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Sample records for antineutrino investigations radionuclide

  1. Investigating the spectral anomaly with different reactor antineutrino experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buck

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The spectral shape of reactor antineutrinos measured in recent experiments shows anomalies in comparison to neutrino reference spectra. New precision measurements of the reactor neutrino spectra as well as more complete input in nuclear data bases are needed to resolve the observed discrepancies between models and experimental results. This article proposes the combination of experiments at reactors which are highly enriched in U235 with commercial reactors with typically lower enrichment to gain new insights into the origin of the anomalous neutrino spectrum. The presented method clarifies, if the spectral anomaly is either solely or not at all related to the predicted U235 spectrum. Considering the current improvements of the energy scale uncertainty of present-day experiments, a significance of three sigma and above can be reached. As an example, we discuss the option of a direct comparison of the measured shape in the currently running Double Chooz near detector and the upcoming Stereo experiment. A quantitative feasibility study emphasizes that a precise understanding of the energy scale systematics is a crucial prerequisite in recent and next generation experiments investigating the spectral anomaly.

  2. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  3. Background for Terrestrial Antineutrino Investigations: Scientific Basis of Knowledge on the Composition of the Deep Interior of the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2004-01-01

    I present from a historical perspective a logical progression of understanding, related to the composition of the deep interior of the Earth, that comes from fundamental discoveries and from discoveries of fundamental quantitative relationships in nature. By following step by step the reasoning from that understanding, one might begin to appreciate what is not yet known that pertains to recent interest in geo-antineutrinos and also what should be investigated to further advance that understan...

  4. Dissecting Reactor Antineutrino Flux Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, A. A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Hayes, A. C.

    2017-09-01

    Current predictions for the antineutrino yield and spectra from a nuclear reactor rely on the experimental electron spectra from 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu and a numerical method to convert these aggregate electron spectra into their corresponding antineutrino ones. In the present work we investigate quantitatively some of the basic assumptions and approximations used in the conversion method, studying first the compatibility between two recent approaches for calculating electron and antineutrino spectra. We then explore different possibilities for the disagreement between the measured Daya Bay and the Huber-Mueller antineutrino spectra, including the 238U contribution as well as the effective charge and the allowed shape assumption used in the conversion method. We observe that including a shape correction of about +6 % MeV-1 in conversion calculations can better describe the Daya Bay spectrum. Because of a lack of experimental data, this correction cannot be ruled out, concluding that in order to confirm the existence of the reactor neutrino anomaly, or even quantify it, precisely measured electron spectra for about 50 relevant fission products are needed. With the advent of new rare ion facilities, the measurement of shape factors for these nuclides, for many of which precise beta intensity data from TAGS experiments already exist, would be highly desirable.

  5. Radionuclide and ultrasonic investigations in liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhibekov, M.Kh.; Rikhsieva, L.Eh.; Nazyrov, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Combined radionuclide and ultrasonic investigations (UNI) were performed in 95 patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by portal hypertension. Liver and splenic shape structure and the presence of fluid in the abdominal cavity were assessed in USI. Radionuclide methods of investigation of the hepatic blood flow, assessment of the shape, size and structure of RP distribution in the liver and spleen, and for calculation of the hepatosplenic index. The most significant signs of differentiation of stages of portal hypertension were the presence and amount of fluid in the abdominal cavity and a hepatic blood flow value reflecting the gravity of portal hypertension. Combined radionuclide and ultrasonic investigations permitted a differentiated approach to staging of portal hypertension and assessment of liver and splenic morphofunctional state that could play an important role in the choice of tactics of surgery of liver cirrhosis

  6. Radionuclide and ultrasonic investigations in liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodzhibekov, M Kh; Rikhsieva, L Eh; Nazyrov, F G

    1988-08-01

    Combined radionuclide and ultrasonic investigations (UNI) were performed in 95 patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by portal hypertension. Liver and splenic shape structure and the presence of fluid in the abdominal cavity were assessed in USI. Radionuclide methods of investigation of the hepatic blood flow, assessment of the shape, size and structure of RP distribution in the liver and spleen, and for calculation of the hepatosplenic index. The most significant signs of differentiation of stages of portal hypertension were the presence and amount of fluid in the abdominal cavity and a hepatic blood flow value reflecting the gravity of portal hypertension. Combined radionuclide and ultrasonic investigations permitted a differentiated approach to staging of portal hypertension and assessment of liver and splenic morphofunctional state that could play an important role in the choice of tactics of surgery of liver cirrhosis.

  7. The reactor antineutrino anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haser, Julia; Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Major discoveries were made in the past few years in the field of neutrino flavour oscillation. Nuclear reactors produce a clean and intense flux of electron antineutrinos and are thus an essential neutrino source for the determination of oscillation parameters. Most currently the reactor antineutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO have accomplished to measure θ{sub 13}, the smallest of the three-flavour mixing angles. In the course of these experiments two anomalies emerged: (1) the reanalysis of the reactor predictions revealed a deficit in experimentally observed antineutrino flux, known as the ''reactor antineutrino anomaly''. (2) The high precision of the latest generation of neutrino experiments resolved a spectral shape distortion relative to the expected energy spectra. Both puzzles are yet to be solved and triggered new experimental as well as theoretical studies, with the search for light sterile neutrinos as most popular explanation for the flux anomaly. This talk outlines the two reactor antineutrino anomalies. Discussing possible explanations for their occurrence, recent and upcoming efforts to solve the reactor puzzles are highlighted.

  8. The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by means of GIS techniques. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work ...

  9. The radionuclide migration experiment - overview of investigations 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, U.; McKinley, I.G.; Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.H.; Eikenberg, J.; Heer, W.; Hoehn, E.; Smith, P.A.; Alexander, W.R.; Bossart, P.; Buehler, C.; Fierz, T.

    1992-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the investigations conducted from 1985 to 1990 as a part of the radionuclide migration experiment which is currently in progress in the Nagra underground research laboratory at the Grimsel pass in the Central Swiss Alps. The major aims of the project are (1) to test the extrapolation of laboratory sorption data to field conditions, (2) to analyse retardation processes in a fractured rock, (3) to improve and develop the necessary methodologies for site characterization and (4) to test existing geochemical, hydrodynamic, and solute transport models or their associated data bases. Field and modeling work are complemented by an extensive laboratory support programme. The Grimsel migration experiment demonstrates conclusively how the combined efforts of modeling, laboratory and field investigations can substantially widen the understanding of radionuclide transport in a geological environment. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  10. Investigation of cosmogenic radionuclide carriers in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.

    2000-01-01

    Speciation of 7 Be, 32 P, 33 P, 35 S and stable S carriers and their changes in the atmosphere were investigated. It has been determined that aerosol-carriers of 7 Be, 32 P and 33 P radionuclides can have different properties, and after several days their transformation was observed. The amount of water-soluble carriers in aerosol samples differed widely (from 11 to 95 %). The dependence of radionuclide carrier solubility on pH was obtained for 7 Be, 32 P and 33 P. It has been found that 7 Be carriers can be soluble compounds such as mixed chlorides, sulphates and nitrates as well as insoluble carbonates and insoluble hydrous Fe(III) oxides. High percentage of 32 P and 33 P was found in exchangeable fraction. The 35 S carriers were found to be more soluble than those of 7 Be, 32 P and 33 P and exhibited a lower or the same solubility as stable sulphur. (author)

  11. Investigation of natural radionuclide contents in soil in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Sanming; Liu Ruye

    1992-01-01

    The survey of natural radionuclide contents in soil in China (1983-1990) is a part of investigation of environmental natural radioactivity level on China. The results of the investigation area as follows: (1) The average content of natural radionuclides 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K(area weighted) and its standard deviation for single measurement is 39.5 and 34.4,36.5 and 22.0, 49.1 and 27.6, 580.0 and 202.0 Bq.kg -1 ,respectively.(2) The content of natural radionuclides is apparently correlated to the types of soil-forming rock. The analysis results from 1552 soil samples of soil-forming rock show that: the content of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for magmatic rock type is the highest, 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th of metamorphic rock type higher, sedimentary rock type the lowest. However, the content of 40 K of sedimentary rock type is more higher, magmatic rock type the lowest. In magmatic rock type, the content of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th of granite and acidic magmatic rock type, and the content of 40 K of acidic and alkaline magmatic rock type are higher. (3) The analysis results from 9613 various types of soil samples show that for crimson soil of ferralsol wind soil of rock soil-forming order at northern part is lower. For frigid dessert soil of alpine soil order, alpine dessert soil, and the burozem, dark burozem and drab soil of alfisol order and semialfisol order, the content of 40 K is shown to be higher, and it is lower for latosol of ferralsol order, crimson soil, yellow soil and various lime soil. (4) The geographical distribution of the natural radionuclide content in soil appears apparently regional

  12. Investigation of transformation of radionuclides in soils oil polluted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbatov, F.Y.; Ahmedov, M.M.; Ibadov, N.A.; Balayev, V.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Despite of constant improvement in view of last achievement of a science and technique the technological processes of oil production are accompanied by coming in environment a number of chemical substances - oil products, poly aromatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, salts of heavy metals, including soluble and insoluble compound of stable and radioactive isotopes of metals, various gases etc. Technological processes of production, transportation of crude oil and its complex processing is followed with essential pollution of soil by oil products, radioactive substances because of crude oil and grounds waters spillage. The problem of radioactive pollution of environment in oil-extracting sites and especially in old deposits of Apsheron peninsula, in particular, in oil fields of Surakhani and Balakhani by the various factors is rather urgent in Azerbaijan. On a whole, radioactive-ecological situation is defined by the quantitative contents of natural radionuclides, chemical structure of grounds waters and oil, and also accumulation of radioactive substances in pipelines and modular items as crystals radiobarits or calcium and magnesium salts. Systemic and complex research on this direction will allow creating the mechanism of radionuclides transformation in oil-contaminated soils. The condition of radioactive background of soil cover of oil field in Surakhani was studied in our researches. The soil samples taken from various depths of deposit are investigated. The quantities of total oil components, aliphatic and poly aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and natural radionuclides are determined. The attempt is made to explain dependence of various meanings of carried out analyses on the depth of taken samples. In summary it is necessary to note, that the researches on more detailed study of influence of the factors on processes of accumulation and transformation natural radionuclides proceed. The systemic researches on this direction will allow securing of

  13. Fundamental investigations in the barite flotation using the radionuclide technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.; Wiese, K.; Hunsinger, H.

    1977-01-01

    The application of radioactive tracers in flotation is described taking the example of barite/silicate separation in a mechanically improved laboratory cell. The particular suitability of the radionuclide technique is not only brought out in the field of fundamental investigations, but also in the determination of dynamic systems data. The labelling of the liquid phase was done with Na 24 whereas useful mineral and gangue were traced by means of neutron-induced double-labelling. The necessary labelling, measuring and evaluating technique is described. (orig.) [de

  14. Investigations of Differential Scanning Techniques using Two Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrall, M. F.; French, Rosemary J.; Trott, N. G. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1969-01-15

    In the development of scanning procedures difficulties sometimes arise because a particular radiopharmaceutical, which is selectively concentrated in an organ of interest, is also widely distributed in neighbouring sites in the body. Investigations have been made of a method which involves the use of a second radioactive substance to label such sites. By means of suitable electrical circuits fitted to a conventional mechanical scanner (Picker Magnascanner III), a direct colour scan of the organ under study can be obtained. Signals from the two radionuclides are distinguished by pulse-height analysis and used to operate the colour shift mechanism. Experimental studies with phantoms and clinical trials are reported. An analysis of the statistical limitations of the technique is given, including a discussion of the most suitable operating conditions for particular pairs of radionuclides. Illustrations include the use of {sup 75}Se selenomethionine and {sup 99m}Tc sulphur colloid or {sup 198}Au colloid in the delineation of the pancreas, and reference is also made to work with {sup 18}F, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 133m}In and {sup 197}Hg, which are used in various chemical forms to visualize specific types of tumours in vascular surroundings labelled with other suitable tracers. Some discussion of the dosimetry of these procedures is made, since the extent to which the technique can be applied may be limited by the activities which can be administered. However, successful results are being obtained using activities within the range generally accepted for single radionuclide scanning procedures. For example, the pancreas can be successfully visualised using 250 {mu}Ci {sup 75}Se selenomethionine in combination with 1 mCi {sup 99m}TC sulphur colloid. (author)

  15. Investigation on the behavier of radionuclides in the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimaki, Kenzo.

    1978-10-01

    Concerning the safety of the ground storage of radioactive wastes, many investigations were done at A block in an atomic institute. For the purpose of the presuming the behavior of radionuclide in the ground, many investigations were done at field and laboratory. The behavior through the saturated sand zone at A block of 2500 ppm NaBr solution, instead of radioactive water, surveyed using many observation wells at field. At laboratory the distribution coefficients of radioactive cations ( 60 Co and 85 Sr) to the sand, which governs the movement of radioactive cations, were obtained experimentally with imitated ground water. In these results, the behavior of radioactive nuclides ( 60 Co and 90 Sr) in the ground at A block were presumed. (author)

  16. Radionuclide cisternography: a prudent investigation in diagnosing spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, Aditi Khurana; Sethi, Ravinder Singh; Namgyal, Padma A.; Raghavan, Samudrala

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a cause of new persistent headache, which disappears on recumbence and reappears in sitting/standing position (orthostatic headache). We present a case of orthostatic headache, where the patient was suspected to have SIH and was subjected to radionuclide cisternography (RNC) using 99m Technetium Diethylenetriaminepenta acetic acid for confirmation of diagnosis. After due consent from the patient, the radiotracer was injected intra-thecally and serial images were acquired until 24 h. The direct and indirect evidences of Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, which were revealed in our study, provided objective evidence to the clinical diagnosis. RNC is an important investigation in diagnosing SIH and also identifying the site of CSF leak, which may aid the management. (author)

  17. Comparing neutrino and antineutrino scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barish, B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The charged current interaction is considered. The present situation with respect to the indications of new physics at high energies, especially in the context of what can be learned by comparing neutrino with antineutrino production is reviewed

  18. Statistical properties of reactor antineutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Rusov, V D; Tarasov, V O; Shaaban, Y

    2002-01-01

    Based on the properties of the cascade statistics of reactor antineutrinos, the efficient method of searching for neutrino oscillations is offered. The determination of physical parameters of this statistics, i.e. the average number of fissions and the overage number of antineutrinos per fission, requires no a priori knowledge of the geometry and characteristics of the detector, the reactor power, and composition of nuclear fuel.

  19. Investigation and assessment of natural radionuclides in groundwater and geothermal fluid of Tianjin city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao; Duan Xigui; Gao Liang; Yang Yuxin

    2012-01-01

    Investigation on the specific activities of natural radionuclides in the groundwater and geothermal fluids of Tianjin city were conducted. Based on the investigation, internal dose level posed by drinking the water and fluid to local public was evaluated. Results show the specific activities of natural radionuclides in the groundwater and geothermal fluid of Tianjin city is under control, no abnormal radioactivity discovered. (authors)

  20. The RRP Project: investigating radionuclide retardation in the host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Frieg, B.; Ota, K.; Bossart, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Radionuclide Retardation Project (RRP), which is a joint Nagra/PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp.) project, has two components: the first (the Excavation Project, EP) looks at the behaviour of radionuclides which are so strongly retarded in the experimental shear zone that they cannot pass through the zones in experimentally reasonable times. In order to determine where radionuclide retardation has occurred in the pore space, as well as the flowpath geometry in the shear zone, the entire injection zone has to be excavated and taken back to the laboratory for analysis of the sites of retardation of the radionuclides. This approach has the advantage of allowing a detailed 3D description of the experimental shear zone. The aim of the second component of the project (Connected Porosities, CP) is to examine the fate of those radionuclides which diffuse out of the main water-conducting features in the shear zone and into the pore spaces of the rock matrix, where they become trapped. This represents a potentially significant retardation mechanism in a repository host rock. (author) 8 figs., refs

  1. Introduction to CRRIS: a computerized radiological risk investigation system for assessing atmospheric releases of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III; Miller, C.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Murphy, B.D.

    1985-08-01

    The CRRIS is a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System consisting of eight fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport of atmospheric releases of radionuclides and resulting doses and health risks to individuals or populations. Each code may also be used alone for various assessment applications. Radionuclides are handled by the CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or the exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and decay products that grow in during environmental transport. The CRRIS is not designed to simulate short-term effects. 51 refs

  2. The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A transportable and robust gamma ray detection system (GISPI) was employed to determine the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides on various beaches in and around Saldanha Bay, located on the West Coast of South Africa. Several mathematical techniques were applied to obtain GIS overlay that could be ...

  3. Thermographic and radionuclide investigation in combined diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abushakhmanov, A.Kh.

    1986-01-01

    The results of examination of 157 women with breast diseases are given. Breast cancer was diagnosed in 94 patients, benign diseases in 63. The combined use of the thermographic and radionuclide methods was shown to raise the accuracy of breast cancer diagnosis

  4. Short gamma ray bursts triggered by neutrino-antineutrino annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasin, Hannah; Perego, Albino [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Arcones, Almudena [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Gamma ray bursts (GRB) are one of the most energetic events in the universe. Neutron star mergers are the most favourable candidate for the subclass of GRBs that last less than two seconds. It has been suggested that the annihilation of neutrino-antineutrino pairs emitted by the hot and dense merger remnant could be enough to launch a relativistic jet, producing such a burst. We calculate the energy deposition by neutrino-antineutrino annihilation based on the results of a Newtonian simulation of the aftermath of a binary neutron star merger. In addition, we investigate the necessary requirements for launching a GRB and compare with our numerical results.

  5. Behaviour and fate radionuclides in soils. Mathematical modelling and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovdan, E.N.

    2003-01-01

    The uncontrolled release of radionuclides as result of Chernobyl accident has led to contamination of 23% of territory of Republic of Belarus. Soil has high capacity to adsorb radionuclides and their intensive sorption provides the creation of a long-lived radionuclide source in a terrestrial environment. In the management of the contaminated areas and application of a countermeasure strategy it is extremely important to know the environmental mechanisms governing the behaviour of radionuclides in soils. Basic attention in the work is paid to the study of 137 Cs and 90 Sr because they are the main radionuclides from the view point of radioactive danger in polluted areas. The main features and processes that control radionuclide behaviour in soil have been analysed. On the basis of natural researches, lab test and mathematical modelling the impact of physical-chemical factors and the soil component composition changes upon the radionuclides migration and sorption in natural dispersed systems (peat, sand, bentonite, kaolin, sapropel) has been investigated. The investigations done allowed to substantiate the mathematical models of the radionuclides migration in the regions of positive and negative temperatures, to develop methods of experimental identification of main transfer characteristics and to compile a data base for these models. (orig.)

  6. Towards Compact Antineutrino Detectors for Safeguarding Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, R.J. de; Smit, F.D.; Woertche, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the IAEA Division of Technical Support convened a Workshop on Antineutrino Detection for Safeguards Applications. Two of the recommendations expressed that IAEA should consider antineutrino detection and monitoring in its current R and D program for safeguarding bulk-process reactors, and consider antineutrino detection and monitoring in its Safeguards by Design approaches for power and fissile inventory monitoring of new and next generation reactors. The workshop came to these recommendations after having assessed the results obtained at the San Onofre Nuclear Generator Station (SONGS) in California. A 600 litre, 10% efficiency detector, placed at 25m from the core was shown to record 300 net antineutrino events per day. The 2*2.5*2.5 m 3 footprint of the detector and the required below background operation, prevents an easy deployment at reactors. Moreover it does not provide spatial information of the fissile inventory and, because of the shape of a PBMR reactor, would not be representative for such type of reactor. A solution to this drawback is to develop more efficient detectors that are less bulky and less sensitive to cosmic and natural radiation backgrounds. Antineutrino detection in the SONGS detector is based on the capture of antineutrinos by a proton resulting in a positron and neutron. In the SONGS detector the positron and neutron are detected by secondary gamma-rays. The efficiency of the SONGS detector is largely dominated by the low efficiency for gamma detection high background sensitivity We are investigating two methods to resolve this problem, both leading to more compact detectors, which in a modular set up also will provide spatial information. One is based on detecting the positrons on their slowdown signal and the neutrons by capturing in 10 B or 6 Li, resulting in alpha-emission. The drawback for standard liquid scintillators doped with e.g. B is the low flame point of the solvent and the strong quenching of the alpha signal. Our

  7. Radionuclide Migration through Sediment and Concrete: 16 Years of Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovich, Elizabeth C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mattigod, Shas V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle MV [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Powers, Laura [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whyatt, Greg A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Part of these services includes safe disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, performance assessment analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires continuing data collection to increase confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied on to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the order. Cement-based solidification and stabilization is considered for hazardous waste disposal because it is easily done and cost-efficient. One critical assumption is that concrete will be used as a waste form or container material at the Hanford Site to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The radionuclides iodine-129, selenium-75, technetium-99, and uranium-238 have been identified as long-term dose contributors (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, these constituents of potential concern may be released from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and migrate into the surrounding subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989; 1992; 1993a, b; 1995). Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. Each of the

  8. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Gas System

    OpenAIRE

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experimen...

  9. Investigation of radionuclide distribution in soil particles in different landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkinev, V. M.; Korobova, E. M.; Linnik, V. G.

    2012-04-01

    Russian and foreign publications have been analyzed for understanding the role of micro- and nano- particles in distribution and migration of technogenic elements in soils in different landscape conditions. A technique for application of various fractionation methods to separate and study -particles of different size down to micro- and nano-level has been developed. The dry sit method on the first stage of particle separation is recommend to be followed by the membrane filtration method. For obtaining more comprehensive information, combinations of fractionation technique should be chosen taking into account that (1) the efficiency of particles' separation using subsequent technique would be higher than using the preceding one; (2) separation methods should preferably be based on different principles (separation according size, density, charge etc.); (3) initial fractionation should separate particles according to their size, that makes possible to create an even scale for various samples. A study of distribution and balance of technogenic radionuclides' in soil particles of the size intervals 1.0—0.25, 0.25-0.1, 0.1-0.05, 0.05-0.01, 0.01-0.005, 0.005-0.001 and soil layers. Contribution of the silt particles (0,05-0,01 mm) to Cs-137 contamination ranged from 26 to 33,8%, 45% maximum due to "optimal" combination of both factors. Clay fraction was responsible for approximately 30% of Cs-137 contained in soil horizons due to higher sorption capacity. Relatively high correlation between the activity of 152,154Eu and 60 and the content of silt and clay allowed suggesting their incorporation mainly in clay fraction. Selected experimental plots near the Kola NPP (northern taiga) were used to compare soil particles (fractions 140-71; 71-40 and radioactivity found in soil litter appeared to be related to the Chernobyl contamination. Concentration of s-137 was higher in small size fractions. Obtained results were considered to be useful for understanding of radionuclide

  10. Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmel, Alexander I. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for vμ → $\\bar{v}$μ transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |Δ$\\bar{m}$atm 2| = (3.36-0.40+0.46(stat) ± 0.06(syst)) x 10-3 eV2 and sin2(2$\\bar{θ}$23) = 0.860-0.12+0.11(stat) ± 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.

