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Sample records for antinuclear antibody screen

  1. [Antinuclear antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiedes, Javier; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are immunoglobulin directed against autologous cell nuclear and cytoplasmic components. Besides the autoimmune ANA there are other ANA that can be detected in circulation, like natural and infectious ANA. Because of its high sensibility, detection of the ANA must be done by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) as screening test and all of those positive samples are convenient to confirm its specificity by ELISA, western blot or other techniques. Positive ANA detected by IIF must be evaluated taking in to account the pattern and titer. The following recommended step is the specificity characterization (reactivity against extractable nuclear antigens [ENA], dsDNA, etc.) which is useful for the diagnosis and follow up of patients with autoimmune diseases, and by such reasoning, its detection must be performed in an orderly and reasonable way using guides or strategies focused to the good use and interpretation of the autoantibodies. The objective of this review is to present a compilation of the literature and our experience in the detection and study of the ANA.

  2. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence and multiplex antinuclear antibody screening in systemic sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmugam, Victoria K.; Swistowski, Donna R.; Saddic, Nicole; Wang, Hong; Steen, Virginia D.

    2011-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence antinuclear antibodies (IIF-ANA) are detected in approximately 90% of scleroderma patients, and the staining pattern correlates with scleroderma-specific antibody subsets. Solid-phase ANA assays that are dependent on multiplex bead technology (MULTIPLEX-ANA) are replacing immunofluorescence in many commercial labs; however, performance of these assays has not been compared to IIF-ANA in scleroderma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a proportion of ...

  3. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood may be due to: Chronic liver disease Collagen vascular disease Drug-induced lupus erythematosus Myositis (inflammatory muscle disease) ... Saunders; 2011:chap 51. Read More Antibody Arthritis Collagen vascular disease Drug-induced lupus erythematosus Liver disease Scleroderma Systemic ...

  4. Systemic sclerosis without antinuclear antibodies or Raynaud's phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneeberger, D.; Tyndall, A.; Walker, U.A.;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess patients with SSc who present without circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP). Methods: 5390 patients who fulfilled the ACR criteria for SSc and were enrolled in the EULAR Scleroderma Trials And Research (EUSTAR) database were screened...

  5. Antinuclear antibodies in scleroderma, mixed connective tissue disease and "primary" Raynaud's phenomenon.

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    Cruz, M; Mejia, G; Lavalle, C; Cortes, J J; Reyes, P A

    1988-03-01

    The diversity of antibodies in patients with scleroderma, mixed connective tissue disease or "primary" Raynaud's phenomenon could be used as a laboratory aid in the clinical diagnosis. In serum samples of 75 patients we screened for antinuclear antibodies (HEp 2 cells), anti DNA, soluble nucleoprotein and extractable nuclear antigens (Sm, rRNP, U1-nRNP, SSA/Ro, SSB/La and Scl-70). Distinctive antinuclear antibodies pattern was identified in each group of patients. This immunologic profile is valuable for clinical diagnosis and the preferential association of certain autoantibodies with some diseases and not with others, suggest an antigen-driven stimulus for its production.

  6. Antinuclear antibody testing: discordance between commercial laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Aryeh M; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Abeles, Micha; Honiden, Shyoko

    2016-07-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test results frequently affect the course of patients' evaluations, diagnosis, and treatment, but different laboratory centers may yield conflicting results. This study investigated the degree of agreement between laboratory results in a group of subjects who had ANA testing performed at two commercial laboratories. This was a chart review study, in which all ANA tests ordered by the authors from one commercial laboratory over a 4-year period were queried. Corresponding patient charts were reviewed, and if ANA testing had also been performed at the second commercial laboratory, subjects were entered into the study. The primary measurement was agreement between paired ANA results, and we performed sensitivity analysis using varying criteria defining agreement (criteria A to criteria D [strictest to most lenient definition of agreement]). Other data captured included relevant data obtained through the course of evaluation (e.g., presenting complaints, exam findings, other laboratory data) and final diagnoses. Of 101 paired ANA tests, there was 18 % agreement according to the strictest criteria and 42 % according to the most lenient. Of the seven subjects with ANA-associated rheumatic disease, none of the paired tests were in agreement according to criteria A (two agreed according to criteria D). Our findings demonstrate poor agreement between paired ANA tests performed at two commercial laboratories. The low level of agreement may have far-reaching clinical implications. Specifically, this finding calls into question the reliability of ANA testing as it is currently performed and suggests that results may in part depend upon the laboratory center to which patients are referred. PMID:27044430

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of ELISA methods as an alternative screening test to indirect immunofluorescence for the detection of antinuclear antibodies. Evaluation of five commercial kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonuttia, Elio; Bassetti, Danila; Piazza, Anna; Visentini, Daniela; Poletto, Monica; Bassetto, Franca; Caciagli, Patrizio; Villalta, Danilo; Tozzoli, Renato; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2004-03-01

    Detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a fundamental laboratory test for diagnosing systemic autoimmune diseases. Currently, the method of choice is indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on a HEp-2 cell substrate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of five commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits for ANA detection and to verify the possibility of using them as an alternative to the IIF method. The study involved 1513 patients, 315 of whom were diagnosed with a systemic autoimmune disease and 1198 in whom an autoimmune disorder was excluded. For all sera, ANA detection was performed via IIF and with five different EIA kits. The results were evaluated in relation to clinical diagnosis and the presence of possible specific autoantibodies (anti-ENA or anti-dsDNA); lastly, they were compared with the results obtained using ANA-IIF as the method of reference. The positive rate of the ANA-IIF test in subjects with systemic autoimmune diseases was 92%, whereas in the five ANA-EIA kits there was broad diversity in terms of response, with positive rates ranging from 74 to 94%. All the EIA kits correctly detected the presence of antibodies (anti-dsDNA, anti-RNP, anti-Ro/SSA) responsible for homogeneous and speckled fluorescence pattern, but at the same time they showed substantial inaccuracy with the nucleolar pattern, with a mean sensitivity of approximately 50% in this case. Instead, there was a large kit-to-kit difference in terms of identification of anti-Scl70 and centromere patterns, for which sensitivities ranged between 45 and 91%, and between 49 and 100%, respectively. The results of the study demonstrate that the commercially available ANA-EIA kits show different levels of sensitivity and specificity. Some of them have a diagnostic accuracy that is comparable and, in some cases, even higher than the IIF method. Consequently, these could be used as an alternative screening test to IIE. However, others do not ensure acceptable

  8. Distinction between antinuclear antibody and P-ANCA.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S. S.; Lawton, J W; Chak, W

    1991-01-01

    To differentiate between perinuclear immunofluorescence staining of antinuclear antibody (ANA) and the perinuclear form of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (P-ANCA), the pattern after formaldehyde vapour fixation of normal human neutrophils was compared with that of standard ethanol fixation. Fifteen out of 17 myeloperoxidase antibody positive sera showed cytoplasmic staining on formaldehyde vapour fixed cells; 30 of the 32 ANA positive samples became negative or gave weak nuclear stainin...

  9. Antinuclear Antibody-Positive Ticlopidine-Induced Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Jo Veldhuyzen van Zanten

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticlopidine hydrochloride has been shown to reduce the risk of first or recurrent stroke in patients who have experienced a transient ischemic attack, reversible ischemic neurological deficit, recurrent stroke or first stroke. Severe liver dysfunction is a contraindication for its use. Increase in liver enzymes has been reported with use of this drug, but jaundice is rare. A case of severe ticlopidine-induced hepatitis that was associated with a marked increase in antinuclear antibody (ANA levels is reported. Physicians prescribing ticlopidine hydrochloride should be aware that a potentially severe acute hepatitis associated with ANA positivity can occur. The drug should be discontinued if signs of liver dysfunction occur.

  10. Clinical utility of antinuclear antibody tests in children

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    Kickingbird Lauren M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antinuclear antibody (ANA tests are frequently used to screen children for chronic inflammatory diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. However, the diagnostic utility of this test is limited because of the large number of healthy children who have low-titer positive tests. We sought to determine the clinical utility of ANA tests in screening children for rheumatic disease and to determine whether there are specific signs or symptoms that enhance the clinical utility of ANA tests in children. Methods We undertook a retrospective analysis of 509 new patient referrals. Charts of patients referred because of results of ANA testing were selected for further analysis. Children with JRA, SLE, and other conditions were compared using demographic data, chief complaints at the time of presentation, and ANA titers. Results One hundred ten patients were referred because of an ANA test interpreted as positive. Ten patients were subsequently diagnosed with SLE. In addition, we identified one patient with mixed connective tissue disease, and an additional child with idiopathic Raynaud's phenomenon. Eighteen children of the children referred for a positive ANA test had juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA. Another 80 children with positive ANA tests were identified, the majority of whom (n = 39, 49% had musculoskeletal pain syndromes. Neither the presence nor the titer of ANA served to distinguish children with JRA from children with other musculoskeletal conditions. Children with JRA were readily identified on the basis of the history and physical examination. Children with SLE were therefore compared with children with positive ANA tests who did not have JRA, designated the "comparison group." Non-urticarial rash was more common in children with SLE than in children without chronic inflammatory disease (p = 0.007. Children with SLE were also older (mean ± sd = 14.2 ± 2.5 years than the comparison group (11.0 ± 3.6 years; p

  11. Leucocyte specific antinuclear antibodies. Preparation and fluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, I A; Evans, D J; Chesterton, C J

    1975-09-11

    Tissue and species specific anti-nuclear sera detectable by immunofluorescence were produced by immunising rabbits with D.N.A.-non-histone protein extract from human leucocytes. This is a potentially valuable method for the morphological study of differentiation.

  12. Pre-treatment antinuclear antibody positivity, therapeutic efficacy and persistence of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis

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    Codreanu Cătălin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA are poor prognostic factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The therapeutic implication of antinuclear antibody (ANA positivity in RA is still debated. The study aims to evaluate ANA positivity as a prognostic factor for the therapeutic response to biologics in RA.

  13. Anti-Nuclear Antibodies in Daily Clinical Practice: Prevalence in Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. Avery

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD, patients are screened for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA. ANA, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF, have a poor specificity. This hampers interpretation of positive results in clinical settings with low pretest probability of SARD. We hypothesized that the utility of positive ANA IIF results increases from primary to tertiary care. We retrospectively determined ANA, anti-ENA, and anti-dsDNA antibody prevalence in patient cohorts from primary (n=1453, secondary (n=1621, and tertiary (n=1168 care settings. Results reveal that from primary care to tertiary care, ANA prevalence increases (6.2, 10.8, and 16.0%, resp.. Moreover, in primary care low titres (70% versus 51% and 52% in secondary and tertiary care, resp. are more frequent and anti-ENA/dsDNA reactivities are less prevalent (21% versus 39% in secondary care. Typically, in tertiary care the prevalence of anti-ENA/dsDNA reactivities (21% is lower than expected. From this descriptive study we conclude that positive ANA IIF results are more prone to false interpretation in clinical settings with low pretest probabilities for SARD, as in primary care. Whether alternative approaches, that is, immunoadsorption of anti-DFS70 antibodies or implementation of anti-ENA screen assays, perform better, needs to be determined.

  14. A Comparison of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Quantification Using Automated Enzyme Immunoassays and Immunofluorescence Assays

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    Renata Baronaite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA have traditionally been evaluated using indirect fluorescence assays (IFA with HEp-2 cells. Quantitative immunoassays (EIA have replaced the use of HEp-2 cells in some laboratories. Here, we evaluated ANA in 400 consecutive and unselected routinely referred patients using IFA and automated EIA techniques. The IFA results generated by two independent laboratories were compared with the EIA results from antibodies against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, from ANA screening, and from tests of the seven included subantigens. The final IFA and EIA results for 386 unique patients were compared. The majority of the results were the same between the two methods (n=325, 84%; however, 8% (n=30 yielded equivocal results (equivocal-negative and equivocal-positive and 8% (n=31 yielded divergent results (positive-negative. The results showed fairly good agreement, with Cohen’s kappa value of 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.14–0.46, which decreased to 0.23 (95% CI = 0.06–0.40 when the results for dsDNA were omitted. The EIA method was less reliable for assessing nuclear and speckled reactivity patterns, whereas the IFA method presented difficulties detecting dsDNA and Ro activity. The automated EIA method was performed in a similar way to the conventional IFA method using HEp-2 cells; thus, automated EIA may be used as a screening test.

  15. Antinuclear antibodies are not increased in the early phase of Borrelia infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiewak, R.W.; Stojek, NM; Chmielewska-Badora, J

    2004-01-01

    In the literature, there are case reports suggesting that Borrelia burgdorferi infection may induce autoimmune diseases dependent on antinuclear antibodies (ANA). The present study was undertaken in order to verify this possibility in a prospective manner. The study group comprised 78 consecutive pa

  16. Correlation of antinuclear antibody immunofluorescence patterns with immune profile using line immunoassay in the Indian scenario

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    Sebastian Wendy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunity status, individual response to disease and types of antibodies produced are well known to vary from person to person, place to place and probably from population to population. A broad spectrum of specific auto antibodies that have so far been associated with specific rheumatic diseases, as noted in Western literature, has been well taken as a reference standard all over the world. There is neither research work nor any data correlating the auto antibodies and their antinuclear antibody (ANA patterns with the immunoprofile in the Indian population to date. Aims: To understand a definite association between ANA patterns and specific antibodies in the serum in the Indian study population and to document similarities / differences with the West. Settings and Design: This prospective and retrospective double blind study was undertaken on the South Indian population referred for ANA testing by Indirect Immunofluorescence method and by immunoline methods. Materials and Methods: Serum samples of patients from a random South Indian population who sought medical help for rheumatic disease were subjected for ANA testing by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF method and line immunoassay during the study period of 27 months. Serum samples were processed in dilution of 1:100 using HEp - 2010 / liver biochip (Monkey (EUROIMMUN AG. The serum samples which were further processed for line immunoassay were treated in 1:100 dilution on nylon strips coated with recombinant and purified antigens as discrete lines with plastic backing (EUROIMMUN AG coated with antigens nRNP / Sm, Sm, SSA, Ro-52, SSB, Scl-70, PM-Scl, PCNA, Jo-1, CENP-B, dsDNA, nucleosomes, histones, ribosomal protein-P, anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA-M2 along with a control band. The analysis was done by comparing the intensity of the reaction with positive control line by image analysis. Results: The antinuclear antibody indirect immunofluorescence (ANA - IIF patterns obtained

  17. Antinuclear antibody and HLA-B27 positive uveitis: combination of two diseases ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch-Driessen, E.H.; Lardy, N.M.; Rothova, A

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Anterior uveitis associated with juvenile chronic arthritis concerns two different clinical entities: firstly, antinuclear antibody (ANA) positive patients who have a chronic anterior uveitis with severe complications and often a poor visual prognosis; secondly, usually HLA-B27 positive children, predominantly boys, with unilateral recurrent anterior uveitis. Three patients are described who had a combination of clinical and laboratory features of both diseases.
METHODS—Retros...

  18. Antinuclear antibodies are not increased in the early phase of Borrelia infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Spiewak, R.W.; Stojek, NM; Chmielewska-Badora, J.

    2004-01-01

    In the literature, there are case reports suggesting that Borrelia burgdorferi infection may induce autoimmune diseases dependent on antinuclear antibodies (ANA). The present study was undertaken in order to verify this possibility in a prospective manner. The study group comprised 78 consecutive patients (51 women and 27 men, median age 41.5 years) referred to our Department for the serologic diagnosis of Borrelia infection. The patients' sera were tested for Borrelia-specific IgM and IgG (R...

  19. Evaluation of antinuclear antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence and line immunoassay methods': four years' data from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Asli Gamze; Afsar, Ilhan; Demirci, Mustafa

    2014-12-01

    The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), directed against intracellular antigens, is a hallmark of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay is among the most commonly used routine methods for ANA detection as the screening test. The objective of the study was to evaluate ANA patterns in a 4-year period retrospectively. All 19 996 serum samples that were sent to the Laboratory of Medical Microbiology of the tertiary Hospital by any hospital department between 1 January 2009 and 1 January 2013 with a request to test for ANA, anti-ENA or both were included in the study. Of these samples, 4375 (21.9%) were ANA-IIF-positive and 15621 (78.1%) were ANA-IIF-negative. The presented ANA-positive samples consisted of 2392 (54.67%) homogenous, 818 (18.70%) speckled, 396 (9.05%) centromere, 242 (5.53%) nucleolar, 213 (4.87%) nuclear dots, 178 (4.07%) cytoplasmic (except for actin and golgi), 24 (0.55%) actin, 9 (0.21%) golgi, 53 (1.21%) nuclear membrane and 50 (1.14%) mixed pattern. Totally 7800 samples were examined by LIA. Of these samples, 3440 were positive and 4307 were negative with IIF and LIA. In addition, 22 samples were detected as IIF-positive but LIA-negative, whereas the rest 31 samples were IIF-negative but LIA-positive. ANA patterns in 22 IIF-positive samples were homogenous (9), speckled (5), golgi (4), cytoplasmic (3) and nucleolar (1). SSA/Ro-52, SSB/La and Scl-70 positivity were detected in 31 IIF-negative/LIA-positive samples by LIA. The present study comes forward with its overall scope, which covers 4-year data obtained in tertiary hospital located in the western part of Turkey.

  20. Pathogenic effects of maternal antinuclear antibodies during pregnancy in women with lupus

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    Rafael Herrera-Esparza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lupus is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects young women of childbearing age. Fertility rates in lupus patients depend on various factors, including disease activity, nephritis, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies; however, after lupus patients become pregnant, different factors may affect the course of pregnancy, such as the production of autoantibodies, pre-existing renal disease, and eclampsia, among others. The placenta is a temporary hemochorial organ that prevents immunological conflict due to exposure to alloantigens at the maternal-fetal interface; placental regulatory T cells play a major role in maternal-fetal tolerance. Typically, significant amounts of maternal IgG class antibodies cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation. This transition depends on the distribution of Fc receptors along the syncytiotrophoblast. The production of antinuclear antibodies (ANA is a hallmark of lupus, and these autoantibodies can form immune complexes that are typically trapped in the placenta during gestation. However, the entry of ANA into the fetal circulation depends on the IgG-ANA concentration and the FcR placental density. Maternal antinuclear antibodies with anti-Ro or anti-La specificity might be pathogenic to the fetus if transfused by the placental pathway and could induce neonatal pathologies, such as neonatal lupus and congenital heart block. Here, we review the experimental and clinical data supporting a pathogenic role for maternal autoantibodies transmitted to the fetus

  1. Detection of antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic children who received thimerosal-containing vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Rivas, Wyatt H

    2004-01-01

    Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder, may involve autoimmune pathogenesis. Since mercury is potentially a risk factor for autoimmunity, we conducted a study of mercury-induced antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic and normal children who had been pre-administered with thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by different immunoassays showed that the serum level of these two autoimmune markers did not significantly differ between autistic and normal children. This finding suggests that the mercury as in thimerosal-containing vaccines is likely not related to autoimmune phenomenon in autism.

  2. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B L

    1985-01-01

    We used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several differe...

  3. Cost-effective detection of non-antidouble-stranded DNA antinuclear antibody specificities in daily clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, PAJM; Bast, EJEG; Derksen, RHWM

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the utility of indirect immunofluorescence for the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA-IIF) and a fully automated test (ELiA Symphony (TM)) that detects antibodies against a mixture of nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens (ENA), to select sera that should be tested for non-an

  4. Review for the generalist: The antinuclear antibody test in children - When to use it and what to do with a positive titer

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer-Hoeck Michaela; Mackinnon Murray J; Malleson Peter N; Spencer Charles H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The antinuclear antibody test (ANA) is a much overused test in pediatrics. The ANA does have a role in serologic testing but it should be a very limited one. It is often ordered as a screening test for rheumatic illnesses in a primary care setting. However, since it has low specificity and sensitivity for most rheumatic and musculoskeletal illnesses in children, it should not be ordered as a screening test for non-specific complaints such as musculoskeletal pain. It should only be us...

  5. Effects of phenytoin on man's immunity. Evaluation of changes in serum immunoglobulins, complement, and antinuclear antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, E J; Gabourel, J D; Davies, G H; Craig, S

    1983-02-01

    To determine the effects of phenytoin on serum immunoglobulins, complement, and antinuclear antibody conversion, a prospective, five-year longitudinal study was undertaken in 118 patients. Three major diagnostic groups were evaluated: 27 patients with idiopathic epilepsy, 50 with secondary epilepsy, and 41 with neuropathic syndromes without epilepsy. In addition, 83 normal volunteers were studied in a similar manner. Evaluations were performed prior to administration of phenytoin and at six-month intervals thereafter. Prior to treatment, patients with idiopathic epilepsy had a higher than expected incidence (13.5 percent, p less than 0.01) of low serum IgA (less than 61 mg/dl). Patients with secondary epilepsy and neuropathic disorders without epilepsy had a greater than expected incidence (9.2 percent, p less than 0.01; and 12 percent, p less than 0.01, respectively) of high serum IgA (greater than 417 mg/dl). Phenytoin treatment was associated with further decreases in serum IgA in patients with idiopathic epilepsy (p = 0.063) and secondary epilepsy (p = 0.008). Total serum IgE concentrations also decreased significantly in all patient categories during treatment with phenytoin. Minor decreases in serum IgG and IgM were noted, but serum IgD and complement remained unaffected. Antinuclear antibodies were observed with essentially the same frequency (10 percent) before and after phenytoin therapy. PMID:6600585

  6. Complement-fixing properties of antinuclear antibodies distinguish drug-induced lupus from systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R L; Teodorescu, M; Beutner, E H; Plunkett, R W

    2004-01-01

    The immunofluorescence antinuclear antibody (ANA) test has been widely used to monitor autoimmune disease, but its value for diagnostic purposes is compromised by low specificity and high prevalence in disease-free individuals. The capacity of autoantibodies to fix serum complement proteins when bound to antigen is an important effector function because this property is associated with acute and chronic inflammatory processes. The current study evaluates the complement-fixing properties of antinuclear antibodies (CANA) in three well-defined and clinically-related patient groups: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), drug-induced lupus (DIL) and drug-induced autoimmunity (DIA). Of 20 patients diagnosed with SLE, 90% displayed complement-fixing ANA while this feature was present in only two of 18 patients with DIL and no patients with DIA without associated disease even though the mean ANA titres were similar among these patient groups. CANA was significantly correlated with anti-Sm activity. Because SLE but not DIL or DIA can be a life-threatening disease associated with complement consumption in vivo, these results demonstrate that measurement of CANA is a diagnostically useful tool and may have immunopathologic implications.

  7. Antinuclear antibodies in rheumatic disease: a proposal for a function-based classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisetsky, D S

    2012-09-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are a diverse group of autoantibodies that bind macromolecular components of the cell nucleus. While some ANAs occur in normal individuals, others are expressed almost exclusively in patients with rheumatic disease and serve as markers for diagnosis and prognosis. Despite the clinical associations of ANAs, the relationship of these antibodies to specific disease manifestations is often unknown because the target antigens are intracellular molecules that are ubiquitously expressed. In systemic lupus erythematosus, the role of ANAs in disease manifestations is better understood, especially for antibodies to DNA and related nucleosomal antigens. These antibodies can promote nephritis by the formation of immune complexes that are deposited in the kidney. In addition, anti-DNA, along with antibodies to RNA-binding proteins such as anti-Sm, can induce non-specific immune abnormalities based on the induction of type interferon 1 by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Despite ANA expression in rheumatic disease, studies in animal models of inflammation and tissue injury indicate that antibodies to certain nuclear molecules such as HMGB1 have protective effects. Together, these considerations suggest a function-based classification of ANAs based on their expression in normal and autoimmune individuals as well as their capacity to induce or attenuate immunological disturbances. This classification provides a framework to elucidate the serological features of rheumatic disease and the often uncertain relationship between ANA expression and disease manifestations.

  8. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases

  9. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B.L.

    1985-09-01

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases.

  10. Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis in patients with antinuclear antibody negative systemic lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Yeon; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Song, Soon Young [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) occurring in association with collagen vascular disease is an unusual combination that presents with intramural gas in the gastrointestinal tract. We report two cases of PCI, one with antinuclear antibody (ANA) negative SLE and the other with dermatomyositis, with a review of the relevant literature.

  11. [Evaluation of a Computer-Aided Microscope System and Its Anti-Nuclear Antibody Test Kit for Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuhide; Saegusa, Jun; Uto, Kenichi; Oyabu, Chinami; Saito, Toshiharu; Sato, Itsuko; Kawano, Seiji; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2016-02-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing is indispensable for diagnosing and understanding clinical conditions of autoimmune diseases. The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is the gold standard for ANA screening, and it can detect more than 100 different antibodies, such as anti-PCNA as well as anti-cytoplasmic antibodies. However, complicated procedures of conventional IFA and visual interpretation require highly skilled laboratory staff. This study evaluates the capability, characteristics, and applicability of the recently developed ANA detection system (EUROPattern Cosmic IFA System, EPA) using HEp20-10 cells and the automated pattern recognition microscope. Findings using EPA and conventional methods were compared in 282 sera obtained from connective tissue disease patients and 250 sera from healthy individuals. The concordance of the positivity rate, antibody titer (within +/- 1 tube difference), and the accurate recognition rate of ANA patterns between the automated EPA method and the microscopic judgement of the EPA image by eye was 98.9, 97.4, and 55.3%, respectively. The EPA method showed concordance of the positivity rate as high as 93.3% and concordance of the antibody titer as high as 94.0% (within +/- 1 titer) compared with the conventional method. Regarding the four typical patterns of ANA (homogeneous, speckled, nucleolar, and centromere), large differences between the EPA and conventional methods were not observed, and the rate of concordance between the final EPA result and the conventional method was from 94.1 to 100%. The positivity rate of ANA using the EPA and conventional methods showed marked agreement among the six connective tissue diseases (SLE, MCTD, SSc, PM/DM, and SS) and healthy individuals. Although the EPA system is not considered a complete system and laboratory staff should verify the results, it is a useful system for routine ANA analysis because it contributes to ANA standardization and an efficient workflow. PMID:27311277

  12. Demystifying the Positive Antinuclear Antibody Test in Children: A Clinical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Martha; Tesher, Melissa S; Wagner-Weiner, Linda

    2015-06-01

    A 15-year-old girl presented with knee pain, associated with a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA). She denied joint swelling or morning stiffness and remained physically active despite the pain. A physical examination was unremarkable except for articular hypermobility. Laboratory results were also unremarkable. Therefore, the positive ANA was determined to be nonspecific, and not concerning. In the evaluation of children with musculoskeletal complaints, unusual rash, or fatigue, an ANA assessment is frequently considered. When is this test most likely to be useful? What is the appropriate follow up for a positive result? Which results are concerning for an autoimmune process? This article reviews the literature to address these practical concerns. Understanding the indications for ordering an ANA, and the correct interpretation of a positive ANA, may reduce unnecessary referrals and costly tests. Moreover, the misperception that a positive ANA indicates a rheumatologic disease can cause significant patient and parental anxiety. PMID:26114367

  13. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome showing elevated levels of antinuclear and anticentromere antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Seisuke; Kasahara, Akinori; Tada, Shoko; Tanaka, Takehiro; Umena, Sachio; Fukatsu, Haruka; Noguchi, Toshio; Matsumura, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 56-year-old female initially visited an otorhinolaryngologist because of an impaired sense of taste in September, 2010 and was referred to our facility in October, 2010. She was diagnosed with Basedow's disease for which she underwent subtotal thyroidectomy in 1984 and arthritis involving multiple joints, primarily affecting her hands. In addition, the anticentromere antibody (ACA) level was markedly high. On physical examination, alopecia as well as hyperpigmentation of the dorsum of the hands and back was observed. Dystrophic changes of the fingernails and a bilateral thumb abduction deformity were observed. Antinuclear antibodies were elevated. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy revealed the mucosa carpeted with strawberry-like polypoid lesions. Histopathological examination of the biopsied specimen of the stomach revealed a corkscrew-like appearance. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS). She admitted to our hospital in November, 2010. Oral prednisolone was administered with success. In July, 2012, her antimitochondrial M2 antibody level was elevated. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first patient with CCS, a history of Basedow's disease, and elevated levels of ACA and antimitochondrial M2 antibody. We consider the present case suggests CCS could be caused by immunological abnormality. PMID:25518819

  14. Antinuclear antibody-negative, drug-induced lupus caused by lisinopril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J D; Valeriano-Marcet, J; Kanik, K S; Vasey, F B

    2001-11-01

    The clinical symptoms of drug-induced lupus (DIL) are similar to those of idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus. The literature indicates that in patients with DIL, sera generally contain antinuclear antibodies (ANAs); however, ANA-negative DIL has been reported. The list of medications implicated as etiologic agents in DIL continues to grow. This list includes two different types of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors--captopril and enalapril. We report the first case of DIL caused by lisinopril. Our patient had negative results on ANA testing and had histone antibodies (IgG anti-[H2A-H2B]-DNA) mirroring the disease course. Antibodies to the (H2A-H2B)-DNA complex are seen in more than 90% of patients with active DIL, excluding those with DIL due to hydralazine. Thus, it is important to recognize the clinical significance of IgG anti-(H2A-H2B)-DNA antibodies and that negative ANA test results do not preclude the diagnosis of DIL.

  15. A case of anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 antibody positive myopathy associated with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shin; Unoda, Ki-Ichi; Nakajima, Hideto; Ikeda, Soichiro; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Kimura, Fumiharu

    2016-08-31

    Myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are associated with myositis. Anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 (NXP-2) antibody was recently identified as a major MSA and was observed mostly in juvenile dermatomyositis. We report the case of a 44-year-old man who presented with myopathy with anti-NXP-2 antibody and large cell carcinoma of the lung. He was hospitalized because of myalgia and edema of limbs. Neurological examination revealed mild proximal-dominant weakness in all four extremities, and laboratory studies showed elevated creatine kinase level (6,432 IU/l). Needle electromyography showed myogenic patterns. MRI of the lower limbs demonstrated inflammatory lesions in the thighs. Biopsied specimen from the left quadriceps femoris muscle showed mild mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate surrounding muscle fibres but no fiber necrosis. He was diagnosed with myopathy based on neurological examinations and clinical symptoms. His chest X-ray and CT showed tumor shadow on the right upper lung field, but CT didn't indicate the findings of interstitial lung disease. This was surgically removed, and a histological diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer was suspected. He was also treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy before and after operation. His symptoms of myopathy promptly remitted with the preoperative chemotherapy. His serum analysis was positive for the anti-NXP-2. Further investigation and experience of MSAs are necessary to evaluate the therapeutic strategy against cancer-associated myopathy/myositis. PMID:27477574

  16. Choosing wisely: Review and commentary on anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzler, Marvin J

    2016-03-01

    Choosing Wisely®: Next Steps in Improving Healthcare Value is an initiative of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation. The driving forces for the Choosing Wisely (CW) campaign include rising and unstainable health care expenditures and evidence that there is lack of fiscal stewardship of health care resources. The American College of Rheumatology and the Canadian Rheumatology Association published their top five Choosing Wisely recommendations, the first of which pertained to antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and ANA subserology testing. Concerns about the wasteful use of these tests prompted an analysis of the expenditures attributable to ANA testing as a proportion of total health care expenditures and based on a financial model was in the range of 0.00125%. It is suggested that if the sole use of ANA testing is to add evidence to support a diagnosis when the pre-test probability is high, then the ANA test has limited clinical value. Accordingly, the goal of ANA testing needs to be reconsidered and expanded beyond an approach to simply confirming a diagnosis with 'intention to treat' to a goal of case finding of 'pre- or early disease' with an 'intent to prevent' disease. This an area where more significant inroads can be made in preventing end organ disease and thereby reducing health care expenditures HCE. One CW recommendation that bears emphasizing is that, with a few possible exceptions, repeat ANA or ANA subserology testing has little clinical value in monitoring disease activity or predicting a flare. PMID:26687321

  17. Biosensor for total antinuclear antibody determination at the point-of-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Robert L; Konstantinov, Konstantin N

    2016-09-15

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are important in diagnosis and follow-up of patients with autoimmune conditions. The current increase in ANA requests is driven by broadening the use of ANA from a test for lupus to a test for diverse autoimmune diseases, but the standard method is protracted, cumbersome and prone to error. We describe an electrochemical method for quantifying total ANA for use as a point-of-care diagnostic aid. In this technology the target autoantigens are derived from a protein/nucleoprotein mixture prepared from an inexpensive source and adsorbed to a porous membrane with high protein binding capacity. Serum is slowly drawn through the membrane comprising the high density autoantigen mixture to induce rapid binding of patient autoantibodies. After rinsing, peroxidase-conjugated anti-IgG is drawn through the membrane followed by rinsing, insertion of an electrode assembly, and addition of the enzyme substrate. Substrate peroxidation is measured by microamperage-level current accompanying electrochemical reduction of the intermediate product. Values are comparable to a standard ANA test but require a total processing time of ~20min. This method has the promise to greatly expand ANA testing in clinical settings for initial patient assessment of autoimmune disease. PMID:27132005

  18. Usefulness of pleural effusion antinuclear antibodies in the diagnosis of lupus pleuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toworakul, C; Kasitanon, N; Sukitawut, W; Wichinun, R; Louthrenoo, W

    2011-10-01

    We performed this study to determine sensitivity and specificity of pleural effusion antinuclear antibodies (ANA) at a titer of ≥1 : 160, and the ratio of pleural effusion to serum ANA of ≥1, to distinguish between pleural fluid from lupus pleuritis and other causes. A prospective study of 54 patients with pleural effusion (12 lupus pleuritis, seven parapneumonic effusion, 26 malignancy-associated pleural effusions, nine transudative effusions) was performed. ANA at a titer of ≥1 : 160 were found in 11 of 12 lupus pleuritis samples, and in four of 42 pleural effusions from non-systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The pleural effusion ANA at a titer of ≥1 : 160 gave a sensitivity of 91.67% for lupus pleuritis, with a specificity of 83.33% when compared with all other pleural effusions, 90.91% when compared with exudative effusion (parapneumonic effusion and malignancy-associated effusion) and 55.56% when compared with the transudative pleural effusion group. Using the ratio of pleural effusion to serum ANA of ≥1, the sensitivity and the specificity decreased to 75.00% and 78.57%, respectively. This study provides further evidence that the pleural effusion ANA at a titer of ≥1 : 160 is a sensitive and specific diagnostic biomarker for lupus pleuritis in patients with lupus. However, pleural effusion ANA can occasionally be found in other conditions.

  19. A Comparison of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Quantification Using Automated Enzyme Immunoassays and Immunofluorescence Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baronaite, Renata; Engelhart, Merete; Mørk Hansen, Troels;

    2014-01-01

    using IFA and automated EIA techniques. The IFA results generated by two independent laboratories were compared with the EIA results from antibodies against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), from ANA screening, and from tests of the seven included subantigens. The final IFA and EIA results for 386 unique...

  20. Antinuclear, Cytoskeletal, Antineuronal Antibodies in the Serum Samples of Children with Tic Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık Görker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available streptococcus infections in the development of tic and obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD is controversial. The autoimmune hypothesis states that during infection, formation of autoantibodies leads to an autoimmune disorder, which in turn results in movement disorders, tic disorders and/or OCD. In order to test this hypothesis, we assayed these antibodies in children and adolescents diagnosed with tic disorders and/or OCD.Material and Methods: Children and adolescents who were diagnosed with either tic disorders or OCD according to DSM-IV criteria (n=28, were compared with healthy controls (n=15 having similar age and gender characteristics. Regardless of a streptococcus infection history, serum samples of all patients and controls underwent antinuclear, cytoskeletal, and antineuronal antibody assay using indirect immunofluorescence.Results: The rates of antinuclear antibody positivity were 21% and 20% in the patient and control groups respectively (p>0.05. Antineuronal antibody was positive in 2 (7% of 28 patients versus in 1 (6% of 15 controls (p>0.05.Conclusion: These results suggest that such antibodies may not be involved in the pathogenesis of tic disorders/OCD.

  1. Evaluation of Anti-Nuclear antibody test results in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevreste Çelikbilek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of this study is to evaluate anti-nuclear antibody (ANA test results obtained between 2009 and 2011. Methods: Of a totally 5068 cases tested for ANA by indirect immunofluorescence method (IIFA, randomly chosen 982 ANA-positive cases were reviewed in terms of gender, level and pattern of fluorescence, anti-dsDNA (anti-double stranded DNA and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA profile. Anti-dsDNA levels and anti-ENA profiles were determined by enzyme linked immune assay (ELISA and immune-blotting (IB, respectively. Results: Sex distribution of ANA positive patients was determined as 756 (77% females and 226 (23% males. Fifty per cent of the cases were from rheumatology department, 20% from gastroenterology and 30% from other units. Fluorescence levels were considered borderline or weak positive in 62.6% of the samples. The most frequent patterns were homogeneous (23%, speckled (22%, homogeneous-speckled (15.5% and nucleolar (13.5%. Anti-dsDNA were studied in 759 ANA positive patients and 66 (8.7% samples were found positive, being 44 of them (68.8% with homogeneous pattern and the rest with speckled, nucleolar, nuclear dots, centromeric or midbody patterns. Totally 131 (31.6% of 414 samples studied for anti-ENA profile were found positive. The first four frequent profiles were SSA (34.4%, SSA-SSB (16.8%, Scl70 (16% and Sm/RNP (9.2%. Conclusion: Our results are similar with the current related literature. It is known that autoantibodies can be detectable before clinical symptoms being apparent, especially in SLE. Therefore, borderline or weak fluorescence levels should also be reported and the patients having them should be followed-up carefully. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(2: 63-68

  2. Analysis of 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus manifesting with negative immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibodies after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L-J; Ding, F; Liu, H-X; Shu, Q; Yu, X; Li, J; Li, X-F

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial characteristics of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) manifesting with negative immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibodies (IFANA) after treatment for the better understanding of negative conversion of IFANA. Demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data of hospitalized SLE patients between March 2006 and May 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifteen cases with negative IFANA were identified in 960 patients. All of the 15 patients were severe, 11 patients manifested with nephritic range proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, 8 patients were complicated with severe infection and all of the patients had been treated with glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant. Anti-ENA antibodies were positive in 4 of 15 patients. Eight patients died after average 1-year follow-up. Collectively, negative IFANA is mainly attributed to nephritic-range proteinuria; and large-dose glucocorticoid, immunosuppressant and severe infection are also important factors for negative IFANA. Antinuclear antibody can be detected in some SLE patients with negative IFANA by changing the detection method and titer. Negative conversion of IFANA often indicates unfavorable prognosis for severe patients.

  3. Gemcitabine-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome mimicking scleroderma renal crisis presenting with Raynaud's phenomenon, positive antinuclear antibodies and hypertensive emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Keisuke; Nobata, Hironobu; Kawai, Hirohisa; Wakamatsu, Ryo; Miura, Naoto; Banno, Shogo; Imai, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman who received gemcitabine for advanced gallbladder cancer developed an impaired renal function, thrombocytopenia, Raynaud's phenomenon, digital ischemic changes, a high antinuclear antibody titer and hypertensive emergency that mimicked a scleroderma renal crisis. A kidney biopsy specimen demonstrated onion-skin lesions in the arterioles and small arteries along with ischemic changes in the glomeruli, compatible with a diagnosis of hypertensive emergency (malignant hypertension). The intravenous administration of a calcium channel blocker, the oral administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker and the transfusion of fresh frozen plasma were effective for treating the thrombocytopenia and progressive kidney dysfunction. Gemcitabine induces hemolytic uremic syndrome with accelerated hypertension and Raynaud's phenomenon, mimicking scleroderma renal crisis.

  4. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the baby is Rh-positive and the mother's antibody status is negative for anti-D, the mother is given additional RhIG. This test also may be used to help diagnose autoimmune-related hemolytic anemia ... when a person produces antibodies against his or her own RBC antigens. This ...

  5. Review for the generalist: The antinuclear antibody test in children - When to use it and what to do with a positive titer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailer-Hoeck Michaela

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The antinuclear antibody test (ANA is a much overused test in pediatrics. The ANA does have a role in serologic testing but it should be a very limited one. It is often ordered as a screening test for rheumatic illnesses in a primary care setting. However, since it has low specificity and sensitivity for most rheumatic and musculoskeletal illnesses in children, it should not be ordered as a screening test for non-specific complaints such as musculoskeletal pain. It should only be used as a diagnostic test for children with probable Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE or Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, (MCTD and other possible overlap-like illnesses. Such children should have developed definite signs and symptoms of a disease before the ANA is ordered. This review presents data supporting these conclusions and a review of the ANA literature in adults and children. By limiting ANA testing, primary care providers can avoid needless venipuncture pain, unnecessary referrals, extra medical expenses, and most importantly, significant parental anxieties. It is best not to do the ANA test in most children but if it ordered and is positive in a low titer (

  6. The effect of TNFalpha blockade on the antinuclear antibody profile in patients with chronic arthritis: biological and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rycke, L; Baeten, D; Kruithof, E; Van den Bosch, F; Veys, E M; De Keyser, F

    2005-01-01

    Since the first proof of efficacy of TNFalpha blockade, both the number of patients treated worldwide and the number of indications for treatment with TNFalpha blockers have grown steadily. Surprisingly, the profound immunomodulation induced by anti-TNFalpha therapy is associated with a relatively low incidence of immune-related complications such as lupus-like syndromes and demyelinating disease. This contrasts sharply with the prominent induction of autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies during TNFalpha blockade. Although this phenomenon has been recognized for several years, the clinical and biological implications are not yet fully understood. In this review, recent studies analysing the effect of TNFalpha blockade (infliximab and etanercept) on the ANA profile in autoimmune arthritis will be discussed. Taken together, these reports indicate that the prominent ANA and anti-dsDNA autoantibody response is 1) not a pure class effect of TNFalpha blockers, 2) independent of the disease background, 3) largely restricted to the induction of short-term IgM anti-dsDNA antibodies, and 4) not associated with other serological or clinically relevant signs of lupus. Nevertheless, a careful follow-up of patients treated with TNFalpha blockers remains mandatory, including monitoring for lupus-like characteristics.

  7. The Use of Poly-L-Lysine as a Capture Agent to Enhance the Detection of Antinuclear Antibodies by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Nancy A; Zhou, Shuxia; Petri, Michelle; Binder, Steven R; Pisetsky, David S

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies to nuclear antigens (antinuclear antibodies or ANAs) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These antibodies bind diverse nuclear antigens that include DNA, histones and non-histone proteins as well as complexes of proteins with DNA and RNA. Because of the frequency of ANA expression in SLE, testing is an important component of clinical evaluation as well as determination of eligibility for clinical trials or utilization of certain therapies. Immunofluorescence assays have been commonly used for this purpose although this approach can be limited by issues of throughput, variability and difficulty in determining positivity. ELISA and multiplex assays are also useful approaches although these assays may give an incomplete picture of antibodies present. To develop a sensitive and quantitative ANA assay, we have explored an ELISA platform in which plates are pre-coated with a positively charged nucleic acid binding polymer (NABP) to increase adherence of antigens containing DNA or RNA. As a source of antigens, we have used supernatants of Jurkat cells undergoing apoptosis in vitro. As results presented show, a poly-L-lysine (PLL) pre-coat significantly enhances detection of antibodies to DNA as well as antigens such as histones, SSA, SSB and RNP. Comparison of the ELISA assay with the PLL pre-coat with a multiplex assay using the BioPlex® 2200 system indicated good agreement in results for a panel of lupus sera. Together, these studies indicate that a pre-coat with a positively charged polymer can increase the sensitivity of an ANA ELISA using as antigens molecules released from dead and dying cells. This assay platform may facilitate ANA testing by providing an ensemble of antigens more similar in composition and structure with antigens present in vivo, with a NABP promoting adherence via charge-charge interactions. PMID:27611194

  8. The effects of affinity-purified anti-DNA antibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus on the fluorescent antinuclear antibody assay using HEp-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kimihiro; Kawamura, Masahide; Mineo, Midori; Shinohara, Tadashi; Kataharada, Koji; Okada, Makoto; Takada, Kunio; Miyawaki, Shoji; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of anti-dsDNA antibodies on the titer and the nuclear staining pattern(s) in a fluorescent antinuclear antibody (FANA) assay using HEp-2 cells. Anti-dsDNA derived from 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was individually affinity-purified. The anti-dsDNA titer of the purified anti-dsDNA solution was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) or by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the FANA assay, the anti-dsDNA solution was diluted in a stepwise manner and its titer was expressed by the endpoint dilution. The nuclear staining pattern in the anti-dsDNA solution was examined at the 1:5 and 1:20 dilutions and at the endpoint dilution. The anti-dsDNA titers of the affinity-purified anti-dsDNA solution were high enough (13 to 126 IU/ml) to be measured by RIA. However, the antinuclear antibody (ANA) titers of this solution were relatively low: 1:20 to 1:320. In the study of nuclear staining the peripheral pattern was observed in nine of the 14 cases at a 1:5 dilution. However, at the endpoint dilution, all cases exhibited the homogeneous pattern. These findings indicate that in the FANA assay using HEp-2 cells, 1) although serum samples show high anti-dsDNA titers by RIA or by ELISA, the antibodies' direct contribution to ANA titers is limited, and 2) when samples reveal a homogeneous staining pattern at the endpoint dilution, this suggests the presence of anti-dsDNA.

  9. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice show increased titers of serum anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuehai [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Huang, Ziyang, E-mail: huangziyang666@126.com [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lu, Huixia [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lin, Huili; Wang, Zhenhua [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Ouyang, Qiufang [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Tang, Mengxiong; Hao, Panpan [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Ni, Jingqin [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Xu, Dongming [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhang, Mingxiang; Zhang, Qunye [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lin, Ling [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); and others

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than C57B6/L mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spleen was greater and splenocyte apoptosis lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of TLR4 was lower in spleen tissue of ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in maintaining the balance of splenocyte apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in antibody production in spleen tissue. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice, atherosclerosis-prone mice, show an autoimmune response, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the pathogenesis in female and male ApoE{sup -/-} mice. The spleens of all ApoE{sup -/-} and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were weighed. The serum IgG level and titers of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody were assayed by ELISA. Apoptosis of spleen tissue was evaluated by TUNEL. TLR4 level in spleen tissue was tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Levels of MyD88, p38, phosphorylated p38 (pp38), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in spleen tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. We also survey the changes of serum autoantibodies, spleen weight, splenocyte apoptosis and the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue in male ApoE{sup -/-} mice after 4 weeks of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, administration. ApoE{sup -/-} mice showed splenomegaly and significantly increased serum level of IgG and titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibody as compared with B6 mice. Splenocyte apoptosis and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue were significantly lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, IRF3, pp38, and Bax differed by sex in ApoE{sup -/-} spleen tissue. The

  10. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice show increased titers of serum anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were higher in ApoE−/− than C57B6/L mice. ► Spleen was greater and splenocyte apoptosis lower in ApoE−/− than B6 mice. ► Level of TLR4 was lower in spleen tissue of ApoE−/− than B6 mice. ► The TLR4 pathway may participate in maintaining the balance of splenocyte apoptosis. ► The TLR4 pathway may participate in antibody production in spleen tissue. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice, atherosclerosis-prone mice, show an autoimmune response, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the pathogenesis in female and male ApoE−/− mice. The spleens of all ApoE−/− and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were weighed. The serum IgG level and titers of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody were assayed by ELISA. Apoptosis of spleen tissue was evaluated by TUNEL. TLR4 level in spleen tissue was tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Levels of MyD88, p38, phosphorylated p38 (pp38), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in spleen tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. We also survey the changes of serum autoantibodies, spleen weight, splenocyte apoptosis and the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue in male ApoE−/− mice after 4 weeks of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, administration. ApoE−/− mice showed splenomegaly and significantly increased serum level of IgG and titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibody as compared with B6 mice. Splenocyte apoptosis and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue were significantly lower in ApoE−/− than B6 mice. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, IRF3, pp38, and Bax differed by sex in ApoE−/− spleen tissue. The down-regulation of TLR4 signal molecules induced by LPS led to decreased expression of Bax and increased serum titers of ANA and anti

  11. Current Concepts and Future Directions for the Assessment of Autoantibodies to Cellular Antigens Referred to as Anti-Nuclear Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mahler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of autoantibodies that target intracellular antigens, commonly termed anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA, is a serological hallmark in the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD. Different methods are available for detection of ANA and all bearing their own advantages and limitations. Most laboratories use the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF assay based on HEp-2 cell substrates. Due to the subjectivity of this diagnostic platform, automated digital reading systems have been developed during the last decade. In addition, solid phase immunoassays using well characterized antigens have gained widespread adoption in high throughput laboratories due to their ease of use and open automation. Despite all the advances in the field of ANA detection and its contribution to the diagnosis of SARD, significant challenges persist. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current status on ANA testing including automated IIF reading systems and solid phase assays and suggests an approach to interpretation of results and discusses meeting the problems of assay standardization and other persistent challenges.

  12. Simultaneous identification of various antinuclear antibodies using an automated multiparameter line immunoassay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Longo, F J; Rodríguez-Mahou, M; Escalona-Monge, M; González, C M; Monteagudo, I; Carreño-Pérez, L

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an automated multiparameter line immunoassay system compared with other techniques for the identification of autoantibodies in rheumatic diseases. We studied sera from 90 patients. Anti-U1RNP, anti-Sm, anti-Ro/SS-A, anti-La/SS-B, anti-Jo 1 and anti-Scl 70 antibodies were identified by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting (IB) using extracts of rabbit thymus and human placenta, and an automated multiparameter line immunoassay system (INNO-LIA ANA UPDATE K-1090) that detects nine different antibodies simultaneously (anti-U1RNP, anti-Sm, anti-Ro/SS-A, anti-La/SS-B, anti-Scl 70, anti-Jo 1, anticentromere, antihistone, and antiribosomal P protein). The line immunoassay system equaled or surpassed the other techniques in the identification of anti-Sm, anti-La/SS-B, anti-Jo 1 and anti-Scl 70 antibodies (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94-100%) and was similarly effective in the case of anti-U1RNP (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 93.9%) and anti-Ro/SS-A (sensitivity 91.4%, specificity 87.2%) antibodies. In addition, this technique detected more 52 and 60 kD anti-Ro/SS-A sera than IB. Nine antibodies can be detected with this method at a cost of 25.38 Euros per serum sample. In five hours, 19 sera can be studied. The approximate cost of detecting these nine antibodies with an automated ELISA system would be 28.93 Euros, which allows 10 sera to be studied in four hours. In conclusion, the automated multiparameter line immunoassay system is a valid method for the detection of autoantibodies in rheumatic diseases. Its most notable advantages are automated simultaneous detection of several autoantibodies in the same serum and its lower cost compared with ELISA techniques.

  13. Anti-nuclear antibodies positive serum from systemic lupus erythematosus patients promotes cardiovascular manifestations and the presence of human antibody in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kelly-Worden

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is characterized by the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs in the serum of patients. These antibodies may cross over into the brain resulting in the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms and result in abnormal pathology in other organs such as the heart and kidneys. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if SLE pathology could be detected in the hearts and brains of rats injected with positive human ANA serum. Materials and Methods: Lewis rats (n = 31 were selected for this study due to documented research already performed with this strain in the investigation of serum sickness, encephalitis and autoimmune related carditis. Rats were injected once a week with either ANA positive or negative control serum or saline. Hearts were examined for initial signs of heart disease including the presence of lipid deposits, vegetation, increased ventricular thickness and a change in heart weight. Brains were examined for the presence of human antibody and necrotic lesions. Animals were observed for outward signs of neuropathy as well. Blood samples were taken in order to determine final circulating concentrations of IgG and monitor histamine levels. Results: Animals injected with ANA were significantly higher for lipid deposits in the heart and an increased ventricular thickness was noted. One animal even displayed Libman-Sacks endocarditis. Brains were positive for the presence of human IgG and diffuse internal lesions occurred in 80% of the ANA positive serum injected animals examined. Blood histamine levels were not significantly different, but actually lower than controls by the end of the experiment. Conclusion: Since human antibodies were detected in the brain, further studies will have to identify which antibody cross reactions are occurring within the brain, examine cell infiltration as well as characterize the antibodies associated with more destructive consequences such as

  14. Pathogenic effects of maternal antinuclear antibodies during pregnancy in women with lupus

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Herrera-Esparza; Juan José Bollain-y-Goytia; Esperanza Avalos-Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Lupus is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects young women of childbearing age. Fertility rates in lupus patients depend on various factors, including disease activity, nephritis, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies; however, after lupus patients become pregnant, different factors may affect the course of pregnancy, such as the production of autoantibodies, pre-existing renal disease, and eclampsia, among others. The placenta is a temporary hemochorial organ that prevents i...

  15. Cytokine-associated neutrophil extracellular traps and antinuclear antibodies in Plasmodium falciparum infected children under six years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Bangmboye B

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Plasmodium falciparum-infected children, the relationships between blood cell histopathology, blood plasma components, development of immunocompetence and disease severity remain poorly understood. Blood from Nigerian children with uncomplicated malaria was analysed to gain insight into these relationships. This investigation presents evidence for circulating neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs and antinuclear IgG antibodies (ANA. The presence of NETs and ANA to double-stranded DNA along with the cytokine profiles found suggests autoimmune mechanisms that could produce pathogenesis in children, but immunoprotection in adults. Methods Peripheral blood smear slides and blood samples obtained from 21 Nigerian children under six years of age, presenting with uncomplicated malaria before and seven days after initiation of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP treatment were analysed. The slides were stained with Giemsa and with DAPI. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF, CRP, and IL-6, select anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-β and IL-10, and ANA were determined by immunoassay. Results The children exhibited circulating NETs with adherent parasites and erythrocytes, elevated ANA levels, a Th2 dominated cytokine profile, and left-shifted leukocyte differential counts. Nonspecific ANA levels were significant in 86% of the children pretreatment and in 100% of the children seven days after SP treatment, but in only 33% of age-matched control samples collected during the season of low parasite transmission. Levels of ANA specific for dsDNA were significant in 81% of the children both pre-treatment and post treatment. Conclusion The results of this investigation suggest that NET formation and ANA to dsDNA may induce pathology in falciparum-infected children, but activate a protective mechanism against falciparum malaria in adults. The significance of in vivo circulating chromatin in NETs and dsDNA ANA as a causative

  16. Prevalence of antinuclear and anti-liver-kidney-microsome type-1 antibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Li; FENG Zhen-ru; LU Hai-ying; LI Wen-gang; YU Min; XU Xiao-yuan

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may induce autoimmune response and autoantibodies can be detected in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. However, the reported positive rate of autoantibodies in CHC patients in China varies considerably. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-liver-kidney-microsome type 1 autoantibodies (anti-LKM-1) in a large cohort of CHC patients, and analyzed the factors related to the presence of the autoantibodies. Methods A total of 360 CHC patients were enrolled in this study. Serum ANA and anti-LKM-1 were detected by indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Clinical analysis was performed to disclose the related factors to autoantibody production. Results The prevalence of ANA and anti-LKM-1 in CHC patients was 12.5% (45/360) and 2.5% (9/360), respectively. Women had a higher prevalence than men (18.9% vs 11.4%, P=0.046). Patients with positive autoantibodies had lower HCV RNA levels (1.2x107 copies/L vs 7.2x107 copies/L, P <0.05). Positive ANA was associated with higher serum globulin (P<0.05). Stratified analysis showed that there were no significant differences in age, HCV genotype, disease course, clinical stage, prevalence of cirrhosis and interferon therapy between autoantibody-positive and-negative subgroups. Conclusion Autoantibodies can be induced in the course of CHC, and some CHC patients can even develop autoimmune hepatitis.

  17. TLR tolerance reduces IFN-alpha production despite plasmacytoid dendritic cell expansion and anti-nuclear antibodies in NZB bicongenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Pau

    Full Text Available Genetic loci on New Zealand Black (NZB chromosomes 1 and 13 play a significant role in the development of lupus-like autoimmune disease. We have previously shown that C57BL/6 (B6 congenic mice with homozygous NZB chromosome 1 (B6.NZBc1 or 13 (B6.NZBc13 intervals develop anti-nuclear antibodies and mild glomerulonephritis (GN, together with increased T and B cell activation. Here, we produced B6.NZBc1c13 bicongenic mice with both intervals, and demonstrate several novel phenotypes including: marked plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cell expansion, and elevated IgA production. Despite these changes, only minor increases in anti-nuclear antibody production were seen, and the severity of GN was reduced as compared to B6.NZBc1 mice. Although bicongenic mice had increased levels of baff and tnf-α mRNA in their spleens, the levels of IFN-α-induced gene expression were reduced. Splenocytes from bicongenic mice also demonstrated reduced secretion of IFN-α following TLR stimulation in vitro. This reduction was not due to inhibition by TNF-α and IL-10, or regulation by other cellular populations. Because pDC in bicongenic mice are chronically exposed to nuclear antigen-containing immune complexes in vivo, we examined whether repeated stimulation of mouse pDC with TLR ligands leads to impaired IFN-α production, a phenomenon termed TLR tolerance. Bone marrow pDC from both B6 and bicongenic mice demonstrated markedly inhibited secretion of IFN-α following repeated stimulation with a TLR9 ligand. Our findings suggest that the expansion of pDC and production of anti-nuclear antibodies need not be associated with increased IFN-α production and severe kidney disease, revealing additional complexity in the regulation of autoimmunity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  18. Identification of specific antinuclear antibodies in dogs using a line immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Hanna D; Lattwein, Erik; Renneker, Stefanie; Lilliehöök, Inger; Rönnelid, Johan; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene

    2015-12-15

    Circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are commonly present in the systemic autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and in other systemic rheumatic diseases, in humans as well as in dogs. The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF)-ANA test is the standard method for detecting ANA. Further testing for specific ANA with immunoblot techniques or ELISAs is routinely performed in humans to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Several specific ANA identified in humans have been identified also in suspected canine SLE but, in contrast to humans, investigation of autoantibodies in canine SLE is mainly restricted to the IIF-ANA test. Our aim was to identify both known and novel specific ANA in dogs and to investigate if different IIF-ANA patterns are associated with different specific ANA in dogs. Sera from 240 dogs with suspicion of autoimmune disease (210 IIF-ANA positive (ANA(pos)) and 30 IIF-ANA negative (ANA(neg))) as well as sera from 27 healthy controls were included. The samples were analysed with a line immunoassay, LIA (Euroline ANA Profile 5, Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) and four different ELISAs (Euroimmun). The ANA(pos) dogs were divided in two groups depending on the type of IIF-ANA pattern. Of the 210 ANA(pos) samples 68 were classified as ANA homogenous (ANA(H)) and 141 as ANA speckled (ANA(S)), one sample was not possible to classify. Dogs in the ANA(H) group had, compared to the other groups, most frequently high levels of anti-double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) and anti-nucleosome ANA. Anti-dsDNA antibodies were confirmed in some dogs with the Crithidia luciliae indirect immunofluorescence test (CLIFT). The frequency of ANA(H) dogs with values above those observed in the healthy group was significantly higher compared to ANA(S) dogs for anti-dsDNA, anti-nucleosome, and anti-histone reactivity. Dogs in the ANA(S) group had, compared to the other groups, most frequently high levels of anti-ribonucleoproteins (RNP) and

  19. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RhMSUS FAQs RhMSUS Designees RhMSUS Volunteer Opportunities Publications & Communications Journals A&R Table of Contents AC&R Table ... by the American College of Rheumatology Committee on Communications and Marketing. This information is provided for general education only. ...

  20. [Laboratory-based evaluation of "INOVA/QUANTA Lite" to determine antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and autoantibodies to double-stranded DNA, SS-A and SS-B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Megumi S; Shingaki, Naohiko; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated QUANTA Lite reagent series (INOVA Diagnostics, CA, USA) to determine antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and autoantibodies to double-stranded (ds) DNA, SS-A and SS-B, in parallel with MESACUP (Medical & Biological Laboratories, Nagoya). Overall agreements between two reagents for qualitative interpretation ranged from 77.5% (ANA) to 99.0%(anti-SS-B antibodies). When we compared to the results by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test on HEp-2 cells, QUANTA Lite ANA demonstrated better sensitivity and specificity; 92.2% versus 76.5% in sensitivity and 92.1% versus 86.8% in specificity. Also, determining anti-chromatin antibodies and IFA test onto Chrithidia luciliae demonstrated greater interpretive correlation to detect anti-ds DNA by QUANTA Lite than by MESACUP. All the discrepant sera to which QUANTA Lite SS-A gave positive interpretations were confirmed to contain the antibodies specific to SS-A 52kDa antigen, which is supplemented to QUANTA Lite capture-probes. With these results, we can conclude that QUANTA Lite has superiorities over MESACUP; (1) to detect a variety of autoantibodies consisting of ANA, (2) to have a better correlation with confirmatory tests to detect anti-ds DNA antibodies, (3)to detect additional autoantibodies specific to SS-A 52kDa antigen, and (4) to have an enough compatibility in determining anti-SS-B antibodies.

  1. Production and Screening of Monoclonal Peptide Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Mortensen, Anne; Schiolborg, Annette; Friis, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Hybridoma technology is a remarkable and indispensable tool for generating high-quality monoclonal antibodies. Hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies not only serve as powerful research and diagnostic reagents, but have also emerged as the most rapidly expanding class of therapeutic biologicals. In this chapter, an overview of hybridoma technology and the laboratory procedures used routinely for hybridoma production and antibody screening are presented, including characterization of peptide antibodies.

  2. Young age of onset is associated with increased prevalence of circulating IgM rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies at presentation in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren

    2004-01-01

    In 200 patients, 143 women and 57 men, with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), age at onset was related to the presence of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in serum at presentation. The patients were stratified into bands of age at onset: 60 years. In women, the prevalences...... of ANA (1:160) were 63.0%, 45.5%, and 31.1% in the respective age bands ( p=0.002), and the prevalences of IgM RF were 85.2%, 72.7% and 66.4%, respectively ( p=0.03). The prevalences of ANA and IgM RF among men were, respectively, 35% and 86% with no association with age at onset. The findings may...... indicate interactive effects between gender and various pathogenetic factors....

  3. Anticuerpos antinucleares, imágenes y características obtenidas por inmunofluorescencia: Importancia de los isotipos IgA, IgM e IgG Antinuclear antibodies, patterns and characteristics obtained by immunofluorescence: The importance of the IgA, IgM and IgG isotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Arcavi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La técnica de elección para el screening de anticuerpos antinucleares (ANA es la inmunofluorescencia indirecta que utiliza como sustrato una línea de células epiteliales de carcinoma de laringe humano (IFI-HEp2, y como antisuero, anti-IgG o anti-Ig totales. Los ANA-IgG son los más importantes para el diagnóstico y monitoreo de las enfermedades del tejido conectivo (ETC, mientras los ANA-IgM son de menor relevancia clínica en estos pacientes. Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los ANA-IgA ya que estos Ac han sido menos investigados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la prevalencia de los diferentes isotipos de inmunoglobulinas de anticuerpos antinucleares en los pacientes con ETC y evaluar la conveniencia de utilizar conjugados monovalentes o polivalentes. Se procesaron 100 sueros de pacientes con diversas ETC empleando IFI-HEp2, en los cuales se detectó 38% de ANA-IgA (títulos ≥ 1:80 y 12% de ANA-IgM (títulos ≤ 1:160. En 29 casos se detectó IgA en ausencia de IgM, en 3 casos IgM en ausencia de IgA. En todos los casos los ANA-IgG estuvieron presentes. En 6 sueros se observó un cambio de imagen con conjugado anti-IgA y en 3 con conjugado anti-IgM. Debido a la alta prevalencia de ANA-IgA detectada por IFI-HEp2, se destaca la conveniencia de utilizar conjugado anti-Ig totales en lugar de anti-IgG, mientras se desconozca la relevancia de los ANA-IgA en el diagnóstico, pronóstico y seguimiento de las enfermedades reumáticas sistémicas.The indirect immunofluorescence with epitelial cell line from human laryngeal carcinoma as substrate (IIF-HEp2 and anti-IgG or anti-total Ig as antisera, is the technique currently used for the detection of antinuclear antibodies. The most important antibodies for the diagnosis and follow-up of connective tissue diseases (CTD are the IgG-ANA, while the IgM-ANA have no clinical relevance. However the IgA-ANA have not been thoroughly investigated so far. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence

  4. Comparative evaluations of the detection of antinuclear antibodies by means of various immunofluorescence techniques and by means of a radioimmunoassay under particular consideration of disseminated Lupus erythematodus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a group of 146 test persons (in 50 cases desseminated lupus erythematodus had been confirmed), for the first time comparative evaluations were made with four methods (A to D) under the application of a repurified fluorescinisothiocyanat FITC) serum, in order to detect antinuclear antibodies (ANA). The ANA detection was obtained by immunofluorescence (IFL) on frozen sections of mouse livers; by IFL on chicken erythrocytes smears, previously treated with hydrochloric acid; by IFL on ethanol-fixed flagellates Crithidia luciliae; and by the radioimmunoassay (RIA) of a test kit with reference sera. These two tests served to detect antibodies - with respect to negative DNA - which are of particular importance in lupous nephritis. A good correlation of both methods was proved by means of various statistic methods and by follow-up observations and examinations of the reference sera. Possible reasons responsible for the deviations, which were found between the two tests, are described. Of all 4 tests, RIA and IFL on Crithida resulted to be the most closely ones to the relevant laboratory values and reflect very evidently the activity of the desseminated lupus erethematodus. The particularly well correlation with the blood sedimentation rate, proteinuria and with the complement level becomes very obvious. The advantages and disadvantages of the applied methods are discussed and it is emphasized that at present the method of choice for the detection of DNA antibodies is the combined examination of the patient serum, both, in the IFL on Crithidia and in the RIA. (orig./MG)

  5. 间接免疫荧光法筛查抗核抗体与特异性抗体检测的相互关系%Relationship between Anti-nuclear Antibodies and the Detection of Specific Anti-nuclear Antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡朝军; 李俊; 张道强; 张蜀澜; 李丽君; 董晓娟; 张奉春; 李永哲

    2011-01-01

    时导致的AID患者漏诊.%Objective To analyze the correlation between the antin-uclear antibody (ANA) results of large samples by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) screening and specific anti-nuclear antibodies test and study the clinical significance of them and clarify whether they could replace each other in clinical practice.Methods 2 026 cases of consecutive clinical samples for ANA testing were tested by IIP with Hep-2 and line immunoassay (LIA) for the detection of specific ANA antibodies. All the samples were divided into autoimmune diseases ( AID) group, suspected AID group and non-AID group. The relationship between different test results and their clinical significance were analyzed. Results Of the 2 026 cases of specimens, 882 cases (43.53%) were IIF-ANAVLIA-ANAs+ , 266 cases (13. 13%) were IIF-ANAV LIA-ANAs ~ , 507 cases (25.02%) were IIF-ANA" /LIA-ANAs" and 206 cases (10. 17%) were IIF-ANA ~ /LIA-ANAs+. The overall compliance rate of IIF-ANA and LIA-ANA was 68. 56% , the consistency rate was moderate (K=0. All, P <0. 01), and there was significant difference between the results of IIF-ANA and UA-ANA {x2 = 416.21, P < 0.01). The positive rates of anti-Ro-52, anti-SS-A (Sjogren' s syndrome antigen A) , anti-dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) , anti-AMA-M2 (Anti-mitochondrial antibody M2) , anti-Sm (Smith antigen), anti-SS-B (Sjogren's syndrome antigen B), anti-nRNP/Sm (nuclear ribonucleoprotein/Smith antigen) and anti-Jo-1 (Jo-1 antigen) antibodies ranged from 6. 00% to 34.94% in the IIF-ANA"/LIA-ANAs+/1 group. Of the 312 cases of this group, 37. 18% patients (116 cases) were diagnosed as AID, higher than the non-AID group (22. 11 % ) (x2 = 16.97, P < 0. 01). Of the 325 cases of IIF-ANA+ /LIA-ANAs '' * group, 48. 0% of patients (156 cases ) were diagnosed as AID, higher than the non-AID group (22. 15% ) , and the proportion of patients with AID was higher than non-AID in each group of patients with IIF-ANA liter 1:80, 1:160-1 =320 and 2* 1:640 (x2 = 26.96, 7. 89, 19. 42, P < 0.01). Conclusions It

  6. Update on Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies, anti-nuclear associated anti-neutrophil antibodies and antibodies to exocrine pancreas detected by indirect immunofluorescence as biomarkers in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases: Results of a multicenter study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Desplat-Jégo; JC Grimaud; M Veyrac; P Chamouard; RL Humbel; C Johanet; A Escande; J Goetz; N Fabien; N Olsson; E Ballot; J Sarles; JJ Baudon

    2007-01-01

    AIM:Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), anti-nuclear associated anti-neutrophil antibodies (NANA) and antibodies to exocrine pancreas (PAB), are serological tools for discriminating Crohn's disease (CrD) and ulcerative colitis (DC). Like CrD, coeliac disease (CoD) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with (auto) antibodies. Performing a multicenter study we primarily aimed to determine the performance of ASCA, NANA and PAB tests for IBD diagnosis in children and adults, and secondarily to evaluate the prevalence of these markers in CoD.METHODS: Sera of 109 patients with CrD, 78 with UC, 45 with CoD and 50 healthy blood donors were retrospectively included. ASCA, NANA and PAB were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF).RESULTS: ASCA+/NANA- profile displayed a positive predictive value of 94.2% for CrD. Detection of ASCA was correlated with a more severe clinical profile of CrD and treatment of the disease did not influence their serum levels. ASCA positivity was found in 37.9% of active CoD.PAB were found in 36.7% CrD and 13.3% CoD patients and were not correlated with clinical features of CrD, except with an early onset of the disease. Fifteen CrD patients were ASCA negative and PAB positive.CONCLUSION: ASCA and PAB detected by IIF are specific markers for CrD although their presence does not rule out a possible active CoD. The combination of ASCA, NANA and PAB tests improves the sensitivity of immunological markers for CrD. Repeating ASCA, NANA, and PAB testing during the course of CrD has no clinical value.

