were analyzed. Plant growth tests were carried out according to an International Standard Organization method and the results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Williams' test. The concentration of Cd{sup 2+} that had the smallest observed significant negative effect (LOEC) on plant biomass was 6.25, 12.5 and 50 mg Cd/kg dry soil for lettuce, oat and Chinese cabbage, respectively. Activity of all enzymes studied increased significantly compared to enzyme activity in plant controls. For lettuce, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) for enzymic activity ranged from 0.05 (glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (catalase). For oat, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (for superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (for catalase and peroxidase). For Chinese cabbage, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (superoxide dismutase). Classical (i.e. germination and biomass) and biochemical (i.e. enzyme activity) endpoints were compared to establish a sensitivity ranking, which was: enzyme activity > biomass > germination rate. For cadmium-soil contamination, the determination of quantitative sensitivity relationships (QSR) between classical and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers showed that the most sensitive plant species have, generally, the lowest QSR values.

  5. A comparative evaluation of antioxidant enzymes and selenium in the serum of periodontitis patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Biju; Ramesh, Amitha; Suresh, Sneha; Prasad, B Rajendra

    2013-04-01

    Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease with an aberrant response characterized by exaggerated inflammation, involving the release of excess proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Diabetes mellitus is a group of complex multisystem metabolic disorders characterized by a relative or absolute insufficiency of insulin secretion and or concomitant resistance to the metabolic action of insulin on target tissues. Increased production of ROS necessitates elevated requirements for the nutrients involved in antioxidant defenses: Selenium, zinc, and copper. Inflammatory states promote a decrease in the amount of systemic glutathione levels. Catalase is a central antioxidant enzyme constituting the primary defense against oxidative stress. This study has been designed to evaluate the comparison of glutathione, catalase, and selenium levels in the serum of diabetes mellitus type 2 patients and healthy individuals with and without periodontal disease. This study is a case control study. The study was designed as a case - control study comprising of 150 subjects, inclusive of both sexes and were divided into three groups of 50 patients each. Group I: 50 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis. Group II: 50 subjects who are systemically healthy with the chronic periodontitis. Group III: 50 subjects who are systemically healthy and not suffering from. Serum samples were taken for estimation of glutathione, catalase, and selenium from all groups, and Subjected to biochemical analysis after which atomic absorption spectrophotometry method was used to obtain their levels in serum. ANOVA and Tukey HSD. The serum levels of glutathione in diabetic patients with periodontitis were significantly lower with a mean of 61.36 + 8.054 when compared to healthy individuals with and without periodontitis with a mean of 56.93 + 6.874 and 90.36 + 6.564 respectively (P ≤ 0.005). The serum levels of catalase were significantly lower in diabetic

  6. Waterborne gemfibrozil challenges the hepatic antioxidant defense system and down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) mRNA levels in male goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimeault, C.; Trudeau, V.L.; Moon, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    The lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) is one of many human pharmaceuticals found in the aquatic environment. We previously demonstrated that GEM bioconcentrates in blood and reduces plasma testosterone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In this study, we address the potential of an environmentally relevant waterborne concentration of GEM (1.5 μg/l) to induce oxidative stress in goldfish liver and whether this may be linked to GEM acting as a peroxisome proliferator (PP). We also investigate the autoregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as a potential index of exposure. The three PPAR subtypes (α, β, and γ) were amplified from goldfish liver cDNA. Goldfish exposed to a concentration higher (1500 μg/l) than environmentally relevant for 14 and 28 days significantly reduce hepatic PPARβ mRNA levels (p < 0.001). Levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were unchanged. GEM exposure significantly induced the antioxidant defense enzymes catalase (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (p = 0.006) but not acyl-CoA oxidase or glutathione reductase. As GEM exposure failed to increase levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), we conclude that a sub-chronic exposure to GEM upregulates the antioxidant defense status of the goldfish as an adaptive response to this human pharmaceutical

  7. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  8. Potato responds to salt stress by increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Keyvan; Ehsanpour, Ali Akber; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2009-12-01

    To understand the response of potato to salt stress, antioxidant enzyme activities and ion content were analyzed for a sensitive and a tolerant cultivar. Nodal cuttings of the tolerant cultivar, Kennebec, and the sensitive cultivar, Concord, were exposed to media without or with 30, 60, 90 or 120 mmol/L NaCl for 4 weeks. On exposure to NaCl, the length and fresh and dry weight of both shoots and roots of Concord showed greater decrease than those of Kennebec. The decrease in shoot growth was more severe than that of the root for both cultivars. The K(+) content of shoots and roots of both cultivars was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by exposure to NaCl; the Na(+) content increased. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in NaCl-exposed shoots of Kennebec; the corresponding activities in NaCl-exposed shoots of Concord were decreased. Roots of both cultivars showed similar changes in the activities of these enzymes on exposure to NaCl. These studies established that enzyme activities in Concord shoots are inversely related to the NaCl concentration, whereas those in Kennebec do not show a dose dependency, which is also the case for the roots of both cultivars. Our findings suggest that an increase in activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase, can contribute to salt tolerance in Kennebec, a salt resistant cultivar of potato.

  9. Peroxiredoxin II is an antioxidant enzyme that negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Yong; Wang, Su Bin; Min, Ji Hyun; Chae, Yun Hee; Baek, Jin Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Collagen-induced platelet signaling is mediated by binding to the primary receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Reactive oxygen species produced in response to collagen have been found to be responsible for the propagation of GPVI signaling pathways in platelets. Therefore, it has been suggested that antioxidant enzymes could down-regulate GPVI-stimulated platelet activation. Although the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) has emerged as having a role in negatively regulating signaling through various receptors by eliminating H2O2 generated upon receptor stimulation, the function of PrxII in collagen-stimulated platelets is not known. We tested the hypothesis that PrxII negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet activation. We analyzed PrxII-deficient murine platelets. PrxII deficiency enhanced GPVI-mediated platelet activation through the defective elimination of H2O2 and the impaired protection of SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) against oxidative inactivation, which resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of key components for the GPVI signaling cascade, including Syk, Btk, and phospholipase Cγ2. Interestingly, PrxII-mediated antioxidative protection of SHP-2 appeared to occur in the lipid rafts. PrxII-deficient platelets exhibited increased adhesion and aggregation upon collagen stimulation. Furthermore, in vivo experiments demonstrated that PrxII deficiency facilitated platelet-dependent thrombus formation in injured carotid arteries. This study reveals that PrxII functions as a protective antioxidant enzyme against collagen-stimulated platelet activation and platelet-dependent thrombosis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Indirect evaluation of corneal apoptosis in contact lens wearers by estimation of nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Contact lens induced trauma to the corneal epithelium results in increased release of inflammatory mediators. The keratocyte apoptosis is directly related to epithelial injury and has been correlated with increased production of nitric oxide. Potent antioxidant enzymes protect cells from oxidative damage by inactivating reactive oxygen species and thus inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims at determination of total nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears which will be an indirect criteria for assessing apoptosis. Materials and Methods : Nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes were estimated in tears of 25 soft contact lens wearers and compared with 25 age and sex matched controls. Results : Statistically significant increase of nitric oxide (P< 0.001, superoxide dismutase (P< 0.001 and glutathione peroxidase (P< 0.001 levels was seen in tears of contact lens wearers as compared to controls. There was also statistically significant increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (P< 0.05 and glutathione peroxidase (P< 0.01, with increase in the total duration of contact lens wear in years. Conclusions : Increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears of contact lens wearers suggested that contact lens wear suppresses the process of apoptosis. However, it was also postulated that the increased levels of nitric oxide balances the anti-apoptotic activities of increased levels of antioxidant enzymes by its pro-apoptotic activity leading to protective outcomes in contact lens wearers.

  11. [Glutathione redox system, immune status, antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides in hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapbergenov, S O; Sovetov, B S; Bekbosynova, R B; Bolysbekova, S M

    2015-01-01

    The immune status, components of the glutathione redox system, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides have been investigated in animals with experimental hypothyroidism. On day 8 after an increase in the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-helpers and T-suppressors as well as increased number of B-lymphocytes was found in blood of thyroidectomized rats. This was accompanied by decreased activity of adenosine deaminase (AD), AMP-deaminase (AMPD), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) in blood, but the ratio of enzyme activity AD/AMPD increased. These changes in the activity of enzymes, involved in purine catabolism can be regarded as increased functional relationships between T and B lymphocytes in hypothyroidism. The functional changes of immune system cells were accompanied by increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and the ratio GH/GPx. Thyroidectomized rats had increased amounts of total, oxidized (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH), but the ratio GSH/GSSG decerased as compared with control animals. In the liver, hypothyroidism resulted in activation of SOD, GPx, decreased activity of GR and decreased ratio GR/GPx. At the same time, the levels of total, oxidized, and reduced glutathione increased, but the ratio GSH/GSSG as well as activities of enzymes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism ratio (and their ratio 5'N/AD + AMPD) decreased. All these data suggest a functional relationship of the glutathione redox system not only with antioxidant enzymes, but also activity of enzymes involved purine nucleotide metabolism and immune status.

  12. Impact of acute exercise on antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid status in blood of patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Many studies support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenic process of a variety of diseases including hypertension. In humans, hypertension is also considered a state of oxidative stress that can contribute to the development of arteriosclerosis and other hypertension- induced organ damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate an influence of acute physical exercise on antioxidative enzymes activity and lipid status in patients with hypertension. Methods. Forty patients with hypertension and 20 age-matched controls were included in the study. To assess an influence of acute exercise on lipids and antioxidative enzymes activity the following parameters were determined at rest and immediately after the acute cardiopulmonary exercise cycloergometer test: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, low density cholesterol (LDL, oxidised LDL cholesterol (OxLDL, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI. Results. In basal condition, hypertensive patients compared to the control group had increased, but not significantly, level of Ox LDL (88.61±14.06 vs 79.00±29.26 mmol/L, PAI (3.06±0.56 vs 2.6±0.35 U/mL and activity of GSH-Px (50.22±15.20 vs 44.63±13.73 U/g Hb. After acute exercise test, there was significantly greater level of Ox LDL (79.0±29.26 vs 89.3±29.07 mmol/L; p < 0.05 only in the control group. GSH-Px activity was significantly decreased only in hypertensive patients after acute exercise (50.22±15.2 vs 42.82±13.42 U/g Hb; p < 0.05, but not in the controls. Conclusion. No significantly elevated Ox LDL, GSH-Px and PAI-1 levels were found in hypertensive patients during basal condition in comparison with healthy subjects. Decreased GSH-Px activity was associated with those in acute exercise only in hypertensive patients. It could be an important indicator of deficiency of physiological antioxidative defense mechanism in hypertensive

  13. Effect of different levels dietary vitamin C on growth performance, muscle composition, antioxidant and enzyme activity of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamalai Asaikkutti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was conducted to examine the effects and interactions of dietary vitamin C levels on the growth performance, antioxidant ability, muscle composition and enzyme activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (M. malcolmsonii. Additional, the vitamins C was dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn M. malcolmsonii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with M. malcolmsonii at the rates of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented vitamin C was fed in M. malcolmsonii for a period of 90 days. In the present investigation revealed that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C shows enhanced (P  0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR were observed in prawn fed different diets. Addition, prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C supplemented diets achieved significant (P  0.05 alterations in prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamin C supplemented diets. Therefore, the present study proposed that 100 mg/kg of vitamin C could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival; growth, antioxidant defense system and production of M. malcolmsonii. Keywords: Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, Vitamin, Growth performance, Biochemical compositions, Antioxidant enzyme

  14. The 6-a-day study: effects of fruit and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in healthy nonsmokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars Ove; Pedersen, A.; Hermetter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Fruit and vegetables contain both nutritive and nonnutritive factors that might contribute to redox (antioxidant and prooxidant) actions. Objective: We investigated the relative influence of nutritive and nonnutritive factors in fruit and vegetables on oxidative damage and enzymatic d...... lipoproteins to oxidation more efficiently than do the vitamins and minerals that fruit and vegetables are known to contain. Plasma protein carbonyl formation at lysine residues increases because of the vitamins and minerals in fruit and vegetables.......Background: Fruit and vegetables contain both nutritive and nonnutritive factors that might contribute to redox (antioxidant and prooxidant) actions. Objective: We investigated the relative influence of nutritive and nonnutritive factors in fruit and vegetables on oxidative damage and enzymatic...... and vegetables/d; the placebo group received a placebo pill, and the supplement group received a vitamin pill designed to contain vitamins and minerals corresponding to those in 600 g fruit and vegetables. Biomarkers of oxidative damage to protein and lipids and of antioxidant nutrients and defense enzymes were...

  15. Hypoxia tolerance and antioxidant defense system of juvenile jumbo squids in oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-10-01

    Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) is a large oceanic squid endemic off the Eastern Tropical Pacific that undertakes diel vertical migrations into mesopelagic oxygen minimum zones. One of the expected physiological effects of such migration is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the surface, promoted by the transition between hypoxia and reoxygenation states. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy expenditure rates and the antioxidant stress strategies of juvenile D. gigas under normoxia and hypoxia, namely by quantifying oxygen consumption rates, antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], heat shock protein expression (Hsp70/Hsc70), and lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. A high significant decrease (68%) in squid's metabolic rates was observed during hypoxia (p0.05), with the latter indicating no enhancement of lipid peroxidation (i.e. cellular damage) at the warmer and normoxic surface waters. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how this species is quickly responding to the impacts of environmental stressors coupled with global climate change.

  16. Strengthening of antioxidant defense by Azadirachta indica in alloxan-diabetic rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shailey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azadirachta indica has been reported to correct altered glycaemia in diabetes. Objective: The aqueous extract of A. indica leaf and bark has been evaluated for its effect on antioxidant status of alloxan diabetic rats and compared with insulin treatment. Materials and Methods: The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf (500 mg/kg body weight and A. indica bark (100 mg/kg body weight were given once daily for 21 days to separate groups of diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period blood glucose level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD, and membrane lipid peroxidation were determined in different fractions of liver and kidney tissues. Results: Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (P<0.01, increased level of malondialdehyde (P<0.05 and a significant decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with insulin, A. indica leaf extract (AILE, and A. indica bark extract (AIBE restored the above altered parameters close to the control ones. Conclusions: Both AILE and AIBE were found significantly effective in reducing hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The findings suggest further investigations for the possible use of A. indica as alternative medicine to prevent long-term complications of diabetes.

  17. Effects of Platycodin D on Reflux Esophagitis due to Modulation of Antioxidant Defense Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yeon Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The effects of platycodin D (PD pretreatment were examined in reflux esophagitis (RE induced rats. Methods. Sham, control, and omeprazole (OMP group were pretreated with distilled water or OMP as a reference, respectively, and PD pretreated groups were given 3 different PD doses once a day for 7 days. One hour after last pretreatment, RE was induced by ligation of the forestomach and pylorus. At 8 h after operation, all animals were sacrificed. Results. PD showed significant dose-dependent reduction of gastric secretion, myeloperoxidase activity, and RE lesion areas of esophagus and stomach mucosa. There was a reduction of lipid peroxidation in 2 doses of PD groups and elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in all PD groups. Gastric hexose and sialic acid were significantly increased in PD groups, while collagen was reduced. Plasma histamine levels were significantly reduced in all PD groups, but not in the OMP group. Total invasive lesion sizes of esophagus and gastric fundus were significantly decreased in all PD groups. Thicknesses in esophagus of all PD groups were significantly decreased and thicknesses of funds were significantly increased except lowest PD dose. Conclusions. Therapeutic effects of PD on the esophageal and gastric lesions were shown in RE induced rats dose-dependently. The PD pretreatment had significant antioxidant effects with regulation of histamine levels. This study provides useful information regarding the effectiveness of the drug for RE and further novel drug discovery using natural herbal products.

  18. Oxidative stress in cancer and fibrosis: Opportunity for therapeutic intervention with antioxidant compounds, enzymes, and nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingga Morry

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, mainly contributed by reactive oxygen species (ROS, has been implicated in pathogenesis of several diseases. We review two primary examples; fibrosis and cancer. In fibrosis, ROS promote activation and proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, activating TGF-β pathway in an autocrine manner. In cancer, ROS account for its genomic instability, resistance to apoptosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Importantly, ROS trigger cancer cell invasion through invadopodia formation as well as extravasation into a distant metastasis site. Use of antioxidant supplements, enzymes, and inhibitors for ROS-generating NADPH oxidases (NOX is a logical therapeutic intervention for fibrosis and cancer. We review such attempts, progress, and challenges. Lastly, we review how nanoparticles with inherent antioxidant activity can also be a promising therapeutic option, considering their additional feature as a delivery platform for drugs, genes, and imaging agents.

  19. Antioxidant activity and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition by enzymatic hydrolysates from bee bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takeshi; Nagashima, Toshio; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Inoue, Reiji

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates were prepared from bee bread using three proteases. The antioxidant properties of these hydrolysates were measured using four different methods. These had remarkable antioxidant activity similar or superior to that of 1 mM alpha-tocopherol. They also had high scavenging activities against active oxygen species as the superoxide anion radical and hydroxyl radicals. Moreover, they showed angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities and the activities were similar to those from various fermented foods such as fish sauce, sake, vinegar, cheese, miso, and natto. The present studies reveal that enzymatic hydrolysates from bee bread are of benefit not only for the materials of health food diets, but also for in patients undergoing various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension.

  20. Fractionation, enzyme inhibitory and cellular antioxidant activity of bioactives from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Rodríguez-Werner, Miriam; Schlösser, Anke; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2017-04-15

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is mainly cultivated in Asia. The deep purple color of purple sweet potato (PSP) is due to the high content of acylated anthocyanins. In the present study, PSP-derived polyphenols were identified using HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS n analyses. After concentration of the polyphenols from PSP, preparative separation into two fractions, designated anthocyanins (AF) and copigments (CF), was carried out using adsorptive membrane chromatography. In enzyme inhibitory assays, all PSP samples inhibited the enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase. Additionally, the cell signaling cellular antioxidant properties of the PSP extracts were investigated in cultured cells. PSP induced the transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates the expression of genes encoding heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (Gclc) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Furthermore, PSP enhanced cellular glutathione concentrations and decreased lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, these results suggest that PSP extracts exhibit enzyme inhibitory and cellular antioxidant properties, especially PSP CF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selenium and zinc protect brain mitochondrial antioxidants and electron transport chain enzymes following postnatal protein malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Olusegun L; Adenuga, Gbenga A; Sandhir, Rajat

    2016-05-01

    Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are trace elements required for optimal brain functions. Thus, the role of Se and Zn against protein malnutrition induced oxidative stress on mitochondrial antioxidants and electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes from rats' brain were investigated. Normal protein (NP) and low protein (LP) rats were fed with diets containing 16% and 5% casein respectively for a period of 10weeks. Then the rats were supplemented with Se and Zn at a concentration of 0.15mgL(-1) and 227mgL(-1) in drinking water for 3weeks after which the rats were sacrificed. The results obtained from the study showed significant (p<0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), ROS production, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels and mitochondrial swelling and significant (p<0.05) reductions in catalase (CAT) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activities, glutathione (GSH) levels, GSH/GSSG ratio and MTT reduction as a result of LP ingestion. The activities of mitochondrial ETC enzymes were also significantly inhibited in both the cortex and cerebellum of LP-fed rats. Supplementation with either Se or Zn restored the alterations in all the parameters. The study showed that Se and Zn might be beneficial in protecting mitochondrial antioxidants and ETC enzymes against protein malnutrition induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of aerial exposure on antioxidant defenses in the brown mussel Perna perna

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    Eduardo Alves de Almeida

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant defenses in digestive gland of mussels Perna perna held in air for 4 hours, exposed to air for 4 hours followed by submersion in water for 30 minutes, and constantly submerged for 4.5 hours. No differences were observed in CAT and GPx activities and in the levels of total GSH. Mussels exposed to air had significantly higher SOD activity, possibly related to a preparative mechanism of defense against oxidative stress during reoxygenation.Mexilhões são periodicamente submetidos a condições de hipóxia seguido de normóxia, como resultado das oscilações nos níveis de maré. Tais condições podem causar um aumento na produção de espécies reativas de oxigenio (EROs nos tecidos, devido a um aumento no fluxo de oxigênio e de equivalentes redutores. Para proteger as células contra as EROs, os organismos possuem enzimas antioxidantes tais como a superóxido dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT e glutationa peroxidase (GPx, assim como o tripeptídeo glutationa (GSH. Neste trabalho, estas defesas antioxidantes foram avaliadas em glândulas digestivas de mexilhões Perna perna expostos ao ar por 4 horas seguido de re-submersão em água do mar por 30 minutos e constantemente submersos por 4,5 horas. Nenhuma diferença foi observada nas atividades da CAT e GPx, assim como nos níveis de GSH total. Mexilhões expostos ao ar tiveram atividade da SOD significativamente maior, possivelmente relacionado a um mecanismo de defesa preparativo contra o estresse oxidativo durante a reoxigenação.

  3. Sodium chlorate, a major water disinfection byproduct, alters brush border membrane enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism and impairs antioxidant system of Wistar rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shaikh Nisar; Ansari, Fariheen Aisha; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Mahmood, Riaz

    2017-05-01

    Sodium chlorate (NaClO 3 ) is a widely used nonselective herbicide. It is also generated as a by-product during disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of NaClO 3 on rat intestine. Adult male rats were randomly divided into five groups: control and remaining four groups were administered orally different doses of NaClO 3 and sacrificed 24 h after the treatment. The administration of NaClO 3 produced acute oxidative stress in the intestine, which manifested in the form of markedly enhanced malondialdehyde levels and carbonyl content and lowered total sulfhydryl groups and glutathione levels. The activities of several brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes were greatly reduced as compared to control. There were alterations in the activities of various enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and those involved in maintaining the antioxidant defense system. Histological studies support the biochemical results showing NaClO 3 dose-dependent increase in tissue damage. Thus, the present study shows that oral administration of NaClO 3 decreases the activities of BBM enzymes, induces oxidative stress, alters metabolic pathways, and impairs the antioxidant system of rat intestine. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1607-1616, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

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    Zhou eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyamine (PA may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd, and spermine (Spm. Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2 were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling.

  5. Comparison of therapeutic effects of L-Thyroxin, apelin and a combination of both on antioxidant enzymes in the heart of PTU-induced hypothyroid rats

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    Farzaneh Faraji Shahrivar

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is one of the common disorders among hypothyroidism, which, increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Reactive oxygen species are associated with atherosclerosis development. Antioxidant defense systems are the scavenger for free radicals. Apelin is an endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor (apelin receptor that exists in most tissues, acts as an adiponectin. It has been identified that apelin administration, improve the antioxidant capacity (TAC. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess, therapeutic effects of apelin, T4 (L-Thyroxin or both on antioxidant capacity in 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into five groups: C: control group; P group (hypothyroid: PTU (0.05 % administration for six weeks; P+A, P+T and P+A+T groups: after 4 weeks of PTU administration, animals treated with Apelin (200 μg/kg/day, ip T4 (0.02 µg/g/day, gavage and apelin+T4; for two weeks respectively accompanied by PTU administration. Aplein administration in P+A group and P+A+T group had beneficial effect to lowering of malondialdehyde (MDA content as compared to hypothyroid group (8.52±0.64 and 8.53±1 vs. 13.67±1.64 nmol/g tissue, P<0.05 and also had increasing effect on Superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathion peroxidase (GPx activity and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC content compared to the hypothyroid group. This study showed that apelin was able to improve the oxidant-antioxidant balance in the heart tissue of the hypothyroid rats by elevating of antioxidant enzyme activity.

  6. Survival of Bemisia tabaci and activity of plant defense-related enzymes in genotypes of Capsicum annuum L.

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    Luis Latournerie-Moreno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 is a major plant pest of horticultural crops from the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Cucurbitaceae in Neotropical areas. The exploration of host plant resistance and their biochemical mechanisms offers an excellent alternative to better understand factors affecting the interaction between phytophagous insect and host plant. We evaluated the survival of B. tabaci in landrace genotypes of Capsicum annuum L., and the activity of plant defense-related enzymes (chitinase, polyphenoloxidase, and peroxidase. The landrace genotypes Amaxito, Tabaquero, and Simojovel showed resistance to B. tabaci, as we observed more than 50% nymphal mortality, while in the commercial susceptible genotype Jalapeño mortality of B. tabaci nymphs was not higher than 20%. The activities of plant defense-related enzymes were significantly different among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. Basal activities of chitinase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase were significantly lower or equal in landrace genotypes than that of the commercial genotype Jalapeño. The activity of plant enzymes was differential among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. For example, the activity of chitinase enzyme generally was higher in non-infested plants with B. tabaci than those infested. Instead polyphenoloxidase ('Amaxito' and 'Simojovel' and peroxidase enzymes activities ('Tabaquero' increased in infested plants (P < 0.05. We conclude that basal activities of plant defense-related enzymes could be act through other mechanism plant induction, since plant defense-related enzymes showed a different induction response to B. tabaci. We underlined the role of polyphenoloxidase as plant defense in the pepper genotype Simojovel related to B. tabaci.

  7. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients evolving with cholestatic jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax infection has been considered a benign and self-limiting disease, however, recent studies highlight the association between vivax malaria and life-threatening manifestations. Increase in reactive oxygen species has already been described in vivax malaria, as a result of the increased metabolic rate triggered by the multiplying parasite, and large quantities of toxic redox-active byproducts generated. The present study aimed to study the oxidative stress responses in patients infected with P. vivax, who developed jaundice (hyperbilirubinaemia) in the course of the disease, a common clinical complication related to this species. Methods An evaluation of the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes profile was performed in 28 healthy individuals and compared with P. vivax infected patients with jaundice, i.e., bilirubin jaundice (34 patients), on day 1 (D1) and day 14 (D14) after anti-malarial therapy. Results Hyperbilirubinaemia was more frequent among women and patients experiencing their first malarial infection, and lower haemoglobin and higher lactate dehydrogenase levels were observed in this group. Malondialdehyde levels and activity of celuroplasmin and glutathione reductase were increased in the plasma from patients with P. vivax with jaundice compared to the control group on D1. However, the activity of thioredoxin reductase was decreased. The enzymes glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, thiols and malondialdehyde also differed between jaundiced versus non-jaundiced patients. On D14 jaundice and parasitaemia had resolved and oxidative stress biomarkers were very similar to the control group. Conclusion Cholestatic hyperbilirubinaemia in vivax malaria cannot be totally disassociated from malaria-related haemolysis. However, significant increase of lipid peroxidation markers and changes in antioxidant enzymes in patients with P. vivax-related jaundice was observed. These results suggest oxidative processes contributing

  8. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  9. Assessment of antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes of pre-hypertensive and hypertensive women

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    Farshad Amirkhizi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies that have investigated hypertension have considered a state of oxidative stress that can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and other hypertension induced organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pre-hypertension and hypertension status is associated with activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in a random sample of cardiovascular disease-free women. Methods: In this case-control study, 53 pre-hypertensive women, 32 hypertensive women and 75 healthy controls were included. General information was gathered using questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were measured for each subject. Venous blood samples were drawn from subjects and plasma was separated. Activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes were also evaluated by measuring activities of copper zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT in selected subjects. Results: Fifty-three (33.1% and 32 (20% participants were pre-hypertensive and hypertensive, respectively. The hypertensive and pre-hypertensive women had lower CuZn-SOD (p < 0.001 and GPX (p < 0.01 activities compared to normotensives. Furthermore, hypertensive women had lower CAT activity compared to pre-hypertensive and normotensive women (p < 0.001. Moreover, significant differences were also observed between hypertensive and pre-hypertensive women in erythrocyte CAT activity (p < 0.01. Conclusions: The present findings show that activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes decrease in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive women, which may eventually lead to atherosclerosis and other high blood pressure related health problems.

  10. Heavy Metals and Human Health: Mechanistic Insight into Toxicity and Counter Defense System of Antioxidants

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    Arif Tasleem Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals, which have widespread environmental distribution and originate from natural and anthropogenic sources, are common environmental pollutants. In recent decades, their contamination has increased dramatically because of continuous discharge in sewage and untreated industrial effluents. Because they are non-degradable, they persist in the environment; accordingly, they have received a great deal of attention owing to their potential health and environmental risks. Although the toxic effects of metals depend on the forms and routes of exposure, interruptions of intracellular homeostasis include damage to lipids, proteins, enzymes and DNA via the production of free radicals. Following exposure to heavy metals, their metabolism and subsequent excretion from the body depends on the presence of antioxidants (glutathione, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, etc. associated with the quenching of free radicals by suspending the activity of enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Therefore, this review was written to provide a deep understanding of the mechanisms involved in eliciting their toxicity in order to highlight the necessity for development of strategies to decrease exposure to these metals, as well as to identify substances that contribute significantly to overcome their hazardous effects within the body of living organisms.

  11. Heavy Metals and Human Health: Mechanistic Insight into Toxicity and Counter Defense System of Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Arif Tasleem; Azam, Mudsser; Siddiqui, Kehkashan; Ali, Arif; Choi, Inho; Haq, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul

    2015-12-10

    Heavy metals, which have widespread environmental distribution and originate from natural and anthropogenic sources, are common environmental pollutants. In recent decades, their contamination has increased dramatically because of continuous discharge in sewage and untreated industrial effluents. Because they are non-degradable, they persist in the environment; accordingly, they have received a great deal of attention owing to their potential health and environmental risks. Although the toxic effects of metals depend on the forms and routes of exposure, interruptions of intracellular homeostasis include damage to lipids, proteins, enzymes and DNA via the production of free radicals. Following exposure to heavy metals, their metabolism and subsequent excretion from the body depends on the presence of antioxidants (glutathione, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, etc.) associated with the quenching of free radicals by suspending the activity of enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase). Therefore, this review was written to provide a deep understanding of the mechanisms involved in eliciting their toxicity in order to highlight the necessity for development of strategies to decrease exposure to these metals, as well as to identify substances that contribute significantly to overcome their hazardous effects within the body of living organisms.

  12. Antioxidant defenses in the peripheral cell layers of legume root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, D A; Joyner, S L; Becana, M; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, I; Chatfield, J M

    1998-01-01

    Ascorbate peroxidase (AP) is a key enzyme that scavenges potentially harmful H2O2 and thus prevents oxidative damage in plants, especially in N2-fixing legume root nodules. The present study demonstrates that the nodule endodermis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) root nodules contains elevated levels of AP protein, as well as the corresponding mRNA transcript and substrate (ascorbate). Enhanced AP protein levels were also found in cells immediately peripheral to the infected region of soybean (Glycine max), pea (Pisum sativum), clover (Trifolium pratense), and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) nodules. Regeneration of ascorbate was achieved by (homo)glutathione and associated enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway, which were present at high levels. The presence of high levels of antioxidants suggests that respiratory consumption of O2 in the endodermis or nodule parenchyma may be an essential component of the O2-diffusion barrier that regulates the entry of O2 into the central region of nodules and ensures optimal functioning of nitrogenase.

  13. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    lower levels of MT-I+II were also detected in the plasma of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. These results suggest that, in control subjects, the MT-I+II defense system is active and inducible within skeletal muscle tissue and plasma. In type 2 diabetes, reduced levels of MT......Oxidative stress is implicated in diabetes complications, during which endogenous antioxidant defenses have important pathophysiological consequences. To date, the significance of endogenous antioxidants such as metallothioneins I and II (MT-I+II) in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. To examine....... Immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced MT-I+II levels in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. Control subjects produced a robust increase of MT-I+II in response to training; however, in type 2 diabetes, MT-I+II levels remained essentially unchanged. Significantly...

  14. Antioxidant defense gene analysis in Brassica oleracea and Trifolium repens exposed to Cd and/or Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Dumez, S; Brulle, F; Lemière, S; Platel, A; Nesslany, F; Cuny, D; Deram, A; Vandenbulcke, F

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the expression analysis of antioxidant defense genes in Brassica oleracea and in Trifolium repens. Plants were exposed for 3, 10, and 56 days in microcosms to a field-collected suburban soil spiked by low concentrations of cadmium and/or lead. In both species, metal accumulations and expression levels of genes encoding proteins involved and/or related to antioxidant defense systems (glutathione transferases, peroxidases, catalases, metallothioneins) were quantified in leaves in order to better understand the detoxification processes involved following exposure to metals. It appeared that strongest gene expression variations in T. repens were observed when plants are exposed to Cd (metallothionein and ascorbate peroxidase upregulations) whereas strongest variations in B. oleracea were observed in case of Cd/Pb co-exposures (metallothionein, glutathione transferase, and peroxidase upregulations). Results also suggest that there is a benefit to use complementary species in order to better apprehend the biological effects in ecotoxicology.