  11. Reactor Antineutrinos Signal all over the world

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, B.; Mantovani, F.; Baldoncini, M.; Esposito, J.; Ludhova, L.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated estimate of reactor antineutrino signal all over the world, with particular attention to the sites proposed for existing and future geo-neutrino experiment. In our calculation we take into account the most updated data on Thermal Power for each nuclear plant, on reactor antineutrino spectra and on three neutrino oscillation mechanism.

  12. AGM2015: Antineutrino Global Map 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, S M; Jocher, G R; Dye, S T; McDonough, W F; Learned, J G

    2015-09-01

    Every second greater than 10(25) antineutrinos radiate to space from Earth, shining like a faint antineutrino star. Underground antineutrino detectors have revealed the rapidly decaying fission products inside nuclear reactors, verified the long-lived radioactivity inside our planet, and informed sensitive experiments for probing fundamental physics. Mapping the anisotropic antineutrino flux and energy spectrum advance geoscience by defining the amount and distribution of radioactive power within Earth while critically evaluating competing compositional models of the planet. We present the Antineutrino Global Map 2015 (AGM2015), an experimentally informed model of Earth's surface antineutrino flux over the 0 to 11 MeV energy spectrum, along with an assessment of systematic errors. The open source AGM2015 provides fundamental predictions for experiments, assists in strategic detector placement to determine neutrino mass hierarchy, and aids in identifying undeclared nuclear reactors. We use cosmochemically and seismologically informed models of the radiogenic lithosphere/mantle combined with the estimated antineutrino flux, as measured by KamLAND and Borexino, to determine the Earth's total antineutrino luminosity at . We find a dominant flux of geo-neutrinos, predict sub-equal crust and mantle contributions, with ~1% of the total flux from man-made nuclear reactors.

  13. Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himmel, Alexander I.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for ν μ → (bar ν) μ transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |Δ(bar m) atm 2 | = (3.36 -0.40 +0.46 (stat) ± 0.06(syst)) x 10 -3 eV 2 and sin 2 (2(bar θ) 23 ) = 0.860 -0.12 +0.11 (stat) ± 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.

  14. A mobile antineutrino detector with plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Y.; Oguri, S.; Kato, Y.; Nakata, R.; Inoue, Y.; Ito, C.; Minowa, M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new type segmented antineutrino detector made of plastic scintillators for the nuclear safeguard application. A small prototype was built and tested to measure background events. A satisfactory unmanned field operation of the detector system was demonstrated. Besides, a detailed Monte Carlo simulation code was developed to estimate the antineutrino detection efficiency of the detector.

  15. Radionuclide investigations in clinical cardiology - 10 years of cooperation in Frankfurt/FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepzig, H. Jr.; Kaltenbach, M.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclide investigations today are an important tool in cardiology. They close the diagnostic gap in cases where non-invasive procedures of cardiological diagnosis such as ecg, exercise-ecg, echocardiography and chest-x-ray remains unrevealing. Further, they are helpful when an exact quantitation of the disease or a precise follow-up is required. Radionuclide techniques are very useful to detect myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease and to judge myocardial function in patients with aortic or mitral regurgitation. Follow-up investigations after therapy (aortocoronary bypass, PTCA, valve replacement) permit conclusions regarding the benefit of these measures. Results of radionuclide investigations should consider the Bayes' theorem in order to keep false-negative and false-positive reports as low as possible. (orig.) [de

  16. Antineutrino Charged-Current Reactions on Hydrocarbon with Low Momentum Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, R.; Betancourt, M.; Elkins, M.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Akbar, F.; Aliaga, L.; Andrade, D. A.; Bashyal, A.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Vera, G. F. R. Caceres; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Coplowe, D.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Haider, H.; Han, J. Y.; Harris, D. A.; Henry, S.; Jena, D.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Leistico, J. R.; Lovlein, A.; Lu, X.-G.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Nguyen, C.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Olivier, A.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Salinas, C. J. Solano; Su, H.; Sultana, M.; Falero, S. Sánchez; Valencia, E.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; Minerva Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    We report on multinucleon effects in low momentum transfer (<0.8 GeV /c ) antineutrino interactions on plastic (CH) scintillator. These data are from the 2010-2011 antineutrino phase of the MINERvA experiment at Fermilab. The hadronic energy spectrum of this inclusive sample is well described when a screening effect at a low energy transfer and a two-nucleon knockout process are added to a relativistic Fermi gas model of quasielastic, Δ resonance, and higher resonance processes. In this analysis, model elements introduced to describe previously published neutrino results have quantitatively similar benefits for this antineutrino sample. We present the results as a double-differential cross section to accelerate the investigation of alternate models for antineutrino scattering off nuclei.

  17. Anti-Neutrino Charged-Current Reactions on Scintillator with Low Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gran, R.; et al.

    2018-03-25

    We report on multi-nucleon effects in low momentum transfer ($< 0.8$ GeV/c) anti-neutrino interactions on scintillator. These data are from the 2010-11 anti-neutrino phase of the MINERvA experiment at Fermilab. The hadronic energy spectrum of this inclusive sample is well-described when a screening effect at low energy transfer and a two-nucleon knockout process are added to a relativistic Fermi gas model of quasi-elastic, $\\Delta$ resonance, and higher resonance processes. In this analysis, model elements introduced to describe previously published neutrino results have quantitatively similar benefits for this anti-neutrino sample. We present the results as a double-differential cross section to accelerate investigation of alternate models for anti-neutrino scattering off nuclei.

  18. Analysis of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Flux Changes with Fuel Burnup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, Gerard; McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Garvey, G. T.; Wang, X. B.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the recent Daya Bay results on the changes in the antineutrino flux and spectrum with the burnup of the reactor fuel. We find that the discrepancy between current model predictions and the Daya Bay results can be traced to the original measured U 235 /Pu 239 ratio of the fission β spectra that were used as a base for the expected antineutrino fluxes. An analysis of the antineutrino spectra that is based on a summation over all fission fragment β decays, using nuclear database input, explains all of the features seen in the Daya Bay evolution data. However, this summation method still allows for an anomaly. We conclude that there is currently not enough information to use the antineutrino flux changes to rule out the possible existence of sterile neutrinos.

  19. An investigation of electrostatically deposited radionuclides on latex balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.; Caly, A.

    2012-01-01

    Use of Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) education material for a community science education event to promote science awareness, science culture and literacy (Science Rendezvous 2011) lead to investigation of observed phenomena. Experiments are done on balloons that are electrostatically charged then left to collect particulate. Alpha spectroscopy was performed to identify alpha emitting radioisotopes present on the balloons. The time dependent behaviour of the activity was investigated. Additionally, the Alpha activity of the balloon was compared to Beta activity. The grounds for further investigations are proposed. (author)

  20. An investigation of electrostatically deposited radionuclides on latex balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, T.; Caly, A., E-mail: Terry.Price@gmail.com [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Use of Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) education material for a community science education event to promote science awareness, science culture and literacy (Science Rendezvous 2011) lead to investigation of observed phenomena. Experiments are done on balloons that are electrostatically charged then left to collect particulate. Alpha spectroscopy was performed to identify alpha emitting radioisotopes present on the balloons. The time dependent behaviour of the activity was investigated. Additionally, the Alpha activity of the balloon was compared to Beta activity. The grounds for further investigations are proposed. (author)

  1. Modelling of the anti-neutrino production and spectra from a Magnox reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Robert W.; Mountford, David J.; Coleman, Jonathon P.; Metelko, Carl; Murdoch, Matthew; Schnellbach, Yan-Jie

    2018-01-01

    The anti-neutrino source properties of a fission reactor are governed by the production and beta decay of the radionuclides present and the summation of their individual anti-neutrino spectra. The fission product radionuclide production changes during reactor operation and different fissioning species give rise to different product distributions. It is thus possible to determine some details of reactor operation, such as power, from the anti-neutrino emission to confirm safeguards records. Also according to some published calculations, it may be feasible to observe different anti-neutrino spectra depending on the fissile contents of the reactor fuel and thus determine the reactor's fissile material inventory during operation which could considerable improve safeguards. In mid-2014 the University of Liverpool deployed a prototype anti-neutrino detector at the Wylfa R1 station in Anglesey, United Kingdom based upon plastic scintillator technology developed for the T2K project. The deployment was used to develop the detector electronics and software until the reactor was finally shutdown in December 2015. To support the development of this detector technology for reactor monitoring and to understand its capabilities, the National Nuclear Laboratory modelled this graphite moderated and natural uranium fuelled reactor with existing codes used to support Magnox reactor operations and waste management. The 3D multi-physics code PANTHER was used to determine the individual powers of each fuel element (8×6152) during the year and a half period of monitoring based upon reactor records. The WIMS/TRAIL/FISPIN code route was then used to determine the radionuclide inventory of each nuclide on a daily basis in each element. These nuclide inventories were then used with the BTSPEC code to determine the anti-neutrino spectra and source strength using JEFF-3.1.1 data. Finally the anti-neutrino source from the reactor for each day during the year and a half of monitored reactor

  2. Modelling of the anti-neutrino production and spectra from a Magnox reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Robert W

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-neutrino source properties of a fission reactor are governed by the production and beta decay of the radionuclides present and the summation of their individual anti-neutrino spectra. The fission product radionuclide production changes during reactor operation and different fissioning species give rise to different product distributions. It is thus possible to determine some details of reactor operation, such as power, from the anti-neutrino emission to confirm safeguards records. Also according to some published calculations, it may be feasible to observe different anti-neutrino spectra depending on the fissile contents of the reactor fuel and thus determine the reactor's fissile material inventory during operation which could considerable improve safeguards. In mid-2014 the University of Liverpool deployed a prototype anti-neutrino detector at the Wylfa R1 station in Anglesey, United Kingdom based upon plastic scintillator technology developed for the T2K project. The deployment was used to develop the detector electronics and software until the reactor was finally shutdown in December 2015. To support the development of this detector technology for reactor monitoring and to understand its capabilities, the National Nuclear Laboratory modelled this graphite moderated and natural uranium fuelled reactor with existing codes used to support Magnox reactor operations and waste management. The 3D multi-physics code PANTHER was used to determine the individual powers of each fuel element (8×6152 during the year and a half period of monitoring based upon reactor records. The WIMS/TRAIL/FISPIN code route was then used to determine the radionuclide inventory of each nuclide on a daily basis in each element. These nuclide inventories were then used with the BTSPEC code to determine the anti-neutrino spectra and source strength using JEFF-3.1.1 data. Finally the anti-neutrino source from the reactor for each day during the year and a half of

  3. Recent drilling program to investigate radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    Recent drilling affords new opportunities to investigate the occurrence, distribution and transport of radionuclides in the unsaturated and saturated zone at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This program is unique becmise of the elevated activities of radionuclides encountered during drilling (> 3.7E+6 Bq/L 3H), extreme completion depths (> 950 m), the expense of constructing new wells (> $IE+6/borehole), and collaboration of government, academic, and industrial partners in the planning and execution of the program. The recent chilling is significant because it substantively augments earlier field of radionuclide migration at NTS, most notably the 1974 CAMBRIC RNM experiment Sites of five nuclear tests fired below or adjacent to the saturated zone have been drilled. Three of the events were fired in Yucca Flat which is a hydrologically closed basin and two were fired in fractured volcanics of Pahute Mesa. Results from Yucca Flat indicate that volatile and refractory radionuclides, fractionated at zero time, we not highly mobile under sawmted conditions. In contrast, borcholes completed on Pahute Mesa indicate Wgh concentrations of tritium (> 3.7E+6 Bq/L 3H) and other radionuclides may be rted more than 300 m from event cavities as dissolved species or as colloids

  4. An investigation of the speciation of radionuclides in sediments and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Stanney, K.A.; Williams, G.A.

    1981-08-01

    A sequential chemical extraction procedure has been used to investigate the speciation of the radionuclides 210 Pb and 226 Ra in three soil and sediment samples from the Mt. Brockman area in the Northern Territory. The analyses, by γ-ray spectrometry, are in terms of those species that are exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron or manganese oxides, bound to organic matter, and tightly bound in the crystal lattices of various minerals. The results for the radionuclides indicate significant differences between 210 Pb and 226 Ra in their distribution among the fractions, with very little 226 Ra present in all residual fractions. Very low concentrations of both radionuclides were present in the fractions representing species bound to carbonates, with 226 Ra concentrations greater that 210 Pb. Where the iron content of the sample is high, and in the form of iron oxides, both radionuclides are associated largely with the iron oxide phase. The fraction representing species bound to organic matter contained relatively high concentrations of both radionuclides in all samples

  5. Recent drilling program to investigate radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.K.

    1997-04-01

    Recent drilling affords new opportunities to investigate the occurrence, distribution and transport of radionuclides in the unsaturated and saturated zone at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This program is unique becmise of the elevated activities of radionuclides encountered during drilling (> 3.7E+6 Bq/L 3H), extreme completion depths (> 950 m), the expense of constructing new wells (> $IE+6/borehole), and collaboration of government, academic, and industrial partners in the planning and execution of the program. The recent chilling is significant because it substantively augments earlier field of radionuclide migration at NTS, most notably the 1974 CAMBRIC RNM experiment Sites of five nuclear tests fired below or adjacent to the saturated zone have been drilled. Three of the events were fired in Yucca Flat which is a hydrologically closed basin and two were fired in fractured volcanics of Pahute Mesa. Results from Yucca Flat indicate that volatile and refractory radionuclides, fractionated at zero time, we not highly mobile under sawmted conditions. In contrast, borcholes completed on Pahute Mesa indicate Wgh concentrations of tritium (> 3.7E+6 Bq/L 3H) and other radionuclides may be rted more than 300 m from event cavities as dissolved species or as colloids.

  6. Workplaces with natural radionuclides - investigation results from Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenhaeuser, C.; Koerner, S.; Mallick, R.

    2008-01-01

    After the Radiation Protection Ordinance came into force the Bavarian Environment Agency informed all water supply facilities, breweries, dairies, mineral water manufacturers, operators of underground workplaces and radon spas that the annual radon exposure of their staff has to be estimated. In Bavaria approximately 3330 companies with workplaces with exposure to radon were investigated. Herein the water supply facilities represented the largest group with 2550 companies. In about 96% of all investigated companies the radon exposure of the staff is below the action level of 6 mSv per year. In 75 water supply facilities and two mines the radon exposure of the staff exceeded the action level (6 mSv/a) or the annual limit (20 mSv/a). Workplaces with increased exposure due to uranium and thorium are of secondary importance in Bavaria. (orig.)

  7. Non-destructive investigation of technical plants and processes and natural processes by short-lived radionuclides (radiotracer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentsch, Thorsten; Zeuner, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Short lived open radionuclides are very suitable to investigate transport and mixing processes. They do not pollute the product. After decay of the radionuclide, the product can be used without any restrictions. Examples are showed for technical processes investigation by aid of radiotracer. (orig.)

  8. Upscaling the Use of Fallout Radionuclides in Soil Erosion and Sediment Budget Investigations: Addressing the Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Walling

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of fallout radionuclides in soil erosion investigations and related sediment budget studies has provided a widely used tool for improving understanding of soil erosion and sediment transfer processes. However, most studies using fallout radionuclides undertaken to date have focussed on small areas. This focus on small areas reflects both the issues addressed and practical constraints associated with sample collection and analysis. Increasing acceptance of the important role of fine sediment in degrading aquatic habitats and in the transfer and fate of nutrients and contaminants within terrestrial and fluvial systems has emphasised the need to consider larger areas and the catchment or regional scale. The need to upscale existing approaches to the use of fallout radionuclides to larger areas represents an important challenge. This contribution provides a brief review of existing and potential approaches to upscaling the use of fallout radionuclides and presents two examples where such approaches have been successfully applied. These involve a national scale assessment of soil erosion rates in England and Wales based on 137Cs measurements and an investigation of the sediment budgets of three small/intermediate-size catchments in southern Italy.

  9. Neutrino scattering and the reactor antineutrino anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Estela; Cañas, Blanca; Miranda, Omar; Parada, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Low energy threshold reactor experiments have the potential to give insight into the light sterile neutrino signal provided by the reactor antineutrino anomaly and the gallium anomaly. In this work we analyze short baseline reactor experiments that detect by elastic neutrino electron scattering in the context of a light sterile neutrino signal. We also analyze the sensitivity of experimental proposals of coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CENNS) detectors in order to exclude or confirm the sterile neutrino signal with reactor antineutrinos.

  10. Radionuclides in the investigation of the circulation of toxic metals in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Zeman, A.; Kratzer, K.; Prasilova, J.

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclides of chromium(III) and (VI), zinc, cadmium, inorganic mercury(II), methylmercury and phenylmercury were used for the investigation of the cumulation of these toxic elements or compounds in algae and fish in different experimental conditions in order to describe quantitatively the processes occurring in nature. Cumulation factors of different chemical forms of elements studied were determined for algae as were biological half-times for fish which allowed the calculation of the maximum concentration of toxic elements in fish. (author)

  11. Preliminary investigation of PAGAT polymer gel radionuclide dosimetry of Tc-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kelly; Bailey, Dale; Hill, Brendan; Baldock, Clive

    2009-05-01

    PAGAT polymer gel was investigated as a suitable dosimeter materials for measuring absorbed dose from the unsealed source radionuclide Tc-99m. Differing amounts of Tc-99m over the range of 25-5000 MBq were introduced into a normoxic polymer gel mixture (PAGAT) in sealed nitrogen-filled P6 glass vials. After irradiation the gels were evaluated using MRI more than 48 hours after preparation to allow for radioactive decay. The dose delivered to the vial was also calculated empirically. R2 versus total activity curves were obtained over a number of experiments and these were used to evaluate the relationship between the amount of gel polymerization and the dose deposited by the radionuclide. A linear response up to 1000 MBq (corresponding to 20Gy) was displayed and was still behaving monotonically at 5000 MBq. Polymer gels offer the potential to measure radiation dose three-dimensionally using MRI.

  12. Prospects for Antineutrino Running at MiniBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Wascko, M. O.

    2006-01-01

    MiniBooNE began running in antineutrino mode on 19 January, 2006. We describe the sensitivity of MiniBooNE to LSND-like nuebar oscillations and outline a program of antineutrino cross-section measurements necessary for the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. We describe three independent methods of constraining wrong-sign (neutrino) backgrounds in an antineutrino beam, and their application to the MiniBooNE antineutrino analyses.

  13. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M.-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is described.

  14. Workshop applied antineutrino physics 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiri, T.; Andrieu, B.; Anjos, J.; Argyriades, J.; Barouch, G.; Bernstein, A.; Bersillon, O.; Besida, O.; Bowden, N.; Cabrera, A.; Calmet, D.; Collar, J.; Cribier, M.; Kerret, H. de; Meijer, R. de; Dudziak, F.; Enomoto, S.; Fallot, M.; Fioni, G.; Fiorentini, G.; Gale, Ph.; Georgadze, A.; Giot, L.; Gonin, M.; Guillon, B.; Henson, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kanamaru, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Kornoukhov, V.; Lasserre, Th.; Learned, J.G.; Lefebvre, J.; Letourneau, A.; Lhillier, D.; Lindner, M.; Lund, J.; Mantovani, F.; Mcdonough, B.; Mention, G.; Monteith, A.; Motta, D.; Mueller, Th.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Odrzywolek, A.; Petcov, S.; Porta, A.; Queval, R.; Reinhold, B.; Reyna, D.; Ridikas, D.; Sadler, L.; Schoenert, St.; Sida, J.L.; Sinev, V.; Suekane, F.; Suvorov, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Tang, A.; Tolich, N.; Tolich, K.; Vanka, S.; Vignaud, D.; Volpe, Ch.; Wong, H

    2007-07-01

    The 'Applied Antineutrino Physics 2007' workshop is the fourth international meeting devoted to the opening of the neutrino physics to more applied fields, such as geophysics and geochemistry, nuclear industry, as well as the nonproliferation. This meeting highlights the world efforts already engaged to exploit the single characteristics of the neutrinos for the control of the production of plutonium in the civil nuclear power reactor. The potential industrial application of the measurement of the thermal power of the nuclear plants by the neutrinos is also approached. earth neutrinos were for the first time highlighted in 2002 by the KamLAND experiment. Several international efforts are currently underway to use earth neutrinos to reveal the interior of the Earth. This meeting is an opportunity to adapt the efforts of detection to the real needs of geophysicists and geochemists (sources of radiogenic heat, potassium in the court, feathers.) Finally more futuristic topics such as the detection of nuclear explosions, of low powers, are also discussed. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  15. Workshop applied antineutrino physics 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiri, T.; Andrieu, B.; Anjos, J.; Argyriades, J.; Barouch, G.; Bernstein, A.; Bersillon, O.; Besida, O.; Bowden, N.; Cabrera, A.; Calmet, D.; Collar, J.; Cribier, M.; Kerret, H. de; Meijer, R. de; Dudziak, F.; Enomoto, S.; Fallot, M.; Fioni, G.; Fiorentini, G.; Gale, Ph.; Georgadze, A.; Giot, L.; Gonin, M.; Guillon, B.; Henson, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kanamaru, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Kornoukhov, V.; Lasserre, Th.; Learned, J.G.; Lefebvre, J.; Letourneau, A.; Lhillier, D.; Lindner, M.; Lund, J.; Mantovani, F.; Mcdonough, B.; Mention, G.; Monteith, A.; Motta, D.; Mueller, Th.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Odrzywolek, A.; Petcov, S.; Porta, A.; Queval, R.; Reinhold, B.; Reyna, D.; Ridikas, D.; Sadler, L.; Schoenert, St.; Sida, J.L.; Sinev, V.; Suekane, F.; Suvorov, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Tang, A.; Tolich, N.; Tolich, K.; Vanka, S.; Vignaud, D.; Volpe, Ch.; Wong, H.

    2007-01-01

    The 'Applied Antineutrino Physics 2007' workshop is the fourth international meeting devoted to the opening of the neutrino physics to more applied fields, such as geophysics and geochemistry, nuclear industry, as well as the nonproliferation. This meeting highlights the world efforts already engaged to exploit the single characteristics of the neutrinos for the control of the production of plutonium in the civil nuclear power reactor. The potential industrial application of the measurement of the thermal power of the nuclear plants by the neutrinos is also approached. earth neutrinos were for the first time highlighted in 2002 by the KamLAND experiment. Several international efforts are currently underway to use earth neutrinos to reveal the interior of the Earth. This meeting is an opportunity to adapt the efforts of detection to the real needs of geophysicists and geochemists (sources of radiogenic heat, potassium in the court, feathers.) Finally more futuristic topics such as the detection of nuclear explosions, of low powers, are also discussed. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  16. System of automated processing of radionuclide investigations (SAPRI-01) in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivachenko, T.P.; Mechev, D.S.; Krupka, I.N.