  7. Antinuclear and third world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this book is about antinuclear, which describes nuclear and nuclear war, the lesson out of history, an idea of neutron bomb and antinuclear through life and thoughts. The second part of this book includes the relationship between human and antinuclear, threat of nuclear, third world and popular literature, for conversion of Japan, an atomic experience and literature and experience and testimony in Nagasaki.

  8. Evaluation on the detection of anti-nuclear antibody and anti-soluble nuclearantigen antibody for the diagnosis of autoimmune disease%ANA和ENA检测在自身免疫性疾病中的应用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆慧琦; 李畅; 叶伟民; 杨洁; 何铭珺; 韩焕兴

    2011-01-01

    To evaluating the sensitivity and correlation on anti-nuclear antibody(ANA) and anti-soluble nuclear antigen antibody (ENA) in the diagnosis of autoimmune disease(AID ), the results of auto-antibody detection in serum were retrospectively analyzed for patients visited at Changzheng hospital from Jan, 2007 to Oct, 2009, among which 224 cases were patients with AID and 325 cases were patients with non-autoimmune diseases. For all these patients, the indirect immunofluorescene(IIF)assay based on the cultured human epidermoid carcinoma cells( Hep-2 cell/liver and immunoblot assay were used to detect ANA and ENA respectively. It was demonstrated that 4 different patterns were formed by using these two kinds of detection methods, i.e. ANA+/ENA+、 ANA-/ENA-、 ANA+/ENA- and ANA-/ENA+ respectively. Positive rate of ANA and ENA (63.4% vs 58. 5%) in AID was significantly higher than that of non-AID (16.9% vs 25.2%). Expect in with MCTD and SLE, there were no correlation between ANA and ENA. The ANA-IIF assay appears to be a time-consuming procedure and difficult to standardize owing to subjective interpretation of results. Acting as a screening experimental method, the sensitivity of ANA is higher than that of ENA. Nevertheless. the combined use of both methods would increase the sensitivity and reliability of testing.%探讨抗核抗体和抗可溶性核抗原抗体的不同检测方法对自身免疫性疾病诊断的指导意义.回顾性分析2007年1月至2009年10月间在长征医院就诊的患者血清自身抗体的检测结果,549位患者,其中自身免疫病患者224例,非自身免疫病325例,所有患者血清同时检测ANA和ENA.以Hep-2细胞/肝组织为基质的间接免疫荧光法检测ANA,免疫印迹法检测ENA.两种检测方法产生4种检出模式:ANA+/ENA+、ANA-/ENA-、ANA+/ENA-和ANA-/ENA+.前两种模式共占检测的62.84%.ANA和ENA在自身免疫病患者中的阳性率(63.4%和58.5%)显著高于非自免病患者(16.9%和25

  9. The clinical significance on the inconsistent results of antinuclear antibody and specific auto antibody determinations%抗核抗体与特异性自身抗体检测结果不一致的临床意义分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓微; 胡朝军; 张道强; 李丽君; 张蜀澜; 董晓娟; 李永哲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the inconsistent results of the indirect immunofluorescence ( IIF ) assay screening for antinuclear antibodyv ANA) and linear immunoblot assay( LIA) for antinuclear antibody spectrum ( ANAs ) specific antibody, and evaluate the relationship and clinical significance. Methods The samples were determined for ANA screening by IIF and for ANAs by LIA. The patients with the results of IIF-ANA+ and LIA-ANAs and IIF-ANA' and LIA-ANAs+ were classified into autoimmune disease ( AID ) group and non-AID group. Results In the 216 cases with IIF-ANA" of AID group, The LIA-ANAs + rate was 46. 30% , and the positive rate was higher than that of non-AID group ( 20. 00% , P =0. 00 ). The ratios of LIA-ANAs( + ) and LIA-ANAs( ± ) of AID group were higher than those of non-AID group( P 0. 05 ). However, when the fluorescence titer was 2e 1: 1 280, the difference between 2 groups was statistically significant ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusions In the diagnosis of AID, besides the screening determination by IIF, it is necessary to detect the specific auto antibodies in AID patients in order to avoid the missed detection of AID.%目的 比较间接免疫荧光法(IIF)筛查抗核抗体(ANA)与线性免疫印迹法(LIA)检测抗核抗体谱(ANAs)特异性抗体结果不一致性,分析二者的相互关系及临床意义.方法 采用IIF筛查ANA和LIA检测ANAs特异性抗体,将IIF-ANA阳性/LIA-ANAs阴性和IIF-ANA阴性/LIA-ANAs阳性患者分为自身免疫性疾病(AID)组和非AID组进行比较分析.结果 216例IIF-ANA阴性AID组中,LIA-ANAs阳性率为46.30%,高于非AID组(20.00%,P=0.00);AID组LIA-ANAs(+)、LIA-ANAs(±)的比率均高于非AID组(P 0.05);而荧光滴度为≥1:1280时,2组间的差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 在AID的临床诊断中,除进行IIF筛查ANA外,还需根据具体情况进行特异性自身抗体的检测,避免单一方法检测导致AID患者的漏诊.

  10. Influence of clinical features, serum antinuclear antibodies, and lung function on survival of patients with systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Ullman, S; Shen, G Q;

    2001-01-01

    -U1-RNP, anti-U3-RNP, anti-Th-RNP, and anti-RNA polymerase (anti-RNAP) antibodies were determined by means of double immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, hemagglutination technique, radioactively labelled antisense riboprobes, and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Patients were followed for a mean period...... of 13.3 yrs; 16 died of an SSc related condition and 50 of other causes. Pulmonary fibrosis, DLCO reduction survival due to SSc. Variables that entered...

  11. Analysis of the results of antinuclear antibody spectrum which antinuclear antibody were negative and assessment of the risks of disease%抗核抗体阴性病例的抗核抗体谱的检测分析与疾病风险的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢伟; 刘斌剑; 梁艳; 杨再兴

    2016-01-01

    Objective By analyzing the results of antinuclear antibody spectrum(ANAs)which antinuclear antibody (ANA)were negative,to explore the correlation between them and make clinical assessment of the risks of disease. Methods Make a statistics of the results of serum ANAs cases which ANA were negative and clinical data of 6003 dif-ferent patients came from outpatient and?inpatient from 2011 until May 15,2014.The relationship among the results and their clinical significance were analyzed.Results Of 6003 ANA negative specimens,the positive rate of ANAs was 10.9%,the negative rate of ANAs was 89.1%,the positive rate of anti-SSA antibody was the first (3.9%),the posi-tive rate of anti-Ro-52 antibody was the second(3.6%).Of ANAs positive specimens,the weakly positive rate of anti-Sm,anti-SSB,anti-Scl-70 and anti-His antibodies were higher than the positive of them,the positive rate of anti-Ro-52 antibody was higher than the weakly positive,there were all with statistical significance (P <0.05).The total positive rate of single event’s antibody was the highest(8.7%).Of the weakly positive cases and positive cases of single event’ s antibody,the positive cases of two events’s antibody,the cases of one weak positive and the other positive of mixed e-vents’s antibody,the female positive rate was higher than the male and there was with statistical significance(P <0.05).In the different age group of ≤20 years old,21-49 years old and ≥50 years old,there was statistical significance of ANAs positive rate(6.2%,9.5% 12.6%,χ2 = 21.23,P < 0.05).Of 652 ANAs positive specimens,patients diag-nosed as autoimmune disease(AID)were 104 cases(16.0%).The positive antibodies of ANAs positive specimens were 162 cases,the positive rate of anti-Ro-52 antibody in the AID group was the first (30.9%),the positive rate of anti-SSA antibody was the second(28.4%).Of 5351 ANAs negative specimens,patients diagnosed as AID were 322 cases(6. 0%).The AID patients in ANAs positive specimens were

  12. Prevalence of antinuclear antibodies in 3 groups of healthy individuals: blood donors, hospital personnel, and relatives of patients with autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Guadalupe G; Cardiel, Mario H; Cornejo, Horacio; Viveros, Martha E

    2009-10-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are frequently found in healthy populations. To define the prevalence, pattern, and titer of ANA in different groups of the healthy Mexican population, we studied 304 individuals, classified into 3 groups: 104 blood donors, 100 hospital personnel working at The State General Hospital, which included doctors, laboratory technicians, and nurses; and 100 relatives of patient diagnosed either with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis, all of them apparently healthy at the time of study. We determined ANA using immunofluorescence microscopy performed on HEp-2 cells. Fluorescence was detected in 165 serum samples (54.3%). The most frequent pattern was the speckled (50.3%). The most frequent dilution was 1:40 (35.4%), followed by 1:80 (13.4%), 1:160 (3.2%), and 1:320 (1.3%).Regarding the results by study group, we found a trend toward higher ANA levels in group 2 (hospital personnel), compared with group 1 (blood donors) and group 3 (relatives of patients), a trend also reflected by the increasing frequency of serum titers of 1:80 and higher (P = 0.074). According to occupation, medical doctors showed a higher incidence of speckled pattern when compared with other occupations (P = 0.022). Medical doctors (n = 75) showed also higher titers of this particular pattern (P = 0.03). In group 3, relatives of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus showed the speckled pattern more frequently than relatives of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, in low titers (P = 0.017). We suggest that ANA tests showing speckled pattern should be at a 1:160 titer or higher to be considered positive; other patterns such as homogeneous, peripheral, or centromeric might be considered positive even at low titers (

  13. 系统性红斑狼疮抗核抗体和抗核抗体谱联合检测及其临床意义%Combined detection of antinuclear antibody and antinuclear antibody spectrum and its clinical significance in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储红颍; 杨桂斌; 王建华; 牛林; 袁国龙

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value and clinical significance of the combined detection of antinuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-nuclear antibody spectrum (ANAs) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) .Methods 110 patients with SLE ,88 patients with other autoimmune diseases (AID) and 50 individuals with healthy physical examination were selected and detected se-rum ANA by using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF);the Western blot was adopted to detect the 15 items of ANAs .Results A-mong 110 cases of SLE ,the positive rates of serum ANA ,anti-ribonucleoprotein /Smith antibody (nRNP/Sm) ,anti-Smith antibody (Sm) ,anti-Sjogren′s syndrome A antibody (SSA) ,anti-Ro-52 antibody (Ro-52) ,anti-Sjogren′s syndrome B antibody (SSB) ,anti-scleroderma 70 antibody (Scl-70) ,anti-PM-Scl antibody (PM-Scl) ,anti-cytoplasmic group acyl-tRNA antibody (J0-1) ,anti-centro-mere antibodies (CENP B) ,anti-proliferative protein antibody (PCNA ) ,anti-double stranded DNA antibody (ds-DNA ) ,anti-nu-cleosome antibody (AnuA) ,anti-histone antibody (AHA) ,anti-ribosomal P protein antibody (ARPA) and anti-mitochondrial anti-body M2 subtype (AMA M2) were 98 .2% ,59 .1 % ,39 .1 % ,71 .8 % ,68 .2 % ,21 .8 % ,2 .7 % ,3 .6 % ,0 .9% ,9 .1% ,5 .5% , 44 .5% ,38 .2 % ,27 .3 % ,38 .2% and 15 .5% respectively ,the positive rate of above 16 kinds of autoantibody in the orther AID were64.8% ,14.8% ,0% ,37.5% ,42.0% ,11.4% ,9.1% ,0% ,5.7% ,9.1% ,1.1% ,2.3% ,1.1% ,1.1% ,5.7% and2.3% respec-tively ;ANA had the highest diagnostic sensitivity (98 .2% ) and low specificity (35 .2% ) for SLE ,the antibodies with higher speci-ficity in diagnosing SLE were anti-Sm antibody (100 .0% ) ,anti-ds-DNA antibody (97 .7% ) ,anti-AnuA antibody (99 .0% ) ,anti-AHA antibody (99 .0% ) ,anti-ARPA antibody (94 .3% ) and anti-PCNA antibody (98 .9% ) and the disease control group (50 .9% ) .In detecting ANA karyotype by IIF ,the maximum was nuclear particle type (43 .5% ) and the disease control group (50 .9% ) ,no

  14. Analysis the Results of Line Immunoassay in 166 Patients with Antinuclear Antibodies Positive%166例ANA阳性者血清线性免疫ANA谱的结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 江超; 李季青; 陈琳洁; 李志军

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze surem antinuclear antibodies positive in the Regions along Huaihe River and the North Anhui province the positive rate of common antibodies, and to explore the diagnosis value of ANALIA to the common autoimmune disease. Methods Line immunoassay method was used to detect with 166 patients serum that ANA ELISA analysis quantitative assessment screening greater than normal reference value of upper limit. Results 154 cases of 166 cases had positive results, the positive rate was 92. 8% ,139 cases had 2 or more bands of positive ,90. 3% of the positive results. 66 cases of anti-dsDNA antibody positive;70 cases of anti-nucleosome antibody positive;37 cases of anti-histones antibody positive;58 cases of anti-SmDl antibody positive;76 cases of anti-UlsnRNP antibody positive; 103 cases of anti-SSA/Ro60 antibody positive;77 cases of anti-SSA/Ro52 antibody positive;46 cases of anti-SSB/La antibody positive;40 cases of anti-PO antibody positive; 10 cases of anti-centromeres antibody positive;both of anti-Scl70 antibody and anti-Jol antibody have 7 case positive. Combined with clinical data; 101 patients were diagnosed as SLE;28 patients diagnosed as pSS;14 patients diagnosed as MCTD;7 patients diagnosed as SSc;3 patients diagnosed as UCTD;7 patients diagnosed as PM/DM;6 patients diagnosed as RA. Conclusion In the Regions along Huaihe River and the North Anhui province,ANA positive was most common in SLE,followed by patients with pSS and MCTD;line immunoassay (ANA-LIA) analysis of ANA-positive serum was helpful to clear the specific diagnosis of connective tissue disease.%目的 了解皖北及沿淮地区血清ANA阳性者中常见自身抗体的阳性率,探讨线性免疫分析法(LIA)对常见结缔组织病的诊断价值.方法 用LIA法检测166例患者ANA筛查ELISA检测值大于正常值上限的血清.结果 166例中154例有阳性结果,阳性率为92.8%,139例有2个或以上条带阳性,占阳性结果的90.3

  15. 组蛋白诱导抗核抗体产生及其对肾脏损害%Induction of antinuclear antibodies and systemic lupus erythematosus like syndrome by immunization with histone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马爱妞; 吴厚生

    2001-01-01

    目的 寻找系统性红斑狼疮中诱导抗核抗体(ANA)生成的真正的自身核成分免疫原。方法 从ConA活化的脾淋巴细胞中提取组蛋白免疫同系BALB/c小鼠,ELISA方法测定IgG类抗组蛋白、抗dsDNA抗体,免疫荧光法检测抗核抗体核型和免疫复合物在肾小球内的沉积,免疫印迹法测定抗可溶性核抗原抗体,考马斯亮蓝法检测尿蛋白含量,光镜下观察肾脏形态变化,电镜下观察肾小球电子致密物。结果 活性组蛋白诱导IgG类抗组蛋白、抗dsDNA等多种抗核抗体生成,且诱发同系小鼠产生SLE样肾脏病理变化。结论 活性组蛋白是诱发抗核抗体生成、造成肾损害的免疫原之一。%Objective To identify the immunogen capable of inducingproduction of antinuclear antibodies and triggering renal injury. Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with active histone purified from syngeneic spleen cells following Con A activation. The patterns of antinuclear antibodies and immune complexes in glomeruli were observed by immunofluorescence staining. The antibodies against determinants of extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) were demonstrated by immunoblot assay. The dense deposits in glomeruli and kidney injury were observed under electron microscopy and microscopy. Results Active histone induced the production of anti-histone, anti-dsDNA, anti-Ro/SS-A, anti-La/SS-B and anti-J0-1. The nuclear patterns of antinuclear antibodies included homogeneous, speckled, centromeric, peripheral, cytoplasmic, nucleolar patterns, etc. The mice immunized with active histone had the glomerulonephritis and the deposits of IgG immune complex in the glomeruli and in the matrix of the mesangial region and the protein urea. However, the mice immunized with resting histone, which was purified from the syngeneic spleen cells without Con A stimulation failed to do the same. Conclusion Active histone could be one of the immunogens driving the production of anti

  16. 86例系统性红斑狼疮患者抗核抗体谱检测结果分析%Analysis test results with antinuclear antibody of 86 cases systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑英; 王峰; 王贞美; 张影秋

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨抗核抗体谱(ANAs)中12项抗体检测结果对诊断系统性红斑狼疮(systemic lupus erythemato-sus,SLE)的临床应用价值。方法采用线性免疫分析法(line immuno assay LIA)检测86例 SLE 患者(SLE 组)、81例其他风湿性疾病患者(疾病对照组)和90例健康体检者(健康对照组)的血清 ANAs 中12项抗体,采用 SPSS 统计学软件对检测结果分析。结果健康对照组中针对12项抗原的抗体未被检出,SLE 组和疾病对照组中12项抗体有不同程度的阳性被检出,抗双链 DNA 抗体(dsDNA)、抗核小体抗体(Nucleosome)、抗核糖核蛋白粒子抗体(Sm)、抗PO 抗体(P0)、抗组蛋白抗体(Histone)、抗 Ro/SS-A 抗体(52 KD)等7项抗体在 SLE 组的阳性检出率分别为65.12%、53.49%、33.72%、43.02%、47.67%、37.21%、58.14%均明显高于疾病对照组和健康对照组,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),疾病对照组与健康对照组间所检测抗体的阳性检出率,比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。SLE 组单项抗体检测与多项抗体联检的阳性率,比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),疾病对照组单项抗体检测与多项抗体联检的阳性率,比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论ANAs 的12项抗体联检有助于提高 SLE 的阳性检出率,可为疾病的筛查、诊断、分类、病情观察等方面提供有价值的实验室依据,具有较高的临床应用价值。%Objective To investigate the antinuclear antibody (ANAs)in 12 antibody test results for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (systemic lupus erythematosus,SLE)value in clinical application.Methods SLE as-say (immuno line LIA)was used to testing the serum ANAs of 12 patients (SLE group),81 patients with other rheu-matic diseases (control group)and 90 healthy controls (healthy control group),and the

  17. 检测抗核抗体对系统性红斑狼疮的临床应用%The clinical value of quantitative determination of antinuclear antibody in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈善昌

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨检测抗核抗体对系统性红斑狼疮的临床价值.方法 采用回顾性分析的方法,分析我院收治的系统性红斑狼疮患者的临床资料.结果 SLE患者核颗粒型、核均质型、浆颗粒型、浆均质型、核仁型、着丝点型各型阳性率均高于对照组,SLE组总阳性率明显高于对照组,P<0.05.两种狼疮治疗后ANA含量均较治疗前有所降低,但神经性狼疮ANA降低效果明显优于狼疮肾炎患者,P<0.05,差异均有统计学意义.结论 ANA可以作为系统性红斑狼疮患者发生、发展的临床预警指标,值得临床推广检测.%This study is aimed to investigate the clinical value of quantitative determination of antinuclear antibody (ANA) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We retrospectively studied the clinical records of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Hezhou People's Hospital. According to the results, positive rates of speckled patterns, homogeneous patterns, nucleolus pattern and centromere pattern were higher than that of control group, and total positive rate of SLE was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05). The antinuclear antibody content of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus was decreased significantly after treatment, while a statistically significant difference was found between neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis group (P<0.05). We conclude that antinuclear antibody can be used as a clinical index for monitoring incidence and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  18. Antinuclear human autoantibodies as markers in Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Poggialini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we report on the use of antinuclear human autoantibodies as specific markers in Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes. The antibodies have been tested by fluorescence techniques using a confocal laser scanning microscope. All the antibodies showed specifc labelling pattern and the results, although preliminary in nature, could open new perspectives of research.

  19. Analysis of the result of antinuclear antibody and its profile for 1725 patients%1725例血清抗核抗体及抗核抗体谱检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 孙家祥; 鄂建飞

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨抗核抗体(ANA)和ANA谱在自身免疫性疾病(AID)中的临床价值及相符程度.方法 分析1725例标本血清ANA及ANA谱检测结果.ANA和抗双链DNA抗体采用间接免疫荧光法(IIF),ANA谱采用欧蒙印迹法.结果 1725例标本血清ANA阳性共768例,阳性率为44.52%.荧光模式主要为棱颗粒型、核均质型、核仁型等;1725例标本血清ANA谱检测有782例阳性,阳性率为45.33%,大多为抗体二联及以上共同出现阳性,阳性抗体出现较多的是抗SS-A、抗Ro-52、抗SS-B、抗Histone等.结论 ANA和ANA谱联合检测在AI0D诊断中具有互补性,可提高检出率,对AID的诊断分型、治疗、预后判断和病情随访等均有重要的临床价值.%Objective To explore the clinic value and the extent consistent of antinuclear antibodies(ANA) and an-tinuclear antibody profile in the autoimmune diseases! AID). Methods Retrospective analysis of the result of ANA and ANA profile in sera of 1725 patients. ANA and anti-double-stranded DNA antibody were detected by indirect immunoflu-orescence (IIF), ANA profile were detected by Euronline(immunoblot assay). Results 768 ANA positive cases were found out of the 1725 patients, the positive rate being 44. 52%. The main fluorescent type of ANA were nuclear particles pattern, nuclear homogenous pattern, nucleolar pattern. Of all the 1725 samples,782 cases is positive for ANA profile. The positive rate is 45. 33%. Most of the antibodies appear together two or more positive joint, the most frequently occurred antibody was anti-SS-A, anti-Ro-52, anti-SS-B and anti-Histone. Conclusion ANA and ANA profile can supplement each other in diagnosing AID and increase the detection rate, which is of great clinic value to diagnostic classification .treatment, post-prediction judge and disease follow-up of AID.

  20. Comparative analysis of anti-nuclear antibody pattern detection and specific anti-nuclear antibody spectrum detection%抗核抗体核型检测与特异性抗核抗体谱检测的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金菊; 牟晓峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨抗核抗体核型与特异性抗核抗体谱的相关性。方法回顾分析本院检验科检测的974例抗核抗体结果,分别用间接免疫荧光法(IIF)检测抗核抗体核型,用条带酶免分析法(LIA)检测特异性抗核抗体谱,分析199例 IIF 与 LIA 同时阳性的结果,比较抗核抗体核型与特异性抗核抗体谱的相关性。结果974例标本中 IIF 阳性249例(阳性率25.6%),LIA 阳性237例(阳性率24.3%),两种方法检测阳性率差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),IIF 与 LIA 单项或两项阳性287例(29.5%),高于IIF 或 LIA 单项检测阳性率,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。249例 IIF 阳性中 LIA 阳性199例(79.9%),725例 IIF 阴性中 LIA阴性687例(94.8%)。核颗粒型多见抗 Ro-52抗体,胞浆颗粒型多见抗线粒体 M2抗体,核均质型以抗 dsDNA 抗体、抗核小体抗体多见,着丝点型多见抗着丝点抗体,核仁型多见抗 PM-Scl 抗体。结论IIF-ANA 与 LIA-ANA 有较好的相关性,但也有一定差异,两者联合检测能降低漏检率,对自身免疫性疾病的诊断、病情监测及预后判断有重要意义。%Objective To investigate the correlation between the anti-nuclear antibody(ANA)pattern and the specific ANA spectrum.Methods 974 cases of detected ANA results in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively.The ANA pattern was detec-ted by the indirect immunofluorescence(IIF)and the specific ANA spectrum was tested by the line immunoassay(LIA).199 cases of both simultaneous positive results by IIF and LIA were analyzed and the correlation between ANA patterns and specific ANA spectrum was analyzed.Results Among 974 cases of specimen,249 cases(25.6%)were positive by IIF and 237 cases(24.3%) were positive by LIA,the difference in the positive rate between IIF and LIA had no statistical significance(P >0.05 ).287 cases (29.5%)were positive by single IIF or LIA

  1. Avaliação clínico-laboratorial de pacientes com síndrome antifosfolípide primária segundo a frequência de anticorpos antinucleares (FAN Hep-2 Clinical and laboratory evaluation of patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome according to the frequency of antinuclear antibodies (ANA Hep-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozélio Freire de Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência de manifestações clínicas e laboratoriais em pacientes com síndrome antifosfolípide primária (SAFP com anticorpos antinucleares positivos (FAN Hep-2+, comparados àqueles com esses anticorpos negativos (FAN Hep-2 -. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em 58 pacientes (82,8% mulheres com SAFP. Foram avaliados os dados demográficos, clínicos, comorbidades, medicações e anticorpos antifosfolípides. RESULTADOS: Dos 58 pacientes incluídos no estudo, vinte (34,5% apresentaram presença de FAN Hep-2. Comparando-se o grupo de pacientes FAN Hep-2+ com aqueles FAN Hep-2 -, verificou-se que ambos os grupos de pacientes com SAFP não diferiram estatisticamente em relação aos dados demográficos, bem como em relação ao tempo de doença. Em relação às manifestações clínicas e laboratoriais, o grupo com FAN Hep-2 + apresentou maior frequência de trombose venosa profunda (85 versus 52,6%, P = 0,04, uma frequência estatística e significativamente maior de anticardiolipina IgG (85 versus 52,6%, P = 0,02 e uma tendência para anticardiolipina IgM (80% versus 52,6%, P = 0,05, bem como maiores medianas desses anticorpos [33 (0-128 versus 20 (0-120 GPL, P = 0,008] e [33 (0-120 versus 18,5 (0-120 MPL, P = 0,009]. Tal diferença não foi observada no que se refere a outras manifestações da SAF, presença de comorbidades, estilo de vida e uso de medicações. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com SAFP que apresentam FAN Hep-2+ têm maior frequência de trombose venosa profunda e anticardiolipinas IgG e IgM.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of clinical and laboratory manifestations in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS with positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA Hep-2+ compared to those in whom this antibody is negative (ANA Hep-2-. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a transversal study with 58 patients (82.8% females with PAPS. Demographic and clinical data, comorbidities, medications, and

  2. 抗核抗体谱检测在诊断系统性红斑狼疮中的意义%Clinical Significance of Anti-nuclear Antibodies Detection in the Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋素莹; 卢永芳; 谢丹萍; 张金珍

    2013-01-01

    探讨抗核抗体(ANA)和抗核抗体谱(ANAs)检测对诊断系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者的临床意义.用间接免疫荧光法(IIF)和免疫印迹法检测106例SLE组和30名对照组血清ANA及ANAs中的12种抗体.结果表明:SLE组ANA阳性率为86.8%,ANAs中抗ds-DNA、抗Scl-70、抗Jo-1、抗nRNP、抗Sm、抗SS-A、抗SS-B、抗Ro-52、抗CENP-B、抗AnuA、抗AHA和抗核糖体P蛋白的阳性率分别为28.3%、0.9%、0.9%、35.9%、17.0%、39.6%、18.9%、41.5%、9.4%、29.3%、31.1%和9.4%.ANA和ANAs联合检测提高了诊断的敏感性,对SLE的诊断和治疗有重要意义.%Objective To explore the clinical significance of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) detection in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.Methods The serum ANA and anti-nuclear antibody spectrum (ANAs) of 12 kinds of antibodies in 106 SLE patients and 30 healthy control group were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) and western blot detection.Results The results showed that the positive rate of ANA was 86.8% in SLE patients,and positive rates of ANAs in anti-ds-DNA,anti-Scl-70、antiJo-1 、anti-nRNP,anti-Sm,anti-SS-A,anti-SS-B,anti-Ro-52,anti-CENP-B,anti-AnuA,anti-AHA and the ribosomal P-protien were 28.3%,0.9%,0.9%,35.9%,17.0%,39.6%,18.9%,41.5%,9.4%,29.3%,31.1% and 9.4%,respectively.Conclusion The combined detection of ANA and ANAs could improve the sensitivity and have important significance in the diagnosis and treatment of SLE.

  3. 健康体检人群不同性别抗核抗体随年龄分布规律探讨%Analysis of the distribution of antinuclear antibodies in a healthy population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚平; 王春光; 刘欣; 刘锦梅; 郭德立; 杨松; 高振庄

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the distribution of antinuclear antibodies ( ANAs) in a healthy population and the significance of using ANAs screening test in medical examination .Methods The ANAs were measured by indirect immunofluorescence assay ( IIF) .The Western blot assay was used to detect fif-teen specific antibodies against auto-antigens .Results 3519 out of all 25 110 subjects showed ANAs titers>1∶100 , and among them male and female subjects were respectively accounted for 1143 and 2376 .1489 out of all subjects had ANAs titers >1∶320 , and among them male and female subjects were respectively accounted for 406 and 1083 .The positive rates of ANAs at different titers showed significant differences be -tween male and female subjects .Among subjects with ANAs titers >1∶320 , the number of male subjects showed a steady increase with the age , while the percentage of female subjects reached to two peaks during the periods of puberty and menopause .The fifteen specific antibodies were detected in 659 out of 1489 sub-jects with ANAs titers>1∶320 and anti-Ro-52 (14.2%) accounted for the majority , followed by anti-M2 (12.7%) and anti-SSA (9.6%).Conclusion ANAs can be detected among healthy population of all ages, but their distribution varied with gender and age .ANAs screening test is necessary for medical exami-nation of healthy population , especially for female during period of puberty or menopause .The population with positive ANAs should be followed-up closely and educated for the prevention of autoimmune diseases .%目的:通过分析健康人群抗核抗体( ANA)检测资料,揭示健康人群ANA分布规律,进一步探讨健康人群筛查ANA重要意义。方法采用间接免疫荧光法( IIF)检测ANA,免疫印迹法检测15项特异性抗体。结果体检人群中,ANA滴度>1∶100阳性率为14.01%,其中男性阳性率为9.04%,女性阳性率为19.05%;ANA滴度>1∶320阳性率为5.93%,其中男性阳

  4. Prevalence of symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and of fluorescent antinuclear antibodies associated with chronic exposure to trichloroethylene and other chemicals in well water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Criteria for the recognition of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were applied to 362 subjects exposed to trichloroethylene, trichloroethane, inorganic chromium, and other chemicals in water obtained from wells in an industrially contaminated aquifer in Tucson, Arizona. Their antinuclear autoantibodies were measured by fluorescence (FANA) in serum. Ten patients with clinical SLE and/or other collagen-vascular diseases were considered separately. Results were compared to an Arizona control group, to published series, and to laboratory controls. Frequencies of each of 10 ARA symptoms were higher in exposed subjects than in any comparison group except those with clinical SLE. The number of subjects with 4 or more symptoms was 2.3 times higher compared to referent women and men. FANA titers > 1:80 was approximately 2.3 times higher in women but equally frequent in men as in laboratory controls. ARA score and FANA rank were correlated with a coefficient (cc) of .1251, r{sup 2} = .0205 in women and this correlation was almost statistically significant in men cc = .1282, r{sup 2} = .0253. In control men and women neither correlation was significant. Long-term low-dose exposure to TCE and other chemicals in contaminated well water significantly increased symptoms of lupus erthematosus as perceived by the ARA score and the increased FANA titers.

  5. Analysis of the Results of Antinuclear Antibody Spectrum for Patients of Moyamoya%402例烟雾病抗核抗体谱检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田曙光; 曾利军; 陈建魁; 于农; 宋世平; 尹秀云; 黄媛; 金欣; 左向华; 杜宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Look for the occurrence of moyamoya disease with autoimmune of certain links. Methods: 402 cases of moyamoya disease spectrum antinuclear antibod respectively. Results: 112 cases of anti-nuclear antibody spectrum result was positive disease, the positive rate was 27.86%, and the percentage of anti-dsDNA, anti-CB, ant B, anti Jo-1, anti-RO-52, anti-ScL-70, anti-RIB, anti-PM-sd, anti-nRNP, anti-PCr anti-M2 antibodies were 16.07%, 1.79%, 5.36%, 17.86%, 7.14%, 5.36%, 13.39%, 5.3< 11.61%, 6.25% and 8.93%, 8.04%, respectively. Conclusion: Autoimmune disease nu moyamoya disease.%目的:探讨烟雾病的发生与自身免疫性疾病是否存在一定的联系.方法:对402例烟雾病抗核抗体谱检测结果进行回顾性分析.结果:402例烟雾病确诊病例中,有112位患者抗核抗体谱检测结果中存在阳性结果,阳性率为27.86%.其中,抗dsDNA、抗CB、抗Sm、抗SS-A、抗SS-B、抗Jo-1、抗RO-52、抗ScL-70、抗RIB、抗PM -sd、抗nRNP、抗PCNA、抗Nuc、抗HI、抗M2抗体在阳性病例中所占百分比分别为16.07%、1.79%、5.36%、17.86%、7.14%、5.36%、13.39%、5.36%、7.14%、4.46%、2.68%、11.61%、6.25%、8.93%和8.04%.结论:烟雾病患者中抗核抗体阳性率较高,自身免疫性疾病可能是烟雾病发生的重要诱因之一.

  6. Explore the relationship between ANA spectrum, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, antinuclear antibody, anti-ds-DNA levels and activity of SLE%探讨ANA谱、抗心磷脂抗体、抗核抗体、抗ds-DNA水平与SLE活动性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华宏

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate ANA spectrum anti-cardiolipin antibodies, antinuclear antibody anti-ds-DNA levels and the relationship between the activity of SLE.Methods:from January 2013 to June 2014 in our hospital Rheumatology SLE patients hospitalized for a total of 125 cases of SLE group, and select the corresponding period in our hospital for examination of a total of 30 cases of healthy people healthy group. Observed active SLE, SLE and healthy inactive group of anti-cardiolipin antibodies, antinuclear antibody, anti-ds-DNA positive rate case, SLE active, SLE and healthy inactive group anticardiolipin antibody concentrations.Results: Health group and inactive SLE anti-cardiolipin antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, anti-ds-DNA positive rate, the difference was not statistically significant (P> 0.05). ACA- IgG SLE activity period (19.21 ± 0.79) RU / ml, ACA- IgM (17.01 ± 0.76) RU / ml were significantly higher than the healthy group and inactive SLE, the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05). Anti-U1-nRNP antibody of active SLE, anti-Sm antibodies.Conclusions:ANA spectrum, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, anti-ds-DNA levels measured for patients with active SLE can effectively detect the disease, and thus a better prediction of relapse, and help guide treatment.%目的:研究探讨ANA谱﹑抗心磷脂抗体﹑抗核抗体﹑抗ds-DNA水平与SLE活动性的关系。方法:选择2013年1月至2014年6月我院风湿免疫科住院的SLE患者共125例为SLE组,同时选择同期在我院进行体检的健康者共30例为健康组。观察SLE活动期、SLE非活动期与健康组抗心磷脂抗体、抗核抗体、抗ds-DNA阳性率情况,SLE活动期、SLE非活动期与健康组抗心磷脂抗体浓度情况。结果: SLE活动期的ACA- IgG(19.21±0.79) RU/ml、ACA- IgM(17.01±0.76)RU/ml水平均显著高于健康组和SLE非活动期,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:ANA谱、抗心磷脂抗

  7. Original Approach for Automated Quantification of Antinuclear Autoantibodies by Indirect Immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bertin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF is the gold standard method for the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA which are essential markers for the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. For the discrimination of positive and negative samples, we propose here an original approach named Immunofluorescence for Computed Antinuclear antibody Rational Evaluation (ICARE based on the calculation of a fluorescence index (FI. Methods. We made comparison between FI and visual evaluations on 237 consecutive samples and on a cohort of 25 patients with SLE. Results. We obtained very good technical performance of FI (95% sensitivity, 98% specificity, and a kappa of 0.92, even in a subgroup of weakly positive samples. A significant correlation between quantification of FI and IIF ANA titers was found (Spearman's ρ=0.80, P<0.0001. Clinical performance of ICARE was validated on a cohort of patients with SLE corroborating the fact that FI could represent an attractive alternative for the evaluation of antibody titer. Conclusion. Our results represent a major step for automated quantification of IIF ANA, opening attractive perspectives such as rapid sample screening and laboratory standardization.

  8. Antibody Phage Library Screening Efficiency Measured by KD Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-tang; SHAN Ya-ming; TANG Li-li; GAO Li-zeng; WANG Li-ping; LI Wei; LI Yu-xin

    2005-01-01

    An antibody phage library was screened with two target molecules, IFNα-2a and FGFR-GST, and the KD value of each round of panning was measured. It was found that the apparent KD values decreased along with each additional panning round, which indicates the increase of the binding affinity between the phage and the target molecules.This result shows that the KD value is a reliable intrinsic parameter and a new method for screening efficiency detection is thus provided.

  9. Analysis of the results of antinuclear antibody and anti-ENAantibodies for Han people in Shihezi area xinjiang province%新疆石河子地区汉族人群ANA与抗ENA 抗体的检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建伟; 李静; 赵涛; 曹薇薇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between antinuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) antibodies fron H an people in Shihezi area Xin jiang province .Methods ANA and anti-ENA antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and EUROLINE-Western B lot technology respectively .Double blind m ethod was perform ed to analyze the relationship .Results 0f all the 1084 samples,399 cases were positive for ANA ,the positive tate was 36.81% (399/1084) .512 cases in the above collected sam ples were tested by IIF and EUR0LINE-W estern B lot technology sim ultaneously .The majority of patterns were nuclear hom ogeneous patrern (122 cases) ,nuclear speckled patterns(31 cases) ,nuclear peripheral patterns(12 cases),mixed patterns(4 cases) .Of the 161 positive anti-ENA antibodies cases,eighty were negative ANA cases.Of the 351 negative antiENA antibodies cases,eighty-eightwere positive ANA cases. In the cases of nuclear hom ogeneous pattern for ANA ,the commonantiENA antibodies were anti-Ro/SSA 60 (35 cases).In the cases of nuclear speckled patterns for ANA ,the commonanti-ENA antibodies were anti-Ro/SSA60 (14 cases),anti-UlRNP (7 cases),anti-Sm (9 cases).In the cases of nuclear peripheral patterns for ANA ,the common anti-ENA antibodies were anti-Ro/SSA 60 (5 cases) ,anti-dsDNA (6 cases), anti-AnuA (5 cases)、 anti-histon (5 cases).Conclusion The Coincidence level between ANA and anti-ENA antibodies results was not fine.There was not any fixed regularity between ANA and anti-ENA antibodies results.In order to accurately determ ine the tager antigens,it is necesary to screen ANA with IF and to confirm the types by anti-ENA antibodies.M any new anti-ENA antibodieswere expected to be puried in the future.%目的 回顾本实验室开展抗核抗体(antinuclear antibody,ANA)与抗可提取性核抗原(extractable nuclear antigens,ENA)抗体联合检测的情况,分析新疆石河子地区汉族人群中ANA与抗ENA

  10. 线性免疫印迹法在抗核抗体间接免疫荧光法筛查阴性标本中的临床意义%Detection of specific anti-nuclear antibodies by line immunoassay in indirect immunofluorescence-negative serum samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 胡朝军; 沈波; 徐巍; 吴春龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of line immunoassay for detection of specific anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) in indirect immnofluorescence (HF)- negative serum samples. Methods Total 461 HF- ANA- consecutive samples were tested by DF for 15 specific anti- nuclear antibodies and their clinical significance was analyzed. Results In 216 patients of autoimmune disease (AID) LIA- ANAs+ was identified in 100 serum samples with a positive rate of 46.30%, which was higher than that of non- AID patients (20.00%). In AID patients the positive rate of LIA(3+), LIA(2+), LIA(1 + ) and LIA(± ) were higher than those of non- AID patients (P0.05). The positive rate of anti- Sm and anti- dsDNA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were higher than those of non- SLE (P<0.05). Conclusion It is recommend to detect serum specific antinuclear antibodies with line immunoassay whether the ANA is positive or negative shown by screening assay of DF.%目的 探讨采用线性免疫印迹法(LIA)在抗核抗体(ANA)间接免疫荧光法(IIF)筛查阴性标本中进行抗核抗体谱(ANAs)特异性抗体检测的价值和临床意义.方法 对461例IIF-ANA阴性临床血清标本采用线性免疫印迹法进行15种ANAs特异性抗体(LIA-ANAs)检测.结果 216例自身免疫性疾病(AID)组标本中LIA-ANAs阳性数为100例,占46.30%,高于非AID组(20.00%);AID组LIA-ANAs阳性结果按灰度强度分,LIA(3+)、LIA(2+)、LIA(1+) 、LIA(±)的阳性率均高于非AID组,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).AID组中ANAs特异性抗体中的抗Ro-52、抗SS-A、抗Sm、抗nRNP/Sm、抗SS-B抗体、抗dsDNA和抗rRNP抗体的阳性率分别为2.31%~18.06%,高于非AID组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).AID组中ANAs特异性抗体阳性强度LIA(1+)+LIA(±)的阳性率高于LIA(3+)+LIA(2+)的阳性率,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).抗nRNP/Sm、抗Ro-52、抗SS-A和抗SSB抗体在AID组中阳性率的差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)与非SLE比

  11. Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody and Screening for Postpartum Thyroid Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Adlan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD is a common disorder which causes considerable morbidity in affected women. The availability of effective treatment for hypothyroid PPTD, the occurrence of the disease in subsequent pregnancies and the need to identify subjects who develop long term hypothyroidism, has prompted discussion about screening for this disorder. There is currently no consensus about screening as investigations hitherto have been variable in their design, definitions and assay frequency and methodology. There is also a lack of consensus about a suitable screening tool although thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb is a leading contender. We present data about the use of TPOAb in early pregnancy and its value as a screening tool. Although its positive predictive value is moderate, its sensitivity and specificity when used in early pregnancy are comparable or better compared to other times during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Recent studies have also confirmed this strategy to be cost effective and to compare favourably with other screening strategies. We also explore the advantages of universal screening.

  12. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  13. Antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a social anthropological analysis of the antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee. This social movement was determined to halt the construction of proposed nuclear power plants in Tennessee, especially one the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) intended to build in Middle Tennessee. The data for the study were gathered by participant-observation interviewing, and the examination of documents from February 1973 through March 1975. The treatment of the data is based on transactional analysis and portions of the network model. This social movement was composed of a series of informally organized cells connected by a loose network of people who visited and talked with one another. Individual cells tended to be organized on a geographical basis, as was communication. Activity-initiators, however, often contacted antinuclear personnel in other Middle Tennessee cells. Movement activity for many of the antinuclear activists was short-lived. The strategic maneuvers of the movement utilized all the structurally and legally possible alternatives and the nuclear opponents hoped that the public would pressure public officials to oppose nuclear plants. Although the antinuclear activists worked very hard, they did not succeed in halting the planned construction of the Middle Tennessee nuclear plant. Indeed, they had not succeeded in the summer of 1977

  14. Tetanus Neurotoxin Neutralizing Antibodies Screened from a Human Immune scFv Antibody Phage Display Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Yu, Rui; Fang, Ting; Yu, Ting; Chi, Xiangyang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Shuling; Fu, Ling; Yu, Changming; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc) as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H) can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Moreover, 2-7G inhibited TeNT-Hc binding to the receptor via carbohydrate-binding sites of the W pocket while 2-2D and S-4-7H inhibited binding of the R pocket. Although no single mAb completely protected mice from the toxin, they could both prolong survival when challenged with 20 LD50s (50% of the lethal dose) of TeNT. When used together, the mAbs completely neutralized 1000 LD50s/mg Ab, indicating their high neutralizing potency in vivo. Antibodies recognizing different carbohydrate-binding pockets could have higher synergistic toxin neutralization activities than those that recognize the same pockets. These results could lead to further production of neutralizing antibody drugs against TeNT and indicate that using TeNT-Hc as an antigen for screening human antibodies for TeNT intoxication therapy from human immune antibody library was convenient and effective. PMID:27626445

  15. Helicobacter pylori Antibody Titer and Gastric Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kishikawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The “ABC method” is a serum gastric cancer screening method, and the subjects were divided based on H. pylori serology and atrophic gastritis as detected by serum pepsinogen (PG: Group A [H. pylori (− PG (−], Group B [H. pylori (+ PG (−], Group C [H. pylori (+ PG (+], and Group D [H. pylori (− PG (+]. The risk of gastric cancer is highest in Group D, followed by Groups C, B, and A. Groups B, C, and D are advised to undergo endoscopy, and the recommended surveillance is every three years, every two years, and annually, respectively. In this report, the reported results with respect to further risk stratification by anti-H. pylori antibody titer in each subgroup are reviewed: (1 high-negative antibody titer subjects in Group A, representing posteradicated individuals with high risk for intestinal-type cancer; (2 high-positive antibody titer subjects in Group B, representing active inflammation with high risk for diffuse-type cancer; and (3 low-positive antibody titer subjects in Group C, representing advanced atrophy with increased risk for intestinal-type cancer. In these subjects, careful follow-up with intervals of surveillance of every three years in (1, every two years in (2, and annually in (3 should be considered.

  16. Population screening test for antibody to measles virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, M.G. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel))

    1981-11-01

    In areas where sporadic cases of measles continue to occur in spite of vaccination programs, the availability of a simple screening test for determination of seropositivity to measles virus is desirable. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening test (ST) for the detection of IgG antibody to measles virus, based on a solid phase RIA, is described. The assays were performed on polyvinyl microtiter plates for which the RIAST requires only 5 ..mu..l of serum per subject. Antigen consisted of a sonicated extract of measles virus-infected Vero cells. Rabbit antihuman IgG specific for the Fc-segment of human IgG, labelled with /sup 125/I, was used to detect human IgG bound to viral antigen. The basic RIA method was characterized by carrying out full titrations of sera of 53 healthy adults, 10 children, and 13 patients with measles-associated illness. These sera were also tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique; most of the measles sera were also tested by complement fixation (CF). RIAST results (expressed as binding ratios) obtained for 52 healthy adults are compared with their RIA serum titers. Of the 200 sera of patients of various ages tested by the RIAST, 63 borderline sera were also tested by HI. The RIAST, which does not require serum treatment other than inactivation, proved to be more sensitive as an indicator of seropositivity than HI. Implications of the results and practical applications of the screening test are discussed.

  17. Results analysis of antinuclear antibodies spectrum tests in four kinds of autoimmune diseases%自身免疫性疾病的抗核抗体谱检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张园园; 潘宝龙; 马骏; 李俊娥

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨抗核抗体谱(ANAs)检测在系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)、干燥综合征(SS)、混合性结缔组织病(MCTD)、类风湿性关节炎(RA)患者中的诊断价值。方法回顾性分析1359例自身免疫性疾病患者血清抗核抗体谱16项检测,对单个抗体在4种疾病患者中的阳性率每种疾病中ANAs的构成比进行分析。结果 ANA在前3种疾病中阳性率均高于RA;抗ds-DNA、抗nRNP主要见于SLE和MCTD;抗Sm主要见于SLE;抗SSA、抗Ro-52、抗SSB阳性率表现为SS>MCTD>SLE>RA;抗SCL-70、抗PM-SCL、抗Jo-1均为较低阳性率;其余自身抗体阳性率表现为SLE>MCTD>SS≈RA。在数据基础上形成了4种自身免疫性疾病诊断的ANAs阳性率参考模型。结论可根据ANA谱中单个抗体在4种疾病中的阳性率特点,建立4种自身免疫性疾病诊断和鉴别诊断的ANAs阳性率参考模型。%ObjectiveTo explore the value of antinuclear antibodies(ANAs) spectrum tests in SLE、SS、MCTD and RA.Methods Retrospectively analyzed ANAs test results of 1359 cases patients with autoimmune diseases in our hospital since January 2011, made statistical analysis on positive rate of each autoantibody in four kinds of disease and ANAs constituent ratio in each disease.Results The positive rate of each autoantibody had certain characteristics :(1)The ANA positive rate in the previous three diseases reached more than 92.8%, while somewhat less in RA (48.5%);(2)Anti-dsDNA and anti-nRNP were mainly in SLE and MCTD;(3)Anti-Sm was mainly in SLE(26.5%);(4)The positive rates of anti-SSA,anti-Ro-52 and anti-SSB showed: SS>MCTD>SLE>RA; (5)The positive rates of anti-SCL70, anti-PM-SCL and anti-Jo1 were lower, no significant difference;(6)The other remaining autoantibodies were: SLE>MCTD>SS≈RA. The diagnostic reference model of ANAs constituent ratio of the four kinds of autoimmune disease: (1)SLE: ANA (93.1%), Ro-52 (50.4%), SSA (47.3%), Ans (42.5%), anti-dsDNA (41

  18. Clustering analysis of anti-nuclear antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus%系统性红斑狼疮患者抗核抗体谱聚类分析初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓东; 单小云; 赵硕; 杜红卫; 薛亚东

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine clusters of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and their associations with clinical features in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Methods It was a retrospective study.113 SLE patients were reviewed from March 2010 to May 2012 in Department of Rheumatology,Jinhua Central Hospital.ANA and specific autoantibodies to 15 kinds of nuclear antigens were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) and line immunoassay (LIA) respectively.Hierarchical clustering method was performed to analyze specific clusters of ANA profiles in SLE.Chi-square tests were used to investigate relationship between antibody clusters and clinical features of SLE.Results The positive rate of LIA for ANA was 97.3%,consistent with IIF method,and the total accordance rate of the both methods was 98.2%.Thirteen kinds of antigen-specific antibodies were detected in SLE patients by LIA.Clustering analysis for these antibodies showed three specific clusters in SLE,Nuc/His/dsDNA cluster (C1),low-Ro/low-La cluster (C2),and Ro/Sm/RNP cluster (C3),accounting for 36.3%,24.8%,38.9% of the total cases respectively.There were significant difference of AST levels among three clusters [(32.62 ± 21.92)U/L,(25.56 ± 16.63) U/L,(50.41 ± 60.86) U/L respectively for C1,C2 and C3].High incidences of chronic cutaneous lupus,abnormal renal indicators and inflammatory synovitis were found in all three clusters.Besides,there were significant differences among three clusters for the incidences of chronic cutaneous lupus (39.0%,39.3%,63.6% respectively for C1,C2,C3) and leukopenia/lymphopenia (56.1%,25.0%,56.8% respectively for C1,C2,C3) (P < 0.05).Patients in Ro/Sm/RNP cluster showed higher incidences of lupus nephritis (43.2%/26.8% or 39.3%); patients in low-Ro/low-La cluster showed low risk of hypertension (7.1%/19.5% or 22.7%) ; patients in Nuc/His/dsDNA cluster showed high incidences of thrombocytopenia (41.5%/21.4% or 25.0%) and high risk

  19. NanoLuc luciferase - A multifunctional tool for high throughput antibody screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eBoute

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the recent development of NanoLuc Luciferase a small (19 kDa, highly stable, ATP independent, bioluminescent protein, an extremely robust and ultra high sensitivity screening system has been developed whereby primary hits of therapeutic antibodies and antibody fragments could be characterized and quantified without purification. This system is very versatile allowing cellular and solid phase ELISA but also homogeneous BRET based screening assays, relative affinity determinations with competition ELISA and direct western blotting. The new NanoLuc Luciferase protein fusion represents a swiss army knife solution for today and future high throughput antibody drug screenings.

  20. Serum Antibody Repertoire Profiling Using In Silico Antigen Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Tallo, Luke J; Sadzewicz, Lisa; Schettine, Cassandra A; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Klyushnenkova, Elena N; Ionov, Yurij

    2013-01-01

    Serum antibodies are valuable source of information on the health state of an organism. The profiles of serum antibody reactivity can be generated by using a high throughput sequencing of peptide-coding DNA from combinatorial random peptide phage display libraries selected for binding to serum antibodies. Here we demonstrate that the targets of immune response, which are recognized by serum antibodies directed against sequential epitopes, can be identified using the serum antibody repertoire profiles generated by high throughput sequencing. We developed an algorithm to filter the results of the protein database BLAST search for selected peptides to distinguish real antigens recognized by serum antibodies from irrelevant proteins retrieved randomly. When we used this algorithm to analyze serum antibodies from mice immunized with human protein, we were able to identify the protein used for immunizations among the top candidate antigens. When we analyzed human serum sample from the metastatic melanoma patient, the recombinant protein, corresponding to the top candidate from the list generated using the algorithm, was recognized by antibodies from metastatic melanoma serum on the western blot, thus confirming that the method can identify autoantigens recognized by serum antibodies. We demonstrated also that our unbiased method of looking at the repertoire of serum antibodies reveals quantitative information on the epitope composition of the targets of immune response. A method for deciphering information contained in the serum antibody repertoire profiles may help to identify autoantibodies that can be used for diagnosing and monitoring autoimmune diseases or malignancies. PMID:23826227

  1. Automated pipeline for rapid production and screening of HIV-specific monoclonal antibodies using pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kartik A; Clark, John J; Goods, Brittany A; Politano, Timothy J; Mozdzierz, Nicholas J; Zimnisky, Ross M; Leeson, Rachel L; Love, J Christopher; Love, Kerry R

    2015-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind and neutralize human pathogens have great therapeutic potential. Advances in automated screening and liquid handling have resulted in the ability to discover antigen-specific antibodies either directly from human blood or from various combinatorial libraries (phage, bacteria, or yeast). There remain, however, bottlenecks in the cloning, expression and evaluation of such lead antibodies identified in primary screens that hinder high-throughput screening. As such, "hit-to-lead identification" remains both expensive and time-consuming. By combining the advantages of overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) and a genetically stable yet easily manipulatable microbial expression host Pichia pastoris, we have developed an automated pipeline for the rapid production and screening of full-length antigen-specific mAbs. Here, we demonstrate the speed, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of our approach by generating several broadly neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMID:26032261

  2. Retrospective analysis of antinuclear antibody test results of 4188 specimens%临床标本抗核抗体4188份检测结果回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨银忠; 陈敏敏; 程文霞; 龙海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨抗核抗体(ANA)常见类型在四川地区自身免疫性疾病(AID)患者中的分布趋势及临床价值。方法采用免疫印迹法对2011年1月至2013年9月4188份疑似AID患者的临床标本进行ANA常见15种类型(抗NRNP、抗SM、抗SS-A、抗RO-52、抗SS-B、抗SCL-70、抗PM-SCL、抗JO-1、抗CENP、抗PCNA、抗ds-DNA、抗组蛋白、抗核小体、抗核糖体P蛋白及抗AMAM2)的检测,统计其分布情况,并对性别、年龄及季节进行分组,采用χ2检验进行统计学分析。结果(1)在4188份标本中,ANA阳性率为28.8%,AID阳性率为7.2%。在确诊的303例AID患者中,干燥综合征(SS)患者抗SS-A阳性率(75.4%)最高,依次为抗RO-52(61.5%)及抗SS-B(20.5%);系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者抗SS-A阳性率(76.8%)最高,依次为抗 RO-52(64.2%)及抗 ds-DNA (41.1%);混合性结缔组织(MCTD)患者抗 RO-52阳性率(42.5%)最高,其次为抗SS-A(41.1%)及抗NRNP(26.0%);类风湿性关节炎(RA)患者抗SM阳性率(65.4%)最高,其次为抗SS-A(38.5%)。SS是四川地区最常见的AID,依次为SLE、MCTD及RA等。(2)在4188例疑似AID患者中,女性AID阳性率(11.0%)显著高于男性(1.5%),差异有统计学意义(χ2=136.44,P<0.05);年龄组中18~45岁组阳性率最高(8.4%),<18岁组最低(2.1%),差异有统计学意义(χ2=8.92,P<0.05);季度组中第4季度阳性率最高(8.6%),第1季度最低(6.2%),差异有统计学意义(χ2=3.47,P<0.05)。结论四川地区AID患者ANA常见类型分布可能与年龄、季节及性别相关,这在AID的诊断方面有重要价值。%Objective To explore the distribution trend and clinical value of antinuclear antibody (ANA) in patients with autoimmune diseases ( AID ) in Sichuan region . Methods Immunoblotting test was employed among 4 188 specimens with suspected AID from January

  3. Women's attitude towards prenatal screening for red blood cell antibodies, other than RhD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Schoot CE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 1998 all Dutch women (± 200,000/y are screened for red cell antibodies, other than anti-RhesusD (RhD in the first trimester of pregnancy, to facilitate timely treatment of pregnancies at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN. Evidence for benefits, consequences and costs of screening for non-RhD antibodies is still under discussion. The screening program was evaluated in a nation-wide study. As a part of this evaluation study we investigated, according to the sixth criterium of Wilson and Jüngner, the acceptance by pregnant women of the screening program for non-RhD antibodies. Methods Controlled longitudinal survey, including a prenatal and a postnatal measurement by structured questionnaires. Main outcome measures: information satisfaction, anxiety during the screening process (a.o. STAI state inventory and specific questionnaire modules, overall attitude on the screening program. Univariate analysis was followed by standard multivariate analysis to identify significant predictors of the outcome measures. Participants: 233 pregnant women, distributed over five groups, according to the screening result. Results Satisfaction about the provided information was moderate in all groups. All screen- positive groups desired more supportive information. Anxiety increased in screen- positives during the screening process, but decreased to basic levels postnatally. All groups showed a strongly positive balance between perceived utility and burden of the screening program, independent on test results or background characteristics. Conclusion Women highly accept the non-RhD antibody screening program. However, satisfaction about provided information is moderate. Oral and written information should be provided by obstetric care workers themselves, especially to screen-positive women.

  4. Construction and Screening of Antigen Targeted Immune Yeast Surface Display Antibody Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Keith D.; Pefaur, Noah B.; Baird, Cheryl L.

    2008-07-01

    These protocols describe a yeast surface display-based process for the rapid selection of antibodies from immunized mice, eliminating the need for creating and screening hybridoma fusions. A yeast surface display library of single-chain antibody fragments (scFvs) is created from antigen-binding B cells from the splenocytes of immunized mice. The antigen targeted library is then screened for antigen specific scFv by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Library construction and screening can be accomplished in as little as 2 weeks resulting in a panel of scFvs specific for the target antigen.

  5. Construction and Screening of Antigen Targeted Immune Yeast Surface Display Antibody Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Keith D.; Pefaur, Noah B.; Baird, Cheryl L.

    2009-08-02

    These protocols describe a yeast surface display-based process for the rapid selection of antibodies from immunized mice, eliminating the need for creating and screening hybridoma fusions. A yeast surface display library of single-chain antibody fragments (scFvs) is created from antigen-binding B cells from the splenocytes of immunized mice. The antigen targeted library is then screened for antigen specific scFv by magneticactivated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Library construction and screening can be accomplished in as little as 2 weeks, resulting in a panel of scFvs specific for the target antigen.

  6. Production of monoclonal antibodies specific for Haemophilus ducreyi: a screening method to discriminate specific and cross-reacting antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odumeru, J A; Alfa, M J; Martin, C F; Ronald, A R; Jay, F T

    1989-06-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiological agent of chancroid. The organism shares extensive immunological cross-reactivity with other Haemophilus species. This presents substantial difficulties for the production of specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). A competition ELISA was devised for hybridoma screening which allowed the detection of H. ducreyi-specific antibody-producing hybridoma cultures during the initial screening process. With this screening method, seven MAbs specific for H. ducreyi were obtained in a single cell fusion exercise. The specificities of the 7 MAbs were demonstrated by direct ELISA and dot immunobinding assays against several strains each of H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Five of the MAbs reacted against all ten strains of H. ducreyi. These MAbs may permit the development of rapid and efficient immunodiagnostics for chancroid. The principle of the competition ELISA for hybridoma screening should be widely applicable to the development of specific MAbs to other organisms in which immunological cross-reactivity is an impediment to hybridoma screening by conventional methods. PMID:2787274

  7. High throughput automated chromatin immunoprecipitation as a platform for drug screening and antibody validation†,‡

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Angela R.; Tiara L A Kawahara; Rapicavoli, Nicole A; van Riggelen, Jan; Shroff, Emelyn H.; Xu, Liwen; Felsher, Dean W.; Chang, Howard Y.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an assay for interrogating protein–DNA interactions that is increasingly being used for drug target discovery and screening applications. Currently the complexity of the protocol and the amount of hands-on time required for this assay limits its use to low throughput applications; furthermore, variability in antibody quality poses an additional obstacle in scaling up ChIP for large scale screening purposes. To address these challenges, we report HTChIP,...

  8. The voluntary acceptance of HIV-antibody screening by intravenous drug users.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, G. A.; McClellan, T A

    1987-01-01

    Intravenous drug abusers in a methadone program in Minnesota were offered HIV-antibody screening to determine the degree of interest in screening and extent of infection. Thirty-nine (85 percent) were willing to be tested. Only seven refused. All patients were aware of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their high risk of exposure to the AIDS virus through sharing of injection paraphernalia. None reported exposure to additional risk factors, such as homosexual or bisexual activity ...

  9. Surface plasmon resonance biosensing: Approaches for screening and characterising antibodies for food diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakes, B J; Buijs, J; Elliott, C T; Campbell, K

    2016-08-15

    Research in biosensing approaches as alternative techniques for food diagnostics for the detection of chemical contaminants and foodborne pathogens has increased over the last twenty years. The key component of such tests is the biorecognition element whereby polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies still dominate the market. Traditionally the screening of sera or cell culture media for the selection of polyclonal or monoclonal candidate antibodies respectively has been performed by enzyme immunoassays. For niche toxin compounds, enzyme immunoassays can be expensive and/or prohibitive methodologies for antibody production due to limitations in toxin supply for conjugate production. Automated, self-regenerating, chip-based biosensors proven in food diagnostics may be utilised as rapid screening tools for antibody candidate selection. This work describes the use of both single channel and multi-channel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors for the selection and characterisation of antibodies, and their evaluation in shellfish tissue as standard techniques for the detection of domoic acid, as a model toxin compound. The key advantages in the use of these biosensor techniques for screening hybridomas in monoclonal antibody production were the real time observation of molecular interaction and rapid turnaround time in analysis compared to enzyme immunoassays. The multichannel prototype instrument was superior with 96 analyses completed in 2h compared to 12h for the single channel and over 24h for the ELISA immunoassay. Antibodies of high sensitivity, IC50's ranging from 4.8 to 6.9ng/mL for monoclonal and 2.3-6.0ng/mL for polyclonal, for the detection of domoic acid in a 1min analysis time were selected. Although there is a progression for biosensor technology towards low cost, multiplexed portable diagnostics for the food industry, there remains a place for laboratory-based SPR instrumentation for antibody development for food diagnostics as shown herein. PMID:27260435

  10. Early developability screen of therapeutic antibody candidates using Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoisier, Alexandra; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies represent one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical market. They are used in a broad range of disease fields, such as autoimmune diseases, cancer, inflammation and infectious diseases. The growth of the segment has necessitated development of new analytical platforms for faster and better antibody selection and characterization. Early quality control and risk assessment of biophysical parameters help prevent failure in later stages of antibody development, and thus can reduce costs and save time. Critical parameters such as aggregation, conformational stability, colloidal stability and hydrophilicity, are measured during the early phase of antibody generation and guide the selection process of the best lead candidates in terms of technical developability. We report on the use of a novel instrument (ActiPix/Viscosizer) for measuring both the hydrodynamic radius and the absolute viscosity of antibodies based on Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging. The looped microcapillary-based method combines low sample consumption, fast throughput and high precision compared to other conventional methods. From a random panel of 130 antibodies in the early selection process, we identified some with large hydrodynamic radius outside the normal distribution and others with non-Gaussian Taylor dispersion profiles. The antibodies with such abnormal properties were confirmed later in the selection process to show poor developability profiles. Moreover, combining these results with those of the viscosity measurements at high antibody concentrations allows screening, with limited amounts of materials, candidates with potential issues in pre-formulation development.

  11. 血清抗核抗体在视神经脊髓炎谱系疾病和多发性硬化中的分布%Distribution of antinuclear antibodies in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武雷; 黄德晖; 杨扬; 吴卫平

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究血清抗核抗体(ANAs)在视神经脊髓炎谱系疾病(NMOSDs)和多发性硬化(MS)中的分布.方法 收集2009-01-2011-03间在作者医院神经内科门诊和住院诊治并行血清ANAs筛查的NMOSDs患者74例,包括视神经脊髓炎(NMO)53例、复发长节段横贯性脊髓炎(rLETM)20例和复发性视神经炎(RON)1例,以及MS患者49例,统计其血清ANAs阳性率并进行分析.结果 NMOSDs患者血清ANAs阳性率为45.9%(34/74),其中ANA(本文中特指用间接免疫荧光法检测的抗核抗体)、抗dsDNA、抗着丝粒抗体(ACA)、抗SSA抗体、抗SSB抗体阳性率分别为36.5%(27/74)、5.4%(4/74)、1.4%(1/74)、27.0%(20/74)、9.5%(7/74),MS组仅1例ANAs阳性,阳性率为2.0%(1/49),两组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).血清ANAs诊断NMOSDs的灵敏度为45.9%,特异度达98.0%;NMO和rLETM患者血清ANAs阳性率分别为47.2%和40.0%,两者无统计学差异(P=0.635).结论 NMO和rLETM患者血清ANAs阳性率高于MS组,支持NMO和rLETM同属于NMOSDs的观点.ANAs有可能是NMOSDs和MS两组疾病的鉴别指标之一.%Objective To investigate the seroprevalence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Seventy-four patients with NMOSDs and 49 with MS were screened for serum ANAs and enrolled in the study. They were in hospital from January 2009 to March 2011. The NMOSDs group included 53 patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), 20 with recurrent longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (rLETM), 1 with recurrent optic neuritis (RON) and 49 with MS. Seroprevalence of ANAs was analyzed. Results Seroprevalence of ANAs in NMOSDs patients was 45.9% (34/74), of which the seroprevalence rates of ANA, anti-dsDNA, anti-centromere antibody (ACA), anti-SSA and anti-SSB were 36.5% (27/74), 5.4% (4/74), 1.4% (1/74), 27.0% (20/74) and 9. 5% (7/74), respectively. In the MS group, only 1 patient showed seropositive

  12. An antibody microarray, in multiwell plate format, for multiplex screening of foodborne pathogenic bacteria and biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intoxication and infection caused by foodborne pathogens are important problems in the United States, and screening tests for multiple pathogen detection have been developed because food producers are known reservoirs of multiple pathogens. We developed a 96-well microplate, multiplex antibody micr...