  15. Cyclic AMP signaling restricts activation and promotes maturation and antioxidant defenses in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paco, Sonia; Hummel, Manuela; Plá, Virginia; Sumoy, Lauro; Aguado, Fernando

    2016-04-23

    cAMP signaling produces dramatic changes in astrocyte morphology and physiology. However, its involvement in phenotype acquisition and the transcriptionally mediated mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Here we analyzed the global transcriptome of cultured astroglial cells incubated with activators of cAMP pathways. A bulk of astroglial transcripts, 6221 annotated genes, were differentially regulated by cAMP signaling. cAMP analogs strongly upregulated genes involved in typical functions of mature astrocytes, such as homeostatic control, metabolic and structural support to neurons, antioxidant defense and communication, whereas they downregulated a considerable number of proliferating and immaturity-related transcripts. Moreover, numerous genes typically activated in reactive cells, such as scar components and immunological mediators, were repressed by cAMP. GSEA analysis contrasting gene expression profiles with transcriptome signatures of acutely isolated astrocytes and in situ evaluation of protein levels in these cells showed that cAMP signaling conferred mature and in vivo-like transcriptional features to cultured astrocytes. These results indicate that cAMP signaling is a key pathway promoting astrocyte maturation and restricting their developmental and activation features. Therefore, a positive modulation of cAMP signaling may promote the normal state of differentiated astrocytes and favor the protection and function of neuronal networks.

  16. Extracellular ATP induces graded reactive response of astrocytes and strengthens their antioxidative defense in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Marija; Stevanovic, Ivana; Josipovic, Natasa; Laketa, Danijela; Lavrnja, Irena; Bjelobaba, Ivana M; Bozic, Iva; Jovanovic, Marija; Milosevic, Milena; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda

    2017-04-01

    It is widely accepted that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as a universal danger-associated molecular pattern with several known mechanisms for immune cell activation. In the central nervous system, ATP activates microglia and astrocytes and induces a neuroinflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to describe responses of isolated astrocytes to increasing concentrations of ATP (5 µM to 1 mM), which were intended to mimic graded intensity of the extracellular stimulus. The results show that ATP induces graded activation response of astrocytes in terms of the cell proliferation, stellation, shape remodeling, and underlying actin and GFAP filament rearrangement, although the changes occurred without an apparent increase in GFAP and actin protein expression. On the other hand, ATP in the range of applied concentrations did not evoke IL-1β release from cultured astrocytes, nor did it modify the release from LPS and LPS+IFN-γ-primed astrocytes. ATP did not promote astrocyte migration in the wound-healing assay, nor did it increase production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation. Instead, ATP strengthened the antioxidative defense of astrocytes by inducing Cu/ZnSOD and MnSOD activities and by increasing their glutathione content. Our current results suggest that although ATP triggers several attributes of activated astrocytic phenotype with a magnitude that increases with the concentration, it is not sufficient to induce full-blown reactive phenotype of astrocytes in vitro. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89 pro...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...

  18. THERMOSTABILITY OF ANTIOXIDANT AND DETERIORATIVE ENZYMES FROM SOURSOP AND CASHEW APPLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA CRISTINA RABELO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the thermostability of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase - SOD, catalase - CAT and ascorbate peroxidase - APX and deteriorative (guaiacol peroxidase - G-POD, polyphenoloxidase - PPO, pectin-methylesterase - PME and polygalacturonase - PG enzymes from soursop and cashew apple juices. Juices were prepared homogenizing ripe fruit pulps and submitting to different thermal treatments (55, 65, 75, 85 and 95°C for different time period (1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min then enzymatic activities were evaluated. The treatments at 55°C for soursop juice and at 75°C for cashew apple juice presented the best results, considering the low residual activities for deteriorative enzymes and the retained activity of SOD. Our results suggest appropriate technological condition to thermal processing from soursop and cashew apple juice whereby ensuring quality beyond their functionality.

  19. Gene expression profile of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in lung tissue of patients exposed to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbpour, Eisa; Ghanei, Mostafa; Qazvini, Ali; Vahedi, Ensieh; Panahi, Yunes

    2016-04-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent that targets several organs, especially lung tissue. Although pathological effects of SM on mustard lung have been widely considered, molecular and cellular mechanisms for these pathologies are poorly understood. We investigated changes in expression of genes related to oxidative stress (OS) and antioxidant defense caused by SM in lung tissue of patients. We performed gene expression profiling of OS and antioxidant defense in lung tissue samples from healthy controls (n=5) and SM-exposed patients (n=6). Changes in gene expression were measured using a 96-well RT(2) Profiler ™PCR Array: Human Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense, which arrayed 84 genes functionally involved in cellular OS response. 47 (55.95%) genes were found to be significantly upregulated in patients with mustard lung compared with controls (p<0.05), whereas 7 (8.33%) genes were significantly downregulated (p<0.05). Among the most upregulated genes were OS responsive-1 (OXSR1), forkhead box M1 (FOXM1), and glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPX2), while metallothionein-3 (MT3) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were the most downregulated genes. Expression of hypoxia-induced genes (CYGB and MB), antioxidants and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing genes were significantly altered, suggesting an increased oxidative damage in mustard lungs. Mustard lungs were characterized by hypoxia, massive production of ROS, OS, disruption of epithelial cells, surfactant dysfunction, as well as increased risk of lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. Oxidative stress induced by ROS is the major mechanism for direct effect of SM exposure on respiratory system. Antioxidant treatment may improve the main features of mustard lungs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Chemical Composition and Enzymes Inhibitory, Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Caloplaca biatorina

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    Tahereh Valadbeigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study evaluated the brine shrimp larvae toxicity and enzymes inhibitory especially anti-diabetic potential of Caloplaca biatorina via in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using the methanol extracts. Also aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of the species were determined. Methods In this experimental study, different concentrations of the extracts (0.2, 5.0, 1 and 1.5 mg/mL were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the percentage of enzyme inhibitory activity and IC50 was calculated. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography analysis were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS V.21 software. Results Parietin, Emodin, 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-6- methoxy-9.10-anthracenedione and Rhein were identified. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 17.12, 40.09 and 11.02 µg/mL respectively. Also methanol extract displayed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging and brine shrimp toxicity (IC50 = 91.11 properties. Conclusions The result obtained suggests that the C. biatorina extract can be classified as non-toxic. Also, it revealed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the lichen.

  1. Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields cause antioxidative defense mechanisms in human osteoblasts via induction of •O2- and H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehnert, Sabrina; Fentz, Anne-Kristin; Schreiner, Anna; Birk, Johannes; Wilbrand, Benjamin; Ziegler, Patrick; Reumann, Marie K; Wang, Hongbo; Falldorf, Karsten; Nussler, Andreas K

    2017-11-06

    Recently, we identified a specific extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (ELF-PEMF) that supports human osteoblast (hOBs) function in an ERK1/2-dependent manner, suggesting reactive oxygen species (ROS) being key regulators in this process. Thus, this study aimed at investigating how ELF-PEMF exposure can modulate hOBs function via ROS. Our results show that single exposure to ELF-PEMF induced ROS production in hOBs, without reducing intracellular glutathione. Repetitive exposure (>3) to ELF-PEMF however reduced ROS-levels, suggesting alterations in the cells antioxidative stress response. The main ROS induced by ELF-PEMF were •O 2 - and H 2 O 2 , therefore expression/activity of antioxidative enzymes related to these ROS were further investigated. ELF-PEMF exposure induced expression of GPX3, SOD2, CAT and GSR on mRNA, protein and enzyme activity level. Scavenging •O 2 - and H 2 O 2 diminished the ELF-PEMF effect on hOBs function (AP activity and mineralization). Challenging the hOBs with low amounts of H 2 O 2 on the other hand improved hOBs function. In summary, our data show that ELF-PEMF treatment favors differentiation of hOBs by producing non-toxic amounts of ROS, which induces antioxidative defense mechanisms in these cells. Thus, ELF-PEMF treatment might represent an interesting adjunct to conventional therapy supporting bone formation under oxidative stress conditions, e.g. during fracture healing.

  2. Polyphenols of Salix aegyptiaca modulate the activities of drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, and level of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Mohd; Kale, R K; Singh, Rana P

    2018-03-07

    Salix aegyptiaca is known for its medicinal properties mainly due to the presence of salicylate compounds. However, it also contains other beneficial phytochemicals such as gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin. The aim of the study was to examine the redox potential, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of these phytochemicals along with acetylsalicylic acid. The redox potential and antioxidant activity of gallic acid, quercetin, rutin, vanillin and acetylsalicylic acid were determined by oxidation-reduction potential electrode method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. In ex vivo studies, antioxidant activity of these phytochemicals was determined by lipid peroxidation and carbonyl content assay in the liver of mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by protein denaturation method. Six-week old C57BL/6 mice treated with gallic acid (100 mg/kg body weight) and acetylsalicylic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) to investigate their in vivo modulatory effects on the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and level of lipid peroxidation in liver. The order of ability to donate electron and antioxidant activity was found to be: gallic acid > quercetin > rutin > vanillin > acetylsalicylic acid. In ex vivo studies, the similar pattern and magnitude of inhibitory effects of these phytochemicals against peroxidative damage in microsomes and protein carbonyl in cytosolic fraction were observed. In in vivo studies, gallic acid and acetylsalicylic acid alone or in combination, enhanced the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes as well as antioxidant enzymes and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver. These findings show a close link between the electron donation and antioxidation potential of these phytochemicals, and in turn their biological activity. Gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin were found to be better electron donors and

  3. The Polycomb group gene Bmi1 regulates antioxidant defenses in neurons by repressing p53 pro-oxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoo, Wassim; Abdouh, Mohamed; David, Jocelyn; Champagne, Marie-Pier; Ferreira, José; Rodier, Francis; Bernier, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Aging may be determined by a genetic program and/or by the accumulation rate of molecular damages. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the mitochondrial metabolism have been postulated to be the central source of molecular damages and imbalance between levels of intracellular ROS and antioxidant defenses is a characteristic of the aging brain. How aging modifies free radicals concentrations and increases the risk to develop most neurodegenerative diseases is poorly understood, however. Here we show that the Polycomb group and oncogene Bmi1 is required in neurons to suppress apoptosis and the induction of a premature aging-like program characterized by reduced antioxidant defenses. Before weaning, Bmi1−/− mice display a progeroid-like ocular and brain phenotype while Bmi1+/− mice, although apparently normal, have reduced lifespan. Bmi1 deficiency in neurons results in increased p19Arf/p53 levels, abnormally high ROS concentrations and hypersensitivity to neurotoxic agents. Most Bmi1 functions on neurons oxidative metabolism are genetically linked to repression of p53 pro-oxidant activity, which also operates in physiological conditions. In Bmi1−/− neurons, p53 and co-repressors accumulate at antioxidant gene promoters, correlating with a repressed chromatin state and antioxidant genes downregulation. These findings provide a molecular mechanism explaining how Bmi1 regulates free radical concentrations and reveal the biological impact of Bmi1 deficiency on neuronal survival and aging. PMID:19144853

  4. Peptides Derived from Rhopilema esculentum Hydrolysate Exhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory and Antioxidant Abilities

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    Jun Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum was hydrolyzed using alcalase, and two peptides with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities were purified by ultrafiltration and consecutive chromatographic methods. The amino acid sequences of the two peptides were identified as VKP (342 Da and VKCFR (651 Da by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The IC50 values of ACE inhibitory activities of the two peptides were 1.3 μM and 34.5 μM, respectively. Molecular docking results suggested that VKP and VKCFR bind to ACE through coordinating with the active site Zn(II atom. Free radical scavenging activity and protection against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cell (RCMEC injury were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the two peptides. As the results clearly showed that the peptides increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px activities in RCMEC cells, it is proposed that the R. esculentum peptides exert significant antioxidant effects.

  5. Photosynthesis performance, antioxidant enzymes, and ultrastructural analyses of rice seedlings under chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Lv, Chunfang; Xu, Minli; Chen, Guoxiang; Lv, Chuangen; Gao, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium (Cr(6+)) (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) morphological traits, photosynthesis performance, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes. In addition, the ultrastructure of chloroplasts in the leaves of hydroponically cultivated rice (O. sativa L.) seedlings was analyzed. Plant fresh and dry weights, height, root length, and photosynthetic pigments were decreased by Cr-induced toxicity (200 μM), and the growth of rice seedlings was starkly inhibited compared with that of the control. In addition, the decreased maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) might be ascribed to the decreased the number of active photosystem II reaction centers. These results were confirmed by inhibited photophosphorylation, reduced ATP content and its coupling factor Ca(2+)-ATPase, and decreased Mg(2+)-ATPase activities. Furthermore, overtly increased activities of antioxidative enzymes were observed under Cr(6+) toxicity. Malondialdehyde and the generation rates of superoxide (O2̄) also increased with Cr(6+) concentration, while hydrogen peroxide content first increased at a low Cr(6+) concentration of 25 μM and then decreased. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy showed that Cr(6+) exposure resulted in significant chloroplast damage. Taken together, these findings indicate that high Cr(6+)concentrations stimulate the production of toxic reactive oxygen species and promote lipid peroxidation in plants, causing severe damage to cell membranes, degradation of photosynthetic pigments, and inhibition of photosynthesis.

  6. Butyrate modulates antioxidant enzyme expression in malignant and non-malignant human colon tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, Franziska; Wilhelm, Anne; Jablonowski, Nadja; Mothes, Henning; Greulich, Karl Otto; Glei, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The induction of antioxidant enzymes is an important mechanism in colon cancer chemoprevention, but the response of human colon tissue to butyrate, a gut fermentation product derived from dietary fiber, remains largely unknown. Therefore, our study investigated the effect of a butyrate treatment on catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in matched human colon tissues of different transformation stages (n = 3-15 in each group) ex vivo. By performing quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and spectrophotometric measurements, we found an increase in SOD2 at expression and activity level in colonic adenocarcinomas (mRNA: 1.96-fold; protein: 1.41-fold, activity: 1.8-fold; P butyrate (10 mM) resulted in a significant increase (P butyrate against H2 O2 -mediated DNA damage. Despite a significantly lowered SOD2 transcript (0.51-fold, P butyrate exposure of normal colon cells, the catalytic activity was significantly enhanced (1.19-fold, P butyrate were observed. Furthermore, both enzymes showed an age-dependent decrease in activity in normal colon epithelium (CAT: r = -0.49, P = 0.09; SOD2: r = -0.58, P = 0.049). In conclusion, butyrate exhibited potential antioxidant features ex vivo but cellular consequences need to be investigated more in depth. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Keratocyte apoptosis and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities after refractive corneal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Bilgihan, A; Adiguzel, U; Sezer, C; Yis, O; Akyol, G; Hasanreisoglu, B

    2002-01-01

    Refractive corneal surgery induces keratocyte apoptosis and generates reactive oxygen radicals (ROS) in the cornea. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the correlation between keratocyte apoptosis and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities after different refractive surgical procedures in rabbits. Rabbits were divided into six groups. All groups were compared with the control group (Group 1), after epithelial scraping (Group 2), epithelial scrape and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) (traditional PRK: Group 3), transepithelial PRK (Group 4), creation of a corneal flap with microkeratome (Group 5) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK, Group 6). Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labelling assay (to detect DNA fragmentation in situ) and light microscopy were used to detect apoptosis in rabbit eyes. Glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the corneal tissues were measured with spectrophotometric methods. Corneal Gpx and SOD activities decreased significantly in all groups when compared with the control group (P<0.05) and groups 2, 3 and 6 showed a significantly higher amount of keratocyte apoptosis (P<0.05). Not only a negative correlation was observed between corneal SOD activity and keratocyte apoptosis (cc: -0.3648) but Gpx activity also showed negative correlation with keratocyte apoptosis (cc: -0.3587). The present study illustrates the negative correlation between keratocyte apoptosis and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities. This finding suggests that ROS may be partly responsible for keratocyte apoptosis after refractive surgery.

  8. Antioxidant enzymes activity in embryogenic and non-embryogenic tissues in Sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marina Medeiros de Araujo Silva; Ulisses, Claudia; Lacerda E Medeiros, Maria Jaislanny; Cavalcante Granja, Manuela Maria; Willadino, Lilia; Camara, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to induce direct somatic embryogenesis from segments of immature leaves of the RB872552 variety of sugarcane and to correlate this morphogenic event with oxidative stress. Two previously described protocols were utilized for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane with different supplementations of the culture medium and different incubation conditions. For the conversion of embryos into plants was used ms medium without phytoregulators. Histological analyses and activity of antioxidant enzymes were also conducted for the embryogenic and non-embryogenic tissues. The formation of somatic embryos was obtained in 81 % of the explants with the combination of regulators 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)and BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) when incubated under 16 h photoperiod. With regards to the antioxidant enzymes, there was increased activity of peroxidase and an increase in the soluble protein content in embryogenic tissues, whereas lower activities of polyphenol oxidase and catalase appeared in these tissues compared to nonembryogenic tissues. It could be inferred that oxidative stress plays an important role in the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane.

  9. Response of Antioxidative Enzymes to Cadmium Stress in Leaves and Roots of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented study has demonstrated that exposure of plants to toxic heavy metal Cd results a reduction in plant growth. Varied concentrations of CdCl2, ranging from 0.0 to 50 ppm in the germinating media reduced leaf area of radish plant, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Greater loss of chlorophyll b content than chlorophyll a was observed especially under 50 ppm Cd exposure. With regards to the distribution of Cd in roots and leaves, the obtained data showed that the maximum accumulation of Cd occurred in roots followed by leaves. Generally, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu declined in leaves compared to the roots. Furthermore, substantial increases were observed in antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and peroxidase (POD, in Cd-stressed plants in comparison with control. The Cd stress also induced several changes in CAT and POD isozyme profiles and enhanced their activities. The results suggest that the reduction of leaf area and pigment content together with antioxidant enzymes and isozyme patterns can be used as indicators to Cd contamination.

  10. Widening and Elaboration of Consecutive Research into Therapeutic Antioxidant Enzyme Derivatives

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    Alexander V. Maksimenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Undiminishing actuality of enzyme modification for therapeutic purposes has been confirmed by application of modified enzymes in clinical practice and numerous research data on them. Intravenous injection of the superoxide dismutase-chondroitin sulfate-catalase (SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate in preventive and medicative regimes in rats with endotoxin shock induced with a lipopolysaccharide bolus has demonstrated that antioxidant agents not only effectively prevent damage caused by oxidative stress (as believed previously but also can be used for antioxidative stress therapy. The results obtained emphasize the importance of investigation into the pathogenesis of vascular damage and the role of oxidative stress in it. The effects of intravenous medicative injection of SOD-CHS-CAT in a rat model of endotoxin shock have demonstrated a variety in the activity of this conjugate in addition to prevention of NO conversion in peroxynitrite upon interaction with O2∙- superoxide radical. Together with the literature data, these findings offer a prospect for the study of NO-independent therapeutic effects of SOD-CHS-CAT, implying the importance of a better insight into the mechanisms of the conjugate activity in modeled cardiovascular damage involving vasoactive agents other than NO.

  11. Study of some antioxidant enzymes and selenium levels in children with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a complex of clinical, chemical and metabolic disturbances that resulted from chronic reduction in renal function. Despite of many investigations on the pathogenesis of CRF, much remains unexplained. Studies of disorders of oxidative metabolism have indicated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the development of symptoms and complications of this disease. Therefore, selenium (Se) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in 25 children (15 males and 10 females) with advanced CRF. They were diagnosed in the Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Children Hospital, Ain Shams University, Egypt. Their ages ranged from 6-17 years with mean of 11.4 ± 3.54 years. Fifteen healthy control subjects (8 males and 7 females) matched in age were served as controls. This study revealed a very high significant decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The level of plasma Se concentration in patients was very highly significantly decreased as compared to the control group. Also, there were significant positive correlations between Se and total protein and albumin. Furthermore, there were negative correlations between Se, SOD, GSH-Px and both of blood urea and serum creatinine among uremic children. It could be concluded that plasma Se concentration and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GSH-Px and SOD) in uremic children could be helpful in identifying the progress of kidney impairment and the response of the treatment

  12. Expression of Apoptotic and Antioxidant Enzyme Genes in Sheep Oocytes and In Vitro Produced Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashish; Reddy, Ippala Janardhan; Gupta, Paluru Subramanyam Parameswara; Mondal, Sukanta

    2017-01-02

    The present study was to find out the expression pattern and relative expression level of apoptotic (Bcl2, Bax, Casp3, and PCNA) and antioxidant enzyme [(GPx, Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2)] genes in sheep oocytes and developing embryos produced in vitro by conventional RT-PCR and real time qPCR, respectively. Different developmental stages of embryos were produced in vitro from oocytes collected from local slaughter house ovaries. RT-PCR amplicons showed expression of Bcl2 and PCNA in all stages except at morula. In contrast Bax and Casp3 were expressed in all stages. GPx and SOD1 were expressed in all stages but SOD2 was not expressed in 8-16 cells, although expressed in the remaining stages. The qPCR analysis reflected that Bcl2 expression was significantly (P sheep embryos produced in vitro are highly sensitive to culture condition, which alters the expression level of apoptotic and antioxidant enzyme genes.

  13. Amelioration of Heat Stress Induced Disturbances of Antioxidant Defense System in Chicken by Brahma Rasayana

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    V. Ramnath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the range of comfort zone or thermo neutral zone of domestic chickens is narrow, they become easily susceptible to heat and cold environmental stress. We evaluated Brahma Rasayana (BR supplementation on concentrations of certain oxidative stress markers associated with heat stress. A total of 48 egg type male chickens of local strain were divided into six groups (n = 8 for the study. Three groups were fed with BR orally at the rate of 2 g/kg bw daily for 10 days prior to and during the period of experiment. Two of the four groups that were exposed to heat stress (HST i.e. to a temperature of 40 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 80 ± 5% in an environmental chamber for 4 h daily for 5 or 10 days, received BR orally. The other two groups remained as BR treated and untreated non-heat stressed (NHST controls. There was a significant (P < 0.05 increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood such as catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as liver CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and glutathione reductase (GR in NHST-BR treated and HST-BR treated (both 5 and 10 days chickens when compared with untreated controls. A great deal of significant (P < 0.05 variations were seen in serum and liver reduced glutathione (GSH concentration in NHST-BR treated and HST-BR treated (both 5 and 10 days chickens. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were found to be significantly (P < 0.05 higher in HST-untreated (both 5 and 10 days chickens when compared with other groups. Thus BR supplementation during HST brings about enhanced action of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullified the undesired side effects of free radicals that are generated during HST.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities and identification of intermediate products during phytoremediation of an anionic dye (C.I. Acid Blue 92) by pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Fatemeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Khataee, Alireza

    2013-11-01

    The potential of pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) for phytoremediation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92) was evaluated. The effects of various experimental parameters including pH, temperature, dye concentration and plant weight on dye removal efficiency were investigated. The results showed that the optimal condition for dye removal were pH 3.5 and temperature 25 degree C. Moreover, the absolute dye removal enhanced with increase in the initial dye concentration and plant weight. Pennywort showed the same removal efficiency in repeated experiments (four runs) as that obtained from the first run (a 6-day period). Therefore, the ability of the plant in consecutive removal of AB92 confirmed the biodegradation process. Accordingly, a number of produced intermediate compounds were identified. The effect of treatment on photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in plant roots and leaves were evaluated. The results revealed a reduction in photosynthetic pigments content under dye treatments. Antioxidant enzyme responses showed marked variations with respect to the plant organ and dye concentration in the liquid medium. Overall, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activity under AB92 stress in the roots was much higher than that in the leaves. Nevertheless, no significant increase in malondialdehyde content was detected in roots or leaves, implying that the high efficiency of antioxidant system in the elimination of reactive oxygen species. Based on these results, pennywort was founded to be a capable species for phytoremediation of AB92-contaminated water, may be effective for phytoremediation dye-contaminated polluted aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  16. Circulating Protein Carbonyls, Antioxidant Enzymes and Related Trace Minerals among Preterms with Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed El-Abd; Abd-Elmawgood, Eman Ahmed; Hassan, Mohammed H

    2017-07-01

    Information about oxidative stress in preterms with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is defective, so various researches in this area are required, which may open new roads in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease, hence provide additional helpful therapeutic approaches. To assess and compare the plasma level of protein carbonyls as a marker for oxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes; Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and the related trace minerals in the form of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Selenium (Se) as markers for antioxidant status, in preterms with and without RDS. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted on fifty-seven preterm neonates (37 preterms with RDS and 20 preterms without RDS) admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of Qena University Hospitals after approval of the University Hospital Ethical Committee. Plasma protein carbonyls assay was done using commercially available ELISA assay kit. Plasma Cu, Zn, Se, erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities assays were done using commercially available colorimetric assay kits. Significant higher plasma levels of protein carbonyls and oxidant/antioxidants ratio (protein carbonyls/{SOD+GPx}) with significant lower plasma levels of Zn, Cu, Se, erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities were found in the preterms with RDS when compared with the preterms without RDS (p<0.001 for all measured markers for both groups). In terms of birth weights and gestational ages, they were negatively correlated with both plasma protein carbonyls and oxidant/antioxidants ratio and positively correlated with plasma copper, zinc, selenium, erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities in a statistically significant manner. Non-significant correlations were found between the measured oxidative stress markers and the severity of RDS. Oxidative stress may have a contributory role in the development of RDS among preterms. Lower birth weight and prematurity may increase the susceptibity to oxidative stress among

  17. Effects of TiO2nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza: Evaluation of growth parameters, pigment contents and antioxidant enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movafeghi, Ali; Khataee, Alireza; Abedi, Mahboubeh; Tarrahi, Roshanak; Dadpour, Mohammadreza; Vafaei, Fatemeh

    2018-02-01

    Plants are essential components of all ecosystems and play a critical role in environmental fate of nanoparticles. However, the toxicological impacts of nanoparticles on plants are not well documented. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) are produced worldwide in large quantities for a wide range of purposes. In the present study, the uptake of TiO 2 -NPs by the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza and the consequent effects on the plant were evaluated. Initially, structural and morphological characteristics of the used TiO 2 -NPs were determined using XRD, SEM, TEM and BET techniques. As a result, an anatase structure with the average crystalline size of 8nm was confirmed for the synthesized TiO 2 -NPs. Subsequently, entrance of TiO 2 -NP S to plant roots was verified by fluorescence microscopic images. Activity of a number of antioxidant enzymes, as well as, changes in growth parameters and photosynthetic pigment contents as physiological indices were assessed to investigate the effects of TiO 2 -NPs on S. polyrrhiza. The increasing concentration of TiO 2 -NPs led to the significant decrease in all of the growth parameters and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities. The activity of superoxide dismutase enhanced significantly by the increasing concentration of TiO 2 -NPs. Enhancement of superoxide dismutase activity could be explained as promoting antioxidant system to scavenging the reactive oxygen species. In contrast, the activity of peroxidase was notably decreased in the treated plants. Reduced peroxidase activity could be attributed to either direct effect of these particles on the molecular structure of the enzyme or plant defense system damage due to reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

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    J. H. Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  19. Differential Expression of Antioxidant Enzymes During Degradation of Azo Dye Reactive black 8 in Hairy roots of Physalis minima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pamela; Modi, Nikita; Jobby, Renitta; Desai, Neetin

    2015-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the protection of plant metabolism in presence of azo dye was characterized by studying activities of the role of antioxidant enzymes in the hairy roots (HRs) of Physalis minima L. during degradation of an azo dye, Reactive Black 8 (RB8). When the HRs were exposed to RB8 (30 mg L(-1)), a  nine fold increase in SOD activity was observed after 24 h, while 22 and 50 fold increase in activity was observed for POX and APX respectively after 72 h, whereas there was no significant change in activity of CAT. The activation of different antioxidant enzymes at different time intervals under dye stress suggests the synchronized functioning of antioxidant machinery to protect the HRs from oxidative damage. FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of dye and the non-toxic nature of metabolites formed after dye degradation was confirmed by phytotoxicity study.

  20. Effects of the toxic dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium catenatum on hydrolytic and antioxidant enzymes, in tissues of the giant lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Norma; de Jesús Romero, Maria; Campa-Córdova, Angel; Luna, Antonio; Ascencio, Felipe

    2007-11-01

    This study documents effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a producer of paralytic shellfish poison, on juvenile farmed (5.9+/-0.39 cm) giant lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. Scallops were fed bloom concentrations of toxic dinoflagellate G. catenatum for 7 h. The effect of the toxic dinoflagellate in different tissues was determined by analysis of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, gluthathione peroxidase), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (lipid peroxidation), and hydrolytic enzymes (proteases, glycosidases, phosphatases, lipases, and esterases). Histopathological photos record the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate in various tissues. The results show that juvenile lions-paw scallops produce pseudo-feces, partially close their shell, increase melanization, and aggregate hemocytes. Several enzymes were affected and could serve as biological markers. In general, the adductor muscle was not affected. In the digestive gland, some enzymes could be the result of defensive and digestive processes. Gills and mantle tissue were markedly affected because these sites respond first to toxic dinoflagellates, leading to the idea that proteolytic cascades could be involved.

  1. BQ123 Stimulates Skeletal Muscle Antioxidant Defense via Nrf2 Activation in LPS-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Kowalczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is understood of skeletal muscle tissue in terms of oxidative stress and inflammation. Endothelin-1 is an endogenous, vasoconstrictive peptide which can induce overproduction of reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BQ123, an endothelin-A receptor antagonist, influences the level of TNF-α, IL-6, SOD-1, HO-1, Nrf2 mRNA, and NF-κB subunit RelA/p65 mRNA in the femoral muscle obtained from endotoxemic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n=6 and received iv (1 saline (control, (2 LPS (15 mg/kg, (3 BQ123 (1 mg/kg, (4 BQ123 (1 mg/kg, and LPS (15 mg/kg, resp. 30 min later. Injection of LPS led to significant increase in levels of RelA/p65 mRNA, TNF-α, and IL-6, while content of SOD-1, HO-1, and Nrf2 mRNA was unchanged. Administration of BQ123 prior to LPS challenge resulted in a significant reduction in RelA/p65 mRNA, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, as well as markedly elevated concentrations of SOD-1, HO-1, and Nrf2 mRNA. BQ123 appears to enhance antioxidant defense and prevent production of TNF-α and IL-6 in skeletal muscle of LPS-treated rat. In conclusion, endothelin-A receptor antagonism exerts significant impact on the skeletal muscle favouring anti-inflammatory effects and protection against oxidative stress.

  2. Role of operon aaoSo-mutT in antioxidant defense in Streptococcus oligofermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Liu, Lei; Tong, Huichun; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we have found that an insertional inactivation of aao(So), a gene encoding L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), causes marked repression of the growth of Streptococcus oligofermentans. Here, we found that aao(So) and mutT, a homolog of pyrophosphohydrolase gene of Escherichia coli, constituted an operon. Deletion of either gene did not impair the growth of S. oligofermentans, but double deletion of both aao(So) and mutT was lethal. Quantitative PCR showed that the transcript abundance of mutT was reduced for 13-fold in the aao(So) insertional mutant, indicating that gene polarity derived from the inactivation of aao(So) attenuated the expression of mutT. Enzymatic assays were conducted to determine the biochemical functions of LAAO and MutT of S. oligofermentans. The results indicated that LAAO functioned as an aminoacetone oxidase [47.75 nmol H(2)O(2) (min · mg protein)(-1)]; and MutT showed the pyrophosphohydrolase activity, which removed mutagens such as 8-oxo-dGTP. Like paraquat, aao(So) mutations increased the expression of SOD, and addition of aminoacetone (final concentration, 5 mM) decreased the mutant's growth by 11%, indicating that the aao(So) mutants are under ROS stress. HPLC did reveal elevated levels of cytoplasmic aminoacetone in both the deletion and insertional gene mutants of aao(So). Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed increased hydroxyl radicals in both types of aao(So) mutant. This demonstrated that inactivation of aao(So) caused the elevation of the prooxidant aminoacetone, resulting the cellular ROS stress. Our study indicates that the presence of both LAAO and MutT can prevent endogenous metabolites-generated ROS and mutagens. In this way, we were able to determine the role of the aao(So)-mutT operon in antioxidant defense in S. oligofermentans.

  3. Role of operon aaoSo-mutT in antioxidant defense in Streptococcus oligofermentans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhou

    Full Text Available Previously, we have found that an insertional inactivation of aao(So, a gene encoding L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO, causes marked repression of the growth of Streptococcus oligofermentans. Here, we found that aao(So and mutT, a homolog of pyrophosphohydrolase gene of Escherichia coli, constituted an operon. Deletion of either gene did not impair the growth of S. oligofermentans, but double deletion of both aao(So and mutT was lethal. Quantitative PCR showed that the transcript abundance of mutT was reduced for 13-fold in the aao(So insertional mutant, indicating that gene polarity derived from the inactivation of aao(So attenuated the expression of mutT. Enzymatic assays were conducted to determine the biochemical functions of LAAO and MutT of S. oligofermentans. The results indicated that LAAO functioned as an aminoacetone oxidase [47.75 nmol H(2O(2 (min · mg protein(-1]; and MutT showed the pyrophosphohydrolase activity, which removed mutagens such as 8-oxo-dGTP. Like paraquat, aao(So mutations increased the expression of SOD, and addition of aminoacetone (final concentration, 5 mM decreased the mutant's growth by 11%, indicating that the aao(So mutants are under ROS stress. HPLC did reveal elevated levels of cytoplasmic aminoacetone in both the deletion and insertional gene mutants of aao(So. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed increased hydroxyl radicals in both types of aao(So mutant. This demonstrated that inactivation of aao(So caused the elevation of the prooxidant aminoacetone, resulting the cellular ROS stress. Our study indicates that the presence of both LAAO and MutT can prevent endogenous metabolites-generated ROS and mutagens. In this way, we were able to determine the role of the aao(So-mutT operon in antioxidant defense in S. oligofermentans.