    1988-01-01

    The author described the results of clinical testing of a system SAPRI-01 designed for automated collection, storage and processing of data on radionuclide investigations. He gave examples of automated processing of RCG and the results of positive scintigraphy of tumors of different sites using 67 Ga-citrate and 99m Tc pertechnetate in statistical and dynamic investigations. Short-comings and ways for updating 4 the system during its serial production were pointed out. The introduction of the system into clinical practice on a wide scale was shown to hold promise

  17. Investigation of rare earth natural radionuclide in Gannan region, Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huiping; Zhong Minglong; Hu Yongmei

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the types, level and migration law of natural radionuclide in ionic rare earth during its development and utilization process, the natural radionuclide in raw ore, waste residues and wastewater of south ionic rare of Gannan region, Jiangxi province were investigated. The results showed that: the natural radionuclide in rare earth raw ore in An'yuan and Longnan is with high content, in which the specific activities of natural U, 226 Ra and 232 Th are 3.69 × l0 4 , 8.33 × l0 3 and 3,40 × l0 3 Bq/ kg respectively; And the specific activities of the acid-soluble slag are 2.58 × l0 4 , 2.81 × l0 4 and 2.75 × l0 4 Bq/kg respectively; The radioactive level of natural U and 232 Th in some rare earth tailings, and the specific activity of natural U in the neutralizing slag of some individual enterprises is higher than national standards' exemption level (1000 Bq/kg). Also, the total content of Th and U in the efflux wastewater of some rare earth enterprises efflux wastewater are higher than the national emission standards limit (0.1 mg/L). (authors)

  18. A preliminary investigation of radiation level and some radionuclides in imported food and food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinakhom, F.; Mongkolphantha, S.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary study of gross beta activity and content of some long-lived radionuclides associated with fission products in various types of imported food and food-products was carried out. Food samples were purchased monthly during 1976-1977 from general well-known supermarkets and local grocery stores up to a total of 89 samples. The gamma spectrum of long-lived radionuclides was searched using a 128 channel analyzer coupled with 3'' x 3'' NaI (T1) crystal detector. Two radionuclides were frequently found to be present in these food samples, viz. potassium-40 and cesium-137 and their concentrations were subsequently determined. The limits of detection under the conditions used for potassium-40 and cesium-137 were 0.04 and 0.03 pCi/g-wet weight, respectively. Samples were dry-ashed and counted for gross beta activity utilizing a low background anti-coincidence G.M. counter. The content of strontium-90 was also investigated concurrently by solvent extraction technique employing tri-n-butyl phosphate as an extractant. Results of the study are tabulated. (author)

  19. An investigation of radionuclide uptake into food crops grown in soils treated with bauxite mining residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Clarke, P.C.; Robertson, W.; McPharlin, I.R.; Jeffrey, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Sandy soils of the coastal plain area of Western Australia have poor phosphorous retention capacity which leads to pollution of surface water bodies in the region. Application of bauxite mining residues (termed 'red mud') to vegetable and crops has been proposed as a solution to increase the phosphorous and water retention and thereby reduce the leaching of nutrients. The thorium and radium-226 concentrations in the 'red mud' residues are in excess of 1 kBq/kg, and 300 Bq/kg respectively. Potentially, the use of these residues on agricultural land could result in increased levels of radionuclides in food grown in amended soils. The transfer of long-lived radionuclides of both the natural thorium and uranium series to a variety of vegetable crops grown under controlled conditions is investigated. The effects of varying the rates of application of 'red mud' and phosphate fertilizers on radionuclide uptake are studied. It has been shown previously that fallout caesium-137 is sandy soils of the region transfers readily to food and grazing crops. Some of the parameters which influence that transfer are also examined. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  20. Applied Anti-neutrino Physics 2013

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This year, the 9th annual Applied Antineutrino Physics Workshop will be hosted by Sejong University, at the COEX conference center in Seoul South Korea. The workshop will be held on November 1(Friday) - 2(Saturday), 2013. Conveniently for many travelers, it takes place directly after and at the same venue as the 2013 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium (http://www.nss-mic.org/2013/NSSMain.asp) Applied Antineutrino Physics describes an ensemble of experimental and theoretical efforts which aim to use the antineutrino signal from nuclear reactors, and from the Earth itself, in order to address practical problems in nonproliferation and geology respectively. Since the 2004 inception of these workshops, groups worldwide have made considerable advances in defining and expanding the field, garnering interest from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which administers the worlds most important nonproliferation regime, and from the geology/geophysics community. This meeting will focus on the current activi...

  1. Nuclear-physical methods in macro- and microanalytical investigations of contamination with radionuclides at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, V.P.

    2005-01-01

    A complex of nuclear-physical methods developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Kazakhstan National Nuclear Center for the investigations of the rate, character and peculiarities of contamination with radionuclides of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) is presented. The developed method combines both macroinvestigations (radionuclide analysis, NAA, XRFA, ESR- and NGR-spectroscopy) and microinvestigations (MS, micro-PIXE, electron microscopy). The results of the investigations at the main SNTS test sites 'Opytnoye pole' and 'Degelen' are presented. (author)

  2. Anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.; Gari, M.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie

    1981-01-01

    The anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron (anti ν + D → anti ν + n + p and anti νsub(e) + D → + e + + n + n) is calculated using realistic two-body states. Meson-exchange currents are considered in the one-boson-exchange limit. The results are discussed as corrections to the cross sections obtained in effective range approximations. It is shown that the ratio of the cross sections (sigma - /sigma 0 ) for reactor antineutrinos is practically independent of the nuclear physics uncertainties. (orig.)

  3. A search for neutrino–antineutrino mass inequality by means of sterile neutrino oscillometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, M.V., E-mail: gear8mike@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); St. Petersburg State University, 198504 Peterhof, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Loo, K.K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Novikov, Yu.N. [St. Petersburg State University, 198504 Peterhof, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Trzaska, W.H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Wurm, M. [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The investigation of the oscillation pattern induced by the sterile neutrinos might determine the oscillation parameters, and at the same time, allow to probe CPT symmetry in the leptonic sector through neutrino–antineutrino mass inequality. We propose to use a large scintillation detector like JUNO or LENA to detect electron neutrinos and electron antineutrinos from MCi electron capture or beta decay sources. Our calculations indicate that such an experiment is realistic and could be performed in parallel to the current research plans for JUNO and RENO. Requiring at least 5σ confidence level and assuming the values of the oscillation parameters indicated by the current global fit, we would be able to detect neutrino–antineutrino mass inequality of the order of 0.5% or larger, which would imply a signal of CPT anomalies.

  4. Macroscopic and spectroscopic investigations on the immobilization of radionuclides by hardened cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, E.; Bonhoure, I.; Tits, J.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Bradbury, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    The uptake of safety-relevant radionuclides was studied using a combination of macroscopic (wet chemistry) and spectroscopic (X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy) techniques with the aim of gaining a mechanistic understanding of the uptake processes on hardened cement paste (HCP) and deducing robust sets of sorption values. HCP contains impurities of metal cations in the ppb to ppm concentration range. As a consequence, the inventories of stable isotopes are expected to be significant in a cementitious near-field and may even exceed the radionuclide inventories of the waste matrix for many safety-relevant radioelements. In view of the significant inventories of stable isotopes, it is suggested that isotopic exchange - replacement of stable isotopes by their radioactive counterparts in the cement matrix - is an important immobilisation process in HCP. However, it is not a priori known what proportion of each elemental inventory is available for isotopic exchange. Wet chemistry studies with Cs and Sr show that the total inventory of these elements is reversibly bound and that their partitioning between HCP and pore water can be modelled using the distribution values deduced from studies of the corresponding tracers ( 137 Cs and 85 Sr). This finding corroborates the relevance of isotopic exchange in cementitious systems. Wet chemistry investigations need to be complemented by spectroscopic techniques, e.g., XAFS, in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of the chemical processes by which waste ions become immobilised in cement-based matrices. XAFS can be used to obtain information at the atomic/molecular level, i.e., the type, number and distance of neighbouring atoms. XAFS studies on cementitious systems are still rather rare, and therefore information on the potential and limitations of this technique is sparse. Mechanistic aspects of the immobilisation processes are discussed for some safety-relevant radionuclides (e.g. Ni and Sr) using the

  5. Investigating radionuclide bearing suspended sediment transport mechanisms in the Ribble estuary using airborne remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkin, P.A.

    2000-10-01

    BNFL Sellafield has been authorised to discharge radionuclides to the Irish Sea since 1952. In the aquatic environment the radionuclides are adsorbed by sediments and are thus redistributed by sediment transport mechanisms. This sediment is known to accumulate in the estuaries of the Irish Sea. BNFL Springfields is also licensed to discharge isotopically different radionuclides directly to the Ribble estuary. Thus there is a need to understand the sediment dynamics of the Ribble estuary in order to understand the fate of these radionuclides within the Ribble estuary. Estuaries are highly dynamic environments that are difficult to monitor using the conventional sampling techniques. However, remote sensing provides a potentially powerful tool for monitoring the hydrodynamics of the estuarine environment by providing data that are both spatially and temporally representative. This research develops a methodology for mapping suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Ribble estuary using airborne remote sensing. The first hypothesis, that there is a relationship between SSC and 137 Cs concentration is proven in-situ (R 2 =0.94), thus remotely sensed SSC can act as a surrogate for 137 Cs concentration. Initial in-situ characterisation of the suspended sediments was investigated to identify spatial and temporal variability in grain size distributions and reflectance characteristics for the Ribble estuary. Laboratory experiments were then performed to clearly define the SSC reflectance relationship, identify the optimum CASI wavelengths for quantifying SSC and to demonstrate the effects on reflectance of the environmental variables of salinity and clay content. Images were corrected for variation in solar elevation and angle to give a ground truth calibration for SSC, with an R 2 =0.76. The remaining scatter in this relationship was attributed to the differences in spatial and temporal representation between sampling techniques and remote sensing. The second hypothesis

  6. The MIRAGE project: large scale radionuclide transport investigations and integral migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Bidoglio, G.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    Predictions of radionuclide migration through the geosphere must be supported by large-scale, long-term investigations. Several research areas of the MIRAGE Project are devoted to acquiring reliable data for developing and validating models. Apart from man-made migration experiments in boreholes and/or underground galleries, attention is paid to natural geological migration systems which have been active for very long time spans. The potential role of microbial activity, either resident or introduced into the host media, is also considered. In order to clarify basic mechanisms, smaller scale ''integral'' migration experiments under fully controlled laboratory conditions are also carried out using real waste forms and representative geological media. (author)

  7. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  8. Standardization of methods of date processing of radionuclide investigations at SAPRI-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivachenko, T.P.; Mechev, D.S.; Krupka, I.N.; Ishchenko, V.P.; Zozulya, A.A.; Romanenko, V.A.; Dzhuzha, D.A.; Lazar', D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Series production of SAPRI-complex (system of automated processing of radionuclide information) intended for automatization of the process of data acquisition and processing of diagnostic radionuclide examination was set up. The features of SAPRI system having the wide possibilities for development and use of algorithms and programs for processing and analysis of radionuclide information were considered

  9. All-union Conference. Principles and methods of regional and geochemical investigations into radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitrov, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The collection presents abstracts of papers concerning landscape-geochemical research of radionuclides migration; aspects of 'hot particles' study; radionuclides forms and behaviour in soils, in soil-plant; soil-natural water systems, as well as in water ecosystems. Methods of natural objects artificial radioactivity study are reviewed. Distribution of natural radionuclides in soils. natural waters, etc. is discussed

  10. Direct investigations of the immobilization of radionuclides in the alteration phases of spent nuclear fuel. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.C.; Finch, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    'In an oxidizing environment, such as in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, rapid alteration rates are expected for spent nuclear fuel. Lab.-scale simulations have repeatedly shown that the dominant alteration products under repository conditions will be uranyl phases. There is an inadequate database that relates to the effects of the alteration products on the release of radionuclides, but this information is essential to provide a radionuclide release estimate. It is likely that many of the radionuclides contained in the fuel will be incorporated into the alteration products that form, potentially with a profound impact on the future mobility of radionuclides in the repository. The authors objective is to characterize the incorporation of radionuclides into alteration products by synthesis of uranyl phases doped with radionuclides, appropriate surrogate elements, or non-radioactive isotopes, followed by detailed phase characterization by diffraction and spectroscopic techniques. The research will permit a more realistic estimate of the release rates of the radionuclides from the near-field environment. This report summarizes work after 8 months of a 3-year project. The objective of investigating radionuclide incorporation in uranyl phases has required the development of synthesis techniques for various uranyl phases that are expected to form under repository conditions. The authors have synthesized and determined the structures of several uranyl phases that are new to science and that may be important alteration products under repository conditions. They have also undertaken the determination and refinement of the crystal structures of various uranyl phases that are likely to form under repository conditions. Other experiments include the investigation of the ion-exchange properties of uranyl phases under repository conditions.'

  11. Use of 137Cs and other fallout radionuclide in soil erosion investigations: progress, problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Accelerated erosion and soil degradation currently represent serious problems for the global environment. Against this background there is a need to assemble reliable information on the rates of soil loss involved. Existing techniques for documenting rates of soil loss possess many limitations and there is increasing interest in the potential for using fallout radionuclides, particularly 137 Cs, to obtain such information. An example of the application of the 137 Cs approach to a cultivated field at Rufford Forest Farm, Nottinghamshire, UK, is presented to illustrate its value. The key advantages of the approach are that it provides a means of assembling retrospective estimates of medium-term (ca. 40 years) rates of soil loss and the spatial pattern of erosion and deposition involved, on the basis of a single site visit. There are, however, currently a number of problems and uncertainties associated with the use of 137 Cs in soil erosion investigations, and these are reviewed and needs for further research identified. Potential developments of the approach, including the use of other fallout radionuclides such as unsupported 210 Pb and 7 Be are also considered. (author)

  12. Investigations and technical reviews on the reliability of prediction for migration behavior of radionuclides (H15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Hirokazu

    2004-02-01

    The research plan of the validation on effects of colloids and organic materials drawn up by the Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute and its' research outcome were reviewed comprehensively by an expert committee established in the Nuclear Safety Research Association. Additionally, experimental investigations for the migration behavior of actinide elements and fission products in engineering barrier and natural barrier medias, and for solution chemistry of them were carried out and discussed by the committee, in order to enhance the reliability of prediction for migration behavior of radionuclides. The subjects investigated by the expert committee are as follows: (1) Research on solubility products of An(III) hydroxide. (2) Diffusion and electromigration behavior of plutonium in buffer material. (3) Analysis of the nuclide solubility in compacted bentonite. (4) Survey of the actual contamination by alpha emitters in steel materials. (author)

  13. Radionuclide migration in fractured rock: hydrological investigations at an experimental site in the Carnmennellis granite, Cornwall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.J.; Durrance, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives, methods and results of hydrological investigation of the granite at an experimental site in Cornwall are described and discussed. Constant head injection tests and radioactive tracer experiments have revealed a fracture permeability in which water movement is confined to discrete fractures separated by rock of very low permeability. Data on flow path frequency, orientation and effective hydraulic aperture, required for network modelling, are presented for a 700 m borehole, with additional hydraulic data from three other boreholes. In addition to fractures of average hydraulic conductivity a small number of major hydraulic features (''main drains'') with major implications for radionuclide migration have been identified. A mean hydraulic conductivity for the granite investigated of 1.57x10 -7 ms -1 has been obtained, 2.11x10 -8 ms -1 if the major hydraulic features are excluded

  14. Stable tracer investigations in humans for assessing the biokinetics of ruthenium and zirconium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronese, I.; Cantone, M.C.; Giussani, A.; Maggioni, T.; Birattari, C.; Bondardi, M.; Groppi, F.; Garlaschelli, I.; Werner, E.; Roth, P.; Hoellriegl, V.; Louvat, P.; Felgenhauer, N.; Zilker, Th.

    2003-01-01

    The interest in the biokinetics of ruthenium and zirconium in humans is justified by the potential radiological risk represented by their radionuclides. Only a few data related to the biokinetics of ruthenium and zirconium in humans are available and, accordingly, the biokinetic models currently recommended by the ICRP for these elements are mainly based on data from animal experiments. The use of stable isotopes as tracers, coupled with a proper analytical technique (nuclear activation analysis with protons) for their determination in biological samples, represents an ethically acceptable methodology for biokinetic investigations, being free from any radiation risk for the volunteer subjects. In this work, the results obtained in eight biokinetic investigations for ruthenium, conducted on a total of three healthy volunteers, and six for zirconium, performed on a total of three subjects, are presented and compared to the predictions of the ICRP models. (author)

  15. A systematic investigation of PET Radionuclide Specific Activity on Miniaturization of Radiochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanne M Link, PhD

    2012-03-08

    The PET radionuclides, 18F and 11C consist of very high radiation to mass amounts and should be easily adapted to new technologies such as chip chemistry with nanofluidics. However, environmental contamination with nonradioactive fluorine, carbon and other trace contaminants add sufficient mass, micrograms to milligrams, to prevent adapting PET radiochemistry to the nanochip technologies. In addition, the large volumes of material required for beam irradiation make it necessary to also remove the 18F and 11C from their chemical matrices. These steps add contaminants. The work described in this report was a systematic investigation of sources of these contaminants and methods to reduce these contaminants and the reaction volumes for radiochemical synthesis. Several methods were found to lower the contaminants and matrices to within a factor of 2 to 100 of those needed to fully implement chip technology but further improvements are needed.

  16. Limits on the electron-antineutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    New measurements near the endpoint of the tritium beta-decay spectrum are producing limits on the electron-antineutrino mass which are below the central mass value of 30 eV reported by ITEP. The factors that influence the neutrino mass sensitivity of tritium beta decay measurements will be discussed followed by a review of the current experimental results. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Reactor antineutrino spectra and their application to antineutrino-induced reactions II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, P.; Schenter, G.K.; Mann, F.M.; Schenter, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    The antineutrino and electron spectra associated with various nuclear fuels are calculated. There are substantial differences between the spectra of different uranium and plutonium isotopes. On the other hand, the dependence on the energy and flux of the fission inducing neutrons is very weak. The resulting spectra can be used for calculation of the antineutrino and electron spectra of an arbitrary nuclear reactor at various stages of its refueling cycle. The sources of uncertainties in the spectrum are identified and analyzed in detail. The exposure time dependence of the spectrum is also discussed. The resulting anti ν/sub e/ spectra are then used to calculate the averaged cross sections of the inverse neutron β decay, weak charged and neutral current induced deuteron disintegration, and the antineutrino-electron scattering

  18. Investigation of the radionuclide inventory and the production yields of the target stacks at the PEFP radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang-Pil; Hong, In-Seok; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2010-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) will construct a radioisotope production facility by using the nuclear reaction between the 100-MeV proton beam and the solid target. For investigating the radionuclide inventory and the production yield of the radioisotope production facility, we have optimized the thickness of the prototype target stacks by using a SRIM calculation. The target stacks consist of RbCl encapsulated in inconel alloy, Zn metal, and Ga metal encapsulated in niobium. Typical beam parameters were 300 μA and 95 hours. An inventory of all generated radionuclide activities is mandatory in order to prepare the operation scenario and design the hot cell. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to investigate what radionuclide is generated. The obtained radionuclide inventory indicated that about 100 radionuclides were generated and that the total radioactivity of the irradiated target stacks was 1324.1 Ci at the end of the bombardment. The production yields of Sr-82, Cu-67, and Ge-68 were 3.79 Ci, 2.74 Ci, and 1.23 Ci at the end of the bombardment.

  19. Reactor antineutrino detector iDREAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, M. B.; Lukyanchenko, G. A.; Novikova, G. J.; Obinyakov, B. A.; Oralbaev, A. Y.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Sukhotin, S. V.; Chepurnov, A. S.; Etenko, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Industrial Detector for Reactor Antineutrino Monitoring (iDREAM) is a compact (≈ 3.5m 2) industrial electron antineutrino spectrometer. It is dedicated for remote monitoring of PWR reactor operational modes by neutrino method in real-time. Measurements of antineutrino flux from PWR allow to estimate a fuel mixture in active zone and to check the status of the reactor campaign for non-proliferation purposes. LAB-based gadolinium doped scintillator is exploited as a target. Multizone architecture of the detector with gamma-catcher surrounding fiducial volume and plastic muon veto above and below ensure high efficiency of IBD detection and background suppression. DAQ is based on Flash ADC with PSD discrimination algorithms while digital trigger is programmable and flexible due to FPGA. The prototype detector was started up in 2014. Preliminary works on registration Cerenkov radiation produced by cosmic muons were established with distilled water inside the detector in order to test electronic and slow control systems. Also in parallel a long-term measurements with different scintillator samples were conducted.

  20. Investigation of exposure rates and radionuclide and trace metal distributions along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, A.T.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    Studies have been conducted to investigate exposure rates, and radionuclide and trace metal distributions along the Columbia River where it borders the Hanford Site. The last major field study was conducted in 1979. With recently renewed interest in various land use and resource protection alternatives, it is important to have data that represent current conditions. Radionuclides and trace metals were surveyed in Columbia River shoreline soils along the Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). The work was conducted as part of the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The survey consisted of taking exposure rate measurements and soil samples primarily at locations known or expected to have elevated exposure rates

  1. Preliminary investigation on determination of radionuclide distribution in field tracing test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Guo Zede; Li Shushen; Kamiyama, Hideo.

    1993-12-01

    Field tracing tests for radionuclide migration have been conducted by using 3 H, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 134 Cs, in the natural unsaturated loess zone at field test site of China Institute for Radiation Protection. It is necessary to obtain confidable distribution data of the radionuclides in the test site, in order to evaluate exactly the migration behavior of the radionuclides in situ. An available method to determine the distribution was proposed on the basis of preliminary discussing results on sampling method of soils from the test site and analytical method of radioactivity in the soils. (author)

  2. Assembly and Installation of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, H R; Heeger, K M; Hinrichs, P; Brown, R L; Gill, R; Carr, R; Dwyer, D A; Chen, X C; Chu, M C; Chen, X H; Heng, Y K; Cherwinka, J J; Greenler, L S; Draeger, E; Edwards, W R; Hoff, M; Goett, J; Gu, W Q; Ho, T H; He, W S

    2013-01-01

    The Daya Bay reactor antineutrino experiment is designed to make a precision measurement of the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 , and recently made the definitive discovery of its non-zero value. It utilizes a set of eight, functionally identical antineutrino detectors to measure the reactor flux and spectrum at baselines of ∼ 300–2000 m from the Daya Bay and Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plants. The Daya Bay antineutrino detectors were built in an above-ground facility and deployed side-by-side at three underground experimental sites near and far from the nuclear reactors. This configuration allows the experiment to make a precision measurement of reactor antineutrino disappearance over km-long baselines and reduces relative systematic uncertainties between detectors and nuclear reactors. This paper describes the assembly and installation of the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors

  3. The use of classical and radionuclide methods to investigate soil erosion in the Beskidy Mts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, W.