  13. Specificity and Sensitivity of Screening for Anti-HLA Antibodies in Kidney Allograft Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, H.; F. Nolasco; Santos, MC; Carvalho, F.; Galvão, MJ; Santos, AR; Bordalo, J; Ribeiro Santos, J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prospective testing for posttransplant circulating anti-HLA antibodies seems to be a critical noninvasive tool, but confirmatory data are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over the last 3 years, peritubular capillary (PTC) C4d deposition was prospectively sought by an immunofluorescence technique applied to frozen tissue in biopsies obtained for allograft dysfunction. Screening for circulating anti-HLA class I/II alloantibodies (AlloAb) by the flow cytometric test was performed ...

  14. Relationship between Human Immunoglobulin and Complement andthe Positive Results of Different Items in the Anti-extractable Nuclear Antigen with the Titer of Antinuclear Antibodies%抗核抗体滴度与IgG,C3,C4水平及抗ENA抗体结果的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒颖; 张平安; 魏新素; 叶芳丽; 周心房

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between immunoglobulin G(IgG) and complement 3 (C3) and C4 with the titer of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) ,and to investigate the correlation between the positive results of different items in the anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA) with the titer of ANA.Methods The author analysed the results of autoimmune detection of 1813 patients from May 2010 to June 2012.ANA were tested by indirect immunofluorescence method,anti-ENA antibody were tested by ELISA method,IgG and C3,C4 were determined by immunoturbidimetry.According to the different titers,the patients were divided into several groups,the titer of ANA=1:100 as group l,the titer of ANA=1: 160 as group 2,the titer of ANA=1:320 as group 3,the titer of ANA=1:640 as group 4,the titer of ANA=1:1 280 as group 5,the titer of ANA=1:3 200 as group 6, the titer of ANA>3 200 as group 7,120 cases randomly selected from ANA<1:100 group as group 8(negative group).The change of IgG and complement as well as the positive rates of the specific antibodies of anti-ENA were analyzed by SPSS17.0 software.Results When the titer of ANA≥1:100,the levels of IgG were obviously higher than that in the negative group (F=31.19, P<0.05).When the titer of ANA≥1:320, the levels of C3 and C4 were lower than that in the negative group(F=42.15,9.57,P<0.05).Overall anti-ENA positive rates increased significantly with the titer of ANA (χ2=86.67, P<0.05) ,and the positive rates of various antibodies were different.Anti-SSA and anti-SSB were the most frequent at ANA titers of 1 : 100 to 1 : 3 200,while anti-U1RNP were the most frequent at ANA titers of 1:3 200.Conclusion IgG and C3,C4 were related to the titer of ANA.The positive rates of the overall anti-ENA and some specific antibodies of anti-ENA were related to the titer of ANA.The clinician should pay attention to the value of ANA titer in autoimmune disease diagnosis.%目的 探讨抗核抗体(antinuclear antibodies,ANA)滴度与IgG,C3和C4的

  15. High prevalence of Hepatitis A virus antibody among Bangladeshi children and young adults warrants pre-immunization screening of antibody in HAV vaccination strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 465 subjects aged between 1 and 25 years were tested for antibody against hepatitis A virus (HAV [anti-HAV IgG and IgM] to determine the seroprevalence of HAV antibody and do a cost-benefit analysis for decision making about vaccination against HAV among the general population of Bangladesh. A high prevalence of anti-HAV (74.8% was observed in the study population; the whole study population was found positive for anti-HAV by the age of 25 years. On performing the cost-benefit analysis, it was found that the cost for vaccination with screening for anti-HAV was almost three times cheaper than vaccination without screening. Thus, in the present socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh, a policy based on screening for HAV antibody before vaccination is recommended.

  16. Analysis of Positive Human Immunodeifciency Virus (1+2) Antibodies in Preliminar y Screening:A Report of 394 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Fang; LIU Yan-yan; MA Cai-yun; WU Zhi-qi; XU Hua-guo; JIANG Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To comprehend the characteristics of patients with positive human immunodeifciency virus (HIV) (1+2) antibodies in the preliminary screening so as to provide basis for local HIV screening and prevention. Methods:Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum HIV (1 +2) antibodies in the preliminary screening, after which the positive serum was sent to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) confirmatory laboratory to be confirmed with western blotting method. Clinical data of patients with positive HIV antibodies in the preliminary screening in the outpatients and inpatients from 2006 to 2013 were collected and analyzed. Results:A total of 394 patients with positive serum HIV antibodies were screened initially, in which 214 were confirmed positive HIV, 13 were not certain and another 167 were negative. Patients with positive serum HIV antibodies in the preliminary screening were increased from 9 cases in 2006 to 94 cases in 2013, in which those conifrmed with positive HIV increased from 5 to 49. Patients with positive serum HIV antibodies in the preliminary screening and those conifrmed increased annually. In addition, patients confirmed with positive serum HIV antibodies were mainly males and aged 20 ~ 49 years, distributing in Departments of Infections, Respiratory, Dermatology, Hematology and Emergency, whereas those confirmed with negative HIV were mainly females and aged >20 years, distributing in Departments of Hematology, Maternity and Emergency as well as Reproductive Center. Conclusion: HIV infection is in low level with characteristics of annually increasing infection rate, male-orientated and wide-spread distribution in variuos departments, etc., knowing which will help guide the clinical practices and carry out the local HIV screening and prevention by relevant departments.

  17. Analysis of the results of antinuclear antibody and anti-ENA antibodies for 297 patients of autoimmune diseases with IIF and biochip technology%297例自身免疫性疾病ANA和抗ENA抗体联合检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭婕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features and significance of the samples which the expression of ANA is positive and the expression of anti‐ENA antibody is negative .Methods Detect ANA and anti‐ENA antibody of all the 297 samples by indi‐rect immunofluorescence method and biological chip technology ,repectively .And analyze the fluorescence karyotype of ANA posi‐tive specimens with double‐blind method .Screen the samples which anti‐ENA antibody express negative from ANA positive sam‐ples .Compare and analyze the fluorescent karyotype .Results Of all the 297 samples ,74 cases were positive for ANA ,the positive rate was 24 .9% (74/297) .The majority of patterns were speckled pattern (43 cases ,58 .1% ) ,cytoplasmic granular pattern (9 ca‐ses ,12 .2% ) ,and antibody to centromere antigen(9 cases ,12 .2% ) ,respectively .In 74 cases of ANA positive specimens ,ENA anti‐body the negative rate of ENA antibody is 17 .6% (13/74) .Of the 13 cases ,the most frequently occurred pattern was the speckled pattern(11 cases ,84 .6% ) ,the rate of cytoplasmic granular pattern and antibody to centromere antigen was 7 .7% (1/13) respec‐tively .Conclusion In the serum samples which express ANA positive and ENA antibody negative ,the rate of speckled pattern is significantly higher than the other patterns ,and far more than the rate of speckled pattern in the samples which express ENA anti‐body and ANA positive (52 .5% ) (chi‐square= 5 .018 ,P< 0 .05) ,with statistical significance .We consider the speckled pattern samples be in favour of discovering new antibodys of this kind of serum sample .%目的:分析其中ANA表达阳性而抗ENA抗体表达阴性的样本的检验学特征及意义。方法对297例样本运用间接免疫荧光法检测ANA ,生物芯片技术检测抗ENA抗体,并采用双盲法分析ANA阳性标本的荧光核型。从已知的ANA阳性患者血清中筛选其ENA表达均为阴性的患者血清,比对其荧光

  18. Tumour auto-antibody screening: performance of protein microarrays using SEREX derived antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplicity and potential of minimal invasive testing using serum from patients make auto-antibody based biomarkers a very promising tool for use in diagnostics of cancer and auto-immune disease. Although several methods exist for elucidating candidate-protein markers, immobilizing these onto membranes and generating so called macroarrays is of limited use for marker validation. Especially when several hundred samples have to be analysed, microarrays could serve as a good alternative since processing macro membranes is cumbersome and reproducibility of results is moderate. Candidate markers identified by SEREX (serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning) screenings of brain and lung tumour were used for macroarray and microarray production. For microarray production recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli by autoinduction and purified His-tag (histidine-tagged) proteins were then used for the production of protein microarrays. Protein arrays were hybridized with the serum samples from brain and lung tumour patients. Methods for the generation of microarrays were successfully established when using antigens derived from membrane-based selection. Signal patterns obtained by microarrays analysis of brain and lung tumour patients' sera were highly reproducible (R = 0.92-0.96). This provides the technical foundation for diagnostic applications on the basis of auto-antibody patterns. In this limited test set, the assay provided high reproducibility and a broad dynamic range to classify all brain and lung samples correctly. Protein microarray is an efficient means for auto-antibody-based detection when using SEREX-derived clones expressing antigenic proteins. Protein microarrays are preferred to macroarrays due to the easier handling and the high reproducibility of auto-antibody testing. Especially when using only a few microliters of patient samples protein microarrays are ideally suited for validation of auto-antibody

  19. Antinuclear Antibodies in Asthma Patients- A Special Asthma Phenotype?

    OpenAIRE

    Agache Ioana; Duca Liliana; Anghel Mariana; Pamfil Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    Several studies reported the appearance of asthma and autoimmune conditions in the same patient, but the clinical significance of this association was not yet assessed. One hundred asthmatic patients were observed for one year evolution with death, severe exacerbations, intake of > 1000 micrograms of beclometasone or equivalent (high ICS) and FEV1 decline >100 ml, in relation with ANA (ELISA), sputum and blood eosinophilia (EO), NSAID intolerance, BMI >25, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking stat...

  20. Intracellular and circulating neuronal antinuclear antibodies in human epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Iffland, Philip H.; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Trigunaite, Abhishek; Man, Shumei; Rasmussen, Peter; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Ghosh, Chaitali; Jørgensen, Trine N.; Janigro, Damir

    2013-01-01

    There are overwhelming data supporting the inflammatory origin of some epilepsies (e.g., Rasmussen's encephalitis and limbic encephalitis). Inflammatory epilepsies with an autoimmune component are characterized by autoantibodies against membrane-bound, intracellular or secreted proteins (e.g., voltage gated potassium channels). Comparably, little is known regarding autoantibodies targeting nuclear antigen. We tested the hypothesis that in addition to known epilepsy-related autoantigens, human...

  1. Antinuclear Antibodies in Asthma Patients- A Special Asthma Phenotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agache Ioana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported the appearance of asthma and autoimmune conditions in the same patient, but the clinical significance of this association was not yet assessed. One hundred asthmatic patients were observed for one year evolution with death, severe exacerbations, intake of > 1000 micrograms of beclometasone or equivalent (high ICS and FEV1 decline >100 ml, in relation with ANA (ELISA, sputum and blood eosinophilia (EO, NSAID intolerance, BMI >25, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking status and FEV1 After 1 year of observation, there were 5 deaths, 28 severe asthma exacerbations requiring hospitalisations, 24 cases requiring high inhaled corticosteroid intake, and 19 patients with fast FEV1 decline (>100 ml/year. Multiple regression analysis pointed out several different independent risk factors for severe asthma evolution: for death presence of ANA (P=0.037, NSAID intolerance (P100 ml ANA (P=0.006, sputum EO (P=0.037, BMI>25 (P=0.046 and NSAID intolerance (P=0.017The presence of ANA is an independent risk factor in asthma for evolution with death, severe exacerbations, high inhaled corticosteroid intake and FEV1 decline >100 ml.

  2. The rapid identification of elution conditions for therapeutic antibodies from cation-exchange chromatography resins using high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Paul; Tran, Benjamin; Williams, Christopher R; Wong, Marc; Zhao, Ti; Kelley, Brian D; Lester, Philip

    2016-02-12

    Cation-exchange chromatography is widely used in the purification of therapeutic antibodies, wherein parameters such as elution pH and counterion concentration require optimization for individual antibodies across different chromatography resins. With a growing number of antibodies in clinical trials and the pressure to expedite process development, we developed and automated a high-throughput batch-binding screen to more efficiently optimize elution conditions for cation-exchange chromatography resins. The screen maps the binding behavior of antibodies and impurities as a function of pH and counterion concentration in terms of a partition coefficient (Kp). Using this approach, the binding behavior of a library of antibodies was assessed on Poros 50HS and SP Sepharose Fast Flow resins. The diversity in binding behavior between antibodies and across resins translated to the requirement of a variable counterion concentration to elute each antibody. This requirement can be met through the use of a gradient elution. However, a gradient of increasing counterion concentration spans the transition from binding to non-binding for impurities as well as the antibody, resulting in the elution of impurities within the antibody elution peak. Step elution conditions that selectively elute the antibody while retaining impurities on the resin can now be rapidly identified using our high-throughput approach. We demonstrate that by correlating antibody Kp to elution pool volume and yield on packed-bed columns and through the calculation of a separation factor, we can efficiently optimize step elution conditions that maximize impurity clearance and yield for each antibody. PMID:26803905

  3. High throughput screening for antibody induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity in early antibody discovery using homogeneous macroconfocal fluorescence imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Arnout F.; Bosch, Martijn; de Weers, Michel; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.

    2010-01-01

    Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) represents an important Fc-mediated effector function of antibodies and is a quality often sought in candidates for therapeutic antibody development in cancer. Antibodies inducing potent CDC are relatively rare as the ability to induce CDC is strongly dependen

  4. Performance characteristics of two automated solid-phase red cell adherence systems for pretransfusion antibody screening: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillen, K; Caron, J; Murphy, K

    2012-01-01

    Out institution has implemented two instruments, the Galileo and the Echo, that use different solid-phase red cell adherence assays for antibody screening in pretransfusion compatibility testing.During the initial implementation of these two instruments, we noticed very different problems: falsely positive results on the Galileo, and falsely negative results and lack of reproducibility on the Echo. Comparison of falsely positive antibody screen results from approximately equivalent numbers of samples run on the Galileo and samples tested by standard manual tube technique using low-ionic-strength saline enhancement showed a false-positive rate of 1.4 percent on the Galileo (defined as a positive screen with a negative panel). Testing using the Echo identified four cases of falsely negative antibody screens, (defined as a negative screen on a patient sample subsequently shown to be positive by the same method). In addition, we note a lack of reproducibility on the Echo, which emphasizes the importance of replicate testing during validation of automated antibody screening platforms.

  5. Construction of human Fab library and screening of a single-domain antibody of amyloid-beta 42 oligomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuanning Yuan; Minge Du; Yiwen Chen; Fei Dou

    2013-01-01

    Screening humanized antibodies from a human Fab phage display library is an effective and quick method to obtain beta-amyloid oligomers. Thus, the present study prepared amyloid-beta 42 oli-gomers and constructed a naïve human Fab phage display library based on blood samples from six healthy people. After three rounds of biopanning in vitro, a human single-domain antibody that spe-cifical y recognized amyloid-beta 42 oligomers was identified. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated this antibody bound specifical y to human amyloid-beta 42 te-tramer and nonamer, but not the monomer or high molecular weight oligomers. This study suc-cessful y constructed a human phage display library and screened a single-domain antibody that specifical y recognized amyloid-beta 42 oligomers.

  6. Maintenance of nuclear knowledge in an antinuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work authors present the maintenance of nuclear knowledge in an antinuclear environment in Austria. Participation of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in the Atominstitut in different courses, in research projects and education is presented.

  7. Antibody screening tests variably overestimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected adults in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S; Adjei-Asante, K; Appiah, L; Adinku, D; Beloukas, A; Atkins, M; Sarfo, S F; Chadwick, D; Phillips, R O; Geretti, A M

    2015-05-01

    HIV coinfection with HCV has been poorly studied in sub-Saharan Africa, and the reliability of available seroprevalence estimates remains uncertain. The study aim was to determine HCV RNA prevalence in HIV-infected subjects receiving care in Kumasi, Ghana, and relate the findings to HCV antibody detection. From a population of 1520 HIV-infected adults, all HBsAg-positive subjects (n = 236) and a random subset of HBsAg-negative subject (n = 172) were screened for HCV RNA using pooled plasma; positive samples were genotyped by core and NS5B sequencing. HCV antibodies were detected by three commercial screening assays and confirmed by the line immunoassay. HCV RNA was detected in 4/408 subjects (1.0%, 95% confidence interval 0.0-1.9%), comprising 3/236 (1.3%; 0.0-2.8%) HBsAg-positive and 1/172 (0.6%; 0.0-1.8%) HBsAg-negative subjects. HCV RNA-positive subjects showed reactivity in all three antibody screening assays. Among HCV RNA-negative subjects, 5/67 (7.5%), 5/67 (7.5%) and 19/67 (28.4%) showed antibody reactivity by each screening assay, respectively, including two (3.0%) with reactivity by all three assays. Only one sample (1.5%) had confirmed antibody reactivity by line immunoassay indicating past HCV infection. HCV-positive subjects (three males, two females) were aged 30-46 years, by questionnaire-based interview reported surgical procedures and blood transfusion as risk factors for infection. HCV genotypes were 2 (subtypes 2j, 2l, 2k/unassigned) and 1 (subtype unassigned). Without further testing, HCV antibody screening assays variably overestimated HCV prevalence among HIV-infected subjects in Ghana. These findings inform the interpretation of previous seroprevalence estimates based upon screening assays alone.

  8. Bioreactor process parameter screening utilizing a Plackett-Burman design for a model monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarabi, Cyrus D; Schiel, John E; Lute, Scott C; Chavez, Brittany K; Boyne, Michael T; Brorson, Kurt A; Khan, Mansoor A; Read, Erik K

    2015-06-01

    Consistent high-quality antibody yield is a key goal for cell culture bioprocessing. This endpoint is typically achieved in commercial settings through product and process engineering of bioreactor parameters during development. When the process is complex and not optimized, small changes in composition and control may yield a finished product of less desirable quality. Therefore, changes proposed to currently validated processes usually require justification and are reported to the US FDA for approval. Recently, design-of-experiments-based approaches have been explored to rapidly and efficiently achieve this goal of optimized yield with a better understanding of product and process variables that affect a product's critical quality attributes. Here, we present a laboratory-scale model culture where we apply a Plackett-Burman screening design to parallel cultures to study the main effects of 11 process variables. This exercise allowed us to determine the relative importance of these variables and identify the most important factors to be further optimized in order to control both desirable and undesirable glycan profiles. We found engineering changes relating to culture temperature and nonessential amino acid supplementation significantly impacted glycan profiles associated with fucosylation, β-galactosylation, and sialylation. All of these are important for monoclonal antibody product quality.

  9. Screening Response to Hepatitis C Virus Antibodies among Diabetic Patients Attending UITH Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Ndako

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM type 2; hence this study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C Virus (HCV among diabetic patients attending University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH. A total number of one hundred and eighty diabetic patients made up of seventy five males (41.7% and one hundred and five females (58.3% were recruited for the study. Structured questionnaire on demographic data and risk factors for HCV was administered to the participants. The sera of all the subjects were assayed for antibodies to HCV using a fourth generation enzyme linked immunosorbent Assay [Forte Diagnostic Limited], All the sera were tested for antibodies to Hepatitis C virus by ELISA method. The overall prevalence of HCV infection among diabetic patients was 5.0%. Of the nine participants’ positive for anti-HCV antibodies, three were males (1.7% while six were females (3.3%. Although more female attended the diabetic clinic, there was no significant difference between HCV infection and sex (p = 0.603; p>0.05. The prevalence of HCV infection was highest in the 40-60 age categories. Two of the seropositive individuals had elevated transaminases, with one of the two being an alcoholic consumer. Type 2 diabetes is a debilitating disease condition especially in individuals above 30 years of age, with these scenario it has become very vital for screening exercise to be carried out so as to determine the prevalence rate of HCV among diabetic patient.

  10. The clinical study on the risk of permanent hair dye use for connective tissue disease with positive antinuclear antibodies%永久性染发剂与抗核抗体阳性结缔组织病发病风险的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫玉芳; 魏巧凤; 王秀花; 吕明; 李兴福

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of permanent hair dye use for connective tissue disease ( CTD ) with positive antinuclear antibodies ( ANA ).Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study to analyze 440 CTD patients from the department of our hospital.Four hundreds and forty patients' relatives or friends who were free from any CTD were selected as controls.Patients and controls were matched in sex and age.A face-to-face interview was adopted to finish questionnaires about subjects' demographic data and the use of permanent hair dye.Data about the duration,frequency,times of usage and allergy related to hair dye were collected.Medical history was also reviewed,such as the diagnosis,disease course,primary symptoms,serum tests and organ involvements.Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 17.0 software using x2 test and Logistic regression.Results The association between the use of permanent hair dye and CTD did not reach statistical significance (OR=1.282,95%CI 0.966-1.700,P=0.085 ),when the relationship of hair dye use with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was tested,the same result (OR=1.092,95%CI 0.795-1.500,P=0.587 ) could be revealed.Conclusion This preliminary study has shown that the use of permanent hair dye couldn't induce the occurrence of CTD.%目的 探讨使用永久性染发剂与抗核抗体阳性结缔组织病(CTD)发病的风险.方法 采用病例对照研究,对440例CTD患者和性别、年龄相匹配的440名健康的患者家属或朋友进行比较分析.采用面对面的交谈,以调查问卷的方式记录研究对象的基本信息和染发信息(包括染发时间、染发频率、染发次数及与染发相关的过敏).记录病例组的现病史,包括疾病的诊断、病程、初发症状、各脏器受累情况及各项实验室检查.应用SPSS 17.0软件进行x2检验和Logistic回归分析.结果 使用永久性染发剂与CTD发病无明确因果关系[比值比(OR)=1.282,95%可信区间(CI)0.966~1

  11. REAL-Select: full-length antibody display and library screening by surface capture on yeast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rhiel

    Full Text Available We describe a novel approach named REAL-Select for the non-covalent display of IgG-molecules on the surface of yeast cells for the purpose of antibody engineering and selection. It relies on the capture of secreted native full-length antibodies on the cell surface via binding to an externally immobilized ZZ domain, which tightly binds antibody Fc. It is beneficial for high-throughput screening of yeast-displayed IgG-libraries during antibody discovery and development. In a model experiment, antibody-displaying yeast cells were isolated from a 1:1,000,000 mixture with control cells confirming the maintenance of genotype-phenotype linkage. Antibodies with improved binding characteristics were obtained by affinity maturation using REAL-Select, demonstrating the ability of this system to display antibodies in their native form and to detect subtle changes in affinity by flow cytometry. The biotinylation of the cell surface followed by functionalization with a streptavidin-ZZ fusion protein is an approach that is independent of the genetic background of the antibody-producing host and therefore can be expected to be compatible with other eukaryotic expression hosts such as P. pastoris or mammalian cells.

  12. Frequencies and Specificities of “Enzyme-Only” Detected Erythrocyte Alloantibodies in Patients Hospitalized in Austria: Is an Enzyme Test Required for Routine Red Blood Cell Antibody Screening?

    OpenAIRE

    Dietmar Enko; Claudia Habres; Franz Wallner; Barbara Mayr; Gabriele Halwachs-Baumann

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies and specificities of “enzyme-only” detected red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in the routine antibody screening and antibody identification in patients hospitalized in Austria. Routine blood samples of 2420 patients were investigated. The antibody screening was performed with a 3-cell panel in the low-ionic strength saline- (LISS-) indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 3-cell panel fully automated on th...

  13. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  14. A review of countermeasures against antinuclear campaign in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In practical terms, the first antinuclear movement in Korea was initiated in 1982 when the Institute of Korea Anti pollution Problem was established by a group of dissentent, mainly the religious and students. Antinuclear movement has become serious social issue with increasing numbers of groups, and the influence has been expanded up to the general public. One of the notable characteristics of these groups is 'collaborative action' to demonstrate their capacity and to attract public's attention. In 1994, antinuclear groups extended the collaborative action to the international organizations, and two major international antinuclear events were held in my country - Visit of Greenpeace and No-Nuke Asian Forum. According to a survey conducted in October 1994, public support for additional construction of nuclear power plants has tended to rise from 61.1 percent in 1989 to 73.7 percent in 1994. Even though many Korean still feel a strong sense of attachment to the place they five and oppose the construction of nuclear facilities near their backyards they do not show keen interest on antinuclear activities in general. The lesson we learn is that wars are not -von by defensive strategies, however soundly based. A merely defensive response to antinuclear group will not do. We must concern ourselves with positive measures, based on our own initiatives both to maximize and promote the advantage of nuclear energy. It was reconfirmed that building trust and creating positive relationships with the media are the very essential task to achieve in nuclear PA activity.Advanced preparedness depending on the opponent's strategy and concentration of available resources ill greatly helpful to win the game

  15. Stemming the tide of anti-nuclear activism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having taught nuclear physics at senior university level I have long been concerned by the gross misinformation dealt to the public on such matters. Having no connection with the nuclear industry I am uniquely placed to counter the ceaseless anti-nuclear propaganda in the media. Therefore I have embarked on a personal project to publish factual booklets for informing readers of the real issues. The first provides answers to forty widespread anti-nuclear claims, and a second one treats nuclear radiation in a non-alarmist way. Two more, on the nuclear fuel cycle and on the realities of alternative energy generation, are in preparation

  16. Production of soluble recombinant proteins with Kell, Duffy and Lutheran blood group antigen activity, and their use in screening human sera for Kell, Duffy and Lutheran antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgwell, K; Dixey, J; Scott, M L

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to show that soluble recombinant (sr) proteins can mimic blood group antigens and be used to screen human sera for blood-group-specific antibodies. The blood of all pregnant women and pretransfusion patients should be screened for blood-group-specific antibodies to identify and monitor pregnancies at risk of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN), and to prevent haemolytic transfusion reactions. Current antibody screening and identification methods use human red blood cell panels, which can complicate antibody identification if more than one antibody specificity is present. COS-7 cells were transfected to produce sr forms of the extracellular domains of the red blood cell membrane proteins that express Kell, Duffy or Lutheran blood group antigens. These sr proteins were used to screen for and identify anti-Kell, anti-Duffy or anti-Lutheran blood-group-specific allo-antibodies in human sera by haemagglutination inhibition and in solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). There is a positive correlation (correlation coefficient 0.605, P value 0.002) between antibody titre by standard indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and signal intensity in the ELISA test. This work shows that sr proteins can mimic blood group antigens and react with human allogeneic antibodies, and that such proteins could be used to develop solid-phase, high-throughput blood group antibody screening and identification platforms. PMID:17725551

  17. A Cell-Based Internalization and Degradation Assay with an Activatable Fluorescence-Quencher Probe as a Tool for Functional Antibody Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Peter Corbett; Shen, Yang; Snavely, Marshall D; Hiraga, Kaori

    2015-08-01

    For the development of therapeutically potent anti-cancer antibody drugs, it is often important to identify antibodies that internalize into cells efficiently, rather than just binding to antigens on the cell surface. Such antibodies can mediate receptor endocytosis, resulting in receptor downregulation on the cell surface and potentially inhibiting receptor function and tumor growth. Also, efficient antibody internalization is a prerequisite for the delivery of cytotoxic drugs into target cells and is critical for the development of antibody-drug conjugates. Here we describe a novel activatable fluorescence-quencher pair to quantify the extent of antibody internalization and degradation in the target cells. In this assay, candidate antibodies were labeled with a fluorescent dye and a quencher. Fluorescence is inhibited outside and on the surface of cells, but activated upon endocytosis and degradation of the antibody. This assay enabled the development of a process for rapid characterization of candidate antibodies potentially in a high-throughput format. By employing an activatable secondary antibody, primary antibodies in purified form or in culture supernatants can be screened for internalization and degradation. Because purification of candidate antibodies is not required, this method represents a direct functional screen to identify antibodies that internalize efficiently early in the discovery process. PMID:26024945

  18. HIV抗体初筛实验室的管理%Management of HIV Antibody Primary Screening Lab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕永强; 徐宏亮

    2009-01-01

    从实验室建设、人员配备与培训、仪器管理、文件管理、试剂管理、质量控制、安全防护等方面对HIV抗体初筛实验室的管理进行总结,指出,规范化的实验室管理是加强HIV抗体初筛实验室质量控制的有效手段.%Relative problems in the management of HIV antibody primary screening lab are discussed, including laborato-ry building, staffing and training, equipment management, document management, reagent management, quality control and security protection. It is pointed out that the standardized laboratory management is an important part of the HIV antibody primary screening lab's quality Control.

  19. Production of ultrasensitive generic monoclonal antibodies against major aflatoxins using a modified two-step screening procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Daohong [Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062 (China); Li Peiwu [Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062 (China); Quality Inspection and Test Center for Oilseeds and Products of Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430062 (China)], E-mail: peiwuli@oilcrops.cn; Zhang Qi; Zhang Wen; Huang Yanling; Ding Xiaoxia; Jiang Jun [Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062 (China); Quality Inspection and Test Center for Oilseeds and Products of Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2009-03-16

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) cross-reactive with four major aflatoxins were achieved using a modified two-step screening procedure. The first step was twice modified indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and resulted in positive hybridomas and hapten-specific antibodies. The modified indirect competitive ELISA (ciELISA) was the second step, in which the competition incubation time was decreased to 30 min, aflatoxin B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1} and G{sub 2} were all used as competitors, the concentrations of four aflatoxins were gradiently decreased in each screening. 2-3 subclonings were performed after every modified fusion and resulted in eight hybridomas that secreted antibodies with good cross-reactivity and high affinity to four aflatoxins. Five McAbs were chosen for further analysis. Of the five, two antibodies had similar reaction efficiency with aflatoxin B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and G{sub 1} but showed a weak cross-reaction to G{sub 2}. Another two had almost identical reaction capability with four aflatoxins. One clone 1C11 exhibited the highest sensitivity for all four aflatoxins. The concentrations of aflatoxin B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1} and G{sub 2} at 50% inhibition for 1C11 were 1.2, 1.3, 2.2 and 18.0 pg mL{sup -1} respectively. This is the most sensitive for all four major aflatoxins described so far. The results indicated that the modified two-step screening procedure had superiority and these antibodies could be used for simultaneous analysis of total aflatoxins.

  20. Prevention of Post-Transfusion Hepatitis by Screening of Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Healthy Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Shastry, S.; S S Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Background Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions. Objective To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors Subjects and Methods The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral hospital. A total of...

  1. PREVENTION OF POST-TRANSFUSION HEPATITIS BY SCREENING OF ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS

    OpenAIRE

    Shamee Shastry; Sudha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions. Objective: To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral h...

  2. Abstracts of 3. congress of global anti-nuclear alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3 congress of global anti-nuclear alliance was held on 18-20 May, 2000 in Astana. There were 55 reports on different aspects of nuclear disarmament; nuclear safeguards; safe operation of nuclear power plants; rehabilitation of population and lands, damaged from many-years tests in Semipalatinsk site; radiobiological monitoring of ecosystems and others presented at the congress

  3. Understanding ForteBio's Sensors for High-Throughput Kinetic and Epitope Screening for Purified Antibodies and Yeast Culture Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Mitchell, Scott; Lynaugh, Heather; Brown, Michael; Nobrega, R Paul; Zhi, Xiaoyong; Sun, Tingwan; Caffry, Isabelle; Cao, Yuan; Yang, Rong; Burnina, Irina; Xu, Yingda; Estep, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Real-time and label-free antibody screening systems are becoming more popular because of the increasing output of purified antibodies and antibody supernatant from many antibody discovery platforms. However, the properties of the biosensor can greatly affect the kinetic and epitope binning results generated by these label-free screening systems. ForteBio human-specific ProA, anti-human IgG quantitation (AHQ), anti-human Fc capture (AHC) sensors, and custom biotinylated-anti-human Fc capture (b-AHFc) sensors were evaluated in terms of loading ability, regeneration, kinetic characterization, and epitope binning with both purified IgG and IgG supernatant. AHC sensors proved unreliable for kinetic or binning assays at times, whereas AHQ sensors showed poor loading and regeneration abilities. ProA sensors worked well with both purified IgG and IgG supernatant. However, the interaction between ProA sensors and the Fab region of the IgG with VH3 germline limited the application of ProA sensors, especially in the epitope binning experiment. In an attempt to generate a biosensor type that would be compatible with a variety of germlines and sample types, we found that the custom b-AHFc sensors appeared to be robust working with both purified IgG and IgG supernatant, with little evidence of sensor-related artifacts.

  4. Antibody-Array-Based Proteomic Screening of Serum Markers in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Discovery Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianfu; Ding, Huihua; Han, Jie; Arriens, Cristina; Wei, Chungwen; Han, Weilu; Pedroza, Claudia; Jiang, Shan; Anolik, Jennifer; Petri, Michelle; Sanz, Ignacio; Saxena, Ramesh; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-07-01

    A discovery study was carried out where serum samples from 22 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and matched healthy controls were hybridized to antibody-coated glass slide arrays that interrogated the level of 274 human proteins. On the basis of these screens, 48 proteins were selected for ELISA-based validation in an independent cohort of 28 SLE patients. Whereas AXL, ferritin, and sTNFRII were significantly elevated in patients with active lupus nephritis (LN) relative to SLE patients who were quiescent, other molecules such as OPN, sTNFRI, sTNFRII, IGFBP2, SIGLEC5, FAS, and MMP10 exhibited the capacity to distinguish SLE from healthy controls with ROC AUC exceeding 90%, all with p serum markers were next tested in a cohort of 45 LN patients, where serum was obtained at the time of renal biopsy. In these patients, sTNFRII exhibited the strongest correlation with eGFR (r = -0.50, p = 0.0014) and serum creatinine (r = 0.57, p = 0.0001), although AXL, FAS, and IGFBP2 also correlated with these clinical measures of renal function. When concurrent renal biopsies from these patients were examined, serum FAS, IGFBP2, and TNFRII showed significant positive correlations with renal pathology activity index, while sTNFRII displayed the highest correlation with concurrently scored renal pathology chronicity index (r = 0.57, p = 0.001). Finally, in a longitudinal cohort of seven SLE patients examined at ∼3 month intervals, AXL, ICAM-1, IGFBP2, SIGLEC5, sTNFRII, and VCAM-1 demonstrated the ability to track with concurrent disease flare, with significant subject to subject variation. In summary, serum proteins have the capacity to identify patients with active nephritis, flares, and renal pathology activity or chronicity changes, although larger longitudinal cohort studies are warranted. PMID:27211902

  5. Clinical characteristics of children with positive anti-SSA/SSB antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lin, Yu-Tsan; Lee, Jyh-Hong; Wang, Li-Chieh; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to characterize the manifestations of clinical symptoms and signs, primary rheumatic diseases, and other autoantibodies in pediatric patients with positive anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies. Subjects under age 18 with positive anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies were screened and enrolled in a tertiary hospital in Taiwan. Data were collected via medical records,including age, gender, onset of the primary rheumatic disease, clinical symptoms and signs, and the medication used. Schirmer test for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) screening was performed in all enrolled patients. Among twenty enrolled subjects, seventeen of them had systemic lupus erythematosus; four of them were diagnosed as SS with positive Schirmer test. In addition to antinuclear antibodies and anti-DNA antibodies, other common autoantibodies were anti-RNP antibodies (50 %) and anti-Sm antibodies(30 %). The most common symptoms were arthritis (60 %)followed by malar rash (40 %). In conclusion, we observed that a low proportion of childhood SS (4/20) exists in our patients with positive SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies. It is suggested that clinicians should focus more on the clinical symptoms in these patients, rather than undertaking invasive diagnostic interventions to rule out Sjögren's syndrome.

  6. Antibody levels after regular childhood vaccinations in the immunological screening of children with recurrent otitis media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiertsema, S.P.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Heerbeek, N. van; Hof, S. van den; Berbers, G.A.; Rijkers, G.T.

    2004-01-01

    Recurrent otitis media may be related to defects in specific antibody production, as suggested previously. This might be reflected in lower antibody responses to vaccinations administered in the context of the national childhood vaccination program in children suffering from recurrent otitis media.

  7. Optimizing selection of large animals for antibody production by screening immune response to standard vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary K; Fridy, Peter C; Keegan, Sarah; Chait, Brian T; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies made in large animals are integral to many biomedical research endeavors. Domesticated herd animals like goats, sheep, donkeys, horses and camelids all offer distinct advantages in antibody production. However, their cost of use is often prohibitive, especially where poor antigen response is commonplace; choosing a non-responsive animal can set a research program back or even prevent experiments from moving forward entirely. Over the course of production of antibodies from llamas, we found that some animals consistently produced a higher humoral antibody response than others, even to highly divergent antigens, as well as to their standard vaccines. Based on our initial data, we propose that these "high level responders" could be pre-selected by checking antibody titers against common vaccines given to domestic farm animals. Thus, time and money can be saved by reducing the chances of getting poor responding animals and minimizing the use of superfluous animals.

  8. Optimizing selection of large animals for antibody production by screening immune response to standard vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary K; Fridy, Peter C; Keegan, Sarah; Chait, Brian T; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies made in large animals are integral to many biomedical research endeavors. Domesticated herd animals like goats, sheep, donkeys, horses and camelids all offer distinct advantages in antibody production. However, their cost of use is often prohibitive, especially where poor antigen response is commonplace; choosing a non-responsive animal can set a research program back or even prevent experiments from moving forward entirely. Over the course of production of antibodies from llamas, we found that some animals consistently produced a higher humoral antibody response than others, even to highly divergent antigens, as well as to their standard vaccines. Based on our initial data, we propose that these "high level responders" could be pre-selected by checking antibody titers against common vaccines given to domestic farm animals. Thus, time and money can be saved by reducing the chances of getting poor responding animals and minimizing the use of superfluous animals. PMID:26775851

  9. Clinical phenotype associations with various types of anti-dsDNA antibodies in patients with recent onset of rheumatic symptoms. Results from a multicentre observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compagno, Michele; Rekvig, Ole P; Bengtsson, Anders A;

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Despite anti-dsDNA antibodies constitute a wide range of specificities, they are considered as the hallmark for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical phenotypes associated with anti-dsDNA antibodies, independently of any clinical diagnoses. METHODS......: Patients with recent onset of any rheumatic symptoms were screened for antinuclear antibodies (ANA). All ANA-positive and matching ANA-negative patients were examined, and their clinical phenotypes were registered, using a systematic chart formulated after consensus between the participating centres. All...... patients were tested for different anti-dsDNA antibody specificities with assays habitually used in each participating laboratory. Crithidia Luciliae Immuno Fluorescence Test (CLIFT) was performed three times (with two different commercial kits); solid and solution phase ELISA were performed four times...

  10. Anti-ENA antibody profile in hepatitis C patients undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond G Batchoun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is increasing all over the world, especially among hemodialysis patients. HCV is one of the major autoantibody inducing viruses, where anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA, anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA, anti-liver kidney microsome antibodies (LKM-1, and rheumatoid factor (RF have been related to HCV. Few studies have investigated the presence of anti-extractable nuclear antigens (ENA antibodies in chronic liver diseases, especially in chronic hepatitis C cases, but none investigated its immunostimulation role in hemodialysis units. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of HCV among chronic kidney disease- Stage 5 (CKD5 patients undergoing hemodialysis and the prevalence of ENA antibodies among them. Sera of 134 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis, were screened for HCV antibodies and ENA antibodies profile, using ELISA and Immunoblot technique. 41 HCV-positive blood bank donors were used as controls. Sixty-four (47.7% of 134 patients undergoing hemodialysis were infected with HCV. Thirty-three (51.6% of 64 patients with HCV infection undergoing hemodialysis had anti-ENA antibodies: 9 (27.3% showed anti-SSA antibodies and 22 (66.7% had anti-SSB antibodies. The prevalence of anti-ENA antibodies was significantly higher in the patients with HCV infection, undergoing hemodialysis, compared with both control groups (hepatitis C-positive blood bank donors and hepatitis C-negative patients undergoing hemodialysis. Seventeen of 33 HCV antibodies-positive males undergoing hemodialysis had anti-ENA antibodies, compared with 16 of 31 females, indicating no sex related difference. This study emphasizes the high prevalence of HCV infection in our hemodialysis patients, comparable to that of other Middle Eastern countries, but higher than Western ones. A strong association was observed between anti-HCV positivity and hemodialysis duration, as well as anti-ENA antibody profile. However

  11. Anti-ENA antibody profile in hepatitis C patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchoun, Raymond G; Al-Najdawi, Malek A; Al-Taamary, Sameh

    2011-07-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is increasing all over the world, especially among hemodialysis patients. HCV is one of the major autoantibody inducing viruses, where anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), anti-liver kidney microsome antibodies (LKM-1), and rheumatoid factor (RF) have been related to HCV. Few studies have investigated the presence of anti-extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) antibodies in chronic liver diseases, especially in chronic hepatitis C cases, but none investigated its immunostimulation role in hemodialysis units. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of HCV among chronic kidney disease- Stage 5 (CKD5) patients undergoing hemodialysis and the prevalence of ENA antibodies among them. Sera of 134 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis, were screened for HCV antibodies and ENA antibodies profile, using ELISA and Immunoblot technique. 41 HCV-positive blood bank donors were used as controls. Sixty-four (47.7%) of 134 patients undergoing hemodialysis were infected with HCV. Thirty-three (51.6%) of 64 patients with HCV infection undergoing hemodialysis had anti-ENA antibodies: 9 (27.3%) showed anti-SSA antibodies and 22 (66.7%) had anti-SSB antibodies. The prevalence of anti-ENA antibodies was significantly higher in the patients with HCV infection, undergoing hemodialysis, compared with both control groups (hepatitis C-positive blood bank donors and hepatitis C-negative patients undergoing hemodialysis). Seventeen of 33 HCV antibodies-positive males undergoing hemodialysis had anti-ENA antibodies, compared with 16 of 31 females, indicating no sex related difference. This study emphasizes the high prevalence of HCV infection in our hemodialysis patients, comparable to that of other Middle Eastern countries, but higher than Western ones. A strong association was observed between anti-HCV positivity and hemodialysis duration, as well as anti-ENA antibody profile. However, these

  12. Screening for uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1989-03-01

    Three hundred and fifteen patients with anterior uveitis associated with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) were studied in order to identify the various risk factors for uveitis. Girls were more susceptible to uveitis than boys by a ratio of 3:1. In 94% of cases the uveitis was diagnosed after the development of arthritis. The risk of uveitis was small after seven or more years had elapsed from the onset of arthritis. Patients with pauciarticular onset JCA had the highest risk of uveitis and systemic onset patients the least risk. The presence of circulating antinuclear antibody was also an important marker for an increased risk of uveitis. A regimen for routine screening of patients is suggested.

  13. Factors Associated with Participation in HIV Antibody Screening and Results Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Anthony J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Identified differences among 110 gay and bisexual men who decided whether to be tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and, if so, whether to return for results. Fifty percent refused testing. Of those tested, only 35% returned to obtain test results. Education was significantly and inversely related to being tested and to…

  14. PREVENTION OF POST-TRANSFUSION HEPATITIS BY SCREENING OF ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions.

    Objective: To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors

    Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral hospital. A total of 12,232 volunteers after passing through the stringent criteria were selected for blood donation. Donor samples were tested for all mandatory transfusion transmissible infections and anti HBc IgM (Monolisa HBc IgM PLUS:BIO-RAD, France. Reactive results were confirmed by repeat testing in duplicate. Donor data was analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square test was used to calculate the significance of difference between the groups.

    Results:A total of 12,232 healthy voluntary blood donors were recruited. Majority (93.4% were males. Median age of donor population was 26 years (range: 18-60 years. Eighty six (0.7% were positive for HBsAg, which comes under “low prevalence (<2% zone” as per WHO. On screening for HBcAg Ig M, 15 (0.1% were found to be positive and none were HBsAg reactive. There was no significance of difference in the mean age between reactive and non-reactive donors.

    Conclusion:Evaluating the usefulness of anti-HBc screening is critical. Anti HBcAg IgM screening may be included in routine screening of donors as it is an indicator of occult HBV during window period. The cost and the unnecessary wastage of the blood units when they are positive for anti HBsAg along with the core antibody need to be studied.

     

  15. Specificity of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody screening in patients with haematological malignancies at risk for fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duettmann, Wiebke; Koidl, Christoph; Krause, Robert; Lackner, Gertrude; Woelfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Combination of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody (Mn/A-Mn) testing has been reported a useful and specific strategy for diagnosis of invasive Candida infections (ICIs). We evaluated Mn/A-Mn as a screening tool in patients with haematological malignancies. This clinical prospective study was performed at the Division of Hematology, Medical University Graz, Austria between July and December 2012. Patients at risk for fungal infection were included into the study and twice weekly screened by Mn/A-Mn testing, yielding 650 samples. Of overall 67 patients 66 had no evidence for ICI. From those, 153/640 serum samples (23.9%) were positive for mannan Ab, and nine (1.4%) for Ag. Most false positive Ab results were observed among 375 samples from patients without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (34.9% resulted positive). Combined specificity of Mn/A-Mn was 74.8%. Of 10 samples obtained in the single patient with candidemia, five were positive for mannan Ag (from the day of diagnosis up to 40 days after detection of candidemia) and none for Ab. In conclusion, mannan Ab screening yielded a high number of false positive results. While mannan Ag was found to be highly specific and may have potential for diagnostic driven testing, mannan Ab testing cannot be recommended based on our study results. PMID:26916753

  16. Specificity of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody screening in patients with haematological malignancies at risk for fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duettmann, Wiebke; Koidl, Christoph; Krause, Robert; Lackner, Gertrude; Woelfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Combination of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody (Mn/A-Mn) testing has been reported a useful and specific strategy for diagnosis of invasive Candida infections (ICIs). We evaluated Mn/A-Mn as a screening tool in patients with haematological malignancies. This clinical prospective study was performed at the Division of Hematology, Medical University Graz, Austria between July and December 2012. Patients at risk for fungal infection were included into the study and twice weekly screened by Mn/A-Mn testing, yielding 650 samples. Of overall 67 patients 66 had no evidence for ICI. From those, 153/640 serum samples (23.9%) were positive for mannan Ab, and nine (1.4%) for Ag. Most false positive Ab results were observed among 375 samples from patients without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (34.9% resulted positive). Combined specificity of Mn/A-Mn was 74.8%. Of 10 samples obtained in the single patient with candidemia, five were positive for mannan Ag (from the day of diagnosis up to 40 days after detection of candidemia) and none for Ab. In conclusion, mannan Ab screening yielded a high number of false positive results. While mannan Ag was found to be highly specific and may have potential for diagnostic driven testing, mannan Ab testing cannot be recommended based on our study results.

  17. The anti-nuclear credo - for or against?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Fukushima accident, the nuclear debate, dominated by the ecologists, seems to be closed. This book opens again the discussion about sensible topics: safety of facilities, wastes management, steps and cost of power plants dismantling, relation between civil nuclear industry and proliferation, nuclear energy cost, etc. In this book, the author tones down the reasoning of the anti-nuclear movement and supplies the necessary information to the reader to let him evaluate himself the pros and cons of this energy source. In a future world dominated by energy shortage and global warming, this book aims at analysing the energy question with lucidity and courage

  18. Anti-enrofloxacin Antibody Production by Using Enrofloxacin-screened HSA as an Immunogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chune; LIN Hong; CAO Limin; JIANG Jie

    2005-01-01

    A two-step zero-length cross-linking procedure using active esters was successfully adopted for conjugating enrofloxacin (EF) to human serum albumin (HSA). The derived conjugate was characterized by UV spectrum and then used for immunization of BALB/C mice. In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and competitive inhibition ELISA experiments, the derived antiserum exhibited high antibody titer (greater than 1: 250 000) as well as varied cross-reactivity (from 97.8% to 161.7%) to three analogs of EF belonging to fluoroquinolones family. But over the concentration range studied, no significant cross-reactivity was observed to other group of antibiotics (chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, sulphamethoxazole and nysfungin). It was confirmed that the synthesized immunogen was highly antigenic and elicited specific antibody responses in BALB/C mice against EF.

  19. Antibody-based screening for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma compared with microsatellite analysis and sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mariann; Katballe, Niels; Wikman, Friedrik;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes, MSH2, MLH1, and others are associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Due to the high costs of sequencing, cheaper screening methods are needed to identify HNPCC cases. Ideally, these methods should have a hi...

  20. Environmental problems on Kazakhstan and the Nevada-Semipalatinsk antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this coherent and consistently - argued article, the authors explore ecological problems in Kazakhstan, a process of Kazakhstan's integration into international antinuclear movement. They look at what a moratorium on nuclear weapons testing Semipalatinsk meant to peoples in Kazakhstan. The authors research a history of the Nevada-Semipalatinsk antinuclear movement. (author)

  1. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against EV71 screened from mice immunized with yeast-produced virus-like particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao; Lin; Lingzhi; Xianyu; Songya; Lyu

    2015-01-01

    Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71(EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that candidate vaccines or viral capsid proteins can produce anti-EV71 immunity. In this study, female BABL/c mice(6–8 weeks old) were immunized with virus-like particles(VLPs) of EV71 produced in yeast to screen for anti-EV71 antibodies. Two hybridomas that could produce neutralizing antibodies against EV71 were obtained. Both neutralizing m Abs(D4 and G12) were confirmed to bind the VP1 capsid protein of EV71, and could protect > 95% cells from 100 TCID50 EV71 infection at 25 μg/m L solution(lowest concentration). Those two neutralizing m Abs identified in the study may be promising candidates in development for m Abs to treat EV71 infection, and utilized as suitable reagents for use in diagnostic tests and biological studies.

  2. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against EV71 screened from mice immunized with yeast-produced virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Xianyu, Lingzhi; Lyu, Songya

    2015-06-01

    Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that candidate vaccines or viral capsid proteins can produce anti-EV71 immunity. In this study, female BABL/c mice (6-8 weeks old) were immunized with virus-like particles (VLPs) of EV71 produced in yeast to screen for anti-EV71 antibodies. Two hybridomas that could produce neutralizing antibodies against EV71 were obtained. Both neutralizing mAbs (D4 and G12) were confirmed to bind the VP1 capsid protein of EV71, and could protect >95% cells from 100 TCID50 EV71 infection at 25 µg/mL solution (lowest concentration). Those two neutralizing mAbs identified in the study may be promising candidates in development for mAbs to treat EV71 infection, and utilized as suitable reagents for use in diagnostic tests and biological studies.

  3. Quality control and evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus antibody assays used for screening donated blood in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU CHUN WANG; XIU HUA LI; AI JING SONG; CHUN TAO ZHANG; SI HONG XU; FENG ZHANG; HONG ZHANG YIN

    2006-01-01

    During 2004, a total of 124 batches of HIV antibody ELISAs from domestic and overseas manufacturers, comprising approximately 60 million tests, were tested for quality and released for screening blood in China. The inter- and intra-batch variation, specificity, and sensitivity were evaluated using a laboratory panel and clinical samples. The inter-batch variation was less than 15% and only 2 of 12 assays had intra-batch variation of less than 20% for 4 dilutions of a control specimen.257 samples confirmed positive for HIV antibody and 4826 negative samples from different regions in China were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the assays. The results showed that the sensitivity is in the range from 93.7% to 100% for assays sampled directly from the manufacturers,and 91.4%-99.6% for those retrieved from the consumers; the specificity was in the range from 97.88% to 99.97%. The testing environment may vary in different regions of China. Therefore, manufacturers should provide robust assays to satisfy the requirements of these diverse environments, and especially reduce the intra-assay variation and improve the stability of the kits.

  4. Platelet antibody screening by flow cytometry is more sensitive than solid phase red cell adherence assay and lymphocytotoxicity technique: a comparative study in Thai patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buakaew, Jarin; Promwong, Charuporn

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of lymphocytotoxicity test (LCT), solid phase red cell adherence assay (SPRCA) and flow cytometry in detecting platelet reactive antibodies against human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I and human platelet antigens (HPA). Sera from 38 thrombocytopenic patients and 5 mothers of thrombocytopenic newborns were screened for platelet reactive antibodies by these three methods using screening platelets and/or lymphocytes panels derived from six subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of each method and levels of agreement were analysed. HLA antibodies were found in 18, 17 and 19 out of 43 patients' sera tested by LCT, SPRCA and flow cytometry, respectively. Four out of 43 patients' sera were reactive against HPA by flow cytometry, but were reactive to only 2 sera by SPRCA. Using flow cytometry as the reference method, the sensitivities/specificities of SPRCA and LCT in HLA antibody detection were 84.21/95.83% and 94.73/100%, respectively, with a good strength of agreement. SPRCA had 50% sensitivity and 100% specificity in HPA antibody detection compare to flow cytometry. Flow cytometry appeared to be the most sensitive technique compared with SPRCA and LCT for both HPA and HLA antibody screening. SPRCA sensitivity was too low for HPA antibody detection, but this might be because of the small number of samples. There was one serum from the mother of a baby suffering neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), in whom SPRCA could not detect HPA antibodies, while flow cytometry came out positive. Therefore, SPRCA should not be used in NAIT investigation and flow cytometry should be employed instead.

  5. Label-free Fab and Fc affinity/avidity profiling of the antibody complex half-life for polyclonal and monoclonal efficacy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

    2015-09-01

    A unified approach to affinity screening for Fab and Fc interactions of an antibody for its antigen and FcγR receptor has been developed. An antigen array is used for the Fab affinity and cross-reactivity screening and protein A/G proxy is the FcγR receptor. The affinities are derived using a simple 1:1 binding model with a consistent error analysis. The association and dissociation kinetics are measured over optimised times for accurate determination. The Fab/Fc affinities are derived for ten antibodies: mAb-actin (mouse), pAb-BSA (sheep), pAb-collagen V (rabbit), pAb-CRP (goat), mAb-F1 (mouse), mAbs (mouse) 7.3, 12.3, 29.3, 36.3 and 46.3 raised against LcrV in Yersinia pestis. The rate of the dissociation of antigen-antibody complexes relates directly to their immunological function as does the Fc-FcγR complex and a new half-life plot has been defined with a Fab/Fc half-life range of 17-470 min. The upper half-life value points to surface avidity. Two antibodies that are protective as an immunotherapy define a Fab half-life >250 min and an Fc half-life >50 min as characteristics of ideal interactions which can form the basis of an antibody screen for immunotherapy. PMID:26187320

  6. Label-free Fab and Fc affinity/avidity profiling of the antibody complex half-life for polyclonal and monoclonal efficacy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

    2015-09-01

    A unified approach to affinity screening for Fab and Fc interactions of an antibody for its antigen and FcγR receptor has been developed. An antigen array is used for the Fab affinity and cross-reactivity screening and protein A/G proxy is the FcγR receptor. The affinities are derived using a simple 1:1 binding model with a consistent error analysis. The association and dissociation kinetics are measured over optimised times for accurate determination. The Fab/Fc affinities are derived for ten antibodies: mAb-actin (mouse), pAb-BSA (sheep), pAb-collagen V (rabbit), pAb-CRP (goat), mAb-F1 (mouse), mAbs (mouse) 7.3, 12.3, 29.3, 36.3 and 46.3 raised against LcrV in Yersinia pestis. The rate of the dissociation of antigen-antibody complexes relates directly to their immunological function as does the Fc-FcγR complex and a new half-life plot has been defined with a Fab/Fc half-life range of 17-470 min. The upper half-life value points to surface avidity. Two antibodies that are protective as an immunotherapy define a Fab half-life >250 min and an Fc half-life >50 min as characteristics of ideal interactions which can form the basis of an antibody screen for immunotherapy.

  7. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin;

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions...

  8. Trends in anti-nuclear protests in the United States, 1984-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondaatje, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    This report updates previous RAND research on U.S. anti-nuclear protest groups, examines trends in anti-nuclear and related protests, and assess what these trends may imply for possible terrorist violence, either by terrorists infiltrating the anti-nuclear movement or violent elements arising within the movement. Two recent trends in protest activity may signal greater militancy in the movement. First, the number of protesters who are willing to face arrest, fines, and imprisonment has steadily increased over the past four years. In the first eleven months of 1987, nearly 3,000 protesters were arrested for anti-nuclear civil disobedience, compared with 1,056 in 1984. Second, some large, diverse groups of protesters have stretched the ability of their own organizers to control events involving civil disobedience. Consequently, the number of skirmishes between protesters and security personnel has increased. Third, radical environmentalist groups previously uninvolved in anti-nuclear activities have recently organized protests at uranium mines. Regular involvement by such groups in anti-nuclear protests, coupled with the trend toward greater cooperation between peace activists and environmentalists over such issues as uranium mining, nuclear testing, land and sea use, and transport and storage of toxic waste, could signal a more volatile, though not necessarily more violent, future for the anti-nuclear movement.

  9. Screening and Monitoring Coeliac Disease: Multicentre Trial of a New Serum Antibody Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Devine

    1994-01-01

    average interassay CV was 6.4% for IgA and 4.3% for IgG (n=3. By defining a positive te st as both IgA and IgG elevated, a sensitivity of 93% in untreated coeliacs (n=75 was observed. The corresponding specificities in healthy adults (n=130 and healthy children (n=77 were >99% and 100% respectively, while in patients with other gastrointestinal disorders (disease controls the specificity was 94% (n=129. The test was also useful in monitoring patients, with anti-gliadin IgA and IgG falling for up to a year after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD (12 adults. In some patients however, antibody levels did not reach the normal cutpoint after many months on a GFD, which may reflect the patients ' poor adherence to their gluten free diet. The test was superior to the Pharmacia anti-gliadin ELISA, and should be useful as an aid to the diagnosis of coeliac disease, as well as in the follow-up of treated patients.

  10. Multipin peptide libraries for antibody and receptor epitope screening and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribbick, Gordon

    2002-09-01

    It has been nearly 15 years since the papers describing the fully systematic epitope mapping approach both for the so-called "continuous" epitopes [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 81 (1984) 3998] and "discontinuous" epitopes [Mol. Immunol. 23 (1986) 709] were published. These seminal papers laid the conceptual foundation for all subsequent developments where a combinatorial approach is applied. Dr. Mario Geysen, the 2000 Kilby Laureate, can certainly lay claim to be the "father of combinatorial chemistry" (http://www.kilby.org/laureates.htm). In this review, I will focus on the aspects of the Multipin technology as they apply to antibody and receptor epitope mapping. Much of what will be presented applies equally well to other applications where peptide libraries (PepSets) and combinatorial approaches are used [Rodda, S.J., 1996. T-cell epitope mapping with synthetic peptides and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In: Morris, G.E. (Eds.), Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 66: Epitope Mapping Protocols. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, Chap. 30, p. 363; Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 42 (1993) 384; J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 5603]. Factors and techniques that influence the use of the Multipin method for successful epitope mapping will be presented.

  11. 献血人群红细胞血型意外抗体的筛选%Screening unexpected antibody of red cells blood group in the blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝宏; 洪小珍; 吴亚玲; 励晓涛; 马开荣; 兰小飞; 朱发明

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析献血人群中红细胞血型意外抗体的情况,并对抗体特性进行确认.方法:应用O型红细胞结合PK7200血型检测系统筛选红细胞血型意外抗体,利用谱细胞鉴定抗体特性.结果:在献血人群中红细胞血型意外抗体阳性率为0.025%,意外抗体以抗M和冷凝集素为主.发现两例类孟买型血型和两例p血型.结论:献血人群中存在低比例的红细胞血型意外抗体,在献血者血型检测中应加以重视.%Objective;To determine unexpected antibody of red cells blood group in the blood donors and identify the characteristics of the antibody. Methods: The unexpected antibody was screened by 0 blood group cells and PK7200 system. Characteristics of the antibody were identified by panel cells.. Results: The prevalence rate of unexpected antibody was 0.025% in the blood donors. The common unexpected antibodies were anti - M and cold ag-glutinin. Two cases with para - Bombay phenotype and two cases with p phenotype were found. Conclusion; Low prevalence of unexpected antibody existed in the blood donors. It is important to screen unexpected antibody in donor's blood grouping.

  12. Frequencies and Specificities of “Enzyme-Only” Detected Erythrocyte Alloantibodies in Patients Hospitalized in Austria: Is an Enzyme Test Required for Routine Red Blood Cell Antibody Screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Enko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies and specificities of “enzyme-only” detected red blood cell (RBC alloantibodies in the routine antibody screening and antibody identification in patients hospitalized in Austria. Routine blood samples of 2420 patients were investigated. The antibody screening was performed with a 3-cell panel in the low-ionic strength saline- (LISS- indirect antiglobulin test (IAT and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain 3-cell panel fully automated on the ORTHO AutoVue Innova System. The antibody identification was carried out manually with an 11-cell panel in the LISS-IAT and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain 11-cell panel. In total 4.05% (n=98 of all patients (n=2420 had a positive RBC antibody screening result. Of them 25.51% (25/98 showed “enzyme-only” detected specific or nonspecific RBC alloantibodies. Rhesus and Lewis system antibodies were found the only specificities of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies: all in all 4.8% (4/98 were detected with anti-E, 3.06% (3/98 with anti-Lea, 3.06% (3/98 with anti-D after anti-D prophylaxis and 1.02% (1/98 with anti-e. In total, 14.29% (14/98 showed a nonspecific RBC alloantibody result with the enzyme test. The results of the present study demonstrate that a high number of unwanted positive reactions with the enzyme technique overshadows the detection of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies. (Trial Registration: K-37-13.

  13. High-throughput screening of monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall glycans by hierarchical clustering of their carbohydrate microarray binding profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel; Marcus, Susan E.; Haeger, Ash;

    2007-01-01

    Antibody-producing hybridoma cell lines were created following immunisation with a crude extract of cell wall polymers from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to rapidly screen the specificities of individual monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), their binding to microarrays containing 50 cell wall...... investigated using subsequent immunochemical and biochemical analyses and two novel mAbs are described in detail. mAb LM13 binds to an arabinanase-sensitive pectic epitope and mAb LM14, binds to an epitope occurring on arabinogalactan-proteins. Both mAbs display novel patterns of recognition of cell walls in...... plant materials....

  14. Comparison between results of virus neutralization test and those of two ELISAs when screening for antibodies to pseudorabies virus in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The virus neutralization (VN) test and two enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (blocking and indirect ELISAs) were used to detect antibodies to pseudorabies virus on serum samples from 1000 pigs from the central part of Thailand. Using the VN test as standard, the blocking and indirect ELISAs showed respectively 95.12% and 99.37% relative sensitivity and 92.0% and 93.5% relative specificity. The two ELISAs were both considered as practical alternatives to the VN test. However, the indirect ELISA was the more suitable test for the routine screening for antibodies to pseudorabies virus in Thailand. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Impact analysis of autoantibody level and NR2 antibody level in neuropsychiatric SLE treated by methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyuan; Zhao, Yinhuan; Zhang, Jihui; Lei, Hongwei; Zhu, Guiqi; Fu, Bingbing

    2014-11-01

    The objective is to explore the clinical curative effects of methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection in treating neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and its effects on autoantibody level and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype NR2a/2b antibody (anti-NR2 antibody) level. Thirty six admitted NPSLE patients were treated by methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection. Thirty six SLE patients without neuropsychiatric symptoms were selected as non-NPSLE group. Clinical indexes including SLE activity index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), cerebrospinal fluid protein were observed before and after treatment. Autoantibodies including anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA antibody), anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibody (ENA-Ab) were detected before and after treatment. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect NR2 antibody level before and after treatment in two groups. Upon treatment of methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection, SLE activity index, ESR, CSFP, cerebrospinal fluid protein of 36 NPSLE patients were significantly decreased. Before treatment, positive rates of ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody, and anti-ENA antibody in both NPSLE group and non-NPSLE group had no significant difference. However, positive rate of anti-NR2 antibody in NPSLE group was significantly higher than that of non-NPSLE group. After treatment, positive rates of autoantibodies and anti-NR2 antibody in both NPSLE and non-NPSLE group were significantly decreased. Anti-NR2 antibody can be a screening index of NPSLE, and methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection has significant curative effects and can effectively decrease autoantibody level and anti-NR2 antibody level.

  16. Public Attitudes on Nuclear Energy and Anti-Nuclear Movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More and more the Division of Public Information of the IAEA is contacted by journalists and members of the public as well as international groups whenever a nuclear incident or accident occurs or when there is even a rumour of an accident or incident. This has increased with the introduction of the seven step international nuclear event scale INIS of the IAEA. Under the INIS scheme Member States report nuclear events, incidents and accidents to the IAEA. An important purpose of INIS and its seven level severity ranking scale is to help media and the public to comprehend the degree of seriousness of any such events. Please allow me now to present a short overview on the attitudes on nuclear energy and anti-nuclear movements in different countries on the basis of my own experience. I want to point out that it is my own opinion and not that of the International Atomic Energy Agency. At the end of 1992 nuclear power again showed up as a considerable source of electricity production in the world. Overall 425 nuclear power plants were in operation in 28 countries. They provided about 17 percent of the world's electricity, almost as much as the hydropower plants

  17. Confirmation of positive antibody screens by solid-phase red cell adherence assay using a tube technique method with polyethylene glycol enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, R R; Lake, M; Velasquez, N; Prichard, A

    2001-01-01

    Our blood bank routinely screens donors for antibodies using a solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) assay. Positive results are then confirmed using a tube technique with polyethylene glycol (PEG) enhancement due to reported higher specificity than with SPRCA. Over a 5-month period, 49,084 donor serum or plasma samples were tested using the SPRCA assay. Further identification of positive samples was performed using a PEG enhancement method. Testing was performed with strict adherence to the manufacturers' inserts. Of 49,084 samples, 313 (0.64%) were positive by the SPRCA assay. Of these, 99 (31.6%) samples remained positive when tested with PEG enhancement. The remaining 214 (68.4%) were negative, giving specificity for the SPRCA assay of 99.6 percent (48,985/ 49,199). We report a high specificity for antibody screening using the SPRCA assay. However, it is cost effective to perform a confirmatory tube test with PEG enhancement because 214 SPRCA assay samples were interpreted as having a negative antibody screen, thus allowing the release of valuable blood components for transfusion.