  4. Antioxidants as stabilizers for His6-OPH: is this an unusual or regular role for them with enzymes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremenko, Elena N; Lyagin, Ilya V; Cuong, Le H; Huong, Le M

    2017-11-01

    The effect of 14 different antioxidants on the activity of a hexahistidine-tagged organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH) has been studied in vitro. It has been found that antioxidants can have a positive, neutral or negative effect on the activity of His6-OPH in a native form or in the form of an enzyme-polyelectrolyte complex, while the enzyme itself does not affect their antioxidant activity. A significant stabilizing effect of a number of antioxidants on His6-OPH has been shown against its inhibiting with organic solvents (DMSO and isopropyl alcohol). The kinetics of the process has been studied. Based on molecular docking of all tested antioxidants to the surface of His6-OPH dimer, options of their localization have been identified. These data were used to explain the revealed stabilizing effect of the antioxidants on the enzyme as well as their negative influence on His6-OPH activity. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of low doses of herbicide paraquat on antioxidant defense in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krůček, Tomáš; Korandová, Michala; Šerý, Michal; Frydrychová, Radmila Čapková; Krůček, Tomáš; Korandová, Michala; Szakosová, Klára

    2015-04-01

    Despite a high toxicity, paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Our study evaluated the effect of paraquat exposure on antioxidant response and locomotion activity in Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and the transcript levels of both enzymes. Flies were exposed to a wide range of paraquat concentrations (0.25 μM to 25 mM) for 12 h. SOD, at both transcript and enzymatic levels, revealed a biphasic dose-response curve with the peak at 2.5 μM paraquat. A similar dose-response curve was observed at transcript levels of catalase. Males revealed higher susceptibility to paraquat exposure, displaying higher lethality, increased levels of SOD activity, and increased peroxide levels than in females. We found that the exposure of females to 2.5 μM paraquat leads to an increase in locomotion activity. Because susceptibility to paraquat was enhanced by mating, the study supports the hypothesis of elevation of stress sensitivity as a physiological cost of reproduction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cannabidiol Post-Treatment Alleviates Rat Epileptic-Related Behaviors and Activates Hippocampal Cell Autophagy Pathway Along with Antioxidant Defense in Chronic Phase of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Mahshid; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Naderi, Nima; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal and sometimes severe behavioral and molecular symptoms are usually observed in epileptic humans and animals. To address this issue, we examined the behavioral and molecular aspects of seizure evoked by pilocarpine. Autophagy can promote both cell survival and death, but there are controversial reports about the neuroprotective or neurodegenerative effects of autophagy in seizure. Cannabidiol has anticonvulsant properties in some animal models when used as a pretreatment. In this study, we investigated alteration of seizure scores, autophagy pathway proteins, and antioxidant status in hippocampal cells during the chronic phase of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy after treatment with cannabidiol. Cannabidiol (100 ng, intracerebroventricular injection) delayed the chronic phase of epilepsy. Single administration of cannabidiol during the chronic phase of seizure significantly diminished seizure scores such as mouth clonus, head nodding, monolateral and bilateral forelimb clonus and increased the activity of catalase enzyme and reduced glutathione content. Such a protective effect in the behavioral scores of epileptic rats was also observed after repeated administrations of cannabidiol at the onset of the silent phase. Moreover, the amount of Atg7, conjugation of Atg5/12, Atg12, and LC3II/LC3I ratio increased significantly in epileptic rats treated with repeated injections of cannabidiol. In short, our results suggest that post-treatment of Cannabidiol could enhance the induction of autophagy pathway and antioxidant defense in the chronic phase of epilepsy, which could be considered as the protective mechanisms of cannabidiol in a temporal lobe epilepsy model.

  7. Influence of UV-A radiation on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arif; Rashid, Muhammad Adnan; Huang, Qiu Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2017-03-01

    Abiotic stress factors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, significantly affect insect life. UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) has been widely used for insect control since it increases the production of ROS and causes oxidative cell damage. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of UV-A irradiation on an important pest in China, the ear-cutting caterpillar, Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We exposed 3-day-old M. separata adults to UV-A radiation for different periods of time (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min) and evaluated the resulting total antioxidant capacity and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase. The total antioxidant capacity significantly increased after exposure to UV-A radiation for 60 min but decreased after 90 and 120 min of exposure, compared with the control. The antioxidant activity of glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase increased after 60-min exposure, and it was decreased at the longest exposure period 120 min. The longest exposure time period relatively activates the xenobiotic detoxifying enzymes like glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase enzymes. The longest duration of UV-A radiation may cooperate with pesticide detoxification mechanism in insects, making them more susceptible to insecticides. Our results demonstrated that UV irradiation causes oxidative stress, affects the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and disturbs the physiology of M. separata adults.

  8. Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M.V.; Paliyath, G.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (O 3 ) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and O 3 -induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure preferentially enhanced guaiacol-peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidases specific to coniferyl alcohol and modified the substrate affinity of ascorbate peroxidase. O 3 exposure enhanced superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase to a similar degree and modified the substrate affinity of both glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase. Both UV-B and O 3 exposure enhanced similar Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoforms. New isoforms of peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidase were synthesized in tt5 plants irradiated with UV-B. UV-B radiation, in contrast to O 3 , enhanced the activation oxygen species by increasing membrane-localized NADPH-oxidase activity and decreasing catalase activities. These results collectively suggest that (a) UV-B exposure preferentially induces peroxidase-related enzymes, whereas O 3 exposure invokes the enzymes of superoxide dismutase/ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and (b) in contrast to O 3 , UV-B exposure generated activated oxygen species by increasing NADPH-oxidase activity. 10 figs., 4 tabs

  9. The Effects of Ibogaine on Uterine Smooth Muscle Contractions: Relation to the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes

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    Zorana Oreščanin-Dušić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid originally extracted from the root bark of the African rainforest shrub Tabernanthe iboga. It has been explored as a treatment for substance abuse because it interrupts drug addiction and relieves withdrawal symptoms. However, it has been shown that ibogaine treatment leads to a sharp and transient fall in cellular ATP level followed by an increase of cellular respiration and ROS production. Since contractile tissues are sensitive to changes in the levels of ATP and ROS, here we investigated an ibogaine-mediated link between altered redox homeostasis and uterine contractile activity. We found that low concentrations of ibogaine stimulated contractile activity in spontaneously active uteri, but incremental increase of doses inhibited it. Inhibitory concentrations of ibogaine led to decreased SOD1 and elevated GSH-Px activity, but doses that completely inhibited contractions increased CAT activity. Western blot analyses showed that changes in enzyme activities were not due to elevated enzyme protein concentrations but posttranslational modifications. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities point to a vast concentration-dependent increase in H2O2 level. Knowing that extracellular ATP stimulates isolated uterus contractility, while H2O2 has an inhibitory effect, this concentration-dependent stimulation/inhibition could be linked to ibogaine-related alterations in ATP level and redox homeostasis.

  10. Protective role of luteolin on the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense against azoxymethane-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, Pandurangan; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2008-11-01

    The modifying effect of dietary exposure to a flavonoid, luteolin (LUT) during the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis was investigated in this study. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants and histopathological analysis were performed. Colon carcinogenesis was induced by injecting 15 mg/body kg weight of AOM, intraperitoneally (i.p.), once in a week for 3 weeks in male Balb/c mice. AOM-induced mice were treated with LUT (1.2mg of LUT/kg body weight/day orally). After the experimental period, frequency of ACF, levels of thiobarbutaric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroxy radical (OH ) were found to be increased, whereas glutathione (GSH), Vitamins C, E and A were decreased in the plasma and colon of AOM-induced mice. However, LUT treatment to AOM-induced mice significantly decreased the incidence of ACF, levels of TBARS and OH with a concordant increase in non-enzymic antioxidants in plasma and colon tissue. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were found to be decreased due to the induction of colon cancer in mouse. LUT treatment ameliorated the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. The histological study revealed a significant increase in the enlarged nuclei and hyperchromatism of cells in AOM-induced mice whereas LUT significantly reduced the signs in the colon. The immunohistochemical expression of MDA-DNA adduct was studied. In AOM-induced group, the expression was increased and treatment with LUT decreased significantly. The present study depicts that LUT can act as an effective chemopreventive agent against colon cancer.

  11. Rhizobacteria induces resistance against Fusarium wilt of tomato by increasing the activity of defense enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélvio Gledson Maciel Ferraz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol, is one of the most important diseases that affect tomato yield worldwide. This study investigated the potential of three antagonists, Streptomyces setonii (UFV 618, Bacillus cereus (UFV 592 and Serratia marcescens (UFV 252, and as positive control the hormone jasmonic acid (JA, to reduce Fusarium wilt symptoms and to potentiate the defense enzymes in the stem tissues of tomato plants infected by Fol. The seeds were microbiolized with each antagonist, and the soil was also drenched with them. The plants were sprayed with JA 48 h before Fol inoculation. The area under the Fusarium wilt index progress curve was reduced by 54, 48, 47 and 45% for the UFV 618, JA, UFV 592 and UFV 252 treatments, respectively. The three antagonists, and even the JA spray, efficiently reduced the Fusarium wilt symptoms on the tomato plant stems, which can be explained by the lower malondialdehyde concentration (an indication of oxidative damage to lipids in the plasma membranes and the greater activities of peroxidases, polyphenoloxidases, glucanases, chitinases, phenylalanine ammonia-lyases and lipoxygenases, which are commonly involved in host resistance against fungal diseases. These results present a novel alternative that can be used in the integrated management of Fusarium wilt on tomatoes.

  12. Differential stimulation of antioxidant defense in various organs of mice after whole body exposure to low-dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, C.M.; Avti, P.K.; Khanduja, K.L.; Sharma, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    It has been generally considered that any dose of ionizing radiation is detrimental to the living organisms, however low the radiation dose may be. The much relied upon 'Linear-No-Threshold' (LNT) hypothesis dose not have any convincing experimental evidence regarding the damaging effects at very low-doses and low-dose rates. Generally, the deleterious biological effects have been inferred theoretically by extrapolating the known effects of high radiation dose to low-dose range. Recently, it has been reported that the living organisms do not respond to ionizing radiations in a linear manner in the low-dose range 0.01-0.50 Gy and rather restore the homeostasis both in-vivo and in-vitro by normal physiological mechanisms such as, cellular and DNA repair processes, immune reactions, antioxidant defense, adaptive responses, activation of immune functions; stimulation of growth etc. In this study, we have attempted to find: (i) the critical radiation dose range and the post irradiation period during which the antioxidant defense systems in the lungs, liver and kidneys remain stimulated; and (ii) to evaluate the degree to which these defense mechanisms remain stimulated in these organs after whole body exposure of the animal to low-dose radiation

  13. A comparative evaluation of antioxidant enzymes and selenium in the serum of periodontitis patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease with an aberrant response characterized by exaggerated inflammation, involving the release of excess proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Diabetes mellitus is a group of complex multisystem metabolic disorders characterized by a relative or absolute insufficiency of insulin secretion and or concomitant resistance to the metabolic action of insulin on target tissues. Increased production of ROS necessitates elevated requirements for the nutrients involved in antioxidant defenses: Selenium, zinc, and copper. Inflammatory states promote a decrease in the amount of systemic glutathione levels. Catalase is a central antioxidant enzyme constituting the primary defense against oxidative stress. Aims: This study has been designed to evaluate the comparison of glutathione, catalase, and selenium levels in the serum of diabetes mellitus type 2 patients and healthy individuals with and without periodontal disease. Settings and Design: This study is a case control study. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a case - control study comprising of 150 subjects, inclusive of both sexes and were divided into three groups of 50 patients each. Group I: 50 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis. Group II: 50 subjects who are systemically healthy with the chronic periodontitis. Group III: 50 subjects who are systemically healthy and not suffering from Periodontitis: Serum samples were taken for estimation of glutathione, catalase, and selenium from all groups, and Subjected to biochemical analysis after which atomic absorption spectrophotometry method was used to obtain their levels in serum. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: The serum levels of glutathione in diabetic patients with periodontitis were significantly lower with a mean of 61.36 + 8.054 when compared to healthy individuals with and without periodontitis with a mean of 56

  14. Effect of Oenanthe Javanica Extract on Antioxidant Enzyme in the Rat Liver

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    Choong-Hyun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oenanthe javanica (O. javanica has been known to have high antioxidant properties via scavenging reactive oxygen species. We examined the effect of O. javanica extract (OJE on antioxidant enzymes in the rat liver. Methods: We examined the effect of the OJE on copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1, manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the rat liver using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups; (1 normal diet fed group (normal-group, (2 diet containing ascorbic acid (AA-fed group (AA-group as a positive control, (3 diet containing OJE-fed group (OJE-group. Results: In this study, no histopathological finding in the rat liver was found in all the experimental groups. Numbers of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx immunoreactive cells and their protein levels were significantly increased in the AA-fed group compared with those in the normal-group. On the other hand, in the OJE-group, numbers of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx immunoreactive cells in the liver were significantly increased by about 190%, 478%, 685%, and 346%, respectively, compared with those in the AA-group. In addition, protein levels of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx in the OJE-group were also significantly much higher than those in the AA-group. Conclusion: OJE significantly increased expressions of SOD1 and SOD2, CAT, and GPx in the liver cells of the rat, and these suggests that significant enhancements of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants by OJE might be a legitimate strategy for decreasing oxidative stresses in the liver.

  15. The use of antioxidant enzymes in freshwater biofilms: temporal variability vs. toxicological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnineau, Chloé; Tlili, Ahmed; Faggiano, Leslie; Montuelle, Bernard; Guasch, Helena

    2013-07-15

    This study aims to investigate the potential of antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA) as biomarkers of oxidative stress in freshwater biofilms. Therefore, biofilms were grown in channels for 38 days and then exposed to different concentrations (0-150 μg L(-1)) of the herbicide oxyfluorfen for 5 more weeks. Under control conditions, the AEA of biofilms were found to change throughout time with a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity during the exponential growth and a more important role of catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities during the slow growth phase. Chronic exposure to oxyfluorfen led to slight variations in AEA, however, the ranges of variability of AEA in controls and exposed communities were similar, highlighting the difficulty of a direct interpretation of AEA values. After 5 weeks of exposure to oxyfluorfen, no clear effects were observed on chl-a concentration or on the composition of other pigments suggesting that algal group composition was not affected. Eukaryotic communities were structured clearly by toxicant concentration and both eukaryotic and bacterial richness were reduced in communities exposed to the highest concentration. In addition, during acute exposure tests performed at the end of the chronic exposure, biofilms chronically exposed to 75 and 150 μg L(-1) oxyfluorfen showed a higher CAT activity than controls. Chronic exposure to oxyfluorfen provoked then structural changes but also functional changes in the capacity of biofilm CAT activity to respond to a sudden increase in concentration, suggesting a selection of species with higher antioxidant capacity. This study highlighted the difficulty of interpretation of AEA values due to their temporal variation and to the absence of absolute threshold value indicative of oxidative stress induced by contaminants. Nevertheless, the determination of AEA pattern throughout acute exposure test is of high interest to compare oxidative stress levels

  16. Protective potential of antioxidant enzymes as vaccines for schistosomiasis in a non-human primate model

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    Claudia eCarvalho-Queiroz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major cause of morbidity in the world. The challenge today is not so much in the clinical management of individual patients, but rather in population-based control of transmission in endemic areas. Recent large-scale efforts aimed at limiting schistosomiasis have produced limited success. There is an urgent need for complementary approaches, such as vaccines. We demonstrated previously that anti-oxidant enzymes such as Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione S peroxidase (GPX, when administered as DNA-based vaccines induced significant levels of protection in inbred mice, greater than the target 40% reduction in worm burden compared to controls set as a minimum by the WHO. These results led us to investigate if immunization of non-human primates with antioxidants would stimulate an immune response that could confer protection, as a prelude for human trials. Issues of vaccine toxicity and safety that were difficult to address in mice were also investigated. All baboons in the study were examined clinically throughout the study and no adverse reactions occurred to the immunization. When our outbred baboons were vaccinated with two different formulations of SOD (SmCT-SOD and SmEC-SOD or one of GPX (SmGPX, they showed a reduction in worm number to varying degrees, when compared with the control group. More pronounced, vaccinated animals showed decreased bloody diarrhea, days of diarrhea and egg excretion (transmission, as well as reduction of eggs in the liver tissue and in the large intestine (pathology compared to controls. Specific IgG antibodies were present in sera after immunizations and 10 weeks after challenge infection compared to controls. PBMC, mesenteric and inguinal node cells from vaccinated animals proliferated and produced high levels of cytokines and chemokines in response to crude and recombinant antigens compared with controls. These data demonstrate the potential of antioxidants as vaccine

  17. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

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    Gulati Vandana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and (ii ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml, Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml, Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts

  18. Differential antioxidative enzyme responses of Jatropha curcas L. to chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Dhote, Monika; Kumar, Phani; Sharma, Jitendra; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2010-08-15

    Chromium (Cr) tolerant and accumulation capability of Jatropha curcas L. was tested in Cr spiked soil amended with biosludge and biofertilizer. Plants were cultivated in soils containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 250 mg kg(-1) of Cr for one year with and without amendment. Plant tissue analysis showed that combined application of biosludge and biofertilizer could significantly reduce Cr uptake and boost the plant biomass, whereas biofertilizer alone did not affect the uptake and plant growth. Antioxidative responses of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased with increasing Cr concentration in plant. Hyperactivity of the CAT and GST indicated that antioxidant enzymes played an important role in protecting the plant from Cr toxicity. However, APX took a little part in detoxification of H(2)O(2) due to its sensitivity to Cr. Therefore, reduced APX activity was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH) activity was recorded in plant grown on/above 100 mg kg(-1) of Cr in soil. The study concludes that J. curcas could grow under chromium stress. Furthermore, the results encouraged that J. curcas is a suitable candidate for the restoration of Cr contaminated soils with the concomitant application of biosludge and biofertilizer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  20. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasma ‎concentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  1. Alteration in some antioxidant enzymes in cardiac tissue upon monosodium glutamate [MSG] administration to adult male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kuldip; Pushpa, Ahluwalia

    2005-01-01

    4mg and 8mg monosodium glutamate per gram body weight was administered subcutaneously for 6 consecutive days to normal adult male mice and its effect was seen on 31st day after the last injection on some antioxidant enzymes in heart. A significant dose dependent increase in lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase level was observed, whereas the activity of free radical scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase was decreased in both monosodium glutamate treated groups (Group...

  2. Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase overexpression modifies antioxidant defense against heat, drought and their combination in Nicotiana tabacum plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lubovská, Zuzana; Dobrá, Jana; Štorchová, Helena; Wilhelmová, Naděžda; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 17 (2014), s. 1625-1633 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/2062; GA MŠk LD14120 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antioxidant enzymes * Cytokinin * Drought Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25171514

  3. Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Zueng-Sang; Hong, Chwan-Yang

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation and effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth and enzymatic activities changes of antioxidants in Tagetes patula, French marigold, were investigated to reveal the physiological mechanisms corresponding to its Cd tolerance and accumulation. Hydroponically grown T. patula plants were treated with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 μM CdCl 2 ) at various regime of times. T. patula accumulated Cd to a maximum of 450 mg Cd kg -1 dry weight (DW) in shoot and 3500 mg Cd kg -1 DW in root after 14 days' exposure at 10 and 50 μM CdCl 2 , respectively. The translocation factors of Cd were greater than 1 in plants exposed to 10 μM CdCl 2 . Toxic effects were gradually observed with increasing Cd concentration (25 and 50 μM) accompanied with the reduction of biomass, chlorophyll content, decrease of cell viability and the increase level of lipid peroxidation. In leaves of T. patula, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced by Cd. However, in roots, activities of APX, GR, SOD and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced by 25 and 50 μM Cd treatment but not 10 μM Cd. In-gel zymography analysis revealed that Cd induced the enzymatic activities of APX, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and different isozymes of GR in leaves. These results indicate that T. patula is a novel Cd accumulator and able to tolerate with Cd-induced toxicity by activation of its antioxidative defense system.

  4. Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Zueng-Sang [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hong, Chwan-Yang, E-mail: cyhong@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-30

    The accumulation and effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth and enzymatic activities changes of antioxidants in Tagetes patula, French marigold, were investigated to reveal the physiological mechanisms corresponding to its Cd tolerance and accumulation. Hydroponically grown T. patula plants were treated with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}) at various regime of times. T. patula accumulated Cd to a maximum of 450 mg Cd kg{sup -1} dry weight (DW) in shoot and 3500 mg Cd kg{sup -1} DW in root after 14 days' exposure at 10 and 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}, respectively. The translocation factors of Cd were greater than 1 in plants exposed to 10 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. Toxic effects were gradually observed with increasing Cd concentration (25 and 50 {mu}M) accompanied with the reduction of biomass, chlorophyll content, decrease of cell viability and the increase level of lipid peroxidation. In leaves of T. patula, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced by Cd. However, in roots, activities of APX, GR, SOD and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced by 25 and 50 {mu}M Cd treatment but not 10 {mu}M Cd. In-gel zymography analysis revealed that Cd induced the enzymatic activities of APX, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and different isozymes of GR in leaves. These results indicate that T. patula is a novel Cd accumulator and able to tolerate with Cd-induced toxicity by activation of its antioxidative defense system.

  5. Effect of in vivo heart irradiation on the development of antioxidant defenses and cardiac functions in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderitter, M.; Assem, M.; Maupoil, V.

    1995-01-01

    During radiotherapy of thoracic tumors, the heart is often included in the primary treatment volume, and chronic impairment of myocardial function occurs. The cellular biomolecules are altered directly by radiation or damaged indirectly by free radical production. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the biochemical and functional response of the rat heart to a single high dose of radiation. The effect of 20 Gy local X irradiation was determined in the heart of Wistar rats under general anesthesia. Mechanical performances were measured in vitro using an isolated perfused working heart model, and cardiac antioxidant defenses were also evaluated. Hearts were studied at 1 and 4 months after irradiation. This single dose of radiation induced a marked drop in the mechanical activity of the rat heart: aortic output was significantly reduced (18% less than control values) at 1 month postirradiation and remained depressed for the rest of the experimental period (21% less than control 4 months after treatment). This suggests the development of myocardial failure after irradiation. The decline of functional parameters was associated with changes in antioxidant defenses. The decrease in cardiac levels of vitamin E (-30%) was associated with an increase in the levels of Mn-SOD and glustathione peroxidase (+45.5% and +32%, respectively, at 4 months postirradiation). However, cardiac vitamin C and catalase levels remained constant. Since these antioxidant defenses were activated relatively long after irradiation, it is suggested that this was probable due to the production of free radical species associated with the development of inflammation. 49 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. L-Arginine supplementation improves antioxidant defenses through L-arginine/nitric oxide pathways in exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lingling; Wang, Bin; Gao, Guizhen; Cao, Wengen; Zhang, Yunkun

    2013-10-15

    l-Arginine (l-Arg) supplementation has been shown to enhance physical exercise capacity and delay onset of fatigue. This work investigated the potential beneficial mechanism(s) of l-Arg supplementation by examining its effect on the cellular oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways in the exercised rats. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into six groups: sedentary control; sedentary control with l-Arg treatment; endurance training (daily swimming training for 8 wk) control; endurance training with l-Arg treatment; an exhaustive exercise (one time swimming to fatigue) control; and an exhaustive exercise with l-Arg treatment. l-Arg (500 mg/kg body wt) or saline was given to rats by intragastric administration 1 h before the endurance training and the exhaustive swimming test. Expression levels and activities of the l-Arg/nitric oxide (NO) pathway components and parameters of the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense capacity were investigated in l-Arg-treated and control rats. The result show that the l-Arg supplementation completely reversed the exercise-induced activation of NO synthase and superoxide dismutase, increased l-Arg transport capacity, and increased NO and anti-superoxide anion levels. These data demonstrate that l-Arg supplementation effectively reduces the exercise-induced imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant defense capacity, and this modulation is likely mediated through the l-Arg/NO pathways. The findings of this study improved our understanding of how l-Arg supplementation prevents elevations of reactive oxygen species and favorably enhances the antioxidant defense capacity during physical exercise.

  7. Effects of in vivo chronic exposure to pendimethalin on EROD activity and antioxidant defenses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, Morgane; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lamour, François; Quentel, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Pendimethalin, an herbicide active substance frequently used in terrestrial systems, has detected in European aquatic ecosystems. Reliable indicators still need to be found in order to properly assess the impact of pesticides in fish. After an in vivo chronic exposure to pendimethalin, the detoxification process and the antioxidant defense system were assessed in 120 adult rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Four nominal exposure conditions were tested: control (C), 500 ng L(-1) (P500), 800 ng L(-1) (P800) and the commercial formulation Prowl(®) at 500 ng L(-1) (Pw500). Fish samples were made after a 28 day exposure period (D28) and after a fifteen day recovery period in clean fresh water (D43). At D28, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was not activated in liver in spite of the pendimethalin uptake in fish. At D43, EROD activity in fish exposed to the commercial product was lower than in control fish, which may be explained by the high presence of herbicide in fish (613±163 ng g bile(-1)). Furthermore, antioxidant defense responses were set up by trout in gills and liver following chronic exposure to 800 ng L(-1) of pendimethalin concentration. While the glutathione content (GSH) decreased in gills, it increased in liver associated with higher activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). These disturbances could lead to reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress in the vital organs in fish. After fifteen days in clean water, while the SOD activity was restored, the GSH content and GPx activity were still significantly disturbed in fish exposed to pendimethalin in comparison with control. These significant differences between treatments in antioxidant defenses parameters measured, attesting to the irreversibility of the effects. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. AM Fungi Influences the Photosynthetic Activity, Growth and Antioxidant Enzymes in Allium sativum L. under Salinity Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh BORDE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Potential of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in alleviating adverse salt effects on growth was tested in garlic (Allium sativum L.. Towards this objective we analyzed the AM root colonization and the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM salinity levels. The activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied were found to be increased in AM garlic plants. Antioxidant activity was maximum in 100 and 200 mM NaCl (sodium chloride in AM and non-AM plants. Proline accumulation was induced by salt levels and it was more in leaves as well as roots of AM plants as compared to non-AM plants, this indicating that mycorrhiza reduced salt injury. Growth parameters of garlic plants like leaf area, plant fresh and dry weight and antioxidant enzyme activities were higher at moderate salinity level. This work suggests that the mycorrhiza helps garlic plants to perform better under moderate salinity level by enhancing the antioxidant activity and proline content as compared to non-AM plants.

  9. Aging increases oxidative stress and renal expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes that are associated with an increased trend in systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pedro; Simão, Sónia; Silva, Elisabete; Pinto, Vanda; Amaral, João S; Afonso, Joana; Serrão, Maria Paula; Pinho, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of aging on oxidative stress markers and expression of major oxidant and antioxidant enzymes associate with impairment of renal function and increases in blood pressure. To explore this, we determined age-associated changes in lipid peroxidation (urinary malondialdehyde), plasma and urinary hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels, as well as renal H(2)O(2) production, and the expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in young (13 weeks) and old (52 weeks) male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Urinary lipid peroxidation levels and H(2)O(2) production by the renal cortex and medulla of old rats were higher than their young counterparts. This was accompanied by overexpression of NADPH oxidase components Nox4 and p22(phox) in the renal cortex of old rats. Similarly, expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms 2 and 3 and catalase were increased in the renal cortex from old rats. Renal function parameters (creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium), diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by aging, although slight increases in systolic blood pressure were observed during this 52-week period. It is concluded that overexpression of renal Nox4 and p22(phox) and the increases in renal H(2)O(2) levels in aged WKY does not associate with renal functional impairment or marked increases in blood pressure. It is hypothesized that lack of oxidative stress-associated effects in aged WKY rats may result from increases in antioxidant defenses that counteract the damaging effects of H(2)O(2).

  10. Aging increases Oxidative Stress and Renal Expression of Oxidant and Antioxidant Enzymes that Are Associated with an Increased Trend in Systolic Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of aging on oxidative stress markers and expression of major oxidant and antioxidant enzymes associate with impairment of renal function and increases in blood pressure. To explore this, we determined age-associated changes in lipid peroxidation (urinary malondialdehyde, plasma and urinary hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 levels, as well as renal H2O2 production, and the expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in young (13 weeks and old (52 weeks male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats. Urinary lipid peroxidation levels and H2O2 production by the renal cortex and medulla of old rats were higher than their young counterparts. This was accompanied by overexpression of NADPH oxidase components Nox4 and p22phox in the renal cortex of old rats. Similarly, expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoforms 2 and 3 and catalase were increased in the renal cortex from old rats. Renal function parameters (creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by aging, although slight increases in systolic blood pressure were observed during this 52-week period. It is concluded that overexpression of renal Nox4 and p22phox and the increases in renal H2O2 levels in aged WKY does not associate with renal functional impairment or marked increases in blood pressure. It is hypothesized that lack of oxidative stress-associated effects in aged WKY rats may result from increases in antioxidant defenses that counteract the damaging effects of H2O2.

  11. The effect of Nitrogen Mustard on the enzymatic antioxidant defense of rat brain tissue and the therapeutic value of proanthocyanidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekiner, Ayhan; Yucel, Dogan; Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Yucel, Orhan; Erdem, Yavuz; Karakaya, Jale

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen Mustard (NM) is an alkylating agent that damages cellular nuclear DNA after penetrating tissue. This results in cytostatic, mutagenic and cytotoxic effects. We used biochemical analyses to investigate the effect of NM gas administered through the dermal and respiratory routes, on the brain cortex of rats and also tried to show whether the antioxidant Proanthocyanidin (PC) could decrease this effect. A total of 30 rats were randomized into three groups: Group I: Control group, Group II: NM group, and Group III: NM + PC group. The rats were sacrificed 3 days after NM gas exposure. A segment of the cortical tissue was prepared for biochemical analyses. Biochemical analyses of cortical neural tissue regarding the Enzymatic Antioxidant Defense against NM were performed. The results of these analyses implied that PC was effective for healing of cortical neural tissue. These findings imply that structural changes induced by mustard gas can be prevented and restored by proanthocyanidin treatment.

  12. Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, antioxidant enzyme systems, and selenium: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venardos, Kylie M; Perkins, Anthony; Headrick, John; Kaye, David M

    2007-01-01

    recovery from ischemia-reperfusion injury. This review summarises the role of myocardial antioxidant enzymes in ischemia-reperfusion injury, particularly the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the thioredoxin reductase (TxnRed) systems. GPX and TxnRed are selenocysteine dependent enzymes, and their activity is known to be dependent upon an adequate supply of dietary selenium. Moreover, various studies suggest that the supply of selenium as a cofactor also regulates gene expression of these selenoproteins. As such, dietary selenium supplementation may provide a safe and convenient method for increasing antioxidant protection in aged individuals, particularly those at risk of ischemic heart disease, or in those undergoing clinical procedures involving transient periods of myocardial hypoxia.

  13. Evaluation Of Antioxidant Enzymes, Copper, Zinc And Selenium In Preterm And Full Term Neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, A.T.; Mohamed, A.A.; EL Shafie, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Although oxidative stress-related disease like bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome and retinopathy mostly affect neonates with extremely low birth weight, healthy preterm might also be at risk of oxidative damages. Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) are essential trace elements for metabolism, growth, neurological and immunological function. Trace elements are considered the essential components or cofactors in the antioxidant system especially glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. The current study was conducted on 60 neonates divided into two groups; the first group consisted of 30 healthy preterm neonates (14 males and 16 females) with mean gestational age of 34.5±0.3 weeks and mean birth weight of 1742.25 ± 130.11. The second group consisted of 30 full term neonates with mean gestational age of 39.1±0.81 weeks and mean birth weight of 3210±150.25 g. All the neonates were breast fed without any other supplementation to avoid any change in trace elements concentrations. Furthermore, all neonates were subjected to full history thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigation including determinations of plasma levels of Zn, Cu and Se using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The erythrocyte levels of GSHPx and SOD enzymes were measured. The data revealed that plasma levels of Cu and Zn were significantly decreased in premature neonates than full term subjects but plasma level of Se showed non-significant difference between the premature and full term infants. The erythrocyte levels of GSHPx and SOD were significantly decreased in preterm than full term infants. There were no correlations between erythrocytes levels of GSHPx and the serum levels of Zn, Cu and Se in both preterm or term subjects, while SOD was significantly correlated with plasma levels of Cu and Zn, and no correlation with plasma level of Se was observed. According to the obtained results, it could be concluded that the

  14. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8% after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH (56.00% and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC (59.00% methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  15. Health attributes of ethnic vegetables consumed in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey: Antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Dalar

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Among the investigated ethnic vegetables, P. lanceolata and C. intybus represent a valuable source of antioxidant phytochemicals of phenolic nature that modulated in vitro the activities of digestive enzymes. These ethnic food sources diversify diet and enhance health attributes of foods.