    1997-01-01

    Information concerning the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition on cultivated hillslopes is difficult to obtain using conventional soil loss monitoring techniques. The use of the fallout radionuclides 134 Cs and 137 Cs as a sediment tracers offers considerable potential for elucidating patterns of soil redistribution. This paper presents the results of an investigation of soil erosion on a cultivate hillslope within the Homerka drainage basin in the Polish Flysch Carpathians, based on 134 Cs and 137 Cs measurements. The 137 Cs inventories of soils in this region reflect inputs from both bomb and Chernobyl-derived fallout. The high degree of spatial variability associated with Chernobyl fallout deposition poses considerable limitations on the potential for using radiocesium measurements to elucidate detailed patterns of soil loss. With an application of cesium method it was stated that during the last 35 years sediment storage within the edge of agricultural terraces is ca. 4 mm year -1 on the average on agricultural experimental slope in the drainage basin of Homerka. This value reflects tillage and dispersed wash and is comparable with the intensity of erosion on agricultural plots. The results provided by the 137 Cs measurements are consistent with other process-based measurements undertaken on the slopes and with available evidence concerning the dominant sources of suspended sediment transported by the local streams. A general model of soil loss and sediment delivery from cultivated slopes in the Polish Flysch Carpathians is proposed. (author)

  4. Investigations of the Fundamental Surface Reactions Involved in the Sorption and Desorption of Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, Ken; Heske, Clemens; Moser, Duane; Misra, Mnoranjan; McMillion, Glen

    2011-04-20

    Models for describing solution- and surface-phase reactions have been used for 30 years, but only recently applicable to complex surfaces. Duff et al., using micro-XANES, found that Pu was concentrated on Mn-oxide and smectite phases of zeolitic tuff, providing an evaluation of contaminant speciation on surfaces for modeling. Experiments at Los Alamos demonstrated that actinides display varying surface residence time distributions, probably reflective of mineral surface heterogeneity. We propose to investigate the sorption/desorption behavior of radionuclides from mineral surfaces, as effected by microorganisms, employing isolates from Nevada Test Site deep alluvium as a model system. Characterizations will include surface area, particle size distribution, x-ray diffraction (XRD), microprobe analysis, extractions, and microbiology. Surface interactions will be assessed by electron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS), X-ray emission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) researchers will collaborate to enhance scientific infrastructure and the understanding of contaminant behavior on surfaces, with broader implications for the management of DOE sites.

  5. Investigations of the emission of radionuclides from coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, B.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1980-02-01

    Samples of coal, brown coal, bottom ash, collected fly ash and 4 sieve fractions of collected fly ash from various electrostatic filter stages as well as samples of escaping fly ash, all taken simultaneously on 3 operating-days, have been investigated. In samples from coal through fly ash sieve fractions U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Pb-210 and K-40 have been determined by γ-spectrometry, Po-210 by chemical separation with subsequent α-spectrometry. In escaping fly ash samples, which are available in small amounts only (ca. 1 g or less), after chemical separation U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228 and Po-210 were determined by α-spectrometry and Pb-210 by low-level β-counting. Furthermore, Po-210 has been determined by direct α-spectrometry in several particle size fractions collected with a cascade impactor from the exhaust stream. The analytical procedures, which partially had to be developed for the purposes of the present study, are presented shortly. Specific activities of escaping fly ash are in good agreement with specific activities of the fly ash collected from the last electrostatic precipitator stage, provided that, for the latter, the particle size distribution in escaping fly ash is taken into account. Using these specific activities annual air-borne radionuclide emissions are calculated. The resulting activity concentrations in ground level air are compared to values of natural radioactivity. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Investigations of the Fundamental Surface Reactions Involved in the Sorption and Desorption of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwinski, Ken; Heske, Clemens; Moser, Duane; Misra, Mnoranjan; McMillion, Glen

    2011-01-01

    Models for describing solution- and surface-phase reactions have been used for 30 years, but only recently applicable to complex surfaces. Duff et al., using micro-XANES, found that Pu was concentrated on Mn-oxide and smectite phases of zeolitic tuff, providing an evaluation of contaminant speciation on surfaces for modeling. Experiments at Los Alamos demonstrated that actinides display varying surface residence time distributions, probably reflective of mineral surface heterogeneity. We propose to investigate the sorption/desorption behavior of radionuclides from mineral surfaces, as effected by microorganisms, employing isolates from Nevada Test Site deep alluvium as a model system. Characterizations will include surface area, particle size distribution, x-ray diffraction (XRD), microprobe analysis, extractions, and microbiology. Surface interactions will be assessed by electron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS), X-ray emission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) researchers will collaborate to enhance scientific infrastructure and the understanding of contaminant behavior on surfaces, with broader implications for the management of DOE sites.

  7. Beta Autoradiography. An analytical technique to investigate radionuclides contamination on surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficher, P.; Goutelard, F.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In decommissioning of old buildings and after disposal of nuclear facilities (materials, glove boxes,...), the inventory of the radioactive contamination of various building materials needs to be obtained in order to fix the working condition for dismantling. The challenge of this study was to classify different building materials of a whole research laboratory that was dedicated to research on organic molecules labeled with H-3 and C-14. The problem of waste classification is essential for safety treatment of waste and also for its cost. The analytical technique of beta autoradiography particularly well known for biological researches has been tested to investigate radionuclides contamination on surface. This technique is mainly interesting for beta and alpha emitters but also sensitive to gamma radiation. The first step of this technique is the deposit of a film on the surface of material to be analyzed. Films can be deposited on the ground or also fixed on the walls or even on the ceiling. The film is a plastic sheet covered with an emulsion containing photostimulable crystals and Eu that is activated when the film is exposed on radioactive source. The exposed films are then scanned with the Cyclone Plus equipment to get a digitized image. This image represents the radioactivity of the surface studied. The possibility to re-use the films is very important to investigate a large area. This autoradiography technique has retained our attention for its sensitivity and moreover the possibility of 2-dimensional investigation has been found as a real advantage. However it remains now as a qualitative technique and new studies must be launched to prove its quantitative potentialities. The high spatial resolution was not as important as in biological observation, and the mm resolution is totally sufficient

  8. A study of inclusive antineutrino interactions in propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, F.A.

    1979-02-01

    Some results obtained using the heavy liquid bubble chamber Gargamelle situated at the CERN Proton Synchrotron neutrino beam facility are presented. The deep inelastic scattering of antineutrinos is analysed and interpreted in the theoretical framework of Bjorken scaling and the Quark Parton model of the nucleon. This model predicts that scaling should occur in regions of high four momentum squared. The effect of not being in that region is investigated. In particular the data suggest that in the region of low four momentum transfer the results can still be interpreted in the scaling framework. A model is presented which enables extraction of the neutron to proton cross section, and the result is interpreted within the quark model. (author)

  9. Assessment of atmospherically-released radionuclides using the computerized radiological risk investigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.B.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Miller, C.W.; Baes, C.F. III.

    1986-01-01

    For radionuclides, the standards are in terms of an annual dose, and the regulations require assurance that no member of the general public receives a dose in excess of that standard. Thus, spatial variations in the population around an emission source must be considered. Furthermore, for most chemical pollutants the standards are written in terms of an air concentration while for radionuclides other pathways of exposure, e.g., uptake of the airborne emissions by terrestrial food chains must also be considered. The remainder of this paper discusses the computer codes that make up the CRRIS and how they are used to perform an assessment of the health impacts on man of radionuclides released to the atmosphere

  10. Investigation of radionuclides and anthropic tracer migration in groundwater at the Chernobyl site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinnne; Simonucci, Caroline; Roux, Céline; Bugai, Dmitry; Aquilina, Luc; Fourré, Elise; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Labasque, Thierry; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Fifield, Keith; Team Aster Team; Van Meir, Nathalie; Kashparov, Valeriy; Diez, Olivier; Bassot, Sylvain; Lancelot, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Following the reactor 4 explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), at least 1019 Bq of radionuclides (RN) were released in the environment. In order to protect workers and prevent further atmospheric RN dispersion in the area adjacent to the ChNPP, contaminated wastes including fuel particles, topsoil layer and forest remains were buried in approximately 800 shallow trenches in the sand formation in the Red Forest waste dump site [1]. No containment measures were taken, and since then RN have leaked to the unsaturated zone and to the groundwater. Since 1999, migration of RN in the vicinity of the trench 22 at Red Forest site has been investigated within the frame of the EPIC program carried out by IRSN in collaboration with UIAR and IGS [2, 3]. A plume of 90Sr was shown downgradient from the trench 22 with activites reaching 3750 Bq/L [2]. In 2008, further studies were initiated through the TRASSE research group, based on a collaboration between IRSN and CNRS. These programs aim at combining groundwater dating with RN migration monitoring studies in order to constrain RN transport models [3]. Groundwater residence time was investigated based on 3H/He and CFC. Both tracers led to ages ranging from modern (1-3 y) at 2 m depth below the groundwater table to significantly higher apparent ages of 50-60 y at 27 m below the groundwater table [3]. 36Cl/Cl ratios 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretical natural ratio are measured in groundwater. Similarly, SF6 shows concentrations as high as 1200 pptv while natural concentrations are in the order of 6-7 pptv. Based on apparent groundwater ages, both contaminations are linked to the Chernobyl explosion. Hence those tracers show excellent potential to constrain conservative and reactive transport, respectively. In contrast, 238U/235U ratio down gradient from trench 22 remains similar to the natural ratio. This suggests that either most of the U contained in the trench is in a non soluble form

  11. Emission, transport, deposition, and re-suspension of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in the atmosphere - Overview of 2-year investigations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Naohiro; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2013-04-01

    Following a huge earthquake and tsunami in Eastern Japan on 11 March, 2011, the accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) occurred to emit a large amount of artificial radionuclides to the environment. Soon after the FDNPP accident, many Japanese researchers, as well as researchers in other countries, started monitoring radionuclides in various environmental fields and/or model calculations to understand extent and magnitude of radioactive pollution. In this presentation, we overview these activities for the atmospheric radionuclides in Japan as followings: 1. Investigations to evaluate radionuclide emissions by explosions at FNDPP in March 2011 and to estimate the respiration dose of the radiation at this stage. 2. Investigations to evaluate atmospheric transport and deposition processes of atmospheric radionuclide to determine the extent of radionuclide pollution. -- Based on results of the regular and urgent monitoring results, as well as the mapping of the distribution of radionuclide s accumulated by the deposition to the ground, restoration of their time-dependent emission rates has been tried, and processes determining atmospheric concentration and deposition to the ground have been investigated by using the model calculations. 3. Monitoring of the atmospheric concentrations of radionuclide after the initial, surge phase of FNDPP accident. 4. Investigations to evaluate re-suspension of radionuclide from the ground, including the soil and the vegetation. -- Intensive monitoring of the atmospheric concentrations and deposition amount of radionuclide after the initial, surge phase of the accident enable us to evaluate emission history from FNDPP, atmospheric transport and deposition processes, chemical and physical characteristics of atmospheric radionuclide especially of radio cesium, and re-suspension processes which has become dominant process to supply radio cesium to the atmosphere recently.

  12. Orientating investigation to Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in Dutch aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, H.W.; Marwitz, P.A.; Berger, G.W.; Weers, A.W. van; Hagel, P.; Nieuwenhuize, J.

    1990-08-01

    In 1985/86 reconnaissance investigations were carried out of Po-210, Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230 of the U-238 series, and of Th-232 and its daughter Th-228. In the lower reaches of the Rhine, Westerschelde, and Hoogoven(furnace)-channel concentrations were markedly elevated. The average Po-210 concentrations of these waters were between 3-4 Bq.m -3 dissolved in water, between 200-500 Bq.kg -1 in dry suspended matter, between 300-400 Bq.kg -1 in mussels dry matter. These elevated levels could be ascribed to emissions on these waters by the phosphate rock and iron-ore-processing industries. In bottom sediment of waterways or of docks close to these industries Pb-210 and Po-210 concentrations varied from 150 to 750 Bq.kg -1 dry sediment. The lowest average Po-210 concentrations were found in the Oosterschelde: 0.8 Bq.m -3 dissolved in water, 70 Bq.kg -1 in dry suspended matter, 100 Bq.kg -1 in mussels dry matter. It was found that several organisms incorporate Po-210 more strongly than the other natural radionuclides. Po-210 also contributes most to the radiation burden caused by the consumption of fish products, in particular mussels and shrimps. Consumption of 1 kg. a -1 of shrimps from the Oosterschelde or from the coastal area causes respectively a radiation exposure of 10 μSv.a -1 or 30 μSv.a -1 . This study points out the necessity for further studies of the emissions of Po-210 and other U-238 daughters and their dispersal and/or accumulation in the aquatic environment. Furthermore it is important to identify critical groups with respect to the radiation exposure caused by the consumption of mussels and other fish products, and the contribution to this radiation exposure by the industries. (author). 43 refs.; 58 figs.; 52 tabs

  13. Radionuclide investigation of the bone marrow with 99mTc-coren in patients with polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, L.Ya.; Prikhod'ko, A.G.; Rozdil'skij, S.I.; Astap'eva, O.N.; Grusha, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of radionuclide investigation of the bone marrow in 44 patients (of them 32 with polycythemia vera) were presented. The informative value of bone marrow scintigraphy and whole-body radiometry using 99m Tc-coren was shown in the patients with polycythemia vera at advanced stages. The results obtained made it possible to specify a clinical stage and prognosis of disease, and to optimize therapy

  14. Detection of neutrinos, antineutrinos, and neutrino-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbach, Ephraim

    2018-04-24

    An apparatus for detecting the presence of a nuclear reactor by the detection of antineutrinos from the reactor can include a radioactive sample having a measurable nuclear activity level and a decay rate capable of changing in response to the presence of antineutrinos, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to at least one of a particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. A processor associated with the detector can correlate rate of decay of the radioactive sample to a flux of the antineutrinos to detect the reactor.

  15. Investigation on the relationship between systemic burden and annual limits on intake of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yongzeng

    1984-01-01

    The concept of systemic burden and the calculation of annual limits on intake (ALI) of radionuclides are discussed. The relationship between these two quantities is also described. Using this relationship, the ratio of actual amount of intake to ALI can be obtained for the assessment of the risk to internal exposure

  16. Alternative methods and radionuclides for use in soil-erosion and sedimentation investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q.; Walling, D.E.; Wallbrink, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of 137 Cs for documenting rates and patterns of soil redistribution and sediment deposition represents an important advance that overcomes many of the limitations of existing techniques. Thus, the 137 Cs approach presents several key advantages but a number of potential limitations must also be recognized and addressed in any application. For example, traditional procedures for applying 137 Cs measurements in soil-erosion and sedimentation investigations involve the collection of soil or sediment cores from a study site and their subsequent transfer to the laboratory for preparation and analysis of 137 Cs activity by gamma spectrometry. The resulting measurements of 137 Cs activity (Bq g -1 ) are used to calculate the 137 Cs inventories (Bq m -2 ) for the individual cores and, thus the sampling points. In cases where a large number of cores are collected and require analysis, their processing and laboratory measurement will involve substantial effort. Furthermore, an extended period of time will generally be required for the measurements, because long count times are required for environmental samples containing relatively low levels of 137 Cs activity. Appreciable delays in obtaining results may, therefore, arise and it is not generally possible to obtain immediate data for use in planning and developing an ongoing sampling programme for detailed investigations. In view of these limitations, there is clearly a need to explore the potential for enhancing and extending the 137 Cs technique by using other methods to obtain the 137 Cs measurements within a shorter period of time and by using other fallout radionuclides with behaviour similar to that of 137 Cs but with a continuous input or a half-life extending to days rather than years, that could be used to document either the short-term contemporary rates of soil redistribution and sediment deposition or address issues of variability. This chapter discusses the procedures involved in employing field

  17. Investigation of the environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in the processing of sulfide ores for gold using gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbadago, J K; Darko, E O [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, PO Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Faanhof, A [South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Schandorf, C, E-mail: jgbada@yahoo.com [School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana)

    2011-09-01

    The possible environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on workers and a critical community, as a result of milling and processing sulfide ores for gold by a mining company at Bogoso in the western region of Ghana, have been investigated using gamma spectroscopy. Indicative doses for the workers during sulfide ore processing were calculated from the activity concentrations measured at both physical and chemical processing stages. The dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and radioactivity level index for tailings, for the de-silted sediments of run-off from the vicinity of the tailings dam through the critical community, and for the soils of the critical community's basic schools were calculated and found to be lower than their respective permissible limits. The environmental impact of the radionuclides is therefore expected to be low in this mining environment.

  18. Investigation of the environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in the processing of sulfide ores for gold using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbadago, J K; Darko, E O; Faanhof, A; Schandorf, C

    2011-01-01

    The possible environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on workers and a critical community, as a result of milling and processing sulfide ores for gold by a mining company at Bogoso in the western region of Ghana, have been investigated using gamma spectroscopy. Indicative doses for the workers during sulfide ore processing were calculated from the activity concentrations measured at both physical and chemical processing stages. The dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and radioactivity level index for tailings, for the de-silted sediments of run-off from the vicinity of the tailings dam through the critical community, and for the soils of the critical community's basic schools were calculated and found to be lower than their respective permissible limits. The environmental impact of the radionuclides is therefore expected to be low in this mining environment.

  19. Supplementary investigations on the validation of the atmospheric radionuclide transport model (ARTM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Cornelia; Thielen, Harald; Sogalla, Martin

    2015-09-01

    In the medium-term time scale the Gaussian plume model used so far for atmospheric dispersion calculations in the General Administrative Provision (AVV) relating to Section 47 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrISchV) as well as in the Incident Calculation Bases (SBG) relating to Section 49 StrISchV is to be replaced by a Lagrangian particle model. Meanwhile the Atmospheric Radionuclide Transportation Model (ARTM) is available, which allows the simulation of the atmospheric dispersion of operational releases from nuclear installations. ARTM is based on the program package AUSTAL2000 which is designed for the simulation of atmospheric dispersion of non-radioactive operational releases from industrial plants and was adapted to the application of airborne radioactive releases. The research project 3612S50007 serves, on the one hand, to validate ARTM systematically. On the other hand, the development of science and technology were investigated and, if reasonable and possible, were implemented to the program system. The dispersion model and the user interface were advanced and optimized. The program package was provided to the users as a free download. Notably t he work program comprises the validation of the approach used in ARTM to model short emission periods, which are of interest in view of the SBG. The simulation results of the diagnostic wind and turbulence model TALdia, which is part of the GO-ARTM program package, were evaluated with focus on the influence of buildings on the flow field. The user interface was upgraded with a wind field viewer. To simplify the comparison with the model still in use, a Gaussian plum e model was implemented into the graphical user interface. The ARTM web page was maintained, user questions and feedback were answered and analysed concerning possible improvements and further developments of the program package. Numerous improvements were implemented. An ARTM user workshop was hosted by the Federal Office for Radiation

  20. The reactor antineutrino anomaly and low energy threshold neutrino experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, B. C.; Garcés, E. A.; Miranda, O. G.; Parada, A.

    2018-01-01

    Short distance reactor antineutrino experiments measure an antineutrino spectrum a few percent lower than expected from theoretical predictions. In this work we study the potential of low energy threshold reactor experiments in the context of a light sterile neutrino signal. We discuss the perspectives of the recently detected coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering in future reactor antineutrino experiments. We find that the expectations to improve the current constraints on the mixing with sterile neutrinos are promising. We also analyze the measurements of antineutrino scattering off electrons from short distance reactor experiments. In this case, the statistics is not competitive with inverse beta decay experiments, although future experiments might play a role when compare it with the Gallium anomaly.

  1. Direct Investigations of the Immobilization of Radionuclides in the Alteration Products of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Peter C.; Finch, Robert J.; Wronkiewicz, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Safe disposal of the nation's nuclear waste in a geological repository involves unique scientific and engineering challenges owing to the very long-lived radioactivity of the waste. The repository must retain a variety of radionuclides that have vastly different chemical characters for several thousand years. Most of the radioactivity that will be housed in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will be associated with spent nuclear fuel, much of which is derived from commercial reactors. DOE is custodian of approximately 8000 tons of spent nuclear fuel that is also intended for eventual disposal in a geological repository. Unlike the spent fuel from commercial reactors, the DOE fuel is diverse in composition with more than 250 varieties. Safe disposal of spent fuel requires a detailed knowledge of its long-term behavior under repository conditions, as well as the fate of radionuclides released from the spent fuel as waste containers are breached

  2. Lithium converter of reactor neutrinos in antineutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutostanskij, Yu.S.; Lyashuk, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    The questions of developing lithium converter of the reactor neutrons in antineutrino operating at dynamic regime in the scheme with the cycle circulation of the high-purified lithium (by 7 Li isotope) through the converter are considered. The scheme allows to localize the 8 Li β-decay (T 1/2 =0.84 s) in the reservoir near the detector and so to design the hard-spectrum lithium ν-tilde e -source (E max ≅13 MeV) at the distance from the active zone being the soft-spectrum ν-tilde e -source. The expressions for the lithium ν-tilde e flux from the converter, reservoir and conveyance channel are obtained. 9 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Heavy quark production by neutrinos and antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.M.; Tanaka, K.

    1979-01-01

    The rate for producing t- and b-quarks in, respectively, neutrino and antineutrino interactions with nucleons are estimated. Experimental quark parton distribution functions, SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) gauge group mixing angles, and threshold suppression through rescaling are used in the calculation. The ratios to total cross sections of b-quark production by anti nu, R/sub b//sup anti nu/, and t-quark production by ν, R/sub t//sup nu/, are, respectively, R/sub b//sup anti nu/ approximately equal to 10 -4 and R/sub t//sup nu/ approximately equal to 10 -5 for an incident energy of 200 GeV. 13 references

  4. Radionuclide investigation of the blood flow in tumor and normal rat tissues in induced hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istomin, Yu.P.; Shitikov, B.D.; Markova, L.V.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclide angiography was performed in rats with transplantable tumors. Induced hyperglycemia was shown to result in blood flow inhibition in tumor and normal tissues of tumor-bearing rats. Some differences were revealed in a degree of reversibility of blood flow disorders in tissues of the above strains. The results obtained confirmed the advisability of radiation therapy at the height of a decrease in tumor blood

  5. Field investigations of the uptake of radionuclides by a dairy herd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, N J [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1983-11-01

    A brief outline is given of a current study of the transfer of radionuclides in the pasture-cow-milk pathway at a farm situated close to the Sellafield nuclear installation. Samples collected include airborne dust, rainwater, herbage, supplementary feed, milk and tissue, bone and organs from slaughtered cows. Data collected so far have been used to derive coefficients that quantify the transfer of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239/Pu and /sup 241/Am to meat and milk.

  6. Immunological and epidemiological investigations in regions contaminated by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubik, V M [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    We have carried out in Novozybkov district of Bryansk region, Russia, immunologic inspection of residents with simultaneous evaluation of radionuclides content in the body and individual dose burden. We have not found any correlation between the dose and immune characteristics: amount of T and B lymphocytes, antibodies level. Only 3 months after the accident increased level of antibodies against thyroid antigens, thyroglobulin and microsomes was found at thyroid doses over 75 cGy. 3 tabs.

  7. Immunological and epidemiological investigations in regions contaminated by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    We have carried out in Novozybkov district of Bryansk region, Russia, immunologic inspection of residents with simultaneous evaluation of radionuclides content in the body and individual dose burden. We have not found any correlation between the dose and immune characteristics: amount of T and B lymphocytes, antibodies level. Only 3 months after the accident increased level of antibodies against thyroid antigens, thyroglobulin and microsomes was found at thyroid doses over 75 cGy. 3 tabs

  8. Field investigations of the uptake of radionuclides by a dairy herd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    A brief outline is given of a current study of the transfer of radionuclides in the pasture-cow-milk pathway at a farm situated close to the Sellafield nuclear installation. Samples collected include airborne dust, rainwater, herbage, supplementary feed, milk and tissue, bone and organs from slaughtered cows. Data collected so far have been used to derive coefficients that quantify the transfer of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and 241 Am to meat and milk. (U.K.)