  18. Specificity of monoclonal anti-nucleosome auto-antibodies derived from lupus mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers, K; Stemmer, C; Monestier, M; vanBruggen, MCJ; RijkeSchilder, TPM; Hylkema, MN; Smeenk, RJT; Muller, S; Berden, JHM

    1996-01-01

    Recently, anti-nucleosome antibodies, which do not bind to DNA or to individual histones, have been identified in longitudinal studies in lupus mice. These anti-nucleosome antibodies occur early in spontaneous SLE and are formed prior to other anti-nuclear specificities. However, nucleosomal epitope

  19. Detection of antibody against antigen expressed by molecularly cloned hepatitis C virus cDNA: Application to diagnosis and blood screening for posttransfusion hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamura, Tatsuo; Saito, Izumu (National Institute of Health, Tokyo (Japan)); Katayama, Tohru (Tokyo National Chest Hospital (Japan)); Kikuchi, Shu; Tateda, Akira (Sendai National Hospital (Japan)); Houghton, M.; Choo, Quilim; Kuo, G. (Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, CA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    A cDNA clone has been derived from the plasma of a chimpanzee with chronic non-A, non-B viral hepatits (NANBH). The authors have assayed for antibodies reacting with the encoded antigen in sera from posttransfusion hepatitis patients (643 samples from 23 patients) and their corresponding donors collected during the past 10 years in Japan. The antibody was detected in 15 out of 17 (88.2%) posttransfusion NANBH (PT-NANBH) patients whose sera over time displayed multiple alanine aminotransferase (ALT) peaks. In general, the antibody was detected after several peaks of serum ALT elevations and, once detected, it persisted for years. Of the 15 well-defined cases of PT-NANBH that showed multiple ALT peaks and hepatitis C virus seroconversions, 11 (73.3%) were shown to be transfused with at least one unit of blood positive for the antibody. The retrospective analysis showed that all tested donor blood found to be positive for the antibody had been transfused to recipients who afterwards developed NANBH. These data strongly suggest that the cloned cDNA originated from an etiological agent of NANBH termed the hepatitis C virus. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that had the screening been done with the anti-hepatitis C virus assay, 11 out of 17 (64.7%) cases of chronic PT-NANBH and 1 out of 6 (16.6%) acute PT-NANBH would have been prevented.

  20. Detection of antibody against antigen expressed by molecularly cloned hepatitis C virus cDNA: Application to diagnosis and blood screening for posttransfusion hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cDNA clone has been derived from the plasma of a chimpanzee with chronic non-A, non-B viral hepatits (NANBH). The authors have assayed for antibodies reacting with the encoded antigen in sera from posttransfusion hepatitis patients (643 samples from 23 patients) and their corresponding donors collected during the past 10 years in Japan. The antibody was detected in 15 out of 17 (88.2%) posttransfusion NANBH (PT-NANBH) patients whose sera over time displayed multiple alanine aminotransferase (ALT) peaks. In general, the antibody was detected after several peaks of serum ALT elevations and, once detected, it persisted for years. Of the 15 well-defined cases of PT-NANBH that showed multiple ALT peaks and hepatitis C virus seroconversions, 11 (73.3%) were shown to be transfused with at least one unit of blood positive for the antibody. The retrospective analysis showed that all tested donor blood found to be positive for the antibody had been transfused to recipients who afterwards developed NANBH. These data strongly suggest that the cloned cDNA originated from an etiological agent of NANBH termed the hepatitis C virus. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that had the screening been done with the anti-hepatitis C virus assay, 11 out of 17 (64.7%) cases of chronic PT-NANBH and 1 out of 6 (16.6%) acute PT-NANBH would have been prevented

  1. Using protein microarray technology to screen anti-ERCC1 monoclonal antibodies for specificity and applications in pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Donghui; Baruch Dror; Shu Youmin; Yuan Kehu; Sun Zairen; Ma Kaiyan; Hoang Toan; Fu Wei; Min Li; Lan Zhu-Sheng; Wang Fangxun; Mull Lori; He Wei-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background An antibody with cross-reactivity can create unexpected side effects or false diagnostic reports if used for clinical purposes. ERCC1 is being explored as a predictive diagnostic biomarker for cisplatin-based chemotherapy. High ERCC1 expression is linked to drug resistance on cisplatin-based chemotherapy. 8F1 is one of the most commonly used monoclonal antibodies for evaluating ERCC1 expression levels in lung cancer patient tissues, but it has been noted that this antibody...

  2. Science in europe/the antinuclear movement takes hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, N

    1977-09-16

    Five months after the announcement of President Carter's nonproliferation policy, the common wisdom in this country is that Europe has hardly wavered in its rush toward nuclear power. The cry that "Europe will do what it wants whether the United States builds a breeder or not" is often heard from American nuclear interests, with apparent justification as the State Department has shown little visible progress in negotiating new agreements and some signs of retreating from its original goals. But popular protest against nuclear power has reached a pitch in Europe that would be barely imaginable today in this country, and the political strength of the antinuclear forces has become formidable, not only in Sweden where nuclear power was a pivotal issue last year, but across the continent. West Germany's research minister recently predicted that that country's two ruling coalition parties will vote for a complete moratorium on nuclear construction when they meet this fall, and some observers predict that any moratorium contingent on creation of a waste disposal site could last up to 12 years. Beyond public opposition, the plutonium breeder is running into trouble in Germany for many of the same reasons it has in the United States; program delays, safety concerns, and cost overruns threaten to undermine the claim that it can one day become an economically competitive energy source. Nuclear opposition is far from being a single-issue movement in Europe, as groups of many political persuasions embrace it for their own reasons. But as the following report by Nigel Hawkes details, the Carter administration policy is not the only thing holding back nuclear power in Europe.-W.D.M. PMID:17753327

  3. Construction of phage antibody library and screening of anti-FasFab antibody%噬菌体呈现抗体库的构建及抗 Fas-Fab抗体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希良; 黄云辉; 陈克敏; 朱锡华

    2001-01-01

    目的构建噬菌体抗体库,获得具有功能的抗Fas-Fab噬菌体抗体。方法以Fas重组蛋白为抗原免疫Balb/c小鼠。取其脾细胞提取mRNA,采用RT-PCR方法扩增抗体基因,构建重链和κ链基因库,用重组Fas抗原对所构建的抗体库进行4轮筛选,并以ELISA法鉴定其功能。结果获得抗体重链Fd基因和κ链基因长度约700bp。构建的重链Fd基因为3.5×106的抗体重链基因库。构建的重链和κ链基因库的容量均为3.1×106。经VCSM13感染得到噬菌体的滴度为8.9×1016cFu/L的噬菌体抗体库,含有抗体重链和κ链基因的噬菌体占27%。用重组人Fas抗原进行4轮筛选,得到100%的富集,说明Fas重组抗原富集了抗Fas-Fab噬菌体抗体,经ELISA检测均有抗Fas抗体的特异性。结论制备的可溶性抗Fas-Fab抗体具有抗Fas抗体的特异性,为进一步的研究奠定了基础。%Aim The phage display antibody library was constructed to obtainfunctional anti-Fas Fab. Methods Balb/c mice were immunized with recombinant Fas protein. mRNA was isolated from splenocytes and antibody heavy chain genes Fd and κ chain genes were amplified by RT-PCR, and combinatorial Fab antibody library. This iuelicated that the screening of antibody library was done with recombinont Fas antigen and the immunifacient function of the antibody was determined by ELISA. Results The amplified products were the desired fragments and contained 700 bp. The amplified antibody heavy chain Fd genes were cloned into pcomb3 vector at first, and transformed into E.coli XL1-blue to construct an antibody heavy chain library with a size of 3.5× 106 members. The κ chain genes were then randomly combined with heavy chain genes to generate a combinatorial vector encoding both chains and capable of generating Fab fragments. These combinatorial vectors were transformed to E.coli XL1-Blue,and the combinatorial Fab antibody library was 3.7× 106. The phage antibody library was

  4. Screening for genes involved in antibody response to sheep red blood cells in the chicken, Gallus gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tuoyu; Guan, Xiaojing; Smith, Edward J

    2015-09-01

    Antibody response, an important trait in both agriculture and biomedicine, plays a part in protecting animals from infection. Dissecting molecular basis of antibody response may improve artificial selection for natural disease resistance in livestock and poultry. A number of genetic markers associated with antibody response have been identified in the chicken and mouse by linkage-based association studies, which only define genomic regions by genetic markers but do not pinpoint genes for antibody response. In contrast, global expression profiling has been applied to define the molecular bases of a variety of biological traits through identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Here, we employed Affimetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays to identify differentially expressed genes for antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) using chickens challenged with and without SRBC or chickens with high and low anti-SRBC titers. The DEGs include those with known (i.e., MHC class I and IgH genes) or unknown function in antibody response. Classification test of these genes suggested that the response of the chicken to intravenous injection of SRBC involved multiple biological processes, including response to stress or other different stimuli, sugar, carbohydrate or protein binding, and cell or soluble fraction, in addition to antibody response. This preliminary study thus provides an insight into molecular basis of antibody response to SRBC in the chicken.

  5. Construction of human phage antibody library and screening for human monoclonal antibodies of amylin%人源性噬菌体抗体库的构建及抗amylin抗体的初步筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    公倩; 李常颖; 畅继武; 朱铁虹

    2012-01-01

    AIM- To screen monoclonal antibodies to amyiin from a constructed human phage antibody library and identify their antigenic specificity and combining activities. METHODS: The heavy chain Fd fragment and light chain of human immunoglobulin genes were amplified from peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors using RT-PCR, and then inserted into phagemid pComb3XSS to generate a human phage antibody library. The insertion of light chain or heavy chain Fd genes were identified by PCR after the digestion of Sac I, Xba I , Xho I and Spe I. One of positive clones was analyzed by DNA sequencing. The specific anti-amylin clones were screened from antibody library against human amylin antigens and then the positive donas were determined by Phage-ELISA analysis. RESULTS; A Fab phage antibody library with 0.8x 108 members was constructed with the efficacy of about 70%. DNA sequence analysis indicated VH gene belonged to VH3 gene family and Vλ gene belonged to the Vλ gene family. Using human amylin as panning antigen, specific anti-amylin Fab antibodies were enriched by screening the library for three times. Phage-ELISA assay showed the positive clones had very good specificity to amylin antigen. CONCLUSION; The successful construction of a phage antibody library and the identification of anti-amylin Fab antibodies provide a basis for further study and preparation of human anti-amylin antibodies.%目的:构建人源性噬菌体抗体库,从中筛选胰淀素(amylin)单克隆抗体(mAb),测定其特异性及抗原结合活性.方法:从正常健康人的外周血淋巴细胞中提取总RNA,用RT-PcR方法扩增人免疫球蛋白Fd段和轻链基因,构建噬菌体抗体库.酶切和PcR鉴定后,阳性克隆进行DNA测序分析.用人amylin抗原对抗体库进行筛选富集,将得到的阳性克隆进行Phage-ELISA鉴定,结果进行统计学分析.结果:最终构建的抗体库库容约为0.8×108,酶切鉴定显示有插入片段,抗体库重组率为70%.阳性克

  6. Available means: manifestations of Aristotle's three modes of rhetorical appeal in antinuclear fiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannix, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The abundance of sympathetic scientists, military men and clergymen in antinuclear fiction reflects a public perception that authorities speak most knowledgeably about an issue. Other antinuclear works employ characters with less traditional ethical appeals: nurturing women, vital youths, and even infallible computers. Antinuclear fiction uses enthymeme and example to reflect the history of the nuclear weapons debate. Some works attach the immorality of the weapons by examining the moral dilemmas of nuclear scientists. Others admit the permanence of the nuclear threat. By arousing emotions, fiction is capable of mobilizing its audience's active support for the ideas it presents. The principal emotions that various antinuclear works arouse highlight the close relationship between literature and rhetoric. The most dominant emotions, pity and fear, are the two Aristotle links to tragedy. Scorn, the principal emotion that Dr. Strangelove arouses - is the crucial emotion on which all satire depends. However, the other principal emotion in anti-nuclear fiction - hope - has principally a rhetorical function ensuring that the feelings the works provoke will be channeled constructively.

  7. Analysis of screening results of irregular antibodies before blood transfusion%输血前不规则抗体筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文涛; 何子毅; 李俊杰; 刘仁强; 刘景春

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify serum or plasma irregular antibodies in patients, analyze their distribution characteristic, so as to prevent hemolytic transfusion reaction.Methods Microcolumn gel immunoassay was applied to screening and identifying irregular antibodies in clinical suspicious matching blood samples from June 2006 to December 2007, and then the types and distribution characteristic of irregular antibodies were analyzed.Results 54 cases were irregular antibody positive, in which 28 cases (51.85%) were homologous antibodies, 26 cases (48.15%) were autologous antibodies, 2 cases were unidentified antibodies. In homologous antibodies,Rh system antibody was predominant (53.57%) (in which anti-E was more than anti-D), followed by MNSs system antibody (19.23%). Anti-M (5, 9.26%) was the most in MNSs system. In autologous antibodies, anti-IgG was the most (53.84%), followed by anti-IgG+anti-C3d (30.77%) and cold autoantibody (15.38%). No hemolytic transfusion reaction occurred in patients with isoantibody after infusion of blood with corresponding antigen negative. The symptom of anaemia was alleviated in patients with autoantibody after quantitative washed red cells infusion.Conclusion Screening of irregular antibodies and infusion of suitable blood are conductive to decrease or avoidance of hemolytic transfusion reaction, and guarantee of blood safety.%目的 输血前对患者血清(浆)进行不规则抗体筛选和鉴定,分析不规则抗体的分布特征,预防溶血性输血反应的发生.方法 用微柱凝胶法对2006年6月到2007年12月间临床送检的疑难配血标本进行不规则抗体筛选和鉴定,分析不规则抗体的类型和分布特征.结果 不规则抗体筛选鉴定阳性54例,其中同种抗体26(51.85%)例,自身抗体26(48.15%)例,抗体特异性未确定2例,同种抗体中以Rh系统最多,占15/28(53.57%),其次为MNSs系统,占5/26(19.23%),Rh系统抗-E明显多于抗-D,与以往文献报道不同;MNSs系统主要是抗-M;

  8. Computational screening of the human TF-glycome provides a structural definition for the specificity of anti-tumor antibody JAA-F11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Tessier

    Full Text Available Recombinant antibodies are of profound clinical significance; yet, anti-carbohydrate antibodies are prone to undesirable cross-reactivity with structurally related-glycans. Here we introduce a new technology called Computational Carbohydrate Grafting (CCG, which enables a virtual library of glycans to be assessed for protein binding specificity, and employ it to define the scope and structural origin of the binding specificity of antibody JAA-F11 for glycans containing the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF human tumor antigen. A virtual library of the entire human glycome (GLibrary-3D was constructed, from which 1,182 TF-containing human glycans were identified and assessed for their ability to fit into the antibody combining site. The glycans were categorized into putative binders, or non-binders, on the basis of steric clashes with the antibody surface. The analysis employed a structure of the immune complex, generated by docking the TF-disaccharide (Galβ1-3GalNAcα into a crystal structure of the JAA-F11 antigen binding fragment, which was shown to be consistent with saturation transfer difference (STD NMR data. The specificities predicted by CCG were fully consistent with data from experimental glycan array screening, and confirmed that the antibody is selective for the TF-antigen and certain extended core-2 type mucins. Additionally, the CCG analysis identified a limited number of related putative binding motifs, and provided a structural basis for interpreting the specificity. CCG can be utilized to facilitate clinical applications through the determination of the three-dimensional interaction of glycans with proteins, thus augmenting drug and vaccine development techniques that seek to optimize the specificity and affinity of neutralizing proteins, which target glycans associated with diseases including cancer and HIV.

  9. Screening and identification of neutralizated single-chain antibody of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody%中和抗肾小球基底膜抗体的单链抗体的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖静; 刘章锁; 王沛; 黄留玉; 宋宏彬; 赵明辉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To screen a human single-chain variable fragments(scFv)against antiGBM antibody.Methods Using phage display technique,the phage antibody library was panned by antiglomerular basement membrane(GBM)antibody which was coated in a micro-titer plate,one clone was found to have high affinity to anti-GBM antibody.The DNA sequence of the positive clone was determined.Results Along with the increase of rounds anti-GBM antibody specific phage antibody was highly enriched and screening efficiency was increased 137 folds than the firest round.ELISA and competition inhibition assay showed that the scFv had a specific combination character with anti-GBM antibody.DNA sequencing confirmed that the whole gene of scFv was 750 bp,and in accordance with humanized single-chain variable region antibody sequence structure.Conclusion The results suggested that the scFv fragment to anti-GBM antibody could be successfully selected by recombinant phage antibody technique,which will laid an experimental foundation for further research of the therapy of Goodpasture syndrome.%目的 制备人抗肾小球基底膜(GBM)抗体的特异性人源化单链可变区抗体.方法 采用噬菌体表面展示技术,获得一个与人抗GBM抗体结合活性较强的单链可变区抗体片段的阳性克隆,并对该克隆进行DNA序列测定分析.结果 对噬菌体单链可变区抗体库经过3轮筛选后,与第1轮相比富集了137倍.噬菌体抗体与人抗GBM抗体的结合活性其中有35株克隆ELISA的吸光度较高.对这些噬菌体抗体进行交叉反应后,确定其中有10株交叉反应较弱.确定1株(C31)阳性克隆提取质粒,进行DNA序列测定,大小为750 bp,并符合人源化单链可变区抗体的序列结构.结论 应用噬菌体展示技术成功获得人-抗GBM抗体的单链可变区抗体基因,为临床上治疗Goodpasture综合征奠定实验基础.

  10. Immunogenicity screening assay development for a novel human-mouse chimeric anti-CD147 monoclonal antibody (Metuzumab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Li; Li, Wei; Li, Maohua; Chen, Tao; Wang, Muyang; Sun, Le; Chen, Zhinan

    2016-06-01

    The clinical effect of patient immune responses to therapeutic antibodies affect product safety and efficacy, which makes the development of valid, sensitive immune assays a key aspect of antibody drug development. In this paper, we reported the generations of mouse monoclonal and Cynomolgus monkey polyclonal antibodies against the anti-CD147 antibody (Metuzumab) as the internal standards and the positive controls. Seven mouse monoclonal antibodies were shown to recognize both (Fab)2 and full length of Metuzumab, but not the control normal human IgGs, and monoclonal anti-Metuzumab, Clone 2D9 was chosen to be used as the internal standard for anti-Metuzumab study. A Bridging ELISA assay was developed by coating the wells with the antibody drug, and the anti-drug antibody (ADA) in the animal sera were detected by enzyme-labeled antibody. Its limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 0.39ng/ml of anti-Metuzumab antibody (ADA) with linear range between 0.39-50ng/ml and R(2)=0.994. For normal monkey sera, a minimal dilution was determined to be 1:80. However, very different from peptide or other protein drugs, strong interferences from the residual antibody drugs were observed from most of the testing monkey sera in the preclinical study. It was experimentally determined that the concentration of the residual antibody drug in the assay have to be lower than 1μg/ml, so the assays were carried out at 1:100 dilution of the monkey sera. In the pre-clinical study, 32 monkeys were treated with escalating doses of Metuzumab between 0, 10, 50, 200mg/kg for 13 times over 13weeks of time period. 16 of them were terminated right after the last injection, while the other 16 were rested for additional 4weeks before termination. Afraid to miss any positive response to antibody drug, sera samples were collected at six time points, including 2-, 6- and 10-weeks post 1st dose, prior to last dose, and 2-, 4-weeks into recovery. The highest positive rates were seen with the Medium

  11. HIV antibody preliminary screening in 113 229 inpatients%113229例住院患者 HIV 抗体初筛结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅芬; 王庆芳; 刘家田; 李建丽; 王万海

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解某大型医院住院患者人类免疫缺陷病毒( HIV)抗体初筛阳性率及其在临床科室中分布情况。方法对113229例住院患者进行HIV抗体初筛检测,比较不同性别患者的阳性率,分析HIV抗体阳性患者在不同科室的分布情况。结果 HIV抗体初筛阳性152例,阳性率为0.134%;其中男91例(0.161%),女61例(0.107%),不同性别间阳性率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。 HIV抗体初筛阳性患者分布于20个科室,其中高发科室有耳鼻喉科、骨科、妇科、泌尿外科、普外科、神经内科、皮肤科、肿瘤科、眼科。这些科室的HIV抗体初筛阳性者占总筛查阳性的67.1%。结论住院患者中存在较高的HIV抗体初筛阳性率,且科室分布广泛。%Objective To investigate the positive rate of HIV antibody preliminary screening and the distribution of the clinical departments in general hospital inpatients.Methods HIV antibody preliminary screening detection was conducted in 113 229 cases of patients.The positive rate between different genders was compared , and the distribution of patients with positive HIV antibody in different departments was analyzed.Results Totally 152 plasma samples were positive by the antibody screening test for HIV, and the positive rate was 0.134%, including 91 males and 61 females (P<0.05).The 152 positive cases covered 20 clinical departments and the major clinical departments included otolaryngological department, orthopaedics department, gy-naecology department, urology department, surgery department, neurology department, dermatological department, oncology de-partment and ophthalmology department.The patients with positive HIV antibody undergoing preliminary screening of these de-partments accounted for 67.1%of the total screening.Conclusion The positive rate of HIV antibody screening among inpatients in our hospital is high with a wide range of department

  12. Prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with fetal loss.

    OpenAIRE

    Out, H.J.; Bruinse, H.W.; Christiaens, G. C.; Vliet, M. van; Meilof, J.F.; De Groot, P G; Smeenk, R. J.; Derksen, R H

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of antiphospholipid and antinuclear antibodies in 102 patients with at least three unexplained miscarriages before a gestational age of 12 weeks, or at least one intrauterine fetal death after 12 weeks, was investigated and compared with the prevalence in 102 normal pregnant controls. Six patients had a history of thrombosis and six had 'lupus-like' disease. Twenty one patients had anticardiolipin antibodies compared with 10 controls. Serum samples of nine patients and one cont...

  13. HIV Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HIV Screening Tests; AIDS Test; AIDS Screen; HIV Serology; ...

  14. Evaluation of Anti-Nuclear antibody test results in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Nevreste Çelikbilek; Birsen Özdem; Ziya Cibali Açıkgöz

    2015-01-01

    Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı 2009-2011 yıllarında laboratuvarımızda yapılan ANA (antinükleer antikor) tetkik sonuçlarının retrospektif olarak değerlendirilmesidir. Yöntemler: Bu dönemde laboratuvarımızda toplam 5068 serum örneğinde indirekt immünofloresans antikor yöntemiyle (IIFA) ANA varlığı araştırıldı. Rastgele örnekleme ile seçilen ANA-pozitif 982 olgu cinsiyet dağılımı, ışıma düzeyleri ve paternleri, dsDNA sonuçları ve ekstrakte edilebilir nükleer antijen (ENA) profilleri açısından incelen...

  15. Antinuclear antibody levels in Polymorphic Light Eruption and their relation to the severity of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: PLE is an idiopathic photodermatosis characterised by a polymorphic eruption ranging from papulo-vesicular lesions to large plaques, located predominantly in a photoexposed distribution. It is an acquired disease and is the most common idiopathic photodermatosis. It is characterised by recurrent abnormal delayed reaction to sunlight. PLE is the most common idiopathic photodermatosis, the prevalence of which has been estimated to be around 10-20% in USA, England and Ireland. Previous studies have shown elevated levels of ANA in 2.9-19% of patients with PLE. Aim: The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of ANA positivity in a cohort of patients of ethnic kashmiri origin with Polymorphic light eruption and to examine whether there is any relation of their levels with the severity of disease.Methods: Patients with Polymorphic light eruption clinically who attended the Outpatient Deptt. of Dermatology GMC Srinagar were referred to the Deptt. of Biochemistry GMC Srinagar where patients blood samples were analysed for ANA index by ELISA method (BRIO SEAC ITALY.Results: Our study consisted of 36 patients (with 23 males and 13 females with age group ranging between 15-65 years presenting with typical clinical features of PLE without associated autoimmune connected tissue diseases like discoid lupus erythematosus or systemic lupus erythematosus and 20 healthy age and sex matched controls. Two patients (1 male and 1female showed positive results and 1 patient (female showed equivocal results. Among the control group one patient showed ANA positivity. Thus total frequency of ANA positivity of of 5.55% was observed among the cases and 5% among the controls with frequency of 4.34% in males and 7.69% in females.Conclusion: ANA levels were found in 5.55% of patients with PLE, however there is no relation between the levels of ANA in PLE and with the severity of disease (p value >0.05.

  16. HIV抗体筛查阳性标本确证结果分析%Analysis on Confirmatory Test Results of Positive Samples of HIV Antibody Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小成; 邓荣婧; 陈倩; 周凌; 颜淑妩

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between screening test results and confirmatory test results through analyzing 2,344 positive samples of HIV antibody screening. Methods ELISA was used for HIV antibody screening. Rapid im-munochromatographic assay was applied in re - examination. Western blotting was adopted in confirmatory test. Results The total coincidence rate of screening positive samples and confirming positive samples was higher (86.22 % ). Moreover, it was increased year by year. The coincidence rate in voluntary blood donors was lower (33. 33%), and most indeterminate results were attributed to non-specific reactions. Conclusions Western blotting is needed to confirm the infection of HIV and exclude false - positive reaction. The false - positive reactions in voluntary blood donors are higher, which should be diagnosed carefully.%目的 通过对2344例HIV抗体筛查阳性标本确证实验结果的分析,探讨筛查试验结果与确证试验结果之间的关系.方法 筛查和复检:ELISA和快速检测;确证:免疫印迹(WB)法.结果 筛查阳性与确证阳性总体符合率较高(86.22%),且逐年有所提高;无偿献血人群符合率较低(33.33%),不确定结果多为非特异性反应.结论 确定HIV感染必须进行WB确证试验以便排除假阳性反应,无偿献血人群筛查假阳性较高,应慎重诊断.

  17. Evaluation of a blocking ELISA for screening of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.J.; Bøtner, Anette; Madsen, E.S.;

    1997-01-01

    A blocking Elisa was developed for the detection of antibodies against PRRS virus with a view to satisfying the need for examination of blood samples on a large scale. The test was evaluated in comparison with an indirect Elisa and the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The blocking Elisa...... was sensitive and specific. It had a higher capacity and was cheaper to perform than the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and the indirect Elisa. It was comparable to the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and better than the indirect Elisa in detecting antibodies formed early after infection, and it was superior...... to both the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and the indirect Elisa in detecting antibodies at a late stage of infection....

  18. Discovery and identification of anti-U1-A snRNP antibody in lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lijuan; LIU Jifu; ZHANG Hao; WU Shanshan; HUANG Lingyun; HE Dacheng; XIAO Xueyuan

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple reports of autoimmune response in patients with lung cancer. To investigate whether a novel autoantibody is present in patients with lung cancer and evaluate its clinical diagnostic and prognostic value, sera from 10 patients with lung cancer and 10 normal individuals were analyzed using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. It was found that one serum sample from the patients with squamous carcinoma gave a fine speckled pattern staining in nucleus and had a high titer antinuclear autoantibody which could recognize 31 kD of nuclear protein isolated from both cancer cells and normal cells. The same patient's serum was further used to immunoprecipitate the target antigen. The protein bands were excised from the SDS-PAGE gels and were analyzed with a Qstar Pulser I Quadrupole time-flight mass spectrometer, and the 31 kD target antigen was identified as U1-A snRNP. To test the prevalence of anti-U1-A snRNP antibody, sera from 93 patients including 36 squmaous carcinomas (SCC), 26 adenocarcinomas (Ad), and 31 small cell carcinomas (SCLC) were screened by Western blotting. The results demonstrated that anti-U1-A snRNP antibody was present in 50% of SCC sera, 26.9% of Ad sera and 54.8% of SCLC sera. In this paper, we report for the first time that anti-U1-A snRNP antibody could be detected in the patients with lung cancer.

  19. The anti-nuclear movement and its critics: the social base of support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the anti-nuclear movement can be defined in terms of its current status and those actively involved in it, with the aim of delineating areas for combatting anti-nuclear protest. The ωnatural' course of a social movement tends to be cyclical. The anti-nuclear movement is apparently in the coalescence or second stage of progression. The Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility (CCNR) is a movement having many issues, concerns and strategies which typify the anti-nuclear movement. The strategy of the CCNR is to attempt to make the environment a major political issue which will polarize the public around nuclear power in Canada. The Canadian movement cannot achieve the status of that in the U.S. without first developing a tighter organizational structure and greater co-ordination, a large base of numbers and resources, extended division of labour, and regular political thrusts. It may also have to shed its environmentalist image and become a social and political movement. As environmentalists are the chief critics of nuclear power a sociological profile has been developed for them, including a breakdown of typical aims, beliefs, background and position on issues within the movement, as an aid to anticipating future actions against the nuclear industry. (J.T.A.)

  20. 2002~2011年某院HIV抗体筛查结果分析%Analysis of HIV antibody screening results in a hospital during 2002-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红; 罗显华; 罗丽; 张更建; 谌宏运; 李进芹; 陈龙庆; 张信江

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析遵义医学院附属医院人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)抗体筛查结果,侧面了解遵义地区艾滋病(AIDS)流行状况,为AIDS的防治提供依据。方法选取遵义医学院附属医院2002年1月至2011年12月需要输血、外科手术的住院患者及性病门诊的可疑感染HIV患者共201052例为研究对象,采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELLSA法)进行HIV抗体初筛,初筛阳性者送贵州省或遵义市疾控中心 HIV 确诊实验室行蛋白质印迹试验(WB)确诊。结果2002~2011年10年间该院共检测出HIV抗体阳性者355例,其中呼吸科最多,共54例(15.21%);年龄2 d至78岁;涉及职业广泛,以自由职业与无固定职业者居多(49.86%)。结论对需要输血、外科手术、围产保健及性病门诊可疑感染HIV的患者进行HIV抗体检测是发现HIV/AIDS的重要途径,加强对上述有关人群进行HIV抗体筛查在及早发现HIV/AIDS、避免HIV的医源性传播方面具有重要意义。%Objective To analyze the screening results of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody for understand-ing the prevalence situation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Zunyi area from one aspect and providing the ba-sis for AIDS prevention. Methods A total of 201 052 inpatients with blood transfusion and surgical operation and patients with suspected HIV infection in the venereal disease outpatient department of Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College from Jan-uary 2002 to December 2011 were selected as the research subjects. HIV antibody was preliminarily screened by adopting ELISA. Then the cases of positive screening were performed the Western blotting for confirmation in the center of disease control of Zunyi City or Guizhou Province. Results Totally 355 cases of HIV antibody positive were detected out during these 10 years of 2002-2011,among them majority were from the respiratory department(54 cases,15.21%);age was from 2 d to 78

  1. Retrospective analysis of 7 300 cases of irregular antibody screening test results%7300例不规则抗体筛查结果的回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桂平; 康琼华; 李晶晶; 高琦; 刘志东; 何海锋; 侯益军; 张罗川; 张娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively analyze the results of irregular antibody screening and identification in recent years ,and to discuss the effects of irregular antibody screening in clinic transfusion .Methods The results of irregular antibody screening from March 2013 to March 2014 were collected and analyzed .The specimens contai‐ning irregular antibody were further identified by 10 panel cells .And the positive rates of irregular antibody were cal‐culated .Results There were 38 cases of patients containing irregular antibodies among the 7 300 cases of patients , and the positive rate was 0 .5% ,of which 21 cases contained anti‐E antibody ,10 cases contained anti‐Lea antibody ,2 cases contained anti‐Fyb antibody ,2 cases contained both anti‐E and anti‐c antibody ,1 cases contained both anti‐E and anti‐Fyb antibody ,and anti‐D ,anti‐c ,anti‐Jka ,anti‐M antibody was respectively found in 1 case .Conclusion Pre‐transfusion irregular antibody screening could ensure the safety of blood transfusion .%目的:回顾性分析某院近年不规则抗体筛查及鉴定结果,讨论不规则抗体筛查在临床输血中的意义。方法统计该院2013年3月至2014年3月需交叉配血患者的不规则抗体筛查结果,对初筛阳性的标本进一步用10组谱细胞进行抗体鉴定,统计不规则抗体的阳性结果。结果在7300例患者中,不规则抗体阳性者有38例,阳性率为0.5%,其中抗‐E阳性21例,抗‐Lea阳性10例,抗‐Fyb、抗‐E联合抗‐c阳性者各2例,抗‐D、抗‐c、抗‐Jka、抗‐M、抗‐E联合抗‐Fyb阳性者各1例。结论输血前进行不规则抗体筛查,有利于保证输血安全。

  2. Identification of the specificity of isolated phage display single-chain antibodies using yeast two-hybrid screens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Nicolaj; Ditzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A method is described for the identification of the antigen recognised by an scFv isolated from an antibody phage display library using selection against a complex mixture of proteins (e.g. intact cells, purified cell surface membranes, and tissue sections). The method takes advantage of a yeast ...... two-hybrid system that additionally allows for reorganization of post-translational modifications to the bait and target proteins. This technique is therefore especially useful for identifying surface-expressed antigens.......A method is described for the identification of the antigen recognised by an scFv isolated from an antibody phage display library using selection against a complex mixture of proteins (e.g. intact cells, purified cell surface membranes, and tissue sections). The method takes advantage of a yeast...

  3. Antibody screening & identification in the general patient population at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Nath Makroo; Aakanksha Bhatia; Vikas Hegde; Mohit Chowdhry; Uday Kumar Thakur; N L Rosamma

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The development of alloantibodies can significantly complicate transfusion therapy and results in difficulties in cross-matching of blood. Most literature on alloimmunization is limited to multitransfused individuals, with very few studies on the general hospital patients. This study was aimed at assessing the frequency and type of unexpected red cell antibodies in the general patient population at a multispecialty tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India. Methods...

  4. Development of monoclonal antibody against isoquinoline alkaloid coptisine and its application for the screening of medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jun-Sik; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; YUAN, CHUN-SU; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2004-01-01

    In the development of immunoassay technique, the design of hapten containing a functional group suitable for protein conjugate is the key step for the preparation of antibodies against small molecules. Coptisine (MW 320), a bioactive constituent of Berberis and Coptis species, is small as an immunogen. In addition, coptisine has no reactive group in molecule for conjugating with a protein. To overcome this problem, 9-O-carboxymethyl-berberrubine was designed and conjugated with carrier protei...

  5. 不规则抗体筛查在预防溶血性输血反应中的作用%The role of irregular antibodies screening in preventing hemolytic transfusion reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the meaning of irregular antibodies screening in clinical transfusion. Methods By microcolumn agglutination technology,the irregular antibodies screening of 652 transfusion or pregnancies patients in our hospital were tested. Both the positive rates and the tiles of irregular antibodies were calculated,and the specifications were analyzed. Results Of 652 cases , 14 samples were found irregular antibodies positive including isoantibody 9 cases, anto-antibodies 3 cases and cold agglutination had 2 cases,and the positive rate was 2. 14%. The rate of Rh antibody 7 cases(anti-D antibody 2 cases,anti-E antibody 3 cases,anti-E+C antibody 1 case,anti-c antibody 1 case)was 77. 8% and that of other blood group system 2 cases(anti-M antibody 1 cases and anti-Lea antibody 1 cases) was 22. 2% in isoantibody 9 cases. Conclusion Irregular antibodies screening can prevent hemolytic transfusion reaction before clinical transfusion.%目的 探讨输血前不规则抗体筛查在临床安全输血中的意义.方法 对652例有输血和(或)妊娠史的输血患者血浆应用间接Coomb′s微柱凝胶法进行不规则抗体筛查,统计不规则抗体阳性率、鉴定抗体特异性及检测其抗体效价.结果 652例患者血浆中共筛检出14例不规则抗体阳性,阳性率2.14%.其中,同种抗体9例,自身抗体3例,高效价冷抗体2例.9例同种抗体中Rh系统7例(77.8%),抗D 2例,抗E 3例,抗E+C 1例,抗c 1例,其他血型系统2例(22.2%),抗M 1例,抗Lea 1例.结论 输血前不规则抗体筛查可有效预防溶血性输血反应的发生.

  6. Have we been wise enough in the past? Lysenkoism and antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why is the anti-nuclear movement so strong? How come that it exists at all? It is easy to ask these questions but it is difficult to give an answer. In the Western World not many people are familiar with the development and demise of a pseudo-scientific teaching, commonly called Lysenkoism, that flourished in the Soviet Union from about 1929 up to 1966. During this period Lysenkoism did an enormous harm to the development of Biological Sciences in the Soviet Union and even to the overall national economy. In 1967, Zhores A. Medvedev wrote a historical account of that sad period. The book The Riseand Fall of T. D. Lysenko (MEDV 67) was published two years later in the United States (Columbia University Press, 1969), and in 1993 in Moscow (MEDV 93). On page 244 (MEDV 67), when discussing impact of Lysenkoism on the Soviet society, science and economy, Medvedev wrote: 'No single answer can be given to explain how an obvious pseudo science could maintain a monopoly for so long, nor how clearly harmful and absurd recommendations could be adopted into the national economy.' In the Western industrialized world , in the second half of the twentieth century, a very strong antinuclear movement developed that has almost terminated any further developments and applications of nuclear power for the production of electricity. The similarity between two movements exists, and, in my view, it is very appropriate to modify the Medvedev's statement as follows: 'No single answer can be given to explain how an obvious pseudo science, the antinuclear movement, could maintain a monopoly for so long, nor how clearly harmful and absurd recommendations to stop developments of nuclear power could be adopted into national economies of many nations.' The object of this paper is to review briefly the rise and demise of Lysenkoism, a much better known history of antinuclear movement and finally to discuss similarities and differences between the two. (author)

  7. A screening of skin changes, with special emphasis on neurochemical marker antibody evaluation, in patients claiming to suffer from "screen dermatitis" as compared to normal healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, O; Hilliges, M; Han, S W

    1996-10-01

    In the present study, facial skin from so-called "screen dermatitis" patients were compared with corresponding material from normal healthy volunteers. The aim of the study was to evaluate possible markers to be used for future double-blind or blind provocation investigations. Differences were found for the biological markers calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SOM), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY), protein S-100 (S-100), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). The overall impression in the blind-coded material was such that it turned out easy to blindly separate the two groups from each other. However, no single marker was 100% able to pin-point the difference, although some were quite powerful in doing so (CGRP, SOM, S-100). However, it has to be pointed out that we cannot, based upon the present results, draw any definitive conclusions about the cause of the changes observed. Whether this is due to electric or magnetic fields, a surrounding airborne chemical, humidity, heating, stress factors, or something else, still remains an open question. Blind or double-blind provocations in a controlled environment are necessary to elucidate possible underlying causes for the changes reported in this investigation. PMID:8981027

  8. Single Chain Antibodies as Tools to Study transforming growth factor-β-Regulated SMAD Proteins in Proximity Ligation-Based Pharmacological Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokzijl, Andries; Zieba, Agata; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas; Helmsing, Saskia; Grannas, Karin; Hertz, Ellen; Moren, Anita; Chen, Lei; Söderberg, Ola; Moustakas, Aristidis; Dübel, Stefan; Landegren, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    The cellular heterogeneity seen in tumors, with subpopulations of cells capable of resisting different treatments, renders single-treatment regimens generally ineffective. Accordingly, there is a great need to increase the repertoire of drug treatments from which combinations may be selected to efficiently target sets of pathological processes, while suppressing the emergence of resistance mutations. In this regard, members of the TGF-β signaling pathway may furnish new, valuable therapeutic targets. In the present work, we developed in situ proximity ligation assays (isPLA) to monitor the state of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Moreover, we extended the range of suitable affinity reagents for this analysis by developing a set of in-vitro-derived human antibody fragments (single chain fragment variable, scFv) that bind SMAD2 (Mothers against decapentaplegic 2), 3, 4, and 7 using phage display. These four proteins are all intracellular mediators of TGF-β signaling. We also developed an scFv specific for SMAD3 phosphorylated in the linker domain 3 (p179 SMAD3). This phosphorylation has been shown to inactivate the tumor suppressor function of SMAD3. The single chain affinity reagents developed in the study were fused tocrystallizable antibody fragments (Fc-portions) and expressed as dimeric IgG-like molecules having Fc domains (Yumabs), and we show that they represent valuable reagents for isPLA.Using these novel assays, we demonstrate that p179 SMAD3 forms a complex with SMAD4 at increased frequency during division and that pharmacological inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)(1) reduces the levels of p179SMAD3 in tumor cells. We further show that the p179SMAD3-SMAD4 complex is bound for degradation by the proteasome. Finally, we developed a chemical screening strategy for compounds that reduce the levels of p179SMAD3 in tumor cells with isPLA as a read-out, using the p179SMAD3 scFv SH544-IIC4. The screen identified two kinase inhibitors, known inhibitors

  9. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick in vitro feeding methods for functional (dsRNA) and vaccine candidate (antibody) screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-Tabor, Ala E; Bruyeres, Anthea G; Zhang, Bing; Rodriguez Valle, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks cause economic losses for cattle industries throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world estimated at $US2.5 billion annually. Lack of access to efficacious long-lasting vaccination regimes and increases in tick acaricide resistance have led to the investigation of targets for the development of novel tick vaccines and treatments. In vitro tick feeding has been used for many tick species to study the effect of new acaricides on the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. Few studies have reported the use of in vitro feeding for functional genomic studies using RNA interference and/or the effect of specific anti-tick antibodies. In particular, in vitro feeding reports for the cattle tick are limited due to its relatively short hypostome. Previously published methods were further modified to broaden optimal tick sizes/weights, feeding sources including bovine and ovine serum, optimisation of commercially available blood anti-coagulant tubes, and IgG concentrations for effective antibody delivery. Ticks are fed overnight and monitored for ∼5-6 weeks to determine egg output and success of larval emergence using a humidified incubator. Lithium-heparin blood tubes provided the most reliable anti-coagulant for bovine blood feeding compared with commercial citrated (CPDA) and EDTA tubes. Although >30mg semi-engorged ticks fed more reliably, ticks as small as 15mg also fed to repletion to lay viable eggs. Ticks which gained less than ∼10mg during in vitro feeding typically did not lay eggs. One mg/ml IgG from Bm86-vaccinated cattle produced a potent anti-tick effect in vitro (83% efficacy) similar to that observed in vivo. Alternatively, feeding of dsRNA targeting Bm86 did not demonstrate anti-tick effects (11% efficacy) compared with the potent effects of ubiquitin dsRNA. This study optimises R. microplus tick in vitro feeding methods which support the development of cattle tick vaccines and

  10. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in early pregnancy: utility for prediction of postpartum thyroid dysfunction and implications for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premawardhana, L D K E; Parkes, A B; John, R; Harris, B; Lazarus, J H

    2004-08-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in pregnancy are a marker for postpartum (PPTD) and long-term thyroid dysfunction, with variable sensitivity and specificity in PPTD prediction. To test its utility in prediction, we recruited 308 TPOAb-positive (147 developed PPTD (PPTD group) and 161 remained euthyroid [PPTE group]) and 102 TPOAb-negative women (none developed PPTD), in early pregnancy (median, 18; range, 9-19 weeks' gestation). TPOAb levels were higher in the PPTD group (median) (125.2 kIU/L; p < 0.001), and in its hypothyroid (162.4 kIU.; p < 0.0001), hyperthyroid (114.2 kIU/L; p < 0.007), and biphasic (105.1 kIU/L; p < 0.02) variants, compared to the PPTE group (66.7 kIU/L) The incidence of PPTD was significantly higher with TPOAb levels above 58.2 kIU/L (early pregnancy versus postpartum; relative risk, 1.37 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.61] versus 0.78 [95% CI 0.5-1.2]) compared to levels below. The integrated postpartum TPOAb response was higher in the PPTD group (median) (159 kIU/L per week) and its variants (hypothyroid; 199 kIU/L per week; biphasic, 180 kIU/L per week; hyperthyroid, 120 kIU/L per week), compared to the PPTE group (86 kIU/L per week p < 0.004). Median early pregnancy TPOAb levels in the PPTD and PPTE groups correlated well with the postpartum antibody response (r = 0.58, p < 0.001). The sensitivity of TPOAb in PPTD prediction was 100% (early pregnancy and postpartum), specificity 62% (early pregnancy) versus 41% (postpartum) and positive predictive value 48% (early pregnancy and postpartum). The timing of TPOAb testing, the sensitive assay used and the absence of PPTD in TPOAb-negative subjects contributed to this high sensitivity. We recommend TPOAb in early pregnancy as a useful predictor of PPTD, particularly in populations where PPTD does not occur in TPOAb-negative women.

  11. Screening Analysis of Irregular Antibodies of 5014 Blood Donors in Hohhot Area%呼和浩特地区5014例献血人群不规则抗体筛查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 张俊玲; 尚锦清; 白俊凤

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]To analyze the frequency and distribution of irregular antibodies in Hohhot area so as to ensure the safety of blood transfusion. [Methods]Blood donors of Hohhot area were randomly selected in 2008; antibody screening cells, polybrene test and anti-human globulin test were adopted for antibody screening.[Results]The irregular antibodies were found in 9 samples(0.18%). The frequency of irregular antibodies in female was higher than that in male(P<0.01)and Rh antibodies such as anti-D, anti-E, and anti-Ec C (55.6%)were common. One sample of Le antibodies was failed to be found by polybrene test.[Conclusion]Because of irregular antibodies resulting in hemolytic transfusion reaction, the investigation of irregular antibodies is very important for ensuring blood transfusion. Antibody screening must be done for massive plasma transfusion of female donors, severe patients and infants to ensure safety.%目的 分析呼和浩特地区不规则抗体的频率与分布特征,以确保输血安全.方法 于2008年对呼和浩特地区献血者中随机抽取5014例,采用抗体筛选细胞、聚凝胺试验和抗人球蛋白试验作抗体筛查.结果 筛出不规则抗体9例,占0.18%.女性不规则抗体者多于男性(P<0.01),多为Rh抗体(抗D、抗E和抗C占55.6%).聚凝胺法漏检1例Le抗体.结论 由于不规则抗体可以导致溶血性输血反应和新生儿溶血病,因此调查该地区不规则抗体对安全输血十分重要.对女性献血者或给重危病人、小儿大量输注的血浆尤应做抗体筛选以确保安全输血.

  12. Evaluation of auto-antibody serum biomarkers for breast cancer screening and in silico analysis of sero-reactive proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Weinhäusel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aberrantly expressed proteins in tumours evoke an immunological response. These immunogenic proteins can serve as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cancers. In this study, we performed a candidate marker screen on macroarrays containing 38,016 human proteins, derived from a human fetal-brain expression library, with the pools of sera from breast cancer patients (1 pool of benign samples, 3 pools of ductal carcinoma and 2 pools of lobular carcinoma and 1 pool of sera from healthy women. A panel of 642 sero-reactive clones were deduced from these macroarray experiments which include 284 in-frame clones. Over-representation analyses of the sero-reactive in-frame clones enabled the identification of the sets of genes over-expressed in various pathways of the functional categories (KEGG, Transpath, Pfam and GO. Protein microarrays, generated using the His-tag proteins derived from the macroarray experiments, were used to evaluate the sera from breast cancer patients (24 malignant, 16 benign and 20 control individuals. Using the PAM algorithm we elucidated a panel of 50 clones which enabled the correct classification prediction of 93% of the breast-nodule positive group (benign & malignant sera from healthy individuals’ sera with 100% sensitivity and 85% specificity. This was followed by over-representation analysis of the significant clones derived from the class prediction.

  13. Analysis of the Signiifcance of Irregular Antibody Screening Before Blood Transfusion in Clinical Safety%输血前不规则抗体筛查在临床安全输血中的意义分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘夏炎

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of irregular antibody screening before transfusion in clinical safe blood transfusion.Methods 1 500 serum samples from March 2014 to December 2015 in our hospital were irregular antibody screened using micro-column gel antiglobulin test method.Results There were 27 cases (1.8%) screened out of irregular antibody, including 9 males and 18 females. Identified by antibody specificity, there were 3 cases of anti-C, 11 cases of anti-E, 8 cases of anti-D, 5 cases of anti-M. Conclusion Irregular antibody screening before transfusion is an important measure to prevent hemolytic transfusion reaction, and has signiifcance for clinical safe blood transfusion.%目的:探讨输血前不规则抗体筛查在临床安全输血中的意义。方法运用微柱凝胶抗人球蛋白试验法对本院2014年3月~2015年12月1500份血清样本进行不规则抗体筛查。结果27例(1.8%)筛查出不规则抗体,其中男9例,女18例。经抗体特异性鉴定,抗-C 3例,抗-E 11例,抗-D 8例,抗-M 5例。结论输血前不规则抗体筛查是预防溶血性输血反应的重要措施,对临床安全输血具有重要意义。

  14. Presence of Autoimmune Antibody in Chikungunya Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Maek-a-nantawat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya infection has recently re-emerged as an important arthropod-borne disease in Thailand. Recently, Southern Thailand was identified as a potentially endemic area for the chikungunya virus. Here, we report a case of severe musculoskeletal complication, presenting with muscle weakness and swelling of the limbs. During the investigation to exclude autoimmune muscular inflammation, high titers of antinuclear antibody were detected. This is the report of autoimmunity detection associated with an arbovirus infection. The symptoms can mimic autoimmune polymyositis disease, and the condition requires close monitoring before deciding to embark upon prolonged specific treatment with immunomodulators.

  15. Effects of abstract and concrete antinuclear filmed presentations on participation in a petition campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal was to examine the effects of abstract and concrete anti-nuclear images and previous political activity on interest in the topic of nuclear war and participation in an anti-nuclear petition campaign. Subjects were 254 undergraduate students at Hofstra University in three political science classes, three psychology classes and three communication classes: 128 males and 126 females. They were assigned by class to one of three image conditions: concrete, abstract, or no image. After completing a questionnaire measuring their previous level of political activity, students in the concrete condition saw The Last Epidemic, a 30-minute video depicting the aftermath of a nuclear explosion. Subjects in the abstract condition saw Preventing Nuclear War-First Step, a 30 minute video conveying factual information about missile systems and the arms race. Subjects in the no-image condition were not exposed to a video and served as controls. They were asked to respond to a short questionnaire that elicited emotional and intellectual reactions to the topic of nuclear war. After viewing the video tape, subjects in the abstract and concrete conditions responded to a brief questionnaire that elicited emotional and intellectual reactions to the videos. Subjects in all three conditions were asked to provide their names addresses if they were interested in receiving more information on this topic. Subjects who provided their name and addresses were mailed, within 24-hours, a one page petition advocating an anti-nuclear position. Recipients were asked to sign the petition, gather as many signature as possible, and return the petition. Participation was measured by the number of signatures gathered. Data were analyzed by analyzes of variance. The type of image had no effect on either interest or participation in the petition campaign. A modest positive relationship was found between previous political activity and interest

  16. Irregular antibodies screening before blood transfusion and safety in blood transfusion%输血前不规则抗体筛查与输血安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗伶俐

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the importance of irregular antibodies screening before blood transfusion. Methods:From March 2009 to March 2012,3 215 cases of patients with blood transfusion were selected as treatment group,and irregular antibody was detected before blood transfusion by polybrene method and microcolumn gel test. From January 2009 to February 2009,3 113 cases of patients with blood transfusion were selected as control group,and the incidence of adverse transfusion reaction was counted. Results:The positive rate of treatment group was 0. 40%,and the positive rate of female(0. 60%,10/1 500) was 3. 5 times of male(0. 17%, 3/1 715). Of the entire female positive,maternal positive rate was 1. 14%,8/701,4. 5 times of non-maternal(0. 25%,2/799). Depart-ment of hepatobiliary surgery,general surgery and nephrology have 10 cases of positive(76. 92%,10/13),while other departments have 3 only(23. 08%,3/13). The difference was statistically significant(P<0. 05). There were 29 cases of adverse transfusion reaction in control group(0. 93%),while 3 cases in treatment group(0. 093%). The difference has statistical significance(χ2 =9. 239,P <0. 05). Conclusion:Patients with pregnant history and department of hepatobiliary surgery,general surgery and nephrology are high-risk groups in blood transfusion. With the strict implementation of irregular antibodies screening process,the occurrence rates of blood trans-fusion adverse reactions reduced apparently in clinical blood transfusion.%目的::探讨输血前不规则抗体筛查在输血安全中的重要性。方法:选取我院2009年3月至2012年3月共3215例输血患者为试验组,采用聚凝胺法、微柱凝胶法行输血前不规则抗体筛查。以2006年1月至2009年2月期间我院3113例输血患者为对照组,统计输血反应不良发生率。结果:试验组阳性率0.40%,女性阳性率(0.60%,10/1500)为男性(0.17%,3/1715)的3.5倍;女性阳性患者中,孕产妇阳性率(1.14%,8/701)是非

  17. Analysis of HIV Antibody Screening in 9 844 STD Outpatients%性病门诊9844例患者HIV抗体筛查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙庆; 杨欢; 张信江; 罗显华; 董泽令; 黄健

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) outpatients.Methods HIV antibody was tested by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 9 844 cases of STD outpatients,positive serum was sent to the provincial CDC to confirm with Western blot test (Western-Blot,WB).Results In the 9 844 cases of STD outpatients,there were 71 cases with HIV positive antibody,the positive rate was 7.21‰ (71/9844).The age of major patien(t)s was 21 to 40 old years (55/71,77.46%).Although their occupational distribution involved civil servan,lawyers,students and high school students,businessmen,self-employed,hairdresser,car drivers,service personnel,sales personnel and the postman,etc.but no fixed occupational patients was more (42/71,59.15%).Conclusion The test of HIV antibody is an important way for finding HIV/AIDS patients.The HIV/AIDS patients may be detect with HIV antibody screening in general hospital.It have a very important significance to cut transmission and avoid iatrogenic transmission of HIV/AIDS.%目的 了解性病(STD)门诊患者中人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染情况.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA法)对9 844例STD门诊患者进行HIV抗体检测,阳性者送省CDC做蛋白印迹试验(Western-Blot,WB)确诊.结果 9 844例STD门诊患者中,HIV抗体阳性者71例,阳性检出率7.21‰(71/9 844).年龄分布以中青年为主,21 ~40岁年龄组占77.46% (55/71);职业分布虽涉及公务员、律师、学生、商人、个体户、美发师、汽车司机、服务人员、销售人员与邮递员等,但以无固定职业者为多(42/71例,59.15%).结论 对综合医院STD门诊患者进行HIV抗体筛查是发现HIV/AIDS患者的重要途径,应加强对性病患者的HIV抗体筛查,以便及时发现HIV/AIDS患者,这对切断HIV/AIDS患者的传染途径与避免医源性传播都有十分重要的意义.

  18. Anti-DNA antibodies--quintessential biomarkers of SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisetsky, David S

    2016-02-01

    Antibodies that recognize and bind to DNA (anti-DNA antibodies) are serological hallmarks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and key markers for diagnosis and disease activity. In addition to common use in the clinic, anti-DNA antibody testing now also determines eligibility for clinical trials, raising important questions about the nature of the antibody-antigen interaction. At present, no 'gold standard' for serological assessment exists, and anti-DNA antibody binding can be measured with a variety of assay formats, which differ in the nature of the DNA substrates and in the conditions for binding and detection of antibodies. A mechanism called monogamous bivalency--in which high avidity results from simultaneous interaction of IgG Fab sites with a single polynucleotide chain--determines anti-DNA antibody binding; this mechanism might affect antibody detection in different assay formats. Although anti-DNA antibodies can promote pathogenesis by depositing in the kidney or driving cytokine production, they are not all alike, pathologically, and anti-DNA antibody expression does not necessarily correlate with active disease. Levels of anti-DNA antibodies in patients with SLE can vary over time, distinguishing anti-DNA antibodies from other pathogenic antinuclear antibodies. Elucidation of the binding specificities and the pathogenic roles of anti-DNA antibodies in SLE should enable improvements in the design of informative assays for both clinical and research purposes.

  19. 四种艾滋病病毒抗体筛查试剂检测性能评价%Evaluation of four kits for screening HIV antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晖; 江楚文; 李世坚; 李珩; 黄美群; 梁健群; 肖伟欢

    2010-01-01

    Objective To Evaluate four kits for screening HIV antibody by comparing and analyzing the HIV antibody screening positive results and Western Blot (WB) test results.Methods From January 2004 to June 2009,three ELISA kits (Zhongshan,Biomérieux and Livzon) were used for initial screening HIV antibody.The reactive positive samples were reexamed by initial ELISA kit and a rapid kit (Abbot Determine HIV-1/2) .All repeatedly reactive positive screening results were followed by WB test.Results A total of 193 (0.094%) WB confirmed positive results were obtained from 206 151 specimens.The sensitivities and predictive values of negative test result (PVN) of three ELISA kits were all 100% and those of Abbot Determine HIV-1/2 were 93.93%,and 91.67% respectively.All false negative results from Abbot were WB indeterminate.The specificities of Zhongshan,Biomérieux,Livzon and Abbot were 99.88% ,99.89% ,99.96% and 89.38% ; the study predictive values of a positive test result (PVP)were 35.58%,46.46%,76.61% and 92.20% ; the efficieucies were 99.88%,99.89%,99.96% and 91.98% ; the areas under ROC curve of the three ELISA kits were 0.93,0.99,and 0.95 respectively.PVP of Livzon was obviously higher than those of Zhongshan (X~2 = 45.804,P = 0.000) ,Biomérieux (X~2=25.231,P =0.000) and Biomérieux was higher than Zhongshan (X~2=2.488,P=0.115) .PVP of Abbot was highest (X~2=18.633 ,P =0.000,vs Livzon) .There were some specimens with S/CO (optical density of sample/cut off) ratio <6 or≥6 in all three groups with positive,indeterminate and negative WB results.The S/CO ratio from Zhongshan in confirmed positive group (14.29±2.63) was higher than in positive-negative group (2.80±3.25)(t=17.652,P=0.000) .The S/CO ratio from Biomérieux in confirmed positive group (16.09±2.35) was higher than in positive-negative group (2.14±1.91)(t=31.622,P=0.000) .The S/CO ratio from Livzon in confirmed positive group (11.54±1.95) was higher than in positive-indeterminate group (5.54±3.57)(t=6

  20. 微柱凝胶技术检测血型不规则抗体的临床应用%The clinical application of irregular antibody screening by microtube gel technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁芳; 粟明丽; 邓梅英

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析微柱凝胶技术对输血患者进行血型不规则抗体的筛查情况及临床应用。方法对2010年1月~2013年12月于桂林医学院附属医院输血患者29208例进行不规则抗体检测,统计分析阳性结果,鉴定阳性抗体的特异性。结果29208例患者中,检出不规则抗体阳性者90例,阳性率为0.31%。特异性抗体以Rh血型系统居多,抗-D抗体占2.22%、抗-E抗体占21.11%、抗-Ec抗体占11.11%;MNSs系统抗-Mur抗体11例(12.22%)、抗-M抗体7例(7.78%);Lewis系统抗-Lea抗体占8.89%;冷抗体占7.78%。非特异性抗体占13.33%。结论输血前对患者血液进行血型不规则抗体筛查并鉴定其特异性,输注不含相应抗原的血液,避免溶血性输血反应的发生,对确保输血安全有效有重要的临床意义。%Objective To analyze the situation and clinical application of microtube gel technology (MGT) in the irreg-ular antibody screening of patients before blood transfusion. Methods 29 208 patients from January 2010 to December 2013 in Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University were screened for irregular antibody. The results were statisti-cal analyzed to identify the specificity of positive antibody. Results Among 29 208 patients, there were 90 cases with irregular antibody, the positive rate was 0.31%. Rh blood type system accounted for the most part of the specific anti-bodies: 2.22% for anti-D antibody, 21.11% of anti-E antibody and 11.11% of anti-Ec antibody. 11 cases of Anti-Mur of MNSs system accounted for 12.22% of the total and 7 cases of anti-M antibody accounted for 7.78%. 8.89% was for Anti-Lea antibody in Lewis system and 7.78% for cold antibody. And the non-specific antibodies accounted for 13.33%. Conclusion Irregular antibody should be screened and its specificity should also be identified before transfu-sion. To transfuse the blood without the corresponding antibodies can prevent transfusional hemolytic reaction, which is

  1. The significance of irregular antibody screening among healthy blood donors for clinical blood transfusion%健康献血者不规则抗体筛查在临床输血中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕学琴; 尹向丽

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨健康献血者不规则抗体筛查在临床输血中的意义。方法收集2011年8月至2012年10月3029名健康献血者的血液标本,采用盐水介质法和抗人球蛋白法进行不规则抗体筛查,抗体筛查阳性者做进一步鉴定,分析抗体特异性。结果对新疆维吾尔族自治区农三师图木舒克市中心血站3029例健康献血者进行不规则抗体筛查阳性17例(0.56%),其中抗-D阳性9例,抗-E阳性4例,抗-e阳性1例,抗-M阳性2例,抗A1阳性1例。男性不规则抗体阳性率为0.43%(6/1397),女性不规则抗体阳性率为0.67%(11/1632),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。有输血史或妊娠史的健康献血者不规则抗体阳性率显著高于无输血史或妊娠史者(1.48% vs 0.10%,P<0.05)。结论常规对健康献血者血液标本进行不规则抗体筛查和鉴定,对保障临床用血安全、预防溶血性输血反应具有极其重要的意义。%Objective To investigate the significance of screening irregular antibodies among healthy blood do-nors for clinical blood transfusion .Methods 3 029 blood samples of healthy donors from Augst 2011 to October 2012 were collected .Saline medium method and Coombs test were used for irregular antibodies screening .The positive samples of the screening tests were further evaluated to analyze their antibody specificity .Results Among the 3 029 healthy donors ,17 cases (0 .56% ) were positive for irregular antibodies screening ,including 9 cases for anti-D anti-body ,4 cases for anti-E antibody ,1 case for anti-e antibody ,2 cases for anti-M antibody and 1 case for anti-A1 anti-body respectively .The positive rates of male and female were 0 .43% (6/1 397) and 0 .67% (11/1 632) .The differ-ence had no statistical significance (P>0 .05) .The positive rate of irregular antibody in healthy donors who had his-tory of blood transfusion or pregnancy was significantly higher

  2. 不规则抗体筛查对预防溶血性输血反应的临床意义%The study on the clinical significance of irregular antibody screening on the prevention of hemolytic transfusion reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨不规则抗体筛查对预防溶血性输血反应的临床意义。方法对1025例有输血史的输血患者血浆应用间接 coomb s 微柱凝胶法进行不规则抗体筛查,统计不规则抗体阳性率、鉴定抗体特异性及检测其抗体效价。结果1025倒患者血浆中共筛检出20例不规则抗体阳性,阳性率1.95%。其中,同种抗体15例,自身抗体3例,高效价冷抗体2例。15例同种抗体中 rh 系统10例(66.7%),抗 d 4例,抗 e 4例,抗 e+c 1例,抗 c 1例,其他血型系统5例(33.3%),抗 M 3例,抗 lea2例。结论输血前不规则抗体筛查可有效预防溶血性输血反应的发生。%Objective To explore the clinical significance of irregular antibody screening to prevent hemolytic transfusion reaction. Methods irregular antibody screening of blood transfusion was performed by indirect coomb method in patients with a history of blood transfusion. The positive rates of irregular antibody were calculated, antibody specificity was identified and their titers were detected. Results 20 patients were screeninged with plasma positive irregular antibody in a total of 1025 patients and the positive rate was 1.95%, in which 15 cases were detected the same antibody, 3 cases autoantibody and 2 cases with efficient cold antibody. 10 cases of 15 cases with alloantibody had Rh system(66.7%), anti D 4 cases, anti E 4 cases, anti e + c 1 case, anti c 1, other blood type system in 5 cases (33.3%), anti M 3 cases and anti lea 2 cases. Conclusion irregular antibody screening before blood transfusion can effectively prevent the cause of the hemolytic transfusion reaction.

  3. A major Sm epitope anchored to sequential oligopeptide carriers is a suitable antigenic substrate to detect anti-Sm antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovas, C J; Vlachoyiannopoulos, P G; Tzioufas, A G; Alexopoulos, C; Tsikaris, V; Sakarellos-Daitsiotis, M; Sakarellos, C; Moutsopoulos, H M

    1998-11-01

    A sensitive, highly reproducible, solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), was developed in order to investigate whether the synthetic heptapeptide PPGMRPP-a major epitope of the Sm autoantigen-anchored in five copies to a sequential oligopeptide carrier (SOC), [(PPGMRPP)5-SOC5] is a suitable antigenic substrate to identify anti-Sm/antibodies. Sera with different autoantibody specificities [45 anti-Sm, 40 anti-U1RNP, 40 anti-Ro (SSA)/La(SSB) positive, 21 Antinuclear antibody positive, but negative for antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ANA + /ENA - ) and 75 normal human sera, ANA negative] and 75 sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were tested for anti-(PPGMRPP)5-(SOC)5 reactivity in order to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the method to detect anti-Sm antibodies. RNA immunoprecipitation assays for the detection of anti-Sm and anti-U1RNP antibodies and counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) for the detection of anti-Ro(SSA) and anti-La(SSB) antibodies were used as reference techniques. The sensitivity of the method was 98% and the specificity was 68% for the determination of anti-Sm antibodies, while for the determination of anti-Sm and/or anti-U1RNP reactivity (antibodies to snRNPs) the corresponding values were 82% and 86%, respectively. In a comparison of the above assay with an ELISA, using Sm/U1RNP purified complex as immobilized antigen it was shown that the sensitivity of the anti-Sm/U1RNP ELISA in detecting anti-snRNPs was 74%; in addition sera with anti-Sm antibodies gave higher binding in the anti-(PPGMRPP)5-(SOC)5 ELISA compared with anti-Sm/U1RNP ELISA. Intra- and inter-assay precision was measured on four sera with reactivities extending into a wide range of absorbance values showed that the intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV%) ranged from 2.7 to 6 and the inter-assay CV% ranged from 9 to 14.5. These results indicate that the PPGMRPP peptide anchored to a pentameric SOC as a carrier is a suitable antigen for

  4. Screening and immunological identification of the human ScFv antibody against PSMA%全人源抗PSMA单链抗体的筛选及免疫活性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张才田; 刘金霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To screen and identify a human single-chain variable fragment(scFv) antibody against prostate specific membrane antigen(PSMA) from a human scFv antibody library.Methods Using a synthetic PSMA peptide as the coating antigen, the antibody library was screened by five rounds of combining-eluting-amplification.The phage antibody against PSMA with high specificity was screened out from the human scFv antibody library and its binding ability to the antigen was tested by ELISA.The soluble antibody was produced by plasmids extracted from highly specific clones, whose binding ability to PSMA was further identified by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.The affinity constant of the soluble antibody was measured by non-competitive ELISA.Results The screened phage antibody was specific for PSMA by ELISA.The soluble antibody was also specific for PSMA, its molecular weight was about 30 kD by SDS-PAGE and its affinity constant was about 5.077 × 106 L/mol.Conclusions The screened scFv antibody is specific and has low immunogenicity.It can be further used in the target treatment of malignant tumors.%目的 从全人源单链噬菌体抗体库中筛选出抗前列腺特异性膜抗原(PSMA)特异性单链抗体并进行免疫活性鉴定.方法 以合成的PSMA多肽为抗原,经过五轮吸附-洗脱-扩增,从单链噬菌体抗体库中筛选出特异性抗PSMA噬菌体抗体,ELISA检测其抗原结合能力,并对特异性较强的克隆提取质粒,表达可溶性抗体.Western Blotting和免疫组织化学检测其抗原结合性,非竞争ELSIA法检测其亲和常数.结果 从单链噬菌体抗体库中筛选出的噬菌体抗体,经ELISA鉴定为抗PSMA的特异性噬菌体抗体.抗PSMA可溶性抗体相对分子质量约为3.0×104,与PSMA特异性结合,其亲和常数约为5.077×106L/mol.结论 所得全人源抗PSMA单链抗体保留完整抗体分子结合抗原的特异性,免疫原性弱,是肿瘤导向治疗的理想栽体.