  16. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    detoxification enzymes provided evidence that lycopene was capable of inducing hepatic quinone reductase, approximately two-fold, at doses between 0.001 and 0.05 g/kg b.w, per day, whereas no effect was observed at the remaining doses tested. Glutathione transferase, using the two substrates, 2......,4-dichloronitrobenzene and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, was significantly induced at the 0.1 g/kg b.w. per day dose, whereas no effect was observed at the remaining lycopene doses. Analysis of the antioxidant status of thr blood compartment revealed that three out of four antioxidant enzymes were affected by lycopene...... to be affected by prior. lycopene exposure. The level of PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver or colon was likewise not affected by lycopene at any dose. Overall, the present study provides evidence that lycopene administered in the diet of young female rats exerts minor modifying effects toward antioxidant and drug...

  17. Bioactive properties of commercialised pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice: antioxidant, antiproliferative and enzyme inhibiting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M; Arbonés-Mainar, Jose Miguel; Valero, Marta Sofía; López, Víctor

    2015-06-01

    Pomegranate juice and related products have long been used either in traditional medicine or as nutritional supplements claiming beneficial effects. Although there are several studies on this food plant, only a few studies have been performed with pomegranate juice or marketed products. The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant effects of pomegranate juice on cellular models using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent or DPPH and superoxide radicals in cell free systems. The antiproliferative effects of the juice were measured on HeLa and PC-3 cells by the MTT assay and pharmacologically relevant enzymes (cyclooxygenases, xanthine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase A) were selected for enzymatic inhibition assays. Pomegranate juice showed significant protective effects against hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in the Artemia salina and HepG2 models; these effects may be attributed to radical scavenging properties of pomegranate as the juice was able to reduce DPPH and superoxide radicals. Moderate antiproliferative activities in HeLa and PC-3 cancer cells were observed. However, pomegranate juice was also able to inhibit COX-2 and MAO-A enzymes. This study reveals some mechanisms by which pomegranate juice may have interesting and beneficial effects in human health.

  18. Effects of NaCl stress on antioxidative enzymes of glycine Soja sieb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan

    2009-03-15

    The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Catalase (CAT) and parameters of oxidative stress malondialdehyde (MDA) of shoots were investigated in S. sieb naturally salt-resistant halophyte. The seedlings of S. sieb were treated with varying (0, 80, 160 and 240 mM) NaCl stress. The results showed that NaCl played an important role in growth of S. sieb. It made obviously promotion of certain NaCl concentration to growth of S. sieb, the seeflings of S. sieb grew best under 80 mM salt stress. MDA concentration of S. sieb obviously decreased under 80 mM salt stress then increased with salt concentration increased. The activities of SOD, POD and CAT increased with the increase of the concentration of NaCl in S. sieb. The salt tolerance of this halophyte under salt stress condition are probably due to its ability to exhibit high SOD, POD and CAT enzyme activities and Soluble Sugar (SS) concentration.

  19. Decontamination of Fumonisin B1 in maize grain by Pleurotus eryngii and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam HAIDUKOWSKI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1 (FB1 is among the most common mycotoxins found in maize kernels and maize products worldwide. The microbiological process of detoxification and transformation of toxic organic pollutants is a promising method for foodstuffs decontamination. Some basidiomycetes, such as the Pleurotus eryngii species complex, include several important commercial edible varieties that can detoxify polycyclic organic compounds and a range of wastes and pollutants. We investigated the potential role of P. eryngii, one of the most consumed mushrooms, in the decontamination of FB1 in maize. In addition, selected antioxidant enzymes, (soluble peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase, primarily involved in control of cell hydrogen peroxide levels, and lignin degradation, were analyzed, to evaluate their contributions to the molecular mechanisms of FB1 by P. eryngii. FB1 decontamination by P. eryngii and involvement of CAT and POD enzymes in the control of toxic decontamination levels of H2O2 were demonstrated. A consistent reduction of FB1 was observed at different incubation times. The average decrease levels of FB1, with respect to the control cultures, ranged from 45 to 61% (RSD < 15%. This study is a possible eco-friendly approach to reducing this mycotoxin in the feed supply chains.

  20. The hormetic effect of cadmium on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yan [Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shen Guoqing, E-mail: gqsh@sjtu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu Yueshu; Zhu Hongling [Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The hormetic dose-response relationships induced by environmental toxic agents are often characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Confirmation of the general phenomenon of hormesis may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment, although the mechanisms that underlie hormesis remain an enigma. In this study, a model-based approach for describing a dose-response relationship incorporating the hormetic effect was applied to the detection and estimation of the hormetic effect of cadmium (Cd) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but high concentrations inhibited the enzymes, and this was reflected in an inverted U-shaped curve. The maximum hormetic magnitude of SOD activity was higher than that of catalase. The presence of hormesis induced by cadmium in the earthworm may be related to activation of adaptive pathways. - A model-based approach and careful preliminary experiments are needed for detecting and estimating the hormetic effect.

  1. Differential Expression and Immunolocalization of Antioxidant Enzymes in Entamoeba histolytica Isolates during Metronidazole Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rani Iyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica infections are endemic in the Indian subcontinent. Five to eight percent of urban population residing under poor sanitary conditions suffers from Entamoeba infections. Metronidazole is the most widely prescribed drug used for amoebiasis. In order to understand the impact of metronidazole stress on the parasite, we evaluated the expression of two antioxidant enzymes, peroxiredoxin and FeSOD, in Entamoeba histolytica isolates during metronidazole stress. The results reveal that, under metronidazole stress, the mRNA expression levels of these enzymes did not undergo any significant change. Interestingly, immunolocalization studies with antibodies targeting peroxiredoxin indicate differential localization of the protein in the cell during metronidazole stress. In normal conditions, all the Entamoeba isolates exhibit presence of peroxiredoxin in the nucleus as well as in the membrane; however with metronidazole stress the protein localized mostly to the membrane. The change in the localization pattern was more pronounced when the cells were subjected to short term metronidazole stress compared to cells adapted to metronidazole. The protein localization to the cell membrane could be the stress response mechanism in these isolates. Colocalization pattern of peroxiredoxin with CaBp1, a cytosolic protein, revealed that the membrane and nuclear localization was specific to peroxiredoxin during metronidazole stress.

  2. Responses of the antioxidative and biotransformation enzymes in the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis exposed to cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsano, Evelyn; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Hoque, Enamul; Lima, Stephan Pflugmacher

    2017-08-01

    To investigate antioxidative and biotransformation enzyme responses in Mucor hiemalis towards cyanotoxins considering its use in mycoremediation applications. Catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in M. hiemalis maintained their activities at all tested microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exposure concentrations. Cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity decreased with exposure to 100 µg MC-LR l -1 while microsomal GST remained constant. Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) at 100 µg l -1 led to an increase in CAT activity and inhibition of GR, as well as to a concentration-dependent GPx inhibition. Microsomal GST was inhibited at all concentrations tested. β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) inhibited GR activity in a concentration-dependent manner, however, CAT, GPx, and GST remained unaffected. M. hiemalis showed enhanced oxidative stress tolerance and intact biotransformation enzyme activity towards MC-LR and BMAA in comparison to CYN, confirming its applicability in bioreactor technology in terms of viability and survival in their presence.

  3. The hormetic effect of cadmium on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan; Shen Guoqing; Yu Yueshu; Zhu Hongling

    2009-01-01

    The hormetic dose-response relationships induced by environmental toxic agents are often characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Confirmation of the general phenomenon of hormesis may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment, although the mechanisms that underlie hormesis remain an enigma. In this study, a model-based approach for describing a dose-response relationship incorporating the hormetic effect was applied to the detection and estimation of the hormetic effect of cadmium (Cd) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but high concentrations inhibited the enzymes, and this was reflected in an inverted U-shaped curve. The maximum hormetic magnitude of SOD activity was higher than that of catalase. The presence of hormesis induced by cadmium in the earthworm may be related to activation of adaptive pathways. - A model-based approach and careful preliminary experiments are needed for detecting and estimating the hormetic effect.

  4. Sodium nitroprusside may modulate Escherichia coli antioxidant enzyme expression by interacting with the ferric uptake regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, R; Danielson, D; Gong, V; Olynik, B; Eze, M O

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to explore possible relationships between nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant enzymes in an Escherichia coli model have uncovered a possible interaction between sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a potent, NO-donating drug, and the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron(II)--dependent regulator of antioxidant and iron acquisition proteins present in Gram-negative bacteria. The enzymatic profiles of superoxide dismutase and hydroperoxidase during logarithmic phase of growth were studied via non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and activity staining specific to each enzyme. Though NO is known to induce transcription of the manganese-bearing isozyme of SOD (MnSOD), treatment with SNP paradoxically suppressed MnSOD expression and greatly enhanced the activity of the iron-containing equivalent (FeSOD). Fur, one of six global regulators of MnSOD transcription, is uniquely capable of suppressing MnSOD while enhancing FeSOD expression through distinct mechanisms. We thus hypothesize that Fur is complacent in causing this behaviour and that the iron(II) component of SNP is activating Fur. E. coli was also treated with the SNP structural analogues, potassium ferricyanide (PFi) and potassium ferrocyanide (PFo). Remarkably, the ferrous PFo was capable of mimicking the SNP-related pattern, whereas the ferric PFi was not. As Fur depends upon ferrous iron for activation, we submit this observation of redox-specificity as preliminary supporting evidence for the hypothesized Fur-SNP interaction. Iron is an essential metal that the human innate immune system sequesters to prevent its use by invading pathogens. As NO is known to inhibit iron-bound Fur, and as activated Fur regulates iron uptake through feedback inhibition, we speculate that the administration of this drug may disrupt this strategic management of iron in favour of residing Gram-negative species by providing a source of iron in an otherwise iron-scarce environment capable of encouraging its own uptake

  5. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristić, Slavica; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Petronijević, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a

  6. Effect of enzyme/substrate ratio on the antioxidant properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr (Mrs) O.Fasasi

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... The use of natural antioxidant as compared with synthetic antioxidant in food processing is a growing trend as consumers prefer natural to synthetic antioxidant mainly on emotional ground. This study investigates the antioxidant activity of hydrolysed African yam bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa) which.

  7. Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Protein Hydrolysate from Muscle of Barbel (Barbus callensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaad Sila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of barbel muscle protein hydrolysate prepared with Alcalase. The barbel muscle protein hydrolysate displayed a high ACE inhibitory activity (CI50=0.92 mg/mL. The antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysate at different concentrations were evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical method and reducing power assay. The barbel muscle protein hydrolysate exhibited an important radical scavenging effect and reducing power. These results obtained by in vitro systems obviously established the antioxidant potency of barbel hydrolysate to donate electron or hydrogen atom to reduce the free radical. Furthermore, these bioactive substances can be exploited into functional foods or used as source of nutraceuticals.

  8. Heat stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in bubaline ( Bubalus bubalis) oocytes during in vitro maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Raies-ul-Haq, Mohammad; Dhanda, Suman; Kumar, Anil; Goud, T. Sridhar; Chauhan, M. S.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-09-01

    In vitro environments like heat stress usually increase the production of reactive oxygen species in bubaline oocytes which have been implicated as one of the major causes for reduced developmental competence. Oocytes during meiotic maturation are sensitive to oxidative stress, and heat stress accelerates cellular metabolism, resulting in the higher production of free radicals. Therefore, the aim of present work was to assess the impact of heat stress during meiotic maturation on bubaline cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), denuded oocytes (DO), and cumulus cell mass in terms of their oxidative status. Accordingly, for control group, COC were matured at 38.5 °C for complete 24 h of meiotic maturation and heat stress of 40.5 and 41.5 °C was applied to COC during the first 12 h of maturation and then moved to 38.5 °C for rest of the 12 h. In another group, COC after maturation were denuded from the surrounding cumulus cells by manual pipetting. Results indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide (NO) was significantly ( P treatment groups compared to the control group. Therefore, the present study clearly establishes that heat stress ensues oxidative stress in bubaline oocytes which triggers the induction of antioxidant enzymatic defense system for scavenging the ROS.

  9. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Malondialdehyde Concentration and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Morales-González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress.

  10. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    enzymes involved in the protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The fact that these enzymatic activities are induced at all of these very low plasma levels, could be taken to suggest that modulation of antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes map indeed be relevant to humans, which in general......The administration of lycopene to female rats at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g/kg b.w, per day for 2 weeks was found to alter the drug-metabolizing capacity and antioxidant status of the exposed animals. An investigation of four cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes revealed that benzyloxyresorufin...... is barely within the lower range of the mean human plasma concentration of lycopene, which ranges from 70-1790 nM. Oxidative stress induced by the heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and investigated by analyzing for malondialdehyde in plasma, was not found...

  11. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  12. Inhibition of HIV-1 enzymes, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Plectranthus barbatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapewangolo, Petrina; Hussein, Ahmed A; Meyer, Debra

    2013-08-26

    Plectranthus barbatus is widely used in African countries as an herbal remedy to manage HIV/AIDS and related conditions. To investigate the HIV-1 inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of P. barbatus and thereby provide empirical evidence for the apparent anecdotal success of the extracts. Ethanolic extract of P. barbatus's leaves was screened against two HIV-1 enzymes: protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT). Cytotoxicity of the extract was determined through measuring tetrazolium dye uptake of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the TZM-bl cell line. Confirmatory assays for cytotoxicity were performed using flow cytometry and real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES). The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was investigated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl while the anti-inflammatory properties of the plant extract were investigated using a Th1/Th2/Th17 cytometric bead array technique. P. barbatus extract inhibited HIV-1PR and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 62.0 µg/ml. The extract demonstrated poor inhibition of HIV-1 RT. Cytotoxicity testing presented CC50 values of 83.7 and 50.4 µg/ml in PBMCs and TZM-bl respectively. In addition, the extract stimulated proliferation in HIV negative and positive PBMCs treated. RT-CES also registered substantial TZM-bl proliferation after extract treatment. The extract exhibited strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 16 µg/ml and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines indicating anti-inflammatory potential. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro anti HIV-1 potential of P. barbatus including direct activity as well as through the stimulation of protective immune and inflammation responses. The low cytotoxicity of the extract is also in agreement with the vast anecdotal use of this plant in treating various ailments with no reported side-effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Optimization, Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Sea Cucumber Phyllophorus proteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yujing; Yuan, Qingxia; Zhang, Yuexing; Li, Jialu; Zhu, Xinjiao; Zhao, Lingling; Wen, Jing; Liu, Jikai; Zhao, Longyan; Zhao, Jinhua

    2018-03-06

    Enzyme-assisted extraction optimization, characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from sea cucumber Phyllophorus proteus (PPP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with a yield of 6.44 ± 0.06% for PPP were determined as follows: Extraction time of 2.89 h, ratio of extraction solvent to raw material of 16.26 mL/g, extraction pH of 6.83, exraction temperature of 50 °C and papain concentration of 0.15%. Three purified fractions, PPP-1a, PPP-1b and PPP-2 with molecular weights of 369.60, 41.73 and 57.76 kDa, respectively, were obtained from PPP by chromatography of FPA98Cl and Sepharose CL-6B columns. Analysis of monosaccharide compositions showed that PPP-1a consisted of N -acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc), galactose (Gal) and fucose (Fuc), PPP-1b of Fuc as the only monosaccharide and PPP-2 of glucuronic acid, GalNAc and Fuc. Sulfate contents of PPP, PPP-1a, PPP-1b and PPP-2 were determined to be 21.9%, 20.6%, 25.2% and 28.0% ( w / w ), respectively. PPP and PPP-1a had higher molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity than those of the PPP-1b and PPP-2. PPP, PPP-1a, PPP-1b and PPP-2 exhibited obvious activities of scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical and ABTS radical in different extent, which suggested that the polysaccharides from Phyllophorus proteus may be novel agents having potential value for antioxidation.

  14. Influence of season and pollution on the antioxidant defenses of the cichlid fish acará (Geophagus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wilhelm Filho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The livers of Geophagus brasiliensis collected from both a non-polluted site and a polluted site were analyzed for different antioxidant defenses, O2 consumption, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS levels, and histological damage. Compared to controls (116.6 ± 26.1 nmol g-1, TBARS levels were enhanced at the polluted site (284.2 ± 25.6 nmol g-1, as also was oxygen consumption (86.6 ± 11.3 and 128.5 ± 9.8 µmol O2 min-1 g-1, respectively. With respect to enzymatic antioxidants, increased catalase activities (8.7 ± 1.3 and 29.2 ± 2.4 mmol min-1 g-1, respectively, unchanged superoxide dismutase activities (767.2 ± 113.3 and 563.3 ± 70.2 U g-1, respectively, and diminished glutathione S-transferase activities (29.0 ± 3.2 and 14.9 ± 3.2 µmol min-1 g-1, respectively were detected. Reduced glutathione (1.91 ± 0.17 and 1.37 ± 0.25 mM, respectively, oxidized glutathione (1.50 ± 0.20 and 0.73 ± 0.17 mM, respectively, and total glutathione (3.40 ± 0.26 and 2.07 ± 0.27 mM, respectively concentrations were also below control values at the polluted site. Nevertheless, the observed ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities (1.34 ± 0.11 and 16.7 ± 0.21 pmol min-1 mg-1, respectively showed enhanced values at the polluted site. The main histological damage observed in the hepatocytes from fish collected at the polluted site was characterized by heavy lipid infiltration. Fish collected at the end of spring showed higher O2 consumption, higher superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase activities, and higher total and oxidized glutathione concentrations compared to the beginning of autumn. No seasonal changes were observed in catalase activities, glutathione or TBARS levels. Fish chronically exposed to relatively high pollution levels seem to be unable to set up adequate antioxidant defenses, probably due to severe injury to their hepatocytes. The higher antioxidant defenses found at the end of spring are probably related to the

  15. Phenolic profiling and therapeutic potential of local flora of Azad Kashmir; In vitro enzyme inhibition and antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Muhammad Asam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study supports the phytochemical screening, evaluation of antioxidant and enzyme inhibition potential and correlations between antioxidant activities and phenolics of Rumex dentatus (Family: Polygonaceae, Mentha spicata (Family: Lamiaceae, Withania somnifera (Family: Solanaceae, Nerium indicum (Family: Apocynaceae and Artemisia scoparia (Family: Asteraceae. The herbal materials were extracted in ethanol (90% and partitioned between several solvents based on polarities. Total phenols were determined with FC method and ranged 21.33 ± 1.53 - 355.67 ± 6.03 mg GAE/ mg of the extract. Antioxidant activities (DPPH, total iron reducing capacity, phosphomolybdate assay & FRAP and enzyme inhibition potential (Protease, AChE & BChE were performed by the standard protocols. The results showed that all extracts exhibited significant DPPH activity ranging from 12.67 ± 2.08 - 92.67 ± 1.53%. The extracts that were active in DPPH activity also potrayed marvelous FRAP, total iron reducing and phosphomolybdate values. Correlation studies of antioxidant activities and the content of phenolic compounds in plant materials exhibited positive correlation between them. The outcome of enzyme inhibition activity exhibited that about 80% of the fractions under surveillance plants intimated more than 50% inhibition. Isolation of bioactive compounds from these plants is in progress.

  16. Effect of turmeric and curcumin on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, Palla; Satyanarayana, Alleboena; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Kumar, Putcha Uday; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2007-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that complications related to diabetes are associated with increased oxidative stress. Curcumin, an active principle of turmeric, has several biological properties, including antioxidant activity. The protective effect of curcumin and turmeric on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced oxidative stress in various tissues of rats was studied. Three-month-old Wistar-NIN rats were made diabetic by injecting STZ (35 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally and fed either only the AIN-93 diet or the AIN-93 diet containing 0.002% or 0.01% curcumin or 0.5% turmeric for a period of eight weeks. After eight weeks the levels of oxidative stress parameters and activity of antioxidant enzymes were determined in various tissues. STZ-induced hyperglycemia resulted in increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in red blood cells and other tissues and altered antioxidant enzyme activities. Interestingly, feeding curcumin and turmeric to the diabetic rats controlled oxidative stress by inhibiting the increase in TBARS and protein carbonyls and reversing altered antioxidant enzyme activities without altering the hyperglycemic state in most of the tissues. Turmeric and curcumin appear to be beneficial in preventing diabetes-induced oxidative stress in rats despite unaltered hyperglycemic status.

  17. Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC essential oil: chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbah, Habib; Chahdoura, Hassiba; Kammoun, Jannet; Hlila, Malek Besbes; Louati, Hanen; Hammami, Saoussen; Flamini, Guido; Achour, Lotfi; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2018-03-05

    α-glucosidase is a therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus (DM) and α-glucosidase inhibitors play a vital role in the treatments for the disease. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a key enzyme that catalyzes hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid which at high levels can lead to hyperuricemia which is an important cause of gout. Pancreatic lipase (PL) secreted into the duodenum plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of fats. For its importance in lipid digestion, PL represents an attractive target for obesity prevention. The flowers essential oil of Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC (R. acaule) was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activities of R. acaule essential oil (RaEO) were also determined using 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), reducing power, phosphomolybdenum, and DNA nicking assays. The inhibitory power of RaEO against α-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase and pancreatic lipase was evaluated. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and the derived Lineweaver-Burk (LB) plots were performed to understand the possible mechanism of inhibition exercised by the components of this essential oil. The result revealed the presence of 26 compounds (97.4%). The main constituents include germacrene D (49.2%), methyl eugenol (8.3%), (E)-β-ionone (6.2%), β-caryophyllene (5.7%), (E,E)-α-farnesene (4.2%), bicyclogermacrene (4.1%) and (Z)-α-bisabolene (3.7%). The kinetic inhibition study showed that the essential oil demonstrated a strong α-glucosidase inhibiton and it was a mixed inhibitor. On the other hand, our results evidenced that this oil exhibited important xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, behaving as a non-competitive inhibitor. The essential oil inhibited the turkey pancreatic lipase, with maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 2 mg/mL. Furthermore, the inhibition of turkey pancreatic lipase by RaEO was an irreversible one. The results revealed that the RaEO is a new

  18. Ageing of enteric neurons: oxidative stress, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsak Kris

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction, which can have a major impact on quality of life of the elderly. A number of changes in the innervation of the gut during ageing have been reported, including neuronal loss and degenerative changes. Evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS are elevated in ageing enteric neurons, but that neurotrophic factors may reduce generation of neuronal ROS. Two such factors, glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 have also been found to protect enteric neurons against oxidative stress induced cell death of enteric ganglion cells in vitro. We have investigated the possible roles of neurotrophic factors further, by examining their expression in the gut during ageing, and by analysing their effects on antioxidant enzyme production in cultures of enteric ganglion cells. Results Analysis of the expression of GDNF and its receptors c-Ret and GFR α − 1 in rat gut by RT-PCR showed that expression continues throughout life and into ageing, in both ad libitum(AL and calorically-restricted (CR animals. Levels of expression of GDNF and GFR α − 1 were elevated in 24 month AL animals compared to 24 month CR animals, and to 24 CR and 6 month control animals respectively. The related factor Neurturin and its receptor GFR α − 2 were also expressed throughout life, the levels of the GFR – α-2(b isoform were reduced in 24 m AL animals. Immunolabelling showed that c-Ret and GFR α − 1 proteins were expressed by myenteric neurons in ageing animals. GDNF, but not NT-3, was found to increase expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase by cultured enteric ganglion cells. Conclusions The neurotrophic factors GDNF and neurturin and their receptors continue to be expressed in the ageing gut. Changes in the levels of expression of GDNF , GFR α-1 and GFR α-2(b isoform occurred in 24 m AL animals. GDNF, but not

  19. Beneficial effects of Aesculus hippocastanum L. seed extract on the body's own antioxidant defense system on subacute administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükkurt, Ismail; Ince, Sinan; Keleş, Hikmet; Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Avci, Gülcan; Yeşilada, Erdem; Bacak, Elif

    2010-05-04

    Seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. have long been used in European phytotherapy to treat inflammatory and vascular problems. In Turkish folk medicine, tea prepared from the crushed seeds was used to pass kidney stone and against stomach ache, while a fraction of seed was swallowed to alleviate hemorrhoids symptoms. In order to evaluate the in vivo effects of escin mixture from Aesculus hippocastanum seed on the blood and tissue antioxidant defense systems in standard pellet diet (SPD) and in high-fat diet (HFD) consumed male mice. Escin mixture was obtained from the ethanol extract of seeds. Escin mixture was administered orally to male mice fed either standard pellet diet (SPD) or high-fat diet (HFD) at 100mg/kg doses daily for 5 weeks and the tissue (liver, kidney and heart) and blood samples were collected at the end of experimental period. The effect of escin mixture on the plasma antioxidant activity; blood and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels; erythrocyte and tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT) in SPD and HFD consumed animals were experimentally studied. Escin mixture prohibited the adverse effects of oxidative stress and showed a protective effect on the liver architecture both in SPD and HFD consumed male mice. Escin mixture prohibited the adverse effects of oxidative stress and showed a protective effect on the liver architecture both in SPD and HFD consumed male mice. Combined administration of high-fat diet with escin mixture decreased blood (p<0.01), liver (p<0.01), kidney (p<0.05), and heart (p<0.05) of MDA, liver SOD (p<0.01) and CAT (p<0.05) levels and increased blood (p<0.01) and liver GSH (p<0.001) levels in mice. The present results indicate that Aesculus hippocastanum increase the antioxidative defense system of the body and prevent HFD-induced lipid peroxidation in male mice. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibition of UVA-mediated melanogenesis by ascorbic acid through modulation of antioxidant defense and nitric oxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panich, Uraiwan; Tangsupa-a-nan, Vanida; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Kongtaphan, Kamolratana; Kasetsinsombat, Kanda; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Wongkajornsilp, Adisak

    2011-05-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) has been well known as a skin whitening agent, although attempts have been made to evaluate its protective role against ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin hyperpigmentation or increased melanin production. While melanogenesis is a defense mechanism of the skin against UV irradiation, melanin overproduction may also contribute to melanoma initiation. UVA might play a role in melanogenesis through promoting oxidative stress, which occurs as the result of increased formation of oxidants and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) including nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, we investigated the antimelanogenic effect of AA (7.5-120 μM) in association with its inhibitory effect on UVA-induced oxidant formation, NO production through endothelial and inducible NO synthases (eNOS and iNOS) activation and impairment of antioxidant defense using G361 human melanoma cells. Our study demonstrated a comparable ability of AA with that of kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor in inhibiting mushroom tyrosinase. Melanin content was reduced by AA, but neither tyrosinase activity nor mRNA levels were reduced by AA at non-cytotoxic concentrations in UVA-irradiated G361 cells. AA was shown to inhibit UVA-mediated catalase (CAT) inactivation, glutathione (GSH) depletion, oxidant formation and NO production through suppression of eNOS and iNOS mRNA. We report herein that AA can protect against UVA-dependent melanogenesis possibly through the improvement of antioxidant defense capacity and inhibition of NO production through down-regulation of eNOS and iNOS mRNA.

  1. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  2. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of scutellarin against hypoxic-ischemic-induced cerebral injury via augmentation of antioxidant defense capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Hu, Li-Min; Wang, Shao-Xia; Wang, Yu-Lin; Shi, Fang; Li, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Li-Yuan; Gao, Xiu-Mei

    2011-12-31

    An increasing number of studies has indicated that hypoxic-ischemic-induced cerebral injury is partly mediated via oxidative stress. Recent researches have focused on searching for drug and herbal manipulations to protect against hypoxic-ischemic-induced oxidative cell damage. Scutellarin is a flavonoid derived from the Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) and has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective properties. However, its precise mechanism, particularly its antioxidation mechanism, remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of scutellarin on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain damage in rats, and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced toxicity in primary culture of rat cortical neurons. In vivo, intraperitoneal injections of scutellarin (20 and 60 mg/kg) improved the neurological score and diminished the percentage of brain infarct volume. At the same time, scutellarin significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) level in ischemic brain tissues, enhancing endogenous antioxidant activity. Moreover, pretreatment of scutellarin (25, 50 and 100 μM) protected neurons against lethal stimuli, decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells and inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in OGD-induced primary cortical neurons in vitro. These results suggest that the preventive and therapeutic potential of scutellarin in cerebral injury patients is, at least in part, ascribed to augmentation of cellular antioxidant defense capacity.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activity and malondialdehyde levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Shilpa; Lal, Nand; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Mittal, Madhukar; Singh, Babita; Pandey, Shivani

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of diabetes, a known risk factor for periodontitis, on activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) as well as levels of free radical damage marker malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood and saliva of individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP). Sixty patients with CP (30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus [DMCP] and 30 systemically healthy patients [CP]) and 60 periodontally healthy individuals (30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 systemically healthy patients [PH]) were included in this study. After clinical measurements, blood and saliva samples were collected. SOD, GR, and CAT activities in red blood cell lysate and saliva and MDA levels in plasma and saliva samples were spectrophotometrically assayed. An analysis of variance test followed by a post hoc test was used to compare the intragroup and intergroup variances among the study groups. MDA levels in both the periodontitis groups were higher than in the periodontally healthy groups, but the difference between the CP and DMCP groups did not reach statistical significance (P >0.05). There was a highly significant difference between the CP and PH groups for all the enzymes studied except for SOD in blood. Only salivary SOD and GR activities were significantly different in the CP and DMCP groups. This study favors the role of oxidative stress in both diabetes and periodontitis. It shows that the compensatory mechanism of the body is partially collapsed because of excessive production of free radicals during periodontitis and is not able to cope with increased free radical generation attributable to diabetes, thereby worsening the situation.

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antioxidant enzyme system in human population exposed to radiation from mobile towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sachin; Yadav, Anita; Kumar, Neeraj; Priya, Kanu; Aggarwal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Ranjan

    2018-03-01

    In the present era, cellular phones have changed the life style of human beings completely and have become an essential part of their lives. The number of cell phones and cell towers are increasing in spite of their disadvantages. These cell towers transmit radiation continuously without any interruption, so people living within 100s of meters from the tower receive 10,000 to 10,000,000 times stronger signal than required for mobile communication. In the present study, we have examined superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation assay, and effect of functional polymorphism of SOD and CAT antioxidant genes against mobile tower-induced oxidative stress in human population. From our results, we have found a significantly lower mean value of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, and a high value of lipid peroxidation assay in exposed as compared to control subjects. Polymorphisms in antioxidant MnSOD and CAT genes significantly contributed to its phenotype. In the current study, a significant association of genetic polymorphism of antioxidant genes with genetic damage has been observed in human population exposed to radiations emitted from mobile towers.

  6. A novel strategy involved in [corrected] anti-oxidative defense: the conversion of NADH into NADPH by a metabolic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranji Singh

    Full Text Available The reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH is pivotal to the cellular anti-oxidative defence strategies in most organisms. Although its production mediated by different enzyme systems has been relatively well-studied, metabolic networks dedicated to the biogenesis of NADPH have not been fully characterized. In this report, a metabolic pathway that promotes the conversion of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, a pro-oxidant into NADPH has been uncovered in Pseudomonas fluorescens exposed to oxidative stress. Enzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase (PC, malic enzyme (ME, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, malate synthase (MS, and isocitrate lyase (ICL that are involved in disparate metabolic modules, converged to create a metabolic network aimed at the transformation of NADH into NADPH. The downregulation of phosphoenol carboxykinase (PEPCK and the upregulation of pyruvate kinase (PK ensured that this metabolic cycle fixed NADH into NADPH to combat the oxidative stress triggered by the menadione insult. This is the first demonstration of a metabolic network invoked to generate NADPH from NADH, a process that may be very effective in combating oxidative stress as the increase of an anti-oxidant is coupled to the decrease of a pro-oxidant.