  9. Ways of investigating radionuclide migration processes in the lithosphere and hydrosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousova, A.P.; Shmakov, A.I.; Galaktionova, O.V.

    1994-01-01

    In Russia, until recently, it was considered that groundwater was protected from surface radioactive contamination by soil and rocks in the zone aeration. Groundwater was not a subject of radiation control. The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant showed, however, that groundwater is vulnerable to radioactive contamination. In this connection, the vulnerability of groundwater to and the problems of protecting groundwater from radioactive contamination became urgent. The assessment of natural protection of groundwater from radioactive contamination is now considered a top priority. The zone of aeration is generally considered to be the zone separating groundwater from surface contamination. In respect to radioactive contamination, soils that may fix a large quantity of radionuclides serve as a protection zone of a higher order. The mapping of protectibility was done for each radionuclide taking into consideration the specific structure of the flow medium and migration properties of a radionuclide. 90 Sr and 137 Cs have different mechanisms of transport; convective transport is characteristic of the former and diffusive transfer of the latter. This is conditioned by different physico-chemical properties of the radionuclides and principally by their sorption capacities. The coefficient of distribution of 90 Sr is in many times less than the coefficient of distribution of 137 Cs. The environmental protection problem in regions with nuclear power plants and in areas subjected to radioactive contamination may be solved using a monitoring, system including interrelated systems of observation and prediction of the lithosphere and the hydrosphere. The problem of mathematical modeling of migration processes is related to the complexities of modeling the processes of flow, mass transfer, and the accompanying physicochemical processes in zones of full and partial saturation, as well as difficulties in mathematical calculations. 4 refs

  10. Investigation of radionuclide release from Solid Waste Disposal Area 3, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueber, A.M.; Webster, D.A.; Munro, I.L.; Farrow, N.D.; Scott, T.G.

    1981-08-01

    Radionuclide release from Solid Waste Disposal Area (SWDA) 3 has been studied through the analysis of surface and ground waters from the local drainage areas. SWDA 3 is located in the Northwest Tributary drainage basin, a part of the White Oak Creek drainage; 90 Sr is the only radionuclide being discharged in solution in the main stream. Water-level measurements in wells around SWDA 3 suggest the presence of a ground-water divide beneath the southwestern end of the disposal area. Ground water below this area may be moving southwestward toward the Raccoon Creek drainage system. Strontium-90 activity has been detected in this watershed, discharging from a seep adjacent to a Raccoon Creek tributary stream about 640 m southwest of SWDA 3. It appears that 90 Sr is moving through ground-water flow to the northeast and to the southwest of SWDA 3 and that this direction of movement is related to bedrock structure. The trend of a line connecting the two seeps passes through the disposal area and is parallel to bedrock strike. Information from core-hole logs and televiewer logs suggests that 90 Sr in ground water may be moving through solution channels near the contact between units F and G of the Chickamauga Limestone. The apparent extent of migration of 90 Sr in bedrock has implications regarding potential underground radionuclide movement in Melton Valley

  11. Laboratory experiments to investigate radionuclide enrichment in the sea-surface microlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickmott, S.J.B.

    1982-02-01

    Samples of simulated seawater, and seawater from the Irish Sea, were contained in a plastic tank in the laboratory, and bubbles were passed through them to burst at the water surface. The emitted jet droplets, as representing the surface microlayer, were collected on filter papers. Such measurements are easier to perform than similar measurements at sea, and the lack of waves enables greater collection efficiencies to be obtained. The droplet samples were analysed for stable Na, 137 Cs and actinides, and compared with the concentrations in the bulk tank water, in order to examine possible concentration factors for radionuclides in the surface microlayer. (author)

  12. X-ray and radionuclide investigations of the bones and joints in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuzyak, M.I.; Vasil'ev, A.A.; Belyaev, G.M.; Vikman, Ya.Eh.

    1990-01-01

    Radiography of the bones and joints was performed in 133 psoriatic patients; osteoscintigraphy with 99m Tc-phosphate compounds was also performed in 42 of them. On the basis of x-ray findings 3 types of osteoarticular psoriasis were singled out: psoriatic polyarthritis, psoriatic polyarthrosis and psoriatic arthropathy. The most ample information on the type, activity and spreading of a pathological process in the bones and joints in psoriasis can be obtained from the combination of the x-ray and radionuclide methods

  13. Investigations on high temperature coking of lignite with the help of radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, H.G.; Luther, D.; Abendroth, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    The time characteristics and the varying flow characteristics of fine-grained briquettes during the high temperature coking of lignite according to Rammler and Bilkenroth were studied with the help of radionuclide technique. The process parameters (tsub(V), zsub(R), etc.) refer to the different zones of the coke furnace (bunker/dryer, coker/cooler). The different time charakteristics of the coke-grain fractions formed during the BHT-process enables a correlation of the retention time and the quality factors of the coke. The results obtained would enable a better operation of the individual furnaces in the plant and offer the basis for further process developments. (orig.) [de

  14. Radionuclide disequilibria studies for investigating the integrity of potential nuclear waste disposal sites: subseabed studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.; Thomas, C.W.; Petersen, M.R.; Perkins, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    This study of subseabed sediments indicates that natural radionuclides can be employed to define past long-term migration rates and thereby evaluate the integrity of potential disposal sites in ocean sediments. The study revealed the following conclusions: (1) the sedimentation rate of both the long and short cores collected in the North Pacific is 2.5 mm/1000 yr or 2.5 m/m.yr in the upper 3 meters; (2) the sedimentation rate has been rather constant over the last one million years; and (3) slow diffusive processes dominate within the sediment. Reworking of the sediment by physical processes or organisms is not observed

  15. Investigation into kinetics of sorption of some radionuclides by mixed sorbents based on amorphous niobium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, R.M.; Sukharev, Yu.I.; Egorov, Yu.V.; Plotnikov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made of kinetics of sorption of radionuclides 110 Ag, 60 Co, and 51 Cr by samples of amorphous stoichiometric niobium (5) phosphate. Ratios of the concentration conductivity to the mean radius of sorbent particles were calculated which are proportional to diffusivities. Increased specificity towards Cr 3+ ions of samples of ion exchangeable niobium phosphate containing cerium and treated with 0.1N HCl was established. This effect was explained by formation and subsequent destruction of the copolymer oxo-ol matrix of niobium and cerium, as a result of which a gel is formed with mosaic structure being favourable for sorption of three-charged ions

  16. Direct Investigations Of The Immobilization Of Radionuclides In The Alteration Phases Of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Peter C.; Finch, Robert J.; Wronkiewicz, David J.

    2003-01-01

    The safe disposal of the nation's nuclear waste in a geologic repository is one of the most significant and difficult scientific endeavors of the twenty-first century. Unique scientific challenges are posed by the very long-lived radioactivity of nuclear waste. Many radionuclides of vastly different chemical character must be retained by the repository for several thousand years. Some with longer half-lives, such as Pu-239 and Tc-99, need to be isolated for periods approaching a million years. In order to ensure the safety of a geologic repository, a detailed understanding of the mobility of radionuclides in complex natural systems is essential. Most of the radioactivity in a geological repository will be associated with spent nuclear fuel. In the United States spent fuel is derived from several sources. The majority is UO2 (LWR) spent fuel from commercial reactors. About 30,000 metric tons of spent fuel was in storage at commercial reactors by 1995, with the expectation that this quantity will more than double by 2010 (Integrated Data Report 1995). All spent fuel derived from commercial reactors is intended for eventual disposal in a geological repository. In addition, the DOE is the custodian of about 8000 metric tons of spent fuel, most of which is also intended for disposal in a geological repository. Although there are more than 250 types of spent fuel in the DOE inventory, the fuels may be broadly classified into (1) uranium metal fuel, (2) aluminum-based fuel, (3) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel containing substantial plutonium, and (4) graphite fuel (Colleen Shelton-Davis, personal communications, January 2000). Disposal of spent fuel in a geological repository requires detailed knowledge of the longterm behavior of the waste forms under repository conditions, as well as the fate of radionuclides released from the waste packages as containers are breached. The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is intended to hold 70,000 metric tons of high-level nuclear waste. Nine

  17. Experimental determination of the antineutrino spectrum of the fission products of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, Nils-Holger

    2013-01-01

    Fission of 238 U contributes about 10 % to the antineutrino emission of a pressurized water reactor. In the present thesis, the beta spectrum of the fission products of 238 U was determined in an experiment at the neutron source FRM II. This beta spectrum was subsequently converted into an antineutrino spectrum. This first measurement of the antineutrino spectrum supports all current and future reactor antineutrino experiments.

  18. Experimental determination of the antineutrino spectrum of the fission products of {sup 238}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, Nils-Holger

    2013-10-09

    Fission of {sup 238}U contributes about 10 % to the antineutrino emission of a pressurized water reactor. In the present thesis, the beta spectrum of the fission products of {sup 238}U was determined in an experiment at the neutron source FRM II. This beta spectrum was subsequently converted into an antineutrino spectrum. This first measurement of the antineutrino spectrum supports all current and future reactor antineutrino experiments.

  19. Assessment of function of the cardiovascular system in arterial hypertension using radionuclide methods of investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, N.M.; Babayan, A.S.; Mikaehlyan, R.S.; Mnatsakyan, Eh.L.

    1986-01-01

    Proceeding from a study of the nature of changes in hemodynamics during development of hypertensive disease (HD) at its different stages it was shown that hemodynamic changes in 42.1% of the patients with Stage 1-2A HD were of hypertensive type, in the patients with Stage 2B-3 HD normal and hypokinetic types of the blood circulation prevailed. After bicycle ergometry exercise the reactivity of the cardiovascular system was revealed more completely. The most complete information on function of the cardiovascular system and myocardial contractility can be obtained with the help of radioangiocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography. However in the absence of a gamma-chamber radiocardiography can provide necessary information on function of the cardiovascular system in case it is used in one and the same patient over time using bicycle ergometry testing

  20. Cardiointervalography investigation of the nervous system of children from the radionuclide contaminated districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedvetskaya, V.V.; Lyalikov, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Using cardiointervalography the vegetative status of 177 children living in the supervised Belarus regions (more 15 Ci/km 2 of 137 Cs) and of 1291 children from the areas which are not contaminated with radionuclides is assessed. It is stated that the most characteristic peculiarity common for children living on supervised territories is an increase of the subcortical nervous centers activity, reinforcement of the central regulation stability, bettering of relations between the central and peripheral regulation profiles at rest and damage of these relations under physical load. Changes in the vegetative regulation developing in children from these districts are more pronounced in girls as compared to boys and are characterized by the nervous system sympathetic section tone decrease, by the liability to hyporeactivity accompanied by the parasympathetic section compensatory mechanisms tension. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Yale High Energy Physics Research: Precision Studies of Reactor Antineutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeger, Karsten M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-09-13

    This report presents experimental research at the intensity frontier of particle physics with particular focus on the study of reactor antineutrinos and the precision measurement of neutrino oscillations. The experimental neutrino physics group of Professor Heeger and Senior Scientist Band at Yale University has had leading responsibilities in the construction and operation of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment and made critical contributions to the discovery of non-zero$\\theta_{13}$. Heeger and Band led the Daya Bay detector management team and are now overseeing the operations of the antineutrino detectors. Postdoctoral researchers and students in this group have made leading contributions to the Daya Bay analysis including the prediction of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, the analysis of the oscillation signal, and the precision determination of the target mass yielding unprecedented precision in the relative detector uncertainty. Heeger's group is now leading an R\\&D effort towards a short-baseline oscillation experiment, called PROSPECT, at a US research reactor and the development of antineutrino detectors with advanced background discrimination.

  2. Yale High Energy Physics Research: Precision Studies of Reactor Antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeger, Karsten M.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents experimental research at the intensity frontier of particle physics with particular focus on the study of reactor antineutrinos and the precision measurement of neutrino oscillations. The experimental neutrino physics group of Professor Heeger and Senior Scientist Band at Yale University has had leading responsibilities in the construction and operation of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment and made critical contributions to the discovery of non-zero$\\theta . Heeger and Band led the Daya Bay detector management team and are now overseeing the operations of the antineutrino detectors. Postdoctoral researchers and students in this group have made leading contributions to the Daya Bay analysis including the prediction of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, the analysis of the oscillation signal, and the precision determination of the target mass yielding unprecedented precision in the relative detector uncertainty. Heeger's group is now leading an R\\&D effort towards a short-baseline oscillation experiment, called PROSPECT, at a US research reactor and the development of antineutrino detectors with advanced background discrimination.

  3. Further results on muon-antineutrino-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasert, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    In a further study of the neutral current interactions muon-antineutrino e - →muon-antineutrino e - , the Gargamelle collaboration analyzed 70% of the photographic film from the Freon neutrino (antineutrino) experiment. Three non-ambiguous events were found, that correspond within a 90% confidence to an upper limit for the cross section below 0.17x10 -41 cm 2 /e - . A 0.46 event background was calculated, and the probability for the three events to be background is lower than 1%. Signal loss corrections were effected in terms of the Salam-Ward-Weinberg model, and an upper limit (sin 2 theta(W) 2 theta(W) are concluded to be 0.1 2 thate(W) [fr

  4. investigations on the synthesis of humic acid and its radionuclide complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madbouly, H.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    interest in the chemistry and reactions of organic substances in soils, sediments and natural water has been fortified in recent years by major advances in methodology and recognition of the important role of humic substances in environmental processes. humic substances contribute to plant growth through their effect on the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil . for a full understanding of the role and function of humic substances in the environment, it is necessary to synthesize a functional model humic acid having similar chemical behavior to the natural one. the aim of this thesis is to prepare and characterize some synthetic humic acids with simpler overall structures but under different preparation conditions. also, the work is devoted to compare between synthetic and the natural humic acid samples in properties and interactions with the metal ions Cs + ,Sr 2+ ,Cd 2+ ,Hg 2+ ,Pb 2+ ,Cr 3+ , Ce 3+ ,Pr 3+ ,Nd 3+ ,Gd 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Dy 3+ ,Tb 3+ ,Tm 3+ and Se 4+ in the presence of the radionuclides Eu 3+ and Co 2+

  5. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites. 1982 annual report of research investigations on the distribution, migration and containment of radionuclides at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, L.J.

    1984-02-01

    Subsurface waters at Maxey Flats are anoxic, have a high alkalinity and contain high concentrations of ferrous, sulfide and ammonium ions and organic carbon. The trench leachates are extremely variable in composition. Prominent radionuclides include 3 H, 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 239 240 Pu and 241 Am. A wide spectrum of dissolved organic compounds is present in the leachates, including EDTA, polar organics and decomposition products from the waste forms. Cobalt-60 and plutonium are present as EDTA complexes and 90 Sr and 137 Cs are associated with carboxylic acid type compounds. The chemistry of these waters changes drastically as they become oxic and plutonium becomes less mobile under these new conditions. Water enters the trenches by infiltration through the trench caps, through subsidence areas, and through interfaces between new landfill and the original soil. Lateral flow is very complex and slow, and apparently occurs mainly by fracture flow. The plastic infiltration barrier installed in 1981 to 1982 has been effective in reducing soil moisture if cracks and leaks are eliminated. To date, no direct evidence of radionuclide transport to offsite locations by subsurface flow has been confirmed. The offsite distribution of radionuclides, except for tritium, is comparable to the ambient fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Tritium concentrations in water offsite are orders of magnitude below MPC levels. 24 figures, 31 tables

  6. The U238 antineutrino spectrum in the Double Chooz experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, Nils; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Schreckenbach, Klaus [Technische Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Lachenmaier, Tobias [Eberhard Karls Universitaet, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The DoubleChooz experiment aims at the determination of the unknown neutrino mixing parameter {Theta}{sub 13}. Two liquid scintillator detectors will measure an electron antineutrino disappearance at the Chooz site in the French ardennes. In order to improve the sensitivity, the antineutrino spectrum emitted by the Chooz reactor cores has to be determined with high accuracy. This talk focusses on the U238 spectrum, which is the only contributing spectrum, that was not measured until now. The final U238 beta spectrum is presented, and its implementation into the analysis framework is shown.

  7. Is there a high-y anomaly in antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, M.; Knobloch, J.; May, J.; Paar, H.P.; Palazzi, P.; Schlatter, D.; Steinberger, J.; Suter, H.; Wahl, H.; Williams, E.G.H.; Eisele, F.; Geweniger, C.; Kleinknecht, K.; Spahn, G.; Wilutzki, H.; Dorth, W.; Dydak, F.; Hepp, V.; Tittel, K.; Wotschack, J.; Bloch, P.; Devaux, B.; Grimm, M.; Maillard, J.; Peyaud, B.; Rander, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Turlay, R.; Navarria, F.L.

    1977-01-01

    We have analyzed data taken in the CERN narrow-band neutrino and antineutrino beams with regard to the ''high-y anomaly'' observed by previous experiments at Fermilab. At neutrino energies between 30 and 200 GeV, the anti ν and ν charged-current cross-section ratios and muon-inelasticity distributions disagree with the earlier results. In particular, there is no evidence for energy-dependent effects in the antineutrino data which constitute an important aspect of the alleged anomaly

  8. Elementary analyses in behalf of the project: Orientating investigation to Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in Dutch aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.J. 't; Breugem, P.M.; Koester, H.W.

    1989-11-01

    In this report, results of the determinations of total, organic and inorganic carbon analysis are reported for the project 'Orientating investigations of Polonium-210 and other natural radionuclides in Dutch aquatic ecosystems', projectnumber 248476. The method used is a modification of the method described by Froelich and is based on elemental analysis. Sediment samples from several locations of sea and river water show a large variation of the carbon content. The organic carbon concentration varies from 2.78 to 22.42 percent; the inorganic carbon varies from 1.25 to 5.66 percent. The analyses were run in duplicate with a mean standard deviation of 0.1 percent. (author). 4 refs.; 5 figs.; 7 tabs

  9. Neutral strange particle production in antineutrino-neon charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willocq, S.; Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Allport, P.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Guy, J.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Varvell, K.; Venus, W.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.

    1992-06-01

    Neutral strange particle production inbar v Ne charged current interactions is studied using the bubble chamber BEBC, exposed to the CERN SPS antineutrino wide band beam. From a sample of 1191 neutral strange particles, the inclusive production rates are determined to be (15.7±0.8)% for K 0 mesons, (8.2±0.5)% for Λ, (0.4±0.2)% forbar Λ and (0.6±0.3)% for Σ0 hyperons. The inclusive production properties of K 0 mesons and Λ hyperons are investigated. The Λ hyperons are found to be polarized in the production plane.

  10. Electron Neutrino and Antineutrino Appearance in the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, Adam Paul [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline neutrino experiment that utilizes a particle beam and two steel-scintillator calorimeters designed to determine the parameters associated with muon neutrino disappearance. Analysis methods developed by the MINOS νe group have facilitated the placement of limits upon the mixing angle associated with νμ → νe oscillations. Since the polarity of the focusing horns can be switched, we can perform a similar analysis with an antineutrino-enriched beam to select electron antineutrino appearance candidates. Using 3.34e20 POT (protons on target) in the antineutrino mode, we exclude θ13 = 0 at the 80% C.L. A joint fit of the 3.34e20 POT antineutrino and 10.6e20 POT neutrino samples excluded θ13 = 0 at the 96% C.L. In addition, the combined data were used to produce exclusions regarding the CP-violating phase.

  11. Towards earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wortche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.

    2006-01-01

    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection.

  12. On neutrino and antineutrino scattering by electrons, and by partons

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, J S

    1975-01-01

    Assuming a non-derivative point interaction, and Born approximation, there are some simple relations between neutrino and antineutrino scattering on electrons or partons. They have been observed already, for some special cases, in the results of explicit calculations. Here they are obtained from simple and general considerations. (8 refs).

  13. Improved Measurement of Electron-antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    With 2.5× the previously reported exposure, the Daya Bay experiment has improved the measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter sin 2 2θ 13 =0.089±0.010(stat)±0.005(syst). Reactor anti-neutrinos were produced by six 2.9 GW th commercial power reactors, and measured by six 20-ton target-mass detectors of identical design. A total of 234,217 anti-neutrino candidates were detected in 127 days of exposure. An anti-neutrino rate of 0.944±0.007(stat)±0.003(syst) was measured by three detectors at a flux-weighted average distance of1648 m from the reactors, relative to two detectors at 470 m and one detector at 576 m. Detector design and depth underground limited the background to 5±0.3% (far detectors) and 2±0.2% (near detectors) of the candidate signals. The improved precision confirms the initial measurement of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance, and continues to be the most precise measurement of θ 13

  14. Improved measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Fengpeng; Bai Jingzhi; An Qi

    2013-01-01

    We report an improved measurement of the neutrino mixing angle θ13 from the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. We exclude a zero value for sin 2 2θ 13 with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations. Electron antineutrinos from six reactors of 2.9 GW th were detected in six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (flux-weighted baselines of 470 m and 576 m) and one far (1648 m) underground experimental halls. Using 139 days of data, 28909 (205308) electron antineutrino candidates were detected at the far hall (near halls). The ratio of the observed to the expected number of antineutrinos assuming no oscillations at the far hall is 0.944±0.007(stat.)±0.003(syst.). An analysis of the relative rates in six detectors finds sin 2 2θ 13 =0.089±0.010(stat.)±0.005(syst.) in a three-neutrino framework. (authors)

  15. Monitoring of spent nuclear fuel with antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran

    2017-09-01

    We put forward the possibility of employing antineutrino detectors in order to control the amounts of spent nuclear fuel in repositories or, alternatively, to precisely localize the underground sources of nuclear material. For instance, we discuss the applicability in determining a possible leakage of stored nuclear material which would aid in preventing environmental problems. The long-term storage facilities are also addressed.

  16. Improved Measurement of Electron-antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, D.A. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    With 2.5× the previously reported exposure, the Daya Bay experiment has improved the measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter sin{sup 2}2θ{sub 13}=0.089±0.010(stat)±0.005(syst). Reactor anti-neutrinos were produced by six 2.9 GW{sub th} commercial power reactors, and measured by six 20-ton target-mass detectors of identical design. A total of 234,217 anti-neutrino candidates were detected in 127 days of exposure. An anti-neutrino rate of 0.944±0.007(stat)±0.003(syst) was measured by three detectors at a flux-weighted average distance of1648 m from the reactors, relative to two detectors at 470 m and one detector at 576 m. Detector design and depth underground limited the background to 5±0.3% (far detectors) and 2±0.2% (near detectors) of the candidate signals. The improved precision confirms the initial measurement of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance, and continues to be the most precise measurement of θ{sub 13}.

  17. On neutrino and antineutrino scattering by electrons, and by partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.; Dass, G.V.