  5. 受血者不规则抗体筛查与临床输血安全的研究%Study on the Safety of Irregular Antibody Screening and Blood Transfusion in Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 凌励

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究受血者不规则抗体的阳性率以及不规则抗体的分布,为提高输血安全性提供有效依据。方法对2013年6月~2015年6月在我院拟输血或者手术备血的5000例患者进行不规则抗体筛选,对抗体的特异性进行分析。结果5000例患者中,一共检出20例为抗体阳性,阳性率为0.4%。不规则阳性患者筛查中非特异性抗体1例,占5%,特异性抗体19例,占95%。特异性分布情况:抗-M最高,其次为抗-D、抗-E、抗-C等。结论筛查不规则抗体能够为临床输血的研究提供事实依据,能够提高临床输血的安全性。%Objective To study the positive rate of irregular antibodies and the distribution of irregular antibodies in the blood,so as to provide an effective basis for improving the safety of blood transfusion.Methods 5 000 cases of patients with blood transfusion or surgery in our hospital from June 2013 to June 2015 were screened by irregular antibodies,and the specificity of the antibody was analyzed.Results In 5 000 patients,the positive was 20 cases,and the positive rate was 0.4%. Irregular positive patients in the screening of non-specific antibodies was 1 cases,accounting for 5%,specific antibodies was 19 cases,accounting for 95%. Specific distribution: Anti–m,the highest,followed by anti-D,anti-E,anti-C,etc.Conclusion Screening irregular antibodies can provide a large amount of evidence for clinical research, which can greatly improve the safety of blood transfusion.

  6. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Thyroid Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Thyroid Autoantibodies; Antithyroid Antibodies; Antimicrosomal Antibody; Thyroid Microsomal Antibody; ...

  7. HIV抗体诊断试剂的临床质量评估%Evaluation of screening reagents for detecting antibodies of human immunodeficiency virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路新利; 赵翠英; 赵宏儒; 白广义; 李巧敏; 李岩; 王莹莹; 刘丽花

    2013-01-01

    目的 掌握国内市售艾滋病病毒(HIV)抗体诊断试剂的实际质量情况,为选用质量优良的HIV抗体诊断试剂提供依据.方法 用5种酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)(双抗原夹心法)(A、B、C、D、E)试剂和3种快速试剂(胶体金法、乳胶层析法)(F、G、H),分别对各自的血清盘(包括:阳性样品、阴性样品和现场样品)检测抗体,并对各参评试剂的性能指标进行分析.结果 国家参考品评估结果:ELISA试剂的功效率为89.58%~100.00%,试剂D的敏感性只有85.71%,试剂E的功效率为100.00%.快速试剂的功效率为93.33%~95.56%.自备样品评估结果:ELISA试剂的功效率为98.19%~99.55%,其中试剂D敏感性和功效率最低,分别为96.83%和98.19%.快速试剂的功效率为92.44%~97.33%.结论 除了试剂E没出现假阴性、试剂H没出现假阳性结果外,其他试剂均不同程度地出现了假阳性和假阴性共同存在的现象.试剂质量参差不齐,假阳性或假阴性会导致资源浪费或HIV的传播,国产试剂质量有待进一步提高.%Objective To understand the quality of the screening reagents used for detecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody in Hebei Province, so as to provide evidence for the selection of qualified HIV screening reagents. Methods Five enzyme-linked immuneosorbent assay (ELISA) reagents( A, B, C, D, E) and 3 rapid screening reagents (F,G,H) were used to detect the samples including positive and negative samples and the samples taken on the spot. The indices of sensitivities, specificities, efficiency, NPV and PPV of all the screening reagents were analyzed. Results The total consistence rates of the quality control samples bought from the National Reference Center were 89. 58% - 100. 00% for the ELISA reagents, while the sensitivity of the reagent D was only 85. 71% and the total consistence rate of the reagent E was 100. 00%. The total consistence rate of the rapid reagents was 93

  8. 胶体金法快速筛查HIV抗体的应用研究%The Study of Practical HIV-Antibody for Rapid Screening with Colloidal Gold Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 姚勇; 漆兆李; 蒋玲

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This article is aimed to study the adaptability and feasibility of HIV-antibody for rapid screening with colloidal gold method. Methods Compared with the method of ELISA to the blood sample for HIV-antibody, we collected the sample from the exudation of the oral mucosa with colloidal gold method for rapid screening to the HIV-antibody. Results All cases of 150, we had analyzed with the method of ELISA and colloidal gold for the HIV-antibody, which were negative in 127 cases (84.7%) and positive in 23 cases (15.3%) in rapid screening with colloidal gold method for the exudation of oral mucosa while were negative in 129 cases (86.0%) and positive in 21 cases (14.0%) in the method of ELISA for the blood samples, found there is no obvious difference (P>0.05). Conclusion The method of rapid screening HIV-antibody with colloidal gold for the exudation of oral mucosa is worth to popularize and is feasibility in the basic medical unit.%  目的探讨胶体金法快速筛查 HIV 抗体的可行性和适用性。方法用胶体金法快速筛查测试对象口腔黏膜渗出液中 HIV 抗体,与ELISA 法检测相同测试对象血样 HIV 抗体作对照。结果本组研究对象150例,用胶体金法快速筛查其口腔黏膜渗出液样本的 HIV 抗体,阴性127例(阴性率84.7%),阳性23例(阳性率15.3%);再用 ELISA 法检测研究对象的血浆标本的 HIV 抗体,阴性129例(阴性率86.0%),阳性21例(阳性率14.0%),二者结果无显著差异(P >0.05)。结论用胶体金法检测人类口腔黏膜渗出液样本作为快速筛查HIV 抗体是可行的,值得基层医疗机构推广应用。

  9. Staining pattern classification of antinuclear autoantibodies based on block segmentation in indirect immunofluorescence images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqian Li

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence based on HEp-2 cell substrate is the most commonly used staining method for antinuclear autoantibodies associated with different types of autoimmune pathologies. The aim of this paper is to design an automatic system to identify the staining patterns based on block segmentation compared to the cell segmentation most used in previous research. Various feature descriptors and classifiers are tested and compared in the classification of the staining pattern of blocks and it is found that the technique of the combination of the local binary pattern and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm achieve the best performance. Relying on the results of block pattern classification, experiments on the whole images show that classifier fusion rules are able to identify the staining patterns of the whole well (specimen image with a total accuracy of about 94.62%.

  10. Progress of monoclonal antibody secretion hybridoma cell rapid screening technology based on HTS-ELISA%基于HTS-ELISA的单克隆抗体分泌杂交瘤细胞筛选技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄玉萍; 裴世春; 高建伟

    2014-01-01

    Various immune analysis technologies based on the monoclonal antibody are the main develop-ment direction for modern food safety rapid detection technology. Therefore, preparation of monoclonal anti-bodies with high-activity has got more and more attention by researchers. Preparation of monoclonal antibody usually involves many techniques, including the preparation of the antigen, immune design, cell fusion, screening of active hybridoma and antibody purification. Among them, the screening of monoclonal antibody secreting hybridoma cells is a key of the prepared monoclonal antibody part. Therefore, in order to provide a reference for high-activity monoclonal antibody preparation and the development of rapid detection technology for food safety, this paper focused on low density fusion cell culture, special equipment and the principle and technology of determining hybridoma cell activity in the screening process according to drag the number of holes (Trailing) to related activities, and mainly introduced one kind of high-activity monoclonal antibody se-cretion hybridoma technique which was based on HTS-ELISA screening method.%基于单克隆抗体的各类免疫分析技术是现代食品安全快速检测技术发展的主要方向之一,因此,高活性单克隆抗体的制备方法自然为众多研究者所关注。通常单克隆抗体的制备过程涉及到很多技术环节,包括抗原制备、免疫剂量设计、细胞融合、活性杂交瘤细胞筛选以及抗体纯化等,其中分泌单克隆抗体杂交瘤细胞的筛选环节是单克隆抗体制备的关键一环。为此,本文主要介绍了一种基于HTS-ELISA的高活性单克隆抗体分泌杂交瘤细胞的筛选技术,重点是对融合细胞的低密度培养、特殊仪器设备和在筛选过程中如何依据拖孔数(Trailing)来判断杂交瘤细胞的活性等相关的原理和技术,旨在为我国高活性单克隆抗体制备技术的发展及加快食品安全快

  11. HIV抗体筛查实验的检测策略评价%Evaluation of the detection strategy for HIV antibody screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤琰; 孙乔; 李旭; 王涛; 盛燕华; 马平; 朱林英; 傅益飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 以蛋白印迹试验(WB)结果为金标准,对实验室的HIV抗体筛查,包括酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)和免疫层析快诊实验的检测策略进行回顾性分析与评价.方法 参照2004年《全国艾滋病检测技术规范》的要求,对2007-2011年之间HIV抗体初筛呈阳性反应的标本,采用WB进行确证.结果 727例HIV抗体复查标本中,确证试验阳性为540例,占筛查阳性总数的74.28%;其中两种ELISA及免疫层析快诊都呈阳性反应的为558例,确诊540例,不确定118例,与确证试验的阳性符合率为96.77%;其余的ELISA呈阳性反应结果加上快诊结果与WB的阳性符合率为0,其中不确定72例,阴性97例.ELISA结果的1≤S/Co<3,与确证试验阳性符合率为0.85%; S/Co值在3~6之间,与确证试验阳性符合率为11.11%;S/Co>6,与确证试验阳性符合率为94.51%.阳性与不确定1、阳性与阴性的S/Co、不确定2的各组之间差异均有统计学意义(P均=0.00),不确定1与阴性之间差异有统计学意义(P=0.032);而不确定2组之间差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 ELISA检测试剂存在一定的假阳性,随着S/Co值的增高,与确证试验的阳性符合率也将升高,但是高S/Co值的样本并不代表感染HIV,HIV抗体阳性报告建议以确证试验结果为准;WB确证方法在不确定标本中存在一定的缺陷,快诊与ELISA的联合运用可以有效区分WB结果的感染一不确定与未感染一不确定,建议根据初筛结果,分类做好不确定人群的管理,尤其对两种ELISA及快诊均呈阳性反应的人群,应加大力度做好随访工作,确保无一例漏访.%Objective To retrospectively analyze and evaluate the detection strategy for HIV antibody screening tests including enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) and immune chromatography rapid test by using the results of Western blot (WB) as the golden standard. Method Following the requirements of the "National

  12. 全人源抗前列腺癌ScFv抗体的筛选及生物学特性研究%Screening and biological characteristics study of human single chain Fv antibody against prostatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑桂喜; 王传新; 张欣; 李伟; 杜鲁涛; 李娟; 刘慧

    2012-01-01

    目的 从已成功建立的前列腺癌噬菌体抗体库中筛选抗人前列腺癌单链抗体(ScFv),并分析其生物学特性.方法 以良性前列腺增生(BPH)细胞与噬菌体抗体库共孵育,去除抗体库中能够与BPH细胞结合的噬菌体抗体,再以前列腺癌细胞系DU145与去除非特异性结合后的噬菌体抗体库共孵育,通过“吸附-洗脱-扩增”对前列腺癌的噬菌体抗体库进行3轮的富集.采用流式细胞术筛选出对人前列腺癌细胞系DU145高亲合力的阳性克隆.阳性噬菌体克隆经亚克隆并转染大肠杆菌TG1,表达出可溶性ScFv抗体.采用流式细胞术、免疫荧光法分析其生物学特性.结果 以前列腺癌细胞系DU145为抗原,筛选出19个噬菌体抗体,经测定C11与DU145细胞亲合力最高,亚克隆至原核表达载体表达纯化为C11 ScFv抗体.流式细胞术和免疫荧光法检测结果均显示,C11ScFv抗体与前列腺癌细胞DU145和PC3结合,与BPH细胞不结合.结论 通过噬菌体展示技术筛选到前列腺癌细胞系高亲合力的可溶性ScFv抗体,为进一步研究抗体的靶向性治疗奠定了基础.%To screen the soluble ScFv antibodies which were specific for human prostatic cancer from the successfully constructed phage antibody library and analyse their biological characteristics. Methods Normal human noncancerous epithelial line BPH was used to deplete the phage library of nonspecific binders. Supernatant containing depleted phage library was then incubated with prostate cancer cells DU145. The phage library was enriched by three cycles of binding, elution and amplification. The prostate cancer cells DU145 was used to screen the positive clones with high affinity using FACS. The screening postive clone was sub-cloned and infected by TGI to get the soluble ScFv antibody. The biological characteristics of ScFv were identified by the method of FACS and immunofluorescence. Results 19 phage antibodies were gotten with the antigens

  13. Rapid Screening for Potential Epitopes Reactive with a Polycolonal Antibody by Solution-Phase H/D Exchange Monitored by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Noble, Kyle A.; Mao, Yuan; Young, Nicolas L.; Sathe, Shridhar K.; Roux, Kenneth H.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2013-07-01

    The potential epitopes of a recombinant food allergen protein, cashew Ana o 2, reactive to polyclonal antibodies, were mapped by solution-phase amide backbone H/D exchange (HDX) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Ana o 2 polyclonal antibodies were purified in the serum from a goat immunized with cashew nut extract. Antibodies were incubated with recombinant Ana o 2 (rAna o 2) to form antigen:polyclonal antibody (Ag:pAb) complexes. Complexed and uncomplexed (free) rAna o 2 were then subjected to HDX-MS analysis. Four regions protected from H/D exchange upon pAb binding are identified as potential epitopes and mapped onto a homologous model.

  14. Analysis of the screening results of irregular antibodies in 23 940 cases%血清不规则抗体23940例筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周浩; 朱翔; 刘凯; 陈丽; 彭荣臻

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution of irregular antibodies. Methods:The serums irregular antibodies in 23 940 patients were screened using microcolumn gel antiglobulin test card from April to December 2014, the positive specimens were specifically identified and analyzed. Results:The positive antibodies in 121 cases were detected,the positive rate of which was 0. 51%. The proportion of screening in blood type systems of Rh-hr,Kidd,MNSs,Duffy and Lewis were 89. 26%,1. 65%,6. 61%,1. 65% and 0. 83%, respectively. The positive detection rate in female patients ( 0. 71%) was significantly higher than that in male patients (0.31%)(P <0. 01). Conclusions:The irregular antibody in blood transfusion patients must be screened,especially for female patient. The blood type systems should be considered in identifying the irregular antibody at first.%目的::调查不规则抗体在人群中的分布。方法:选取2014年4~12月接受血型检查的23940例患者血清,利用微柱凝胶抗人球蛋白检测卡进行不规则抗体筛查,再对筛查阳性的标本进行特异性鉴定与分析。结果:共检测出不规则抗体阳性标本121例,阳性率0.51%;Rh-hr、Kidd、MNSs、Duffy、Lewis 等血型系统的不规则抗体筛查构成比分别为89.26%、1.65%、6.61%、1.65%、0.83%;女性患者阳性检出率0.71%,显著高于男性患者的0.31%(P<0.01)。结论:对临床输血的患者应进行不规则抗体筛查,特别是女性患者,不规则抗体的确认应首先考虑Rh-hr、MNSs等血型系统。

  15. 不规则抗体筛查及特异性鉴定结果分析%Results analysis of irregular antibodies screening and identification of the specificity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪小玲; 梅礼军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the distribution of irregular antibodies of red blood cells and its clinical significance .Methods Micro-column gel anti-globulin technique was used to screen and identify the irregular antibodies in 6 352 patients .Results In 6 352 patients ,there were 62 cases(27 males ,35 females)having positive results in irregular antibody detection ,and the positive rate was 0 .97% .There were 54 cases having transfusion history and/or pregnancy history ,including 43 cases of irregular antibodies of Rh system(containing 34 cases of anti-E antibody) ,7 cases of MNSS system ,2 cases of Lewis system ,2 cases of Kidd system ,2 cases of P system ,1 cases of Diego system ,and 5 cases with non-specificity .All of the patients whose irregular antibodies of Rh blood group system were positive had transfusion history and/or pregnancy history .Conclusion Most of the patients with irregular anti-body positive are females ,who mostly have transfusion history and/or pregnancy history ,and the irregular antibodies of Rh system are the most common .%目的:探讨红细胞血型不规则抗体的分布规律及其临床意义。方法应用微柱凝胶抗球蛋白检测技术对6352例患者进行不规则抗体筛查、鉴定。结果在6352例患者中检出红细胞同种不规则抗体阳性者62例(男27例,女35例),阳性率0.97%。有输血史和(或)妊娠史者54例,其中Rh血型系统不规则抗体43例(含抗-E抗体34例),MNSS系统7例,Lewis系统2例,Kidd系统2例,P系统2例,Diego系统1例,无特异性5例。Rh血型系统不规则抗体阳性患者均有输血史和(或)妊娠史。结论不规则抗体阳性患者中女性占多数,大多曾经有输血史和(或)妊娠史,以Rh血型系统抗体最为常见。

  16. Mercury exposure, malaria, and serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies in amazon populations in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Burek CL; Souza Jose M; Santos Elizabeth CO; Ventura Ana MRS; Perisse Andre; Gorman Andrew; Nyland Jennifer F; Silva Ines A; Rose Noel R; Silbergeld Ellen K

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Mercury is an immunotoxic metal that induces autoimmune disease in rodents. Highly susceptible mouse strains such as SJL/N, A.SW, B10.S (H-2s) develop multiple autoimmune manifestations after exposure to inorganic mercury, including lymphoproliferation, elevated levels of autoantibodies, overproduction of IgG and IgE, and circulating immune complexes in kidney and vasculature. A few studies have examined relationships between mercury exposures and adverse immunological rea...

  17. Immune complex disease with a lupus-like pattern of deposition in an antinuclear antibody-negative patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, James L; Freedman, Barry I; Fogo, Agnes B

    2013-07-01

    Immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis can be caused by a multitude of disease processes and may manifest in a variety of histologic patterns. Lupus nephritis is an immune complex disease, the diagnosis of which requires that the affected patient have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the absence of SLE, the finding of glomerulonephritis with certain patterns of immune complex deposition characteristic of lupus nephritis has been referred to as lupus-like glomerulonephritis. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, IgM, complement C3, and C1q deposition in glomerular immune deposits is one such pattern. We report a case of immune complex disease in a primarily membranous distribution with mesangial, subendothelial, and tubular basement membrane deposits with IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, and C1q deposition in a patient with proteinuria, photosensitive dermatitis, and a positive lupus anticoagulant test. The patient had 3 of the clinical criteria for SLE, thus failing to meet the diagnosis based on the American College of Rheumatology definition. In this case, a diagnosis of lupus-like glomerulonephritis was made after other causes of membranous glomerulopathy were excluded. This teaching case highlights the broad differential diagnosis of this pattern of injury and reviews similar cases in the literature. PMID:23548558

  18. Clinical Evaluation of BioPlex 2200 HIV Ag-Ab, an Automated Screening Method Providing Discrete Detection of HIV-1 p24 Antigen, HIV-1 Antibody, and HIV-2 Antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Salmona, Maud; Delarue, Severine; Delaugerre, Constance; Simon, François; Maylin, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis is essential for optimal therapeutic outcomes in patients infected with HIV. Currently, none of the commercially available fourth-generation assays differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies (Ab) or the HIV-1 p24 antigen (Ag). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel assay, the BioPlex 2200 HIV Ag-Ab. This assay uses a multiplex flow immunoassay design allowing the simultaneous detection and identification of antibodies to HIV-1 (groups M and...

  19. Irregular Antibody Screening Preventive Effect in Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction%不规则抗体筛查在溶血性输血反应中的预防效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡莉莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective Irregular antibody screening preventive effect was observed in hemolytic transfusion reactions.Methods A retrospective analysis of November 2013 to November 2014 in our hospital 987 cases of elective surgery patients need blood transfusion clinical data to detect patients with micro-gel anti-human globulin serum irregular antibodies, the result is positive specimens for further identification, irregular antibody screening results to be analyzed.Results 987 cases of blood transfusion patients irregular antibody screening found six patients (4 males, 2 females) appeared antibody positive with probability of 0.60%, six cases of patients with irregular antibody in 2 cases of anti-E, 3 cases of anti-cE, 1 cases of anti-D, 2 patients did not last transfusion, the blood center blood transfusion with patients, 4 patients, transfusion reactions did not occur.Conclusion Irregular antibody screening for hemolytic transfusion reaction preventive effect is good, you can ensure safety of blood transfusion patients, improve the efficacy of blood transfusions for the prevention and treatment of neonatal hemolytic disease also has a positive meaning.%目的:观察不规则抗体筛查在溶血性输血反应中的预防效果。方法回顾性分析2013年11月至2014年11月在本院行择期手术987例需输血患者临床资料,使用微柱凝胶抗人球蛋白法检测患者血清不规则抗体,结果为阳性的标本进行进一步鉴定,不规则抗体筛查结果予以分析。结果对987例需输血患者进行不规则抗体筛查发现有6例患者(4例男性,2例女性)出现抗体阳性,阳性概率为0.60%,6例不规则抗体患者中有2例抗-E、3例抗-cE、1例抗-D,最后有2例患者未输血,经血液中心配合血液输血患者有4例,均没有发生输血反应。结论不规则抗体筛查对溶血性输血反应中的预防效果良好,可以确保患者输血安全,提高输血的疗效,对相关溶血病的

  20. 清远市273份HIV抗体初筛阳性标本与确证结果分析%Analysis on preliminary screening and confirmed results in 273 HIV antibody positive samples in Qingyuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓远玲; 詹巧莉; 罗文玲; 朱劲涛

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解清远市人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)抗体初筛实验与确证实验结果符合率,为提高实验室HIV抗体检测技术提供依据.方法 对清远市2010-2011年经酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)初筛的273份标本HIV抗体阳性及可疑阳性的结果与确证实验的结果进行比较分析.结果 273份标本,经蛋白印迹(WB)试验确证HIV-1阳性257例,占94.14%;不确定9例,占3.3%;阴性7例,占2.56%.筛查阳性与确证阳性总体符合率为94.14%,确证条带gp160、gp120、p24出现率均有95%以上;出现8条以上条带的有166份,出现率为64.59%.结论 初筛试剂检测HIV抗体与WB确证试验的检测结果符合率较高,但判断HIV抗体阳性或艾滋病必须经WB试验确证,以排除假阳性.%[ Objective]To understand the coincidence rate of HIV antibody screening and confirmed test in Qingyuan City, provide a basis for improving the HIV antibody examination technology. [ Methods ] The ELISA results of preliminary screening (273 HIV antibody positive samples and probable positive samples) in Qingyuan City from 2010-2011 were compared with the results of confirmed test. [Results]In 273 HIV antibody positive samples of screening, 257 cases were confirmed by Western blot (WB) test, which accounted for 94.14% , while 9 (3. 3% ) cases were uncertain and 7 (2. 56% ) cases were negative. The total coincidence rate of screening and confirmed test for positive cases was 94. 14%. The occurrence rate of gpl60, gpl20 and p24 reactive bands was over 95%. 166 cases had more than 8 bands in WB test (64. 59% ). [ Conclusion] The coincidence rate of HIV antibody screening and confirmed WB test is high. However, HIV antibody positive cases and AIDS cases must be confirmed by WB test to exclude false positive reaction.

  1. Clinical Significance of Screening of Rh-negative Blood Group and Detection of Irregular Antibody%Rh阴性血型筛查及不规则抗体检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚; 伍昌林; 党鑫堂; 董洪强; 朱奕

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过Rh阴性血型筛查及不规则抗体的检测,对抗体阳性的Rh阴性患者选择相合的血液输注,并分析其临床意义.方法 采用微柱凝集法对363例RhD阴性输血患者进行抗体筛查及Rh血型鉴定,选择Rh因子相合的血液输注,对有抗-c和抗-e抗体Rh阴性患者在血源紧缺的情况下,选择O型ccdEE和CCdee表型红细胞输注,观察临床输血效果.结果 在363例RhD阴性患者中,不规则抗体阳性21例,其中抗-D抗体5例,抗-E抗体8例,抗-c抗体3例,抗-c、E抗体2例,抗-C抗体2例,抗-e抗体1例,对存在不规则抗体的患者选择Rh因子相合的血液输注,临床效果良好.结论 根据抗体筛查及Rh血型鉴定结果,选择Ph因子相合的血液输注,可避免不规则抗体的产生,提高临床输血的有效性,减少输血不良反应的发生.%Objective To choose the matching blood to Rh-negative patients who were positive for irregular antibody by the screening of Rh-negative blood group and the detection of irregular antibody, and analyze its clinical significance.Methods A total of 363 RhD-negative patients were subjected to antibody screening and Rh blood grouping by micro-column agglutination method,based on which the Rh factor-matched blood was selected for transfusion.For lack of matched blood source, the RhD-negative patients with anti-c and anti-e antibodies were transfused with erythrocytes group O of ccdEE and CCdee phenotypes.Results Of the 363 RhD-negative patients, 21 were positive for irregular antibody, including 5 for anti-D, 8 for anti-E, 3 for anti-c, 2 for anti-c and E,2 for anti-C and 1 for anti-e.The patients with irregular antibodies were transfused with selected Rh factor-matched blood, and sarisfactory clinical efficacy was observed.Conclusion By transfusion with Rh factor-matched blood selected based on antibody screening and Rh blood grouping, the production of irregular antibodies was avoided, the efficacy of clinical blood transfusion was

  2. The role of HLA antibodies in allogeneic SCT: is the 'type-and-screen' strategy necessary not only for blood type but also for HLA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, S; Taniguchi, K; Ogawa, H; Saji, H

    2012-12-01

    The role of HLA antibodies in SCT has drawn increasing attention because of the significantly increased number of patients who receive HLA-mismatched SCT, including cord blood transplantation, haploidentical SCT and unrelated SCT. Technical advancements in the methods of HLA Ab testing have realized rapid, accurate and objective identification, as well as quantification of specific HLA antibodies. Recent clinical studies have suggested that the presence of donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) in patients is associated with graft failure in HLA-mismatched SCT when the above-listed stem cell sources are used and results in different impacts. Of note, most of the 'HLA-matched' unrelated SCT actually involve HLA mismatches in HLA-DP and the presence of antibodies against this locus has been reported to be associated with graft failure. Thus, HLA Ab should be examined as a work-up for all patients who undergo SCT from 'alternative donors.' The simplest route for preventing HLA Ab-mediated graft failure in Ab-positive patients is to avoid donors who possess the target Ag of HLA antibodies. If SCT from such donors must be performed, treatment for DSA before SCT may improve the chances of successful donor engraftment.

  3. Analysising the result between HIV antibody screening laboratories in Liuzhou%2012年柳州市HIV抗体筛查实验室比对结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈威; 潘洁; 陈柳军; 杨振兴; 刘鑫

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过组织柳州市县HIV抗体筛查实验室进行一次室间比对,提高各个HIV抗体筛查实验室检测能力,减少其在日常检测中的差错.方法 通过下发盲样的方式,共36家HIV抗体筛查实验室,均采用ELISA的方法对考核标本(QC001、QC002、QC003、QC004、QC005)进行单独检测,并及时反馈结果.结果 36家实验室对5个盲样的检测结果显示,除了QC005的正确率为97.2%外,其他几个盲样的考评正确率均达100.0%,分析定量检测结果显示CV值波动较大,只有个别盲样CV值能控制在25%内.结论 全市HIV抗体筛查实验室建设已经初具规模并且有良好的检测能力,但质量控制仍需加强.%Objective To evaluate the level of test and standardize management in HIV antibody screening laboratories in Liuzhou city in order to promote them to improve their whole test ability and reduce the error in the routine detection.Methods Having 36 HIV antibody screening laboratories joined the examination.Them using the method of ELISA to detect these blind samples(QC001,QC002,QC003,QC004,QC005),then returned the result to us.Result The results of blind samples showed that the coincidence rates all were 100% but the QC005 was 97.2%.Analysising the quantitative testing results showed that CV value was fluctuant greatly,shows that the HIV antibody screening laboratory quality control should be improved.Conclusion The overall quality of the HIV screening laboratories in Liuzhou city is satifactory but need to enhance in the quality control.

  4. Anti-nuclear weapons activism in the United States and Great Britain: a comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, G.

    1987-01-01

    This study is a response to the lacuna in empirical research into political activism and the nuclear issue and seeks to ascertain the social and value characteristics, political attitudes, and political behavior of activists in the United States and Great Britain. Consideration is also given to gender differences in light of evidence of an emerging gender gap in these two countries. The study investigates the common forces cited in two sets of literature - post-industrialism and anti-nuclear weapons movements - which provide a framework for analysis. Survey research data is employed to assess cross-national similarities and differences. The findings obtained indicate that while American and British activists exhibit common social and value characteristics, British activists appear more integrated in their political opposition to nuclear weapons compared with their American counterparts. Survey results indicate that the political-action repertoire of these activists is quite diverse, suggesting a new style of politics in advanced industrial democracies. Gender-based analysis reveals two important findings. First, activist American men differ significantly from the other three social groups in their attitudes towards nuclear weapons. Second, activist women in both national settings participate at a level equal to or exceeding that of activist men.

  5. Nuclear energy in postwar Japan and anti-nuclear movements in the 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2009-01-01

    The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 revealed the most destructive power to-date of man-made weapons. Their impact was so great that Japanese scientists thought that a bigger disaster could be prevented only if war was abolished. Thus they welcomed the international control of atomic energy. It was, however, only after the occupation that the Japanese general public began to learn about the horror of these atomic disasters due to the censorship imposed by the occupational forces. The hydrogen bomb test by the US in the Bikini atoll on March 1, 1954 renewed fears of nuclear weapons. The crew of a Japanese fishing vessel, the "Daigo Fukuryu Maru" (Lucky Dragon No. 5) suffered from exposure to radiation from the test. Even after the incident the US did not stop nuclear tests which continued to radioactively contaminate fish and rains in Japan. As a result, the petition movement for the ban of nuclear trials suddenly spread all over the country. By the summer of 1955 the number of the signatures grew to more than one third of Japan's population at the time. Under the strong influence of anti-nuclear Japanese public opinion the Science Council of Japan announced the so-called three principles of atomic energy: "openness," "democracy," and "independence" to ensure atomic energy was used for peaceful uses only. These principles were included in the Atomic Energy Basic Law established in December 1955. With this law, military uses of nuclear energy were strictly forbidden.

  6. Nuclear energy in postwar Japan and anti-nuclear movements in the 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2009-01-01

    The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 revealed the most destructive power to-date of man-made weapons. Their impact was so great that Japanese scientists thought that a bigger disaster could be prevented only if war was abolished. Thus they welcomed the international control of atomic energy. It was, however, only after the occupation that the Japanese general public began to learn about the horror of these atomic disasters due to the censorship imposed by the occupational forces. The hydrogen bomb test by the US in the Bikini atoll on March 1, 1954 renewed fears of nuclear weapons. The crew of a Japanese fishing vessel, the "Daigo Fukuryu Maru" (Lucky Dragon No. 5) suffered from exposure to radiation from the test. Even after the incident the US did not stop nuclear tests which continued to radioactively contaminate fish and rains in Japan. As a result, the petition movement for the ban of nuclear trials suddenly spread all over the country. By the summer of 1955 the number of the signatures grew to more than one third of Japan's population at the time. Under the strong influence of anti-nuclear Japanese public opinion the Science Council of Japan announced the so-called three principles of atomic energy: "openness," "democracy," and "independence" to ensure atomic energy was used for peaceful uses only. These principles were included in the Atomic Energy Basic Law established in December 1955. With this law, military uses of nuclear energy were strictly forbidden. PMID:20521422

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of two HLA-B17 monoclonal antibodies for flow cytometry-based HLA-B57/B58 screening prior to abacavir prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, R; Coates, E; Street, J; Cook, E; Darke, C

    2013-08-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to the drug abacavir, used to treat HIV/AIDS patients, is associated with possession of HLA-B*57:01. We have carefully assessed two commercially available HLA-B57/B58 murine monoclonal antibodies [0196HA and BIH0243 (One Lambda Inc.)] in a simple flow cytometry-based assay. The evaluation involved tests on 228 reference and random samples covering 91% of all WHO recognized HLA-A, B and C specificities. These involved donors with six different HLA-B*57 alleles and included 19 examples of B*57:01. Both antibodies unambiguously detected B57, but there were small difference in their reactivity against B57-positive non-B*57:01 samples. Importantly, there was no reactivity against B57/B58-negative samples. The possible amino acid motifs involved in the reactivity of these antibodies with B57/B58 were delineated. Thus, HLA-B57/B58, normally present in <10% of patients, can be easily recognized using these two antibodies and further tested by a DNA-based typing method to identify B*57:01.

  8. 输血患者1337例行意外抗体筛检临床研究%Research on the Effect of 1337 Patients with Transfusion Undergoing Unexpected Antibody Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁石; 罗薛莲

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究红细胞意外抗体筛检在临床输血治疗中的应用价值。方法选择2011年1月至2014年3月公安县人民医院收治的1337例行意外抗体筛检的输血患者作为观察组,分析其意外抗体的分布情况;另选取同期未行意外抗体筛检的输血患者620例为对照组,观察两组患者的输血反应。结果观察组共检出抗-c抗体2例,抗-C抗体1例,抗-D抗体4例,抗-e抗体3例,抗-E抗体5例,总阳性率为1.12%。其中男性阳性检出率低于女性(0.28%比2.04%,P<0.05),无妊娠史患者阳性检出率低于有妊娠史患者(0.06%比2.66%,P<0.05),输血1次患者阳性检出率为0.14%、输血2次阳性检出率为1.86%、输血3次阳性检出率为2.60%,输血1次患者阳性检出率低于输血2次和输血3次,观察组患者输血反应发生率显著低于对照组(0.07%比2.02%,P<0.05)。结论多次输血和妊娠会产生意外抗体,患者于输血前行意外抗体筛检能有效提高输血的安全性。%Objective To investigate the application value of unexpected antibody screening of red blood cell in the clinical transfusion.Methods A total of 1337 patients with transfusion undergoing unex-pected antibody screening admitted to Gong′an County People′s Hospital from Jan.2011 to Mar.2014 were selected into the observation group,and the distribution of unexpected antibody of the patients were analyzed, and another 620 patients with transfusion who did not undergo unexpected antibody screening were included into the control group,transfusion reactions of the two groups were observed.Results A total of 2 case of anti-c antibody,1 case of anti-C antibody and 4 cases of anti-D antibodies,3 cases of anti-e antibodies and 5 cases of anti-E antibodies were detected, the total positive rate was 1.12%.Among them, the positive detection rate of men was lower than women ( 0.28% vs 2.04%, P <0.05 ) , and

  9. The high incidence of anti-Ro/SSA and anti-p200 antibodies in female patients with connective tissue diseases confirms the importance of screening for congenital heart block-associated autoantibodies during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, E; Agnoletti, Arianna Fay; Pappalardo, F; Schiavetti, I; Torino, A; Parodi, A

    2016-03-01

    It is known that anti-Ro/SSA positivity leads to higher risk of miscarriage and fetal cardiac malformations. Particularly, anti-p200 antibodies against a finer specificity of the Ro/SSA antigen, have been associated with congenital heart block. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of anti-p200 among female patients with different connective tissue diseases and, among these, the relevance of anti-p200 values in patients with cutaneous diseases compared to systemic diseases. Anti-p200 were investigated in 110 anti-Ro/SSA positive female sera, sent to our laboratory between 2008 and 2014 with suspect of connective disease, by using ELISA testing. Positivity was found in 40.9 % samples, 34 of them showed a strong positivity (values ≥ 1.0, cut off = 0.7). Patients with systemic diseases were anti-p200 positive in the 45.9 % of cases while patients with cutaneous diseases were positive in the 24.0 % of cases. Positivity for anti-p200 antibodies was revealed in 24.0 % of patients with discoid lupus erythematosus; 100 % of patients with dermatomyositis; 40.0 % of patients with mixed connective tissue disease; 25.0 % of patients with rheumatoid arthritis; 100 % of patients with Sjögren's syndrome; 33.3 % of patients with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus; 42.9 % of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus; 80.0 % of patients with systemic sclerosis. No significant difference in anti-p200 prevalence was found between systemic and cutaneous involvement, nevertheless, considering only positive sera, the antibody titer was higher in systemic diseases rather than in cutaneous diseases (2.6 ± 1.7 and 1.7 ± 1.9; p = 0.041). The authors think screenings for anti-Ro/SSA and anti-p200 antibodies should be included in the laboratory checklist for pregnancy.

  10. The high incidence of anti-Ro/SSA and anti-p200 antibodies in female patients with connective tissue diseases confirms the importance of screening for congenital heart block-associated autoantibodies during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, E; Agnoletti, Arianna Fay; Pappalardo, F; Schiavetti, I; Torino, A; Parodi, A

    2016-03-01

    It is known that anti-Ro/SSA positivity leads to higher risk of miscarriage and fetal cardiac malformations. Particularly, anti-p200 antibodies against a finer specificity of the Ro/SSA antigen, have been associated with congenital heart block. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of anti-p200 among female patients with different connective tissue diseases and, among these, the relevance of anti-p200 values in patients with cutaneous diseases compared to systemic diseases. Anti-p200 were investigated in 110 anti-Ro/SSA positive female sera, sent to our laboratory between 2008 and 2014 with suspect of connective disease, by using ELISA testing. Positivity was found in 40.9 % samples, 34 of them showed a strong positivity (values ≥ 1.0, cut off = 0.7). Patients with systemic diseases were anti-p200 positive in the 45.9 % of cases while patients with cutaneous diseases were positive in the 24.0 % of cases. Positivity for anti-p200 antibodies was revealed in 24.0 % of patients with discoid lupus erythematosus; 100 % of patients with dermatomyositis; 40.0 % of patients with mixed connective tissue disease; 25.0 % of patients with rheumatoid arthritis; 100 % of patients with Sjögren's syndrome; 33.3 % of patients with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus; 42.9 % of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus; 80.0 % of patients with systemic sclerosis. No significant difference in anti-p200 prevalence was found between systemic and cutaneous involvement, nevertheless, considering only positive sera, the antibody titer was higher in systemic diseases rather than in cutaneous diseases (2.6 ± 1.7 and 1.7 ± 1.9; p = 0.041). The authors think screenings for anti-Ro/SSA and anti-p200 antibodies should be included in the laboratory checklist for pregnancy. PMID:26830903

  11. Rescreening and confirmation of anti-HIV antibody positive serum in primary screening in Qingdao%青岛市HIV抗体初筛阳性标本的复检及确证结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓燕; 张洪花; 赵国有; 弋英; 汪照国

    2013-01-01

    Objective To rescreen and confirm anti-HIV antibody positive serum in primary screening in Qingdao from 2009 to 2011 and to analyze the related data,so as to provide basis for prevention and control of AIDS in Qingdao.Methods Samples positive for anti-HIV antibody in primary screening test were re-screened with both Electroselenium method and ELISA.Then the positive samples in either re-screening test were further confirmed with Western Blot (WB).Results In 1348 positive samples from primary screening test,positive were found in 745 cases in re-screening test.By WB confirmation,563 cases were positive,95 cases were suspected and 87 cases were negative.In contrast to WB,positive coincidence rates of ELISA and Electroselenium method were 81.5% and 84.3% respectively.The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 100% and 93.6 % respectively,and those of Electroselenium method were 100% and 94.5% respectively.Flouting population accounted for 58.4% and MSM accounted for 40.1% of total HIV infection.Conclusion Anti-HIV antibody rescreening tests could exclude most false positive samples in primary screening test.However,there is still some false positive rate in either rescreening test.Flouting population and MSM are the high risk population of HIV infection in Qingdao city and intervention should be strengthened among those people.%目的 复检和确认HIV抗体初筛阳性血清并分析相关资料,为青岛市艾滋病防治工作提供依据.方法 对初筛阳性血清,用胶体硒和ELISA试验复检,任一复检试验阳性的血清再用WB试验确证并对确证阳性病例进行流行病学分析.结果 1348份初筛阳性血清经复检745份阳性,WB确证563份HIV-l抗体阳性,不确定95份,阴性87份.ELISA、胶体硒法与WB的阳性符合率分别为81.5%和84.3%,二者的敏感度均为100%,特异度分别为93.6%和94.5%,确证阳性人群中,外来人员占58.4%,男男性行为人群占40.1%.结论 ELISA和胶体硒

  12. Monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The ability to produce and exploit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has revolutionized many areas of biological sciences. The unique property of an mAb is that it is a single species of immunoglobulin (IG) molecule. This means that the specificity of the interaction of the paratopes on the IG, with the epitopes on an antigenic target, is the same on every molecule. This property can be used to great benefit in immunoassays to provide tests of defined specificity and sensitivity, which improve the possibilities of standardization. The performance of assays can often be determined relating the actual weight of antibody (hence the number of molecules) to the activity. Often the production of an mAb against a specific epitope is the only way that biological entities can be differentiated. This chapter outlines the areas involving the development of assays based on mAbs. The problems involved address include the physical aspects of mAbs and how they may affect assay design and also the implications of results based on monospecific reagents. Often these are not fully understood, leading to assays that are less than satisfactory, which does not justify the relatively high cost of preparing and screening of mAbs. There are many textbooks and reviews dealing with the preparation of mAbs, the principles involved, and various purification and manipulative methods for the preparation of fragments and conjugation. There has been little general information attempting to summarize the best approaches to assay design using mAbs. Much time can be wasted through bad planning, and this is particularly relevant to mAbs. A proper understanding of some basic principles is essential. It is beyond the scope of this chapter to discuss all aspects, but major areas are highlighted. PMID:19219589

  13. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  14. Screening for celiac disease in Down's syndrome patients revealed cases of subtotal villous atrophy without typical for celiac disease HLA-DQ and tissue transglutaminase antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oivi Uibo; Kaupo Teesalu; Kaja Metsküla; Tiia Reimand; Riste Saat; Tarvo Sillat; Koit Reimand; Tiina Talvik; Raivo Uibo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) as well as CD marker antibodies and susceptibility HLA-DQ haplotypes in 134 karyotyped Down's syndrome (DS) patients.METHODS: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG)type anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA), IgA type anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies (anti-tTG) with antigen of guinea pig and human source were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and endomysium antibodies (EMA) by indirect immunofluoresence test.HLA-DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201 (DQ2) was revealed by polymerase chain reaction. Celiac disease was diagnosed by revised ESPGHAN criteria.RESULTS: 41% of DS patients had AGA, 6.0% IgAanti-tTG with guinea pig antigen, and 3.0 % IgA EMA (all positive for anti-tTG with human tTG). Subtotal villous atrophy was found in 5 out of 9 DS patients who had agreed to small bowel biopsy. One of them had DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201 and anti-tTG and EMA i.e. typical for CD markers (this case also fulfilled the ESPGHAN diagnostic criteria), but other four lacked these markers. Three non-biopsied DS patients had also most probably CD because DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201 and IgA anti-tTG (EMA) were detected. Thus, the prevalence of CD among our DS patients population is 3.0 % (95 %of confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-5.9 %).CONCLUSION: We confirm the increased frequency of CD among DS patients. In addition, we have revealed a subgroup of patients with subtotal villous atrophy but without characteristic for CD immunological and genetic markers. Whether these cases represent CD (with atypical immunopathogenesis) or some other immune enteropathy, requires further investigations.

  15. Epitope mapping of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis: microwave-assisted synthesis of the peptide antigens and ELISA screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Giulia; Ieronymaki, Matthaia; Nuti, Francesca; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Larregola, Maud; Aharoni, Rina; Papini, Anna Maria; Rovero, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The role of pathologic auto-antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in multiple sclerosis is a highly controversial matter. As the use of animal models may enable to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the human disorder, numerous studies on multiple sclerosis are carried out using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In particular, the most extensively used EAE model is obtained by immunizing C57BL/6 mice with the immunodominant peptide MOG(35-55). In this scenario, we analyzed the anti-MOG antibody response in this model using the recombinant refolded extracellular domain of the protein, MOG(1-117). To assess the presence of a B-cell intramolecular epitope spreading mechanism, we tested also five synthetic peptides mapping the 1-117 sequence of MOG, including MOG(35-55). For this purpose, we cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and on-column refolded MOG(1-117), and we applied an optimized microwave-assisted solid-phase synthetic strategy to obtain the designed peptide sequences. Subsequently, we set up a solid-phase immunoenzymatic assay testing both naïve and EAE mice sera and using MOG protein and peptides as antigenic probes. The results obtained disclose an intense IgG antibody response against both the recombinant protein and the immunizing peptide, while no response was observed against the other synthetic fragments, thus excluding the presence of an intramolecular epitope spreading mechanism. Furthermore, as the properly refolded recombinant probe is able to bind antibodies with greater efficiency compared with MOG(35-55), we hypothesize the presence of both linear and conformational epitopes on MOG(35-55) sequence. PMID:26663200

  16. Multiple antibody targets on herpes B glycoproteins B and D identified by screening sera of infected rhesus macaques with peptide microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Kevin Hotop

    Full Text Available Herpes B virus (or Herpesvirus simiae or Macacine herpesvirus 1 is endemic in many populations of macaques, both in the wild and in captivity. The virus elicits only mild clinical symptoms (if any in monkeys, but can be transmitted by various routes, most commonly via bites, to humans where it causes viral encephalitis with a high mortality rate. Hence, herpes B constitutes a considerable occupational hazard for animal caretakers, veterinarians and laboratory personnel. Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure. Among the measures envisaged are serological surveillance of monkey colonies and specific diagnosis of herpes B zoonosis against a background of antibodies recognizing the closely related human herpes simplex virus (HSV. 422 pentadecapeptides covering, in an overlapping fashion, the entire amino acid sequences of herpes B proteins gB and gD were synthesized and immobilized on glass slides. Antibodies present in monkey sera that bind to subsets of the peptide collection were detected by microserological techniques. With 42 different rhesus macaque sera, 114 individual responses to 18 different antibody target regions (ATRs were recorded, 17 of which had not been described earlier. This finding may pave the way for a peptide-based, herpes B specific serological diagnostic test.

  17. Chronic malaria revealed by a new fluorescence pattern on the antinuclear autoantibodies test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hommel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several clinical forms of malaria such as chronic carriage, gestational malaria or hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly may follow a cryptic evolution with afebrile chronic fatigue sometimes accompanied by anemia and/or splenomegaly. Conventional parasitological tests are often negative or not performed, and severe complications may occur. Extensive explorations of these conditions often include the search for antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA. METHODS: We analysed fluorescence patterns in the ANA test in patients with either chronic cryptic or acute symptomatic malaria, then conducted a one-year prospective study at a single hospital on all available sera drawn for ANA detections. We then identified autoantibodies differentially expressed in malaria patients and in controls using human protein microarray. RESULTS: We uncovered and defined a new, malaria-related, nucleo-cytoplasmic ANA pattern displaying the specific association of a nuclear speckled pattern with diffuse cytoplasmic perinuclearly-enhanced fluorescence. In the one-year prospective analysis, 79% of sera displaying this new nucleo-cytoplasmic fluorescence were from patients with malaria. This specific pattern, not seen in other parasitic diseases, allowed a timely reorientation of the diagnosis toward malaria. To assess if the autoantibody immune response was due to autoreactivity or molecular mimicry we isolated 42 autoantigens, targets of malarial autoantibodies. BLAST analysis indicated that 23 of recognized autoantigens were homologous to plasmodial proteins suggesting autoimmune responses directly driven by the plasmodial infection. CONCLUSION: In patients with malaria in whom parasitological tests have not been performed recognition of this new, malaria-related fluorescence pattern on the ANA test is highly suggestive of the diagnosis and triggers immediate, easy confirmation and adapted therapy.

  18. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Presenting with Hemichorea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yezenash Ayalew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old Bangladeshi lady presented to neurology with a three-month history of involuntary movements of her right arm, associated with loss of power. There was progression to the right leg, and she subsequently developed episodes of slurred speech and blurred vision. At the time of presentation, she was 12 weeks pregnant and the symptoms were reported to have started at conception. Past medical history was unremarkable apart from one first trimester miscarriage and there was no significant family history suggestive of a hereditary neurological condition. MRI of the head revealed no abnormalities but serology showed positive antinuclear antibodies (ANAs at a titre of 1/400. Further investigations revealed strongly positive anticardiolipin antibodies (>120 and positive lupus anticoagulant antibodies. The patient had a second miscarriage at 19 weeks gestation strengthening the possibility that the chorea was related to antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and she was started on a reducing dose of Prednisolone 40 mg daily and aspirin 300 mg daily. Six months later, she had complete resolution of neurological symptoms. There are several reports of chorea as a feature of antiphospholipid syndrome, but no clear consensus on underlying pathophysiology.

  19. The Analysis and Clinical Significance of Irregular Antibodies Screening for 39302 Patients%39302例患者不规则抗体筛查结果分析及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏适; 于洪敏; 齐喆; 杨爽; 刘凤华

    2012-01-01

    目的:对需要输血的患者进行输血前不规则抗体筛查,为受血者选择合适的供血者血液成份,确保临床输血安全有效地进行.方法:选择2009年10月1日~2011年10月31日在本院入院进行治疗性输血和手术备血的患者,采用微柱凝胶法对受血者进行血清中不规则抗体的筛查,并对筛查阳性标本进抗体特异性鉴定.确保临床输血安全有效.结果:在39302例受血者血清中共检测出不规则抗体69例(阳性率0.18%),其中抗-D5例、抗-E15例、抗-C2例、抗-c2例、抗-e2例、抗-C,e1例、抗-M8例、抗-S1例、抗-Lea8例、抗-Leb1例、自身抗体5例、25例未确定抗体的特异性.结论:不规则抗体筛查对保证输血安全、降低免疫性溶血性输血反应、及时寻找相容血液及预防和减少新生儿溶血病的发生很有必要.%Objective: To do the irregular antibodies screening for patients before blood transfusion and provide the matched blood components for blood recipients to ensure transfusion safety. Methods: All the patients hospitalized in this hospital during Oct 1, 2009 -Oct 31, 2011 were taken therapeutically transfusion and operation-oriented blood preparation. We used micro-column gel agglutination assay to do the irregular antibodies screening for those patients to ensure the transfusion safety. Results: We find 69 irregular antibodies (0.18% positive rates) in the serum of all 39302 patients, including 5 anti-D, 15 anti-E, 2 anti-C, 2 anti-c, 2 anti-e, 1 anti-C,e, 8 anti-M, 1 anti- S, 2 anti- Lea, 1 anti- Leb, 5 autoantibodies and 25 uncertain antibody specificity. Conclusion: Irregular antibodies screening is utmost necessary for transfusion safety, immunological and hemolytic transfusion reaction, matching compatible blood and prevention of new-born babies' hemolytic disease.

  20. 某综合性医院2010~2012年住院患者HIV-1抗体初筛结果%Results of HIV antibody screening in inpatients of a general hospital in 2010~2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万海; 任春锋; 梅园丁; 郭小兵; 张世杰; 秦东春; 贺付成; 明亮

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解某综合性大医院住院患者中HIV抗体初筛阳性率及其变化和科室分布情况.方法 对2010年6月~2012年5月住院的部分患者进行HIV抗体初筛检测.结果 共对244636例住院患者进行了HIV抗体初筛试验,其中HIV抗体初筛阳性共291例,总阳性率为0.119%.其中2010年6月~2011年5月检测113 514例,筛查阳性样本89例,阳性率为0.078%;2011年6月~2012年5月检测131122例,筛查阳性样本202例,阳性率为0.154%,两年度间差异具有统计学意义.291例初筛阳性患者分布于22个科室,其中高发科室有呼吸内科、感染科、神经内科、血液科、皮肤科、心血管内科、耳鼻喉科、急诊内科、肿瘤科和肾病风湿科.这些科室发现的HIV抗体初筛阳性者占到总筛查阳性的81.44%,而且呼吸内科、感染科、神经内科和血液科筛查的HIV抗体阳性者则占到总筛查阳性的一半以上(55.33%).结论 住院患者中存在较高的HIV抗体初筛阳性率、年度间呈现上升趋势,并且科室分布广泛.故应对住院患者实施HIV抗体普遍筛查,及时发现HIV感染者,避免HIV医源性感染.%Objective To investigate the positive rate of HIV antibody in inpatients of a general hospital.Methods The plasma HIV antibodies of 244 636 inpatients were detected from June 2010 to May 2012,then the positive cases were analyzed.Results Totally 291 plasma samples were positive by the antibody screening test for HIV and the positive rate was 0.119%.The plasma HIV antibodies of 113 514 inpatients were detected from June 2010 to May 2011,89 plasma samples were positive with the positive rate of 0.078%.The plasma HIV antibodies of 131 122 inpatients were detected from June 2011 to May 2012,202 plasma samples were positive with the positive rate of 0.154%.The 291 positive cases were distributed in 22 clinical departments including Pneumology Department,Infectious Disease Department,Neurology Department

  1. Production of a broad specificity antibody for the development and validation of an optical SPR screening method for free and intracellular microcystins and nodularin in cyanobacteria cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Shauna; Meneely, Julie P; Greer, Brett; Campbell, Katrina; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Elliott, Christopher T

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive broad specificity monoclonal antibody was produced and characterised for microcystin detection through the development of a rapid surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical biosensor based immunoassay. The antibody displayed the following cross-reactivity: MC-LR 100%; MC-RR 108%; MC-YR 68%; MC-LA 69%; MC-LW 71%; MC-LF 68%; and Nodularin 94%. Microcystin-LR was covalently attached to a CM5 chip and with the monoclonal antibody was employed in a competitive 4 min injection assay to detect total microcystins in water samples below the WHO recommended limit (1 µg/L). A 'total microcystin' level was determined by measuring free and intracellular concentrations in cyanobacterial culture samples as this toxin is an endotoxin. Glass bead beating was used to lyse the cells as a rapid extraction procedure. This method was validated according to European Commission Decision 96/23/EC criteria. The method was proven to measure intracellular microcystin levels, the main source of the toxin, which often goes undetected by other analytical procedures and is advantageous in that it can be used for the monitoring of blooms to provide an early warning of toxicity. It was shown to be repeatable and reproducible, with recoveries from spiked samples ranging from 74 to 123%, and had % CVs below 10% for intra-assay analysis and 15% for inter-assay analysis. The detection capability of the assay was calculated as 0.5 ng/mL for extracellular toxins and 0.05 ng/mL for intracellular microcystins. A comparison of the SPR method with LC-MS/MS was achieved by testing six Microcystis aeruginosa cultures and this study yielded a correlation R(2) value of 0.9989. PMID:24720955

  2. Discussion of the clinical significance of irregular antibody screening and evaluation before transfusion%输血前不规则抗体筛查和鉴定的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平旭东

    2015-01-01

    目的:鉴定有妊娠史或输血史的患者血浆中的不规则抗体,避免或降低输血反应中溶血现象的发生。方法:使用coombs IgG微柱凝胶卡筛查和鉴定1145例有妊娠史或输血史患者的血液标本中的不规则抗体,将不规则抗体标本中的阳性标本交叉配血。结果:26例患者不规则抗体阳性,阳性率2.28%。其中抗-D 4例,抗-E 3例,抗-C 1例,抗-A12例,抗-M 3例,抗-EC 2例,抗-Cc 2例,抗-JKa 1例,抗-JKb 2例,抗-FYa 1例,抗-Lea 2例,非特异性抗体3例。结论:筛查不规则抗体可有效避免或减少输血反应中溶血现象的发生,确保安全的进行输血,特别对有妊娠史或输血史的患者具有极其重要的意义。%Objective:To identify the irregular antibody in the blood plasma of patients with pregnancy history or blood transfusion history,to avoid or reduce hemolysis reaction in blood transfusion.Methods:Using coombs IgG microtube column agglutinatior screened and identified the irregular antibody in the blood plasma of patients with pregnancy history or blood transfusion history. The positive samples in the irregular antibody samples were given cross matching.Results:The irregular antibodies of 26 patients were positive,and the positive rate was 2.28%.Among 4 cases were anti-D,3 cases were anti-E;1 case was anti-C;2 cases were anti-A1;3 cases were anti-M;2 cases were anti-EC;2 cases were anti-Cc;1 case was anti-JKa;2 cases were anti-JKb;1 case was anti-FYa;2 cases were anti-Lea;3 cases were non-specific antibody.Conclusion:Irregular antibodies screening can effectively avoid or reduce the occurrence of hemolysis phenomenon in transfusion reaction,and ensure the safety of blood transfusion.It has the extremely vital significance especially for the patients with pregnancy history or blood transfusion history.

  3. Prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of occult hepatitis B virus among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Significance of hepatitis B core antibodies screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA in the liver and/or serum, with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). Anti-HBc is the most sensitive marker of previous HBV. HBV reactivation in patients under immunosuppressive treatment is life-threatening, occurring in both overt and occult HBV especially in hematological malignancies. Aim of the work: To evaluate the prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of OBI among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients and to determine the significance of anti-HBc screening among this group of patients before receiving chemotherapy. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included 72 DLBCL patients negative for HBsAg, HBsAb and hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV). Patients were subjected to investigations including anti-HBc. All patients underwent alanine transaminase (ALT) monitoring before each cycle of chemotherapy and monthly for 12 months after the end of chemotherapy. Patients with suspected OBI were tested for HBV-DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Anti-HBc was detected in 10 of 72 HBsAg negative sera (13.89%) (95% confidence interval 6.9-22.2%). Five of the 10 anti-HBc positive patients in this study had OBI reactivation. Conclusion: The study concluded that anti-HBc screening is mandatory before chemotherapy. HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients should be closely observed for signs of HBV reactivation through the regular monitoring of ALT. Prophylaxis lamivudine is recommended for anti-HBc positive patients before chemotherapy.

  4. A monoclonal antibody against leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Jafar; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Vojgani, Yasaman; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Hadavi, Reza; Zarei, Saeed

    2012-10-01

    Leptin is an important protein that regulates energy storage and homeostasis in humans and animals. Leptin deficiency results in various abnormalities such as diabetes, obesity, and infertility. Producing a high affinity monoclonal antibody against human leptin provides an important tool to monitor and trace leptin function in different biological fluids. In this study, recombinant human leptin was conjugated to KLH and injected into mice. After immunization, mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells were fused with murine splenocytes followed by selection of antibody-producing hybridoma cells. After screening of different hybridoma colonies by ELISA, a high affinity antibody was selected and purified by affinity chromatography. The affinity constant of the antibody was measured by ELISA. Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry experiments were used to characterize the antibody. The anti-leptin antibody had a high affinity (around 1.13 × 10(-9) M) for its antigen. The saturation of the antibody with leptin (20 moles leptin per 1 mole antibody) in Western blot analysis proved that the antibody had specific binding to its antigen. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry on JEG-3 (human placental choriocarcinoma cell) cells revealed that the anti-leptin antibody recognized intracellular leptin. In conclusion, we report here the production and characterization of a murine anti-leptin antibody with high affinity for human leptin. PMID:23098305

  5. Clinical Evaluation of HBsAg/TP Antibody/HIV Antibody Colloidal Gold Joint Detection Reagent for Blood Screening%HBsAg/TP抗体/HIV抗体胶体金联合检测试剂在献血者筛查中的应用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑优荣; 林茹; 李仲平; 彭运平; 杨永崧; 熊新灿; 钟俊玲

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)、梅毒螺旋体抗体(TP抗体)和人类免疫缺陷病毒抗体(HIV抗体)胶体金联合检测试剂的检测灵敏性、特异性和重复性,以及应用于献血筛查的意义.方法 采用胶体金联合检测试剂分别对2 250份正常献血者血液标本、85份HBsAg阳性标本,78份TP抗体阳性标本和62份HIV抗体阳性标本进行检测,并与参比试剂检测结果进行比较.结果 胶体金联合检测试剂与TP抗体参比试剂的总符合率、灵敏度(阳性符合率)和特异性(阴性符合率)分别为99.87%,100%和99.87%;与HBsAg参比试剂的总符合率、灵敏度和特异性分别为99.82%,94.74%和99.87%,与HIV抗体参比试剂的总符合率和特异性为100%,各项检测结果差异均无统计学意义(χ2=0.36,P>0.05;χ2=0.09,P>0.05;χ2=0.08,P>0.05).胶体金联合检测试剂实验重复性阳性符合率为100%.结论 胶体金联合检测试剂具有反应速度快,操作更加简单和快捷、灵敏度高、特异性和重复性好,适用于献血前血液筛查.%Objective To evaluate method sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), Treponema pallidum Antibody (TP antibody) and human immunodeficiency virus antibody (HIV antibody) colloidal gold joint detection reagent and their application significances for blood donation screening. Methods 2 250 blood samples of normal blood donors, 85 samples of HBsAg positive, 78 samples of TP-positive and 62 samples of HIV antibody positive were detected by the colloidal gold reagent respectively, and with reference reagent test results were compared. Results Compared with TP antibody reference reagents, total coincidence rate, sensitivity (the positive coincidence rate) and specificity (negative coincidence rate) of the colloidal gold joint detection reagent were 99. 87% , 100% and 99.87% respectively, and with HBsAg reference reagents were 99. 82%, 94. 74% and 99. 87

  6. The political construction of the nuclear energy issue and its impact on the mobilization of anti-nuclear movements in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the relation between objective conditions and grievances on the one hand, and the construction of the nuclear energy 'problem' and the mobilization of anti-nuclear movements in Western Europe, on the other. Using data on protest reactions to the Chernobyl disaster in Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Switzerland, we first discuss the effects of so-called 'suddenly imposed grievances'. We then turn to the frame alignment model, which emphasizes the importance of processes of definition and interpretation for the mobilization of social movements, and confront this model with data on public attitudes towards nuclear energy and anti-nuclear movement mobilization in Western Europe. Our analysis indicates that objective conditions as such have little explanatory power, and that similar events and conditions have led to widely diverging interpretations and levels of anti-nuclear mobilization in different countries. We find that the differential success of the interpretative efforts of anti-nuclear movements does neither depend on the nature of the discursive struggle itself, nor on the evidential base for the anti-nuclear movement's claims. Our data show that the movements' political opportunities, and the resulting cross-national variations in the degree to which anti-nuclear movements have been able to block or slow down the expansion of nuclear energy, have been crucial determinants both of the movements' impacts on public opinion, and of the movements' levels of mobilization. We therefore conclude that a combination of the political opportunity and framing perspectives is most fruitful in making sense of the differential careers of the nuclear energy conflict in Western Europe. (orig.)

  7. Antibody-based screening of cell wall matrix glycans in ferns reveals taxon, tissue and cell-type specific distribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroux, Olivier; Sørensen, Iben; Marcus, Susan E.;

    2015-01-01

    plants, ferns have been largely neglected in cell wall comparative studies. Results: To explore fern cell wall diversity sets of monoclonal antibodies directed to matrix glycans of angiosperm cell walls have been used in glycan microarray and in situ analyses with 76 fern species and four species...... across the ferns and specifically associated with phloem cell walls and similarly the LM11 xylan epitope was associated with xylem cell walls. The LM5 galactan and LM6 arabinan epitopes, linked to pectic supramolecules in angiosperms, were associated with vascular structures with only limited detection...... in ground tissues. Mannan epitopes were found to be associated with the development of mechanical tissues. We provided the first evidence for the presence of MLG in leptosporangiate ferns. Conclusions: The data sets indicate that cell wall diversity in land plants is multifaceted and that matrix glycan...

  8. Hepatitis B virus screening in contacts of blood donors with antibodies against core protein (anti-HBc, but without surface antigen (HBsAg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildenete Monteiro Fortes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To increase blood safety Brazil introduced screening for anti-HBc among blood donors in 1993. There was a decrease in the hepatitis B virus (HBV transmission, but this measure identified a great number of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive donors. Surveillance policy determines that contacts of HBV carriers should be screened to HBV markers, but there is no recommendation about how to guide contacts of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive donors. Aiming to evaluate whether the contacts of this group are at greater risk for HBV infection, a cross-sectional study was performed to compare prevalence of HBV infection between contacts of HBsAg-positive blood donors (group I and contacts of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive donors (group II. Contacts were submitted to a questionnaire and blood tests for HBV markers. In group I (n = 143, 53 (37.1% were anti-HBc-positive and 11 (7.7% were HBsAg-positive. In group II (n = 111, there were 9 and 0.9%, respectively. HBV exposure was associated with group I, sexual activity, blood transfusion, being one of the donor's parents, and living for more than ten years with the donor. Regarding the families as sample units, it was more common to find at least one member with HBV markers (p < 0.05 among the families of group I compared to group II. Contacts of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive individuals presented a much lower risk of having already been exposed to HBV and there is no need to screen them for HBV in low to moderate prevalence populations.

  9. Irregular antibody screening analysis of tumor patients in Urumqi%乌鲁木齐肿瘤患者不规则抗体筛查及特异性抗体鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潇; 杨国萍; 桂霞; 孙晓洁; 郭琪; 赵星; 胡国龙

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study focused on irregular antibodies positive rate among tumor patients and dis-tribution feature of the irregular antibodies.Methods The patients'irregular antibodies were screened with micro-column gel card technique,and the type of the antibody was determined by saline method,poly-brene method and anti-globulin method.Results Among 19 903 serum samples of tumor patients,irreg-ular antibodies were observed in 166 patients (the rate of positive was 0.83%),122 female and 44 male, the positive rate of female was significantly more than the male (P <0.05);and in which 98 cases of Han, 62 cases of Uygur,four cases Hui,two cases of Kazak,the positive rate of Han is significantly more than Uygur (P <0.05);and in which 34.9% with antibodies in Lewis system,27.1% in Rh system,19.9% in MN system,8.4% in autoantibody system,1.2% in Kidd system,1.2 in P system,6.0% in cold antibody, two cases of undetermined type of antibody.Conclusion Urumqi is a multi-ethnic region.The screening of irregular antibodies in tumor patients of Xinjiang medical University Tumor Hospital helps to guarantee the safety of blood transfusion in operation and reduce the possibility of hemolytic transfusion reaction.%目的:探讨乌鲁木齐肿瘤患者红细胞血型不规则抗体的检出率与分布特征,为该地区肿瘤患者疑难输血的安全提供帮助。方法收集新疆医科大学附属肿瘤医院住院患者血液标本,采用微柱凝胶免疫技术对各类肿瘤患者进行不规则抗体筛查,采用盐水法、聚凝胺法和抗球蛋白法对抗体筛查阳性的病例进行特异性抗体及红细胞血型基因的鉴定,并进行分析总结。结果19903例肿瘤患者共筛查出不规则抗体阳性患者166例,阳性率为0.83%,其中女性122例,男性44例,女性明显多于男性(P <0.05)。汉族98例,维吾尔族62例,回族4例,哈萨克族2例,汉族患者不规则抗体阳性率高于维吾尔族患者(P

  10. Effect of using heat-inactivated specimens with several HIV antibody screening and confirmatory assay kits%样品热灭活对HIV抗体筛查和确证试验结果的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎文文; 张桂云; 邱景富; 曹薇; 李华荣; 邱茂锋; 蒋岩

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究血浆样品经热灭活(56℃30min)后,其艾滋病病毒(HIV)抗体筛查和确证试验结果是否会受到影响.方法 取5份HIV抗体阳性血浆样品,各分为2管,其中1管进行热灭活处理,然后对这2组样品分别进行10倍系列稀释,用1种HIV抗体酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)试剂检测,比较S/CO比值.取300份血浆样品,分为灭活组和普通组,分别用5种HIV抗体ELISA试剂(其中第三代试剂3种、第四代试剂2种)和3种HIV抗体快速检测试剂进行筛查检测,出现筛查阳性反应的样品进一步做确证试验.结果 随着稀释度的增加,5份HIV抗体阳性样品灭活前后的ELISA检测结果(S/CO比值)都逐渐减小,直至转为阴性反应,其中4份样品灭活后比灭活前早一个稀释度转阴,1份同时转阴,提示灭活过程会略微降低HIV抗体的浓度.用5种ELISA试剂、3种快速检测试剂检测300份样品,样品灭活前后的检测结果差异均无统计学意义;对出现筛查阳性反应的所有样品,灭活前后的确证试验检测结果一致.结论 经56℃30min热灭活后,尽管HIV阳性血浆样品中的HIV抗体浓度略有降低,但对于未经稀释的常规临床血浆样品来说,热灭活处理不会明显影响目前常用筛查、确证试剂的检测结果.%Objective To study the effect of using heat-inactivated (56 ℃ , 30min) plasma specimens with several HIV antibody screening and confirmatory assay kits. Methods Five HIV antibody-positive plasma specimens were aliquoted into 2 vials, respectively. One group of them was heat-inactivated by 56 ℃, 30min. Both groups were 1 : 10 serially diluted and then detected by an ELISA kit for HIV antibody. Three hundred plasma specimens were aliquoted into 2 vials, respectively, and one group of them was heat-inactivated. Both groups were detected by 5 ELISA kits (including 3 HIV antibody and 2 HIV antigen/antibody ELISAs) and 3 HIV rapid tests, respectively. The repeat-reactive specimens

  11. 7251例不规则抗体筛查结果分析%The Analysis of 7251 Cases Irregular Anti-bodies Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志远; 尹婷婷

    2014-01-01

    Objective Detected 7251 cases of irregular antibodies ( Irregular antibody,IA) type,then analysis potency fac-tors of IA positive producing and assessed clinical adverse events related IA positive. Methods Used salt water,micro gel method for prenatal immunological examination to determine qualitative and quantitative of IA,United clinical data were retrospectively analyzed IA impact on clinical adverse events. Results In 7251 cases of patients,IA-positive 54 cases(0. 61%),of which 31 cases(0. 42%) Rh system,including anti-D 23cases,anti-E 4 cases,anti-C2 cases,anti-c 1case,anti-e 1 case;other blood group system identified 8 cases(0. 19%),of which the anti-M3 cases,anti-Mur 2 cases,anti-Lea2 cases,anti-JKb1 cases;auto-antibodies detected in six cases;specific antibodies were not detected in 10 cases. The RA was higher occurrence ration in patients with antigen AB and Rh-,and the IA patented clinical value when antibody titer≥128. In IA-positive patients in 54 cases,12 cases of hepatitis patients(12/1500, 1. 47%),for 27 cases of pregnant women(27/2028,1. 33%),autoimmune diseases six cases(6/477,1. 26%),cancer patients five cases(5/2523,0. 20%),other four cases(4/723,0. 55%). This study further analyzed the correlation between IA and diseases,and found 45 cases of hemolytic reaction in IA-positive patients,that there were different degrees of jaundice and after clinical diagnosis confirmed;but patients with hemolytic reactions in 45 cases,the clinical inspection has 28 cases of patients with no history of blood transfusion and pregnancy history, but there were different degrees of inflammation. Conclusion The investigation included that IA played a role in clinic adverse events by according to hemolytic reaction,the relationship of IA and inflammation was discovered. The results of study may appear that the detection of IA had important value to decrease adverse transfusion reaction,at the same time,it may early warn the hemolytic reaction in persistent

  12. Neuroblastoma Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Neuroblastoma Treatment Neuroblastoma Screening Research Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to Health Professional Version Screening is looking ...