  7. Changes of antioxidative enzymes in Impatiens walleriana L. shoots in response to genetic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens walleriana L. shoots were inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4M70GUS and the effects of genetic transformation on the catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POX activities in wounded region of stems and unwounded leaves were evaluated 10, 24, 240 and 720 hours after inoculation. Following Agrobacterum infection activities of plant antioxidative enzymes changed in a time-dependent manner indicating that dynamic processes occurred during plant-Agrobacterium interaction, plant cell transformation and formation of hairy roots. Appearance of hairy roots on wound sites of shoots was observed ten days after inoculation with A. rhizogenes and the root induction frequency was 100%. Among selected hairy root lines significant differences in growth rate and biomass production were observed and an average 3-fold increase in biomass production was observed for the best growing hairy root line compared with the untransformed roots. PCR analysis showed presence of uidA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes in all analyzed I. walleriana L. hairy root lines, while amplification fragment of rolA gene was detected in 83.3% transformed lines. Efficient transformation protocol for I. walleriana L described in this work offer possibilities to generate hairy root cultures for in vitro propagation of plant viruses. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31019

  8. Transduction with the antioxidant enzyme catalase protects human T cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takashi; Mimura, Kousaku; Johansson, C Christian; Hanson, Mikael G; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Larsson, Charlotte; Martins da Palma, Telma; Sakurai, Daiju; Norell, Håkan; Li, Mingli; Nishimura, Michael I; Kiessling, Rolf

    2008-12-15

    Patients with diseases characterized by chronic inflammation, caused by infection or cancer, have T cells and NK cells with impaired function. The underlying molecular mechanisms are diverse, but one of the major mediators in this immune suppression is oxidative stress caused by activated monocytes, granulocytes, or myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Reactive oxygen species can seriously hamper the efficacy of active immunotherapy and adoptive transfer of T and NK cells into patients. In this study, we have evaluated whether enhanced expression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase in human T cells can protect them against reactive oxygen species. Human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells retrovirally transduced with the catalase gene had increased intracellular expression and activity of catalase. Catalase transduction made CD4(+) T cells less sensitive to H(2)O(2)-induced loss-of-function, measured by their cytokine production and ability to expand in vitro following anti-CD3 stimulation. It also enhanced the resistance to oxidative stress-induced cell death after coculture with activated granulocytes, exposure to the oxidized lipid 4-hydroxynonenal, or H(2)O(2). Expression of catalase by CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells saved cells from cell death and improved their capacity to recognize CMV peptide-loaded target cells when exposed to H(2)O(2). These findings indicate that catalase-transduced T cells potentially are more efficacious for the immunotherapy of patients with advanced cancer or chronic viral infections.

  9. Black tea (camellia sinensis ) role in modulating antioxidant enzymes and biochemical changes in γ -irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, N.N.; Hussien, E.M.; Farag, M.F.S.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the efficacy of camellia sinensis beverage in reducing gamma-irradiation - induced oxidative damage to the liver, lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats. Animals were received the black tea beverage (BTB) as a sole source of potable liquid for seven consecutive days before exposing them to single dose of 6 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation . The irradiated rats continued to receive BTB for 21 days before sacrifice. The effect of BTB was assessed by monitoring the plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), acid phosphatase (AcP), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high, low and very low density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C,LDL-C and VLDL-C) as well as protein carbonyl content (PCC). In addition, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) in blood and liver of experimental rats. It was observed that tea administration lowers significantly (p< 0.05), the plasma AST, ALT, AcP activities and TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and PCC concentration as well as blood and liver TBARS. The level of GSH and activity of CAT in the blood and liver tissue were however shown to be significantly elevated (p< 0.05).The results provide useful information for future investigations and strongly implicate the beneficial application of BTB

  10. Radioprotective effects of ginsan through the stimulation hematopoiesis and antioxidant enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Yun, Yeon Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    An immunomodulator ginsan which was isolated from Panax ginseng showed the mitogenic activity, generation of LAK cells, and secretion of several cytokines. In the extended effort to search other immunostimulatory effects, we evaluated protective effects of in vivo injected Ginsan against irradiation, by measuring the recovery of CFU-S, and the functioning of bone marrow (BM) and spleen cells. Ginsan was found to significantly increase the number of BM cells, spleen cells, granulocytes macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFC), and the number of circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets in irradiated mice. In addition, it induced endogenous production of cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IFN-g and IL-12, which are required for hematopoietic recovery, and was able to enhance Th1 function while interfering with the Th2 response in irradiated mice. We demonstrated that the pretreatment with Ginsan protected mice from lethal effects of ionizing radiation more effectively than given immediately or after the irradiation. A significant increase of the survival of Ginsan-treated group (100mg/kg) from LD50/30 7.54 Gy of PBS-injection to 10.93 Gy was observed. Moreover, the levels of the antioxidant enzymes such as SODs, catalase and gluthathion peroxidase were increased 1.5-2 fold in ginsan treated mice compared to the irradiated mice. These findings indicate that ginsan may be a promising agent to be used in reducing the time needed for reconstituting of hematopoietic cells after irradiation treatment.

  11. Formetanate toxicity and changes in antioxidant enzyme system of Apis mellifera larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroň, Martin; Sabo, Rastislav; Sobeková, Anna; Sabová, Lucia; Legáth, Jaroslav; Lohajová, Ľuboslava; Javorský, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Substantial percentage of world food production depends on pollinating service of honeybees that directly depends on their health status. Among other factors, the success of bee colonies depends on health of developed larvae. The crucial phase of larval development is the first 6 days after hatching when a worker larva grows exponentially and larvae are potentially exposed to xenobiotics via diet. In the present study, we determined the lethal concentration LC 50 (72 h) following single dietary exposure of honeybee larvae to formetanate under laboratory conditions, being also the first report available in scientific literature. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were also measured in the homogenates of in vitro reared honeybee larvae after single formetanate exposure. Decreased specific activity of SOD and increased activities of CAT and GST suggest the induction of oxidative stress. Higher levels of thiobarbituric reactive species in all samples supported this fact. Comparing determined larval toxicity (LC 50 of 206.01 mg a.i./kg diet) with adult toxicity data, we can suppose that the larvae may be less sensitive to formetanate than the adult bees.

  12. Modulation of antioxidant enzymes as radioprotector mechanism of oligo elements and lachesis muta in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crescenti, E.; Croci, M.; Mohamad, N.; Medina, V.; Sambuco, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Nunez, M.; Martin, G.; Cricco, G.; Bergoc, R.; Rivera, E.

    2006-01-01

    The therapeutic use of the ionizing radiations (IR) it has acquired great relevance in the last decades although their effects are not selective and they are also manifested on the normal tissues. In previous works we demonstrate the radioprotector effect that the combination of oligo elements Zinc, Selenium and Manganese associated to the snake poison Lachesis muta (O-LM) it exercises on the small intestine and the bone marrow of irradiated mouse. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms, and particularly the paper of the anti-oxidant superoxide dismutases enzymes (MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD), Catalase (CAT), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), in the radioprotector action that exercises the combination O-LM. Four groups of mice were used: A) control; B) treated with O-LM; C) irradiated; D) irradiated and treated with O-LM. The two treated groups were injected daily via s.c. with 0,1 ml of O-LM from 30 days before the irradiation and until to 4 days later. The two irradiated groups received 10 Gy in whole body the day 30. The day 35 all the animals were sacrificed. The histological intestinal cuts of the mucous one were evaluated by tint with hematoxyline-eosin; the presence of apoptotic cells it was determined by the Tunel method (Apoptag kit); the expression of PCNA (nuclear antigen of proliferating cells), MnSOD, CuZnSOD, CAT and GPx, by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that in the lot D it was preserved totally the histology of the intestinal mucous. In the control A it was observed PCNA expression in the crypts, of MnSOD in the hairiness and CuZnSOD, CAT and Gpx in both. The change produced by O-LM (group B) it was the increase of PCNA, of CAT and the appearance of MnSOD in the crypts. On the other hand, the irradiation (C) it produced a marked descent in the GPx, the complete disappearance of PCNA and an increase of the apoptotic cells. The group D showed that O-LM it reverted totally the effect of the RI on the expression of PCNA

  13. Antioxidant activity of white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice (in vivo and in vitro) and the effects on lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Abdul Kadir, Khairul-Kamilah; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina

    2013-11-15

    Antioxidant activity of different rice extract and the effect on the levels of antioxidant enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin E, lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemia rabbits were investigated. Germinated brown rice (GBR) has the highest antioxidant activity compared to white rice (WR) and brown rice (BR). All rice grains increased the activity of SOD and GPx. However, vitamin E levels increased only in the groups that received the BR and GBR diets. The reduction of lipid peroxidation levels and activity of hepatic enzymes (alanine transferase, ALT and aspartate transaminase, AST) were only significantly observed in the GBR group. In conclusion, GBR supplementation has the greatest impact on increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and vitamin E level and on reducing lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolaemia rabbit, thereby preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, GBR diet can also reduce the level of hepatic enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of 5,8-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]quinoline-2-carboxylic acid on the antioxidative defense and lipid membranes in Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa de Domínguez, N D; Charris, J; Domínguez, J; Monasterios, M; Angel, J; Rodrigues, J

    2015-08-01

    Plasmodium parasites degrade hemoglobin producing reactive oxygen species as toxic byproducts which are detoxified by a series of antioxidant mechanisms. Quinoline compounds have demonstrated activity against hemoglobin degradation with 5,8-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]quinoline-2-carboxylic acid (TQCA) representing a recent compound inhibiting this process. Thus, this study was undertaken to determine the ability of TQCA to modify the oxidative status in Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes. After hemolysis, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and dehydrogenase enzymes as well as lipid peroxidation were investigated by spectrophotometry. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were determined by gas-liquid chromatography and the in vivo effects of TQCA were confirmed by a malaria murine model (Rane test). The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) in infected cells was diminished by this compound compared to control infection in 75.1 ± 3.5% and 26.5 ± 0.3%, respectively, while that of GPx and GR was also lowered (p quinoline derivate in 49.2 ± 1.32% and 37 ± 0.06%, respectively, protecting the cells from hemolysis caused by the infection. The in vitro results were in concordance with the potential in vivo activity of this compound in an established malaria murine model in which TQCA showed significant decrease in the parasitemia levels and increased the mean survival days of infected mice. In conclusion, the antioxidant defense represents a biochemical target for TQCA actions as a potent antimalarial whose effects were also confirmed in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  16. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  17. Antioxidant defense and oxidative stress in children with acute hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic-Dragonjic, Lidija; Jovanovic, Maja; Vrbic, Miodrag; Konstantinovic, Ljiljana; Kostic, Velimir; Dragonjic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Published data on oxidative stress in children with acute hepatitis A are still very scarce. This study aims to evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant status of these patients. Prospective, case-control study, over 2.5 years in patients under hospitalized and ambulatory care. The levels of a whole-blood antioxidant, reduced glutathione; and plasma antioxidants, β-carotene, retinol, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol; and the biomarker of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, were evaluated in 50 pediatric patients (age range, 5-16 years; 29 males and 21 females) with acute hepatitis A and in 50 healthy children as control subjects (age range, 5-16 years; 25 males and 25 females). Plasma levels of reduced glutathione, β-carotene, retinol, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid were significantly lower, while malondialdehyde plasma levels were significantly increased in the patient group when compared to the controls (Ppediatric patients with acute hepatitis A were influenced by oxidative stress, resulting in significantly lower levels of plasma antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation. In the absence of other therapeutic options, antioxidant vitamin supplements could be added to the therapy for these patients to help reestablish the oxidant status balance. Further investigations to confirm this suggestion are recommended.

  18. Effect of the phosphogypsum amendment of saline and agricultural soils on growth, productivity and antioxidant enzyme activities of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaoui-Jardak, Mariem; Kriaa, Walid; Maalej, Mohamed; Zouari, Mohamed; Kamoun, Lotfi; Trabelsi, Wassim; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Elloumi, Nada

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of phosphogypsum (PG) amendment on the physiochemical proprieties of saline and agricultural soils along with the growth, productivity and antioxidant enzyme activities of tomato plants ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown on the amended soils under controlled conditions. Obtained results showed that the amendment of saline soil (H) by PG induced a decrease in pH as well as in electrical conductivity. However, for the non saline soil (MC), there was a decrease in pH associated with an increase in electrical conductivity. For both soils, PG amendment led to an increase in Calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na), and a decrease in potassium (K) in plant tissues. Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn) and Chromium (Cr) contents in different parts of plants increased in proportion with PG concentration in the soils. Apart from Cd, all the analyzed metals in tomato fruit were found to be below the recommended maximum allowable concentration (MAC). Our results showed that PG application, at doses not exceeding 20%, seems to be beneficial for growth, photosynthetic activity and productivity of tomato plants as well as in decreasing salinity of saline soils. In these conditions, the use of PG could be a promising project for the rehabilitation of marginalized and saline ecosystems with either ornamental or non-fruit species. For both soils, a significant accumulation of MDA in shoots was detected, reflecting cell membrane damage especially when the PG amendment reached 20%. Beyond 20 and 40% PG, tomato plants developed an enzymatic antioxidant defense system in response to salinity and heavy metal stress. However, at 80% PG, enzymes activities were significantly inhibited.

  19. Storage Effect on Phenols and on the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Anemopsis californica and Inhibition of Elastase Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of total phenols and flavonoids and the antioxidant activity of leaf, stem, and rhizome methanolic extracts from a commonly consumed Anemopsis californica under different storage conditions were investigated. Storage conditions were at 50, 25, 4, and −20°C, protected or not from light, during 180 days. The inhibition of the elastase enzyme was also evaluated. The results demonstrated that leaf, stem, and rhizome methanolic extracts of Anemopsis californica maintain approximately up to 97 and 95% stability in phenolic content and antioxidant activity, respectively, when stored during 60 days at −20°C in the dark. Additionally, these extracts, principally from leaf and rhizome, showed an elastase inhibitory effect by 75 and 71.8%, respectively. Therefore, this study provides the basis for further research on the anti-inflammatory activity. On the other hand, Anemopsis californica could comprise a good alternative of use as antioxidant in foods.

  20. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (pbacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of Nrf2 antioxidant defense in mitigating cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the olfactory system of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@uw.edu

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to trace metals can disrupt olfactory function in fish leading to a loss of behaviors critical to survival. Cadmium (Cd) is an olfactory toxicant that elicits cellular oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity while also inducing protective cellular antioxidant genes via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced olfactory injury have not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense pathway in protecting against Cd-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. A dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress was observed in the olfactory system of adult zebrafish following 24 h Cd exposure. Zebrafish larvae exposed to Cd for 3 h showed increased glutathione S-transferase pi (gst pi), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc), heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) mRNA levels indicative of Nrf2 activation, and which were blocked by morpholino-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. The inhibition of antioxidant gene induction in Cd-exposed Nrf2 morphants was associated with disruption of olfactory driven behaviors, increased cell death and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nrf2 morphants also exhibited a downregulation of OSN-specific genes after Cd exposure. Pre-incubation of embryos with sulforaphane (SFN) partially protected against Cd-induced olfactory tissue damage. Collectively, our results indicate that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated injury in the zebrafish olfactory system. Moreover, the Nrf2 pathway plays a protective role against cellular oxidative damage and is important in maintaining zebrafish olfactory function. -- Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated olfactory injury. ► Cd induces antioxidant gene expression in the zebrafish olfactory system. ► The

  2. Effect of turmeric and carrot seed extracts on serum liver biomarkers and hepatic lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Moghadam, Adel; Mohajeri, Daryoush; Rafiei, Behnam; Dizaji, Rana; Azhdari, Asghar; Yeganehzad, Mahdi; Shahidi, Maryamossadat; Mazani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic role of free radicals are well known in various metabolic diseases. They originate from internal and external sources of body. Essential roles of antioxidant defense system for cellular redox regulation and free radical scavenging activity were described in this study. Many in vitro investigations have shown that turmeric (TE) and carrot seed extract (CSE) exhibits to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potentials of ethanolic TE and CSE based on in vivo experiment in the rats. ANIMALS WERE ASSIGNED TO SIX GROUPS: the 1st and 2nd groups were control groups and 2nd group received 0.2 ml dimethyl sulphoxide as vehicle treated group; other four experimental groups received different doses of TE (100, 200 mg/kg b.w.) and CSE (200, 400 mg/kg b.w.) by gavages, respectively for a period of one month. The indicators of oxidative stress, lipids peroxidation, markers of hepatocyte injury and biliary function markers were measured. The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly stimulated in the hepatic tissue of treatment groups. The malondialdehyde contents of liver tissue were significantly reduced in the groups fed with TE and CSE. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, in treated groups were found to be significantly decreased, whereas albumin and total protein increased as compared to the control groups (Pperoxidation activity in the liver tissue so that using these extracts may protect tissue oxidative stress.

  3. [Effects of Citrus aurantium extract on liver antioxidant defense function in experimental diabetic mouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shirong; Huang, Chengyu; Wang, Ho; Yu, Shuang

    2007-11-01

    To study the effect of Citrus aurantium extract on liver antioxidant ability in experimental diabetic mice. Experimental diabetic mice were treated with C. aurantium extract (C. aurantium 5, 10, 15g/ kg) respectively. After 5 weeks, the general status, liver antioxidant ability and the change of livers histological were observed. Experimental diabetic mice groups were treated with C. aurantium extract in comparison with the experimental diabetic mice group. It was indicated that the levels of blood glucose were significantly reduced (P aurantium extract were abated in comparison with the experimental diabetic mice under light microscope observation. It was suggested that the extract of C. aurantium could effectively enhance the liver antioxidant function and decrease hepatocyte damages.

  4. Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Lin; Shang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Jabeen, Zahra; Zhang, Guo-Ping

    2013-06-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation, and oxidative stress was investigated using 2 tobacco cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. The growth inhibition of the tobacco plants exposed to Cd toxicity was in part alleviated by moderate addition of NaCl in the culture solution. Cadmium concentration of shoots and roots in the 2 cultivars increased with increasing Cd levels in the solution and decreased with the addition of NaCl. The addition of NaCl could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Cd toxicity, as reflected by reduced production of malondialdehyde and recovered or enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results also showed that the enhancement of antioxidative enzyme activity by NaCl for the tobacco plants exposed to Cd stress is related to induced Ca signaling. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  5. [Effect of different light of LED light quality on growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of Ganoderma lucidum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Chen, Xiangdong; Wang, Qiuyin; Hao, Junjiang; Lan, Jin

    2011-09-01

    To study the effect of light quality on growth, antioxidant enzyme activities of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium. G. lucidum mycelium was cultured under different light qualities by light emitting diodes (LED). The growth G. lucidum mycelium was observed and antioxidant enzyme activities was determined in different growth periods. Under the red LED, the blue LED and dark condition (CK), the mycelium grew faster than that under other light qualities. The white LED resulted in a largest increase in the amount of the mycelium and always kept the activities of CAT high level. Major fluctuations of POD activities emerged under the green LED, while enhanced severely in the late phase. Under the yellow LED, the activities of SOD appeared high level. However, SOD activities on dark (CK) raised obviously in late period. At the late stage, the content of mycelium polysaccharides was significant higher than that under the blue LED. The light quality could influence the growth and metabolism of G. lucidum mycelium.

  6. Disturbance of Antioxidant Enzymes and Purine Metabolism in the Ejaculate of Men Living in Disadvantaged Areas of Kyzylorda Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentihna N. Kislitskaya

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of study, it was put the influence  of negative factors of the Aral Sea region in men’s sperm of reproductive  age gives to disability free-radical processes, that proves changing of ferments of ant oxidative protection Catalase and adenosine deaminase (ADA.  This disturbance in men’s sperm of reproductive age leading to increased level of oxidative stress and impaired activity of  antioxidant enzymes and purine metabolism, responsible for the abnormal transmembrane and intracellular processes, reflecting the degree of imbalance of enzymes.

  7. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

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    Muiño-Blanco Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GRD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system.

  8. Effect of Chitosan Coating on the Postharvest Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System Response of Strawberry Fruit during Cold Storage

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    Milena Petriccione

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of chitosan fruit coating to delay the qualitative and nutraceutical traits of three strawberry cultivars, namely “Candonga”, “Jonica” and “Sabrina”, as well as the effects of chitosan on antioxidant enzymes were evaluated. The fruits were coated with 1% and 2% chitosan solution and stored at 2 °C for nine days. Samples were taken every three days. Physico-chemical (weight loss, soluble solid content and titratable acidity and nutraceutical (total polyphenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacity properties along with the enzymatic activity (catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX and lipoxygenase (LOX were evaluated. Chitosan treatment significantly reduced water loss and delayed the qualitative changes in color, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content in dose- and cultivar-dependent manners. Additionally, changes in the total polyphenol, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant capacity of chitosan-coated strawberry fruits were delayed. Chitosan coating enhanced the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, preventing flesh browning and reducing membrane damage. A global view of the responses of the three strawberry cultivars to chitosan coating and storage temperature was obtained using principal component analysis. Chitosan-coated fruit exhibited a slower rate of deterioration, compared to uncoated fruit in all tested cultivars.

  9. Influence of the degree of hydrolysis and type of enzyme on antioxidant activity of okara protein hydrolysates

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    Melissa Ferreira SBROGGIO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of okara using an endopeptidase (Alcalase and exopeptidase (Flavourzyme. The reaction was monitored by the pH-stat procedure in which five aliquots were collected during the hydrolysis by each enzyme, corresponding to different degrees of hydrolysis (DH. The antioxidant activities of the aliquots were evaluated by the ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods. For the hydrolysates obtained using Alcalase, the antioxidant activities increased from: 68.6 to 99.5% (ABTS, 14.5 to 17.7% (DPPH and 222.6 to 684.9 µM Trolox (FRAP, when the DH varied from 0 to 33.6%. With respect to Flavourzyme, the results were: 67.2 to 88.2% (ABTS, 9.5 to 18.5% (DPPH and 168.0 to 360.3 µM Trolox (FRAP, when the DH increased up to 5.8%. The results showed that the protein hydrolysates had antioxidant capacities, which were influenced by the degree of hydrolysis and the type of enzyme.

  10. Comparison of lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes among south Indian men consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Sabitha, P.; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Vasudevan, D. M.; Kamath, Prakash

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes of normal and diabetic subjects consuming two different types of oil as cooking medium. 70 normal, healthy subjects were taken as controls and 70 subjects with Type 2 diabetes were recruited in patient group. Each group was further subdivided into two subgroups of 35 subjects each, consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil respectively as cooking medium. Samples of blood were collected and analyzed for serum total cholesterol,...

  11. Evaluation of Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Biochemical Characterization from Static and Suspension Culture of Withania somnifera L.

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    Satyajit Kanungo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (L. Dunal, is an erect evergreen shrub commonly known as Ashwagandha. It is widely used in Ayurvedic and in the traditional pharmacopeia system of India. It is one of the major ingredients in many formulations prescribed for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions including arthritis and rheumatism. In the present study the variation in quality and quantity of protein and antioxidant enzymes were evaluated biochemically and enzymatically from the static and suspension cultures. The nodal segments had provided maximum callusing of 90.25±0.06 % with (1mg/l of BAP and Kn with (2mg/l of 2, 4-D. The static and suspension cultures were taken for the analysis of total soluble protein and screened for antioxidant enzyme activity [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX]. The protein content (1.2016 µg/µl was found to be higher in static culture samples (0.870 µg/µl than the protein obtained from the suspension culture. The antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT, SOD and GPX was higher in static culture samples (301.01± 0.42, 198.92 ± 0.29, 103.75 ± 0.11 nkat/ mg of protein than that of suspension culture. Specific activity staining of isozyme pattern exhibited three isoforms (CAT 1, CAT 2 and CAT 3 in static culture samples but CAT 1 was absent in the sample extracted from suspension cultures.  In case of SOD, four bands (SOD 1, SOD 2, SOD 3 and SOD 4 were found in both the samples whereas intensity of GPX activity was found to be more in static culture but both the samples exhibited three isoforms such as  (GPX 1, GPX 2 and GPX 3. The supplementation of required nutrients along with the phytohormones under in vitro condition might be an enhancing factor to yield antioxidant enzymes in the static culture samples. 

  12. Response of antioxidative enzymes to arsenic-induced phytotoxicity in leaves of a medicinal daisy, Wedelia chinensis Merrill

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, Tulika; Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wedelia chinensis Merrill (Asteraceae) is a medicinally important herb, grown abundantly in soils contaminated with heavy metals, including toxic metalloid arsenic (As). The leaves have immense significance in treatment of various ailments. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the edible/usable parts experience oxidative stress in the form of membrane damage during As exposure or not. Materials and Methods: Responses of seven antioxidant enzymes were st...

  13. Role of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant enzymes in the interaction between a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans, and oilseed rape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Barbora; Fodor, J.; Šindelářová, Milada; Burketová, Lenka; Valentová, O.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2011), s. 149-156 ISSN 0098-8472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/08/1581; GA MŠk MEB040923 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : hydrogen peroxide * antioxidant enzymes * hemibiotrophic pathogen Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 2.985, year: 2011

  14. Influence of Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze on Altered Antioxidant Enzyme Profile during Cutaneous Wound Healing in Immunocompromised Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Ara Begum, Shameem; Talukdar, Archana; Datta Roy, Jayanti; Buragohain, Bhaben; Chandra Pathak, Debesh; Kumar Sarma, Dilip; Saikia Bora, Rumi; Gupta, Asheesh

    2012-01-01

    Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amaranthaceae) is a herbaceous plant used against inflammation, cough, and diarrhea in Brazilian popular medicine. In our preliminary study, promising wound healing activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. brasiliana (MEAB) was observed in normal excision and incision wound models. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity along with the antioxidant enzyme profile during cutaneous excision immunocompromised wo...

  15. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups and serum levels of anti-oxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis

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    Fernandez-Moreno Mercedes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress play a main role in the initiation and progression of the OA disease and leads to the degeneration of mitochondria. To prevent this, the chondrocytes possess a well-coordinated enzymatic antioxidant system. Besides, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups are associated with the OA disease. Thus, the main goal of this work is to assess the incidence of the mtDNA haplogroups on serum levels of two of the main antioxidant enzymes, Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (Mn-SOD or SOD2 and catalase, and to test the suitability of these two proteins for potential OA-related biomarkers. Methods We analyzed the serum levels of SOD2 and catalase in 73 OA patients and 77 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups J, U and H, by ELISA assay. Knee and hip radiographs were classified according to Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L scoring from Grade 0 to Grade IV. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed to test the effects of clinical variables, including gender, body mass index (BMI, age, smoking status, diagnosis, haplogroups and radiologic K/L grade on serum levels of these enzymes. Results Serum levels of SOD2 appeared statistically increased in OA patients when compared with healthy controls (p Conclusions The increased levels of SOD2 in OA patients indicate an increased oxidative stress OA-related, therefore this antioxidant enzyme could be a suitable candidate biomarker for diagnosis of OA. Mitochondrial haplogroups significantly correlates with serum levels of catalase

  16. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

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    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Molecular identification and functional delineation of a glutathione reductase homolog from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): Insights as a potent player in host antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M L P B; Wickramasinghe, P D S U; Bathige, S D N K; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Kim, Gi-Young; Park, Myoung Ae; Kim, Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2017-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biochemical conversion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) into the reduced form (GSH). Since the ratio between the two forms of glutathione (GSH/GSSG) is important for the optimal function of GSH to act as an antioxidant against H 2 O 2 , the contribution of GSR as an enzymatic regulatory agent to maintain the proper ratio is essential. Abalones are marine mollusks that frequently encounter environmental factors that can trigger the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H 2 O 2 . Therefore, we conducted the current study to reveal the molecular and functional properties of a GSR homolog in the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus. The identified cDNA sequence (2325 bp) has a 1356 bp long open reading frame (ORF), coding for a 909 bp long amino acid sequence, which harbors a pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase domain (171-246 aa), a pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase dimerization domain, and a NAD(P)(+)-binding Rossmann fold superfamily signature domain. Four functional residues: the FAD binding site, glutathione binding site, NADPH binding motif, and assembly domain were identified to be conserved among the other species. The recombinant abalone GSR (rAbGSR) exhibited detectable activity in a standard glutathione reductase activity assay. The optimum pH and optimal temperature for the reaction were found to be 7.0 and 50 °C, respectively, while the ionic strength of the medium had no effect. The enzymatic reaction was vastly inhibited by Cu +2 and Cd +2 ions. A considerable effect of cellular protection was detected with a disk diffusion assay conducted with rAbGSR. Moreover, an MTT assay and flow cytometry confirmed the significance of the protective role of rAbGSR in cell function. Furthermore, AbGSR was found to be ubiquitously distributed in different types of abalone tissues. AbGSR mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in response to three immune challenges

  18. Experimental evidence for protein oxidative damage and altered antioxidant defense in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Terry G J; Touw, Catharina M L; Ribas, Graziela S; Biancini, Giovana B; Vanzin, Camila S; Negretto, Giovanna; Mescka, Caroline P; Reijngoud, Dirk Jan; Smit, G Peter A; Wajner, Moacir; Vargas, Carmen R

    The objective of this study was to test whether macromolecule oxidative damage and altered enzymatic antioxidative defenses occur in patients with medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of in vivo parameters of lipid and

  19. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from whole anchovy sprat (Clupeonella engrauliformis) prepared using endogenous enzymes and commercial proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Rasco, Barbara; Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Modanlow, Maryam; Gholami, Sanaz; Nemati, Mahrokh

    2013-05-01

    The antioxidant activity and chemical properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) prepared from anchovy sprat (Clupeonella engrauliformis) using endogenous enzymes (autolysis) and commercial proteases were investigated. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was observed with Alcalase and papain and the highest protein recovery (PR) with Alcalase and bromelain. FPH yield was highest with Alcalase (82.3%) and lowest with autolysis (63.64%). Increased DH resulted in increased FPH yield (R(2) = 0.77). The highest oil recovery was observed with bromelain (6.41%) and the lowest with autolysis (3.58%). Antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, reducing power and ferrous chelation assays was highest in bromelain, Promod and papain FPHs respectively. The highest ABTS activity was observed in Alcalase FPH, followed by Promod and Protamex™ FPHs. The lowest antioxidant activity was observed in autolysed and Flavourzyme FPHs (P > 0.05). Heavy metals (arsenic, lead and mercury) were recorded at levels below the regulatory limits established by the FDA. Anchovy sprat hydrolysates showed high antioxidant activities and amino acid contents and low heavy metal concentrations, indicating that they have high potential for use in human and animal diets. The high antioxidant activities are related to the high levels of hydrophobic amino acids found in this study. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Phytochemicals enhance antioxidant enzyme expression to protect against NSAID-induced oxidative damage of the gastrointestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2017-06-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa provides the first protective barrier for digested food and xenobiotics, which are easily attacked by toxic substances. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin, diclofenac, indomethacin, and ketoprofen, are widely used in clinical medicine, but these drugs may cause oxidative stress, leading to GI damage such as ulcers. Lansoprazol, omeprazole, and other clinical drugs are widely used to treat duodenal and gastric ulcers and have been shown to have multiple biological functions, such as antioxidant activity and the ability to upregulate antioxidant enzymes in vivo. Therefore, the reduction of oxidative stress may be an effective curative strategy for preventing and treating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced ulcers of the GI mucosa. Phytochemicals, such as dietary phenolic compounds, phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavonoids, gingerols, carotenes, and organosulfur, are common antioxidants in fruits, vegetables, and beverages. A large amount of evidence has demonstrated that natural phytochemicals possess bioactivity and potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial benefits, and they can prevent digestive disease processes. In this review, we summarize the literature on phytochemicals with biological effects, such as angiogenic, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiulceration effects, and their related mechanisms are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effect of Turmeric and Carrot Seed Extracts on Serum Liver Biomarkers and Hepatic Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Total Antioxidant Status in Rats

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    Adel Rezaei-Moghadam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pathogenic role of free radicals are well known in various metabolic diseases. They originate from internal and external sources of body. Essential roles of antioxidant defense system for cellular redox regulation and free radical scavenging activity were described in this study. Many in vitro investigations have shown that turmeric (TE and carrot seed extract (CSE exhibits to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potentials of ethanolic TE and CSE based on in vivo experiment in the rats. Methods: Animals were assigned to six groups: the 1st and 2nd groups were control groups and 2nd group received 0.2 ml dimethyl sulphoxide as vehicle treated group; other four experimental groups received different doses of TE (100, 200 mg/kg b.w. and CSE (200, 400 mg/kg b.w. by gavages, respectively for a period of one month. The indicators of oxidative stress, lipids peroxidation, markers of hepatocyte injury and biliary function markers were measured. Results: The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly stimulated in the hepatic tissue of treatment groups. The malondialdehyde contents of liver tissue were significantly reduced in the groups fed with TE and CSE. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, in treated groups were found to be significantly decreased, whereas albumin and total protein increased as compared to the control groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: this study showed that the regular intake of TE and CSE through the diet can improve antioxidant status and inhibit peroxidation activity in the liver tissue so that using these extracts may protect tissue oxidative stress.