    1975-09-01

    Assuming a non-derivative point interaction, and Born approximation, there are some simple relations between neutrino and antineutrino scattering on electrons or partons. They have been observed already, for some special cases, in the results of explicit calculations. Here they are obtained from simple general considerations. (author)

  18. Anti-neutrino imprint in solar neutrino flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, D.

    2006-10-01

    A future neutrino detector at megaton mass might enlarge the neutrino telescope thresholds revealing cosmic supernova background and largest solar flares (SFs) neutrinos. Indeed the solar energetic (Ep>100 MeV) flare particles (protons, α), while scattering among themselves on solar corona atmosphere must produce prompt charged pions, whose chain decays are source of a solar (electron muon) neutrino 'flare' (at tens or hundreds MeV energy). These brief (minutes) neutrino 'bursts' at largest flare peak may overcome by three to five orders of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, possibly leading to their detection above detection thresholds (in a full mixed three flavour state). Moreover the birth of anti-neutrinos at a few tens of MeV very clearly flares above a null thermal 'hep' anti-neutrino solar background and also above a tiny supernova relic and atmospheric noise. The largest prompt solar anti-neutrino 'burst' may be well detected in future Super Kamikande (gadolinium implemented) anti-neutrino \\bar\

  19. Recent results on neutrino, antineutrino charged current interactions at NAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Ford, W.T.; Imlay, R.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Messing, F.; Piccioni, R.L.; Pilcher, J.; Reeder, D.D.; Rubbia, C.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.

    The dependence of the neutrino cross section on energy has been measured to 160GeV. The ratio sigma(antineutrino)/sigma(neutrino) is measured up to 70GeV. Preliminary results are presented for the distributions of the scaling variables x, y observed in neutrino induced events

  20. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites. Annual report of research investigations on the distribution, migration and containment of radionuclides at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, L.J.

    1982-07-01

    Subsurface waters at Maxey Flats are anoxic systems with high alkalinity and high concentrations of dissolved ferrous ion. Americium and cobalt in these trench waters are made more soluble by the presence of EDTA, while strontium and cesium are unaffected under the same conditions. EDTA is the major organic complexing component in waste trench 27 leachate, but other polar, water-soluble organics are also present. Evidence points to the migration of plutonium between waste trench 27 and inert atmosphere wells as an EDTA complex. Polar organic compounds may influence the migration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs. The primary pathway of water entry into the waste burial trenches is through the trench caps, but major increases in water level have occurred in an experimental trench by subsurface flow. The areal distribution of radionuclides at Maxey Flats has been influenced by surface runoff, deposition from the evaporator plume, subsurface flow and the actions of burrowing animals or deep-rooted trees. Vegetal and surface contamination on site and near site are quite low, and only 60 Co exceeds commonly observed fallout levels. Radionuclide concentrations in surface soil at Maxey Flats are comparable to concentrations resulting from normal fallout in other areas of high rainfall

  1. Antineutrino science in KamLAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuto [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    The primary goal of KamLAND is a search for the oscillation of anti ν{sub e}'s emitted from distant power reactors. The long baseline, typically 180 km, enables KamLAND to address the oscillation solution of the ''solar neutrino problem'' with anti ν{sub e}'s under laboratory conditions. KamLAND found fewer reactor anti ν{sub e} events than expected from standard assumptions about anti ν{sub e} propagation at more than 9 σ confidence level (C.L.). The observed energy spectrum disagrees with the expected spectral shape at more than 5 σ C.L., and prefers the distortion from neutrino oscillation effects. A three-flavor oscillation analysis of the data from KamLAND and KamLAND + solar neutrino experiments with CPT invariance, yields Δm{sub 21}{sup 2} = [7.54{sub -0.18}{sup +0.19} x 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2}, 7.53{sub -0.18}{sup +0.19} x 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2}], tan{sup 2}θ{sub 12} = [0.481{sub -0.080}{sup +0.092}, 0.437{sub -0.026}{sup +0.029}], and sin{sup 2}θ{sub 13} = [0.010{sub -0.034}{sup +0.033}, 0.023{sub -0.015}{sup +0.015}]. All solutions to the solar neutrino problem except for the large mixing angle region are excluded. KamLAND also demonstrated almost two cycles of the periodic feature expected from neutrino oscillation effects. KamLAND performed the first experimental study of antineutrinos from the Earth's interior so-called geoneutrinos (geo anti ν{sub e}'s), and succeeded in detecting geo anti ν{sub e}'s produced by the decays of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th within the Earth. Assuming a chondritic Th/U mass ratio, we obtain 116{sub -27}{sup +28} anti ν{sub e} events from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, corresponding a geo anti ν{sub e} flux of 3.4{sub -0.8}{sup +0.8} x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at the KamLAND location. We evaluate various bulk silicate Earth composition models using the observed geo anti ν{sub e} rate. (orig.)

  2. Measuring Antineutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Justin John [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. A manmade beam of predominantly muon neutrinos is detected both 1 km and 735 km from the production point by two functionally identical detectors. A comparison of the energy spectra measured by the two detectors shows the energy-dependent disappearance of muon neutrinos characteristic of oscillations and allows a measurement of the parameters governing the oscillations. This thesis presents work leading to measurements of disappearance in the 6% $\\bar{v}$μ background in that beam. A calibration is developed to correct for time-dependent changes in the responses of both detectors, reducing the corresponding uncertainty on hadronic energy measurements from 1.8% to 0.4% in the near detector and from 0.8% to 0.4% in the far detector. A method of selecting charged current $\\bar{v}$μ events is developed, with purities (efficiencies) of 96.5% (74.4%) at the near detector, and 98.8% (70.9%) at the far detector in the region below 10 GeV reconstructed antineutrino energy. A method of using the measured near detector neutrino energy spectrum to predict that expected at the far detector is discussed, and developed for use in the $\\bar{v}$μ analysis. Sources of systematic uncertainty contributing to the oscillation measurements are discussed. In the far detector, 32 charged current $\\bar{v}$μ events are observed below a reconstructed energy of 30 GeV, compared to an expectation of 47.8 for Δ$\\bar{m}$atm2 = Δ$\\bar{m}$atm2, sin2(2$\\bar{θ}$23) = sin2(2θ23). This deficit, in such a low-statistics sample, makes the result difficult to interpret in the context of an oscillation parameter measurement. Possible sources for the discrepancy are discussed, concluding that considerably more data are required for a definitive solution. Running MINOS with a dedicated $\\bar

  3. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey

  4. Radiology now. Radionuclide investigations and pregnancy -protection of the embryo and fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    This article discusses the application of the 'ten-day principle' in diagnostic radiological investigations involving the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to women of reproductive capacity. The recommendations made in 1977 for protecting embryo and fetus in such investigations are discussed in relation to more recent literature on the subject. In particular, the relevance of factors such as radiopharmaceutical half-lives, radiation damage repair and the gonad dose limit before applying the 'ten-day principle' are considered. In the light of this information, revised recommendations are proposed. These are (1) that the 'ten-day principle' should be applied to all diagnostic radiopharmaceutical investigations in which the calculated gonad dose exceeds 500 mrem unless there are overriding clinical reasons for carrying out the investigation as an urgent procedure; (2) that when the gonad dose exceeds 500 mrem, the patient be advised to avoid becoming pregnant for a period of two months, or four times the effective half-life of the radiopharmaceutical if this time is longer than two months, following the investigations; and (3) that for all volunteers in research investigations the 'ten-day principle' should be applied strictly in all cases when the gonad dose exceeds 50 mrem. (U.K.)

  5. Performance of a high-precision calorimeter for the measurement of the antineutrino-source strength in the SOX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenmueller, Konrad [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: BOREXINO-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A calorimeter was developed to measure the thermal power and thus the antineutrino-generation rate of a {sup 144}Ce - {sup 144}Pr antineutrino-source with < 1% overall accuracy for the SOX experiment. SOX is searching for neutrino oscillations at short baselines with the Borexino detector to investigate the existence of eV-scale sterile neutrinos. The calorimeter design is based on a copper heat exchanger with integrated water lines for the heat extraction, mounted around the source. A high precision measurement is possible thanks to an elaborate thermal insulation. In this talk, the design of the calorimeter is reviewed and results of calibration measurements are presented. The thermal insulation of the system was examined and heat losses were quantified. The methods to reconstruct the source power and the decay rate from measurements are described.

  6. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  7. Sorption of radionuclides on geological samples from the Bradwell, Elstow, Fulbeck and Killingholme site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Coates, H.A.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1988-06-01

    The sorption of chloride, caesium, calcium, nickel and americium on geological samples collected during the site investigations at Bradwell, Elstow, Fulbeck and Killingholme has been studied. Through-diffusion and batch sorption techniques were used and experiments were designed to give a direct comparison between the sorptive behaviour of material from each site. (author)

  8. Lung mucociliary transport function in chronic bronchitis and radionuclide methods of its investigation (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyrenkova, N.Yu.; Faradzheva, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Several methods for studying lung clearance of smokers and non-smoking patients with chronic bronchitis (CB) are described. Modified technique for investigating mucociliary transport (MCT) in CB patients, using 99m Tc-macroaggregate of human serum albumin, is suggested. The method enables to examine more patients and obtain the most comprehensive data on MCT state on any level of tracheobronchial tree

  9. Investigation of the transfer of radionuclides in water and marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, P.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of the behavior of radioactive isotopes in the system sea water-sediments has been carried out at various distances from a release radioactive waste locality. The analytical procedure for the measurement of radioactivity and stable isotopes in sea water, the difficulties arising for the sampling of sediments have been discussed. The dispersion of 125 Sb - good tracer for displacements of water - was explained by very slow hydrolysis speed and by the possible existence of synergy phenomena [fr

  10. Anti-neutrino flux in a research reactor for non-proliferation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakshournia, Samad; Foroughi, Shokoufeh [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI)

    2017-11-15

    Owing to growing interest in the study of emitted antineutrinos from nuclear reactors to test the Atomic Energy Agency safeguards, antineutrino flux was studied in the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) using ORIGEN code. According to our prediction, antineutrino rate was obtained 2.6 x 10{sup 17} (v{sub e}/sec) in the core No. 57F of the TRR. Calculations indicated that evolution of antineutrino flux was very slow with time and the performed refueling had not an observable effect on antineutrino flux curve for a 5 MW reactor with the conventional refueling program. It is seen that for non-proliferation applications the measurement of the contribution of {sup 239}Pu to the fission using an antineutrino detector is not viable in the TRR.

  11. Can one distinguish T-neutrinos from antineutrinos in neutral-current pion production processes?

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Gajate, Eliecer; Nieves Pamplona, Juan Miguel; Valverde Hermosilla, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A potential way to distinguish tau-neutrinos from antineutrinos, below the tau-production threshold, but above the pion production one, is presented. It is based on the different behavior of the neutral-current pion production off the nucleon, depending on whether it is induced by neutrinos or antineutrinos. This procedure for distinguishing tau-neutrinos from antineutrinos neither relies on any nuclear model, nor it is affected by any nuclear effect (distortion of the outgoing nucleon waves,...

  12. Investigations on the effect of grazing intensity on the transfer of radionuclides to cow`s milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, G. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Schotola, C. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Crout, N.M.J. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physiology and Environmental Science; Absalom, J. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physiology and Environmental Science

    1997-03-01

    For these investigations two farms were chosen. Farm A carries out a rotational grazing regime with 4 grazed pastures which is the more commonly used farm practice in Bavaria, farm B practises a continuous grazing regime with one grazed pasture only. In farm B a tenfold lower Cs-137 activity concentration was observed in milk though activity concentrations in soil and pasture grass were the same as that at farm A, indicating the same transfer rate soil-plant at both locations. It could be shown under normal agricultural conditions that with a higher grazing pressure lower activity concentrations in milk (in this case a factor of about 2 to 3) were obtained. Therefore changing stock density in combination with a continuous grazing regime on a given pasture after a major nuclear accident can be considered as a possible countermeasure which can be easily applied. Mainly to get more synchronised growth rates and a homogeneous distribution of radiocontamination plot experiments were performed to simulate the influence of grazing intensity. Under the experimental design used here no effect of grazing intensity on the transfer of radionuclides to vegetation could be found. Effects of grazing intensity as found for the farm experiment, therefore must be due to other sources than vegetation activities, and are presumably due to soil ingestion preventing uptake of soluble plant incorporated radiocaesium in the animal rumen. (orig./MG)

  13. Investigation of the fluctuation range of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in surface air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.

    1985-01-01

    Daily and seasonal concentration fluctuations of short-lived Rn fission products observed and the seasonal and long-term concentration fluctuations of Pb-210, Po-210, Ra-226, Ra-228, K-40 and Be-7 are discussed; the frequency distributions of the concentration values are illustrated. For a period of several years, the following mean values of activity concentrations were found (μBq/m 3 ): Pb-210: 600 Ra-226: 1.3 K-40: 13, Po-210: 33 Ra-228: 0.5 Be-7: 3700. In accordance with the origin from the soil, there is a significant correlation between the respective activity concentration and air-borne dust concentration for Ra-226, Ra-228, and K-40. The investigation revealed a most significant correlation between the Pb-210 concentration and the stagnancy index, the latter being a measure for the degree of blending of the surface layer of air. The resuspension factors found for Ra-226 and Pb-210 are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Investigation of solution chemistry effects on sorption behavior of radionuclide 64Cu(II) on illite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitong Yang; Guodong Sheng; Zhiqiang Guo; Yubing Sun; Donglin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of various environmental factors such as contact time, pH, ionic strength, coexisting electrolyte ions, humic substances and temperature on the sorption behavior of illite towards 64 Cu(II). The results indicated that 64 Cu(II) sorption on illite achieved equilibrium quickly. The pH- and ionic strength-dependent sorption suggested that 64 Cu(II) sorption on illite was dominated by ion exchange or outer-sphere surface complexation at pH 7. A positive effect of humic substances on 64 Cu(II) sorption was found at pH 6.5. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms of 64 Cu(II) at three different temperatures of 293, 313, and 333 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 , and ΔG 0 ) of 64 Cu(II) sorption on illite were calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms, and the results indicated that the sorption of 64 Cu(II) on illite was endothermic and spontaneous. From the experimental results, it is possible to conclude that illite has good potentialities for cost-effective treatments of 64 Cu(II)-contaminated wastewaters. (author)

  15. Testing-ground investigations of radionuclide migration in temporary area for radioactive waste localization << Ryzhy Les >>.; Poligonnye issledovaniya migratsii radionuklidov na uchastke punkta vremennoj lokalizatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov << Ryzhij les >>.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhepo, S P; Skal` skij, A S; Bugaj, D A; Gudzenko, V V; Mogil` nyj, S A; Proskura, N I [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geologicheskikh Nauk; [Admyinyistratsyiya zoni vyidchuzhennya, Chernobil` (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Experimental investigations carried out on testing grounds have permitted studying hydrogeological and geochemical conditions, contamination levels of ground waters and mechanisms of radionuclide migration in the areas of radioactive waste burial in sector 2.1 of temporary area for radioactive waste localization << Ryzhy Les >>. Distribution coefficients for {sup 137} Cs and {sup 90} Sr as well as chemical forms of sorbed radionuclides have been determined under in situ conditions. Lateral rates of radionuclide migration in ground waters are estimated.

  16. Detector of reactor antineutrinos with plastic scintillation bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgadze, A.Sh.; Pavlovich, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Project of a segmented antineutrino detector is developed with the use of plastic scintillator rectangular bars 10 x 10 x 100 cm, wrapped in Gd foils and assembled to an array of 1 m3 active volume. The scintillation array is sandwiched at both sides by the continuous light guides of 100 x 100 x 10 cm size, from which the scintillation light is spreading simultaneously through continuous light guides between all photomultipliers, forming the specific Light Response Function (LRF), which is character to a certain nuclear event in detector. Analysis of LRF allows one effectively reject background events, providing high efficiency detection of antineutrino capture in the detector. Monte Carlo simulations with the help of MCNP and ZEMAX software show that with the use of selection criteria the neutrino events are well separated from the background

  17. Development of an advanced antineutrino detector for reactor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, T., E-mail: classen2@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Cabrera-Palmer, B. [Sandia Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ho, A.; Jonkmans, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Kogler, L.; Reyna, D. [Sandia Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Sur, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-21

    Here we present the development of a compact antineutrino detector for the purpose of nuclear reactor monitoring, improving upon a previously successful design. This paper will describe the design improvements of the detector which increases the antineutrino detection efficiency threefold over the previous effort. There are two main design improvements over previous generations of detectors for nuclear reactor monitoring: dual-ended optical readout and single volume detection mass. The dual-ended optical readout eliminates the need for fiducialization and increases the uniformity of the detector's optical response. The containment of the detection mass in a single active volume provides more target mass per detector footprint, a key design criteria for operating within a nuclear power plant. This technology could allow for real-time monitoring of the evolution of a nuclear reactor core, independent of reactor operator declarations of fuel inventories, and may be of interest to the safeguards community.

  18. Net charge of quark jets in (anti)neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.

    1981-01-01

    We analyse recent measurements of the net charges of quark jets in neutrino and antineutrino interactions. The data indicates that (i) the two quarks in the nucleon fragmentation region prefer to behave as a diquark rather than as a pair of independent quarks, and (ii) the struck quark does not appear to suffer any soft charge exchange of the kind that occurs when a valence quark inside a nucleon is slowed to x approx. O. (orig.)

  19. Uncertainties in the Anti-neutrino Production at Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurcic, Zelimir; Detwiler, Jason A.; Piepke, Andreas; Foster Jr., Vince R.; Miller, Lester; Gratta, Giorgio

    2008-08-06

    Anti-neutrino emission rates from nuclear reactors are determined from thermal power measurements and fission rate calculations. The uncertainties in these quantities for commercial power plants and their impact on the calculated interaction rates in {bar {nu}}{sub e} detectors is examined. We discuss reactor-to-reactor correlations between the leading uncertainties, and their relevance to reactor {bar {nu}}{sub e} experiments.

  20. Diffractive production of charmed strange mesons by neutrinos and antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asratyan, A. E.; Aderholz, M.; Ammosov, V. V.; Burkot, W.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Erriquez, O.; Gapienko, G. S.; Gapienko, V. A.; Guy, J.; Hantke, D.; Jones, G. T.; Kaftanov, V. S.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Korotkov, V. A.; Krutchinin, S. P.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Marage, P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; Sacton, J.; Schmitz, N.; Varvell, K.; Venus, W.; Wittek, W.; Zaetz, V. G.

    1993-03-01

    The diffractive production of charmed strange D {s/*} and possibly D s mesons by neutrinos and antineutrinos on nucleons in hydrogen, deuterium and neon targets is observed. The slope parameter of the t distribution is 3.3±0.8 (GeV)-2. The production rate per charged current neutrino interaction with an isoscalar target times the D{s/+}→φτ+ branching fraction is (1.03±0.27)×10-4.

  1. Diffractive production of charmed strange mesons by neutrinos and antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asratyan, A.E.; Kaftanov, V.S.; Krutchinin, S.P.; Kubantsev, M.A.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Ammosov, V.V.; Gapienko, G.S.; Gapienko, V.A.; Korotkov, V.A.; Zaetz, V.G.; Burkot, W.; Coghen, T.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Erriquez, O.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Jones, G.T.; Varvell, K.; Marage, P.; Sacton, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Neveu, M.

    1993-01-01

    The diffractive production of charmed strange D s * and possibly D s mesons by neutrinos and antineutrinos on nucleons in hydrogen, deuterium and neon targets is observed. The slope parameter of the t distribution is 3.3±0.8 (GeV) -2 . The production rate per charged current neutrino interaction with an isoscalar target times the D s + →φπ + branching fraction is (1.03±0.27)x10 -4 . (orig.)

  2. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  3. The double chooz experiment: simulation of reactor antineutrino spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment aims to study the oscillations of electron antineutrinos produced by the Chooz nuclear power station, located in France, in the Ardennes region. It will lead to an unprecedented accuracy on the value of the mixing angle θ 13 . Improving the current knowledge on this parameter, given by the Chooz experiment, requires a reduction of both statistical and systematic errors, that is to say not only observing a large data sample, but also controlling the experimental uncertainties involved in the production and detection of electron antineutrinos. The use of two identical detectors will cancel most of the experimental systematic uncertainties limiting the sensitivity to the value of the mixing angle. We present in this thesis, simulations of reactor antineutrino spectra that were carried out in order to control the sources of systematic uncertainty related to the production of these particles by the plant. We also discuss our work on controlling the normalization error of the experiment through the precise determination of the number of target protons by a weighing measurement and through the study of the fiducial volume of the detectors which requires an accurate modeling of neutron physics. After three years of data taking with two detectors, Double Chooz will be able to disentangle an oscillation signal for sin 2 2θ 13 ≥ 0.05 (at 3σ) or, if no oscillations are observed, to put a limit of sin 2 2θ 13 ≤ 0.03 at 90% C.L. (author) [fr

  4. Antineutrino Neutral Current Interactions in MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports the antineutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic scattering cross section on CH2 measured by the MiniBooNE experiment located in Batavia, IL. The data set consists of 60,605 events passing the selection cuts corresponding to 10.1×1020 POT, which represents the world’s largest sample of antineutrino neutral current elastic scattering events. The final sample is more than one order of magnitude lager that the previous antineutrino NCE scattering cross section measurement reported by the BNL E734 experiment. The measurement presented in this dissertation also spans a wider range in Q2, including the low-Q2 regime where the cross section rollover is clearly visible. A X2-based minimization was performed to determine the best value of the axial mass, MA and the Pauli blocking scaling function, that matches the antineutrino NCE scattering data. However, the best fit values of MA=1.29 GeV and K=1.026 still give a relatively poor X2, which suggests that the underlying nuclear model (based largely on the relativistic Fermi gas model) may not be an accurate representation for this particular interaction. Additionally, we present a measurement of the antineutrino/neutrino-nucleus NCE scattering cross section ratio. The neutrino mode NCE sample used in this study, corresponding to 6.4 × 1020 POT, is also the world’s largest sample (also by an order of magnitude). We have demonstrated that the ratio measurement is robust, as most of the correlated errors cancel, as expected. Furthermore, this ratio also proves to be rather insensitive to variations in the axial mass and the Pauli blocking parameter. This is the first time that this ratio has been experimentally reported. We believe this measurement will aid the theoretical physics community to test various model predictions of neutrino-nucleon/nucleus interactions.

  5. Leakage Tests of the Stainless Steel Vessels of the Antineutrino Detectors in the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaohui; Luo, Xiaolan; Heng, Yuekun; Wang, Lingshu; Tang, Xiao; Ma, Xiaoyan; Zhuang, Honglin; Band, Henry; Cherwinka, Jeff; Xiao, Qiang; Heeger, Karsten M.

    2012-01-01

    The antineutrino detectors in the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment are liquid scintillator detectors designed to detect low energy particles from antineutrino interactions with high efficiency and low backgrounds. Since the antineutrino detector will be installed in a water Cherenkov cosmic ray veto detector and will run for 3 to 5 years, ensuring water tightness is critical to the successful operation of the antineutrino detectors. We choose a special method to seal the detector. Three l...

  6. Energy distribution of antineutrinos originating from the decay of fission products in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.; Aleklett, K.

    1979-01-01

    The energy spectrum of antineutrinos around a nuclear reactor has been derived by summing contributions from individual fission products. The resulting spectrum is weaker at energies above approx. 8 MeV than earlier published antineutrino spectra. The reason may be connected to the strong feeding of high-lying daughter states in the beta decay of fission products with high disintegration energies

  7. Reactor antineutrino monitoring with a plastic scintillator array as a new safeguards method

    OpenAIRE

    Oguri, S.; Kuroda, Y.; Kato, Y.; Nakata, R.; Inoue, Y.; Ito, C.; Minowa, M.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a segmented reactor-antineutrino detector made of plastic scintillators for application as a tool in nuclear safeguards inspection and performed mostly unmanned field operations at a commercial power plant reactor. At a position outside the reactor building, we measured the difference in reactor antineutrino flux above the ground when the reactor was active and inactive.