  13. Preparation of Polyclonal Antibody of Recombinant Human Interleukin-17 and Screening of its Monoclonal Antibody Hybridoma%人白细胞介素17的多克隆抗体制备与单抗杂交瘤的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永红; 陈国友; 曹雪涛; 胡晋红; 苏睛

    2001-01-01

    Aim To prepare and purify of rabbit antiserum of recombinant human Interleukin-17(rhIL-17),and screen mouse positive hybridome clones of McAb by clone .Methods Antiserum was obtained by programmed immunization of rabbits with purified rhIL-17 and purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography.The spleen of immunized mouse was fused with myeloma cell line SP 2/0,and positive clones were obtained by definite dilution and cloned screening.Antibody was detected by double agar gel immune diffusion test and ELISA.Results and conclusion 2.5ml antiserum(polyclonal antibody) was purified which the purity of IgG was above 95%.5 positive clones were obtained which can secret monoclonal antibody.The antiserum and positive clones could be used in subsequent study of activity block,ELISA and affinity chromatograph purification of IL-17.%目的制备重组人IL-17的兔抗血清并纯化,克隆化筛选IL-17的阳性杂交瘤克隆。方法应用纯化的IL-17程序免疫家兔,得到兔抗人IL-17的抗血清;采用盐析法和亲和层析法对兔抗血清进行纯化。应用纯化的IL-17免疫小鼠,将其脾脏与骨髓瘤细胞SP 2/0融合,采用有限稀释法和克隆化筛选阳性杂交瘤克隆。抗体的检测分别采用琼脂糖双向扩散试验法和酶联免疫测定法(ELISA)。结果和结论纯化得到多克隆抗体2.5ml,IgG纯度大于95%,初步得到5个阳性杂交瘤克隆,可用于以后的深入研究。

  14. Belgian recommendations on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blerk, M; Bossuyt, X; Humbel, R; Mewis, A; Servais, G; Tomasi, J P; Van Campenhout, C; Van Hoovels, L; Vercammen, M; Damoiseaux, J; Coucke, W; Van de Walle, P

    2014-04-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), are useful as diagnostic markers for a variety of autoimmune diseases. In March 2010, the Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme sent a questionnaire on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing designed by the Dutch EASI (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative) team, to all clinical laboratories performing ANA testing. Virtually all laboratories completed the questionnaire (97·7%, 127/130). This paper discusses the results of this questionnaire and provides valuable information on the state-of-the-art of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing as practiced in the Belgian laboratories. In addition, this work presents practical recommendations developed by the members of the advisory board of the scheme as a result of the outcome of this study.

  15. [Renal histology in 44 patients with specific antibodies of soluble nuclear antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, O; Gaudreau, A; Peltier, A P

    1980-10-01

    The authors studied the correlations between renal histology and specific antinuclear antibodies of soluble nuclear antigens (anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-protein) in 44 patients with such auto-antibodies. They were mostly patients with lupus erythematosus (35/44), more rarely mixed collagen disease or Sjögren's disease. The presence of any one of the specific antibodies of nuclear antigens is not associated with any special renal prognosis; thus the presence of anti-RNP does not mean that there are no histological renal lesions. The renal prognosis depends in fact on the presence of anti-ADN native antibodies. Among the other laboratory parameters (rheumatoid factors, complement levels, cryoglobulinemia) only hypocomplementemia seems to be associated with a poor renal prognosis, the presence of rheumatoid factor has perhaps a protective role.

  16. 第四代HIV抗原抗体检测试剂在血液筛查中的应用%Application of 4th generation reagents for the detection of HIV antigen and antibody in blood screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈尚良; 郑欣; 曾月婷; 廖扬勋; 梁洁贞; 余文潮; 李结敏; 梁丽婷; 梁剑锋

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究第四代HIV抗原抗体检测试剂在血液筛查中的应用价值。方法对第四代HIV抗原抗体检测试剂进行灵敏度和重复性实验;分别采用第三代HIV抗体检测试剂和第四代HIV抗原抗体检测试剂对血液样本进行初复检,对第三代试剂检测阴性第四代试剂检测阳性的样本采用HIV核酸检测方法进行确认。结果第四代HIV抗原抗体检测试剂最低抗原检出浓度为1.25 U/mL,孔间精密度为3.2%;2009年10月~2011年3月,共筛查样本23480例,其中13例第三代试剂结果阴性而第四代试剂结果阳性,经HIV核酸检测的方法进行确认,全部结果均为阴性。结论在血液筛查中引入第四代HIV检测试剂的试剂功效尚待进一步验证,在已经广泛开展HIV抗体检测的基础上,引入第四代HIV抗原抗体检测试剂还是引入核酸检测具有更好的成本效益比,是一个值得待探讨的课题。%Objective To study the application of 4th-generation HIV reagents for detecting HIV antigens and antibodies in blood screening. Methods The sensitivity and repeatability experiments were tested respectively. All samples were detected by 3th-generation HIV reagents for only detecting HIV antibody and 4th-generation HIV reagents for detecting HIV antigens and antibodies, respectively, and the samples which were positive in 4th-generation HIV reagents detecting but negative in 3th-generation HIV reagents were confirmed by HIV nucleic acid detections. Results The minimum detectable concentration of HIV antigen was 1.25 U/mL and the precision was 3.2%for 4th-generation HIV reagent. In tolal 23 480 samples had been screened from October 2009 to March 2011, 13 samples were positive in 4th-generation HIV reagent detecting but negative in HIV 3th-generation HIV reagent, all of them were confired negative by HIV nucleic acid detection. Conclusion The efficacy of HIV detection attribute to applying 4th-generation HIV reagent

  17. The Political Styles of Local Anti-Nuclear Waste Movements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Matti [Univ. of Tampere (Finland). Dept. of Political Science and International Relations

    2001-07-01

    This paper aims to analyse the political styles of local anti-nuclear waste movements in Finland. The main focus is on the tension between the environmental impact assessment process (EIA) and the activity of local opposing groups. According to the EIA Act the purpose of the EIA process is to provide information and opportunities for citizens to participate in planning. It therefore aims to enhance the transparency of the decision-making process. The Finnish nuclear waste company, Posiva Oy, made great efforts locally to create opportunities for participation, but was much criticised by local activists. My questions are the following: How did these local movements participate in Posiva's EIA process? What kind of local differences were there in participating and how can these differences be explained? And finally; what did the EIA process mean to the political styles of movements? EIA meant a temporary change in political style on local level. Firstly; because it brought science into local politics very clearly. Secondly EIA with the Nuclear Energy Act framed decision-making with a timetable, which Posiva emphasised when local groups wanted to make a decision immediately. Thirdly EIA enabled the problem to be defined according to local needs but on the other hand plan level EIA separated nuclear waste issue from the use of nuclear power. Fourthly dialogue in the EIA process favoured rational discourse. Although local views were heard, the process did try to teach the people how to speak with the decision-making system, in the system's language. Thus the purpose of EIA was to make the local discussion controllable. All the local groups, the Romuvaara, Kivetty and Loviisa Movements and the Friends of the Earth in Pori region, took part in EIA dialogue but the reactions were different. The Romuvaara Movement was very active in participating and succeeded in exploiting EIA locally whereas the Loviisa Movement tried to displace the whole process. The Loviisa

  18. In vitro screening of major neurotransmitter systems possibly involved in the mechanism of action of antibodies to S100 protein in released-active form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, Evgeniy A; Ertuzun, Irina A; Kachaeva, Evgeniya V; Tarasov, Sergey A; Epstein, Oleg I

    2015-01-01

    Experimentally and clinically, it was shown that released-active form of antibodies to S100 protein (RAF of Abs to S100) exerts a wide range of pharmacological activities: anxiolytic, antiasthenic, antiaggressive, stress-protective, antihypoxic, antiischemic, neuroprotective, and nootropic. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of RAF of Abs to S100 on major neurotransmitter systems (serotoninergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and on sigma receptors as well) which are possibly involved in its mechanism of pharmacological activity. Radioligand binding assays were used for assessment of the drug influence on ligand–receptor interaction. [35S]GTPγS binding assay, cyclic adenosine monophosphate HTRF™, cellular dielectric spectroscopy assays, and assays based on measurement of intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ions were used for assessment of agonist or antagonist properties of the drug toward receptors. RAF of Abs to S100 increased radioligand binding to 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2Cedited, 5-HT3, and to D3 receptors by 142.0%, 131.9%, 149.3%, 120.7%, and 126.3%, respectively. Also, the drug significantly inhibited specific binding of radioligands to GABAB1A/B2 receptors by 25.8%, and to both native and recombinant human sigma1 receptors by 75.3% and 40.32%, respectively. In the functional assays, it was shown that the drug exerted antagonism at 5-HT1B, D3, and GABAB1A/B2 receptors inhibiting agonist-induced responses by 23.24%, 32.76%, and 30.2%, respectively. On the contrary, the drug exerted an agonist effect at 5-HT1A receptors enhancing receptor functional activity by 28.0%. The pharmacological profiling of RAF of Abs to S100 among 27 receptor provides evidence for drug-related modification of major neurotransmitter systems. PMID:26604768

  19. Evidence for intranasal anti-nuclear autoantibodies in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bruce K.; Li, Quan-Zhen; Suh, Lydia; Kato, Atsushi; Conley, David B.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Zhou, Jinchun; Norton, James; Carter, Roderick; Hinchcliff, Monique; Harris, Kathleen; Peters, Anju; Grammer, Leslie C.; Kern, Robert C.; Mohan, Chandra; Schleimer, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory condition of the nasal passage and paranasal sinuses characterized by Th2 biased inflammation with elevated levels of BAFF, B-lymphocytes, and immunoglobulins. Since high levels of BAFF are associated with autoimmune diseases, we assessed for evidence of autoimmunity in patients with CRS. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate for the presence of autoantibodies in sinonasal tissue from patients with CRS. METHODS Standardized nasal tissue specimens were collected from patients with CRS and control subjects and assayed for immunoglobulin production, autoantibody levels, tissue distribution of immunoglobulins and binding potential of antibodies in nasal tissue using a multiplexed autoantibody microarray, ELISA and immunofluoresence. RESULTS Elevated levels of several specific autoantibodies were found in nasal polyp tissue in comparison with control tissue and inflamed tissue from non-polypoid CRS (CRSsNP) (p<0.05). In particular, nuclear-targeted autoantibodies such as anti-dsDNA IgG and IgA antibodies were found at elevated levels in nasal polyps (p<0.05) and particularly in nasal polyps from patients requiring revision surgery for recurrence. Direct immunofluorescence staining demonstrated diffuse epithelial and sub-epithelial deposition of IgG and increased numbers of IgA secreting plasma cells not seen in control nasal tissue. CONCLUSIONS Autoantibodies, particularly those against nuclear antigens, are present at locally elevated levels in nasal polyps. The presence of autoantibodies suggests that the microenvironment of a nasal polyp promotes the expansion of self-reactive B-cell clones. While the pathogenicity of these antibodies remains to be elucidated, the presence of elevated anti-dsDNA antibodies is associated with a clinically more aggressive form of CRSwNP requiring repeated surgery. PMID:21996343

  20. In vitro screening of major neurotransmitter systems possibly involved in the mechanism of action of antibodies to S100 protein in released-active form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov EA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Evgeniy A Gorbunov, Irina A Ertuzun, Evgeniya V Kachaeva, Sergey A Tarasov, Oleg I EpsteinOOO “NPF “MATERIA MEDICA HOLDING”, Moscow, Russian FederationAbstract: Experimentally and clinically, it was shown that released-active form of antibodies to S100 protein (RAF of Abs to S100 exerts a wide range of pharmacological activities: anxiolytic, antiasthenic, antiaggressive, stress-protective, antihypoxic, antiischemic, neuroprotective, and nootropic. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of RAF of Abs to S100 on major neurotransmitter systems (serotoninergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and on sigma receptors as well which are possibly involved in its mechanism of pharmacological activity. Radioligand binding assays were used for assessment of the drug influence on ligand–receptor interaction. [35S]GTPγS binding assay, cyclic adenosine monophosphate HTRF™, cellular dielectric spectroscopy assays, and assays based on measurement of intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ions were used for assessment of agonist or antagonist properties of the drug toward receptors. RAF of Abs to S100 increased radioligand binding to 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2Cedited, 5-HT3, and to D3 receptors by 142.0%, 131.9%, 149.3%, 120.7%, and 126.3%, respectively. Also, the drug significantly inhibited specific binding of radioligands to GABAB1A/B2 receptors by 25.8%, and to both native and recombinant human sigma1 receptors by 75.3% and 40.32%, respectively. In the functional assays, it was shown that the drug exerted antagonism at 5-HT1B, D3, and GABAB1A/B2 receptors inhibiting agonist-induced responses by 23.24%, 32.76%, and 30.2%, respectively. On the contrary, the drug exerted an agonist effect at 5-HT1A receptors enhancing receptor functional activity by 28.0%. The pharmacological profiling of RAF of Abs to S100 among 27 receptor provides evidence for drug-related modification of major neurotransmitter systems.Keywords: dopamine agent, released

  1. Study of susceptibility towards varicella by screening for the presence of IgG antibodies among nursing and medical students of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A Singru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is believed that all suffer from chickenpox infection in their childhood. Many studies abroad and some in India clearly indicate that many individuals escape the infection in childhood, and thus, remain susceptible in adulthood. Adulthood chickenpox is a more serious infection than childhood. Prior screening of health care workers for the presence of IgG antibodies against Varicella will not only prevent hospital outbreaks but also economic and academic loss faced by the students. This will also have an important implication in terms of patient care as there is a threat of spreading Varicella to immuno-compromised patients. Definite history of prior infection of chickenpox is considered as an indicator for immunity towards the same. However, the reliability of this needs to be tested. Aim: A study to assess the susceptibility of nursing and medical students towards Varicella infection by screening for IgG antibodies against Varicella virus and to identify any risk factors for the same. Settings and design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study in nursing and medical students. Materials and Methods: Total 78 nursing and medical students participated in the study. They were given prestructured and pretested questionnaires. After obtaining informed consent, blood sample was collected and screened for the presence of IgG antibodies against Varicella by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA by using a commercial kit. Statistical analysis: Epi_info 2002 was used for analysis. Age of the study subjects were summarized as mean age and standard deviation. Susceptibility was analyzed as percentage with 95% confidence interval and Chi Square test was used to find association of susceptibility status with sex and region of residence in childhood. Relevance of definite history as an indicator for immunity was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values with 95% confidence interval. Results

  2. 孕产妇HIV抗体筛查阳性与免疫印迹试验对比%Comparison of Positive of HIV Antibody Screening and Western Blot Test in Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱厚宏; 王晨笛; 刘杨; 张祁; 孟建彤; 黄薇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the results of HIV antibody screening test and Westem Blot test ( WB) in pregnant women. Methods Thirty three positive samples from pregnant women were tested with the ELISA and Westem blot test (WB). Those with indefinite result by WB test were re-tested 3 and 6 months later, and HIV-1 viral load testing ( VL) was carried out at 6th month. The results of ELISA and the WB test were analyzed. Result The 33 samples were all positive by ELISA and 20 were HIV-1 positive by WB test. The ELISA and the WB test positive coincidence rate was 60. 61 % (20/33). Of 20 samples 0were with S/CO value more than 8, the WB test results of HIV-1 antibody were all positive. Of 13 samples were with S/CO value less than 1 , 5 were negative and 8 were indefinite in WB test. The HIV-1 viral load test result at 6th month was less than the minimum detection limit (50 IU/ml ) . Conclusion The false positive in HIV antibody screening test (ELISA) was observed. The false positive sample were in the WB test negative and indefinite ones. ELISA and the WB test positive coincidence rate increased with the S/CO value of ELISA. The HIV WB test indefinite result in pregnant women was mostly due to non-specific immune response.%目的 探讨孕产妇人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)抗体筛查试验阳性与免疫印迹试验(WB)结果的关系.方法 对33份孕产妇HIV抗体待复查样本,进行酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA )及免疫印迹试验(WB),对WB试验结果不确定者进行3个月、6个月随访检测,6个月随访样本补充HIV-1病毒载量检测,分析ELISA检测与WB试验检测结果.结果 33份样本ELISA复检均呈阳性,免疫印迹试验(WB)中20份确认为HIV-1抗体阳性,ELISA检测与WB试验阳性符合率为60.61%(20/33); S/CO值>8的20份样本,WB试验结果均为HIV-1抗体阳性,I < S/CO值<8的13份样本,WB试验5份为HIV抗体阴性,8份为HIV抗体不确定;6个月随访样本HIV-1病毒载量检测,

  3. 一种改进的分泌抗半抗原抗体杂交瘤细胞株筛选方法%An Improved Method for Screening Hybridoma Cells Secreting Anti-Hapten Antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云龙; 段江波; 李恒思; 王霈; 毛烈; 张怡青; 王国强; 王继创

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究解决半抗原分子单克隆抗体制备技术路径中遇到的在阳性杂交瘤细胞株筛选时无法排除载体蛋白间交叉反应影响的问题,以半抗原去甲肾上腺素(norepinephrine,NE)为例。方法:在NE完全抗原免疫小鼠实施细胞融合后,分别包被牛血清白蛋白(BSA)、卵清白蛋白(OVA)、BSA-NE、OVA-NE等4种不同抗原的酶标板平行检测细胞培养上清液;挑选BSA、OVA检测结果为阴性,BSA-NE、OVA-NE检测结果为阳性的孔内细胞进行克隆化筛选单克隆细胞。结果:本筛选方法可一次性从8板96孔板中筛选到13个符合要求的阳性孔,经3次克隆化后获得6株特异性强的杂交瘤细胞株。结论:本方法避免了载体蛋白间交叉反应对筛选的影响,改进了传统的单一指标筛选方法,筛选效率更高。%Objective: Take norepinephrine(NE) as an example to establish an improved hybridoma screen mode which increasing specificity and efficiency of screening procedure when preparing for anti-hapten antibodies. Meth-ods: After cell fusion steps, four kinds of antigens, bovine serum albumin(BSA), ovalbumin(OVA), BSA-NE, OVA-NE, were coated separately on 96 wells ELISA plate and simultaneously test the supernatant of hybridoma culture. Those hybridomas wells with results of BSA-NE and OVA-NE positive reaction, but BSA and OVA nega-tive reaction were selected for a further cloning procedure to get monoclonal cell lines. Results: 13 satisfied mono-clonal hybridoma cells were obtained from 8 ELISA plates. After the cloning procedure 6 high specific monoclonal antibody secreting hybridomas cell lines acquired. Conclusion: This improved ELISA screening mode directly en-hanced the specificity towards hapten structure compared with currently commonly used method. This mode can suf-ficiently avoid interaction between protein carriers.

  4. 全人源抗鼻咽癌噬菌体单链抗体的筛选与鉴定%Screening and characterization of human scFv antibodies against nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳东; 谢平丽; 王甲甲; 李跃辉; 胡锦跃; 李官成

    2009-01-01

    目的 从全人源抗鼻咽癌噬菌体抗体库中筛选特异性单链抗体(ScFv),并对其特异性进行鉴定.方法 通过噬菌体表面展示技术把ScFv表达在噬菌体表面,以鼻咽癌细胞作为抗原,用抗原递减法,通过"吸附-洗脱-扩增"过程筛选并富集特异性抗体,及ELISA筛选,获得特异阳性克隆进行免疫组化鉴定并测序.结果 通过对抗体库进行三轮正负淘洗和富集后,随机挑选4212个克隆进行ELISA,发现3个克隆对CNE2呈强阳性反应,而与人正常细胞系HUVEC等呈弱阳性反应或不反应.对克隆HNSAO33进一步进行免疫细胞化学验证,结果与ELISA反应一致;免疫组织化学鉴定表明克隆HNSAO33与鼻咽癌组织和鼻咽组织阳性率的差别有统计学意义.结论 通过淘选富集、ELISA和免疫化学鉴定获得特异性较强的噬菌体克隆,为鼻咽癌发病机制的研究和临床诊断以及治疗奠定了基础.%Objective To screen the anti-nasopharyngeal carcinoma scFv from a human anti-nasopharyngeal carcinoma single-chain phage antibody library, and identify its characteristics. Methods The single-chain phage antibody library was subjected to three rounds of positive and negative cell panning and enrichment, and then it was selected by ELISA. The binding specificity of phage antibodies with naso-pharyngeal carcinoma cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results After panning, enrichment and testing by ELISA, 3 phage an-tibody clones reacting with CNE2 more strongly than HUVEC and NP69 were picked out from 4212 clones. One clone, HNSAO33, was fur-ther analyzed after DNA sequencing. The results of immunohistochemistry with cultured cells were similar to those of ELISA. HNSAO33 spe-cifically reacted to nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in most human nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue sections except a few human normal naso-pharyngeal tissue sections. The distinction of positive rates was of a great statistical significance. Conclusion ELISA

  5. 抗磷脂抗体对妊娠丢失筛查的临床价值%Clinical value of antiphospholipid antibody in the screening for pregnancy loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩如

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between history of pregnancy loss and antiphospholipid antibodies (APA),including anticardiolipin (ACA) and lupus anti-coagulant antibodies (LA).Methods One hundred and fifty patients with history of unexplained pregnancy loss as study group and 120 normal nonpregnant women as control group.The study group was further divided into three subgroups:embryo growth arrest (n =36),stillbirth (n =44),and recurrent abortion (n =70)levels of serum APA(including ACA and LA) were determined repectively and analyzed.Results The positive rates of APA,ACA,LA in the study group were significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05).The above significance was true in both stillbirth and recurrent abortion groups but not in embryo growth arrest group.Conclusions Levels of serum APA are associated with pregnancy loss,especially about recurrent abortion and stillbirth.We suggest routine screening of serum APA should be performed in patients with history of fetal wastage for the sake of early treatment.%目的 探讨妊娠丢失与抗磷脂抗体(APA)[包括抗心磷脂抗体(ACA)和狼疮抗凝抗体(LA)]的关系.方法 观察组为150例有妊娠丢失史的患者,其中分为胚胎停育组(36例)、死胎组(44例)和复发性流产组(70例).对照组为同期120例正常孕妇,分别测定观察组和对照组静脉血清APA水平,并进行对比分析.结果 整个观察组APA、ACA、LA的阳性率均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).胚胎停育组与对照组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).死胎组和复发性流产组的APA、ACA、LA阳性率分别与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 APA与妊娠丢失有关,尤其对于复发性流产和死胎者.因此,对有不良孕产史的患者常规筛查APA,有利于尽早对因治疗.

  6. Analysis of blood donors situation and anti-HIV antibody screening in a hospital of Madagascar%马达加斯加某医院献血员情况及 HIV 抗体筛查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓萍; 李勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the basic situation of blood donors and their anti-HIV antibody screening in a hospital of Madagascar during 2008- 2009 in order to provide the reference information for giving better medical aid and promoting the devel-opment of the clinical transfusion in Madagascar.Methods The blood doner′s personal informations were understood by inquiry and the anti-HIV antibody was detected by the rapid testing,the results were recorded,the constituent ratio of the data was calcu-lated and the chi-square test was performed.Results There were 2 298 blood donors including teenages less than 15 years old dur-ing 2008-2009,female doners were more than male donors,among them 366 cases were pregrant women.The blood donors from village were more than those from city,the education level was dominated by the middle school students,accounting for 51.65%. There were 22 tuberculosis patients in 2008,none in 2009.The detection rate of anti-HIV antibody was 0.04% for these 2 years. Conclusion The protection on the blood donors in Africa area is not optimistic.The phenomenon of pregrant women and teenages as the blood donors exists in Madagascar.%目的:了解马达加斯加某医院2008~2009年献血员的基本情况和艾滋病毒抗体筛查情况,为以后更好的医疗援助马达加斯加及促进其临床输血领域的发展提供参考信息。方法口头询问方式获取献血员的基本信息,采用快速法检测 HIV 抗体,记录结果,计算数据的构成比,并进行χ2检验。结果2008~2009年共2298名献血员,有15岁及以下的献血者,女性献血员多于男性,其中有366名是孕妇;农村多于城市,文化程度以中学为主,占51.65%。2008年有22名结核病患者,2009年为0。两年艾滋病毒抗体阳性检出率为0.04%。结论非洲地区对献血者的保护不容乐观,存在孕妇和青少年献血的现象。

  7. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer vision screening programs for children. At what age should a child have his or her vision screened? Vision screening ... a child fails a vision screening at any age, the child should be referred for a comprehensive eye examination. ...

  8. Expression of anti-SRP19 antibody in muscle tissues from patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Duan, F; Liu, P; Wang, P F; Wang, M X

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of anti-SRP19 antibody in muscle tissues of patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathy. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to determine the expression of anti-SRP19 antibodies in muscle tissues of autoimmune necrotizing myopathy patients. Results demonstrated that anti-SRP19 antibody was expressed in 71.4% (20/28) of muscle tissue specimens from patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathy. Anti-SRP19 antibody expression was mainly localized in cytoplasm of necrotic muscle fibers surrounding the small blood vessels and interstitial cells. There were no significant differences in the age, course of disease, muscle, and creatine kinase levels between patients with positive or negative expression of anti-SRP19 antibodies. The expression levels of anti-SRP19, serum anti-nuclear antibodies, as well as anti-Ro-52, anti- SSA, anti-Sm, and anti-Jo-1 antibodies were not significantly different among groups. This study demonstrates that anti-SRP19 antibody is highly expressed in muscle tissues of patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathy, and suggests that this protein may be involved in the origin and progression of the disease. PMID:27525944

  9. Analysis on positive confirmation result of HIV antibody prelimicnary screening in voluntary blood donation%无偿献血HIV抗体初筛阳性确认结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚娣; 刘永梅

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析2009~2015年H IV 抗体筛查和确证试验结果,为制订在低危人群中招募献血者的招募策略和献血者回归提供依据。方法采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测 HIV抗体,分别用2个不同厂家试剂检测。HIV抗体检测阳性或可疑的标本送深圳市疾病预防控制中心进行免疫蛋白印迹确认。选取2009~2015年血液标本筛查确认结果进行统计分析。结果2009~2015年197766份血液标本,2009~2015年每年总的感染率分别为1.3/10万、4.7/10万、5.6/10万、5.4/10万、5.3/10万、4.6/10万、7.3/10万,平均感染率为0.0049%(4.9/10万),平均确诊阳性率为22.1%,假阳性率为77.9%。H IV抗体确认阳性的献血者中年龄18~30岁的占67.7%。结论重视献血前的征询招募工作,针对外来劳务工和文化程度相对低的献血者加强献血知识的普及,特别是有高危行为的献血者,采用小卡片的方式,引导其到疾控中心做专业的咨询检测,既提高输血安全系数又能预防艾滋病扩散。针对假阳性的献血者做好回访跟踪监测及献血资格的回归工作,减少献血者的流失。选择更加灵敏的试剂及选择更加灵敏的病毒核酸扩增的方法,可尽量缩小因窗口期感染的风险,确保输血安全。%Objective To analyze the screening and confirmation test results of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody during 2009-2015 to provide the basis for the recruiting strategies in recruiting blood donors among the low risk population and blood donor′s returning to the team .Methods The blood samples of voluntary blood donors were detected the HIV antibody by the ELISA method ,with the reagents provided by 2 different manufacturers .The samples of HIV antibody positive or suspected sam‐ples were submitted to the Shenzhen Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC for conducting

  10. 贵州地区2013~2015年HIV抗体筛查及确证结果分析%Analysis on the results of HIV antibody screening and confirming tests in Guizhou district from 2013 to 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雯婧; 任智晶; 叶震璇; 杨廷秀; 何玉; 张华

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查贵州地区综合性医院中患者 H IV感染情况,分析 H IV抗体确证试验阳性人群特点,为艾滋病的预防和干预提供依据。方法 HIV抗体筛查试验采用酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法和胶体金法,确证试验采用免疫印迹(Western blot)法。结果149526例患者确证HIV抗体阳性339例,阳性率为0.23%。HIV感染人群男性多于女性;年龄主要集中在18~65岁;职业以农民居多;文化程度以小学、初中较多;传播途径以性传播为主。结论加强高危人群的 HIV检测,广泛开展艾滋病相关知识的健康教育,降低高危行为发生率,对预防和控制HIV传播具有重要意义。%Objective To investigate HIV infection in general hospital of Guizhou district ,analyze the characteristics of HIV an‐tibody‐positive population ,and provide evidence to the prevention and intervention of AIDS .Methods HIV antibody screening tests were made by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and colloidal gold method ,then positive confirmation with Western blot test .Results The 339 cases out of 149 526 individuals with HIV antibody‐positive were confirmed ,giving a positive rate of 0 .23% .There were more men than women in HIV‐infected population ,highly rate of whom in age group between 18 -65 years old ,mostly farmer ,mostly with educational background of primary and middle school .The most important transmission route was sex contact .Conclusion For the prevention and control of HIV spreading ,it is crucial to strengthen HIV detection among the high‐risk population ,and widely carry out health education related to AIDS thus lowering the incidence of high‐risk behaviors .

  11. Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier to treat. You can get some screenings in your doctor's office. Others need special equipment, ...

  12. 11578例自身抗体检测结果及临床分析%Retrospective Analysis of Anti-nuclear Antibodies Detection in 11578 Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雯斌; 姚燕珍; 于倩

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析浙江省舟山海岛地区抗核抗体和抗核抗体谱阳性分布趋势,及其在就诊人群中的诊断价值.方法 分别用间接免疫荧光法(IIF)和线性免疫印迹法(LIA)检测抗核抗体.资料分布的比较采用x2检验.结果 抗核抗体(ANA)阳性患者总阳性率为16.3% (1886/11578),女性阳性率(20.6%,431/6955)高于男性(9.8%,5/4623),差异有统计学意义(x2=236.7,P<0.05).21 ~40岁组阳性率(1.5%,38/2036)显著高于其他年龄组,差异有统计学意义(x2=115.8,P<0.05).抗核抗体谱阳性患者2722例,阳性率为23.5%.抗核抗体谱中抗SS-A、抗Ro-52、抗着丝点抗体的阳性率最高,分别为31.7%、28.4%和8.3%.女性抗U1-nRNP、抗核糖体P蛋白、抗dsDNA等抗体的阳性率明显高于男性(P<0.05).不同年龄组的抗核抗体谱阳性率分析结果显示抗U1-nRNP、抗Sm、抗核糖体P蛋白等抗体的阳性率差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).263例不同自身免疫性疾病组中抗核抗体谱阳性率的分析显示RA、SLE、SS、MCTD、PBC组阳性率最高的自身抗体分别是抗Ro-52抗体、抗SS-A抗体、抗SS-B抗体、抗U1-nRNP抗体和抗M-2抗体.结论 舟山海岛地区就诊人群中自身免疫性疾病好发于中年女性,在临床检测中应采用多种自身抗体的联合检测,以提高自身免疫性疾病的诊断率.

  13. Comparison of different diagnostic tests for antinuclear antibodies%抗核抗体不同检测方法的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武永康; 王兰兰; 唐江涛; 陈捷

    2006-01-01

    目的 评价以Hep-2细胞为底物的间接免疫荧光法(IFA)和包被多种纯化核抗原的酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测抗核抗体(ANA)的特点及其在系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)诊断中的应用价值.方法 同时采用IFA法和ELISA法检测血清ANA共409例,其中SLE 226例和健康对照183名,将两种方法检测结果的敏感度、特异度、准确度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值、阳性似然比、阴性似然比、结果符合率、判断一致性κ值及秩相关系数进行比较分析;通过ROC曲线比较两种方法的准确度;结果不一致标本进行可提取性核抗原抗体谱(ENA)检测分析;同时将IFA法检测不同荧光模型样本分别与ELISA结果进行相关分析.结果 SLE患者组IFA法和ELISA法检测ANA的敏感度分别为91.15%和92.04%,特异度分别为96.17%和92.90%,准确度分别为93.40%和92.42%,阳性预测值分别为96.71%和94.12%,阴性预测值分别为89.80%和90.43%,两种方法比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),ROC曲线对两种方法准确度分析差异无统计学意义(P=0.409);两方法检测结果符合率为91.20%,秩相关系数R=0.823,判断一致性κ=0.825;在36例两种方法检测结果不一致标本中,14例IFA(+)ELISA(-),其中1例IFA法滴度达1:1000的高尔基体型,其余为临界值左右的核仁型和斑点型,而在22例IFA(-)ELISA(+)患者中,其中有11例ELISA法吸光度(A)2.67~30.5;将此36例血清标本进行ENA抗体谱检测,14例IFA(+)ELISA(-)患者ENA阳性率为14.29%,而22例IFA(-)ELISA(+)患者ENA阳性率高达68.18%,两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).IFA法检测的不同荧光模型的阳性标本中,斑点型滴度与ELISA法A值相关性较差R=0.083,均质型相关性最好,R=0.595.结论 IFA作为ANA检测的推荐方法具有直观、可分型等特点,且能提供与自身免疫性疾病相关的核型信息,但需要荧光显微镜及较丰富判断经验的技术人员;而ELISA法操作简单,并可通过测定A值来评价患者体内抗体的浓度,不需再作滴度检测;IFA法和ELISA法检测ANA均有较高的敏感度、特异度、准确性,结果符合率、一致性判断系数κ和秩相关系数均较高,而后者的漏诊率更低,更适合进行ANA筛查;若对ELISA板再增加包被高尔基体、核仁等稀有荧光模型的抗原,则可使ELISA法检测结果更准确、更全面,对申请ANA检测的标本,可先采用ELISA法筛选出阳性标本后再进行IFA法检测,这一工作流程可加快报告速度,节约检验成本,提高工作效率.

  14. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-effective and Simultaneous Detection of Toxoplasma Anti-IgG, IgM and IgA Antibodies Using Very Small Serum Volumes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — No dataset associated with this publication. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Augustine, S. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis:...

  15. Measuring and evaluating interferon beta-induced antibodies in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, C; Clemmesen, K M; Sørensen, P S;

    2006-01-01

    Administration of interferons (IFNs) may induce antibodies that interfere with therapeutic efficacy. We have optimized and validated methods for large-scale economic screening. Sera from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) were investigated for binding antibody (BAb) by prot......Administration of interferons (IFNs) may induce antibodies that interfere with therapeutic efficacy. We have optimized and validated methods for large-scale economic screening. Sera from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) were investigated for binding antibody (BAb...

  16. Prevalence and clinical significance of nonorgan specific antibodies in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis as predictor markers for rheumatic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnady, Basant M.; Kamal, Naglaa M.; Shaker, Raneyah H.M.; Soliman, Amal F.; Hasan, Waleed A.; Alghamdi, Hamed A.; Algethami, Mohammed M.; Jajah, Mohamed Bilal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune diseases are considered the 3rd leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized countries. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are associated with high prevalence of nonorgan-specific autoantibodies, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antidouble-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (anti-dsDNA), antiextractable-nuclear antigens (anti-ENAs), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticyclic-citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) whose clinical significance is unknown. We aimed to assess the prevalence of various nonorgan-specific autoantibodies in patients with ATD, and to investigate the possible association between these autoantibodies and occurrence of rheumatic diseases and, if these autoantibodies could be considered as predictor markers for autoimmune rheumatic diseases in the future. This study had 2 phases: phase 1; in which 61 ATD patients free from rheumatic manifestations were assessed for the presence of these nonorgan-specific autoantibodies against healthy 61 control group, followed by 2nd phase longitudinal clinical follow-up in which cases are monitored systematically to establish occurrence and progression of any rheumatic disease in association to these autoantibodies with its influences and prognosis. Regarding ATD patients, ANA, anti-dsDNA, Anti-ENA, and RF were present in a percentage of (50.8%), (18%), (21.3%), and (34.4%), respectively, with statistically significance difference (P < 0.5) rather than controls. Nearly one third of the studied group (32.8%) developed the rheumatic diseases, over 2 years follow-up. It was obvious that those with positive anti-dsDNA had higher risk (2.45 times) to develop rheumatic diseases than those without. There was a statistically significant positive linear relationship between occurrence of disease in months and (age, anti-dsDNA, anti-CCP, RF, and duration of thyroiditis). Anti-dsDNA and RF are the most significant predictors (P < 0.0001). ATD is more associated with rheumatic

  17. Study on screening and identification of serum irregular antibodies in children withβ Thalassema major%重型β地贫儿童血清不规则抗体筛查与鉴定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄皑; 冯卫民; 张毅华; 黄钰君; 陈扬凯

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解重型β地中海贫血(地贫)儿童血清中不规则抗体的发生率及其特异性抗体构成.方法 对选取的142例反复输血的β地贫双重杂合子(或纯合子)进行不规则抗体筛查和鉴定检测,统计分析其检出率及构成比.结果 不规则抗体筛查阳性率为9.2%,具体分布如下:Rh系统11例(84.6%),其中抗-E最多(占30.8%),P系统1例(7.7%);Kidd系统1例(7.7%);而产生不规则抗体的重型β地贫的基因型中CD41 - 42/CD41 - 42比例最高(占30.8%).结论 反复输血的重型β地中海贫血患儿不规则抗体阳性率较高,要特别注意对Rh系统不规则抗体的检查.%Objective: To explore the positive rate and special types of serum irregular antibodies in children with β thalassema (βthal) major with different genotype. Methods: Serum irregular antibodies were detected from 142 children with β°thal (double het-erozygote or homozygote) who had suffered blood transfusion many times, then followed with the calculation of the positive rate as well as constituent ratio for every special type of irregular antibodies. Results: The positive rate of irregular antibodies in 142 children with β° thal is 9. 2%. The detail constituent ratio for every special type of irregular antibodies was as follows; blood group system Rh antibodies accounted for 84. 6% (11 in 13 samples) among which type anti - E was the most (30. 8% , 4 in 13), followed by system P antibody (7.7% , 1 in 13) and system Kidd (7.7% , 1 in 13). As for the genotype in samples with irregular antibody, CD41 -42/ CD41 -42 was the most (accounting for 30. 8% ). Conclusions; Since it has high positive rate for serum irregular antibodies in children with thalassema major who suffered blood transfusion many times, it is necessary to examine serum irregular antibodies especial for the special type from Rh blood group system.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are antibodies having single specificity for a given antigen site (epitope). The development of hybridoma technology and the relative ease by which MAbs can be prepared has revolutionized many aspects of serological applications in diagnosis and differentiation of disease producing agents. The property of monospecificity offers advantages in diagnostic applications over polyclonal sera in that tests can be defined exactly with regard to the antigen detected and the affinity of reaction between the given antigenic site and the monoclonal reagent. In addition, MAbs offer better possibilities for test standardization, because the same reagent can be used in different laboratories. Such an MAb can be supplied by a central laboratory or 'grown' from hybridoma cells, ensuring that the resultant product is identical from laboratory to laboratory and that the part of the test involving the MAb reaction is the same. The methodologies for inoculation regimes, mice, cloning methods, selection of fusion partners, etc., have been validated extensively in developed country laboratories. The decision to establish a MAb production facility must be examined on a strict cost-benefit basis, since it is still expensive to produce a product. There are many MAbs available that should be sought to allow exploitation in developing tests. If a production facility is envisaged, it should produce reagents for national needs, i.e. there should be a clear problem oriented approach whereby exact needs are defined. In the field of veterinary applications, MAbs are the central reagent in many immunoassays based on the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The development of specific tests for diagnosing diseases is dominated by MAbs and has been fuelled by a strong research base, mainly in developed countries allied to developing countries through the study of related diseases. Thus, there are very many assays dependent on MAbs, some of which form the basis of

  19. 广东中山市2011-2012年HIV抗体检测与自愿咨询检测数据分析%Analysis of HIV antibody screening and VCT data in Zhongshan City,Guangdong Province (2011-2012)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建海; 汪涛; 李雷; 王曼

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解广东中山市不同人群HIV流行形势,为艾滋病科学防治提供依据.方法 2011-2012年中山市辖区HIV筛查实验室和确诊实验室HIV抗体检测数据,从《中国疾病预防控制信息系统》下载2011-2012年该市自愿咨询检测(VCT)检测数据;采用SPSS进行数据分析.结果 中山市2011-2012年接受HIV筛查累计达77.4万人次,估算每年常住人口中接受HIV筛查的比例约为12.00%.HIV总的筛查阳性率为0.18% (95% CI:0.17%~0.19%),其中男男性行为人群筛查阳性率为10.65%(95% CI:8.56% ~ 12.74%);强制/劳教戒毒人员筛查阳性率为4.30%(95% CI:3.79% ~4.82%),医院一般人群筛查阳性率0.10%(95%CI:0.09%~0.10%).结论 中山市一般人群HIV仍处于低流行阶段,但是男男性行为人群、吸毒人群感染率高.HIV抗体筛查样本量大,为评估不同人群HIV流行形势、疫情估计提供重要参考.%Objective To understand the HIV epidemic characteristics among different groups in Zhongshan city,Guangdong province,to provide information for HIV prevention and control.Methods From 2011 to 2012,the HIV antibody testing data of screening laboratories and confirmed laboratory were collected.The HIV voluntary counseling and testing data were downloaded from < China information system for disease control and prevention >.SPSS was used for data analysis.Results A total of 77.4 million man-time received HIV antibody screening from 2011 to 2012,and the proportion of those receiving HIV screening among the permanent inhabitant was estimated to be 12.00% each year.The overall HIV antibody screening positive rate was 0.18% (95% CI:0.17%-0.19%).The HIV antibody screening positive rate of men who had sex with men,drug users of compulsory/drug treatment center,and common people visiting hospitals were 10.65% (95% CI:8.56%-12.74%),4.30% (95% CI:3.79%-4.82%),and 0.10% (95% CI:0.09%-0.10

  20. Prevalence, specificity and significance of ovarian antibodies during spontaneous premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénichel, P; Sosset, C; Barbarino-Monnier, P; Gobert, B; Hiéronimus, S; Béné, M C; Harter, M

    1997-12-01

    Autoimmunity may be involved in idiopathic premature ovarian failure (POF). However, the frequency, physiopathology and potential reversibility of autoimmune oophoritis needs clarification. Using an ELISA against whole tissue homogenate as antigen, from human ovaries at different ages, positive circulating ovarian antibodies (AOA) were found in 59% of patients with primitive idiopathic POF (27/46); 20/27 were positive for IgG isotype, 9/27 for IgM and 8/27 for IgA. Specificity of AOA was examined (i) by comparison to different control groups; mean values of the three subclasses of immunoglobins were significantly higher in POF women than in normally cycling fertile young women (n = 23) and fertile young men (n = 17), in untreated Grave's disease (n = 35) or in women with positive antinuclear factor (n = 25); and (ii) by assessing possible cross-reaction; only six out of the 27 positive sera reacted with other tissues (thyroid, pancreas, adrenal), including four clinical polyendocrinopathies. Significance of AOA was explored (i) by comparison with postmenopausal women (n = 40) and older women (n = 15), who did not have enhanced ratios of AOA, thereby excluding a potential role of high FSH values; (ii) by analysing the factors time and surgery; no relation could be found either with the duration of amenorrhoea (6 months to 21 years) or with the history of an ovarian biopsy (12/47) in the absence of any associated pelvic surgery; and (iii) by screening for other immunological factors; familial or personal autoimmune disease (8/46), HLA DR3 (10/42), HLA DR4 (11/42), associated autoantibodies (thyroperoxidase, adrenal, beta islets, parathyroid, DNA, smooth muscles) (12/42). If one positive AOA isotype was present, a second immunological factor was found in 45% of cases. Spontaneous pregnancies during oestrogen therapy occurred in four cases, including three women with positive AOA. Circulating AOA detected by an ELISA may represent a practical and suitable marker for

  1. Screening Anti-LPS VHH from Llama Single Domain Antibody Li-brary and Preparation of Anti-LPS Nanobody Pentamer%抗脂多糖纳米抗体的筛选及其五聚体的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文; 李胜华; 张伟京; 王炳奇

    2013-01-01

    目的::筛选抗脂多糖(LPS)纳米单域抗体,并制备抗LPS纳米抗体五聚体。方法:以LPS为抗原,从驼源天然单域重链抗体库中筛选抗LPS纳米抗体,利用分子克隆技术将抗LPS单域抗体基因组装入志贺杆菌样毒素B亚基蛋白结构域(VTB)的五聚体特异性表达载体中进行可溶性表达,并用ELISA法鉴定所获抗体的抗原结合活性和特异性。结果:获得抗LPS纳米单域抗体及LPS纳米抗体五聚体;经鉴定,LPS纳米抗体五聚体的抗原结合活性优于抗LPS单域抗体。结论:利用驼源天然单域重链抗体库制备了抗LPS纳米单域抗体及抗LPS纳米抗体五聚体,为脓毒血症的分子诊断、预后判断及寻找生物治疗新靶点奠定了基础。%Objective: To obtain anti-LPS VHH and prepare anti-LPS nanobody pentamer. Methods: Using phage display screening technology, we selected anti-LPS single domain antibody(sdAb, or nanobody) from a phage display library of llama single domain antibody, and then cloned the anti-LPS single-domain antibody gene into specific expression vector pVTB1 with molecular cloning technology, and expressed anti-LPS pentamer effi-ciently in E.coli. The affinity of different type of anti-LPS nanobodies were detected by ELISA. Results: We ob-tained anti-LPS single domain antibody and anti-LPS antibody pentamer, and proved anti-LPS nanobody pentamer is extremely enhance the specificity and affinity strength of anti-LPS antibody. Conclusion: The selected anti-LPS antibody pentamer is a leading candidate for therapies against LPS-mediated sepsis.

  2. Screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, E J; Ross, R; Hurley, R

    1981-06-01

    The prevalence of antibody against Toxoplasma gondi in a population of 715 pregnant women has been evaluated by two methods: indirect haemagglutination antibody (IHA) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test and all positive sera were checked by the dye test. Five hundred of the study population were questioned on diet and on animal contact to elucidate a possible relation to the prevalence of antibody. Results are expressed in international units (IU) of antibody against T gondi. Of the 715 sera, 171 were positive by IHA and 173 by IFA. One hundred and sixty-seven sera were positive by both tests, ninety-eight (58%) correlating exactly, as to the concentration of antibody. The ten sera which were not positive by both tests all had detectable antibody at the minimum concentration only (12 IU). The dye test confirmed all sera positive by both tests with the exception of three. It also confirmed one of four sera positive by IHA antibody alone and two of six positive by IFA alone. All sera that proved dye test-negative had low antibody concentrations (12 IU) by IHA or IFA. The IHA test, which is commercially available in kit form, would be suitable for use as a screening test during pregnancy. The estimated annual rate of antibody acquisition over the age range 16-40 years is 1.2% per annum with the highest rate in the 36-40 age group (2.5% per annum) and the lowest in the 26-30 age group (0.4% per annum). The clinical history was not significantly different between those with and those without antibody against T gondi but significantly more women in the 36-40 age group had a history of animal contact than those in the 26-30 age group. No conclusive evidence of recent or current infection was found.

  3. 深圳地区无偿献血者不规则抗体筛查结果分析%Analysis of irregular antibody screening results of voluntary blood donors in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑楚忠; 唐万兵; 郑望春; 方瑛

    2015-01-01

    目的:对该地区无偿献血者的不规则抗体进行回顾性分析,以期发现其中的规律,确保临床输血安全和有效。方法收集2011年2月至2012年12月深圳地区169860例无偿献血者的标本,用特定抗原的红细胞,通过盐水法检测不规则抗体,阳性标本由血型室鉴定抗体特异性。结果169860份无偿献血者不规则抗体阳性36例(0.021%),其中抗‐M 阳性12例,抗‐D阳性4例,抗‐P1阳性1例,抗‐A1阳性2例,冷抗体1例,抗‐M合并其他不规则抗体1例,未知其特异性抗体15例;男性不规则抗体阳性率0.013%(15/118723),女性不规则抗体阳性率0.041%(21/51137)。结论女性的献血者不规则抗体的阳性率高于男性献血者,且该地区的献血者不规则抗体阳性检出率偏低,需要结合其他不规则抗体的检出方法,提高其检出率,确保输血的安全有效。%Objective To retrospectively analyse the irregular antibodies of the local blood donors ,in order to find the rules ,To ensure the safety and effectiveness of clinical blood transfusion .Methods Collected 169 860 blood donors specimens with the spe‐cific antigen of red blood cells in Shenzhen area from February 2011 to December 2012 ,through Brine method for detection of irreg‐ular antibodies ,positive samples would be identified the specificity of antibodies in blood typing department .Results 169 860 healthy blood donors of irregular antibodies were positive in 36 cases(0 .021% ) ,with 12 cases anti‐M ,4 cases anti‐D ,1 case anti‐P1 ,2 cases anti‐A1 ,1 case of cold antibody ,anti‐M with other irregular antibody in 1 cases ;Male irregular antibody positive rate was 0 .013% (15/118 723) ,female irregular antibody positive rate was 0 .041% (21/51 137) .Conclusion The positive rate of irregular antibody in female blood donors is higher than male blood donors ,and the positive rate of irregular antibody of blood

  4. MRSA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance Test ...

  5. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  6. Evaluation of four methods for cytomegalovirus antibody detection for use by a bone marrow transplantation service.

    OpenAIRE

    Leland, D S; Barth, K A; Cunningham, E B; Jansen, J; Tricot, G J; French, M L

    1989-01-01

    Four methods, latex agglutination, indirect fluorescent antibody, enzyme immunoassay, and complement fixation, were compared for cytomegalovirus antibody screening and for pre- and posttransplant determinations on bone marrow transplant recipients. Latex agglutination was most sensitive (98%) and specific (97%) for screening and pretransplant determinations and was quickest and easiest to perform. In posttransplant sera from allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients, all methods except com...

  7. Screening analysis of HLA antibodies from male donor population in Xi’an area%西安地区男性献血员 HLA 抗体筛查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安群星; 安宁; 尹文

    2015-01-01

    目的:对西安地区部分男性献血员的HLA抗体进行检测并分析,为提高输血的安全性提供实验数据。方法:随机收集西安地区男性无偿献血者标本224份,采用 ELISA 技术对HLA‐Ⅰ类、HLA‐Ⅱ类抗体进行检测;并对有无输血史献血者HLA抗体产生的差异进行统计学分析。结果:在224例男性献血者中,52例献血者 HLA 抗体阳性(23%)。有输血史男性献血员HLA抗体阳性率(42%)明显高于无输血史男性献血员 HLA 抗体阳性率(6.0%),但是有无输血史对于HLA抗体产生类型没有明显差异。结论:输血可以明显刺激机体产生HLA抗体。将来自于具有输血史献血员的血液制品用于临床时,会增加 TRALI发生的几率,导致患者病死率上升。因此对献血员进行HLA抗体检测对安全输血十分重要。%Objective:To detect and analyze HLA antibody of men donates in Xi'an ,and provide experi‐mental data for improving the security of blood transfusion .Method:Randomly collected serum specimens of 224 men donates ,and tested HLA‐Ⅰ ,HLA‐Ⅱ antibody using ELISA ;Statistical analyze the differences on HLA anti‐bodies between non‐experience of transfusion and experience of transfusion donors .Results :For 224 men donates , HLA antibody of 52 donates were positive (23% ) .The rate of HLA antibody positive of experience of transfusion men donates 42% ) was significantly higher than that of non‐experience of transfusion men donates(6 .0% ) .But there was no significantly difference on HLA antibodies types between non‐experience of transfusion and experience of transfusion men donates .Conclusion:The transfusion could stimulate generation of HLA antibody ,obviously .So the incidence of TRALI and the death rate of patient induced by TRALI may be increased ,because transfusion with blood products from HLA antibody positive donors .So the investigation of frequency and distribution of HLA

  8. The significance of antiphospholipid antibodies in pregnant women with chronic hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, GG; Alexander, JM; McIntire, DD; Leveno, KJ

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform antiphospholipid antibody screening in women with chronic hypertension to assess whether the presence of such antibodies is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Serum for anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant was obtained in pregnant wome

  9. DIAGNOSTIC-VALUE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST RIBOSOMAL PHOSPHOPROTEINS - A CROSS-SECTIONAL AND LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDAM, A; NOSSENT, H; DEJONG, J; MEILOF, J; TERBORG, EJ; SWAAK, T; SMEENK, R

    1991-01-01

    Antibodies against ribosomal phosphoproteins (anti-P antibodies) are found in about 10% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Using an ELISA with a synthetic peptide for screening and an immunoblotting technique as a confirmation test for detection of these antibodies, we found 16 pos

  10. Study on Measurement Threshold of Screening Specific Antibody of Treponema Pallidum with Abbott I 2000sr CMIA Method%雅培I2000sr CMIA法筛查梅毒螺旋体特异性抗体的测量阈值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊继红; 张秀明; 卢建强; 阚丽娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 对梅毒螺旋体特异性抗体筛查结果进行回顾分析,探讨改变雅培I2000sr筛查梅毒螺旋体特异性抗体的Cutoff值的可能.方法 收集经雅培I2000sr检测的梅毒螺旋体特异性抗体阳性标本410例并且记录其S/CO值结果,通过TPPA法做补充试验.结果 通过TPPA法补充试验得出,410例标本中真阳性标本319例,真阳性率为77.8%,其中S/CO值1~2之间真阳性率为19.3%,2~3之间真阳性率为50.0%,3~5之间真阳性率为84.8%,5~7之间真阳性率93.9%,7~10之间真阳性率为97.5%,≥10真阳性标本为100.0%.结论 通过TPPA补充试验得出,S/CO值≥10的标本出现假阳性率为0,S/CO值<10的标本可能出现假阳性.故当仪器检测出的S/CO值≥10无需做补充试验可直接发结果.S/CO值<10时应做TPPA补充试验.此次研究有利于提高实验室筛查梅毒螺旋体特异性抗体报告质量,即可减少发出的假阳性报告.%Objective To analyze retrospectively the results of screening treponema pallidum antibody, and investigate the change of Abbott I2000sr screening of specific antibody of Treponema pallidum Cutoff values. Methods Collected Treponema pallidum antibody positive specimens by Abbott I2000sr screening from 410 patients and recorded the results of S/CO value,and then used the TPPA to do supplementary test. Results Through the TPPA method experiment,410 specimens of true positive specimens from 319 cases of true positive rate was 77. 8% ,in which the S/CO value 1~2 between true positive rate was 19. 3% ,2~3 between true positive rate was 50% ,3~5 between true positive rate was 84. 8% ,5~7 between true positive rate was 93. 9% ,from 7~10 between true positive rate was 97. 5% ,≥10 true positive specimens for 100%. Conclusion By TPPA supplementation experiment,S/CO≥10 specimens appeared a false positive rate of 0,S/CO<10 specimens would be false positive. When the S/CO≥10 without supplemental test results could be directly issued

  11. Are the current attempts at standardization of antiphospholipid antibodies still useful? Emerging technologies signal a shift in direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Laura; Rizzini, Silvia; Allegri, Flavio; Meroni, Pierluigi; Tincani, Angela

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenic role of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) has been widely established over past years in several experimental models and clinical studies. Accordingly, the detection of aPL by immunoassays (anticardiolipin antibodies; anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies) has become a routine practice in the clinical workup of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. aPL are mostly assayed using commercial ELISA kits, whose performance has not been found to be sufficiently concordant among the different manufacturers. In the past years, collaborative groups have spent considerable effort to reach some form of standardization but this process is still ongoing. Such lack of standardization has recently become even more crucial, as manufacturers have had to face an increasing demand for fully automated tests for aPL, like those test systems that have been developed for other autoantibodies (e.g., antinuclear antibodies, anti-ENA antibodies). We therefore report our recent experience with two newly developed automated methods for anticardiolipin antibodies testing. In particular, we discuss the results obtained using routine samples, as we believe that these better reflect the "real-life" situation in which those automated methods will operate. We also mention other emerging technologies in the field of aPL detection.

  12. Donor non-specific MICA antibodies in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapák, Michal; Chreňová, Silvia; Tirpáková, Jana; Žilinská, Zuzana; Ďurmanová, Vladimíra; Shawkatová, Ivana; Jakuš, Vladimír; Kuba, Daniel; Buc, Milan

    2014-02-01

    Despite recent advances in solid organ transplantations, an antibody mediated rejection caused by donor specific antibodies is still a major problem in kidney graft survival. Besides HLA-induced humoral response, antibodies against MICA antigens have recently attracted attention because of their possible role in graft rejection. The aim of our study was to establish whether renal recipients produce antibodies against MICA molecules due to the transplantation and if they are specific for MICA antigens of the donors. MICA antibody screening was performed in 124 kidney recipient sera. 22 sera, that were found to be MICA antibody positive, were further examined for MICA antibody profiles and compared with donor MICA alleles. The analysis of MICA antibody positive sera showed mostly more complex reactivity patterns. A significant fraction of patient sera (59%) reacted not only with the donor MICA antigens, but also with other MICA patterns. A match between antibody specificities and MICA antigens was observed in 41% of renal recipients only. On the other hand, as much as in 36% of recipient sera were detected antibodies against their own MICA molecules. We did not prove a complete correlation between the recipient MICA antibody specificities and MICA antigens of the donor. We assume that MICA antibody induction occurs not only due to the allogeneic stimulation itself but also due to other factors that need to be elucidated.

  13. 抗核抗体及抗核抗体谱的实验检测方法及结果分析%The Analysis of Antinuclear Antibodies and Antinuclear Antibody Spectrum Assay Method and Result of Autoimmune Dis-eases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凤丹; 尹秀杉

    2014-01-01

    Objective :To explore the value and results that using indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblottingto detect ANA and ANAs .Methods :Analysis the 2 317 cases were grouped by age ,sex and the results of ANA and AN‐As .Results:In this 2 317 cases ,the positive of ANA and/or ANAs were 914 cases (39 .4% ) ,women accounted for 77.7% ,males accounted for 22 .3% ,36 years and over age group ,women accounted for 50 .1% ,accounting for 16 .1%of men;ANA positive 740 cases (31 .9% ) ,ANAs tested positive for 723 cases (31 .2% ) ,ANA and ANAs were posi‐tive in 549 cases ,ANA (+ ) and ANAs (+ ) in line with the rate of 74 .2% ,ANA (-) and ANAs (-) compliance rate of 89 .0% ,the overall compliance rate of 84 .2% .Conclusion:Combined detection of ANA and ANAs ,not only can reduce the false‐negative and false‐positive rate ,but also provide the basis for more effective laboratory diagnosis and differential diagnosis of autoimmune disease .%目的:探讨分析实验室采用间接免疫荧光法和免疫印迹法检测ANA和ANAs的结果及价值。方法:对2317例自身抗体受检者的年龄、性别及ANA和ANAs检测结果进行分析。结果:在2317例受检者中,ANA和/或ANAs阳性914例(39.4%),女性占77.7%,男性占22.3%,36岁及以上年龄段,女性占50.1%,男性的占16.1%;A N A阳性740例(31.9%),ANAs阳性723例(31.2%),ANA 和 ANAs 均阳性549例,ANA (+)和 ANAs (+)符合率74.2%,ANA(-)和ANAs(-)符合率89.0%,总体符合率84.2%。结论:联合检测ANA和ANAs ,不仅可以减低假阴性率和假阳性率,而且能为诊断和鉴别诊断自身免疫病提供更有力的实验室依据。

  14. 人源Fab抗体库的构建和抗hPRLR抗体的筛选鉴定%Screening and identification of human Fab antibody against hPRLR from large phage-display library originated from breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈芫; 魏钦俊; 姚俊; 鲁雅洁; 王天明; 曹新; 冯振卿

    2012-01-01

    cWe aim to get specific Fab antibody against human prolactin receptor (hPRLR) from the human Fab antibody library constructed by phage display technology. Human lymphocytes were collected from peripheral blood of 24 breast cancer patients. And then the total RNA was extracted and reversely transcribed to cDNA. Genes of light and heavy chains of human antibody were amplified by RT-PCR to construct anti-hPRLR immunized human antibody library. After three rounds of panning and one round of crossed-panning with against his-hPRLR fusion protein, BSA-polypeptide (epitopes of hPRLR) and GST-hPRLR fusion protein, positive clones were chosen by Phage-ELISA and DNA sequencing. Then the positive clones were transformed into E. coli Top 10' and induced to express antibody protein. The results indicated that the human Fab phage-display library consisting of l.0×l09 clones were successfully constructed, and six clones were selected after four rounds. One of them named FabG2 expressed protein correctly. ELISA and Western blot analysis showed that FabG2 could bind hPRLR specifically. We concluded that the hPRLR specific Fab antibody selected from large phage-display library could be used as candidates for therapy agent of breast cancer which over-expresses hPRLR.%目的 构建人源Fab噬菌体抗体库,筛选抗hPRLR抗体片段并进行初步鉴定.方法 从乳腺癌患者外周血提取总RNA,通过RT-PCR扩增人抗体轻链和重链基因,构建抗hPRLR人源Fab抗体库.分别以His-hPRLR融合蛋白、BSA-hPRLR表位多肽融合蛋白和GST-hPRLR融合蛋白作为抗原包板,经过3轮循环的吸附一洗脱一扩增的筛选及1轮交叉筛选,挑单克隆用Phage-ELISA、DNA测序筛选阳性克隆,将筛选到的阳性克隆Fabc2转化至Top10’受体菌,诱导表达可溶性Fab抗体,通过Western blot和ELISA进行特异性的鉴定.结果 构建的人源Fab库容为1.0×109,4轮的筛选,获得6株能与hPRLR结合的人源抗体克隆.选取的Fabc2能够进行

  15. Anti-nuclear Protest and the Public Acceptance Program in the Republic of Korea: A Sociological Intervention on Anyon Island, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we start with the description of the nature of AMU anti-nuclear protest movement, taking into consideration that the nuclear waste management program is an important political issue as it is linked to the problem of public acceptance of nuclear power. According to nuclear experts, AMU might have been appropriately chosen as the site for radioactive waste management, with a multitude of technical criteria, including site ecology, geology and seismic activity, local population density, land use, and proximity of hazardous facilities. However, anti-nuclear protest from the local population and administration has made it extremely difficult to carry out the government plan to find an acceptable site for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Nuclear power is one of the controversial but most valuable sources of energy production in the future. The first nuclear power station which the Korean nationals have ever has is Kori Plant in Youngness County of Kyongnam Province: it began to be constructed in 1970; and since its completion in 1978, has been under full operation. Since the construction of the first station, eight additional plants have been under either operation or construction. Unfortunately, however, a majority of Korean citizens have extremely imitated access to the information currently available and, as a consequence, they tend to treat nuclear power as the object of great fear and threat. Variations prevail with respect to the perception toward nuclear power, depending upon individuals, groups, and nations. Underlying a presentation of this paper are two propositions, which the World Health Organization had pointed out about 30 years ago: the public will need protection from undue anxieties and fears toward nuclear energy; and any nuclear enterprise will itself need protection from the repercussion aroused by these anxieties and fears, which may impede its work on the local, national, and international level

  16. Structure Based Antibody-Like Peptidomimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I. Greene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biologics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb and soluble receptors represent new classes of therapeutic agents for treatment of several diseases. High affinity and high specificity biologics can be utilized for variety of clinical purposes. Monoclonal antibodies have been used as diagnostic agents when coupled with radionuclide, immune modulatory agents or in the treatment of cancers. Among other limitations of using large molecules for therapy the actual cost of biologics has become an issue. There is an effort among chemists and biologists to reduce the size of biologics which includes monoclonal antibodies and receptors without a reduction of biological efficacy. Single chain antibody, camel antibodies, Fv fragments are examples of this type of deconstructive process. Small high-affinity peptides have been identified using phage screening. Our laboratory used a structure-based approach to develop small-size peptidomimetics from the three-dimensional structure of proteins with immunoglobulin folds as exemplified by CD4 and antibodies. Peptides derived either from the receptor or their cognate ligand mimics the functions of the parental macromolecule. These constrained peptides not only provide a platform for developing small molecule drugs, but also provide insight into the atomic features of protein-protein interactions. A general overview of the reduction of monoclonal antibodies to small exocyclic peptide and its prospects as a useful diagnostic and as a drug in the treatment of cancer are discussed.

  17. Neonatal molecular pathologies induced by maternal anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Esparza R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Maternal antinuclear antibodies with anti-Ro or anti-La specificity might be pathogenic to the fetus and could induce molecular neonatal pathologies, such as neonatal lupus (NL with or without congenital heart block (CHB. The cutaneous manifestations of neonatal lupus appear at birth or a few weeks later, and skin lesions may persist for weeks. While CHB is characterized by intrauterine bradycardia or low heart rates at birth and may persist for months, depending on the degree of blockage. Clinical and experimental data demonstrated that anti-Ro and anti-La autoantibodies functionally inhibit L-type calcium channels and induce abnormalities in electrical conduction of the cardiac myocytes. It has been 38 years since the first clinical description of CHB. Presently, the pathophysiology of CHB has been clarified through clinical and basic research studies.