  2. The xanthophyll cycle and antioxidative defense system are enhanced in the wheat hybrid subjected to high light stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Wei; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Li, Hongwei; Kuang, Tingyun; Li, Zhensheng; Lu, Congming

    2011-10-15

    Although the wheat hybrids have often shown higher grain yields, the physiological basis of the higher yields remains unknown. Previous studies suggest that tolerance to photoinhibition in the hybrid may be one of the physiological bases (Yang et al., 2006, Plant Sci 171:389-97). The objective of this study was to further investigate the possible mechanism responsible for tolerance to photoinhibition in the hybrid. Photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry, the xanthophyll cycle, and antioxidative defense system were compared between the hybrid and its parents subjected to high light stress (1500μmolm(-2)s(-1)). The analyses of oxygen-evolving activity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and protein blotting demonstrated that the higher tolerance in the hybrid than in its parents was associated with its higher tolerance of PSII to photoinhibition. High light induced an increase in non-photochemical quenching, and this increase was greater in the hybrid than in its parents. There were no differences in the pool size of the xanthophyll cycle between the hybrid and its parents. The content of violaxanthin decreased significantly, whereas the content of zeaxanthin+antherxanthin increased considerably during high light treatments. However, the decrease in violaxanthin content and the increase in zeaxanthin+antherxanthin content were greater in the hybrid than in its parents. High light resulted in a significant accumulation of H(2)O(2), O(2)(-) and catalytic Fe, and this accumulation was less in the hybrid than in its parents. High light induced a significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase, and these increases were greater in the hybrid than its parents. These results suggest that the higher tolerance to photoinhibition in the hybrid may be associated with its higher capacity for antioxidative defense metabolism and the xanthophyll cycle

  3. Metallothionein and antioxidant enzymes in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats treated with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, Valentina; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; D' Inca, Renata [Department of Surgical and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padua, Padua (Italy); Santon, Alessandro; Giannetto, Sabrina; Albergoni, Vincenzo; Irato, Paola [Department of Biology, University of Padua, via U. Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padua (Italy)

    2002-09-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant animal model for Wilson's disease. It is known that an abnormal accumulation of Cu and Fe in the liver and low concentrations of both ceruloplasmin and Cu in the serum occur in these rats. The accumulation of Cu is explained by the defective expression of the Cu-transporting P-type ATPase gene, homologous to the gene for Wilson's disease (ATP7B). The aim of this work was to clarify the action mechanism of Zn, and to verify the role that this metal plays in LEC rats in short-term treatment experiments (1 and 2 weeks) on concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, metallothionein (MT), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (oh{sup 8}dG) and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is well known that Zn induces MT and has the ability to prevent redox-active metals, Cu and Fe, binding to and causing oxidative damage at active sites of Zn metalloenzymes and nonspecific binding sites on proteins. Zn administration reduces Cu and Fe transport from mucosal to serosal intestinal sides through competitive mechanisms. Our findings show that treatment with zinc acetate increases tissue Zn and MT contents and decreases Cu and Fe concentrations in the liver and kidneys, even if hepatic Zn and MT concentrations decrease with treatment period. Induction of MT synthesis by Zn contributes to the reduction in free radicals produced by Cu and Fe. We also observed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD)activity in liver decreases with treatment duration in association with the Cu and Fe liver decrease. However, the SOD activity in kidney increases in untreated rats at 2 weeks relative to those untreated for 1 week. (orig.)

  4. Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  5. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-02-16

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.

  6. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and superatmospheric oxygen on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of golden needle mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) during postharvest storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Cheng T.; Wang, Chang T.; Cao, Y.P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sun, B.G.; Liu, L.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the effect of oxygen concentrations on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of stored golden needle mushroom, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and initial superatmospheric oxygen was applied during mushroom storage, and physiological changes associated with postharvest

  7. Defense enzyme responses in dormant wild oat and wheat caryopses challenged with a seed decay pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed dormancy and resistance to seed decay organisms are fundamental ecological strategies for weed seed persistence in the weed seed-bank. Seeds have well-established physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores....

  8. Changes in Antioxidant Defense System Using Different Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition in Children after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Auxiliadora Baena-Gómez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally, lipids used in parenteral nutrition (PN are based on ω-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, with potential adverse effects involving oxidative stress. Methods: We evaluated the antioxidant defense system in children, after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, who were randomized to use a lipid emulsion with fish oil or soybean oil. Blood samples at baseline, at 10 days, and at the end of the PN were taken to analyze plasma retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, coenzyme Q9 and coenzyme Q10 levels, and catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPOX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in lysed erythrocytes. Results: An increase in plasma α-tocopherol levels in the group of patients receiving the fish oil-containing emulsion (FO compared with the group receiving the soybean emulsion was observed at day 10 of PN. Concurrently, plasma α-tocopherol increased in the FO group and β-carotene decreased in both groups at day 10 compared with baseline levels, being more significant in the group receiving the FO emulsion. Conclusion: FO-containing emulsions in PN could improve the antioxidant profile by increasing levels of α-tocopherol in children after HSCT who are at higher risk of suffering oxidative stress and metabolic disorders.

  9. The antioxidative defense system is involved in the premature senescence in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum NC89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: α-Farnesene is a volatile sesquiterpene synthesized by the plant mevalonate (MVA pathway through the action of α-farnesene synthase. The α-farnesene synthase 1 (MdAFS1 gene was isolated from apple peel (var. white winterpearmain, and transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum NC89. The transgenic plants had faster stem elongation during vegetative growth and earlier flowering than wild type (WT. Our studies focused on the transgenic tobacco phenotype. RESULTS: The levels of chlorophyll and soluble protein decreased and a lower seed biomass and reduced net photosynthetic rate (Pn in transgenic plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide radicals (O2._ had higher levels in transgenics compared to controls. Transgenic plants also had enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress. The transcriptome of 8-week-old plants was studied to detect molecular changes. Differentially expressed unigene analysis showed that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, cell growth, and death unigenes were upregulated. Unigenes related to photosynthesis, antioxidant activity, and nitrogen metabolism were downregulated. Combined with the expression analysis of senescence marker genes, these results indicate that senescence started in the leaves of the transgenic plants at the vegetative growth stage. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidative defense system was compromised and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS played an important role in the premature aging of transgenic plants.

  10. Melatonin, a potent agent in antioxidative defense: Actions as a natural food constituent, gastrointestinal factor, drug and prodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandi-Perumal SR

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal food constituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, which can be released into the blood in response to food intake and stimuli by nutrients, especially tryptophan. Apart from its use as a commercial food additive, supraphysiological doses have been applied in medical trials and pure preparations are well tolerated by patients. Owing to its amphiphilicity, melatonin can enter any body fluid, cell or cell compartment. Its properties as an antioxidant agent are based on several, highly diverse effects. Apart from direct radical scavenging, it plays a role in upregulation of antioxidant and downregulation of prooxidant enzymes, and damage by free radicals can be reduced by its antiexcitatory actions, and presumably by contributions to appropriate internal circadian phasing, and by its improvement of mitochondrial metabolism, in terms of avoiding electron leakage and enhancing complex I and complex IV activities. Melatonin was shown to potentiate effects of other antioxidants, such as ascorbate and Trolox. Under physiological conditions, direct radical scavenging may only contribute to a minor extent to overall radical detoxification, although melatonin can eliminate several of them in scavenger cascades and potentiates the efficacy of antioxidant vitamins. Melatonin oxidation seems rather important for the production of other biologically active metabolites such as N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK, which have been shown to also dispose of protective properties. Thus, melatonin may be regarded as a prodrug, too. AMK interacts with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, conveys protection to mitochondria

  11. Ulva lactuca polysaccharides prevent Wistar rat breast carcinogenesis through the augmentation of apoptosis, enhancement of antioxidant defense system, and suppression of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Ellatef GF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamal-Eldein F Abd-Ellatef,1 Osama M Ahmed,2 Eman S Abdel-Reheim,2 Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid,1 1Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt; 2Division of Physiology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt Background: Recently, several research studies have been focused on the isolation and function of the polysaccharides derived from different algal species, which revealed multiple biological activities such as antioxidant and antitumor activities. This study assesses the possible breast cancer chemopreventive properties of common seaweeds, sea lettuce, Ulva lactuca (ulvan polysaccharides using in vitro bioassays on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and an in vivo animal model of breast carcinogenesis. Methods: Cytotoxic effect of ulvan polysaccharides on MCF-7 was tested in vitro. For an in vivo investigation, a single dose of 25 mg/kg body weight 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA and ulvan polysaccharides (50 mg/kg body weight every other day for 10 weeks were administered orally to the Wistar rats. Results: Deleterious histopathological alterations in breast tissues including papillary cyst adenoma and hyperplasia of ductal epithelial lining with intraluminal necrotic materials and calcifications were observed in the DMBA-administered group. These lesions were prevented in the DMBA-administered group treated with ulvan polysaccharides. The immunohistochemical sections depicted that the treatment of DMBA-administered rats with ulvan polysaccharides markedly increased the lowered pro-apoptotic protein, p53, and decreased the elevated anti-apoptotic marker, bcl2, expression in the breast tissue. The elevated lipid peroxidation and the suppressed antioxidant enzyme activities in DMBA-administered control were significantly prevented by the treatment with ulvan polysaccharides. The elevated levels of inflammatory

  12. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  13. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activity of bioactive peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of skin from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Jierong; De Gobba, Cristian; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    Grass carp skin pieces were homogenized in water and hydrolyzed by Alcalase®, collagenase, proteinase K, and/or trypsin at their optimum conditions. Samples were taken at various degrees of hydrolysis and were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory...... activities. Alcalase and collagenase completely hydrolyzed the skin with different rates, and released peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity. These activities increased linearly with increasing degrees of hydrolysis. Subsequent incubation of the collagenase...

  14. Influence of selenium on growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity in melon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hu KeLing; Zhang Ling; Wang JiTao; You Yang

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous selenium (Se) supply (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 μM) on the growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity of 100 mM NaCl-stressed melon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings. Salt stress significantly reduced the growth attributes including stem length, stem diameter, dry weight and increased antioxidative enzyme activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT)]. Moreover, the plant exhibited a significant i...

  15. The effect of intestinal ischemia duration on changes in plasma antioxidant defense status in the rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížová, Hana; Lojek, Antonín; Kubala, Lukáš; Číž, Milan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2004), s. 523-531 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/99/D022; GA ČR GA524/01/1219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : antioxidants * small intestine * ischemia-reperfusion Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  16. Effect of Grinding at Modified Atmosphere or Vacuum on Browning, Antioxidant Capacities, and Oxidative Enzyme Activities of Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah-Na; Lee, Kyo-Yeon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chun, Jiyeon; Kerr, William L; Choi, Sung-Gil

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of grinding at atmospheric pressure (control), under vacuum (∼2.67 kPa), or with modified atmosphere (N 2 and CO 2 ) on the browning, antioxidant activity, phenolics, and oxidative enzyme activity of apples as a function of time. The control group was affected most, showing distinct browning and losing most of the antioxidant activity and concentrations of the main phenolic compounds. The modified atmosphere groups retained color, antioxidant activity, and phenolic compounds better than the control group. Least changes were obtained with vacuum grinding, particularly in terms of preventing enzymatic browning and oxidation of antioxidants apples. At 12 h after grinding, vacuum-ground apples retained total phenolic contents 5.32, 1.54, and 1.49 times higher than control, nitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide gas-ground samples, respectively. The oxidative enzyme activity, including that of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, decreased in the control and modified atmosphere group, but they were maintained in the samples ground under the vacuum. In this study, we found that grinding with modified atmosphere or vacuum conditions could effectively prevent browning as well as loss of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of ground apples. These results can help scientists and engineers build better grinding systems for retaining nutrient and quality factors of ground apples. In addition, these results may be useful to other fruit and vegetable industries that wish to retain fresh-like quality and nutritional value during grinding and storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. L-malate enhances the gene expression of carried proteins and antioxidant enzymes in liver of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Wu, Q; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. To investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L-malate in the mitochondria, we analyzed the change in gene expression of two malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS)-related carried proteins (AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier and OMC, oxoglutarate/malate carrier) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and three antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px) in the mitochondria. The changes in gene expression of these proteins and enzymes were examined by real-time RT-PCR in the heart and liver of aged rats treated with L-malate. L-malate was orally administered in rats continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. We found that the gene expression of OMC and GSH-Px mRNA in the liver increased by 39 % and 38 %, respectively, in the 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment group than that in the control group. The expression levels of SOD mRNA in the liver increased by 39 %, 56 %, and 78 % in the 0.105, 0.210, and 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment groups, respectively. No difference were observed in the expression levels of AGC, OMC, CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px mRNAs in the heart of rats between the L-malate treatment and control groups. These results predicted that L-malate may increase the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria by enhancing the expression of mRNAs involved in the MAS and the antioxidant enzymes.

  18. Cumulative antioxidant defense against oxidative challenge in galactose-induced cataractogenesis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, T N; Kumar, C Sanat; Kanth, V Rajani; Ramana, B Venkata; Reddy, P Uma Maheswara; Suryanarayana, P; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2006-09-01

    Natural dietary ingredients are known for their antioxidant activity. Of such, curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, at 0.01% in the diet proved as pro-oxidative in galactose-induced cataract in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E (VE), a well-known antioxidant, in combination with curcumin on the onset and maturation of galactose induced cataract. Periodic slit-lamp microscope examination indicated that in combination with vitamin-E, 0.01% curcumin (G-IV) delayed the onset and maturation of galactose-induced cataract. Biochemical analyses revealed that combined treatment of 0.01% curcumin and vitamin-E diet exhibited an efficient antioxidant effect, as it inhibited lipid peroxidation and contributed to a distinct rise in reduced glutathione content. The results indicate that natural dietary ingredients are effective in combination rather than the individual administration as they are complementing each other in reducing the risk of galactose induced cataract.

  19. Role of plant β-glucosidases in the dual defense system of iridoid glycosides and their hydrolyzing enzymes in Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankoke, Helga; Buschmann, Torsten; Müller, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    The typical defense compounds of Plantaginaceae are the iridoid glycosides, which retard growth and/or enhance mortality of non-adapted herbivores. In plants, glycosidic defense compounds and hydrolytic enzymes often form a dual defense system, in which the glycosides are activated by the enzymes to exert biological effects. Yet, little is known about the activating enzymes in iridoid glycoside-containing plants. To examine the role of plant-derived β-glucosidases in the dual defense system of two common plantain species, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major, we determined the concentration of iridoid glycosides as well as the β-glucosidase activity in leaves of different age. To investigate the presence of other leaf metabolites potentially involved in plant defense, we used a metabolic fingerprinting approach with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. According to the optimal defense hypothesis, more valuable parts such as young leaves should be better protected than less valuable parts. Therefore, we expected that both, the concentrations of defense compounds as well as the β-glucosidase activity, should be highest in younger leaves and decrease with increasing leaf age. Both species possessed β-glucosidase activity, which hydrolyzed aucubin, one of the two most abundant iridoid glycosides in both plant species, with high activity. In line with the optimal defense hypothesis, the β-glucosidase activity in both Plantago species as well as the concentration of defense-related metabolites such as iridoid glycosides correlated negatively to leaf age. When leaf extracts were incubated with bovine serum albumin and aucubin, SDS-PAGE revealed a protein-denaturing effect of the leaf extracts of both plantain species, suggesting that iridoid glycosides and plant β-glucosidase interact in a dual defense system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic potential of Acacia hydaspica R. Parker aerial parts extract: Modulation of brain antioxidant enzyme status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Tayyaba; Razak, Suhail; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Almajwal, Ali

    2017-04-24

    Oxidative stress may link to psychiatric disorders, and is being regarded as a plausible mechanism that can affect the regulation of these illnesses. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidepressant and anxiolytic potential of A. hydaspica R. parkers. Brain oxidative stress enzyme levels were analyzed to correlate depression and stress with brain antioxidant status. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effect of methanol extract of A. hydaspica and its derived soluble fractions [n-hexane (AHH), ethyl-acetate (AHE), chloroform (AHC), n-butanol (AHB) and remaining aqueous fraction (AHA)] was investigated by using three behavioral models; the Forced swimming test, Tail suspension test and Elevated plus-maze test (EPM). Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) was employed to induce stress in rats. AHM and AHE (200 mg/kg, p.o), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and diazepam (DZM) (1 mg/kg, p.o) were administered during the 7 day stress exposure period, and rats were assessed for antidepressant and anxiolytic behavioral despair paradigms. Antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers were measured in brain tissue of depressed rats. Phytochemical analysis was done by GCMS experimentation. AHM and AHE (acute dose) significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced the immobility time and ameliorated climbing behavior as compared to the control in FST and TST, and similar to fluoxetine. AHM and AHE showed significant (p < 0.0001) anxiolytic potential in EPM, and comparable to DZM (1 mg/kg b.w., i.p). Significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels and increase in MDA, H 2 O 2 and NO level were observed in stressed rats. AHM and AHE (for 7 days/CMS) significantly improved behavior in FST, TST and EPMT. Treatment also improved antioxidant enzyme level and controlled the oxidative stress markers in brain tissues. GCMS analysis indicated the presence of 10 different chemical constituents in A. hydaspica. The present study revealed that A. hydaspica exerts an antidepressant

  1. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  2. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar Maurya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  3. Size distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles in cell culture medium and their influence on antioxidative enzymes in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđenović Branislava U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenol (C60(OH24 nanoparticles (FNP have a significant role in biomedical research due to their numerous biological activities, some of which are cytoprotective and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to measure distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles and zeta potential in cell medium RPMI 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and to investigate the influence of FNP on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 survival, as well as to determine the activity of three antioxidative enzymes: superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-reductase and glutathione-S-transferase in mitomycin C-treated cell line. Our investigation implies that FNP, as a strong antioxidant, influence the cellular redox state and enzyme activities and thus may reduce cell proliferation, which confirms that FNP could be exploited for its use as a cytoprotective agent.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45005 i Pokrajinski Sekretarijat za nauku i tehnološki razvoj Vojvodine, grant number 114-451-2056/2011-01

  4. Modulation of the endogenous antioxidants paraoxonase-1 and urate by pesticide exposure and genetic variants of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Antonio F; Gil, Fernando; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gómez-Martin, Antonio; Lozano, David; Pla, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated the association between pesticide exposure in farmworkers and plasma levels of the endogenous antioxidants urate and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) enzyme activities (paraoxonase, arylesterase and diazoxonase, three substrate-specific assays for measuring PON1 function) by using generalized estimating equations (GEEs). Decreases in plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterases (BChE and AChE, respectively) were used as biomarkers of pesticide exposure. We also assessed the contribution of genetic polymorphisms of the pesticide-metabolising enzymes PON1, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and cholinesterase variants (BCHE) on plasma levels of endogenous antioxidants and potential gene-environment interactions. A dual effect was observed on paraoxonase depending on the pattern of pesticide exposure. Thus, exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides was associated with decreased paraoxonase activity and urate levels whereas long-term pesticide exposure showed an association with increased paraoxonase activity. Significant interactions were observed between BChE activity and PON1 regulatory region polymorphisms on arylesterase and diazoxonase activities, and between AChE activity (a biomarker for long-term pesticide exposure) and PON1192RR genotype on arylesterase activity. These findings suggest that pesticide exposure may affect plasma antioxidant potential and that relevant gene-pesticide interactions may play a mechanistic role in oxidative stress-induced diseases following pesticide exposure. Nonetheless, more studies are needed to better characterise these interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils on antioxidant status, hepatic enzymes, and immunity in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigella sativa fixed (NSFO) and essential (NSEO) oils have been used to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications. Present study was undertaken to explore and validate these folkloric uses. Methods Sprague dawley rats having streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus were used to assess the role of NSFO and NSEO in the management of diabetes complications. Parameters investigated were antioxidant potential, oxidative stress, and the immunity by in vivo experiments. Results The results indicated that STZ decreased the glutathione contents (25.72%), while NSFO and NSEO increased the trait significantly (P < 0.05). Experimental diets increased the tocopherol contents (P < 0.01) and enhanced the expression of hepatic enzymes (P < 0.01). Correlation matrix further indicated that antioxidant potential is positively associated (P < 0.05) responsible for the modulation of hepatic enzymes and the decrease of the nitric oxide production thus controlling the diabetes complications. Conclusions Overall, results of present study supported the traditional use of N. sativa and its derived products as a treatment for hyperglycemia and allied abnormalities. Moreover, N. sativa fixed and essential oils significantly ameliorate free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity thus reducing the risk of diabetic complications. PMID:24939518

  6. Total phenolics, antioxidant, antitumor, and enzyme inhibitory activity of Indian medicinal and aromatic plants extracted with different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Nile, Arti Shivraj; Keum, Young-Soo

    2017-05-01

    The phenolic content, antioxidant, antitumor, and enzyme inhibitory activities of commonly used medicinal herbs from a Unani system of medicine were investigated using four different extraction methods. Among the plants studied, the Hyssopus officinalis L, Origanum vulgare L, and Portulaca oleracea L. extracts showed the highest amount of total phenolics (64.40, 60.35, and 58.81 mg GAE/g) and revealed significant antioxidant activities. The plants also showed a maximum cytotoxic activity as indicated by H. officinalis (82%), O. vulgare (75%), and P. oleracea (72%) showed more than 70% cytotoxicity for breast cancer cells, 82% of the cells were dead at the concentration of 500 mg/mL. The plants H. officinalis, P. oleracea, O. vulgare, and Rubia cordifolia L. revealed more than 80% inhibition towards xanthine oxidase and comprising maximum 70% of inhibition for superoxide dismutase. From results we conclude that there is a strong correlation between phenolic content, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory activity among these plants, indicating phenolics are the major compounds for these biological activities. Furthermore, this study provides the basis for the therapeutic importance of studied plants as latent inhibitors of oxidative stress and antitumor cell proliferation which correlate with the ethnobotanical data contained in the Unani system of medicine.

  7. Antioxidant defenses of mycorrhizal fungus infection against SO(2)-induced oxidative stress in Avena nuda seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L L; Yang, C; Zhao, Y; Xu, X; Xu, Q; Li, G Z; Cao, J; Herbert, S J; Hao, L

    2008-11-01

    Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae increased Avena nuda seedling tolerance to SO(2) exposure, as indicated by elevated total plant biomass and ameliorative photosynthetic rate, when compared to the non-mycorrhizal plants. This is associated with an improved antioxidant capacity as shown by enhanced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, increased ascorbic acid and glutathione content, and reduced malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide level in the mycorrhizal plants relative to the non-mycorrhizal plants under SO(2) exposure. The mycorrhizal fungi colonization had no effect on the stomatal conductance. To our knowledge, this is the first finding of this sort.

  8. Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

    2013-04-01

    A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro

  9. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Klingelmann, Eva; Wiegand, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L -1 pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using 14 C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from log P ow . Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. - Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the active ingredient, glyphosate, to Lumbriculus variegatus regarding accumulation potential and enzymatic responses

  10. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial abnormalities and antioxidant defense in Ataxia-telangiectasia, Bloom syndrome and Nijmegen breakage syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Maciejczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rare pleiotropic genetic disorders, Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T, Bloom syndrome (BS and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS are characterised by immunodeficiency, extreme radiosensitivity, higher cancer susceptibility, premature aging, neurodegeneration and insulin resistance. Some of these functional abnormalities can be explained by aberrant DNA damage response and chromosomal instability. It has been suggested that one possible common denominator of these conditions could be chronic oxidative stress caused by endogenous ROS overproduction and impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis. Recent studies indicate new, alternative sources of oxidative stress in A-T, BS and NBS cells, including NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4, oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL or Poly (ADP-ribose polymerases (PARP. Mitochondrial abnormalities such as changes in the ultrastructure and function of mitochondria, excess mROS production as well as mitochondrial damage have also been reported in A-T, BS and NBS cells. A-T, BS and NBS cells are inextricably linked to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and thereby, chronic oxidative stress may be a major phenotypic hallmark in these diseases. Due to the presence of mitochondrial disturbances, A-T, BS and NBS may be considered mitochondrial diseases. Excess activity of antioxidant enzymes and an insufficient amount of low molecular weight antioxidants indicate new pharmacological strategies for patients suffering from the aforementioned diseases. However, at the current stage of research we are unable to ascertain if antioxidants and free radical scavengers can improve the condition or prolong the survival time of A-T, BS and NBS patients. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct experimental studies in a human model.

  11. Comparative effect of benzanthrone and 3-bromobenzanthrone on hepatic xenobiotic metabolism and anti-oxidative defense system in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravindra P; Khanna, Raj; Kaw, Jawahar L; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2003-02-01

    Benzanthrone (BA) and 3-bromobenzanthrone (3-BBA) are important dye intermediates used in the manufacture of various vat and disperse dyes. BA has been implicated as a cause of hepatic malfunctions and dermal lesions in workers. However, not much information on halogenated BAs, especially 3-BBA, is available. Experiments were designed to undertake a comparative safety assessment of both BA and 3-BBA, given orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 10 days to guinea pigs. There was a significant decrease (25%) in body weight with 3-BBA, whereas BA treatment did not cause any change. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transminase were found to be significantly (P<0.05) increased in 3-BBA- as well as in BA-treated animals. 3-BBA and BA led to substantial depletion of ascorbic acid in both liver and adrenal glands. However, depletion of ascorbic acid was more pronounced with 3-BBA (19.2-28.3%) than with BA (13.5-16.6%). 3-BBA and BA treatments caused 80% and 24% depletion of hepatic free sulfydryl content, while lipid peroxidation showed a significant enhancement of 73% and 47%, respectively. BA and 3-BBA caused decreases in cytochrome P-450 content and phase I enzymes particularly ethoxyresorufin- O-deethylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, whereas phase II enzymes (quinone reductase and glutathione- S-transferase) were substantially increased. Activities of bio-antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were significantly increased by 153, 104, 20 and 67% in the 3-BBA-treated group, whereas the degree of increase in these parameters was relatively less in BA-treated group. The data indicate that both BA and 3-BBA can disturb membrane integrity by decreasing endogenous glutathione and ascorbic acid levels with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidative damage. This may in turn lead to impairment of hepatic P-450-dependent monooxygenase, while the changes in

  12. Effect of Allium flavum L. and Allium melanantherum Panč. Extracts on Oxidative DNA Damage and Antioxidative Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić-Ćulafić, Dragana; Nikolić, Biljana; Simin, Nataša; Jasnić, Nebojša; Četojević-Simin, Dragana; Krstić, Maja; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena

    2016-03-01

    Allium flavum L. and Allium melanantherum Panč. are wild growing plants used in traditional diet in Balkan region. While chemical composition and some biological activities of A. flavum have been reported, A. melanantherum, as an endemic in the Balkan Peninsula, has never been comprehensively examined. After chemical characterization of A. melanantherum, we examined the protective effect of methanol extracts of both species against t-butyl hydro-peroxide (t-BOOH)-induced DNA damage and mutagenesis. The bacterial reverse mutation assay was performed on Escherichia coli WP2 oxyR strain. DNA damage was monitored in human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) with alkaline comet assay. Obtained results indicated that extracts reduced t-BOOH-induced DNA damage up to 70 and 72% for A. flavum and A. melanantherum extract, respectively, and showed no effect on t-BOOH-induced mutagenesis. Since the results indicated modulatory effect on cell-mediated antioxidative defense, the effect of extracts on total protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) amounts and activities were monitored. Both extracts increased total protein content, while the increase of enzyme amount and activity was obtained only with A. melanantherum extract and restricted to CAT. The activity of CuZnSOD family was not affected, while SOD1 and SOD2 amounts were significantly decreased, indicating potential involvement of extracellular CuZnSOD. Obtained results strongly support the traditional use of A. flavum and A. melanantherum in nutrition and recommend them for further study.

  13. Effect of Potato virusY on activities of antioxidant and anaplerotic enzymes in Nicotina tabacum L. transgenic plants with the gene for p3 protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubnerová, V.; Janoušková, M.; Synková, Helena; Šubr, Z.; Čeřovská, Noemi; Ryšlavá, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 33, 3-4 (2007), s. 123-140 ISSN 1312-8183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : antioxidant enzymes * NADP-malic enzyme * PEPC Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology www.bio21.bas.bg/ipp/gapbfiles/v-33/07_3-4_123-140.pdf

  14. Effect of a Static Magnetic Fields and Fluoride Ions on the Antioxidant Defense System of Mice Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzeja, Ewa; Synowiec-Wojtarowicz, Agnieszka; Stec, Małgorzata; Glinka, Marek; Gawron, Stanisław; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The results of studies on the biological influence of magnetic fields are controversial and do not provide clear answers regarding their impact on cell functioning. Fluoride compounds are substances that influence free radical processes, which occur when the reactive forms of oxygen are present. It is not known whether static magnetic fields (SMF) cause any changes in fluoride assimilation or activity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the potential relationship between magnetic field exposure to, and the antioxidant system of, fibroblasts cultured with fluoride ions. Three chambers with static magnetic fields of different intensities (0.4, 0.6, and 0.7 T) were used in this work. Fluoride ions were added at a concentration of 0.12 mM, which did not cause the precipitation of calcium or magnesium. The results of this study show that static magnetic fields reduce the oxidative stress caused by fluoride ions and normalize the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). Static magnetic fields modify the energy state of fibroblasts, causing an increase in the ATP concentration and a decrease in the MDA concentration. These results suggest that exposure to fluoride and an SMF improves the tolerance of cells to the oxidative stress induced by fluoride ions. PMID:23873295

  15. Effect of a Static Magnetic Fields and Fluoride Ions on the Antioxidant Defense System of Mice Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pawłowska-Góral

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the biological influence of magnetic fields are controversial and do not provide clear answers regarding their impact on cell functioning. Fluoride compounds are substances that influence free radical processes, which occur when the reactive forms of oxygen are present. It is not known whether static magnetic fields (SMF cause any changes in fluoride assimilation or activity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the potential relationship between magnetic field exposure to, and the antioxidant system of, fibroblasts cultured with fluoride ions. Three chambers with static magnetic fields of different intensities (0.4, 0.6, and 0.7 T were used in this work. Fluoride ions were added at a concentration of 0.12 mM, which did not cause the precipitation of calcium or magnesium. The results of this study show that static magnetic fields reduce the oxidative stress caused by fluoride ions and normalize the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT. Static magnetic fields modify the energy state of fibroblasts, causing an increase in the ATP concentration and a decrease in the MDA concentration. These results suggest that exposure to fluoride and an SMF improves the tolerance of cells to the oxidative stress induced by fluoride ions.

  16. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Riffat A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India); Ahmad, Masood [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India)]. E-mail: smasood_ahmad@lycos.com

    2005-06-15

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 {mu}M, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also

  17. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, Riffat A.; Ahmad, Masood

    2005-01-01

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H 2 O 2 continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 μM, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also showed enhanced

  18. Antioxidant defense system state in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats under the influence of histamine and sodium hypoclorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Bishko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide spectrum of antihistamine drugs in the pharmaceutical market, however all these chemical preparations cause side effects. Therefore, new alternative ways for histamine detoxication are to be found. For this aim in our experiment sodium hypochlorite was used because its solution possesses strong oxidizing properties. The influence of histamine and sodium hypochlorite on the antioxidant defence system state of blood plasma and cardiac muscle in rats has been researched. It was shown, that the investigated factors result in the disruption of the antioxidant system. It was found that histamine injection in concentration of 1 and 8 μg/kg in plasma leads to the increase of superoxi­de dismutase activity during all the experiment. When studying enzymes, that catalyze hydroperoxides and Н2О2 decomposition it was shown that under the influence of histamine in a dose 1 μg/kg, the glutathione peroxidase activity increased on the 1st day of the experiment. However, on the 7th day of the experiment the increase of both glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity was fixed. The deviation in superoxide dismutase function in rats plasma under the action of sodium hypochlorite has been established. The activity of enzymes that decompose Н2О2 and hydroperoxides were inhibi­ted. Under the influence of histamine in the heart tissues we have stated the disturbance of superoxide dismutase work and increase of catalase activity and decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity. The influence of sodium hypochlorite on the myocardium of intact animals as well as joint influence of sodium hypochlorite and histamine result in the increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and lead to the conside­rable decline of activity of glutathione peroxidase.