  8. The upper limit of the solar antineutrino flux according to the LSD array data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'etta, M.; Antonioli, P.; Badino, D.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the experimental data obtained at the LSD liquid scintillation detector is carried out with the aim of searching the possible flux of electron antineutrinos from Sun. The most strong at present upper limit for the electron antineutrino flux of solar origin is determined: ≤ 1.0 x 10 5 cm -2 x s -1 (the reliability level of 90%)

  9. Study of single pion production in antineutrino induced charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognese, Teresa.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented on the exclusive charged current antineutrino production of one pion using the data of the Gargamelle propane experiment at CERN PS. The isospin structure of the charged weak current is studied as well as the energy dependence of the total cross section for π - antineutrino production, which is compared with the prediction of Adler's model [fr

  10. Antineutrino Oscillations and a Search for Non-standard Interactions with the MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isvan, Zeynep [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    MINOS searches for neutrino oscillations using the disappearance of muon neutrinos from the NuMI beam at Fermilab between two detectors. The Near Detector, located near the source, measures the beam composition before flavor change occurs. The energy spectrum is measured again at the Far Detector after neutrinos travel a distance. The mixing angle and mass splitting between the second and third mass states are extracted from the energy dependent difference between the spectra at the two detectors. NuMI is able to produce an antineutrino-enhanced beam as well as a neutrino-enhanced beam. Collecting data in antineutrino-mode allows the direct measurement of antineutrino oscillation parameters. From the analysis of the antineutrino mode data we measure $|\\Delta\\bar{m}^{2}_{\\text{atm}}| = 2.62^{+0.31}_{-0.28}\\times10^{-3}\\text{eV}^{2}$ and $\\sin^{2}(2\\bar{\\theta})_{23} = 0.95^{+0.10}_{-0.11}$, which is the most precise measurement of antineutrino oscillation parameters to date. A difference between neutrino and antineutrino oscillation parameters may indicate new physics involving interactions that are not part of the Standard Model, called non-standard interactions, that alter the apparent disappearance probability. Collecting data in neutrino and antineutrino mode independently allows a direct search for non-standard interactions. In this dissertation non-standard interactions are constrained by a combined analysis of neutrino and antineutrino datasets and no evidence of such interactions is found.

  11. Observation of shadowing of neutrino- and antineutrino-nucleus interactions and comparison with PCAC predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allport, P.P.; Radojicic, D.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Aderholz, M.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Berggren, M.; Jones, G.T.; O'Neale, S.; Varvell, K.; Marage, P.; Mobayyen, M.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Neveu, M.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Apeldoorn, G. van

    1989-01-01

    Comparing the kinematical distributions of events obtained on neon and deuterium targets in similar experimental conditions reveals a reduction of the neutrino and antineutrino charged current cross section per nucleon in neon at low Q 2 . The effect, interpreted as due to geometric shadowing of the weak propagator in interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos with nuclei, agrees well with predictions derived from PCAC. (orig.)

  12. Observation of shadowing of neutrino- and antineutrino-nucleus interactions and comparison with PCAC predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allport, P. P.; Erriquez, O.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Aderholz, M.; Berggren, M.; Bullock, F. W.; Calicchio, M.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Jones, G. T.; Marage, P.; Mobayyen, M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; Parker, M. A.; Radojicic, D.; Sansum, R. A.; Saitta, B.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; O'neale, S.; Van Apeldoorn, G.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wittek, W.; BEBC WA59 Collaboration

    1989-12-01

    Comparing the kinematical distributions of events obtained on neon and deuterium targets in similar experimental conditions reveals a reduction of the neutrino and antineutrino charged current cross section per nucleon in neon at low Q2. The effect, interpreted as due to geometric shadowing of the weak propagator in interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos with nuclei, agrees well with predictions derived from PCAC.

  13. Study of electron anti-neutrinos associated with gamma-ray bursts using KamLAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asakura, A.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oki, Y.; Oura, T.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tachibana, H.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B.D.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T.I.; Berger, B.E.; Fujikawa, B.K.; O'Donnell, T.; Learned, J.G.; Maricic, J.; Sakai, M.; Winslow, L.A.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H.J.; Markoff, D.M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J.A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    We search for electron anti-neutrinos (-Ve) from long- and short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using data taken by the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) from 2002 August to 2013 June. No statistically significant excess over the background level is found. We place the

  14. Measurement of muon neutrino and antineutrino induced single neutral pion production cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Colin E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Elucidating the nature of neutrino oscillation continues to be a goal in the vanguard of the efforts of physics experiment. As neutrino oscillation searches seek an increasingly elusive signal, a thorough understanding of the possible backgrounds becomes ever more important. Measurements of neutrino-nucleus interaction cross sections are key to this understanding. Searches for νμ → νe oscillation - a channel that may yield insight into the vanishingly small mixing parameter θ13, CP violation, and the neutrino mass hierarchy - are particularly susceptible to contamination from neutral current single π0 (NC 1π0) production. Unfortunately, the available data concerning NC 1π0 production are limited in scope and statistics. Without satisfactory constraints, theoretical models of NC 1π0 production yield substantially differing predictions in the critical Eν ~ 1 GeV regime. Additional investigation of this interaction can ameliorate the current deficiencies. The Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (MiniBooNE) is a short-baseline neutrino oscillation search operating at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). While the oscillation search is the principal charge of the MiniBooNE collaboration, the extensive data (~ 106 neutrino events) offer a rich resource with which to conduct neutrino cross section measurements. This work concerns the measurement of both neutrino and antineutrino NC 1π0 production cross sections at MiniBooNE. The size of the event samples used in the analysis exceeds that of all other similar experiments combined by an order of magnitude. We present the first measurements of the absolute NC 1π0 cross section as well as the first differential cross sections in both neutrino and antineutrino mode. Specifically, we measure single differential cross sections with respect to pion momentum and pion angle. We find the

  15. Investigation of acupuncture-point injection combined with intratumor injection of radionuclide phosphorus 32 in treatment of metastatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    Seventeen patients with carcinoma and three patients with benign lesions of the head were studied by acupuncture-point injection combined with intratumor injection of radionuclide P-32 for treatment of metastatic carcinoma. The metastatic cervical nodules shrank to half their original sizes within 2-3 weeks in five cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The injected dose ranged from 0.222 to 0.421 mCi, approximately 10 times less than that given by the ordinary method. The acupuncture points are selected according to the Theory of Channels and Collaterals of Chinese traditional medicine. The mechanism of therapeutic action of radionuclide P-32 is possibly by the delivery of destructive ionizing radiation from beta emission properties of P-32. This method appears to offer a low-dose means of P-32 treatment of metastatic carcinoma

  16. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and θ 13 . At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle

  17. Dilepton and trilepton production by antineutrinos and neutrinos in neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbier, G.; Bertrand, D.; Guy, J.; Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Armenise, N.; Bartley, J. H.; Baton, J. P.; Brisson, V.; Belusevic, R.; Brou, D.; Bullock, F. W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Kochowski, C.; Lagraa, M.; Leighton-Davis, S.; Middleton, R.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; Nuzzo, S.; O'Neale, S.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; Talebzadeh, M.; Varvell, K.; Vallee, C.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.; Zevgolatakos, E.

    1985-03-01

    A sample of over 25,000 fully measured neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions in BEBC includes 192 dilepton candidates. The prompt signal after subtraction of background is 41 ±7µ+ e -, 35±7µ+µ- events frombar v interactions, and 32±7µ-µ+ events from ν interactions. There are 2 trileptons, µ-µ- e + and µ-µ-µ+. Results are compared with other experimental data and with the standard model. Limits to prompt like sign µ+ e +, µ+µ+ and µ-µ- signals are given and compared with other experiments and with theoretical calculations.

  18. Dilepton and trilepton production by antineutrinos and neutrinos in neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbier, G.; Baton, J.P.; Brou, D.; Kasper, P.; Kochowski, C.; Lagraa, M.; Neveu, M.; Guy, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Venus, W.; Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Nuzzo, S.; Bartley, J.H.; Bullock, F.W.; Fitch, P.J.; Leighton-Davis, S.; Sansum, R.A.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Coghen, T.; Hulth, P.O.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zevgolatakos, E.

    1985-01-01

    A sample of over 25,000 fully measured neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions in BEBC includes 192 dilepton candidates. The prompt signal after subtraction of background is 41+-7 μ + e - . 35+-7 μ + μ - events from anti ν interactions, and 32+-7μ - μ + events from ν interactions. There are 2 trileptons, μ - μ - e + and μ - μ - μ + . Results are compared with other experimental data and with the standard mode. Limits to prompt like sign μ + e + , μ + μ + and μ - μ - signals are given and compared with other experiments and with theoretical calculations. (orig.)

  19. Investigation of natural radionuclides in foods and waters in China and evaluation of internal dose to public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Changshou; Liu Yulan; Xu Ning; Hu Aiying; Kou Tiluo; Shi Zhongxin

    1992-12-01

    In order to obtain background radiation levels of natural radionuclides in foods and waters in China, the determination and analysis of water and food samples have been completed by organizations of radiological protection from 28 provinces, autonomous regions and three major cities. Ranges of specific activity of natural radionuclides for U, Th, Ra, K, Pb and Po are (2.2 ∼ 25.5) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, (0.5 ∼ 6.9) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, (3.4 ∼ 25.5) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, (25 ∼ 420) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, (3.9 ∼ 55) x 10 -2 Bq/kg and (2.7 ∼ 58) x 10 -2 Bq/kg, respectively. Samples of drinking water were taken from tap water or well. The average concentrations in tap water and well water are 2.8 x 10 -2 Bq/L and 3.7 x 10 -2 Bq/L for U, 0.8 x 10 -2 Bq/L and 1.3 x 10 -2 Bq/L for Ra, 0.07 x 10 -2 Bq/L and 0.06 x 10 -2 Bq/L for Th, 0. 3 x 10 -2 Bq/L and 1.1 x 10 -2 Bq/L for Pb and 0.3 Bq/L and 0.5 Bq/L for Po respectively. The annual intakes by ingestion have been calculated. The annual intake of male adult from six main natural radionuclides is about 205 Bq. Among them 64% of total intake of U is from drinking water. The contributions from grains to the total intake of Ra, Pb and Po are 55.7%, 59.7% and 70% respectively. The total annual average effective dose equivalent of 6 natural radionuclides for male adult in China is about 310 μSv

  20. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  1. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  2. Use of the bleeding sap for investigation of radionuclide transfer to crops through root and translocation of the nuclide in the crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Sumiya, Misako; Yanagisawa, Kei; Ohmomo, Yoichiro.

    1991-01-01

    Adsorption and translocation characteristics of radionuclides in the root of tomato plant were investigated. Mature tomato plant was transplanted to culture solution containing 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 131 I, 54 Mn, 60 Co and 65 Zn. Immediately after transplantation, the tomato plant was cut at 10 cm above the surface of the culture solution in order to collect bleeding sap solution (Experiment-1). Another mature tomato plant was cultured for 3 days in culture solution containing radionuclides as mentioned above and then transplanted to fresh culture solution. Bleeding sap solution was also collected in the same way as shown in Experiment-1 (Experiment-2). Activity ratios of bleeding sap to culture solution were measured for several hours. Adsorption and removement of those radionuclides in tomato plant were summarized as follows; 137 Cs was taken up by the root almost at the same speed as that of water and accumulated in the lowest among the six nuclides used in the experiments. The concentrations of 85 Sr, 54 Mn and 65 Zn in the bleeding sap of 3 days' uptake experiment were higher than the initial concentrations of the culture solution for several hours even after the tomato plant was transplanted to fresh culture solution. 131 I and 60 Co were accumulated much in the root and found extremely low in the bleeding sap during the experiment, suggesting that the nuclide were absorbed on the surface of the roots and scarcely moved. (author)

  3. Contribution of recently measured nuclear data to reactor antineutrino energy spectra predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallot M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to summarize the actual problematic of reactor antineutrino energy spectra in the frame of fundamental and applied neutrino physics. Nuclear physics is an important ingredient of reactor antineutrino experiments. These experiments are motivated by neutrino oscillations, i.e. the measure of the θ13 mixing angle. In 2011, after a new computation of the reactor antineutrino energy spectra, based on the conversion of integral data of the beta spectra from 235U, and 239;241Pu, a deficit of reactor antineutrinos measured by short baseline experiments was pointed out. This is called the “reactor anomaly”, a new puzzle in the neutrino physics area. Since then, numerous new experimental neutrino projects have emerged. In parallel, computations of the antineutrino spectra independant from the ILL data would be desirable. One possibility is the use of the summation method, summing all the contributions of the fission product beta decay branches that can be found in nuclear databases. Studies have shown that in order to obtain reliable summation antineutrino energy spectra, new nuclear physics measurements of selected fission product beta decay properties are required. In these proceedings, we will present the computation methods of reactor antineutrino energy spectra and the impact of recent beta decay measurements on summation method spectra. The link of these nuclear physics studies with short baseline line oscillation search will be drawn and new neutrino physics projects at research reactors will be briefly presented.

  4. Investigation of the potential of fuzzy sets and related approaches for treating uncertainties in radionuclide transfer predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, W.; Grindrod, P.

    1989-01-01

    This document encompasses two main items. The first consists of a review of four aspects of fuzzy sets, namely, the general framework, the role of expert judgment, mathematical and computational aspects, and present applications. The second consists of the application of fuzzy-set theory to simplified problems in radionuclide migration, with comparisons between fuzzy and probabilistic approaches, treated both analytically and computationally. A new approach to fuzzy differential equations is presented, and applied to simple ordinary and partial differential equations. It is argued that such fuzzy techniques represent a viable alternative to probabilistic risk assessment, for handling systems subject to uncertainties

  5. An investigation of some heavy metals and radionuclides in sediments from the Sudanese coast of the red sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Abubakr Mustafa

    1999-07-01

    In this study, surface sediments from port Sudan and Sawakin harbors and the fringing reefs area, located the Sudanese coast of the Red Sea, were analyzed for some heavy metals and radionuclides. The sampling was performed to provide good spatial coverage taking into account man's activity in Port Sudan harbor and the fringing reefs sea. A total of 31 bulk sediments samples were fractionated to five fractions using dry sieving method. A total of of 155 sub-samples (fractions) were digested by wet digestions and analyzed for Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb content using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. For radioactivity measurement, a total of 26 bulk sediment samples were treated and analyzed for natural and anthropogenic radionuclides 2 26Ra, 2 28Ra, 2 28K, 1 37Cs) using direct gamma-ray spectrometry. Quality assurance of the data was achieved through the analysis of certified reference materials. The range of concentration for Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Pb are 53.3-819 μg/g, 1.4-51 mg/g, 8-131μg/g, 9.5-113 μg/g, 18.4-142 μg/g, and 4.0-26.6 μg/g respectively. The ranges of radioactivity concentration of 2 26Ra, 2 28Ra, and 4 0K are 2.5-25.1 Bq/kg, 2.1-13.1 Bq/kg, respectively, while most of the measurements for 1 37Cs were below detection limits and the highest value is 8.3 Bq/kg. With respect to heavy metals for some samples the metal content increasing with decreasing particle-size, this results obtained by statistical multi-variant analysis methods. factor analysis indicates that: the silt/clay fraction (≥63 μm) the is dominant source for the emission form anthropogeic activities. the results from cluster analysis showed that the samples fell into two clusters based on minerological composition variations. Dominant elements in sediments recorded significant positive correlation with both trace elements and natural radionuclides. From the comparative study it appeared that: the fringing reefs area and few locations in Port Sudan and Sawakin harbors can be

  6. Investigation of natural radionuclides in foods and waters in China and evaluation of internal dose to public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changshou, Zhu; Yulan, Liu; Ning, Xu; Aiying, Hu; Tiluo, Kou; Zhongxin, Shi [Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene, Ministry of Public Health (China); and others

    1992-12-01

    In order to obtain background radiation levels of natural radionuclides in foods and waters in China, the determination and analysis of water and food samples have been completed by organizations of radiological protection from 28 provinces, autonomous regions and three major cities. Ranges of specific activity of natural radionuclides for U, Th, Ra, K, Pb and Po are (2.2 {approx} 25.5) x 10 {sup -2} Bq/kg, (0.5 {approx} 6.9) x 10{sup -2} Bq/kg, (3.4 {approx} 25.5) x 10 {sup -2} Bq/kg, (25 {approx} 420) x 10{sup -2} Bq/kg, (3.9 {approx} 55) x 10{sup -2} Bq/kg and (2.7 {approx} 58) x 10{sup -2} Bq/kg, respectively. Samples of drinking water were taken from tap water or well. The average concentrations in tap water and well water are 2.8 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L and 3.7 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L for U, 0.8 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L and 1.3 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L for Ra, 0.07 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L and 0.06 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L for Th, 0. 3 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L and 1.1 x 10{sup -2} Bq/L for Pb and 0.3 Bq/L and 0.5 Bq/L for Po respectively. The annual intakes by ingestion have been calculated. The annual intake of male adult from six main natural radionuclides is about 205 Bq. Among them 64% of total intake of U is from drinking water. The contributions from grains to the total intake of Ra, Pb and Po are 55.7%, 59.7% and 70% respectively. The total annual average effective dose equivalent of 6 natural radionuclides for male adult in China is about 310 {mu}Sv.

  7. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  8. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  9. The Daya Bay antineutrino detector filling system and liquid mass measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Draeger, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hinrichs, P.; Lewis, C. A.; Mattison, H.; McFarlane, M. C.; Webber, D. M.; Wenman, D.; Wang, W.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2013-09-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has measured the neutrino mixing angle θ13 to world-leading precision. The experiment uses eight antineutrino detectors filled with 20-tons of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator to detect antineutrinos emitted from the Daya Bay nuclear power plant through the inverse beta decay reaction. The precision measurement of sin22θ13 relies on the relative antineutrino interaction rates between detectors at near (400 m) and far (roughly 1.8 km) distances from the nuclear reactors. The measured interaction rate in each detector is directly proportional to the number of protons in the liquid scintillator target. A precision detector filling system was developed to simultaneously fill the three liquid zones of the antineutrino detectors and measure the relative target mass between detectors to < 0.02%. This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of the system and the resulting precision measurement of the detectors' target liquid masses.

  10. Precision Search for Muon Antineutrino Disappearance Oscillations Using a Dual Baseline Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gary Li [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A search for short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance with the SciBooNE and MiniBooNE experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois is presented. Short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance measurements help constrain sterile neutrino models. The two detectors observe muon antineutrinos from the same beam, therefore the combined analysis of their data sets serves to partially constrain some of the flux and cross section uncertainties. A likelihood ratio method was used to set a 90% confidence level upper limit on muon antineutrino disappearance that dramatically improves upon prior sterile neutrino oscillation limits in the Δm2=0.1-100 eV2 region.

  11. Determination of the direction to a source of antineutrinos via inverse beta decay in Double Chooz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, Ya.

    2016-11-01

    To determine the direction to a source of neutrinos (and antineutrinos) is an important problem for the physics of supernovae and of the Earth. The direction to a source of antineutrinos can be estimated through the reaction of inverse beta decay. We show that the reactor neutrino experiment Double Chooz has unique capabilities to study antineutrino signal from point-like sources. Contemporary experimental data on antineutrino directionality is given. A rigorous mathematical approach for neutrino direction studies has been developed. Exact expressions for the precision of the simple mean estimator of neutrinos' direction for normal and exponential distributions for a finite sample and for the limiting case of many events have been obtained.

  12. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  13. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  14. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, S.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822 (United States); College of Natural Sciences, Hawaii Pacific University, 45-045 Kamehameha Highway, Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and {theta}{sub 13}. At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle.

  15. Proposal on electron anti-neutrino mass measurement at INS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Takayoshi.

    1981-03-01

    Some comment on the proposed experiment, namely the measurement of electron anti-neutrino mass, is described. Various experiments with the measurement of β-ray from tritium have been reported. The precise measurement of the shape of the Kurie plot is required in this kind of experiment. The present experiment aimed at more accurate determination of neutrino mass than any other previous ones. An important point of the present experiment is to reduce the background due to the β-ray from evaporating tritium. The source candidates have low evaporation rate. A double focus √2π air core spectrometer is employed for the measurement of β-ray. The spectrometer was improved to meet the present purpose. The accumulated event rate was expected to be about 10 times higher than Russian experiment. The estimated energy resolution was about 30 eV. The neutrino mass with less than 10 eV accuracy will be obtained. (Kato, T.)

  16. Study of μ e events produced in antineutrino interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marage, P.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J.; Kochowski, C.; Aderholz, M.; Armenise, N.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J. H.; Baton, J. P.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, Gh.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper, A. M.; Deck, L.; Erriquez, O.; Faulkener, P.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M. T.; Hulth, P. O.; Iaselli, G.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Lagraa, M.; Leighton-Davis, S.; Middleton, R.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Natali, S.; Neveu, M.; Nuzzo, S.; O'Neale, S.; Parker, A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; Talebzadeh, M.; van Doninck, W.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.; Wernhard, K. L.; Wittek, W.; Zevgolatakos, E.

    1984-12-01

    A study is presented of μ e events from an exposure of BEBC, filed with an heavy H 2/ Ne mixture, to a wide band antineutrino beam at the CERN SPS. The prompt μ + e - rate, based on the observation of 45 events with p μ>4 GeV/c and p e>0.8 GeV/c, is found to be 0.31±0.05±0.02%, in agreement with previous determinations made on much smaller statistics. The differential kinematical variables characterizing the events and the content of strange particles are as expected for the production of charmed hadrons which subsequently decay semi-leptonically. An upper limit of 2.0±10-4 at 90% C.L. is given for the production rate of prompt μ + e + events. No evidence is found for a significant production of Beauty hadrons.

  17. Coherent scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos by quarks in a crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Wilmot, G.

    1988-01-01

    An earlier paper presented the theory of a method for observation of neutrinos and antineutrinos. The method gives large cross sections. In this paper the theory is extended for a crystal with nuclei described by the modern theory of quarks. Results of experiments with a tritium antineutrino source, a nuclear reactor, and solar neutrinos are presented. Solar neutrinos lead to a positive result for the Eotvos experiment, for equal torsion balance masses composed of materials with different Debye temperatures

  18. Experimental determination of differential cross-sections of muonic neutrinos and muonic antineutrinos interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Anne-Marie.