  18. Screening CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramírez, A.; Hagedoorn, S.; Kramers, L.; Wildenborg, T.; Hendriks, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to screen and rank Dutch reservoirs suitable for long-term large scale CO2 storage. The screening focuses on off- and on-shore individual aquifers, gas and oil fields. In total 176 storage reservoirs have been taken int

  19. The antibody mining toolbox: an open source tool for the rapid analysis of antibody repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Kiss, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput screening methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. The high cost and the need for bioinformatics experts and powerful computer clusters, however, have limited the general use of deep sequencing in antibody selections. Here, we describe the AbMining ToolBox, an open source software package for the straightforward analysis of antibody libraries sequenced by the three main next generation sequencing platforms (454, Ion Torrent, MiSeq). The ToolBox is able to identify heavy chain CDR3s as effectively as more computationally intense software, and can be easily adapted to analyze other portions of antibody variable genes, as well as the selection outputs of libraries based on different scaffolds. The software runs on all common operating systems (Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux), on standard personal computers, and sequence analysis of 1-2 million reads can be accomplished in 10-15 min, a fraction of the time of competing software. Use of the ToolBox will allow the average researcher to incorporate deep sequence analysis into routine selections from antibody display libraries. PMID:24423623

  20. Analysis of positive anti-ENA antibodies comparing with their antinuclear antibodies in serum%抗可提取性核抗原抗体与抗核抗体的对照分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨抗可提取性核抗原(ENA)多肽抗体不同项目阳性时与抗核抗体(ANA)之间的相关性.方法 对比分析 323例抗ENA抗体(抗U1-nRNP、Sm、SS-A、SS-B、Scl-70和Jo-1抗体)阳性病例的多肽谱类型与其304例ANA阳性核型.结果 抗ENA抗体类型不同,ANA荧光核型有很大差别,没有绝对的规律可言.结论 不能简单地依据荧光核型来推断抗ENA抗体的具体类型.

  1. Construction and screening of phage display single chain antibody library against histidine-rich protein Ⅱ of Plasmodium falciparum%抗恶性疟原虫富含组氨酸蛋白Ⅱ单链抗体库的构建及筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯云霞; 董文其; 徐伟文; 王萍; 陈白虹; 李明

    2001-01-01

    Objective To construct phage display single-chain antibody fragments (scFvs) library against histidine-rich protein Ⅱ (HRP-Ⅱ) of Plasmodium falciparum and select specific scFvs of anti- HRP-Ⅱ for the purpose of malaria diagnosis. Method The genes of variable fragments of heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) were gained from the spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with HRP-Ⅱ protein. The VH and VL genes were then assembled by the method of splicing overlapping extension and cloned into phagemid vector pCANTAB 5E. The scFv phage antibodies were expressed at the surface of the phage after the rescue by helper phage M13K07. HRP- Ⅱ protein was used as antigenic reagent for panning and screening. Results The total RNA from the spleen cells was isolated, and cDNA obtained and VH and VL gene regions amplified using PCR. The VH and VL gene regions were combined with a flexible linker ligated into the pCANTAB 5E phagemid vector, and transformed into TG1 Escherichia coli. The repertoire of the phage antibody was about 106. After panning and screening, 8 positive clones expressed scFv antibodies which were specific for HPR-Ⅱ as demonstrated by ELISA. Conclusion Phage display technology can be used as a powerful tool in making scFv antibodies which have the potential to be used as reagents in the diagnosis and therapy of malaria.%目的构建抗恶性疟原虫富含组氨酸蛋白Ⅱ(Histidine- rich protein II, HRP-II)单链抗体库,并筛选出阳性克隆。方法用噬菌体抗体库技术构建抗恶性疟原虫HRP-Ⅱ单链抗体库,并以HRP-Ⅱ为靶抗原对该库进行了三轮"亲和吸附-援救-感染扩增"的富集,挑取单菌落筛选并鉴定阳性克隆。结果获得目的基因并成功构建抗恶性疟原虫HRP-Ⅱ的单链抗体库,库容为106,并从中筛选出8株阳性克隆。结论噬菌体抗体库技术具有高效的筛选性能,抗 HRP-Ⅱ单链抗体的制备为其在恶性疟的免疫快速诊断方法中的应用奠定了基础。

  2. Transfusion management of patients with red blood cell antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujandrić Nevenka B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Red blood cell antibodies may cause a positive result of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing (crossmatch test. It can be a problem to provide suitable blood units for patients with clinically significant antibodies to high-frequency antigens as well as for those with multiple alloantibody specificities. This study was aimed at identifying transfused patients in the population of South-Backa who had developed clinically significant red blood cell alloantibodies. Material and methods. We analyzed the records of crossmatch results and antibody screening performed at the Blood Transfusion Institute of Vojvodina during 2012. Results. Antibodies were found in 103 patients: A 63 patients with single antibodies: 1 16 with antibodies of unknown specificity (3 autoantibodies, 13 alloantibodies; 2 39 with clinically significant antibodies (23 from Rh system (2 anti-C, 2 anti-D, 12 anti-E, 7 anti-c, 4 anti-K, 3 anti-Fya, 7 anti-Jka, 2 anti-S; 3 8 with usually not significant antibodies (6 anti-M, 1 anti-A1, 1 anti- Cw; B 40 patients developed multiple antibodies: 1 all patients had at least one clinically significant antibody from various blood group system (44 Rh, 13 Kell, 7 Kidd, 7 MNSs (S, s; 2 3 patients had usually not significant antibodies (1 Lewis, 2 Lutheran; 3 3 patients occasionally had clinically significant antibody (3 anti- Yta; 4 3 patients had antibodies of unknown specificity (2 autoantibodies, 1alloantibody. Antibodies detected in the majority of patients (65-63.1% had a specificity of Rh and/or the Kell system. Conclusions. The main goal of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing is to detect clinically significant antibodies. The provision of antigen negative blood units for those patients is a special challenge for blood establishments. Database with a sufficient number of typed blood donors can help to resolve this problem.

  3. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  4. Generation and characterization of novel stromal specific antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts were used as an immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies selected for their reactivity with stromal cell antigens. Mice were immunised with low passage whole cell preparations and the subsequent hybridomas were screened by immunohistochemistry on rheumatoid synovium and tonsil sections. The aim was to identify those antibodies that recognised antigens that were restricted to stromal cells and were not expressed on CD45 positive leucocytes. A significant number of antibodies detected antigen that identified endothelial cells. These antibodies were further characterised to determine whether the vessels identified by these antibodies were vascular or lymphatic.From five fusions clones were identified with predominant reactivity with: 1) fibroblasts and endothelial cells; or 2)broad stromal elements (fibroblast, endothelium, epithelium, follicular dendritic cells). A fibroblast-specific antibody that did not also identify vessels was not generated. Examples of each reactivity pattern are discussed.

  5. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  6. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ionizing radiation for security screening individuals [online]. Health Physics Society Position Statement. 2009. Available at http: / / hps. org/ documents/ securityscreening_ ps017- 1. pdf. Accessed 7 January 2011. Interagency Steering Committee on ...

  7. Monoclonal antibodies and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and treatment of human (ovarian) cancer was investigated. A review of tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies is presented. Special attention is given to factors that influence the localization of the antibodies in tumors, isotope choice and methods of radiolabeling of the monoclonal antibodies. Two monoclonal antibodies, OC125 and OV-TL3, with high specificity for human epithelial ovarian cancer are characterized. A simple radio-iodination technique was developed for clinical application of the monoclonal antibodies. The behavior of monoclonal antibodies in human tumor xenograft systems and in man are described. Imaging of tumors is complicated because of high background levels of radioactivity in other sites than the tumor, especially in the bloodpool. A technique was developed to improve imaging of human tumor xenographs in nude mice, using subtraction of a specific and a non-specific antibody, radiolabeled with 111In, 67Ga and 131I. To investigate the capability of the two monoclonal antibodies, to specifically localize in human ovarian carcinomas, distribution studies in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma xenografts were performed. One of the antibodies, OC125, was used for distribution studies in ovarian cancer patients. OC125 was used because of availability and approval to use this antibody in patients. The same antibody was used to investigate the usefulness of radioimmunoimaging in ovarian cancer patients. The interaction of injected radiolabeled antibody OC125 with circulating antigen and an assay to measure the antibody response in ovarian cancer patients after injection of the antibody is described. 265 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  8. Cardiolipin and β₂-Glycoprotein I antibodies associate with cognitive impairment and seizure frequency in developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, K A; Peltola, J; Liimatainen, S; Haapala, A-M; Arvio, M

    2011-07-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) and β(2)-Glycoprotein I (β(2)-GpI) antibodies have been shown to associate with various neurological symptoms including seizures and cognitive dysfunction. Here we studied the prevalence of CL, β(2)-GpI and antinuclear (ANA) antibodies in 74 patients with various developmental disorders with epilepsy and 70 healthy controls. Developmental disorders were classified into genetic syndromes and diseases, genetic and/or acquired conditions, cortical dysgenesias and acquired encephalopathias. IgM-CL and β(2)-GpI antibodies were significantly more common in patients (46% vs. 20%, p<0.001 and 10% vs. 0%, p<0.05). Patients with most frequent seizures were more likely to have IgM-CL antibodies. The risk for positive IgM-CL, IgG-CL and β(2)-GpI antibodies increased concomitantly with increasing intellectual disability. Present data demonstrates that epilepsy with frequently recurring seizures may be associated with secondary immune system activation. PMID:21377902

  9. Screening of neutralizing antibody titers against enterovirus 71 in human intravenous immunoglobulin ( pH 4 )%静注人免疫球蛋白(pH4)中肠道病毒71型中和抗体效价的筛查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏力; 王威; 孙思才; 丁勇; 侯继锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the neutralizing antibody titers against enterovirus 71 (EV71) in commercial human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)(pH 4) and experimental intravenous EV71 immunoglobulin,and provide a basis for further passive immunotherapy of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Methods The neutralizing antibody titers against EV71 in domestic 1VIG (pH 4) and in experimental intravenous EV71 immunoglobulin prepared with screened raw plasma were determined by microcytopathic effect (micro-CPE) method with two virus strains in two laboratories. Results The neutralizing antibody titers of 55 batches of domestic IVIG manufactured by 17 manufacturers determined with strain-01 in laboratory A were 104 ~ 256,of which 23. 64% (13/55) were not less than 239,12. 73% (7/55) were not less than 256,while the GMTs of neutralizing antibodies of 3 batches of experimental intravenous EV71 immunoglobulin were 1 203. However,the GMTs of neutralizing antibody against EV71 in 3 batches of experimental intravenous EV71 immunoglobulin (1 402) determined with strain-01 in NIFDC laboratory were significantly higher than those of 12 batches of IVIG manufactured by 8 manufacturers (P 0. 05). Conclusion All the neutralizing antibody against EV71 in domestic IVIG manufactured by various manufacturers were positive,of which the titers ranged from 104 to 630. However,the neutralizing antibody titers against EV71 in intravenous EV71 immunoglobulin prepared with the screened plasma were significantly higher than those in IVIG.%目的 对目前市售静注人免疫球蛋白(Human intravenous immunoglobulin,简称IVIG)(pH 4)以及静注肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus71,EV71)免疫球蛋白试验品中的EV71中和抗体效价进行筛查,为手足口病(Hand-foot-mouth disease,HFMD)的被动免疫治疗提供参考.方法 采用微量细胞病变法,在2个实验室,采用2个毒株检测国内IVIG产品以及经原料血浆筛查后制备的静注EV71免疫球蛋白试验品的EV71

  10. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  11. Comparison of immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoglobulin G avidity techniques for screening of anti: Toxoplasma antibodies among single serum sample pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Rajaii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital toxoplasmosis is that pregnant women acquire the infection during gestation; diagnosis of the acute infection during pregnancy is a complex subject of maternal toxoplasmosis. Thus, the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG and/or IgM Toxoplasma antibodies in a single serum sample drawn during gestation cannot be used to define whether the infection was recently acquired or chronic. Materials and Methods: At this cross-sectional descriptive study, sera of 391 pregnant women examined and compared. They were in an age range of 21-35 years, referred by gynecologists and infectious disease specialists, during March 2012-April 2013. They have referred, 215 (54.98%, 102 (26%, 74 (18.92% in the first, second and third trimesters of gestation, respectively. For each of them, a questionnaire was completed and serum samples were prepared in an equal condition, examined according to the procedures of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and IgG Avidity techniques. Results: We have found 111 (28.38% seronegative and 280 (71.61% seropositive cases by IIF and 124 (31.70% seronegative, 267 (68.28% seropositive cases by ELISA. The IgG avidity test confirmed 45 (69.23% and 7 (10.76% doubtful cases of IgM test in IIF and ELISA techniques. Conclusions: This study highlights how to manage pregnant women with toxoplasmosis, especially in a single serum sample condition.

  12. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  13. Construction of human naive phage antibody library and primary screening of the gab antibodies against gp96%人天然噬菌体抗体库的构建及抗gp96抗体的初步筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小兵; 畅继武; 李成文; 李慧忠; 王馨

    2009-01-01

    Objective To construct a naive human Fab fragment phage display library,from which the anti-gp96 antibodies may be panned by the gp96 purified from the tissue of urothelial carcinoma in the urinary bladder and provide a basis to new therapy for the malignant tumors.Methods Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 800 ml of blood,which was obtained from four healthy blood donors.The heavy chain Fd and light chain cDNA synthesized from the total RNA of lympbocytes were amplified by PCR with variable regions 5' and 3' primers of heavy and light chain, and the amplification products were ligated into the phagemid vector pComb3, then the ligated sample was transformed into competent E.coli XL1-Blue by electroperation.The transformed cells were infected with VCSM13 helper phage to yield recombinant phage antibody Fabs.The phagemids abstracted from amplified E.coli were cut with endonucleases such as Sac Ⅰ,Xba Ⅰ,Xho Ⅰ and Spe Ⅰ, and both the phage antibody Fabs and phage-raids abstracted from amplified E.coil were amplified by PCR to monitor the insertion of the genes of light chain or heavy chain Fd fragment.The gp96 purified from the urothelial carcinoma tissue of the bladder by affinity chromatog-raphy on eoncanavalin-A sephnrose and DEAE-sephnrose ion exchange chromatography were utilized as antigens to process three rounds of panning to the original Fab antibody library.Results The quantity of total RNA and cDNA were qualified.By combination of light chain and heavy chain genes, an antibody library containing 6.6×106 clones was obtained, and both the cutting of enzymes and PCR showed that there were the genes of light chain or heavy chain Fd fragment in the phagemids.The gp96 protein was obtained from urothelial carcinoma tissue in the urinary bladder.After having been panned by gp96, the original antibody library gained enrichment by 68 times.Conclusion Utilizing the technology of phage surface display, specific antibody can be gained from the human

  14. Antibody Discovery via Multiplexed Single Cell Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Harriman, William D.; Collarini, Ellen J.; Sperinde, Gizette V.; Strandh, Magnus; Fatholahi, Marjan M.; Dutta, April; Lee, Yunji; Mettler, Shelley E.; Keyt, Bruce A.; Ellsworth, Stote L.; Kauvar, Lawrence M.

    2008-01-01

    The secreted immunoglobulin footprint of single hybridoma cells, containing ~10 fg of antibody purified in situ, has been probed for 9 properties concurrently by use of detection labels comprising 280 nm combinatorially colored fluorescent latex beads functionalized with proteins. Specificity of each individual hybridoma cell’s product has thereby been assessed in a primary screen. Varying the density of antigen on beads to modulate the avidity of the interaction between bead and secreted ant...

  15. Drug-induced hepatitis superimposed on the presence of anti-SLA antibody: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etxagibel Aitziber

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis is a necroinflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, and response to immunosuppression. It has the histological features of chronic hepatitis. The onset is usually insidious, but in some patients the presentation may be acute and occasionally severe. Certain drugs can induce chronic hepatitis mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Different autoantibodies have been associated with this process but they are not detectable after drug withdrawal and clinical resolution. Case presentation We describe a case of drug-induced acute hepatitis associated with antinuclear, antisoluble liver-pancreas and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies in a 66-year-old woman. Abnormal clinical and biochemical parameters resolved after drug withdrawal, but six months later anti-soluble liver-pancreas antibodies remained positive and liver biopsy showed chronic hepatitis and septal fibrosis. Furthermore, our patient has a HLA genotype associated with autoimmune hepatitis. Conclusion Patient follow-up will disclose whether our patient suffers from an autoimmune disease and if the presence of anti-soluble liver antigens could precede the development of an autoimmune hepatitis, as the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies can precede primary biliary cirrhosis.

  16. Epidemiological investigation of syphilis antibody screening results of Bei-jing non-remunerated donors%北京市无偿献血人群梅毒抗体筛查结果调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 袁曜; 孙莉; 葛红卫; 戴云; 修冰水

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide the basis for recruiting strategy adjustment by analyzing the epidemiological status of syphilis infection of unpaid blood donors in Beijing downtown. Methods Anti-TP test results of unpaid blood donors were analyzed and then hierarchical retrospective investigation were performed according to gender, age, occupation, edu-cational level, blood donation and organization way of blood donation on these results during 1 January 2007 to 31 De-cember 2011 in Beijing Red Cross Blood Center. Results 4923 cases of positive anti-TP were screened that accounted for 0.462% in all the 1 065 177 non-remunerated donors. Positive screening rate of female was more than male (χ2=27.84, P others > workers >staff > students in order; a statistically significant difference also existed in the positive rate of different"cultural levels donors" ,"donation type"and"blood donation organizations form" (P其他>工人>职员>学生;不同文化程度、不同献血形式以及不同献血组织形式献血人群的检测结果差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05),机采项目的抗梅毒螺旋体检测阳性率高于全血,高中以下人群和家庭互助人群的阳性率最高。结论献血者选择过程的质量控制是招募安全血源的重要环节,根据本地献血人群的特点,应选择低危的、具有较高文化程度的年轻人和学生,积极引导他们成为固定献血者。同时,提高检测效能进一步保证血液安全。

  17. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self- ...

  18. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  19. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  20. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  1. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen-...... for combating HER2+ breast cancer. © 2013 by Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.......Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen......-binding fragments in cancer targeting and therapy. VHHs express low immunogenicity, are highly robust and easy to manufacture and have the ability to recognize hidden or uncommon epitopes. We highlight the utility of VHH in design of new molecular, multifunctional particulate and immune cell-based systems...

  2. Engineering antibody therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mark L; Gilliland, Gary L

    2016-06-01

    The successful introduction of antibody-based protein therapeutics into the arsenal of treatments for patients has within a few decades fostered intense innovation in the production and engineering of antibodies. Reviewed here are the methods currently used to produce antibodies along with how our knowledge of the structural and functional characterization of immunoglobulins has resulted in the engineering of antibodies to produce protein therapeutics with unique properties, both biological and biophysical, that are leading to novel therapeutic approaches. Antibody engineering includes the introduction of the antibody combining site (variable regions) into a host of architectures including bi and multi-specific formats that further impact the therapeutic properties leading to further advantages and successes in patient treatment. PMID:27525816

  3. Current screens

    OpenAIRE

    Cubitt, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of screen design, including LCD, LED and DLP projection, is analysed in terms of the political economy and their aesthetics and phenomenological impacts, in association with the use of codecs as constraining as well as enabling tools in the control and management of visual data transmission.

  4. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  5. Antibody Detection and Kinetics of Antibody Production during Early Stages of Immunization with Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine▿

    OpenAIRE

    Odinsen, Odd; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Dompreh, Albert; Sarkodie, Francis; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Parker, David; Allain, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Antibodies to influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus are detectable in B cells during the early stages of the immune response, prior to their occurrence in plasma. To investigate similar phenomena in a model of immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, medical students in Ghana were screened for HBV markers, HBV surface (HBs) antigen (HBsAg), and HBV core antibodies (anti-HBc). Consenting volunteers, 24 of whom were seronegative (susceptible) and 2 of whom were positiv...

  6. Antibody Reactivity of B Cells in Lupus Patients with Increased Disease Activity and ARID3a Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Ward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies showed that the DNA-binding protein, Bright/ARID3a bound to a subset of human and mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain promoters where it enhanced expression. Indeed, mice with transgenic expression of ARID3a in all B lymphocytes have expanded MZ B cells and produce anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs. Consistent with our findings in mice, we observed that human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients had expanded numbers of peripheral blood ARID3a+ B cells that were associated with increased disease activity (p = 0.0038. We hypothesized that ARID3a+ naïve B cells would eventually produce autoantibodies, explaining associations between ARID3a expression and disease activity in lupus. Unlike healthy controls, ARID3a was expressed in the naïve B cell population in SLE patients, and we hypothesized that these might represent expansions of autoreactive cells. Therefore, monoclonal antibodies were generated from single-sorted naïve B cells derived from patients with normal (ARID3aN and high (ARID3aH numbers of ARID3a+ B cells. We found that ARID3a expression did not correlate with autoantibody expression. Furthermore, measures of antigen specificities of autoreactive antibodies did not reveal skewing toward particular proteins. These data suggest that the association of increased disease activity in SLE with numbers of ARID3a+ B lymphocytes may be mediated by an antibody-independent mechanism.

  7. The association of anti-annexin1 antibodies with the occurrence of skin lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Z; Shi, Z-R; Tan, G-Z; Yin, J; Wu, J; Mi, X-B; Wang, L

    2014-02-01

    Anti-annexin1 antibodies are associated with the subtypes of cutaneous lupus and are elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation of this antibody with the incidence of SLE skin lesions. The presence of anti-annexin1-IgG and-IgM determined by Western blot was no different among healthy controls and SLE patients with and without skin lesions. Serum levels of anti-annexin1-IgG and -IgM measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were comparable between patients with and without skin lesions, whereas anti-annexin1-IgM was lower in SLE patients than in healthy controls. Annexin1 was abundantly detected in each epidermal layer in lupus lesional skin. Additionally, anti-annexin1-IgG was higher in SLE patients with arthritis and negatively correlated with white blood cells (WBC). Anti-annexin1-IgM was higher in patients with antinuclear antibody (ANA)-positive sera, and was positively related to hemoglobin and total serum IgM. Collectively, anti-annexin1 antibodies are not related to the incidence of skin lesions in SLE, and annexin1 abundantly distributes in epidermis in lesional skin.

  8. Rapid isolation of antibody from a synthetic human antibody library by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Sun Yim

    Full Text Available Antibodies and their derivatives are the most important agents in therapeutics and diagnostics. Even after the significant progress in the technology for antibody screening from huge libraries, it takes a long time to isolate an antibody, which prevents a prompt action against the spread of a disease. Here, we report a new strategy for isolating desired antibodies from a combinatorial library in one day by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. First, we constructed a library of synthetic human antibody in which single-chain variable fragment (scFv was expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. After labeling the cells with fluorescent antigen probes, the highly fluorescent cells were sorted by using a high-speed cell sorter, and these cells were reused without regeneration in the next round of sorting. After repeating this sorting, the positive clones were completely enriched in several hours. Thus, we screened the library against three viral antigens, including the H1N1 influenza virus, Hepatitis B virus, and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Finally, the potential antibody candidates, which show K(D values between 10 and 100 nM against the target antigens, could be successfully isolated even though the library was relatively small (∼ 10(6. These results show that repeated FACS screening without regeneration of the sorted cells can be a powerful method when a rapid response to a spreading disease is required.

  9. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-labeled antibody test for the rapid detection of hog cholera antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microtechnique for the screening of swine for hog cholera antibodies was developed and evaluated with a blind study, using a 640-sample hog cholera serum bank. The total time to run a group of 22 samples was approximately 1 hour. The ELA test results correlated >99% with hog cholera serum-neutralization test results on the same serums. Test results also indicated that the ELA test shares with the hog cholera serum-neutralization test the problem of cross reactions between the antibodies of hog cholera and bovine viral diarrhea.

  10. Hepatitis C Screening in People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Lessons Learned From Syphilis Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Wurcel, Alysse G.; Chen, Daniel D.; Fitzpatrick, Rosemary E.; Grasberger, Paula E.; Kirshner, Caleb H.; Anderson, Jordan E.; Chui, Kenneth K. H.; Knox, Tamsin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). New guidelines recommend annual screening for HCV, similar to recommendations for syphilis screening with rapid plasma reagin (RPR). Methods.  This study compares the frequency of repeat HCV antibody (Ab) testing to repeat RPR testing in a retrospective chart review of 359 HCVAb-negative people living with HIV (PLWH) observed in an Infec...

  11. Combining Phage and Yeast Cell Surface Antibody Display to Identify Novel Cell Type-Selective Internalizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Using phage antibody display, large libraries can be generated and screened to identify monoclonal antibodies with affinity for target antigens. However, while library size and diversity is an advantage of the phage display method, there is limited ability to quantitatively enrich for specific binding properties such as affinity. One way of overcoming this limitation is to combine the scale of phage display selections with the flexibility and quantitativeness of FACS-based yeast surface display selections. In this chapter we describe protocols for generating yeast surface antibody display libraries using phage antibody display selection outputs as starting material and FACS-based enrichment of target antigen-binding clones from these libraries. These methods should be widely applicable for the identification of monoclonal antibodies with specific binding properties. PMID:26060069

  12. Selection of Recombinant Human Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomszak, Florian; Weber, Susanne; Zantow, Jonas; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael; Frenzel, André

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of therapeutic antibodies the demand of recombinant human antibodies is steadily increasing. Traditionally, therapeutic antibodies were generated by immunization of rat or mice, the generation of hybridoma clones, cloning of the antibody genes and subsequent humanization and engineering of the lead candidates. In the last few years, techniques were developed that use transgenic animals with a human antibody gene repertoire. Here, modern recombinant DNA technologies can be combined with well established immunization and hybridoma technologies to generate already affinity maturated human antibodies. An alternative are in vitro technologies which enabled the generation of fully human antibodies from antibody gene libraries that even exceed the human antibody repertoire. Specific antibodies can be isolated from these libraries in a very short time and therefore reduce the development time of an antibody drug at a very early stage.In this review, we describe different technologies that are currently used for the in vitro and in vivo generation of human antibodies. PMID:27236551

  13. Anti-insulin antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... You appear to have an allergic response to insulin Insulin no longer seems to control your diabetes

  14. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  15. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  16. Autism Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Screening and Diagnosis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... two steps: Developmental Screening Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation Developmental Screening Developmental screening is a short test to tell ...

  17. Risk factors for the presence of non-rhesus D red blood cell antibodies in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Koelewijn; T.G.M. Vrijkotte; M. de Haas; C.E. van der Schoot; G.J. Bonsel

    2009-01-01

    To identify risk factors for the presence of non-rhesus D (RhD) red blood cell (RBC) antibodies in pregnancy. To generate evidence for subgroup RBC antibody screening and for primary prevention by extended matching of transfusions in women < 45 years. Case-control study. Nationwide evaluation of scr

  18. Utility of feline coronavirus antibody tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addie, Diane D; le Poder, Sophie; Burr, Paul; Decaro, Nicola; Graham, Elizabeth; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Jarrett, Oswald; McDonald, Michael; Meli, Marina L

    2015-02-01

    Eight different tests for antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) were evaluated for attributes that are important in situations in veterinary practice. We compared four indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT), one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (FCoV Immunocomb; Biogal) and three rapid immunochromatographic (RIM) tests against a panel of samples designated by consensus as positive or negative. Specificity was 100% for all but the two IFATs based on transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), at 83.3% and 97.5%. The IFAT and ELISA tests were best for obtaining an antibody titre and for working in the presence of virus. The RIM tests were the best for obtaining a result quickly (10-15 mins); of these, the Speed F-Corona was the most sensitive, at 92.4%, followed by FASTest feline infectious peritonitis (FIP; 84.6%) and Anigen Rapid FCoV antibody test (64.1%). Sensitivity was 100% for the ELISA, one FCoV IFAT and one TGEV IFAT; and 98.2% for a second TGEV IFA and 96.1% for a second FCoV IFAT. All tests worked with effusions, even when only blood products were stipulated in the instruction manual. The ELISA and Anigen RIM tests were best for small quantities of sample. The most appropriate FCoV antibody test to use depends on the reason for testing: in excluding a diagnosis of FIP, sensitivity, specificity, small sample quantity, rapidity and ability to work in the presence of virus all matter. For FCoV screening, speed and sensitivity are important, and for FCoV elimination antibody titre is essential. PMID:24966245

  19. Profiling anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebo Anne E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA, have high specificity for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Some children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, phenotypically resemble RA and test positive for rheumatoid factor (RF a characteristic biomarker of RA. We investigated the prevalence of ACPA and its relationship to other serologic markers associated with RA in a well-characterized JIA cohort. Methods Cases were 334 children with JIA, 30 of whom had RF + polyarticular JIA. Sera from all cases and 50 healthy pediatric controls were investigated by ELISA at a single time point for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP IgG, RF IgM, IgA and IgG, anti-RA33 IgG, and antinuclear antibodies (ANA. Comparisons between cases and controls were made using Chi-square or Fisher exact tests and T-tests. Results The prevalence of RF was 8% among controls, and 12% among cases (ns. The prevalence of ACPA was 2% in controls and 14.3% in cases (OR 8.2, p Conclusions ACPAs are detectable in 14% of children with JIA. Children with positive ACPA but negative RF are frequent, and may define a distinct subset of children with JIA. ACPA testing should be included in the classification of JIA.

  20. Prevalence Of Hepatitis C Antibodies In Healthy Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Nalini; Kumar Amarjit

    2002-01-01

    Research question : What is the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in healthy blood donors? Objective: To screen the blood donors for HCV antibodies routinely. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Deptt. of Transfusion Medicine, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. Participants: Healthy blood donors. Statistical analysis: Prevalence rate. Results: Prevalence of anti HCV was found to be 1.5%, which is quite high.

  1. Anti-cartilage antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, C L; Skingle, J

    1979-08-01

    Antibody to cartilage has been demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence on rat trachea in the serum of about 3% of 1126 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:640. The antibody was not found in 284 patients with primary or secondary osteoarthritis or in 1825 blood donors, nor, with the exception of two weak reactors, in 1314 paraplegic patients. In most cases the antibody appears to be specific for native type II collagen. Using this as an antigen in a haemagglutination test 94% of anti-cartilage sera were positive, whereas among 100 rheumatoid control sera there were only three weak positives. More than 80% of patients with antibody had some erosion of articular cartilage, but there was no correlation with age, sex, duration of disease, nor any recognisable clinical event or change.

  2. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  3. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transg...

  4. Developing recombinant antibodies for biomarker detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Fischer, Christopher J.; Pefaur, Noah B.; Miller, Keith D.; Kagen, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.

    2010-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have an essential role in biomarker validation and diagnostic assays. A barrier to pursuing these applications is the reliance on immunization and hybridomas to produce mAbs, which is time-consuming and may not yield the desired mAb. We recommend a process flow for affinity reagent production that utilizes combinatorial protein display systems (eg, yeast surface display or phage display) rather than hybridomas. These systems link a selectable phenotype-binding conferred by an antibody fragment-with a means for recovering the encoding gene. Recombinant libraries obtained from immunizations can produce high-affinity antibodies (<10 nM) more quickly than other methods. Non-immune libraries provide an alternate route when immunizations are not possible, or when suitable mAbs are not recovered from an immune library. Directed molecular evolution (DME) is an integral part of optimizing mAbs obtained from combinatorial protein display, but can also be used on hybridoma-derived mAbs. Variants can easily be obtained and screened to increase the affinity of the parent mAb (affinity maturation). We discuss examples where DME has been used to tailor affinity reagents to specific applications. Combinatorial protein display also provides an accessible method for identifying antibody pairs, which are necessary for sandwich-type diagnostic assays.

  5. Triagem sorológica de familiares de pacientes com doença celíaca: anticorpos anti-endomísio, antitransglutaminase ou ambos? Serological screening of relatives of celiac disease patients: antiendomysium antibodies, anti-tissue transglutaminase or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Ramos da Rosa Utiyama

    2007-06-01

    -negativas. O impacto desse fato implica que tais familiares deixarão de ser submetidos a biopsia intestinal para confirmação do diagnóstico da doença, e conseqüentemente, ao tratamento adequado e precoce.BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is the most common intestinal disorder of caucasian populations and presents a prevalence of 8% to 18% between the relatives of patients. The anti-endomysial (IgA-EmA and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG have represented an important non invasive and sensitivity method of screening and diagnosis of celiac disease in risk groups and populations. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of IgA-EmA and IgA-tTG antibodies in relatives of celiac patients and verify the degree of concordance between them. METHODS: One hundred and seventy seven relatives of celiac patients (76(feminino; 101(masculino; 2-79 years and 93 healthy individuals were evaluated (34(feminino; 59(masculino; 2-71 years. IgA-EmA were detected by indirect immunofluorescence, with human umbilical cord as substrate, while anti-IgA-tTG titers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, using commercial kit. RESULTS: Total positivity to antibodies in relatives of celiac patients was of 21% (37/177, and showed significant difference compared to control group (0%; 0/93. Twelve percent (21/177 of celiac disease relatives were positive to IgA-EmA, 13.56% (24/177 to IgA-tTG, and 4.52% (8/177 to both assays simultaneously. The concordance between both methods was 83.6% (148/177 and the discordance was 16.4% (29/177, with a positive and significant correlation (r = 0.435. Among the concordant results, 79.1% (140/177 were negative and 4.52% (8/177 were positive to both antibodies. Among the discordant results, 7.34% (13/177 were positive to IgA-EmA and negative to IgA-tTG, while 9.04% (16/177 were negative to IgA- EmA and positive to IgA-tTG. CONCLUSION: Although the high positivity to IgA-EmA and IgA-tTG emphasizes the importance of the serological screening in

  6. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi;

    2014-01-01

    for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  7. Human single chain antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor: gene cloning, high-level expression, affinity maturation and bioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎锡蕴[1; 汤健[2; 吴小平[3; 王凤采[4; 李建生[5; 杨东玲[6

    2000-01-01

    Using antibody phage display technique, a human single chain antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been cloned. The antibody expression reached 45% of the total bacterial proteins. The purification and refolding of the antibody were completed in one step by using gel filtration chromatograph. ELISA analysis showed that the antibody not only specifically bound to human VEGF, but also competitively inhibited VEGF reacting with its receptors. In order to raise the affinity of the single chain antibody, its heavy chain variable region was randomly mutated using error-prone PCR and an antibody mutant library was constructed, from which a mutant with higher affinity was screened out. The three-dimensional structure and binding affinity of wild type and mutant antibody were compared. Our study provided a potential reagent for tumor angiogenic therapy and a significant model for antibody high-level expression and affinity maturation.

  8. Human single chain antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor:gene cloning, high-level expression, affinity maturation and bioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using antibody phage display technique,a human single chain antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been cloned.The antibody expression reached 45% of the total bacterial proteins.The purification and refolding of the antibody were completed in one step by using gel filtration chromatograph.ELISA analysis showed that the antibody not only specifically bound to human VEGF,but also competitively inhibited VEGF reacting with its receptors.In order to raise the affinity of the single chain antibody,its heavy chain variable region was randomly mutated using error-prone PCR and an antibody mutant library was constructed,from which a mutant with higher affinity was screened out.The three-dimensional structure and binding affinity of wild type and mutant antibody were compared.Our study provided a potential reagent for tumor angiogenic therapy and a significant model for antibody high-level expression and affinity maturation.

  9. Engineering antibodies for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Jiang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The advent of modern antibody engineering has led to numerous successes in the application of these proteins for cancer therapy in the 13 years since the first Food and Drug Administration approval, which has stimulated active interest in developing more and better drugs based on these molecules. A wide range of tools for discovering and engineering antibodies has been brought to bear on this challenge in the past two decades. Here, we summarize mechanisms of monoclonal antibody therapeutic activity, challenges to effective antibody-based treatment, existing technologies for antibody engineering, and current concepts for engineering new antibody formats and antibody alternatives as next generation biopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment.

  10. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to Coenzyme A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malanchuk O. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Generation of monoclonal antibodies specific to Coenzyme A. Methods. Hybridoma technique. KLH carrier protein conjugated with CoA was used for immunization. Screening of positive clones was performed with BSA conjugated to CoA. Results. Monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes CoA and CoA derivatives, but not its precursors ATP and cysteine has been generated. Conclusion. In this study, we describe for the first time the production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against CoA. The monoclonal antibody 1F10 was shown to recognize specifically CoA in Western blotting, ELISA and immunoprecipitation. These properties make this antiboby a particularly valuable reagent for elucidating CoA function in health and disease.

  11. Modification and identification of a vector for making a large phage antibody library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-min; CHEN Yü-ping; GUAN Yuan-zhi; WANG Yan; AN Yun-qing

    2007-01-01

    Background The large phage antibody library is used to obtain high-affinity human antibody, and the Loxp/cre site-specific recombination system is a potential method for constructing a large phage antibody library. In the present study, a phage antibody library vector pDF was reconstructed to construct diabody more quickly and conveniently without injury to homologous recombination and the expression function of the vector and thus to integrate construction of the large phage antibody library with the preparation of diabodies.Methods scFv was obtained by overlap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with the newly designed VL and VH extension primers. loxp511 was flanked by VL and VH and the endonuclease ACC Ⅲ encoding sequences were introduced on both sides of loxp511. scFv was cloned into the vector pDF to obtain the vector pDscFv. The vector expression function was identified and the feasibility of diabody preparation was evaluated. A large phage antibody library was constructed in pDscFv. Several antigens were used to screen the antibody library and the quality of the antibody library was evaluated.Results The phage antibody library expression vector pDscFv was successfully constructed and confirmed to express functional scFv. The large phage antibody library constructed using this vector was of high diversity. Screening of the library on 6 antigens confirmed the generation of specific antibodies to these antigens. Two antibodies were subjected to enzymatic digestion and were prepared into diabody with functional expression.Conclusions The reconstructed vector pDscFv retains its recombination capability and expression function and can be used to construct large phage antibody libraries. It can be used as a convenient and quick method for preparing diabodies after simple enzymatic digestion, which facilitates clinical trials and application of antibody therapy.

  12. Antiphospholipid antibodies in Brazilian hepatitis C virus carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Atta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C, a worldwide viral infection, is an important health problem in Brazil. The virus causes chronic infection, provoking B lymphocyte dysfunction, as represented by cryoglobulinemia, non-organ-specific autoantibody production, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The aim of this research was to screen for the presence of antiphospholipid autoantibodies in 109 Brazilian hepatitis C virus carriers without clinical history of antiphospholipid syndrome. Forty healthy individuals were used as the control group. IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies against cardiolipin and β2-glycoprotein I were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using a cut-off point of either 20 UPL or 20 SBU. While 24 (22.0% hepatitis C carriers had moderate titers of IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (median, 22.5 MPL; 95%CI: 21.5-25.4 MPL, only three carriers (<3% had IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (median, 23 GPL; 95%CI: 20.5-25.5 GPL. Furthermore, IgA anticardiolipin antibodies were not detected in these individuals. Male gender and IgM anticardiolipin seropositivity were associated in the hepatitis C group (P = 0.0004. IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies were detected in 29 of 109 (27.0% hepatitis C carriers (median, 41 SAU; 95%CI: 52.7-103.9 SAU. Twenty patients (18.0% had IgM anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (median, 27.6 SMU; 95%CI: 23.3-70.3 SMU, while two patients had IgG antibodies against this protein (titers, 33 and 78 SGU. Antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in only one healthy individual, who was seropositive for IgM anticardiolipin. We concluded that Brazilian individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus present a significant production of antiphospholipid antibodies, mainly IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, which are not associated with clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome.

  13. PRODUCTION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY AGAINST HUMAN IMMUNOGLOBULIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Majidi

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin E is one of the five classes of immonoglobulins that plays an important role in allergic diseases. Production of monoclonal antibodies by a single clonotype against different epitopes of immunoglobulin E has high priority in development of diagnostic kits.In this study, an attempt was made to produce monoclonal antibodies against human immunoglobulin E. Balb/c mice were immunized with semipurified immunoglobulin E and spleen cells fused with SP2.0 mouse myeloma eel! line in the presence of polyethylene glycol. Supernatant of hybridoma cells was screened for detection of antibody by enzyme linked immonosorbent assay method. Cloning of selective high absorbance wells were done with limiting dilution method. The suitable clone (monoclone was selected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by immunoblot. The subclass of the chosen monoclonal antibodies was determined and the clones freezed and kept in liquid nitrogen.During this study three successful fusions were carried out, which resulted in development of 156 clones with high production of anti-IgE. Fourteen clones with the highest titres were selected for cloning. After limiting dilution more than 100 monoclonal antibodies were produced and the suitable (me (GJ0F7, i.e.; the clone which displayed the high absorbance in reaction with purified immunoglobulin E and the lowest cross-reactivity with immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G and immoglobulin A was chosen. In immunoblotting, presence of high density band in reaction with immunoglobulin E was confirmed. The suitable mab was shown to be IgG 1 subclass with kappa light chain. It seems that, this mab could be successfully used in diagnostic kits.

  14. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    linker for yeast surface display of scFv and scFab fragments, we compared a series of different Gly-Ser-based linkers in display and antigen binding proficiency. We show that these formats of the model antibody can accommodate linkers of different lengths and that introduction of alanine or glutamate......-2. Based on the presented data we suggest that affinity maturation of the model antibody proceeds through multiple incremental steps of subtle improvements. We moreover conclude that the best affinity improved candidates are likely to be obtained through optimization of both the antigen...... fragments by in vivo homologous recombination large combinatorial antibody libraries can easily be generated. We have optimized ordered assembly of three CDR fragments into a gapped vector and observed increased transformation efficiency in a yeast strain carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase...

  15. Public opinions and antinuclear contestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of demonstrating the importance of public opinion in the development of a nuclear program, a historical analysis of the different forms of anti-technological reactions is shown, starting with a study of the general aspects of mass communication and public opinion. The world-wide communication strategy adopted in the implantation of nuclear programs is discussed and, finally, the nuclear energy issue and public opinion in Brazil are analysed. (F.E.)

  16. Anticorpos antinucleossomo e síndrome antifosfolipídica: estudo observacional Antinucleosome antibodies and primary antiphospholipid syndrome: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wagner Silva de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre a presença de anticorpos antinucleossomo (anti-NCS e a síndrome antifosfolipídica primária (SAFP e o posterior desenvolvimento de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis mulheres com o diagnóstico de SAFP foram avaliadas prospectivamente para manifestações de doenças reumáticas autoimunes e para a presença de anticorpos antifosfolípides, anticorpos antinucleares e anti-NCS/cromatina. RESULTADOS: Após um período médio de seguimento de 45,7 meses, anticorpos anti-NCS/cromatina foram detectados em apenas uma paciente (2,8%, que desenvolveu manifestações de LES tais como poliartrite, linfopenia, neurite óptica, lesões compatíveis com esclerose múltipla em substância branca cerebral e perfil de autoanticorpos altamente sugestivo de LES. CONCLUSÃO: A frequência de anticorpos anti-NCS/cromatina é baixa em pacientes com SAFP, e sua presença pode associar-se ao desenvolvimento de manifestações de LES.OBJECTIVE: To study the association of anti-nucleosome (anti-NCS antibodies in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS and the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE during follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six women with primary APS were evaluated prospectively for clinical features of systemic autoimmune diseases and for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, antinuclear antibodies and anti-NCS/chromatin antibodies. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up period of 45.7 months, anti-NCS/chromatin antibodies were detected in only one patient (2.8%, who developed features of SLE including polyarthritis, lymphopenia, optic neuritis, multiple sclerosis-like lesions, and an autoantibody profile suggestive of SLE. CONCLUSION: The frequency of anti-NCS/chromatin antibodies in primary APS patients is very low, and they may be associated with the development of SLE manifestations.

  17. Antithyroglobulin Antibodies and Antimicrosomal Antibodies in Various Thyroid Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gwon Jun; Hong, Key Sak; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Park, Sung Hoe; Chi, Je Geun; Lee, Sang Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    The authors investigated the incidence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antibodies and antimicrosomal antibodies measured by tanned red cell hemagglutination method in subjects suffering from various thyroid disorders. 1) In 15 normal patients, neither suffering from any thyroid diseases nor from any other autoimmune disorders, the antithyroglobulin antibodies were all negative, but the antimicrosomal antibody was positive only in one patient (6.7%). 2) The antithyroglobulin antibodies were positive in 31.5% (34 patients) of 108 patients with various thyroid diseases, and the antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 37.0% (40 patients). 3) of the 25 patients with Graves' diseases, 7 patients (28.0%) showed positive for the antithyroglobulin antibodies, and 9 (36.0%) for the antimicrosomal antibodies. There was no definite differences in clinical and thyroid functions between the groups with positive and negative results. 4) Both antibodies were positive in 16 (88.9%) and 17 (94.4%) patients respectively among 18 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, all of them were diagnosed histologically. 5) Three out of 33 patients with thyroid adenoma showed positive antibodies, and 3 of 16 patients with thyroid carcinoma revealed positive antibodies. 6) TRCH antibodies demonstrated negative results in 2 patients with subacute thyroiditis, but positive in one patient with idiopathic primary myxedema. 7) The number of patients with high titers(>l:802) was 16 for antithyroglobulin antibody, and 62.5% (10 patients) of which was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thirteen (65.0) of 20 patients with high titers (>l:802) for antimicrosomal antibody was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TRCH test is a simple, sensitive method, and has high reliability and reproducibility. The incidences and titers of antithyroglobulin antibody and antimicrosomal antibody are especially high in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  18. Efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies against peptide in the context of MHCII using magnetic enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, Justin A; Frederick, Daniel R; Taylor, Justin J; Heffernan, James R; Kotov, Dmitri I; Martinov, Tijana; Osum, Kevin C; Ruggiero, Jenna L; Rust, Blake J; Landry, Samuel J; Jenkins, Marc K; McLachlan, James B; Fife, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies specific for foreign antigens, auto-antigens, allogeneic antigens and tumour neo-antigens in the context of major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) are highly desirable as novel immunotherapeutics. However, there is no standard protocol for the efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies that recognize peptide in the context of MHCII, and only a limited number of such reagents exist. In this report, we describe an approach for the generation and screening of monoclonal antibodies specific for peptide bound to MHCII. This approach exploits the use of recombinant peptide:MHC monomers as immunogens, and subsequently relies on multimers to pre-screen and magnetically enrich the responding antigen-specific B cells before fusion and validation, thus saving significant time and reagents. Using this method, we have generated two antibodies enabling us to interrogate antigen presentation and T-cell activation. This methodology sets the standard to generate monoclonal antibodies against the peptide-MHCII complexes. PMID:27292946

  19. Development of Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Using a High Efficiency Human Hybridoma Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Gabriela; Crowe, James E

    2016-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies against RSV have high potential for use as prophylaxis or therapeutic molecules, and they also can be used to define the structure of protective epitopes for rational vaccine design. In the past, however, isolation of human monoclonal antibodies was difficult and inefficient. Here, we describe contemporary methods for activation and proliferation of primary human memory B cells followed by cytofusion to non-secreting myeloma cells by dielectrophoresis to generate human hybridomas secreting RSV-specific monoclonal antibodies. We also provide experimental methods for screening human B cell lines to obtain RSV-specific lines, especially lines secreting neutralizing antibodies. PMID:27464688

  20. Screening and identification of dengue virus-specific antigens and the establishment of ELISA detection method for dengue antibody%登革病毒特异性抗原片段的筛选鉴定及其ELISA方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐博恒; 任瑞文; 洪文艳; 方美玉

    2012-01-01

    目的 筛选、鉴定登革病毒共同及型特异性抗原,用纯化抗原建立检测登革病毒抗体的ELISA方法.方法 分别利用DNAStar及ANTHEPROT软件对登革病毒1~4型、流行性乙型脑炎及黄热病毒M、E、NS1蛋白进行分析,预测可能的抗原表位.并根据表位位置和氨基酸序列的相似性,分析登革病毒的共有及型特异性抗原表位,并参考GenBank中的序列信息进行比对,分析其在不同登革病毒株中的保守性.然后选择预测得分值较高的表位,利用pET32a、pMAl-c2x原核表达系统进行原核表达,Western blot验证其免疫学反应特异性.Western blot检测阳性抗原片段经亲和纯化后,包被ELISA微孔板,并对ELISA反应条件进行系统优化.结果经系统的生物信息学分析,共预测获得登革病毒抗原表位18个,登革病毒型特异性抗原表位25个,并对其中得分值较高的5段进行了高效表达,经Western blot分析,获得登革1~4型(Den-Ag5),登革2、4型(Den-Ag3),登革1~3型(Den-Ag2)病毒共同抗原片段各一段,登革1、2、4型( Den-Ag1、Den-Ag4)共同抗原片段两段,与流行性乙型脑炎病毒、黄热病毒及所用甲病毒多克隆抗体均无交叉反应.选择Den-Ag5、Den-Ag1和Den-Ag2作为检测用抗原,建立了检测登革病毒抗体的ELISA方法,初步应用表明,所建立方法具备良好特异性,可检测50~200倍稀释的患者血清,S/N比值均在15以上.结论 经系统筛选,获登革病毒特异性抗原片段5段,并建立了检测登革病毒抗体的ELISA方法.%Objective To screen and identify the dengue virus-specific antigens,then establish the ELISA detection method for dengue virus antibody.Methods Using bioinformatic software DNAStar and ANTHEPROT to analyze the hydrophilicity,flexibility,surface probability and antigenicity of dengue virus type 1-4,Japanese encephalitis virus and Yellow fever virus M,E and NSI protein amino acid sequence and also consider the influence of

  1. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  3. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis Overlap Syndrome in Patients With Biopsy-Proven Glomerulonephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrot, Pierre-Andre; Chiche, Laurent; Hervier, Baptiste; Daniel, Laurent; Vuiblet, Vincent; Bardin, Nathalie; Bertin, Daniel; Terrier, Benjamin; Amoura, Zahir; Andrés, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Eric; Hamidou, Mohamed; Pennaforte, Jean-Loup; Halfon, Philippe; Daugas, Eric; Dussol, Bertrand; Puéchal, Xavier; Kaplanski, Gilles; Jourde-Chiche, Noemie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to report the clinical, biological, and pathological characteristics of patients with glomerulonephritis (GN) secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)/antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) overlap syndrome. A nationwide survey was conducted to identify cases of SLE/AAV overlap syndrome. Data were collected from SLE and AAV French research groups. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of both SLE and AAV according to international classification criteria and biopsy-proven GN between 1995 and 2014. Additional cases were identified through a systematic literature review. A cohort of consecutive biopsy-proven GN was used to study the prevalence of overlapping antibodies and/or overlap syndrome. The national survey identified 8 cases of SLE/AAV overlap syndrome. All patients were female; median age was 40 years. AAV occurred before SLE (n = 3), after (n = 3), or concomitantly (n = 2). Six patients had rapidly progressive GN and 3/8 had alveolar hemorrhage. All patients had antinuclear antibodies (ANA); 7/8 had p-ANCA antimyeloperoxidase (MPO) antibodies. Renal biopsies showed lupus nephritis (LN) or pauci-immune GN. Remission was obtained in 4/8 patients. A literature review identified 31 additional cases with a similarly severe presentation. In the GN cohort, ANCA positivity was found in 30% of LN, ANA positivity in 52% of pauci-immune GN, with no correlation with pathological findings. The estimated prevalence for SLE/AAV overlap syndrome was 2/101 (2%). In patients with GN, SLE/AAV overlap syndrome may occur but with a low prevalence. Most patients have an aggressive renal presentation, with usually both ANA and anti-MPO antibodies. Further studies are needed to assess shared pathogenesis and therapeutic options. PMID:27258503

  5. Monoclonal antibodies in myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergeld, P.; van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; Richardson, P. G.;

    2015-01-01

    The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of disease goes back to the vision of Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century; however, the first successful treatment with a mAb was not until 1982, in a lymphoma patient. In multiple myeloma, mAbs are a very recent and exciting add...

  6. Prediction of Antibody Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    self-proteins. Given the sequence or the structure of a protein of interest, several methods exploit such features to predict the residues that are more likely to be recognized by an immunoglobulin.Here, we present two methods (BepiPred and DiscoTope) to predict linear and discontinuous antibody...

  7. Measurement of anti-DFS70 antibodies in patients with ANA-associated autoimmune rheumatic diseases suspicion is cost-effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundín, Simón; Irure-Ventura, Juan; Asensio, Esther; Ramos, David; Mahler, Michael; Martínez-Taboada, Victor; López-Hoyos, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is associated with a wide range of ANA-associated autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AARD). The most commonly method used for the detection of ANA is indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells. This method is very sensitive but unspecific. As a consequence, ANA testing on HEp-2 substrates outside a proper clinical specialist framework may lead to inappropriate referrals to tertiary care specialists and, worst case inappropriate and potentially toxic therapy for the patient. Among ANA, isolated anti-DFS70 antibodies represent a potentially important biomarker that can be clinically used to discriminate AARD from non-AARD patients in ANA IIF positive individuals. Therefore, their presence may avoid unnecessary follow-up testing and referrals. In our study, we investigated if the implementation of a new ANA workup algorithm allowing for the identification of anti-DFS70 antibodies is cost-effective through the reduction of both unnecessary follow-up testing and outpatient clinic visits generated by the clinical suspicion of a potential AARD. None of the 181 patients included with a positive monospecific anti-DFS70 antibody result developed SARD during the follow-up period of 10 years. The reduction in number of tests after ANA and anti-DFS70 positive results was significant for anti-ENA (230 vs. 114 tests; p < 0.001) and anti-dsDNA antibodies (448 vs. 114 tests; p < 0.001). In addition, the outpatient clinic visits decreased by 70 % (p < 0.001). In total, the adoption of the new algorithm including anti-DFS70 antibody testing resulted in a cost saving of 60869.53 € for this pilot study. In conclusion, the use of anti-DFS70 antibodies was clearly cost-efficient in our setting. PMID:27473142

  8. Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000547.htm Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against substances in the lining ...

  9. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T;

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  10. DETECTION OF THE BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  11. Challenges in Antibody Development against Tn and Sialyl-Tn Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana R. Loureiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The carbohydrate antigens Tn and sialyl-Tn (STn are expressed in most carcinomas and usually absent in healthy tissues. These antigens have been correlated with cancer progression and poor prognosis, and associated with immunosuppressive microenvironment. Presently they are used in clinical trials as therapeutic vaccination, but with limited success due to their low immunogenicity. Alternatively, anti-Tn and/or STn antibodies may be used to harness the immune system against tumor cells. Whilst the development of antibodies against these antigens had a boost two decades ago for diagnostic use, so far no such antibody entered into clinical trials. Possible limitations are the low specificity and efficiency of existing antibodies and that novel antibodies are still necessary. The vast array of methodologies available today will allow rapid antibody development and novel formats. Following the advent of hybridoma technology, the immortalization of human B cells became a methodology to obtain human monoclonal antibodies with better specificity. Advances in molecular biology including phage display technology for high throughput screening, transgenic mice and more recently molecularly engineered antibodies enhanced the field of antibody production. The development of novel antibodies against Tn and STn taking advantage of innovative technologies and engineering techniques may result in innovative therapeutic antibodies for cancer treatment.

  12. Challenges in Antibody Development against Tn and Sialyl-Tn Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Liliana R.; Carrascal, Mylène A.; Barbas, Ana; Ramalho, José S.; Novo, Carlos; Delannoy, Philippe; Videira, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    The carbohydrate antigens Tn and sialyl-Tn (STn) are expressed in most carcinomas and usually absent in healthy tissues. These antigens have been correlated with cancer progression and poor prognosis, and associated with immunosuppressive microenvironment. Presently they are used in clinical trials as therapeutic vaccination, but with limited success due to their low immunogenicity. Alternatively, anti-Tn and/or STn antibodies may be used to harness the immune system against tumor cells. Whilst the development of antibodies against these antigens had a boost two decades ago for diagnostic use, so far no such antibody entered into clinical trials. Possible limitations are the low specificity and efficiency of existing antibodies and that novel antibodies are still necessary. The vast array of methodologies available today will allow rapid antibody development and novel formats. Following the advent of hybridoma technology, the immortalization of human B cells became a methodology to obtain human monoclonal antibodies with better specificity. Advances in molecular biology including phage display technology for high throughput screening, transgenic mice and more recently molecularly engineered antibodies enhanced the field of antibody production. The development of novel antibodies against Tn and STn taking advantage of innovative technologies and engineering techniques may result in innovative therapeutic antibodies for cancer treatment. PMID:26270678

  13. Recombinant antibodies and tumor targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikholvaezin, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Different antibody derived constructs are rapidly advancing as putative tools for treatment of malignant diseases. Antibody engineering has added significant new technologies to modify size, affinities, solubility, stability and biodistribution properties for immunoconjugates. In the present thesis, the aim was to increase our knowledge on how new recombinant antibodies could be tailored to optimize localization to experimental tumors in mice. One hybridoma, producing the monoclonal antibody ...

  14. Detection of Anti-nuclear Antibody by Horseradish Peroxidase Anti-peroxidase complex(PAP)%过氧化物酶-抗过氧化物酶复合物(PAP)检测血清抗核抗体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐迎辉; 孙玲

    2002-01-01

    目的探讨过氧化物酶-抗过氧化物酶复合物(PAP)检测血清抗核抗体(ANA)的实用性.方法以小鼠肝细胞为基质,对PAP方法测定血清ANA的滴度、核型进行了方法学检测,并同时与间接免疫荧光法相比较,测定了203例正常人及46例风湿病患者的血清ANA.结果 PAP法敏感性高于IIF法,滴度是IIF法的10~640倍.PAP可提高血清ANA的阳性检出率,还可提高核型的清晰度.结论 PAP法适用于缺乏荧光显微镜的基层医院开展ANA的检测.

  15. Evaluation of a Treponema pallidum enzyme immunoassay as a screening test for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, N E; Malloy, D C; Passen, S

    1994-01-01

    The CAPTIA Syphilis-G enzyme immunoassay for the detection of antibodies to Treponema pallidum was evaluated as a screening test for syphilis in comparison with the standard rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test. One thousand samples were tested, and the standard fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test and the standard microhemmaglutination test were used to confirm the presence of treponemal antibodies. Diagnosis of syphilis was based on traditional standard serology results. Clinical data ...

  16. Type and screen policy in the blood bank: Is AHG cross-match still required? A study at a multispecialty corporate hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak Sangeeta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibodies against only about 25-28 blood group antigens are known to cause hemolytic reactions (HTRs, and red cell antibody screening should detect such clinically significant antibodies. An extension of the antibody screening test is the ′type and screen′ done to detect clinically significant antibodies, omiting the anti-human globulin (AHG cross-match. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out if the type and screen procedure is a safe method for pre-transfusion testing when compared to the AHG cross-match currently in use in India. Materials and Methods: We evaluated data from 45373 patients for whom a total of 61668 units of packed red blood cells (PRBC were cross-matched in the AHG phase using DiaMed; ID cards. An antibody screen was carried out in all the patients using the DiaMed; ID-DiaCell I+II+III. The AHG cross-match was also carried out for all recipients, irrespective of the result of the antibody screen. The results were compared to see if there were any cases where the antibody screening was negative but the AHG cross-match showed incompatibility. Results: Not a single case was found where the antibody screen was negative and AHG cross-match showed incompatibility. In 68 cases the antibody screening was positive. Out of the 68 cases, AHG cross-match was incompatible with at least one unit of PRBC in 41 cases. Conclusion: The screening cell panel adequately detected the clinically significant antibodies in the Indian population in our study. The type and screen policy can be safe, efficient, cost-effective, and beneficial to the transfusion service in India.

  17. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed. PMID:25264572

  18. The role of color doppler ultrasonography, thyroid function and auto antibody for the screening of Graves' disease in pregnancy%彩色多普勒超声、甲状腺功能及甲状腺自身抗体检查在鉴别妊娠甲状腺功能亢进和Graves病中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛萌; 石秋玲; 谭坤能; 吴炎; 周仁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether color doppler ultrasonography (CDU),thyroid function or thyroid autoimmune antibodies could identify Graves' disease in pregnancy(GDP) in pregnant patients with newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis.Methods It is an observational study.Sixty-eight pregnant patients with newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis including gestational hyperthyroidism (GHT) subjects (GHT group,n =33) and GDP subjects (GDP group,n =35),and 62 age-and sex-matched healthy subjects (C1 group:pregnant,n =32,C2 group:non-pregnant,n =30) were recruited.Thyroid function,human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG),thyroid autoimmune antibodies were detected.Peak systolic velocity of the superior thyroid artery (STA-PSV) and diastole inner diameter(STA-D) of the superior thyroid artery were measured by CDU.A ROC curve was used to evaluate STA-PSV,STA-D,thyroid function and thyroid autoimmune antibodies for identification of GDP.Results The area under the ROC curve of STA-PSV,STA-D and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH),free T4 (FT4) for GDP were 0.905,0.887,0.803 and 0.786,respectively.The optimal cut-off points of STA-PSV,STA-D,TSH and FT4 for GDP were 40 cm/s,2.0mm,0.03 mIU/L and 30 pmol/L with the sensitivity of 82.9%,72.1%,81.8%,76.2% and specificity of 81.8%,87.9%,75.2%,80.3%,respectively.Conclusions Detection of STA-PSV and STA-D by CDU,as well as thyroid function,is useful in screening GDP in pregnant patients with thyrotoxicosis.%目的 探讨用甲状腺彩色多普勒超声、甲状腺功能、甲状腺自身抗体检查鉴别妊娠甲状腺功能亢进(GHT)和妊娠合并Graves病(GDP)的价值.方法 本研究为观察性研究,共入选未经治疗的妊娠期甲状腺毒症患者68例,包括GHT患者33例(GHT组)、GDP 35例(GDP组).选择妊娠甲状腺功能正常者32例(C1组)和非妊娠甲状腺功能正常者30例(C2组)作为对照组.使用彩色多普勒超声测定甲状腺上动脉收缩期峰值血流速度(STA-PSV)、甲状腺

  19. A human monoclonal antibody to high-frequency red cell antigen Jra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, T; Kwon, K W; Yamamoto, K; Tone, Y; Ihara, H; Kato, T; Ikeda, H; Sekiguchi, S

    1994-01-01

    A human-mouse heterohybridoma (HMR0921) secreting human monoclonal IgG3, lambda antibody was produced from peripheral blood lymphocytes of a healthy blood donor with serum antibody to Jra, by EBV transformation and hybridization with mouse myeloma cell line P3X63Ag8.653. The reactivity of HMR0921 antibody was assessed by antiglobulin test with a panel of red cells including 14 different rare blood types. Only Jr(a-) red cells were negative. The strict specificity of this antibody to Jra antigen was further confirmed by absorption test with fluorescence flow cytometry. On screening of 28,744 blood donor samples by HMR0921 antibody, we detected 19 agglutination-negative samples, which were confirmed as Jr(a-) by conventional anti-Jra antisera. Therefore, our HMR0921 antibody is extremely useful for detecting rare Jr(a-) blood.

  20. Characterization of immobilization methods of antiviral antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huy, Tran Quang, E-mail: huytq@nihe.org.vn [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE), No1 Yersin St., Hanoi (Viet Nam); International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), No1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hanh, Nguyen Thi Hong; Van Chung, Pham; Anh, Dang Duc; Nga, Phan Thi [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE), No1 Yersin St., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tuan, Mai Anh, E-mail: tuanma-itims@mail.hut.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), No1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we describes different methods to immobilize Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibodies in human serum onto the interdigitated surface of a microelectrode sensor for optimizing electrochemical detection: (1) direct covalent binding to the silanized surface, (2) binding to the silanized surface via a cross-linker of glutaraldehyde (GA), (3) binding to glutaraldehyde/silanized surface via goat anti-human IgG polyclonal antibody and (4) binding to glutaraldehyde/silanized surface via protein A (PrA). Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy are used to verify the characteristics of antibodies on the interdigitated surface after the serum antibodies immobilization. The analyzed results indicate that the use of protein A is an effective choice for immobilization and orientation of antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors. This study provides an advantageous immobilization method of serum containing antiviral antibodies to develop electrochemical biosensors for preliminary screening of viruses in clinical samples from outbreaks.

  1. Suppressor Screens in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-01-01

    Genetic screens have proven to be a useful tool in the dissection of biological processes in plants. Specifically, suppressor screens have been widely used to study signal transduction pathways. Here we provide a detailed protocol for ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis used in our suppressor screens in Arabidopsis and discuss the basic principles behind suppressor screen design and downstream analyses. PMID:26577776

  2. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  3. The IgG antibody reactivity of sera from patients with active chronic hepatitis to a crude liver antigen and liver specific protein (LSP): analysis by ELISA and immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, U; Heigl, Z; Sundqvist, K G

    1988-11-01

    The antibody reactivity to liver specific protein (LSP) and a crude liver antigen of sera from patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) were studied along with other related diseases and healthy individuals. CAH sera containing liver reacting antibodies were selected using an ELISA with a crude liver preparation as antigen and subsequently the specificity was analysed by immunoblotting of SDS-PAGE-separated LSP. The incidence of IgG antibodies to the crude liver antigen and LSP in sera from 15 patients with CAH was 94% and 55% respectively. In the healthy control group (n = 30) the corresponding figures were 3% and 17%. Sera from patients with other autoimmune conditions with considerable reactivity in the crude liver ELISA test were those with antibodies against extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) and thyroid gland antigens, while the anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) group as a whole did not differ from the control group. In immunoblotting of SDS-PAGE-separated crude liver and LSP antigens, the IgG binding pattern of ELISA IgG positive CAH sera and sera from patients with thyroid disease was distinct, with bands corresponding to antigens of molecular weights of 38, 45 and 50 kD which were not observed in ELISA negative CAH sera or in sera from patients with other diseases and among healthy controls.

  4. Identification of anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies using IgG platelet antibody detection and crossmatch system assay with Galileo Echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cristofaro, Julie; Frassati, Coralie; Montagnie, Rolande; Basire, Agnes; Merieux, Yves; Picard, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Fetal/neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia is the most frequent and the most dangerous clinical condition involving anti-human platelet antigens (HPA)-1a allo-antibodies. Anti-HPA-1a allo-immunization requires rapid and accurate diagnosis to determine appropriate treatment. The Capture-P Ready-Screen assay (C-PRS) is a new qualitative immunoassay to detect IgG anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and anti-HPA allo-antibodies. The aim of this study is to assess the identification of anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies using the C-PRS assay, associated with HLA class I stripping reagents, on the automated benchtop analyzer Galileo Echo. Forty-nine sera were analyzed: without anti-HLA class I or anti-HPA allo-antibodies, with anti-HLA class I allo-antibodies, with anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies, among which with anti-HLA class I allo-antibodies. None of the samples without allo-antibodies were reactive. Only anti-HLA antibodies, detected by cytotoxicity-dependent complement and not by Luminex, remained positive before and after stripping reagents. Of the 13 samples, anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies that were correctly identified before and after incubation with HLA assassin reagent were 70% and 85%, respectively. Anti-glycoprotein auto-antibodies and anti-HLA allo-antibodies do not interfere with the detection of anti-HPA-1a antibodies. This preliminary study indicates that further improvement of the test will be helpful in developing a clinically useful assay in the future.