  19. Citric acid enhanced the antioxidant defense system and chromium uptake by Lemna minor L. grown in hydroponics under Cr stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallah-Ud-Din, Rasham; Farid, Mujahid; Saeed, Rashid; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Tauqeer, Hafiz Muhammad; Bukhari, Syed Asad Hussain

    2017-07-01

    Phytoextraction is a cost-effective and eco-friendly technique for the removal of pollutants, mainly heavy metal(loids) especially from polluted water and metal-contaminated soils. The phytoextraction of heavy metals is, in general, limited due to the low availability of heavy metals in the growth medium. Organic chelators can help to improve the phytoextraction by increasing metal mobility and solubility in the growth medium. The present research was carried out to examine the possibility of citric acid (CA) in improving chromium (Cr) phytoextraction by Lemna minor (duckweed). For this purpose, healthy plants were collected from nearby marsh and grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Initial metal contents of both marsh water and plant were measured along with physico-chemical properties of the marsh water. Different concentrations of Cr and CA were applied in the hydroponics in different combinations after defined intervals. Continuous aeration was supplied and pH maintained at 6.5 ± 0.1. Results showed that increasing concentration of Cr significantly decreased the plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, leaf area, and antioxidant enzyme activities (like catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase). Furthermore, Cr stress increased the Cr concentrations, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde contents in plants. The addition of CA alleviated the Cr-induced toxicity in plants and further enhanced the Cr uptake and its accumulation in L. minor. The addition of CA enhanced the Cr concentration in L. minor by 6.10, 26.5, 20.5, and 20.2% at 0, 10, 100, and 200 μM Cr treatments, respectively, compared to the respective Cr treatments without CA. Overall, the results of the present study showed that CA addition may enhance the Cr accumulation and tolerance in L. minor by enhancing the plant growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  20. Pre-harvest UV-C irradiation triggers VOCs accumulation with alteration of antioxidant enzymes and phytohormones in strawberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqun; Luo, Zisheng; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Rolland, Daniel; Roussel, Dominique

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the biological and physiological effects of pre-harvest ultraviolet (UV)-C treatment on growing plants. However, little is known about the involvement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their response to this treatment. In this study, strawberry plants were exposed to three different doses of UV-C radiation for seven weeks (a low dose: 9.6kJm -2 ; a medium dose: 15kJm -2 ; and a high-dose: 29.4kJm -2 ). Changes in VOC profiles were investigated and an attempt was made to identify factors that may be involved in the regulation of these alterations. Principle compounds analysis revealed that VOC profiles of UV-C treated samples were significantly altered with 26 VOCs being the major contributors to segregation. Among them, 18 fatty acid-derived VOCs accumulated in plants that received high and medium dose of UV-C treatments with higher lipoxygenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. In treated samples, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase was inhibited, resulting in a reduced antioxidant capacity and higher lipid peroxidation. Simultaneously, jasmonic acid level was 74% higher in the high-dose group while abscisic acid content was more than 12% lower in both the medium and high-dose UV-C treated samples. These results indicated that pre-harvest UV-C treatment stimulated the biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived VOCs in strawberry leaf tissue by upregulating the activity of enzymes of the LOX biosynthetic pathway and downregulating antioxidant enzyme activities. It is further suggested that the mechanisms underlying fatty acid-derived VOCs biosynthesis in UV-C treated strawberry leaves are associated with UV-C-induced changes in phytohormone profiles. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant defenses in the preterm lung: role for hypoxia-inducible factors in BPD?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asikainen, Tiina M.; White, Carl W.

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary antioxidants and their therapeutic implications have been extensively studied during past decades. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the key findings of these studies as well as to elaborate on some novel approaches with respect to potential preventive treatments for neonatal chronic lung disease bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Such new ideas include, for example, modification of transcription factors governing the hypoxic response pathways, important in angiogenesis, cell survival, and glycolytic responses. The fundamental strategy behind that approach is that fetal lung normally develops under hypoxic conditions and that this hypoxic, growth-favoring environment is interrupted by a premature birth. Importantly, during fetal lung development, alveolar development appears to be dependent on vascular development. Therefore, enhancement of signaling factors that occur during hypoxic fetal life ('continued fetal life ex utero'), including angiogenic responses, could potentially lead to improved lung growth and thereby alleviate the alveolar and vascular hypoplasia characteristic of BPD

  2. Involvement of Antioxidative Defense System in Rice Seedlings Exposed to Aluminum Toxicity and Phosphorus Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-rong GUO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing in acid soils may suffer both phosphorus (P deficiency and aluminum (Al toxicity. Hydroponic experiments were undertaken to assess the single and combination effects of Al toxicity and low P stress on seedling growth, chlorophyll and proline contents, antioxidative response and lipid peroxidation of two rice genotypes (Yongyou 8 and Xiushui 132 differing in Al tolerance. Al toxicity and P deficiency both inhibited rice seedling growth. The development of toxic symptoms was characterized by reduced chlorophyll content, increased proline and malondialdehyde contents in both roots and leaves, and increased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in roots, but decreased in leaves. The stress condition induced more severe growth inhibition and oxidative stress in Yongyou 8, and Xiushui 132 showed higher tolerance to both Al toxicity and P deficiency. P deficiency aggravated Al toxicity to plant growth and induced more severe lipid peroxidation.

  3. No evidence that carotenoid pigments boost either immune or antioxidant defenses in a songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Rebecca E; Kavazis, Andreas N; Hasselquist, Dennis; Hood, Wendy R; Zhang, Yufeng; Toomey, Matthew B; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2018-02-05

    Dietary carotenoids have been proposed to boost immune system and antioxidant functions in vertebrate animals, but studies aimed at testing these physiological functions of carotenoids have often failed to find support. Here we subject yellow canaries (Serinus canaria), which possess high levels of carotenoids in their tissue, and white recessive canaries, which possess a knockdown mutation that results in very low levels of tissue carotenoids, to oxidative and pathogen challenges. Across diverse measures of physiological performance, we detect no differences between carotenoid-rich yellow and carotenoid-deficient white canaries. These results add further challenge to the assumption that carotenoids are directly involved in supporting physiological function in vertebrate animals. While some dietary carotenoids provide indirect benefits as retinoid precursors, our observations suggest that carotenoids themselves may play little to no direct role in key physiological processes in birds.

  4. Combined effects of temperature and metal exposure on the fatty acid composition of cell membranes, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadhlaoui, Mariem; Couture, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.couture@ete.inrs.ca

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The fatty acid composition of yellow perch muscle at 9 °C was enhanced in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to fish maintained at 28 °C. • The thermal adjustment of muscle phospholipid fatty acid profiles is likely due to modifications of desaturase and elongase activities. • Exposure to Ni and Cd modified muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in a temperature-dependent manner. • The higher fatty polyinsaturation in cold-acclimated fish did not increase their vulnerability to peroxidation. • Lower concentrations of malondialdehyde were measured in warm-acclimated, Ni-exposed fish, suggesting an overcompensation of antioxidant mechanisms that could explain their lower condition. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of temperature and metal contamination (cadmium and nickel) on phospholipid fatty acid composition, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in fish. Yellow perch were acclimated to two different temperatures (9 °C and 28 °C) and exposed either to Cd or Ni (respectively 4 μg/L and 600 μg/L) for seven weeks. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione concentration were measured as indicators of antioxidant capacities, while malondialdehyde concentration was used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Poikilotherms including fish counteract the effects of temperature on phospholipid fatty acid ordering by remodelling their composition to maintain optimal fluidity. Accordingly, in our study, the fatty acid composition of yellow perch muscle at 9 °C was enhanced in monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to fish maintained at 28 °C, in agreement with the theory of homeoviscous adaptation. Using ratios of various fatty acids as surrogates for desaturase and elongase activities, our data suggests that modification of the activity of these enzymes is

  5. Chemoprotective influence of Zanthoxylum sps. on hepatic carcinogen metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes and skin papillomagenesis in murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Paulraj; Banerjeet, Sanjeev; Rao, A Ramesha

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the putative potential of pericarp of dried fruit of Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae Family), a common spice additive in India's west coast cuisines, in protecting against carcinogenesis has been reported. Extract from dried fruit of Zanthoxylum was orally administered to mice at two dose levels: 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. for 14 days. Results reveal bifunctional nature of Zanthoxylum species as deduced from its potential to induce phase-I and phase-II enzyme activities associated with carcinogen activation and detoxification in the liver of mice. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase were found significantly elevated by the treatment. Zanthoxylum was also effective in augmenting the antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase albeit significantly by high dose of the extract (P Zanthoxylum on initiated mouse skin. Results showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence from 68% to 36% (P Zanthoxylum sps.

  6. Plasma Homocysteine Is Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Welders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Hsin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association of vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine with oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in welders. Workers were divided into either the welding exposure group (n=57 or the nonexposure controls (n=42 based on whether they were employed as welders. There were no significant differences in vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine concentration between the welding exposure group and the nonexposure controls. The welding exposure group had significantly higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower erythrocyte glutathione concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities when compared to nonexposure controls. Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate concentration did not correlate with oxidative stress indicators or antioxidant capacities in either group. However, plasma homocysteine significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (TAC (partial rs=-0.34, P<0.05 and erythrocyte SOD activities (partial rs=0.29, P<0.05 after adjusting for potential confounders in the welding exposure group. In the welding exposure group, adequate vitamin B6 status was not associated with oxidative stress or antioxidant capacities. However, elevated plasma homocysteine seemed to be a major contributing factor to antioxidant capacities (TAC and erythrocyte SOD activities in welders.

  7. Oral administration of thymoquinone mitigates the effect of cisplatin on brush border membrane enzymes, energy metabolism and antioxidant system in rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faaiza; Farooqui, Zeba; Abidi, Subuhi; Parwez, Iqbal; Khan, Farah

    2017-10-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent that elicits severe gastrointestinal toxicity. Nigella sativa, a member of family Ranunculaceae, is one of the most revered medicinal plant known for its numerous health benefits. Thymoquinone (TQ), a major bioactive component derived from the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, has been shown to improve gastrointestinal functions in animal models of acute gastric/intestinal injury. In view of this, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of TQ on CP induced toxicity in rat intestine and to elucidate the mechanism underlying these effects. Rats were divided into four groups viz. control, CP, TQ and CP+TQ. Animals in CP+TQ and TQ groups were orally administered TQ (1.5mg/kg bwt) with and without a single intraperitoneal dose of CP (6mg/kg bwt) respectively. The effect of TQ was determined on CP induced alterations in the activities of brush border membrane (BBM), carbohydrate metabolism, and antioxidant defense enzymes in rat intestine. TQ administration significantly mitigated CP induced decline in the specific activities of BBM marker enzymes, both in the mucosal homogenates and in the BBM vesicles (BBMV) prepared from intestinal mucosa. Furthermore, TQ administration restored the redox and metabolic status of intestinal mucosal tissue in CP treated rats. The biochemical results were supported by histopathological findings that showed extensive damage to intestine in CP treated rats and markedly preserved intestinal histoarchitecture in CP and TQ co-treated group. The biochemical and histological data suggest a protective effect of TQ against CP-induced gastrointestinal damage. Thus, TQ may have a potential for clinical application to counteract the accompanying gastrointestinal toxicity in CP chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Augments Arsenic Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Strengthening Antioxidant Defense System and Thiol Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surbhi; Anand, Garima; Singh, Neeraja; Kapoor, Rupam

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) can help plants to tolerate arsenic (As) toxicity. However, plant responses are found to vary with the host plant and the AM fungal species. The present study compares the efficacy of two AM fungi Rhizoglomus intraradices (M1) and Glomus etunicatum (M2) in amelioration of As stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD-2967). Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were subjected to four levels of As (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg As kg-1 soil). Although As additions had variable effects on the percentage of root colonized by the two fungal inoculants, each mycobiont conferred benefits to the host plant. Mycorrhizal plants continued to display better growth than NM plants. Formation of AM helped the host plant to overcome As-induced P deficiency and maintained favorable P:As ratio. Inoculation of AMF had variable effects on the distribution of As in plant tissues. While As translocation factor decreased in low As (25 mg kg-1 soil), it increased under high As (50 and 100 mg As kg-1 soil). Further As translocation to grain was reduced (As grain:shoot ratio) in M plants compared with NM plants. Arsenic-induced oxidative stress (generation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation) in plants reduced significantly by AMF inoculation. The alleviation potential of AM was more evident with increase in severity of As stress. Colonization of AMF resulted in higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase). It increased the concentrations of the antioxidant molecules (carotenoids, proline, and α-tocopherol) than their NM counterparts at high As addition level. Comparatively higher activities of enzymes of glutathione-ascorbate cycle in M plants led to higher ascorbate:dehydroascorbate (AsA:DHA) and glutathione:glutathione disulphide (GSH:GSSG) ratios. Inoculation by AMF also augmented the glyoxalase system by increasing the activities of both glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II enzymes. Mycorrhizal

  9. Modulation of Antioxidant Defense System Is Associated with Combined Drought and Heat Stress Tolerance in Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. Zandalinas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought and high temperatures are two major abiotic stress factors that often occur simultaneously in nature, affecting negatively crop performance and yield. Moreover, these environmental challenges induce oxidative stress in plants through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin are two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with the combination of drought and heat stress. In this work, a direct relationship between an increased antioxidant activity and stress tolerance is reported. According to our results, the ability of Carrizo plants to efficiently coordinate superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, and glutathione reductase (GR activities involved in ROS detoxification along with the maintenance of a favorable GSH/GSSG ratio could be related to their relative tolerance to this stress combination. On the other hand, the increment of SOD activity and the inefficient GR activation along with the lack of CAT and APX activities in Cleopatra plants in response to the combination of drought and heat stress, could contribute to an increased oxidative stress and the higher sensibility of this citrus genotype to this stress combination.

  10. Modulation of Antioxidant Defense System Is Associated with Combined Drought and Heat Stress Tolerance in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Balfagón, Damián; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2017-01-01

    Drought and high temperatures are two major abiotic stress factors that often occur simultaneously in nature, affecting negatively crop performance and yield. Moreover, these environmental challenges induce oxidative stress in plants through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin are two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with the combination of drought and heat stress. In this work, a direct relationship between an increased antioxidant activity and stress tolerance is reported. According to our results, the ability of Carrizo plants to efficiently coordinate superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities involved in ROS detoxification along with the maintenance of a favorable GSH/GSSG ratio could be related to their relative tolerance to this stress combination. On the other hand, the increment of SOD activity and the inefficient GR activation along with the lack of CAT and APX activities in Cleopatra plants in response to the combination of drought and heat stress, could contribute to an increased oxidative stress and the higher sensibility of this citrus genotype to this stress combination.

  11. Vitamins B status and antioxidative defense in patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Che; Liu, Wen-Hu; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2011-10-01

    The impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection upon B vitamins status and antioxidative defense in infected patients was examined. Dietary record and blood levels of B vitamins and oxidative stress-associated biomarkers were determined for 195 healthy controls, 132 HBV, and 114 HCV patients. HBV-infected patients had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA), and lower ghrelin level (p vitamins B(2) and B(6) levels, and HCV infection significantly decreased vitamins B(2,) B(6) and folate levels in RBC and/or plasma (p vitamin B(2) versus serum FFA in HBV patients, RBC vitamins B(2) and B(6) versus HCV RNA and Ishak inflammation score, and plasma vitamin B(6) vs Ishak inflammation score in HCV patients were B vitamins in circulation. In order to avoid other healthy risk, nutrition status should be monitored and limitation or supplementation of certain nutrients might be helpful for HBV- or HCV-infected patients.

  12. Influence of Different Doses of Levofloxacin on Antioxidant Defense Systems and Markers of Renal and Hepatic Dysfunctions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Levofloxacin (LFX is a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used in the treatment of infections such as pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, and sinusitis. The present study assessed the likely toxic effect of LFX on hepatic and renal tissues in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: A: control, B: 5 mg/kg bw LFX (half therapeutic dose, C: 10 mg/kg bw LFX (therapeutic dose, and D: 20 mg/kg bw LFX (double therapeutic dose. After seven days of administration, result indicated significant (P<0.05 increase in plasma ALT, AST, and ALP activities in the treated groups compared to control. Also, there was a significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, and total bilirubin in the treated groups relative to control. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides also increased significantly in the treated groups relative to control. Also, hepatic MDA level increased significantly in all the treated groups. However, hepatic SOD, catalase, and GST activities were significantly reduced in the LFX-treated animals. Moreover, GSH and ascorbic acid levels were significantly decreased in the LFX-treated groups relative to control. In conclusion, three doses of levofloxacin depleted antioxidant defense system and induced oxidative stress and hepatic and renal dysfunctions in rats.

  13. The Dual Role of Nrf2 in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Regulation of Antioxidant Defenses and Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia S. Chambel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a progressive liver disease with ever-growing incidence in the industrialized world. It starts with the simple accumulation of lipids in the hepatocyte and can progress to the more severe nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, which is associated with inflammation, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. There is increasing awareness that reactive oxygen species and electrophiles are implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH. Transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a positive regulator of the expression of a battery of genes involved in the protection against oxidative/electrophilic stress. In rodents, Nrf2 is also known to participate in hepatic fatty acid metabolism, as a negative regulator of genes that promote hepatosteatosis. We review relevant evidence in the literature that these two mechanisms may contribute to the protective role of Nrf2 in the development of hepatic steatosis and in the progression to steatohepatitis, particularly in young animals. We propose that age may be a key to explain contradictory findings in the literature. In summary, Nrf2 mediates the crosstalk between lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense mechanisms in experimental models of NAFLD, and the nutritional or pharmacological induction of Nrf2 represents a promising potential new strategy for its prevention and treatment.

  14. Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordv.) Induced-Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Defenses of Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Bednarski, Waldemar; Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Morkunas, Iwona

    2016-10-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in leaves of one- and two-month-old plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Argenteuil infested by Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) at a varied population size. The pest B. asparagi has been described as the most damaging species feeding on asparagus. Analyses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrated generally higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals with g -values of 2.0045 ± 0.0005 and 2.0026 ± 0.0005 in Asparagus officinalis ( A. officinalis ) leaves after Brachycorynella asparagi ( B. asparagi ) infestation than in the control. Observations of leaves under a confocal microscope showed a post-infestation enhanced generation of the superoxide anion radical (O₂ •- ) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) in comparison to the control. Strong fluctuations in Mn 2+ ion levels detected by EPR spectroscopy versus time were detected in leaves infested by aphids, which may indicate the involvement of these ions in the control of O₂ •- production. An enhanced superoxide dismutase activity is an important element in leaf defense against oxidative stress. Visible symptoms were found in aphid-infested A. officinalis . Damage to leaves of one- and two-month-old A. officinalis plants by the aphid B. asparagi was dependent on the intensity, duration of infestation and plant age.

  15. Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordv.) Induced—Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Defenses of Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Bednarski, Waldemar; Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Morkunas, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in leaves of one- and two-month-old plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Argenteuil infested by Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) at a varied population size. The pest B. asparagi has been described as the most damaging species feeding on asparagus. Analyses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrated generally higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals with g-values of 2.0045 ± 0.0005 and 2.0026 ± 0.0005 in Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) leaves after Brachycorynella asparagi (B. asparagi) infestation than in the control. Observations of leaves under a confocal microscope showed a post-infestation enhanced generation of the superoxide anion radical (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in comparison to the control. Strong fluctuations in Mn2+ ion levels detected by EPR spectroscopy versus time were detected in leaves infested by aphids, which may indicate the involvement of these ions in the control of O2•− production. An enhanced superoxide dismutase activity is an important element in leaf defense against oxidative stress. Visible symptoms were found in aphid-infested A. officinalis. Damage to leaves of one- and two-month-old A. officinalis plants by the aphid B. asparagi was dependent on the intensity, duration of infestation and plant age. PMID:27775613

  16. α-lipoic acid ameliorates n-3 highly-unsaturated fatty acids induced lipid peroxidation via regulating antioxidant defenses in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Chen; Jin, Ai; Sun, Jian; Yang, Zhou; Tian, Jing-Jing; Ji, Hong; Yu, Hai-Bo; Li, Yang; Zhou, Ji-Shu; Du, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Li-Qiao

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the protective effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) on n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs)-induced lipid peroxidation in grass carp. The result indicated that diets with n-3 HUFAs increased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P fatty acid composition of muscle and liver (P < 0.05). Furthermore, LA significantly promoted the activity of antioxidant enzymes in serum, muscle and liver of grass carp (P < 0.05), including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione s-transferase (GST). The further results showed that LA significantly elevated mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes with promoting the mRNA expression of NF-E2-related nuclear factor 2 (Nrf2) and decreasing Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) mRNA level. From the above, these results suggested that LA could attenuate n-3 HUFAs-induced lipid peroxidation, remit the toxicity of the lipid peroxidant, and protect n-3 HUFAs against lipid peroxidation to promote its deposition in fish, likely strengthening the activity of antioxidant enzymes through regulating mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzyme genes via mediating Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effects of Zinc Application on Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum under Salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Askary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of salinity and Zinc sulphate application on growth parameters, nutrient uptake and antioxidant enzyme activity of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum in a factorial experiment in completely randomized design with three replications were evaluated. Factors consisted of four salinity levels (0, 45, 90 and 120 mM NaCl and three Zinc sulphate levels (0, 5, and 10 μM. Results showed that salinity decreased fresh and dry weight of plants, Zn and K contents whereas increased the Na content and antioxidant activity by increasing NaCl level. Also, results showed that ZnSO4 had positive effect on growth parameters, Zn and K concentration and antioxidant activity but reduced Na and P concentration. Zinc treatment especially at 10 μM concentration in tomato under salt conditions increased growth indexes, potassium concentration, percent of Inhibition of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and decreased sodium and phosphorus concentrations. The highest fresh and dry weight of plants and potassium uptake were measured in plants without salt stress with application of 10 μM ZnSO4 and the lowest on these indicator in plants under 120 mM NaCl without ZnSO4 application. Thus, it was concluded that Zinc could be improve performance and yield in tomato plants under salt stress conditions.

  18. Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effects of Enzyme-Extracted Oudemansiella radiata Polysaccharides on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuxiu Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was to examine the antioxidation in vitro and hepatoprotective effects of enzyme-extracted Oudemansiella radiata polysaccharides (En-OPS on alcohol-induced liver damage in mice. The antioxidant activities were determined according to the scavenging effects of En-OPS on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, and the level of reducing power. En-OPS showed hepatoprotective activities on decreasing the serum levels of aspertate aminotransferase (AST, alamine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as hepatic lipid levels of total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerols (TG. En-OPS treatment reversed the acute impairment induced by alcohol consumption, including reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, malondialdehyde (MAD, and lipid peroxide (LPO elevation; and superoxide dismutase (SOD, GSH peroxide (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC impairment. The En-OPS effectively ameliorated alcohol metabolism by activating alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH, and reducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1 levels. Furthermore, the histopathological observations also displayed that En-OPS could alleviate liver damage. These results indicated that En-OPS could be suitable to be an ingredient of preventing alcoholic liver diseases (ALD. In addition, the preliminary structure characteristics of En-OPS were also analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID.

  19. Influence of Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze on Altered Antioxidant Enzyme Profile during Cutaneous Wound Healing in Immunocompromised Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Ara Begum, Shameem; Talukdar, Archana; Datta Roy, Jayanti; Buragohain, Bhaben; Chandra Pathak, Debesh; Kumar Sarma, Dilip; Saikia Bora, Rumi; Gupta, Asheesh

    2012-01-01

    Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amaranthaceae) is a herbaceous plant used against inflammation, cough, and diarrhea in Brazilian popular medicine. In our preliminary study, promising wound healing activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. brasiliana (MEAB) was observed in normal excision and incision wound models. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity along with the antioxidant enzyme profile during cutaneous excision immunocompromised wound after topical application of 5% w/w ointment of MEAB in rats. Immunocompromised state was induced by pretreatment with hydrocortisone (HC) at 40 mg/kg body weight (i.m.) in male rats. Following one-week pretreatment with HC, wounds were created. The vehicle, 5% (w/w) ointment of MEAB, or standard drug (Himax) was applied topically twice daily. Healing potential was evaluated by the rate of wound contraction, estimation of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants like catalase, SOD, GSH, protein, vitamin C, and hydroxyproline content, which was supported by histopathological study on the 8th day following wounding. There was significant increase in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant parameters in the extract-reated group as compared to control group. Histopathological study revealed collagen deposition, fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis, and development of basement membrane in A. brasiliana group. The results of the present investigation revealed significant wound healing activity of MEAB.

  20. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in yeast cells after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, Ji Young; Ryu, Tae Ho; Roh, Chang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Ionizing radiation induces water radiolysis, which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause apoptosis and cell damage. When exposed to ionizing radiation, cells activates ROS scavenging detoxifying enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. SOD scavenges superoxide radicals by catalyzing the conversion of two of these radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The hydrogen peroxide formed by superoxide dismutase and by other processes is scavenged by catalase, a ubiquitous heme protein that catalyzes the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen. Yeast has two catalase and three GPx proteins. The biochemical function of GPx is to reduce lipid-hydroperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and to reduce free hydrogen peroxide to water. N-acetylL-cysteine (NAC) having a thiol, a precursor for glutathione (GSH), is known as one of the antioxidants. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity and alkaline phosphatase. In this study, the role of NAC as an antioxidant and a radioprotector was examined on cell survival, transcriptional level, and protein level. through observing viability of cells, analyzing the gene expression of antioxidant enzyme, measuring the SOD activity and intracellular GSH levels in yeast W303-1A strain The cell viability of haploid S. cerevisiae W303-1A strain was reduced significantly at the low dose (10∼30 Gy). The half-lethal dose of the strain was about 20 Gy. The CFU assay result confirmed that NAC could not rescue the cells from radiation-induced death. When irradiated with 100 Gy, an increase in the transcriptional expression was observed in the antioxicant genes. The expression of these genes decreased by treatment of NAC in irradiated cells. NAC decline SOD activity and intracellular GSH levels. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge

  1. Histamine modulates cell growth, reactive oxygen species production and activity of antioxidant enzymes in human cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, V.; Cricco, G.; Garbarino, G.; Nunez, M.; Martin, G.; Cocca, C.; Bergoc, R.M.; Rivera, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In the present work, the capacity of Histamine (HA) to modulate cell proliferation and ROS production as well as the receptors involved in this response was investigated. Mammary normal (HBL-100) and malignant cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF- 7) was employed. The levels of the free radicals superoxide (O 2 - ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and intracellular HA content were determined by flow cytometry. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined by kinetic spectrophotometric techniques. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the clonogenic assay. Cell lines presented intracellular levels of HA directly correlated with their malignancy. In MDA-MB-231, HA via H 2 R increased cAMP levels (EC 50 0.45 μM) producing in turn a significant inhibition on cell proliferation (p 1 R, stimulated cell growth. H 2 O 2 levels resulted inversely correlated with cell proliferation while O 2 - remained unchanged. Furthermore, HA significantly modified the activity of SOD and CAT. In normal HBL-100, HA modulates cell proliferation but in exactly the opposite range of doses. The effect on cell growth was inversely correlated with H 2 O 2 levels. The present data indicate that histamine can modulate cell proliferation via H 1 R and H 2 R. This effect is exerted in part by the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and ROS production. (author)

  2. Effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in Pacific cod Gadus microcephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Shi, Xuehui; Liu, Yifan; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Sperm motility and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (Gr), and lipid peroxidation (measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were determined after the milt was stored at 4°C for 12 h, cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in 12% propylene glycol (PG), cryopreserved in 12% PG+0.1 mol/L trehalose, or cryopreserved in 12% PG spermatozoa but centrifuged to decant the supernatant prior to cryopreservation (only sperm cells were cryopreserved). After chilled storage or cryopreservation, the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were reduced in sperm cells and increased in seminal plasma in almost all treatments; sperm motility parameters were also decreased. However, the addition of trehalose into the cryoprotectant could significantly improve the postthaw sperm quality as revealed by the sperm average path velocity. This improvement might be attributed to the function of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chilled storage and cryopreservation had significant effects on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod.

  3. Influence of UV radiation on chlorophyll, and antioxidant enzymes of wetland plants in different types of constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Defu; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Guan, Yidong; Gao, Yongxia

    2014-09-01

    A surface- and vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland were designed to study the response of chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes to elevated UV radiation in three types of wetland plants (Canna indica, Phragmites austrail, and Typha augustifolia). Results showed that (1) chlorophyll content of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia in the constructed wetland was significantly lower where UV radiation was increased by 10 and 20 % above ambient solar level than in treatment with ambient solar UV radiation (p UV radiation intensity. (3) The increased rate of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. australis, and T. angustifolia by elevated UV radiation of 10 % was higher in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. The sensitivity of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia to the elevated UV radiation was lower in surface-flow-constructed wetland than in the vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland, which was related to a reduction in UV radiation intensity through the dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter in the water. C. indica had the highest SOD and POD activities, which implied it is more sensitive to enhanced UV radiation. Therefore, different wetland plants had different antioxidant enzymes by elevated UV radiation, which were more sensitive in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland.

  4. The enhancement of antioxidant compounds extracted from Thymus vulgaris using enzymes and the effect of extracting solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Alejandra; Martínez, María Eugenia; Soto, Carmen; Poirrier, Paola; Perez-Correa, Jose R; Vergara-Salinas, Jose R; Zúñiga, María Elvira

    2013-08-15

    We evaluate the total phenolic compounds (TPC) content and the antioxidant activity (AA) of extracts obtained from ground fresh thyme (FT) and depleted thyme (DT), a by-product of the process of essential oil extraction. In addition, enzymatic treatments were evaluated to improve the extraction yields of polyphenolic compounds from thyme. Extractions were performed using several solvents as methanol, ethanol, and water. Enzymes were applied prior to extraction or during the extraction process. The best results were obtained using a mixture of methanol and water, resulting in 2790 and 220 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L of TPC for FT and DT, respectively. A similar result was observed for AA. With regard to enzymatic treatment, application of Grindamyl CA 150 enzyme as a pre-treatment resulted in the production of an extract from DT with 614 mg TE (trolox equivalent)/L of AA, 70% more than the control, and an AA of 621 mg TE/L (74% more than the control sample) was obtained using Grindamyl CA 150 during the extraction process. These results suggest that enzymatic treatment is an interesting alternative for producing antioxidant extracts from DT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA damage in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes exposed to vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Muhammad Adnan; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Yousaf, Balal; Ashraf, Muhammad; Shuanglian, Xiong; Rizwan, Muhammad; Mehmood, Sajid; Tu, Shuxin

    2016-10-01

    The present study was done to elucidate the effects of vanadium (V) on photosynthetic pigments, membrane damage, antioxidant enzymes, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity in the following chickpea genotypes: C-44 (tolerant) and Balkasar (sensitive). Changes in these parameters were strikingly dependent on levels of V, at 60 and 120 mg V L(-1) induced DNA damage in Balkasar only, while photosynthetic pigments and protein were decreased from 15 to 120 mg V L(-1) and membrane was also damaged. It was shown that photosynthetic pigments and protein production declined from 15 to 120 mg V L(-1) and the membrane was also damaged, while DNA damage was not observed at any level of V stress in C-44. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were increased in both genotypes of chickpea against V stress; however, more activities were observed in C-44 than Balkasar. The results suggest that DNA damage in sensitive genotypes can be triggered due to exposure of higher vanadium.

  6. Tissue levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in fish Astyanax bimaculatus from the Una River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Oliveira Batista

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available STRACT This paper seeks to identify the biomarker response to oxidative stress in Astyanax bimaculatus, a freshwater fish, collected from the Una River and its associated water bodies. The fish were collected using fishing nets at three different points on the river basin, namely Fazenda Piloto (FP, Ipiranga (IP and Remédios (RM, during the period from December 2013 to March 2014. Physical and chemical analyses of the water at the sample locations indicate that IP and RM possibly have larger concentration of either natural or anthropic pollutants as compared to FP. FP can therefore be considered as the point less impacted by pollutants than other points. Hepatic activity of antioxidant stress enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, were measured in the specimens. The levels of SOD were reduced at RM while they were elevated in fish collected at IP. The CAT levels for the fish at RM and IP were about 148.9% and 202.4% above the values at FP, respectively. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes could be used as biomarkers to measure oxidative stress caused by pollutants in the Una River Basin.

  7. Attenuation of stress induced memory deficits by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in rats: Role of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, Shaista; Qadeer, Sara; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira

    2017-04-01

    Repeated stress paradigms have been shown to cause devastating alterations on memory functions. Stress is linked with inflammation. Psychological and certain physical stressors could lead to neuroinflammation. Inflammatory process may occur by release of mediators and stimulate the production of prostaglandins through cyclooxygenase (COX). Treatment with COX inhibitors, which restrain prostaglandin production, has enhanced memory in a number of neuroinflammatory states showing a potential function for raised prostaglandins in these memory shortfalls. In the present study, potential therapeutic effects of indomethacin and diclofenac sodium on memory in both unrestraint and restraint rats were observed. Two components, long term memory and short term memory were examined by Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively. The present study also demonstrated the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of antioxidant enzymes along with the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Results of MWM and EPM showed significant effects of drugs in both unrestraint and restraint rats as escape latency and transfer latency, in respective behavioral models were decreased as compared to that of control. This study also showed NSAIDs administration decreased LPO and increased antioxidant enzymes activity and decreased AChE activity in rats exposed to repeated stress. In conclusion this study suggests a therapeutic potential of indomethacin and diclofenac against repeated stress-induced memory deficits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  8. Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes in Hemocytes from Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Exposed to an Elevated Level of Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Xian, Jian-An; Qian, Kun; Wang, An-Li

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the expression level of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in hemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to copper by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the mRNA expression of Cu, Zn-SOD increased to reach a peak at 6 h, then recovered to its normal level at 48 h. CAT expression level was significantly increased at 12 h and reached a peak at 24 h, but recovered to its normal level later. GPx expression level was significantly increased at 6 h and reached the peak at 12 h. GST expression level was significantly induced from 12 to 24 h and then dropped to its normal level at 48 h. These results indicated that antioxidant enzymes were inducible, possibly for removing excessive reactive oxygen species to protect prawn from oxidative stress.

  9. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) and Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) under heavy metal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odjegba, V. J.; Fasidi, I. O.

    2007-01-01

    Whole plants of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were exposed to various concentrations (0,0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM) of 8 heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) hydroponically for 21 days. Spectrometric assays for the total activity of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the leaves were studied. At the end of the experimental period, data referred to metal treated plants were compared to data of untreated ones (control). Heavy metals increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in both species and there was differential inducement among metals. Overall, Zn had the least inducement of antioxidant enzymes in both species while Hg had the highest inducement. The increase in antioxidant enzymes in relation to the control plants was more in E. crassipes than P. stratiotes. The results showed that E. crassipes tolerated higher metal concentrations in a greater number of metals than P. stratiotes. (author)

  10. [Enhancement of endogenous antioxidant defenses: a promising strategy for prevention of skin cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béani, J C

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that ultraviolet radiation (UV) from sunlight is implicated in skin carcinogenesis. So the risks of cutaneous cancer have increased during the last decade due to increase of sun exposure. For a long time, ultraviolet B radiation (UVB: 290-320 nm) have been considered to be the more efficient wavelength in eliciting carcinogenesis in human skin. It is today clear that UVA (320-400 nm), especially UVA1 (340-400 nm) also participate to photo carcinogenesis. One of molecular mechanisms in the biological effects of UV is the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly or through endogenous photosensitization reactions. UVA radiation mainly acts via this production of ROS and the subsequent oxidative stress seems to play a crucial role in the deleterious effects of UVA. Fortunately, the skin possesses a wide range of interlinked antioxidant defence mechanism to protect itself from damage by UV-induced ROS. However, the capacity of these systems is not unlimited; they can be overwhelmed by excessive exposure to UV and then ROS can reach damaging levels. An interesting strategy to provide photoprotection would be to support or enhance one or more of these endogenous systems. In our experiments, we have evaluated the protective effect of glutathion, selenium and zinc, three compounds playing a pivotal role in the cellular defence against oxidative damage. We have irradiated both by UVA1 and UVB culture of human normal skin fibroblasts or of spontaneously immortalised human keratinocyte cell line Hacat. Before irradiation, treated cells were submitted to zinc deprivation by a diffusible zinc chelator, NNN' N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylene diamine (TPEN) or supplied with zinc chloride, thiols (N-acetyl-cysteine; N-acetyl-homocysteine-thiolactone, L2oxothiozolidine-4 carboxylate) selenium as sodium selenite. The cell viability was measured using the adhesion-proliferation method or a tetrazolium colorimetric assay. The damages

  11. Jasmonic Acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA) on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L.) plants subjected to nickel (Ni) stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23, 38.31, and 39.21%, respectively, over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and length of shoot and root of Ni-fed seedlings. Plants supplemented with JA restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein, and total soluble sugar (TSS) by 33.09, 51.26, 22.58, and 49.15%, respectively, under Ni toxicity over the control. Addition of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA) by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA, and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increases by 40.04, 28.22, 48.53, and 56.79%, respectively, over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62, CAT by 15.25, POD by 58.33, and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes, activity of antioxidant enzymes and gene expression.

  12. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Levels of antioxidant enzymes and alkaline protease from pulp and peel of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesen Adel Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: The present study concluded that peel in sunflower are strong radical scavengers and can be considered as good sources of natural antioxidants for medicinal and commercial uses. Further analysis showed that protease activity was a significantly high in the pulp compared to the peel.

  14. Disruption of Nrf2, a key inducer of antioxidant defenses, attenuates ApoE-mediated atherosclerosis in mice.

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    Thomas E Sussan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are two critical factors that drive the formation of plaques in atherosclerosis. Nrf2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that upregulates a battery of antioxidative genes and cytoprotective enzymes that constitute the cellular response to oxidative stress. Our previous studies have shown that disruption of Nrf2 in mice (Nrf2(-/- causes increased susceptibility to pulmonary emphysema, asthma and sepsis due to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Here we have tested the hypothesis that disruption of Nrf2 in mice causes increased atherosclerosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the role of Nrf2 in the development of atherosclerosis, we crossed Nrf2(-/- mice with apoliporotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/- mice. ApoE(-/- and ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice were fed an atherogenic diet for 20 weeks, and plaque area was assessed in the aortas. Surprisingly, ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice exhibited significantly smaller plaque area than ApoE(-/- controls (11.5% vs 29.5%. This decrease in plaque area observed in ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice was associated with a significant decrease in uptake of modified low density lipoproteins (AcLDL by isolated macrophages from ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice. Furthermore, atherosclerotic plaques and isolated macrophages from ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice exhibited decreased expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. CONCLUSIONS: Nrf2 is pro-atherogenic in mice, despite its antioxidative function. The net pro-atherogenic effect of Nrf2 may be mediated via positive regulation of CD36. Our data demonstrates that the potential effects of Nrf2-targeted therapies on cardiovascular disease need to be investigated.

  15. Effects of Heat Acclimation on Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Gene Expression in Orchardgrass under Heat Stress

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    Xin Xin Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the effects of heat acclimation on enzymatic activity, transcription levels, the photosynthesis processes associated with thermostability in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L..The stomatal conductance (Gs, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, and transpiration rates (Tr of both heat-acclimated (HA and non-acclimated (NA plants were drastically reduced during heat treatment [using a 5-day heat stress treatment (38/30 °C ‒ day/night followed by a 3-day recovery under control conditions (25/20 °C ‒ day/night, in order to consolidate the second cycle was permitted]. Water use efficiency increased more steeply in the HA (4.9 times versus the NA (1.8 times plants, and the intercellular CO2 concentration decreased gently in NA (10.9% and HA (25.3% plants after 20 d of treatments compared to 0 days’. Furthermore, heat-acclimated plants were able to maintain significant activity levels of superoxide disumutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, and transcription levels of genes encoding these enzymes; in addition, HA plants displayed lower malondialdehyde content and lower electrolyte leakage than NA plants. These results suggest that maintenance of activity and transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as photosynthesis are associated with variable thermostability in HA and NA plants. This likely occurs through cellular membrane stabilization and improvements in water use efficiency in the photosynthetic process during heat stress. The association between antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, both of which may vary with genetic variation in heat tolerance, is important to further understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to heat tolerance.

  16. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks׳ gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; Gill, Carolyn A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Seed, Paul T; Hesketh, John E; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2-7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks׳ gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both Ppreeclampsia. The modest elevation in copper may contribute to oxidative stress, later in pregnancy, in those women that go on to develop preeclampsia. The lack of evidence to support the hypothesis that functional SNPs influence antioxidant enzyme activity in pregnant women argues against a role for these genes in the etiology of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Peroxidation of lipids and activity of antioxidant enzymes in children with nephritic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader-Wołyńska, I; Zwolińska, D

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate antioxidant status and reliable factors involved in antioxidant protection in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS). 37 children (20 boys, 17 girls) with nephrotic syndrome (NS), aged 2.5-17 (mean 9.5), were included into the study. Erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonylodialdehide (MDA) was estimated using commercial kits produced by Calbiochem and Bioxytech. 1) Decreased mean values of following parameters in children with NS--acute phase comparing to remission phase and the control group: GSH-Px (123.88 +/- 25.02; 187.69 +/- 24.57; 266.49 +/- 21.84 mU/ml; p syndrome.

  18. Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease, with and without Presence of Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić-Balen, Marica; Božikov, Veljko; Bistrović, Dragica; Jandrić, Ivan; Božikov, Jadranka; Romić, Željo; Balen, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The study evaluated antioxidant status in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD), with and without concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). 211 participants were divided into standardized 4 groups: patients with PVD and DM (PVD+DM+), patients with PVD without DM (PVD+DM-), patients without PVD with DM (PVD-DM+) and patients without PVD and DM (PVD-DM-). The diagnosis of PVD was established by Doppler sonography analysis, including determination of the ankle brachial index (...

  19. Impact of osmotic stress on seedling growth observations, membrane characteristics and antioxidant defense system of different wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardees M. Mickky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to find out a straightforward technique for screening the tolerance of ten wheat genotypes to two levels of osmotic stress at early seedling stage. Data revealed that polyethylene glycol-induced drought had general negative effect on seedling morphological characters indicated by plumule and radicle length, number of adventitious roots as well as seedling biomass and water content. Water deficit could also suppress membrane integrity by stimulating lipid peroxidation with marked increase in membrane leakage and subsequent decrease in its stability index. For all the addressed germination parameters and seedling membrane features, the impact of severe drought was more pronounced than that of moderate drought. Simultaneously, moderate stress could activate peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and ascorbic peroxidase of the studied genotypes; but these enzymes were inhibited by severe stress. The activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase was conversely retarded by drought whether at moderate or severe level. More interestingly, a novel function “Stress Impact Index; SII” was introduced to rank the estimated morpho-physiological traits (SIItrait as well as the considered genotypes (SIIgenotype according to their sensitivity to stress. Values of SIItrait implied that germination parameters were generally affected by drought more intensively than membrane characteristics and finally came the antioxidant enzymes with the least degree of suppression when applying stress. Based on the magnitudes of SIIgenotype, Sids 13 seemed to be the most drought-tolerant wheat cultivar while Shandawel 1 could be the most sensitive one at their juvenile growth stage.

  20. Disruption of the Circadian Clock Alters Antioxidative Defense via the SIRT1-BMAL1 Pathway in 6-OHDA-Induced Models of Parkinson’s Disease

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    Yali Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease and is known to involve circadian dysfunction and oxidative stress. Although antioxidative defense is regulated by the molecular circadian clock, few studies have examined their function in PD and their regulation by silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1. We hypothesize that reduced antioxidative activity in models of PD results from dysfunction of the molecular circadian clock via the SIRT1 pathway. We treated rats and SH-SY5Y cells with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA and measured the expression of core circadian clock and associated nuclear receptor genes using real-time quantitative PCR as well as levels of SIRT1, brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1 (BMAL1, and acetylated BMAL1 using Western blotting. We found that 6-OHDA treatment altered the expression patterns of clock and antioxidative molecules in vivo and in vitro. We also detected an increased ratio of acetylated BMAL1:BMAL1 and a decreased level of SIRT1. Furthermore, resveratrol, an activator of SIRT1, decreased the acetylation of BMAL1 and inhibited its binding with CRY1, thereby reversing the impaired antioxidative activity induced by 6-OHDA. These results suggest that a dysfunctional circadian clock contributes to an abnormal antioxidative response in PD via a SIRT1-dependent BMAL1 pathway.

  1. Trichoderma-plant root colonization: escaping early plant defense responses and activation of the antioxidant machinery for saline stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Tohge, Takayuki; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2013-03-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated antioxidative capacity.

  2. Trichoderma-plant root colonization: escaping early plant defense responses and activation of the antioxidant machinery for saline stress tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yariv Brotman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated

  3. Butyrate Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Intestinal Cells and Crohn's Mucosa through Modulation of Antioxidant Defense Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ilaria; Luciani, Alessandro; De Cicco, Paola; Troncone, Edoardo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CrD). High levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) induce the activation of the redox-sensitive nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB), which in turn triggers the inflammatory mediators. Butyrate decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by the lamina propria mononuclear cells in CrD patients via inhibition of NF-κB activation, but how it reduces inflammation is still unclear. We suggest that butyrate controls ROS mediated NF-κB activation and thus mucosal inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa by triggering intracellular antioxidant defense systems. Intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and colonic mucosa from 14 patients with CrD and 12 controls were challenged with or without lipopolysaccaride from Escherichia Coli (EC-LPS) in presence or absence of butyrate for 4 and 24 h. The effects of butyrate on oxidative stress, p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation, p65-NF-κB activation and mucosal inflammation were investigated by real time PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy. Our results suggest that EC-LPS challenge induces a decrease in Gluthation-S-Transferase-alpha (GSTA1/A2) mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity; enhanced levels of ROS induced by EC-LPS challenge mediates p65-NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. Furthermore butyrate treatment was seen to restore GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity and to control NF-κB activation, COX-2, ICAM-1 and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In conclusion, butyrate rescues the redox machinery and controls the intracellular ROS balance thus switching off EC-LPS induced inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. PMID:22412931

  4. Role of garlic oil and selenium as stimulators to some antioxidant defense system in irradiated male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gawish, M.A.; Abdel-Azeem, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    The increased level of lipid peroxide product; malondialdehyde (MDA) in various tissues of irradiated animals, may play a crucial role in damaging effects of exposure to ionizing radiation mediated by reactive free radicals generation. The protective efficiency of oral administration of garlic oil (500 mg/kg b.wt) three times weekly together with a single intraperitoneal injection of selenium (0.5 mg/kg b.wt) weekly for two weeks was examined on some antioxidant defense system as well as ultrastructural study in rats subjected to fractionated doses of gamma radiation up to a dose level of 6 Gy (1.5 Gy day after day). Exposure to gamma radiation induced a significant elevation in the level of malondialdehyde in plasma and liver and non-significant change was observed in superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). Also a significant increase was occurred in hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity. The pretreatment of irradiated rats with garlic oil and selenium caused a significant decrease in elevated level of MDA and a significant increase in the activity of SOD, GSHPx and GSH contents in both blood and liver. Concerning the ultrastructure studies, liver of irradiated rats showed abnormal shape of nucleus and nucleus membrane, swollen mitochondria with ruptured cristae, rupture of endoplasmic reticulum and vaculated cytoplasm, while intestine of irradiated rats exhibited deformed, shortened and abnormal structure of microvilli, accumulation of nuclear chromatin and dilatation of terminal web layer. In group of rats treated with garlic oil and selenium before exposure to gamma radiation, noticeable amelioration in ultrastructure changes of liver and intestine induced by irradiation was observed indicating a beneficial radioprotective role of both garlic oil and selenium

  5. Genetic variability in chronic irradiated plant populations - Polymorphism and activity of antioxidant enzymes in chronic irradiated plant populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Polina Y.; Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The gene pool of natural population is constantly changing in order to provide the greatest fitness at this time. Ability of population to adapt to changing environmental conditions depends on genetic polymorphism of traits which are operates by selection. Chronic stress exposure can change amount or structure intra-population variability. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the relationships between genetic polymorphism and stress factors, such as radiation exposure. This studies my assist in the development of new bio-indication methods. Materials and methods: Studying sites: Bryansk region is the most contaminated region of Russia as a result of Chernobyl accident. The initial activity by {sup 137}Cs on this territory reached 1 MBq/m{sup 2} above surface. Our study conducted in several districts of Bryansk region, which are characterized the most dose rate. Experimental sites similar to climate characteristics, stand of trees is homogeneous, pine trees take up a significant part of phytocenosis. Heavy metals content in soils and cones be within background. Dose rates vary from 0.14 to 130 mGy/year. Object: Pinus sylvestris L.,the dominant tree species in North European and Asian boreal forests. Scots pine has a long maturation period (18-20 month), which means that significant DNA damage may accumulate in the undifferentiated stem cells, even at low doses (or dose rates) during exposure to low concentrations of contaminants Isozyme analysis: We evaluated isozyme polymorphism of three antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutatione reductase and glutatione peroxidase. Analysis of enzymes activities: We chose key enzymes of antioxidant system for this experiment: superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Results and conclusions: We estimated frequency of each allele in reference and experimental populations. based It was showed that frequency of rare alleles increase in chronic irradiated populations, i.e. increase the sampling variance

  6. Poor maternal nutrition leads to alterations in oxidative stress, antioxidant defense capacity, and markers of fibrosis in rat islets: potential underlying mechanisms for development of the diabetic phenotype in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Chen, Jian-Hua; Jones, Richard H; Smith, Noel H; Ozanne, Susan E

    2010-08-01

    Low birth weight is associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in later life. Good evidence indicates that the environment plays an important role in this relationship. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are defined poorly. Islets are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and this condition combined with fibrosis is thought to be instrumental in T2D pathogenesis. Here we use our maternal low-protein (LP) rat model to determine the effect of early diet on oxidative stress and fibrosis in pancreatic islets of male offspring at 3 and 15 mo of age. Islet xanthine oxidase (XO) expression was increased in 15-mo LP offspring, which suggests increased oxidative-stress. Manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (antioxidant enzymes) were reduced significantly in LP offspring, which indicated impairment of oxidative defense. Expression of fibrosis markers collagen I and collagen III also increased in 15-mo LP offspring. Angiotensin II receptor type I (AT(II)R(1)), induced by hyperglycemia and oxidative-stress, was significantly up-regulated in 15-mo LP offspring. Lipid peroxidation was also increased in 15-mo LP animals. We conclude that maternal protein restriction causes age-associated increased oxidative stress, impairment of oxidative defense, and fibrosis. These findings provide mechanisms by which suboptimal early nutrition can lead to T2D development later in life.

  7. Effect of 28-Day Exposure to Fenpropathrin on the Activities of Serum Alanine Transaminase and Liver Antioxidant Enzymes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieradko-Iwanicka Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fenpropathrin (FEN was administered intraperitoneally in doses of 2.38 mg/kg, 5.9 5mg/kg, or 11.9 mg/kg b.w. to mice for 28 consecutive days. FEN did not significantly affect the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT in the sera. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly elevated in the liver after a 28-d exposure to moderate or highest doses of the pesticide. These results demonstrate that the 28-day exposure to FEN leads to an up-regulation of expression of antioxidant enzymes in response to an oxidative stress in mouse liver without causing a significant increase in ALT activity.

  8. [Effect of exogenous lectin on the endogenous lectin and antioxidant enzymes activity and flavonoid content in wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruhova, O D; Mandrovs'ka, N M; Kyrychenko, O V

    2006-01-01

    The presawing treatment of wheat seeds by lectin specific to the plant and its compositions with gapten and nitrogen fixation bacteria on the change in enzyme activity of antioxidant system of plant protection (peroxydase and katalase), endogenous lectin activity and flavonoid content in wheat leaves was studied in vegetation experiments. It is shown, that different biochemical links of protection plant system are activated, i.e. lectin activity in leaves increases 1.3 to 1.5 times, peroxydase activity and katalase activity rises 1.5 times and 5.0 to 8.0 times respectively and flavonoide content in leaves of vegetating plants increases under normal conditions of plant growth at the influence of factors of lectin nature.

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus infection down-regulates antioxidant enzyme expression by triggering deacetylation-proteasomal degradation of Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaravelli, Narayana; Tian, Bing; Ivanciuc, Teodora; Mautemps, Nicholas; Brasier, Allan R; Garofalo, Roberto P; Casola, Antonella

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral acute respiratory tract infections and hospitalizations in children, for which no vaccine or treatment is available. RSV infection in cells, mice, and children leads to rapid generation of reactive oxygen species, which are associated with oxidative stress and lung damage, due to a significant decrease in the expression of airway antioxidant enzymes (AOEs). Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of RSV-induced lung disease, as antioxidants ameliorate clinical disease and inflammation in vivo. The aim of this study is to investigate the unknown mechanism(s) of virus-induced inhibition of AOE expression. RSV infection is shown to induce a progressive reduction in nuclear and total cellular levels of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), resulting in decreased binding to endogenous AOE gene promoters and decreased AOE expression. RSV induces Nrf2 deacetylation and degradation via the proteasome pathway in vitro and in vivo. Histone deacetylase and proteasome inhibitors block Nrf2 degradation and increase Nrf2 binding to AOE endogenous promoters, resulting in increased AOE expression. Known inducers of Nrf2 are able to increase Nrf2 activation and subsequent AOE expression during RSV infection in vitro and in vivo, with significant amelioration of oxidative stress. This is the first study to investigate the mechanism(s) of virus-induced inhibition of AOE expression. RSV-induced inhibition of Nrf2 activation, due to deacetylation and proteasomal degradation, could be targeted for therapeutic intervention aimed to increase airway antioxidant capacity during infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Melatonin improves placental efficiency and birth weight and increases the placental expression of antioxidant enzymes in undernourished pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hans G; Hansell, Jeremy A; Raut, Shruti; Giussani, Dino A

    2009-05-01

    Melatonin participates in circadian, seasonal and reproductive physiology. Melatonin also acts as a potent endogenous antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and upregulating antioxidant pathways. The placenta expresses melatonin receptors and melatonin protects against oxidative damage induced in rat placenta by ischemia-reperfusion. One of the most common complications in pregnancy is a reduction in fetal nutrient delivery, which is known to promote oxidative stress. However, whether melatonin protects placental function and fetal development in undernourished pregnancy is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal treatment with melatonin on placental efficiency, fetal growth, birth weight and protein expression of placental oxidative stress markers in undernourished pregnancy. On day 15 of pregnancy, rats were divided into control and undernourished pregnancy (35% reduction in food intake), with and without melatonin treatment (5 microg/mL drinking water). On day 20 of gestation, fetal biometry was carried out, the placenta was weighed and subsequently analyzed by Western blot for xanthine oxidase, heat shock protein (HSP) 27 and 70, catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1). A separate cohort was allowed to deliver to assess effects on birth weight. Maternal undernutrition led to a fall in placental efficiency, disproportionate intrauterine growth retardation and a reduction in birth weight. Maternal treatment with melatonin in undernourished pregnancy improved placental efficiency and restored birth weight, and it increased the expression of placental Mn-SOD and catalase. The data show that in pregnancy complicated by undernutrition, melatonin may improve placental efficiency and birth weight by upregulating placental antioxidant enzymes.

  11. PINUS cembra L: histo-anatomical features, antioxidant enzyme activities and heavy metal contents of leaves and long shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Cristina; Stănescu, Irina; Cojocaru, Sabina Ioana; Ciobanu, C; Ivănescu, Bianca; Miron, Anca

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the histo-anatomical features of the long shoots and leaves (young and mature) of Pinus cembra L.. The activity of antioxidant enzymatic systems and the content of heavy metals were also evaluated. For the histo-anatomical study, the cross-sections were performed by usual techniques. The activity of antioxidant enzymatic systems (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) was evaluated by spectrophotometric methods. The content of heavy metals was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The cross-section through the long shoots shows many resiniferous canals and a periderm of variable thickness. The leaf has a triangular shape and only two vascular bundles in the inferior and upper levels. The highest level of superoxide dismutase activity (344.90 U/mg protein) was determined in the long shoots collected from a cembran pine in Vatra Dornei, while the highest level of peroxidase activity (7611.11 U/mg protein) was found in the leaves collected in Calimani Mountains. Cd level in all samples was under the quantification limit. Higher levels of Pb were determined in the long shoots (3 μg/g dry weight for the vegetal material collected in Vatra Dornei and 2.86 μg/g dry weight for the vegetal material collected in Calimani Mountains). Pinus cembra L. leaves show specific elements of subgenus Strobus (a triangular shape of the cross section, one single vascular bundle and two resiniferous canals). The results obtained for the superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities corroborated with those obtained for the heavy metal contents indicate that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in the protection of Pinus cembra L. against exogenous stress factors.

  12. Amelioration of cholesterol induced atherosclerosis by normalizing gene expression, cholesterol profile and antioxidant enzymes by Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, have found to be the dreadful diseases worldwide and therapeutic interventions using plant sources have wide therapeutic value. Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves have been used as food and therapeutics. Hence, our study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic as well as anti-atherogenic potential of VU leaves in normalizing atherogenic gene expression, cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme system on cholesterol fed rabbit model. For the study New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and experimental period was three months; group -i - ND [normal diet (40 g feed)], group-ii- ND (normal diet) +EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)], group -iii- ND [normal diet ]+ CFD [cholesterol fed diet (cholesterol 1 % of 40 g feed and cholic acid 0.5 % of 40 g feed)] and group-iv - ND [normal diet] +CFD [cholesterol fed diet ]+EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)]. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the rabbit with cholesterol (1 % of 40 g feed) and cholic acid (0.5 % of 40 g feed). Supplementation of EAVU normalized cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products like thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), antioxidant system and important genes of cardiovascular diseases like interleukin-10 (IL 10), paraoxanase-1 (PON I), interleukin-6 (IL 6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox 2) to near normal level as compared with normal diet. The result obtained showed the antioxidant as well as anti-atherogenic potential of Vigna unguiculata leaves in ameliorating cholesterol induced atherosclerosis, and thus it is good task to include VU leaves in daily diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases especially atherosclerosis.

  13. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions extracted by ultrafiltration of cowpea Vigna unguiculata hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura Campos, Maira R; Chel Guerrero, Luis A; Betancur Ancona, David A

    2010-11-01

    Enzymatic proteolysis of food proteins is used to produce peptide fractions with the potential to act as physiological modulators. Fractionation of these proteins by ultrafiltration results in fractions rich in small peptides with the potential to act as functional food ingredients. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory and antioxidant activities for hydrolysates produced by hydrolyzing Vigna unguiculata protein extract as well as ultrafiltered peptide fractions from these hydrolysates. Alcalase(®), Flavourzyme(®) and pepsin-pancreatin were used to produce extensively hydrolyzed V. unguiculata protein extract. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) differed between the enzymatic systems and ranged from 35.7% to 58.8%. Fractionation increased in vitro biological activities in the peptide fractions, with IC(50) (hydrolysate concentration in µg protein mL(-1) required to produce 50% ACE inhibition) value ranges of 24.3-123 (Alcalase hydrolysate, AH), 0.04-170.6 (Flavourzyme hydrolysate; FH) and 44.7-112 (pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysate, PPH) µg mL(-1), and TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant coefficient) value ranges of 303.2-1457 (AH), 357.4-10 211 (FH) and 267.1-2830.4 (PPH) mmol L(-1) mg(-1) protein. The results indicate the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptides from V. unguiculata proteins by means of a controlled protein hydrolysis using Alcalase(®), Flavourzyme(®) and pepsin-pancreatin. The V. unguiculata protein hydrolysates and their corresponding ultrafiltered peptide fractions might be utilized for physiologically functional foods with antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  14. Dietary selenium and prolonged exercise alter gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in equine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S H; Johnson, S E; Bobel, J M; Warren, L K

    2016-07-01

    Untrained Thoroughbred horses (6 mares and 6 geldings; 11 yr [SE 1] and 565 kg [SE 11]) were used to evaluate antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity in blood and skeletal muscle in response to prolonged exercise after receiving 2 levels of dietary selenium for 36 d: 0.1 (CON; = 6) or 0.3 mg/kg DM (SEL; = 6). Horses were individually fed 1.6% BW coastal bermudagrass hay, 0.4% BW whole oats, and a mineral/vitamin premix containing no Se. Sodium selenite was added to achieve either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM in the total diet. On d 35, horses underwent 2 h of submaximal exercise in a free-stall exerciser. Blood samples were obtained before (d 0) and after 34 d of Se supplementation and on d 35 to 36 immediately after exercise and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Biopsies of the middle gluteal muscle were obtained on d 0, before exercise on d 34, and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Supplementation with Se above the NRC requirement (SEL) increased serum Se ( = 0.011) and muscle thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity ( = 0.051) but had no effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) lysate, or muscle in horses at rest. Serum creatine kinase activity increased ( Serum lipid hydroperoxides were affected by treatment ( = 0.052) and were higher ( = 0.012) in horses receiving CON than SEL immediately following exercise. Muscle expression of was unchanged at 6 h but increased ( = 0.005) 2.8-fold 24 h after exercise, whereas muscle TrxR activity remained unchanged. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in plasma (P < 0.0001) and decreased in RBC lysate ( = 0.010) after prolonged exercise. A Se treatment × time interaction was observed for RBC GPx activity (P = 0.048). Muscle and expression and GPx activity did not change during the 24-h period after exercise. Level of dietary Se had no overall effect on expression of , , , , , , or in muscle following exercise. The impact of prolonged exercise on the activities of antioxidant enzymes

  15. Inducers of resistance and silicon on the activity of defense enzymes in the soybean-Phakopsora pachyrhizi interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Antunes da Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of jasmonic acid (JA, Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (ASM and calcium silicate (a source of soluble silicon, Si, on the potentiation of soybean resistance to Asian soybean rust (ASR. The ASR severity was significantly reduced on plants sprayed with ASM or supplied with Si in comparison to plants sprayed with JA or deionized water. For chitinases (CHI, significant differences in activity between non-inoculated and inoculated plants sprayed with deionized water or with ASM occurred at 72 hours after inoculation (hai, at 24 and 72 hai when sprayed with JA and at 141 hai when supplied with Si. For β-1,3-glucanases (GLU, significant differences in activity between non-inoculated and inoculated plants sprayed with deionized water occurred at 24, 48 and 141 hai, but not until 72 for plants sprayed with ASM. For phenylalanine ammonia-lyases (PAL, significant differences in activity between non-inoculated and inoculated plants occurred only for plants sprayed with ASM at 72 and 141 hai. In conclusion, the ASR symptoms can be mild on plants sprayed with ASM or supplied with Si and that this amelioration likely involved the defense enzymes.

  16. Antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes from goats seropositive to the sheep nose bot fly (Oestrus ovis L., Diptera: Oestridae) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Valadez, C E; Reyes-Becerril, M C; Romero, G M J; Cepeda-Palacios, R; López-Aguilar, D R; Zenteno, T; Ascencio, F

    2011-12-29

    Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) causes an important cosmopolitan parasitosis of the nasal and sinusal cavities of sheep and goats called oestrosis. Our objective was to analyze the participation of erythrocytes in the antioxidant system in goats seropositive to O. ovis infection under field conditions. Fifty female goats naturally exposed to O. ovis infection from Baja California Sur, México, were blood-sampled. Erythrocytic intracellular content was obtained from blood plasma. Oestrosis serodiagnosis was determined by ELISA. Protein, hemoglobin (Hb), superoxide dismutase (SOD), mieloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes were determined in both seropositive and seronegative goats. Overall seroprevalence of O. ovis infection in goats was 56%. Positive significant (P<0.05) associations were observed among systemic IgG level and protein (0.34), hemoglobin (0.43), SOD (0.32), and MPO (0.41) in erythrocytes. Protein and hemoglobin concentrations, as well as SOD and MPO activities in erythrocytes were found significantly higher (P<0.05) in seropositive than in seronegative goats. By contrast, enzymatic activities of CAT and GST and lipid peroxidation values were similar in seropositive and seronegative groups. In conclusion, there was a systemic stimulation of Reactive Oxygen Species which was efficiently scavenged by erythrocytic antioxidant enzymes in goats seropositive to O. ovis infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of the Antihypertensive Drug Enalapril on Oxidative Stress Markers and Antioxidant Enzymes in Kidney of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in hypertension and hypertension induced organ damage. This study examined the effect of enalapril, an antihypertensive drug, on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR and Nω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administered SHR. Male rats were divided into four groups (SHR, SHR+enalapril, SHR+L-NAME, and SHR+enalapril+L-NAME. Enalapril (30 mg kg−1 day−1 was administered from week 4 to week 28 and L-NAME (25 mg kg−1 day−1 was administered from week 16 to week 28 in drinking water. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured during the experimental period. At the end of experimental periods, rats were sacrificed; urine, blood, and kidneys were collected for the assessment of creatinine clearance, total protein, total antioxidant status (TAS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT, as well as histopathological examination. Enalapril treatment significantly enhanced the renal TAS level (P<0.001 and SOD activity (P<0.001, reduced the TBARS levels (P<0.001, and also prevented the renal dysfunction and histopathological changes. The results indicate that, besides its hypotensive and renoprotective effects, enalapril treatment also diminishes oxidative stress in the kidneys of both the SHR and SHR+L-NAME groups.

  18. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium

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    Claudia I. Gamboa-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profi le measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50 % of DPPH radical (i.e. lower IC50. Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14 % of E. camaldulensis and 49 % of L. glaucescens; whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC50 than positive control (captopril. The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.

  19. Synergetic effect of cadmium and ionizing radiation on P53 over expression and antioxidant enzymes in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Maghraby, T.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important environmental and occupational metallic toxicants is cadmium. It causes generic irregularity of proto-oncogenes that leads to carcinogenicity and cytotoxicity in male reproductive tissues. Both ionizing radiation and cadmium generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). When the balance between ROS and antioxidant system is lost, oxidative stress is produced, so, the present investigation was carried out to study the effect of cadmium and ionizing radiation on the expression of tumor suppressor gene P53 and antioxidant enzymes in testis, prostate and liver in vivo rats related to histopathological changes. The results revealed that the ionizing radiation caused increase in the level of P53 expression, activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase (CAT) especially at 24 hours, while there is negative dose dependent relationship between cadmium and P53 expression in testis reverse to prostate. However, in liver, further induction of P53 gene expression by cadmium was not observed. These results revealed the dangerous effects of cadmium and ionizing radiation on human body, especially in male reproductive tissues

  20. Effects of Estrogen Replacement Therapy on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı F. Ceylan-Işık

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause and diabetes are conditions producing free radicals independently from each other. Estrogen replacement therapy which widely used in postmenopausal period has beneficial effects because of its antioxidant property. The study groups were as follows: ovariectomy (n=8, ovariectomy+17-östradiol (n=8, ovariectomy+diabetes (n=10 and ovariectomy+diabetes+17-östradiol (n=8. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg i.p. and the treatment with 17-östradiol (0.1 mg/kg/day was started a week after ovariectomy. After–week long experimental period aortic and uterine tissues were collected