  5. Identification of anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies using IgG platelet antibody detection and crossmatch system assay with Galileo Echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cristofaro, Julie; Frassati, Coralie; Montagnie, Rolande; Basire, Agnes; Merieux, Yves; Picard, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Fetal/neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia is the most frequent and the most dangerous clinical condition involving anti-human platelet antigens (HPA)-1a allo-antibodies. Anti-HPA-1a allo-immunization requires rapid and accurate diagnosis to determine appropriate treatment. The Capture-P Ready-Screen assay (C-PRS) is a new qualitative immunoassay to detect IgG anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and anti-HPA allo-antibodies. The aim of this study is to assess the identification of anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies using the C-PRS assay, associated with HLA class I stripping reagents, on the automated benchtop analyzer Galileo Echo. Forty-nine sera were analyzed: without anti-HLA class I or anti-HPA allo-antibodies, with anti-HLA class I allo-antibodies, with anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies, among which with anti-HLA class I allo-antibodies. None of the samples without allo-antibodies were reactive. Only anti-HLA antibodies, detected by cytotoxicity-dependent complement and not by Luminex, remained positive before and after stripping reagents. Of the 13 samples, anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies that were correctly identified before and after incubation with HLA assassin reagent were 70% and 85%, respectively. Anti-glycoprotein auto-antibodies and anti-HLA allo-antibodies do not interfere with the detection of anti-HPA-1a antibodies. This preliminary study indicates that further improvement of the test will be helpful in developing a clinically useful assay in the future. PMID:25101933

  6. Elevated levels of serum antibodies against alpha-1, 6-glucan in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Dai; Xiao-Ming Gao

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether levels of anti-alpha-1,6-glucan antibodies in human sera correlate with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Serum samples were collected from patients with SLE (n =30),RA (n =30) and healthy adult volunteers.IgG,IgA and IgM levels against alpha-1,6-glucan were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays.Anti-alpha-1,6-glucan IgG prevalence was raised in patients with active SLE (73.3%)and RA (60%) compared with healthy controls (13.3%).Strong correlation between anti-alpha-1,6-glucan-IgG levels and anti-perinuclear factor (r =0.642; p< 0.05) in RA patients or anti-nuclear antibodies (r =0.675; p < 0.05)in SLE patients was observed.No significant differences in anti-alpha-1,6-glucan-lgA or-lgM levels were noted between different groups.We conclude that anti-alpha1,6-glucan-lgG levels were significantly elevated in patients with SLE or RA and positively correlated with disease activity.

  7. Setting up an HIV screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A; Dodd, R Y

    1989-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) screening programs currently are based primarily on the detection of specific HIV-1 antibodies by the commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) combined with highly specific confirmation procedures. Factors to be considered in establishing a screening program include test performance characteristics, economy, confidentiality and notification procedures, legal and regulatory issues, proficiency and quality control measures, and laboratory safety. Commercial EIA screening in conjunction with a licensed Western blot assay permits the classification of all but a few serum samples into HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative categories. The occasional indeterminate results often can be resolved by following a defined retesting/resampling algorithm or by using research-level test procedures that may become available for diagnostic use in the future. Although screening of patient populations with an increased risk of HIV-1 exposure will improve the predictive accuracy of an initial screening assay, confirmation testing should nonetheless be performed for all EIA reactive sera regardless of the source. Local HIV-1 screening programs that meet minimum-volume requirements can result in considerable savings and flexibility for a moderate-size institution. However, before this type of program is undertaken, numerous technical and ethical considerations need to be addressed.

  8. Antiphospholipid Antibody and Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴竞生

    2008-01-01

    @@ Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) APA is a big category for all kinds of negative charge phospholipid or lecithin - a protein complex autoantibodies or the same antibody, through its recognition of antigen (target protein) different, and phospholipids or lecithin - protein complex combination of various rely on the interference Phospholipid clotting and anti-coagulation factor, and promote endothelial cells, platelets, complement activation and play a role. APA including lupus anticoagulant(LA) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA), In addition, there are anti-β2 glycoprotein-I (β2-GPI) antibody, anti-prothrombin (a- PT) antibody, anti-lysophosphatidic acid antibody and anti-phosphatidylserine antibody, and so on. APA as the main target of phospholipid-binding protein, including β2-GPI, prothrombin, annexin, protein C (PC) and protein S (PS), plasminogen, and so on.

  9. ASSOCIATION OF TRYPANOSOME INFECTION WITH SPERM ANTIBODIES PRODUCTION IN RED SOKOTO (MARADI GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. FAYEMI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1021 randomly selected serum samples of adult male goats that had been screened for trypanosome infection were assayed for sperm antibodies using the immunoperoxidase staining technique. The result of the trypanosome screening revealed that 586(57.39% goats were positive for trypanosome infection, while 435(42.61% were negative. The assay for sperm antibodies showed that 482(47.21% animals were positive, while 539(52.79% were negative. In the group that was positive for trypanosome infection, 364(62.12% animals were positive, whereas 222(37.88% were negative for sperm antibodies (P<0.001. The group that was negative for trypanosome infection, had a significantly lower number and proportion 118(27.13% of positive compared to 317(72.87% negative for sperm antibodies. Out of a total 482 goats that were positive for sperm antibodies, a significantly higher number, 364(75.52%, were positive than 118(24.48% that were negative for trypanosome infection (P<0.001. In the group that was found negative for sperm antibodies, a significantly lower proportion, 222(41.19%, was positive compared to 317(58.81% that were negative for trypanosome infection (P<0.001. Seropositivity to sperm antibodies was positively correlated to trypanosome infection (P<0.001. Further work on the pathogenesis of sperm antibody production in trypanosome infection is advocated.

  10. Production of anti-idiotype antibodies for deoxynivalenol and their evaluation with three immunoassay platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragos, C M

    2014-05-01

    Immunoassays for deoxynivalenol (DON) that involve binding to DON-specific antibodies have been widely developed. In such assays, the responses of samples are generally compared with calibration curves generated by using DON in competition with labeled reagents such as enzymatic or fluorescent conjugates of the toxin. However, materials that mimic the toxin can also be used, provided that they compete effectively with the labeled reagents for the DON-specific antibodies. Examples include certain types of anti-idiotype antibodies, obtained by the immunization of animals with toxin-specific antibodies. In the present work, anti-idiotype antibodies were developed which mimicked DON in the ability to bind to a DON-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab). Fab fragments of the Mab (Ab1) were used to immunize rabbits. Sera were screened by competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA) for the presence of anti-idiotype antibodies (Ab2). In order to determine the most effective screening format and also the potential efficacy in various forms of biosensors, the sera were further evaluated in biolayer interferometry (BLI) and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) formats. All three formats were used to demonstrate the presence of anti-idiotypes capable of binding to the paratope of the DON antibody (subtypes Ab2β or Ab2γ). Such materials have the potential to replace DON as calibrants in immunoassays for this toxin.

  11. Prevalence Of Hepatitis C Antibodies In Healthy Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nalini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in healthy blood donors? Objective: To screen the blood donors for HCV antibodies routinely. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Deptt. of Transfusion Medicine, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. Participants: Healthy blood donors. Statistical analysis: Prevalence rate. Results: Prevalence of anti HCV was found to be 1.5%, which is quite high.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of antenatal screening for neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killie, M K; Kjeldsen-Kragh, J; Husebekk, A;

    2007-01-01

    -4 weeks before term. Severely thrombocytopenic newborn were transfused immediately with compatible platelets. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs. RESULTS: Compared with no screening, a programme of screening and subsequent treatment would generate between 210 and 230...... in Norway encompassing a 2.78 million population. POPULATION: Pregnant women (n = 100,448) screened for human platelet antigen (HPA) 1a and anti-HPA 1a antibodies, and their babies. METHOD: Decision tree analysis. In three branches of the decision tree, pregnant women entered a programme while in one...

  13. Isolation of human monoclonal antibodies from peripheral blood B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghe; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Longo, Nancy S; Laub, Leo; Lin, Chien-Li; Turk, Ellen; Kang, Byong H; Migueles, Stephen A; Bailer, Robert T; Mascola, John R; Connors, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Isolation of monoclonal antibodies is an important technique for understanding the specificities and characteristics of antibodies that underlie the humoral immune response to a given antigen. Here we describe a technique for isolating monoclonal antibodies from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The protocol includes strategies for the isolation of switch-memory B cells from peripheral blood, the culture of B cells, the removal of the supernatant for screening and the lysis of B cells in preparation for immunoglobulin heavy-chain and light-chain amplification and cloning. We have observed that the addition of cytokines IL-2, IL-21 and irradiated 3T3-msCD40L feeder cells can successfully stimulate switch-memory B cells to produce high concentrations of IgG in the supernatant. The supernatant may then be screened by appropriate assays for binding or for other functions. This protocol can be completed in 2 weeks. It is adaptable to use in other species and enables the efficient isolation of antibodies with a desired functional characteristic without prior knowledge of specificity. PMID:24030440

  14. Circulating protein and antibody biomarker for personalized cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianda

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint blockade therapies are revolutionizing standard cancer treatments. Immune checkpoint inhibitors likely function to enhance the tumor specific antigen response in order to achieve favorable clinical outcomes. Thus, continuous efforts to identify the common tumor-specific antigens are essential for the broad clinical application of these therapies. Several immunoproteomics approaches have been used in order to screen for this specificity. In a recent article from Jhaveri and colleagues published in the February issue of Cancer Immunology Research, antibody biomarkers were screened in pancreatic cancer patients who received allogeneic, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor-secreting pancreatic cancer vaccine (GVAX) by using a serum antibody-based SILAC immunoprecipitation (SASI) approach. Using this assay, several new tumor antigens (MYPT1, PSMC5 and TRFR) were identified that were found to have significantly different expression in tumors compared with normal tissue. Moreover, patients with detectable antibodies showed improved disease-free survival after GVAX therapy. These targets need to be further validated to determine the full spectrum of tumor antigen immunogencity and their potential clinical application. In addition to antibodies, circulating protein, DNA and RNA in peripheral blood are under clinical investigation as liquid biopsies and have the potential to provide guidance for future personalized cancer immunotherapy.

  15. [Evaluation of the analytic performance of blood collection tubes (BD Vacutainer SST) for the screening of anti-HIV, anti-HTLV, anti-HCV, anti-HBc, anti-CMV antibodies, and of HBs, P24 HIV antigens, and of alanine aminotransferase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, E; Desruelle, J M; Vigier, J P

    2001-02-01

    The Laboratory of Viral Diseases Immunology (Laboratoire d'Immunologie des Maladies Virales) of the Northern Region Blood Bank (Etablissement Français du Sang Nord de France) performs between 180.000 and 200.000 viral blood qualifications per year. The use of a serum gel separator evacuated tube should contribute to improve the quality of the pre-analytical phase. However, it must not impact negatively the analytical performances. We evaluated such tube within our specific environment and with the various reagents used in routine. The open study compared the BD Vacutainer plain tube (7 mL, non siliconised) with the BD Vacutainer SST tube (6 mL siliconised with serum gel separator) against the anti-HIV, anti-HTLV, anti-HCV, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-CMV antibodies, the HBs, HIV P24 antigen and the alanine aminotransferase. The study objectives were to find potential gel interference; to verify the diagnostic sensitivity, reagents specificity, and reproducibility. The results analysis show: equivalent performances with the anti-HIV Ab (Anti HIV 1/2 recombinant--Biotest et Genscreen HIV 1/2--Sanofi), anti HIV WB Ab (New Lav Blot 1--Sanofi), anti-HBs Ab (Enzygnost anti-HBs micro--Behring), anti-HBc Ab (HBc Elisa Test System--Ortho), anti-CMV Ab (Enzygnost anti-CMV IgG + M--Behring) kits; lower performances with: The Vironostika HIV Uni Form II plus 0--Organon kit with a -3.5% signal decrease around the ratio R = 2.7 for positive anti-HIV Ab. The Elisa test System 3 Ag HBs-Ortho kit with an increase of the mean ratio of the negative Ag HBs samples; better performances with: the Vironostika HIV 1 Antigen--Organon kit with a +10% signal increase around the threshold ratio R = 1 for positive Ag HIV samples. This deserves further study to verify that the specificity is maintained. The HTLV Type 1 et 2 EIA--Ortho kit with +8% signal increase around the ratio R = 2 for positive anti-HTLV Ab samples without change of the specificity. The Ortho HCV 3.0 Elisa Test System and

  16. A novel antibody discovery platform identifies anti-influenza A broadly neutralizing antibodies from human memory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan; Varkey, Reena; Kallewaard, Nicole; Koksal, Adem C; Zhu, Qing; Wu, Herren; Chowdhury, Partha S; Dall'Acqua, William F

    2016-07-01

    Monoclonal antibody isolation directly from circulating human B cells is a powerful tool to delineate humoral responses to pathological conditions and discover antibody therapeutics. We have developed a platform aimed at improving the efficiencies of B cell selection and V gene recovery. Here, memory B cells are activated and amplified using Epstein-Barr virus infection, co-cultured with CHO-muCD40L cells, and then assessed by functional screenings. An in vitro transcription and translation (IVTT) approach was used to analyze variable (V) genes recovered from each B cell sample and identify the relevant heavy/light chain pair(s). We achieved efficient amplification and activation of memory B cells, and eliminated the need to: 1) seed B cells at clonal level (≤1 cell/well) or perform limited dilution cloning; 2) immortalize B cells; or 3) assemble V genes into an IgG expression vector to confirm the relevant heavy/light chain pairing. Cross-reactive antibodies targeting a conserved epitope on influenza A hemagglutinin were successfully isolated from a healthy donor. In-depth analysis of the isolated antibodies suggested their potential uses as anti-influenza A antibody therapeutics and uncovered a distinct affinity maturation pathway. Importantly, our results showed that cognate heavy/light chain pairings contributed to both the expression level and binding abilities of our newly isolated VH1-69 family, influenza A neutralizing antibodies, contrasting with previous observations that light chains do not significantly contribute to the function of this group of antibodies. Our results further suggest the potential use of the IVTT as a powerful antibody developability assessment tool. PMID:27049174

  17. Neutralizing Antibody Response and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in HIV-1-Infected Individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Heyndrickx, Leo;

    2016-01-01

    The development of therapeutic and prophylactic HIV vaccines for African countries is urgently needed, but the question of what immunogens to use needs to be answered. One approach is to include HIV envelope immunogens derived from HIV-positive individuals from a geographically concentrated...... epidemic with more limited viral genetic diversity for a region-based vaccine. To address if there is a basis for a regional selected antibody vaccine, we have screened two regionally separate cohorts from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark for neutralizing antibody activity and antibody-dependent cellular...... cytotoxicity (ADCC) against local and nonlocal circulating HIV-1 strains. The neutralizing activity did not demonstrate higher potential against local circulating strains according to geography and subtype determination, but the plasma from Danish individuals demonstrated significantly higher inhibitory...

  18. The antibody Hijikata Tatsumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éden Peretta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considered one of the most influential modern dance representatives in Japan, Tatsumi Hijikata’s work was a milestone in the Japanese post-war experimental artistic scene. Heretic son of his time, he staged a fertile mix of artistic and cultural influences, overlapping subversive elements of European arts and philosophy with radical references from pre-modern Japanese culture. In this way he built the foundations of its unstable antibody, its political-artistic project of dissolution of a organism, both physical and social.

  19. Increased levels of anti-glycan antibodies in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirche TO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Crohn's disease (CD is increased in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA have been suggested as a screening tool to detect CD in CF. Recently, several new anti-glycan antibodies have been reported in CD. Materials and methods The sera of 119 CF patients of various age groups were prospectively screened for ASCA type IgG (gASCA, anti-laminaribioside carbohydrate IgG antibodies (ALCA, anti-chitobioside carbohydrate IgA antibodies (ACCA, and anti-mannobioside carbohydrate IgG antibodies (AMCA. The frequency of these anti-glycan antibodies was then compared in patients with CD, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis and healthy volunteers. Results A significant number of CF patients were positive for gASCA (51.3% [41.6-60.6] and up to three other anti-glycan antibodies concurrently. Serum levels of anti-glycan antibodies in CF and CD were not related to parameters of inflammation. Despite the well-documented difference in clinical course between male and female CF patients no gender difference of anti-glycan antibodies was found. In contrast, there was a significant positive correlation between anti-glycan markers and age in CF patients. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate for the first time the increased frequency of a panel of anti-glycan antibodies in CF and provide a link between the presence of these serological biomarkers and patient's age. Anti-glycan antibody profiling may therefore become a valuable tool in the care of patients with CF.

  20. Screening of multiparous women to avoid transfusion-related acute lung injury: a single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, U J H; Link, E; Hofmann, C; Wasel, W; Bein, G

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which approach for serological testing of multiparous donors might be feasible and effective to reduce the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). TRALI is a serious adverse event of blood transfusion. Antibodies to granulocytes and human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) are frequently detected in sera of implicated donors. These donors are often multiparous women. A general deferral of female plasma or screening strategies for leucocyte antibodies has been proposed to increase blood safety. A prospective study was initiated in 2003. Until 2006, serum samples from all female donors reporting three or more pregnancies (n = 229) were screened for the presence of antibodies against granulocytes and HLAs by immunofluorescence and agglutination tests as well as by a commercial HLA enzyme immunoassay. In total, 40% of all multiparous women were reactive in one of the assays. Twenty-nine percent of the reactive sera contained antibodies to granulocytes but not to HLAs. During the observation period, three TRALI reactions occurred in our hospital, two of which would have been prevented if the screening program had been extended to all previously pregnant donors. We conclude from these data that, not unexpectedly, the number of previous pregnancies is not a reliable indicator for the likelihood of inducing TRALI. More importantly, screening strategies for antibodies that might induce TRALI should probably not be reduced to HLA antibody screening. This finding awaits further research. PMID:19140817

  1. VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saidi

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sera from children 1 - 6 years of age, representative of a large serum collection, were tested for the prevalence of antibodies against different viruses. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI antibodies were found in 68% for measles; 61 % for rubella; 75'% for influenza A2/Hong Kong/68, 16% for influenza B/Md./59, 0% for group A arboviruses, 10% for group B arboviruses, 3% for phlebotomus fever group and 4% for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (C-CHF group of arboviruses Poliomyelitis-neutralizing antibodies for type 1, 2 and 3 were 90%; 85% and 84%~ respectively. Antibody to EH virus was detected in 84% of the sera by immuno-fluorescence. None of the sera were positive for hepatitis-B antigen or antibody by immuno-precipitation test. The prevalence of some viral antibodies found in this survey are compared with results obtained from surveys in other parts of the country.

  2. Evaluation of rubella igg antibodies among women at marriage in kermanshah city, before and after mass vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hatami

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In our previous study, we had recommended to screen for susceptibility to rubella before marriage, which is no longer required since more than 99% of vaccinated girls showed immunity at the time of marriage. However, as sustainability of immunity after rubella vaccination is usually less than immunity due to illness, we recommend screening for rubella protective antibody every few years.

  3. Development of an antigen microarray for high throughput monoclonal antibody selection

    OpenAIRE

    Staudt, Nicole; Müller-Sienerth, Nicole; Wright, Gavin J.

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are valuable laboratory reagents and are increasingly being exploited as therapeutics to treat a range of diseases. Selecting new monoclonal antibodies that are validated to work in particular applications, despite the availability of several different techniques, can be resource intensive with uncertain outcomes. To address this, we have developed an approach that enables early screening of hybridoma supernatants generated from an animal immunised with up to five differ...

  4. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development

    OpenAIRE

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approv...

  5. Empowered Antibody Therapies - IBC conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Jens

    2010-10-01

    The Empowered Antibody Therapies conference, held in Burlingame, CA, USA, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of multispecific antibodies. This conference report highlights selected presentations on DVD-Igs from Abbott Laboratories, ImmTACs from Immunocore, 'Dock-and-Lock' technology from Immunomedics, the bispecific BiTE antibody blinatumomab from Micromet, and Triomabs from TRION Pharma and Fresenius Biotech. PMID:20878591

  6. Monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to assess the current status of in-vivo use of monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer. Publications appearing between 1980 and 1988 were identified by computer searches using MEDLINE and CANCERLIT, by reviewing the table of contents of recently published journals, and by searching bibliographies of identified books and articles. More than 700 articles, including peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, were identified and selected for analysis. The literature was reviewed and 235 articles were selected as relevant and representative of the current issues and future applications for in-vivo monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy and of the toxicity and efficacy which has been associated with clinical trials. Approaches include using antibody alone (interacting with complement or effector cells or binding directly with certain cell receptors) and immunoconjugates (antibody coupled to radioisotopes, drugs, toxins, or other biologicals). Most experience has been with murine antibodies. Trials of antibody alone and radiolabeled antibodies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and the in-vivo trafficking of antibodies to tumor cells. However, tumor cell heterogeneity, lack of cytotoxicity, and the development of human antimouse antibodies have limited clinical efficacy. Although the immunoconjugates are very promising, heterogeneity and the antimouse immune response have hampered this approach as has the additional challenge of chemically or genetically coupling antibody to cytotoxic agents. As a therapeutic modality, monoclonal antibodies are still promising but their general use will be delayed for several years. New approaches using human antibodies and reducing the human antiglobulin response should facilitate treatment. 235 references

  7. Characterization of single chain antibody targets through yeast two hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vielemeyer Ole

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to their unique ability to bind their targets with high fidelity, antibodies are used widely not only in biomedical research, but also in many clinical applications. Recombinant antibodies, including single chain variable fragments (scFv, are gaining momentum because they allow powerful in vitro selection and manipulation without loss of function. Regardless of the ultimate application or type of antibody used, precise understanding of the interaction between the antibody's binding site and its specific target epitope(s is of great importance. However, such data is frequently difficult to obtain. Results We describe an approach that allows detailed characterization of a given antibody's target(s using the yeast two-hybrid system. Several recombinant scFv were used as bait and screened against highly complex cDNA libraries. Systematic sequencing of all retained clones and statistical analysis allowed efficient ranking of the prey fragments. Multiple alignment of the obtained cDNA fragments provided a selected interacting domain (SID, efficiently narrowing the epitope-containing region. Interactions between antibodies and their respective targets were characterized for several scFv. For AA2 and ROF7, two conformation-specific sensors that exclusively bind the activated forms of the small GTPases Rab6 and Rab1 respectively, only fragments expressing the entire target protein's core region were retained. This strongly suggested interaction with a non-linear epitope. For two other scFv, TA10 and SF9, which recognize the large proteins giantin and non-muscle myosin IIA, respectively, precise antibody-binding regions within the target were defined. Finally, for some antibodies, secondary targets within and across species could be revealed. Conclusions Our method, utilizing the yeast two-hybrid technology and scFv as bait, is a simple yet powerful approach for the detailed characterization of antibody targets. It allows precise

  8. Screening for hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomson, P R V

    1983-01-01

    In an open access screening campaign for hypertension lasting six weeks 6259 individuals were screened with a Vita-Stat blood pressure computer and an estimated 4.2% to 5.4% of new cases were detected.

  9. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  10. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small flexible ...

  11. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  12. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  13. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  15. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Redirect CDC - Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You are being redirected to the HPV Cancer Screening page. Please update your bookmarks to the link ...

  16. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  17. A Study of Anti Beta-2 Glycoprotein I and Anti-Prothrombin Antibodies in Patients with Unexplained Recurrent Pregnancy Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Angad; Nangia, Anita; Sharma, Sunita; Puri, Manju

    2016-06-01

    To compare the levels of IgG and IgM anti beta-2 glycoprotein I antibodies and IgG and IgM anti prothrombin antibodies among women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy losses and women with at least 2 live issues. To compare the prevalence of newer anti beta-2 glycoprotein I & anti prothrombin antibodies with conventional Lupus anticoagulant & anticardiolipin antibodies. 50 women with recurrent pregnancy losses & 50 matched controls were evaluated for the presence of: Lupus anticoagulant-screened by LA sensitive aPTT& DRVV and confirmatory Staclot Assay. ELISA kits were used for detecting IgG & IgM anticardiolipin, anti beta-2 glycoprotein I & anti prothrombin antibodies. 11/50 (22 %) women in study group and none in control group had circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. 2 cases (4 %) had lupus anticoagulant. 1 case (2 %) had anticardiolipin antibody & 6 cases (12 %) were positive for anti beta-2 Glycoprotein I antibody (p value = 0.027). 3 cases (6 %) had anti prothrombin antibody. All were mutually exclusive except for one. Women with recurrent pregnancy losses should be tested for anti beta-2 Glycoprotein I antibodies & anti prothrombin antibodies in addition to conventional lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. This approach can decrease the incidence of SNAP (seronegative antiphospholipid syndrome) cases while establishing the true prevalence of antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:27065583

  18. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Sebastiani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA are predominantly IgG autoantibodies directed against constituents of primary granules of neutrophils and monocytes’ lysosomes. Although several antigenic targets have been identified, those ANCA directed to proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase are clinically relevant, whereas the importance of other ANCA remains unknown. Both are strongly associated with small vessel vasculitides, the ANCA-associated vasculitides, which include Wegener’s granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome, and the localised forms of these diseases (eg, pauci-immune necrotising and crescentic glomerulonephritis. ANCA is a useful serological test to assist in diagnosis of small-vessel vasculitides. 85-95% of patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and pauci-immune necrotising and crescentic glomerulonephritis have serum ANCA. ANCA directed to either proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase are clinically relevant, yet the relevance of other ANCA remains unknown. Besides their diagnostic potential, ANCA might be valuable in disease monitoring. In addition, data seem to confirm the long-disputed pathogenic role of these antibodies. There is increasing evidence that myeloperoxidase- ANCA are directly involved in the pathogenesis of necrotizing vasculitis. This is less clear for proteinase 3-ANCA, markers for Wegener’s granulomatosis. With respect to proteinase 3-ANCA, complementary proteinase 3, a peptide translated from the antisense DNA strand of proteinase 3 and homologous to several microbial peptides, may be involved in induction of proteinase 3-antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies.

  19. Analysis of Detecting HIV-1 Antibody in Paired Urine and Serum Specimens from Drug Users by ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中夫; 李志军; 刘世亮; 李莉; 梁富雄; 郑锡文

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the consistency of the results from detecting HIV-1 antibody in the paired urine and serum specimens from drug users by ELISA.Methods: The paired urine and serum specimens from 273 drug users detained at a detoxification unit were collected, and the HIV-1 antibodies in the specimens of them were screened by urine and serum ELISA kits, respectively. Results: Of 273 serum specimens, 94 ones showed positive reaction and among 94 counterpart urine specimens, 93 ones also appeared positive reaction. Taking the results together,the consistent rate of HIV-1 antibody screened by urine and serum ELISA kits was 99.6%.Conclusion: The urine ELISA kit, which screened HIV-1 antibody of urine showing almost the same results tested by serum ELISA kit, is reliable. It is proposed that urine ELISA be introduced in many fields.

  20. Characterization of Tumor-Avid Antibody Fragments Genetically Engineered for Mono-Specific Radionuclide Chelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, T.P.

    2003-12-31

    The successful clinical application of targeted-radiopharmaceuticals depends on the development of molecules that optimize tumor specific radionuclide deposition and minimize non-specific organ irradiation. To this end, this proposal outlines a research effort to identify and evaluate novel antibodies and antibody fragments that bind breast tumors. The tumor-avid antibodies will be investigated for as imaging and therapeutic agents and to gain a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of radiolabeled tumor-avid antibody fragments through the use of site-specifically labeled molecules. Antibodies or antibody fragments, that bind breast carcinoma carbohydrate antigens, will be obtained from hybridoma or bacteriophage library screening. More specifically, antibody fragments that bind the carcinoma-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen will be radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re at a natural amino acid chelation site and will be investigated in vivo for their abilities to target human breast tumors. In addition, site-specific radiolabeled antibody fragments will be biosynthesized using misacylated suppressor tRNAs. Homogeneously radiolabeled populations of antibody fragments will be used to investigate the effects of radionuclide location and chelation chemistries on their biodistribution and metabolism. It is hypothesized that site-specifically radiolabeled antibody fragments will possess enhanced tumor imaging and therapeutic properties due to optimal label location and conjugation chemistries. New insights into the factors that govern antibody metabolism in vivo are also expected from this work. Results from these studies should enhance our ability to design and synthesize radiolabeled antibody fragments that have improved pharmacokinetic properties. The studies in this proposal involve basic research into the development of antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals, with the ultimate goal of application in humans. This type of basic

  1. Characterization of Tumor-Avid Antibody Fragments Genetically Engineered for Mono-Specific Radionuclide Chelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful clinical application of targeted-radiopharmaceuticals depends on the development of molecules that optimize tumor specific radionuclide deposition and minimize non-specific organ irradiation. To this end, this proposal outlines a research effort to identify and evaluate novel antibodies and antibody fragments that bind breast tumors. The tumor-avid antibodies will be investigated for as imaging and therapeutic agents and to gain a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of radiolabeled tumor-avid antibody fragments through the use of site-specifically labeled molecules. Antibodies or antibody fragments, that bind breast carcinoma carbohydrate antigens, will be obtained from hybridoma or bacteriophage library screening. More specifically, antibody fragments that bind the carcinoma-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen will be radiolabeled with 99mTc and 188Re at a natural amino acid chelation site and will be investigated in vivo for their abilities to target human breast tumors. In addition, site-specific radiolabeled antibody fragments will be biosynthesized using misacylated suppressor tRNAs. Homogeneously radiolabeled populations of antibody fragments will be used to investigate the effects of radionuclide location and chelation chemistries on their biodistribution and metabolism. It is hypothesized that site-specifically radiolabeled antibody fragments will possess enhanced tumor imaging and therapeutic properties due to optimal label location and conjugation chemistries. New insights into the factors that govern antibody metabolism in vivo are also expected from this work. Results from these studies should enhance our ability to design and synthesize radiolabeled antibody fragments that have improved pharmacokinetic properties. The studies in this proposal involve basic research into the development of antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals, with the ultimate goal of application in humans. This type of basic nuclear

  2. Anti-plasminogen antibodies compromise fibrinolysis and associate with renal histology in ANCA-associated vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berden, Annelies E; Nolan, Sarah L; Morris, Hannah L; Bertina, Rogier M; Erasmus, Dianhdra D; Hagen, E Christiaan; Hayes, Donal P; van Tilburg, Nico H; Bruijn, Jan A; Savage, Caroline O S; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Hewins, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Antibodies recognizing plasminogen, a key component of the fibrinolytic system, associate with venous thrombotic events in PR3-ANCA vasculitis. Here, we investigated the prevalence and function of anti-plasminogen antibodies in independent UK and Dutch cohorts of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). We screened Ig isolated from patients (AAV-IgG) and healthy controls by ELISA. Eighteen of 74 (24%) UK and 10/38 (26%) Dutch patients with AAV had anti-plasminogen antibodies compared with 0/50 and 1/61 (2%) of controls. We detected anti-plasminogen antibodies in both PR3-ANCA- and MPO-ANCA-positive patients. In addition, we identified anti-tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antibodies in 13/74 (18%) patients, and these antibodies were more common among patients with anti-plasminogen antibodies (P = 0.011). Eighteen of 74 AAV-IgG (but no control IgG) retarded fibrinolysis in vitro, and this associated with anti-plasminogen and/or anti-tPA antibody positivity. Only 4/18 AAV-IgG retarded fibrinolysis without harboring these antibodies; dual-positive samples retarded fibrinolysis to the greatest extent. Patients with anti-plasminogen antibodies had significantly higher percentages of glomeruli with fibrinoid necrosis (P < 0.05) and cellular crescents (P < 0.001) and had more severely reduced renal function than patients without these antibodies. In conclusion, anti-plasminogen and anti-tPA antibodies occur in AAV and associate with functional inhibition of fibrinolysis in vitro. Seropositivity for anti-plasminogen antibodies correlates with hallmark renal histologic lesions and reduced renal function. Conceivably, therapies that enhance fibrinolysis might benefit a subset of AAV patients.

  3. [Antibody detection after antepartal rhesus prophylaxis: normal values or sensitization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, O; Bader, W; Holle, W; Maas, D H; Schneider, J

    1993-05-01

    Antibody screening tests were performed in 29 unsensitized pregnant women after antepartum Rh immune prophylaxis, using the indirect Coombs test (ICT) and a more sensitive ID-microtyping-system (IDM). With the ICT, anti-D antibodies were detected in 85% for at least 4 weeks and at most 8 weeks after immunisation. The maximum titer was 1:8. With the IDM, 97% showed antibodies against 'D' for at least 4 weeks and at most 11 weeks with a maximum of 1:16. The IDM titer was always 1 to 3 steps more sensitive than the ICT. After postpartum Rh immune prophylaxis, anti-D titers were again positive in many of the patients (ICT: 42%; IDM: 60%). In conclusion, it is nearly always possible to measure antibodies against 'D' after antepartum Rh immune prophylaxis and IDM was superior in comparison to ICT. However, maternal isoimmunisation to the rhesus antigen cannot be excluded for sure and patients have then to be controlled. As isoimmunisation could not be confirmed in any of our patients, postpartum Rh immune prophylaxis has to be administered even after detection of an antibody titer against 'D' after antepartum Rh prophylaxis. PMID:8514107

  4. Towards single screening tests for brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.;

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and a fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA), each capable of detecting antibody in several species of hosts to smooth and rough members of the genus Brucella. The I-ELISA uses a mixture of smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS...... than did I-ELISA procedures using each individual antigen separately. Similarly, the assay using combined antigens detected antibody in slightly fewer animals not exposed to Brucella sp. When a universal cutoff of 10% positivity was used (relative to strongly positive control sera of each species......-ELISA and the FPA with combined antigens were suitable as screening tests for all species of Brucella in the animal species tested....

  5. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  6. ANA、抗dsDNA抗体和抗ENA抗体谱对系统性红斑狼疮的诊断价值%The clinical value of ANA,anti-dsDNA antibody and anti-ENA antibody repertoire in systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌晓燕; 陈艳; 张银辉; 王霓; 吕春兰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical value of the anti-nuclear antibody (ANA ) ,anti-double strand DNA (dsDNA ) anti-body and anti-extractable nuclear antigen(ENA) antibody repertoire in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis .Methods 158 SLE patients were served as SLE group and another 50 healthy people as the control group .Indirect immunofluorescence(IIF) and immunoblotting test(IBT ) were employed to detect ANA ,anti-dsDNA antibody and anti-ENA antibody repertoire .Results Positive rates of ANA ,anti-dsDNA antibody and anti-ENA antibody repertoire in SLE diagnosis were 81 .65% ,68 .35% and 87 .34% ,respectively ,which were all lower than that of their combined detection (93 .04% ) ,with statistically significant difference (P<0 .05 ) .Among anti-ENA antibody repertoire ,the positive rate of anti-U1-nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1-Nrnp ) antibody (52 .53% ) was the highest .Conclusion Combined detection of ANA ,anti-dsDNA antibody and anti-ENA antibodies repertoire has some clinical value of early diagnosis of SLE .%目的:探讨抗核抗体(ANA)、抗双链DNA(dsDNA)抗体及抗可溶性抗原(ENA)抗体谱对系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)的临床诊断价值。方法将158例SLE患者作为SLE组,50例健康者作为对照组。分别采用间接免疫荧光法(IIF)及免疫印迹法(IBT )对ANA、抗dsDNA抗体及抗ENA抗体谱进行检测。结果 ANA、抗dsDNA抗体及抗ENA抗体谱检测在SLE诊断中的阳性率分别为81.65%、68.35%及87.34%,均低于三者联合检测(93.04%),差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。抗EN A抗体谱中,抗U1核糖核蛋白(U1-nRNP)抗体的阳性率(52.53%)最高。结论联合检测ANA、抗dsDNA抗体及抗ENA抗体谱对SLE的早期诊断具有一定的临床价值。

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to the human insulin receptor block insulin binding and inhibit insulin action.

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, R A; Cassell, D J; Wong, K. Y.; Maddux, B A; Goldfine, I D

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies to the insulin receptor were prepared in BALB/c mice by immunization with IM-9 human lymphocytes, a cell type that has a large number of plasma membrane insulin receptors. The spleens of these mice were then removed, and their lymphocytes were fused to a mouse myeloma cell line, FO cells. After screening over 1,200 resulting hybrids, one stable hybrid was obtained that produced IgG1 antibodies directed towards the insulin receptor. This antibody blocked 125I-labeled insulin binding...

  8. Production and characterisation of a monoclonal antibody to human papillomavirus type 16 using recombinant vaccinia virus.

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, C S; Churcher, M J; Meinke, J.; Smith, G.L.; Higgins, G; Stanley, M.; Minson, A C

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was raised against the major capsid protein L1 of human papillomavirus type 16, using a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the L1 protein, as a target for screening. This antibody, designated CAMVIR-1, reacted with a 56 kilodalton protein in cells infected with L1-vaccinia virus, and the protein was present in a predominantly nuclear location. The antibody also detects the HPV-16 L1 antigen in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded biopsy specimens and on routine c...

  9. Production of monoclonal antibodies for use in immunoassays based on the magnetizable solid phase separation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies to TSH were produced by using mouse-ascites techniques. Various methods for purifying the antibody from the ascetic fluid have been tried in order to obtain an appropriate TSH kit production protocol. The purified antibodies were then immobilized on magnetizable cellulose for developing an IRMA for TSH. A detailed study of the assay system, including the stability of the magnetic adsorbent was made, which showed that the SCIPAc magnetizable cellulose is suitable for the production of TSH - Blood spot IRMA kits for use in the Neonatal hypothyroid screening programme to be launched in Thailand in the near future. (author). 4 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Anti IH: An antibody worth mention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, Nithya; Henry, Nittin; Rafi, Aboobacker Mohamed; Innah, Susheela J

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old female with co-morbidities posted for surgical correction of fracture neck of femur without any history of transfusions was noted to have a hemoglobin level of 7 g/dl and packed red blood cells transfusion was ordered. Pretransfusion tests demonstrated A1B group with D positive on forward grouping. Reverse grouping showed a varying grade of agglutination with A, B, and O cells. Agglutination being stronger at 4°C. Antibody screening showed pan-agglutination, direct Coomb's test and auto control were negative. The serum reacted with adult O cells (OIadult) but not with adult Bombay cells (Oh Iadult) or O cord (Oicord) cells. A possibility of a compound cold antibody anti IH was made and A1B compatible cells were transfused to the patient. This case report illustrates anti-IH cold agglutinin with broad thermal amplitude. Uniqueness of this case report was O group incompatibility with A1B group, which was detected earlier and a catastrophic transfusion reaction being subverted.

  11. Anti IH: An antibody worth mention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Mohanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old female with co-morbidities posted for surgical correction of fracture neck of femur without any history of transfusions was noted to have a hemoglobin level of 7 g/dl and packed red blood cells transfusion was ordered. Pretransfusion tests demonstrated A1B group with D positive on forward grouping. Reverse grouping showed a varying grade of agglutination with A, B, and O cells. Agglutination being stronger at 4°C. Antibody screening showed pan-agglutination, direct Coomb's test and auto control were negative. The serum reacted with adult O cells (OIadult but not with adult Bombay cells (Oh Iadult or O cord (Oicord cells. A possibility of a compound cold antibody anti IH was made and A1B compatible cells were transfused to the patient. This case report illustrates anti-IH cold agglutinin with broad thermal amplitude. Uniqueness of this case report was O group incompatibility with A1B group, which was detected earlier and a catastrophic transfusion reaction being subverted.

  12. Development of monoclonal antibodies against parathyroid hormone: genetic control of the immune response to human PTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen monocloanl antibodies against the aminoterminal portion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were generated by using BALB/c mouse for immunization fully biologically active synthetic human PTH-(1-34) and bovine PTH-(1-84) as immunogens, monoclonal antibody methods, and a solid-phase screening assay. Isotypic analysis of these monoclonal antibodies was performed using affinity purified goat antimouse immunoglobulins specific for IgG heavy chains and μ(IgM). All antibodies were IgM as evidenced by 40 times greater than background activity when 25,000 cpm of 125I-labelled goat anti-mouse IgM was used as second antibody in a radioimmunoassay

  13. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    in curating has emerged from a critical discourse in response to a particular "screen topos", which has relied on a Foucauldian, apparatus-theoretical mechanism of the screen as a broadcasting medium of mass entertainment. This topos, I argue, has transferred the dispositif of the screen apparatus...... to the dispositif of screen practice in curating, resulting in a medium-based curatorial discourse. With reference to the nomadic exhibition project Nordic Outbreak that I co-curated with Nina Colosi in 2013 and 2014, I suggest that the topos of the defined visual display area, frequently still known as "the screen...

  14. Constructing a population-based research database from routine maternal screening records: a resource for studying alloimmunization in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although screening for maternal red blood cell antibodies during pregnancy is a standard procedure, the prevalence and clinical consequences of non-anti-D immunization are poorly understood. The objective was to create a national database of maternal antibody screening results that can be linked with population health registers to create a research resource for investigating these issues. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Each birth in the Swedish Medical Birth Register was uniquely identified and linked to the text stored in routine maternal antibody screening records in the time window from 9 months prior to 2 weeks after the delivery date. These text records were subjected to a computerized search for specific antibodies using regular expressions. To illustrate the research potential of the resulting database, selected antibody prevalence rates are presented as tables and figures, and the complete data (from more than 60 specific antibodies presented as online moving graphical displays. RESULTS: More than one million (1,191,761 births with valid screening information from 1982-2002 constitute the study population. Computerized coverage of screening increased steadily over time and varied by region as electronic records were adopted. To ensure data quality, we restricted analysis to birth records in areas and years with a sustained coverage of at least 80%, representing 920,903 births from 572,626 mothers in 17 of the 24 counties in Sweden. During the study period, non-anti-D and anti-D antibodies occurred in 76.8/10,000 and 14.1/10,000 pregnancies respectively, with marked differences between specific antibodies over time. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates the feasibility of creating a nationally representative research database from the routine maternal antibody screening records from an extended calendar period. By linkage with population registers of maternal and child health, such data are a valuable resource for addressing important

  15. Efficient Methods To Isolate Human Monoclonal Antibodies from Memory B Cells and Plasma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we highlight the advantages of isolating human monoclonal antibodies from the human memory B cells and plasma cell repertoires by using high-throughput cellular screens. Memory B cells are immortalized with high efficiency using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the presence of a toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, while plasma cells are maintained in single-cell cultures by using interleukin 6 (IL-6) or stromal cells. In both cases, multiple parallel assays, including functional assays, can be used to identify rare cells that produce antibodies with unique properties. Using these methods, we have isolated potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies against a variety of viruses, in particular, a pan-influenza-A-neutralizing antibody and an antibody that neutralizes four different paramyxoviruses. Given the high throughput and the possibility of directly screening for function (rather than just binding), these methods are instrumental to implement a target-agnostic approach to identify the most effective antibodies and, consequently, the most promising targets for vaccine design. This approach is exemplified by the identification of unusually potent cytomegalovirus-neutralizing antibodies that led to the identification of the target, a pentameric complex that we are developing as a candidate vaccine. PMID:26104354

  16. Targeting of Antibodies using Aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Missailidis, Sotiris

    2003-01-01

    The chapter presents a methodology for the rapid selection of aptamers against antibody targets. It is a detailed account of the various methodological steps that describe the selection of aptamers, including PCR steps, buffers to be used, target immobilisation, partitioning and amplification of aptamers, clonning and sequencing, to results in high affinity and specificity ligands for the chosen target antibody.

  17. Structural Characterization of Peptide Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The role of proteins as very effective immunogens for the generation of antibodies is indisputable. Nevertheless, cases in which protein usage for antibody production is not feasible or convenient compelled the creation of a powerful alternative consisting of synthetic peptides. Synthetic peptide...

  18. Pathogenic role of antiphospholipid antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J. E.; de Groot, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis and/or pregnancy in association with antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies. The pathogenic mechanisms in APS that lead to in vivo injury are incompletely understood. Recent evidence suggests that AP

  19. The cost-effectiveness of 10 antenatal syphilis screening and treatment approaches in Peru, Tanzania, and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Vickerman, Peter; Torres-Rueda, Sergio; Santesso, Nancy; Sweeney, Sedona; Mallma, Patricia; Shelley, Katharine D.; Garcia, Patricia J; Bronzan, Rachel; Michelle M. Gill; Broutet, Nathalie; Wi, Teodora; Watts, Charlotte; Mabey, David; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) is frequently used to test women for maternal syphilis. Rapid syphilis immunochromatographic strip tests detecting only Treponema pallidum antibodies (single RSTs) or both treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies (dual RSTs) are now available. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of algorithms using these tests to screen pregnant women. Methods Observed costs of maternal syphilis screening and treatment using clinic-based RPR and single RSTs in 20 cli...

  20. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed. PMID:20930555

  1. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed.

  2. A Study on the “Religious Imagination”in Kenzaburo Oe’ S Anti-nuclear Literature%大江健三郎反核文学中“宗教的想象力”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽华

    2013-01-01

    1961年首次访问“广岛”以来,大江健三郎即与“核”结下了不解之缘。他在密切关注“原子弹爆炸受害者生存状况”的同时,也在持续创作着反核题材的文学。大江的“反核文学”,以揭示“核时代人类的生存状况”为基本命题,通过政治、宗教、 SF等的想象力,创造了一个想象的世界,并在这个想象的世界中努力探索核时代人类“灵魂得以救赎”的出口。文章试图以《燃烧的绿树》《空翻》两部作品为中心,来考察大江反核题材文学中所构建的“宗教式救赎”这一体系的具体形态及本质。%Since the first visit of “Hiroshima” in 1961 , Kenzaburo Oe has been irrevocably committed to the issue of “atomic bomb” and “nuclear”.Meanwhile , He has been paying close attention to “the living conditions of the atomic bomb victims”, and has been continuing to create the literature on the theme of anti -nuclear.Oe’s anti-nuclear literature has created an imaginary world by the imagination of politics , religion , SF , etc, Which is to reveal the “the living conditions of human beings in nuclear age” and try to find the means to achieve the “salvation of soul” of the human beings .This paper attempts to clarify the nature of the“religious salvation” in Oe’ s anti-nuclear literature by analyzing the “religious imagination” in the works of The Flaming Green Tree Trilogy and Somersault .

  3. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  4. Screening in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Del Poggio; Marzio Mazzoleni

    2006-01-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines,although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors,such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction,is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation.

  5. Screening in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Poggio, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-09-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  6. Anti-nucleosome antibodies as a disease marker in systemic lupus erythematosus and its correlation with disease activity and other autoantibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Vandana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of anti-nucleosome antibodies (anti-nuc in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE has been well established and it is claimed that their presence is associated with disease activity. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of anti-nuc antibodies and to correlate them with disease activity and its association with other autoantibodies like anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA, anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA, anti-histone antibodies (AHA, as well as autoantibodies to histone subfractions like H1, (H2A-H4 complex, H2B, and H3. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 100 SLE patients referred from the Rheumatology, Dermatology, and Nephrology Departments. SLE disease activity was evaluated by using SLE-Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI score. A patient was defined as having active SLE when the SLEDAI score was more than 5.0. Fifty normal controls were also tested as a healthy control group. Anti-nuc antibodies, anti-dsDNA, and AHA were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and ANA was detected by an indirect immunofluorescence test. Results: All patients studied were in an active stage of disease and were untreated, of which 44 patients had renal biopsy-proven kidney involvement, which was categorized as lupus nephritis (LN and 56 patients did not show any renal manifestations (SLE without LN. Anti-nuc antibodies were positive in 88%, anti-dsDNA in 80%, and AHA in 38% of the cases. ANA was positive in all SLE patients studied. None of the normal controls was found to be positive for these antibodies. Although a slightly higher incidence of autoantibodies were noted in LN, there was no statistical difference noted between LN and SLE without LN groups for anti-nuc and anti-dsDNA antibodies (p > 0.05. A higher incidence of autoantibodies to ANA specificities were noted in anti-nuc positive cases, but there was no statistical difference between anti-nuc positive and anti-nuc negative cases for

  7. Cushing's Syndrome: Screening and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Filippo; Boscaro, Marco

    2016-09-01

    patients provide complete urine collections with appropriate total volumes. Measuring cortisol with antibody-based immunoassays can also generate false-positive results due to cross-reactivity between cortisol, cortisone and other metabolites. Structurally-based assays, such as liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, only measure cortisol and have only recently become available for use in routine clinical practice. This review summarizes the recent literature on the clinical and biochemical aspects of CS diagnostics with a view to helping physicians choose the best screening test for diagnosing endogenous hypercortisolism.

  8. Cushing's Syndrome: Screening and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Filippo; Boscaro, Marco

    2016-09-01

    patients provide complete urine collections with appropriate total volumes. Measuring cortisol with antibody-based immunoassays can also generate false-positive results due to cross-reactivity between cortisol, cortisone and other metabolites. Structurally-based assays, such as liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, only measure cortisol and have only recently become available for use in routine clinical practice. This review summarizes the recent literature on the clinical and biochemical aspects of CS diagnostics with a view to helping physicians choose the best screening test for diagnosing endogenous hypercortisolism. PMID:27160717

  9. Isolation and chimerization of a highly neutralizing antibody conferring passive protection against lethal Bacillus anthracis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that the passive transfer of protective antigen (PA-neutralizing antibodies can protect animals against Bacillus anthracis infection. The standard protocol for the isolation of PA-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies is based upon a primary selection of the highest PA-binders by ELISA, and usually yields only few candidates antibodies. We demonstrated that by applying a PA-neutralization functionality-based screen as the primary criterion for positive clones, it was possible to isolate more than 100 PA-neutralizing antibodies, some of which exhibited no measurable anti-PA titers in ELISA. Among the large panel of neutralizing antibodies identified, mAb 29 demonstrated the most potent activity, and was therefore chimerized. The variable region genes of the mAb 29 were fused to human constant region genes, to form the chimeric 29 antibody (cAb 29. Guinea pigs were fully protected against infection by 40LD(50B. anthracis spores following two separate administrations with 10 mg/kg of cAb 29: the first administration was given before the challenge, and a second dose was administered on day 4 following exposure. Moreover, animals that survived the challenge and developed endogenous PA-neutralizing antibodies with neutralizing titers above 100 were fully protected against repeat challenges with 40LD(50 of B. anthracis spores. The data presented here emphasize the importance of toxin neutralization-based screens for the efficient isolation of protective antibodies that were probably overlooked in the standard screening protocol. The protective activity of the chimeric cAb 29 demonstrated in this study suggest that it may serve as an effective immunotherapeutic agent against anthrax.

  10. Seroprevalence of unexpected red blood cell antibodies among pregnant women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eipl, K; Nakabiito, C; Bwogi, K; Motevalli, M; Roots, A; Blagg, L; Jackson, J B

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among pregnant women in Kampala, Uganda, to determine ABO and D blood types and to determine the percentage who have unexpected red blood cell (RBC) antibodies and their specificities. De-identified blood samples from routine testing of 1001 pregnant women at the Mulago Hospital antenatal clinics in Kampala were typed for ABO and D and screened for the presence of unexpected RBC antibodies with confirmation and subsequent antibody identification. Of the 1001 blood samples tested, 48.9 percent, 26.4 percent, 21.0 percent, and 3.8 percent tested positive for blood groups 0, A, B, and AB, respectively. Of these samples, 23 (2.3%)were negative forD, and 55 (5.5%) showed initial reactivity with at least one screening RBC. The RBC antibody screen was repeated on these 55 samples, and antibody identification was performed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital Blood Bank in Baltimore, Maryland. Twenty-one of the 55 samples were confirmed to have evidence of agglutination. Nine of the 21 samples demonstrated the presence of clinically significant RBC antibodies with anti-S being the most common, 8 samples demonstrated the presence of benign or naturally occurring antibodies, and 4 had only inconclusive reactivity. This study revealed a relatively high frequency of D and a low frequency of demonstrable clinically significant alloantibodies that may cause hemolytic disease of the newborn or hemolytic transfusion reactions among pregnant women in Kampala, with anti-S being the most frequent antibody specificity. PMID:23421539

  11. Diabetes Screening Among Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Creatore, Maria I.; Gillian L Booth; Manuel, Douglas G.; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine diabetes screening, predictors of screening, and the burden of undiagnosed diabetes in the immigrant population and whether these estimates differ by ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based retrospective cohort linking administrative health data to immigration files was used to follow the entire diabetes-free population aged 40 years and up in Ontario, Canada (N = 3,484,222) for 3 years (2004–2007) to determine whether individuals were screened for diabe...

  12. The Kondo Screening Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Affleck, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Renormalization group theory of the Kondo effect predicts that an impurity spin is screened by a conduction electron spread over a large distance of order >.1 to 1 micron. This review has the following sections: 1. The Kondo effect and the screening cloud, 2. Non-observation of the Kondo cloud in conventional experiments, 3. Kondo effect in transmission through a quantum dot, 4. Observing the screening cloud in persistent current experiments, 5. Side-coupled quantum dot, 6. Conclusions

  13. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  14. Scrub Typhus antibody in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisey, G B; Gan, E; Shirai, A; Groves, M G

    1981-06-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, sera from 113 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), trapped in Peninsular Malaysia, were screened for the presence of antibody to six prototype strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi combined into three polyvalent groupings: I--Karp, TA716, and TA763; II--Gilliam; and III--TA678 and TH1817. Fifteen percent (17/113) of the monkeys had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:50 to one or more of the antigenic groups. Although a titer greater than or equal to 1:150 is generally considered indicative or prior Rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection, we selected a less than 1:25 titer as a conservative standard to insure non-infected animals. Using this criterion, 62 (55%) of the 113 monkeys were accepted for use in scrub typhus studies. The high prevalence of antibody to scrub typhus in the semi-arboreal cynomolgus monkey is in marked contrast to the low prevalence reported in the strictly arboreal silvered leaf monkeys (Presbytis cristatus). The results of this study indicate that cynomolgus monkeys should be rigorously screened for evidence of prior infection before they are included in experimental scrub typhus studies.

  15. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  16. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  18. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality, but it...... is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational...... requirements for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  19. Characterization of Inhibitory Anti-insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor Antibodies with Different Epitope Specificity and Ligand-blocking Properties: IMPLICATIONS FOR MECHANISM OF ACTION IN VIVOS⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Doern, Adam; Cao, Xianjun; Sereno, Arlene; Reyes, Christopher L.; Altshuler, Angelina; Huang, Flora; Hession, Cathy; Flavier, Albert; Favis, Michael; Tran, Hon; Ailor, Eric; Levesque, Melissa; MURPHY, TRACEY; Berquist, Lisa; Tamraz, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies directed against the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have recently gained significant momentum in the clinic because of preliminary data generated in human patients with cancer. These antibodies inhibit ligand-mediated activation of IGF-1R and the resulting down-stream signaling cascade. Here we generated a panel of antibodies against IGF-1R and screened them for their ability to block the binding of both IGF-1 and IGF-2 at es...

  20. Screening protilátek u těhotných žen s ohledem na jejich krevní skupinu.

    OpenAIRE

    VACKOVÁ, Věra

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this work is screening the pregnant women's antibodies according to their blood group. The screening of the pregnant women's antibodies is to state the potentially high-risk group of pregnancy from the point of hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN). HDN is a state when maternal irregular antibodies of group IgG go via placenta and destroy fetal red cell. The antibodies may have been formed as a consequence to a previous non-compatible transfusion or due to the penetration of the fet...

  1. A Model System for Concurrent Detection of Antigen and Antibody Based on Immunological Fluorescent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Cheng Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a combined antigen/antibody immunoassay implemented in a 96-well plate using fluorescent spectroscopic method. First, goat anti-human IgG was used to capture human IgG (model antigen; goat anti-human IgG (Cy3 or FITC was used to detect the model antigen; a saturating level of model antigen was then added followed by unlabelled goat anti-human IgG (model antibody; finally, Cy3 labelled rabbit anti-goat IgG was used to detect the model antibody. Two approaches were applied to the concomitant assay to analyze the feasibility. The first approach applied FITC and Cy3 when both targets were present at the same time, resulting in 50 ng/mL of the antibody detection limit and 10 ng/mL of antigen detection limit in the quantitative measurements of target concentration, taking the consideration of FRET efficiency of 68% between donor and acceptor. The sequential approach tended to lower the signal/noise (S/N ratio and the detection of the model antigen (lower than 1 ng/mL had better sensitivity than the model antibody (lower than 50 ng/mL. This combined antigen/antibody method might be useful for combined detection of antigens and antibodies. It will be helpful to screen for both antigen and antibody particularly in the situations of the multiserotype and high-frequency mutant virus infections.

  2. Importance of anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titration for diagnosing varicella-zoster virus infection in Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, S; Baba, M; Ogata, M; Nozaki, H; Okuaki, A; Nakamura, S

    1986-11-01

    Anticomplement Immunofluorescence was used for antibody titration against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in 43 patients with peripheral facial palsy. Nine of 31 patients (29%) with Bell's palsy and eight of 12 patients (75%) with Ramsey-Hunt syndrome had anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titres of greater than or equal to 1/10. On the other hand, none of 14 patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and 51 healthy adults showed anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titres of greater than or equal to 1/10. The anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titre in two patients with Ramsey-Hunt syndrome increased later and decreased sooner than the indirect immunofluorescence antibody titre, becoming undetectable at 66 and 104 days, respectively, after onset of the disease. There was no cross reaction between anti-VZV and anti-HSV antibodies in the patients who showed a positive antibody rise for VZV. As the acute stage of VZV infection is obscure in the patients with peripheral facial palsy without herpes the screening of anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody to VZV at titres greater than or equal to 1/10 may be useful for the diagnosis of VZV infection in patients with peripheral facial palsy.

  3. A high-throughput pipeline for the production of synthetic antibodies for analysis of ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hong; Laver, John D; Jeon, Jouhyun; Singh, Fateh; Ancevicius, Kristin; Fan, Yujie; Cao, Wen Xi; Nie, Kun; Yang, Zhenglin; Luo, Hua; Wang, Miranda; Rissland, Olivia; Westwood, J Timothy; Kim, Philip M; Smibert, Craig A; Lipshitz, Howard D; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2016-04-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs plays an essential role in the control of gene expression. mRNAs are regulated in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) along with associated protein and noncoding RNA (ncRNA) cofactors. A global understanding of post-transcriptional control in any cell type requires identification of the components of all of its RNP complexes. We have previously shown that these complexes can be purified by immunoprecipitation using anti-RBP synthetic antibodies produced by phage display. To develop the large number of synthetic antibodies required for a global analysis of RNP complex composition, we have established a pipeline that combines (i) a computationally aided strategy for design of antigens located outside of annotated domains, (ii) high-throughput antigen expression and purification in Escherichia coli, and (iii) high-throughput antibody selection and screening. Using this pipeline, we have produced 279 antibodies against 61 different protein components of Drosophila melanogaster RNPs. Together with those produced in our low-throughput efforts, we have a panel of 311 antibodies for 67 RNP complex proteins. Tests of a subset of our antibodies demonstrated that 89% immunoprecipitate their endogenous target from embryo lysate. This panel of antibodies will serve as a resource for global studies of RNP complexes in Drosophila. Furthermore, our high-throughput pipeline permits efficient production of synthetic antibodies against any large set of proteins.

  4. Broadly Neutralizing Alphavirus Antibodies Bind an Epitope on E2 and Inhibit Entry and Egress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Julie M.; Long, Feng; Edeling, Melissa A.; Lin, Hueylie; van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K. S.; Fong, Rachel H.; Kahle, Kristen M.; Smit, Jolanda M.; Jin, Jing; Simmons, Graham; Doranz, Benjamin J.; Crowe, James E.; Fremont, Daved H.; Rossmann, Michael G.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    We screened a panel of mouse and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing MAbs protected mice against infection by chikungunya, Mayaro, and O'nyong'nyong alphav

  5. Development of a Highly Protective Combination Monoclonal Antibody Therapy against Chikungunya Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, Pankaj; Dowd, Kimberly A.; Brien, James D.; Edeling, Melissa A.; Gorlatov, Sergey; Johnson, Syd; Lee, Iris; Akahata, Wataru; Nabel, Gary J.; Richter, Mareike K. S.; Smit, Jolanda M.; Fremont, Daved H.; Pierson, Theodore C.; Heise, Mark T.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes global epidemics of a debilitating polyarthritis in humans. As there is a pressing need for the development of therapeutic agents, we screened 230 new mouse anti-CHIKV monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for their ability to inhibit

  6. Field evaluation of a fast anti-Leishmania antibody detection assay in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hailu; G.J. Schoone; E. Diro; A. Tesfaye; Y. Techane; T. Tefera; Y. Assefa; A. Genetu; Y. Kebede; T. Kebede; H.D.F.H. Schallig

    2006-01-01

    A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with parasitol

  7. Twin study on transplacental-acquired antibodies and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder - A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilenberg, Niels; Hougaard, David; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that maternal transplacentally acquired antibodies may cause Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms years after birth, and tested the hypothesis in twins discordant for ADHD symptoms. METHOD: In a pre-screened sample of 7793 same sex twin pair's (4...

  8. Phage-display libraries of murine and human antibody Fab fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J; Andersen, P S; Nielsen, L K;

    1996-01-01

    We provide efficient and detailed procedures for construction, expression, and screening of comprehensive libraries of murine or human antibody Fab fragments displayed on the surface of filamentous phage. In addition, protocols for producing and using ultra-electrocompetent cells, for producing Fab...

  9. Hepatitis C Screening in People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Lessons Learned From Syphilis Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurcel, Alysse G; Chen, Daniel D; Fitzpatrick, Rosemary E; Grasberger, Paula E; Kirshner, Caleb H; Anderson, Jordan E; Chui, Kenneth K H; Knox, Tamsin A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). New guidelines recommend annual screening for HCV, similar to recommendations for syphilis screening with rapid plasma reagin (RPR). Methods.  This study compares the frequency of repeat HCV antibody (Ab) testing to repeat RPR testing in a retrospective chart review of 359 HCVAb-negative people living with HIV (PLWH) observed in an Infectious Diseases clinic. Patients were classified into risk groups based on sexual risk factors. Results.  Although 85% of PLWH had repeat syphilis screening, less than two thirds had repeat HCVAb screening. The MSM status was associated with increased HCVAb and RPR testing (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6 and 5.9, respectively). Seven persons had incident HCV infection: 3 were MSM, and 4 had symptoms or abnormal laboratory results to prompt testing. Conclusions.  Failure to find incident HCV infection in PLWH represents missed opportunities to cure HCV infection and prevent progressive liver disease. Further quality improvement studies are necessary to develop physician-focused interventions to increase HCV screening rates in PLWH. PMID:26885544

  10. Seroprevalence of malarial antibodies in Galapagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jamie L; McCutchan, Thomas F; Vargas, F Hernan; Deem, Sharon L; Cruz, Marilyn; Hartman, Daniel A; Parker, Patricia G

    2013-10-01

    A parasite species of the genus Plasmodium has recently been documented in the endangered Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Avian malaria causes high mortality in several species after initial exposure and there is great concern for the conservation of the endemic Galapagos penguin. Using a Plasmodium spp. circumsporozoite protein antigen, we standardized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to test the level of exposure in this small population, as indicated by seroprevalence. Sera from adult and juvenile Galapagos penguins collected between 2004 and 2009 on the Galapagos archipelago were tested for the presence of anti- Plasmodium spp. antibodies. Penguins were also tested for the prevalence of avian malaria parasite DNA using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening. Total seroprevalence of malarial antibodies in this sample group was 97.2%, which suggests high exposure to the parasite and low Plasmodium-induced mortality. However, total prevalence of Plasmodium parasite DNA by PCR screening was 9.2%, and this suggests that parasite prevalence may be under-detected through PCR screening. Multiple detection methods may be necessary to measure the real extent of Plasmodium exposure on the archipelago.

  11. The antineutrophil antibody in uveitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, D W

    1991-01-01

    Ninety eight patients with uveitis of various types were tested for the presence of the antineutrophil antibody or ANCA by an indirect immunofluorescence method. This antibody is found in patients with diseases associated with small vessel vasculitis, including Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyarteritis. Eleven true positive cases were found. A positive test was not associated with the anatomical site of the uveitis but was related to the time course of the disease. In particular ...

  12. Functional effects of anticardiolipin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E N; Pierangeli, S S

    1996-10-01

    The 'lupus anticoagulant' phenomenon is the best documented functional effect of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies, occurring either by inhibition of the prothrombinase and/or Factor X activation reactions. Understanding the mechanism by which aPL antibodies inhibit phospholipid dependent coagulation reactions may yield important clues about their 'thrombogenic effects' in vivo. We conducted a series of studies to determine the specificity, diversity, and mechanism by which aPL antibodies inhibit phospholipid dependent reactions. Results showed that purified immunoglobulins with lupus anticoagulant and anti-cardiolipin activities were absorbed by negatively charged phospholipids and both activities were recovered from the phospholipid-antibody precipitate. Purified aPL antibodies inhibited the prothrombinase reaction in a plasma free system in which beta 2-glycoprotein 1 (beta 2-GP1) was absent. Affinity purified aPL antibodies had 25-50 times the inhibitory activity of immunoglobulin preparations. The phospholipid binding proteins, beta 2-GPI and placental anticoagulant protein I (PAP I), independently inhibited the prothrombinase reaction, and when these proteins were combined with aPL, inhibition of the prothrombinase reaction was additive. Antibodies of syphilis had no inhibitory effect, partially accounted for by lack of specificity for phosphotidylserine (PS). Although aPL antibodies inhibited the protein C activation reaction, there was no correlation of these activities with inhibition of the prothrombinase reaction. Together, these results show that aPL exert their effects by interaction with negatively charged phospholipids, in particular phosphotidylserine, but lack of correlation between inhibition of the prothrombinase and protein C activation reactions, suggests that the nature of the coagulation protein is also important. PMID:8902763

  13. Sero prevalence of hepatitis -C antibodies in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anti HCV antibodies in blood donors. Design: The retrospective sero-epidemiological data of the institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab over a period of one year after starting HCV screening, was analyzed to estimate the percentage prevalence. Setting; The data was obtained regularly from the blood units established by this institute at the pablic sector hospitals and retesting on initially reactive serum sample by EIA was done at the Institute. Subjects: A total of 166183 directed first time donors or replacement blood donors aged 18-60 years who donated blood at these blood banks or at mobile sessions have been included in the study. All initially reactive donors who tested non-reactive on EIA were excluded from the study. Main outcome Measures: Assessment of prevalence of HCV in blood donors. Results: 4.45% of the total donors intially tested reactive of these 0.36 % were atsety reactive on intial screening. Further testing by EIA, 4.1%. Conclusions: The blood transfusion service started screening for HCV in April 2000 and the prevalence of HCV, amongst the transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) being screened for in the Punjab, is the highest. It is almost double the prevalence of HBV and several thousand time that of HIV. Meticulous and total screening coverage is needed to curtail impending catastrophe. With experience, the choice of testing methodology might have to be reviewed. (author)

  14. Adult celiac disease with acetylcholine receptor antibody positive myasthenia gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh J Freeman; Helen R Gillett; Peter M Gillett; Joel Oger

    2009-01-01

    Celiac disease has been associated with some autoimmune disorders. A 40-year-old competitive strongman with celiac disease responded to a glutenfree diet, but developed profound and generalized motor weakness with acetylcholine receptor antibody positive myasthenia gravis, a disorder reported to occur in about 1 in 5000. This possible relationship between myasthenia gravis and celiac disease was further explored in serological studies. Frozen stored serum samples from 23 acetylcholine receptor antibody positive myasthenia gravis patients with no intestinal symptoms were used to screen for celiac disease. Both endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies were examined. One of 23 (or, about 4.3%) was positive for both IgA-endomysial and IgA tissue transglutaminase antibodies. Endoscopic studies subsequently showed duodenal mucosal scalloping and biopsies confirmed the histopathological changes of celiac d