    1975-05-01

    The experimental determination of muonic neutrinos and muonic antineutrinos differential cross-sections by the analysis of pictures taken in the CERN Gargamelle heavy liquid bubble chamber is presented. The methods used to solve experimental difficulties (muon identification, hadronic energy determination) and the errors on the experimental distributions are explained in detail. Then, the structure functions in charge changing interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos are analyzed and interpreted in terms of parton distribution inside the nucleon [fr

  19. Study of charged current reactions induced by muon antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huss, D.

    1979-07-01

    We present in this work a study of antineutrino reactions on light targets. We have used the Gargamelle cloud chamber with a propane-freon mix. In the 2 first chapters we give a brief description of the experimental setting and we present the selection criteria of the events. In the third chapter we analyse the data for the reaction anti-ν + p → μ + + n that preserves strangeness. We have deduced the values of the axial (M A ) and vector (M V ) form factors: M A = (O.92 ± 0.08) GeV and M V = (0.86 ± 0.04) GeV. In the fourth chapter we study reactions in which strange particles appear (ΔS = 1) and we have determined their production cross-sections. The elastic reaction: anti-ν + p → μ + + Λ is studied in a more accurate manner thanks to a 3-constraint adjustment that enables the selection of events occurring on free protons. We have deduced from our data the longitudinal, orthogonal and transverse polarization of Λ, we have got respectively P l = -0.06 ± 0.44; P p = 0.29 ± 0.41; P t 1.05 ± 0.30. We have also deduced the values of the total cross-section as a function of the incident antineutrino energy E: σ (0.27 ± 0.02)*E*10 -38 cm -2 . E has been assessed from the energy deposited in the cloud chamber and we have adjusted the cross-section with a straight line as it is expected under the assumption of scale invariance. (A.C.)

  20. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  1. Investigation and analysis to the content of natural radionuclides at rate-earth ore and solid waste in China through the first nationwide pollution source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jianjun; Liu Guifang; Sun Qinghong

    2011-01-01

    China has launched the First Nationwide Pollution Source Survey (FNPSS) during 2006-2009. Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) sponsored the campaign of measuring the natural radionuclide contents. And the Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) organized the measurements of natural radionuclide contents of in the factories and mines associated with rare-earth, niobium/tantalum, zircon, tin, lead/zinc, copper, iron, phosphate, coal, aluminum and vanadium. This paper analyzes mainly the data on the contents of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the rare-earth ore and solid waste produced by the rare-earth industry in China, as one of a series of papers on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) s investigation. It is concluded that the average of the U, 232 Th and 226 Ra for the monazite sand of rare-earth ore is 16911, 49683, and 20072 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in bastnaesite is 42, 701 and 91 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the ionic type rare-earth ore is 3918.6, 2315 and 1221 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  2. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  3. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  5. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. volume 7: Review of laboratory investigations of radionuclide migration through deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This volume contains a review of the laboratory investigations of radionuclide migration through deep-sea sediments. In addition, it discusses the data selected for the radiological assessment, on the basis of both field and laboratory studies

  6. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  7. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  8. Report of drilling and radionuclide migration investigations at UE20n number-sign 1, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, S.J.

    1991-04-01

    Exploratory hole UE20n number-sign 1 was drilled 305 m down hydraulic gradient of the Cheshire event (U20n) as part of the Radionuclide Migration Program at the Nevada Test Site. The hole was designed to investigate the possibility of groundwater transport of radionuclides from the U20n cavity region. Drilling reached a total depth of 1005.8 m. Composite static water levels in the borehole were measured at approximately 620 m below ground surface. The borehole penetrated about 386 m of saturated zone, which was comprised primarily of rhyolite lava flows of the Upper Rhyolite Lavas, Tuffs, and Rhyolites of Area 20. Evidence from UE20n number-sign 1 suggests the presence of a relatively more permeable zone in the 730 to 750-m depth interval. The neutron log suggests that greater quantities of water were present at depths between 729 and 747 m. Core collected over three depth intervals showed the highest fracture density in a reddish-grey rhyolite lava flow in the 733.8 to 738.1-m core interval. Groundwater flow away from U20n through this permeable zone is suggested by the UE20n number-sign 1 borehole temperature logs. Elevated 3 H activities were observed with the highest activities found near 732 m. The 3 H activities observed in the 732 to 802-m interval in UE20n number-sign 1 were of similar magnitude to those found in the cavity region in the U20n post-shot hole. The activities of 125 Sb and 85 Kr, which are known to be mobile in groundwater, were of similar magnitude to those found near the cavity region, while 137 Cs, which is thought to be adsorbed during transport, was found in activities two to three orders of magnitude lower than near the cavity. These temperature and radioisotope data suggest that radionuclide migration via groundwater flow may be occurring laterally from the U20n rubble chimney through the permeable zone located at the 730 to 750-m depth. 25 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs

  9. Can one distinguish τ-neutrinos from antineutrinos in neutral-current pion production processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.; Nieves, J.; Valverde, M.

    2007-01-01

    A potential way to distinguish τ-neutrinos from antineutrinos, below the τ-production threshold, but above the pion production one, is presented. It is based on the different behavior of the neutral-current pion production off the nucleon, depending on whether it is induced by neutrinos or antineutrinos. This procedure for distinguishing τ-neutrinos from antineutrinos neither relies on any nuclear model, nor it is affected by any nuclear effect (distortion of the outgoing nucleon waves, etc.). We show that neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries occur both in the totally integrated cross sections and in the pion azimuthal differential distributions. To define the asymmetries for the latter distributions we just rely on Lorentz-invariance. All these asymmetries are independent of the lepton family and can be experimentally measured by using electron or muon neutrinos, due to the lepton family universality of the neutral-current neutrino interaction. Nevertheless and to estimate their size, we have also used the chiral model of [E. Hernandez, J. Nieves, M. Valverde, hep-ph/0701149] at intermediate energies. Results are really significant since the differences between neutrino and antineutrino induced reactions are always large in all physical channels

  10. Neutrino versus antineutrino oscillation parameters at DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouvêa, André; Kelly, Kevin J.

    2017-11-01

    Testing, in a nontrivial, model-independent way, the hypothesis that the three-massive-neutrinos paradigm properly describes nature is among the main goals of the current and the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. In the coming decade, the DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande experiments will be able to study the oscillation of both neutrinos and antineutrinos with unprecedented precision. We explore the ability of these experiments, and combinations of them, to determine whether the parameters that govern these oscillations are the same for neutrinos and antineutrinos, as prescribed by the C P T -theorem. We find that both DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande will be sensitive to unexplored levels of leptonic C P T -violation. Assuming the parameters for neutrino and antineutrino oscillations are unrelated, we discuss the ability of these experiments to determine the neutrino and antineutrino mass-hierarchies, atmospheric-mixing octants, and C P -odd phases, three key milestones of the experimental neutrino physics program. Additionally, if the C P T -symmetry is violated in nature in a way that is consistent with all present neutrino and antineutrino oscillation data, we find that DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande have the potential to ultimately establish leptonic C P T -invariance violation.

  11. Gadolinium-loaded gel scintillators for neutron and antineutrino detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Akers, Douglas William; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Paviet, Patricia Denise; Drigert, Mark William

    2016-11-29

    A gadolinium (Gd) loaded scintillation gel (Gd-ScintGel) compound allows for neutron and gamma-ray detection. The unique gel scintillator encompasses some of the best features of both liquid and solid scintillators, yet without many of the disadvantages associated therewith. Preferably, the gel scintillator is a water soluble Gd-DTPA compound and water soluble fluorophores such as: CdSe/ZnS (or ZnS) quantum dot (Q-dot) nanoparticles, coumarin derivatives 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid, and Alexa Fluor 350 as well as a carbostyril compound, carbostyril 124 in a stable water-based gel, such as methylcellulose or polyacrylamide polymers. The Gd-loaded ScintGel allows for a homogenious distribution of the Gd-DTPA and the fluorophores, and yields clean fluorescent emission peaks. A moderator, such as deuterium or a water-based clear polymer, can be incorporated in the Gd-ScintGel. The gel scintillators can be used in compact detectors, including neutron and antineutrino detectors.

  12. Evaluation of energy spectral information in nuclear imaging and investigation of protein binding of cationic radionuclides by lactoferrin. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, P. B.

    1980-06-10

    Construction of an Anger camera-computer system which allows collection of both the position and energy signals from events detected by the scintillation camera has been completed. The system allows correction of energy response non-uniformity of the detector and facilitates research related to effects of energy discrimination in radionuclide scintigraphy. The system consists of electronic hardware to transmit and digitize the energy signal, software to record and process that signal in conjunction with spatial positioning signals, and additional hardware for recording the processed images so that they can be evaluated by observers. Preliminary results indicate that the system is useful in evaluating clinical images. Assymetric (eccentric) energy windows do improve image quality and are of value in improving detection of lesions on liver scintigraphs. The mechanisms by which Ga-67 is taken up in infection and tumor has been elucidated, and the uptake of radiogallium in microorganisms as a function of its interaction with siderophores was also studied. The primary function of these low molecular weight compounds is to trap ferric ion. However, gallium may be substituted for ferric ion and becomes trapped within the microorganism. The uptake of radiogallium by neutrophils and the role that lactoferrin plays in both intracellular localization of radiogallium and subsequent deposition of the radionuclide at sites of infection were also studied. Investigation of ferric ion analogs reveals definate differences in the affinity of these metals for binding molecules which helps explain their biologic activity. While ferric ion has the strongest affinity for such molecules, gallium has very high affinity for siderophores, moderate affinity for lactoferrin, and lower affinity for transferrin. The relative affinity of indium for these molecules is in approximately the reverse order.

  13. Reconstruction of the size of nuclear fuel particle aerosol by the investigation of a radionuclide behaviour in body of the Chernobyl accident witnesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP) accident aerosol particles of dispersed nuclear fuel were released to the atmosphere. Inhalation of those aerosol became the source of internal exposure for witnesses of the Chernobyl accident. To assess correctly internal doses from a mixture of radionuclides present in air in the form of aerosol particles one mast assign each radionuclide to a certain inhalation class by its chemical speciation in aerosol and define the airborne characteristics (the activity median aerodynamic diameter, AMAD and the standard geometric deviation, fig) of that particular aerosol. Moreover, information on any particular radionuclide is useless for other components since, in such a mixture, the radionuclides are generally independent and may belong to different particles. On the contrary, all nuclear fuel particle (NFP) radionuclides belong to the same particle, being matrix-bound. The collective behaviour of the matrix-bound radionuclides in the environment and in the human barrier organs makes it possible to spread to the aerosol of NFP any estimates of AMAD and β g obtained for any particular NFP radionuclide. This is principal feature of NFP aerosol as distinguished from a mere mixture of aerosol particles carry different radionuclides. (author)

  14. Reactors as a Source of Antineutrinos: Effects of Fuel Loading and Burnup for Mixed-Oxide Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel S.; Erickson, Anna S.

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional light-water reactor loaded with a range of uranium and plutonium-based fuel mixtures, the variation in antineutrino production over the cycle reflects both the initial core fissile inventory and its evolution. Under an assumption of constant thermal power, we calculate the rate at which antineutrinos are emitted from variously fueled cores, and the evolution of that rate as measured by a representative ton-scale antineutrino detector. We find that antineutrino flux decreases with burnup for low-enriched uranium cores, increases for full mixed-oxide (MOX) cores, and does not appreciably change for cores with a MOX fraction of approximately 75%. Accounting for uncertainties in the fission yields in the emitted antineutrino spectra and the detector response function, we show that the difference in corewide MOX fractions at least as small as 8% can be distinguished using a hypothesis test. The test compares the evolution of the antineutrino rate relative to an initial value over part or all of the cycle. The use of relative rates reduces the sensitivity of the test to an independent thermal power measurement, making the result more robust against possible countermeasures. This rate-only approach also offers the potential advantage of reducing the cost and complexity of the antineutrino detectors used to verify the diversion, compared to methods that depend on the use of the antineutrino spectrum. A possible application is the verification of the disposition of surplus plutonium in nuclear reactors.

  15. A search for electron antineutrinos associated with gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226 using KamLAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashi, A.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Karino, Y.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oura, T.; Ozaki, H.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takai, T.; Tamae, K.; Teraoka, Y.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T.I.; Berger, B.E.; Fujikawa, B.K.; O'Donnell, T.; Learned, J.G.; Maricic, J.; Sakai, M.; Winslow, L.A.; Krupczak, E.; Ouellet, J.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H.J.; Markoff, D.M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J.A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    We present a search, using KamLAND, a kiloton-scale anti-neutrino detector, for low-energy anti-neutrino events that were coincident with the gravitational-wave (GW) events GW150914 and GW151226, and the candidate event LVT151012. We find no inverse beta-decay neutrino events within ±500 s of either

  16. Supernova relic electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos in future large-scale observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, C.; Welzel, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the signal from supernova relic neutrinos in future large scale observatories, such as MEMPHYS (UNO, Hyper-K), LENA and GLACIER, at present under study. We discuss that complementary information might be gained from the observation of supernova relic electron antineutrinos and neutrinos using the scattering on protons on one hand, and on nuclei such as oxygen, carbon or argon on the other hand. When determining the relic neutrino fluxes we also include, for the first time, the coupling of the neutrino magnetic moment to magnetic fields within the core collapse supernova. We present numerical results on both the relic ν e and ν-bar e fluxes and on the number of events for ν e + C 12 , ν e + O 16 , ν e + Ar 40 and ν-bar e + p for various oscillation scenarios. The observation of supernova relic neutrinos might provide us with unique information on core-collapse supernova explosions, on the star formation history and on neutrino properties, that still remain unknown. (authors)

  17. Supernova relic electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos in future large-scale observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, C.; Welzel, J. [Institut de Physique Nuclueaire, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the signal from supernova relic neutrinos in future large scale observatories, such as MEMPHYS (UNO, Hyper-K), LENA and GLACIER, at present under study. We discuss that complementary information might be gained from the observation of supernova relic electron antineutrinos and neutrinos using the scattering on protons on one hand, and on nuclei such as oxygen, carbon or argon on the other hand. When determining the relic neutrino fluxes we also include, for the first time, the coupling of the neutrino magnetic moment to magnetic fields within the core collapse supernova. We present numerical results on both the relic {nu}{sub e} and {nu}-bar{sub e} fluxes and on the number of events for {nu}{sub e} + C{sup 12}, {nu}{sub e} + O{sup 16}, {nu}{sub e} + Ar{sup 40} and {nu}-bar{sub e} + p for various oscillation scenarios. The observation of supernova relic neutrinos might provide us with unique information on core-collapse supernova explosions, on the star formation history and on neutrino properties, that still remain unknown. (authors)

  18. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  19. Surface diffusion of sorbed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Surface diffusion has in the past been invoked to explain rates of radionuclide migration which were greater than those predicted. Results were generally open to interpretation but the possible existence of surface diffusion, whereby sorbed radionuclides could potentially migrate at much enhanced rates, necessitated investigation. In this work through-diffusion experiments have shown that although surface diffusion does exist for some nuclides, the magnitude of the phenomenon is not sufficient to affect repository safety assessment modelling. (author)

  20. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Molinski, V.J.; Hupf, H.B.; Kramer, H.

    1983-10-01

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  1. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  2. An assessment of anti-neutrino mass determination via electrostatic measurements of tritium beta-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bas, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the mass of the anti-neutrino determined via electrostatic measurements of tritium beta-decay are assessed. Relativistic calculations concerning the finite mass of the electron anti-neutrino and the recoil of the nucleus, are given for the theoretical end-point spectrum of tritium beta-decay. The specifications are given for an electrostatic Spherical Retarding Beta-Spectrometer, and an electrostatic Cylindrical Mirror Analyser, both used in the tritium beta-decay experiment. The electrostatic measurements lead to a value of less than 50 ev (90% C.L.) for the electron anti-neutrino mass. These results are discussed in terms of the resolution of the electrostatic equipment and the Monte Carlo simulations of the data collection. (UK)

  3. Monitoring nuclear reactors with anti-neutrino detectors: the ANGRA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimenti, Pietro; Leigui, Marcelo Augusto [UFABC - Universidade Federal do ABC. Rua Santa Adelia, 166. Bairro Bangu. Santo Andre - SP (Brazil); Anjos, Joao; Azzi, Gabriel; Rafael, Gama; Ademarlaudo, Barbosa; Lima, Herman; VAZ, Mario; Villar, Arthur [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas - CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 22290-180 (Brazil); Gonzales, Luis Fernando; Bezerra, Thiago; Kemp, Ernesto [Unicamp, State University of Campinas, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , Barao Geraldo - Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nunokawa, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Pontifical Catholic University - PUC, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente, 225, 22451-900 Gavea - Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Guedes, Germano; Faria, Paulo Cesar [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana - UEFS, Avenida Transnordestina, Novo Horizonte (Brazil); Pepe, Iuri [Universidade Federal da Bahia - UFBA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    We describe the status of the ANGRA Project, aimed at developing an anti-neutrino detector for monitoring nuclear reactors. Indeed the detection of anti-neutrinos provides a unique handle for non-invasive measurements of the nuclear fuel. This kind of measurements are of deep interest for developing new safeguards tools which may help in nuclear non-proliferation programs. The ANGRA experiment, placed at about 30 m from the core of the 4 GW Brazilian nuclear power reactor ANGRA II, is based on a water Cherenkov detector with about one ton target mass. A few thousand antineutrino interactions per day are expected. The latest results from simulations and the status of the construction are presented. (authors)

  4. Coherent single pion production by antineutrino charged current interactions and test of PCAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Allport, P.; Armenise, N.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Burkot, W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J.; Hamisi, F.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Natali, S.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallée, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.

    1986-06-01

    The cross section for coherent production of a single π- meson in charged current antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei has been measured in BEBC to be (175±25) 10-40 cm2/neon nucleus, averaged over the energy spectrum of the antineutrino wide band beam at the CERN SPS; this corresponds to (0.9±0.1) % of the total charged currentbar v_μ cross section. The distributions of kinematical variables are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the PCAC hypothesis and the meson dominance model; in particular, the Q 2 dependence is well described by a propagator containing a mass m=(1.35±0.18) GeV. The absolute value of the cross section is also in agreement with the model. This analysis thus provides a test of the PCAC hypothesis in the antineutrino energy range 5 150 GeV.

  5. Coherent single pion production by antineutrino charged current interactions and test of PCAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marage, P.; Bertrand, D.; Sacton, J.; Aderholz, M.; Wittek, W.; Allport, P.; Wells, J.; Baton, J.P.; Gerbier, G.; Neveu, M.; Clayton, E.F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Guy, J.; Kasper, P.; Venus, W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.

    1986-01-01

    The cross section for coherent production of a single π - meson in charged current antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei has been measured in BEBC to be (175+-25) 10 -40 cm 2 /neon nucleus, averaged over the energy spectrum of the antineutrino wide band beam at the CERN SPS; this corresponds to (0.9+-0.1)% of the total charged current anti νsub(μ) cross section. The distributions of kinematical variables are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the PCAC hypothesis and the meson dominance model; in particular, the Q 2 dependence is well described by a propagator containing a mass m=(1.35+-0.18)GeV. The absolute value of the cross section is also in agreement with the model. This analysis thus provides a test of the PCAC hypothesis in the antineutrino energy range 5-150 GeV. (orig.)

  6. Ten years of investigation on radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Incorporation, by marine algae and animals, of hydrogen-3 and other radionuclides present in effluents of nuclear or industrial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Colard, J.; Koch, G.; Kirchmann, R.; Strack, S.; Luettke, A.; Carraro, G.

    1981-01-01

    Several marine plants and animals were investigated for their capability of incorporating the main radionuclides present in selected effluents. Accumulation factors are reported for 3 H, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 131 I 226 Ra and 124 Sb. Marine algae, which are involved in food chains leading to man, show the highest accumulation factors. The stable element composition of the alga Acetabularia was determined by gamma-activation analysis. The preferential accumulation of particular radionuclides by marine organisms suggests that they may have a significant role in the turnover rate of elements in the marine environment. (author)

  7. Nuclear effect study on nucleon structure functions, in comparison with antineutrino interactions on neon and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, C.

    1984-03-01

    We have studied the nuclear effects on high energy antineutrino charged current interactions by comparing the data which were taken in the Bubble Chamber BEBC filled with Neon and Deuterium. On the one hand, the study of nuclear reinteractions gave us the possibility to estimate the formation time of hadrons. On the other hand, the comparison of structure functions does not show any significant difference between Neon and Deuterium. Though this result does not contradict the effects observed with charged leptons by the EMC and SLAC experiments, it is strongly incompatible with certain theoretical interpretations which implied a stronger effect in antineutrino interactions [fr

  8. Study of Electron Anti-neutrinos Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts Using KamLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oki, Y.; Oura, T.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tachibana, H.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Berger, B. E.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Learned, J. G.; Maricic, J.; Sakai, M.; Winslow, L. A.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.; KamLAND Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We search for electron anti-neutrinos ({{\\bar{ν }}e}) from long- and short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using data taken by the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) from 2002 August to 2013 June. No statistically significant excess over the background level is found. We place the tightest upper limits on {{\\bar{ν }}e} fluence from GRBs below 7 MeV and place first constraints on the relation between {{\\bar{ν }}e} luminosity and effective temperature.

  9. First test of Lorentz violation with a reactor-based antineutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Konno, T.; Kuze, M.; Aberle, C.; Buck, C.; Hartmann, F.X.; Haser, J.; Kaether, F.; Lindner, M.; Reinhold, B.; Schwetz, T.; Wagner, S.; Watanabe, H.; Anjos, J.C. dos; Gama, R.; Lima, H.P.-Jr.; Pepe, I.M.; Bergevin, M.; Felde, J.; Maesano, C.N.; Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N.S.; Dazeley, S.; Erickson, A.; Keefer, G.; Bezerra, T.J.C.; Furuta, H.; Suekane, F.; Bezrukhov, L.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.K.; Yanovitch, E.; Blucher, E.; Conover, E.; Crum, K.; Strait, M.; Worcester, M.; Busenitz, J.; Goon, J.TM.; Habib, S.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Reichenbacher, J.; Stancu, I.; Sun, Y.; Cabrera, A.; Franco, D.; Kryn, D.; Obolensky, M.; Roncin, R.; Tonazzo, A.; Caden, E.; Damon, E.; Lane, C.E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Perasso, S.; Smith, E.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Franke, A.J.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Toups, M.; Cerrada, M.; Crespo-Anadon, J.I.; Gil-Botella, I.; Lopez-Castano, J.M.; Novella, P.; Palomares, C.; Santorelli, R.; Chang, P.J.; Horton-Smith, G.A.; McKee, D.; Shrestha, D.; Chimenti, P.; Classen, T.; Collin, A.P.; Cucoanes, A.; Durand, V.; Fechner, M.; Fischer, V.; Hayakawa, T.; Lasserre, T.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Mention, G.; Mueller, Th.A.; Perrin, P.; Sida, J.L.; Sinev, V.; Veyssiere, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for Lorentz violation with 8249 candidate electron antineutrino events taken by the Double Chooz experiment in 227.9 live days of running. This analysis, featuring a search for a sidereal time dependence of the events, is the first test of Lorentz invariance using a reactor-based antineutrino source. No sidereal variation is present in the data and the disappearance results are consistent with sidereal time independent oscillations. Under the Standard-Model Extension, we set the first limits on 14 Lorentz violating coefficients associated with transitions between electron and tau flavor, and set two competitive limits associated with transitions between electron and muon flavor. (authors)

  10. Two particle–hole excitations in charged current quasielastic antineutrino-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, J.; Ruiz Simo, I.; Vicente Vacas, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the quasielastic and multinucleon contributions to the antineutrino-nucleus scattering cross section and compare our results with the recent MiniBooNE data. We use a local Fermi gas model that includes RPA correlations and gets the multinucleon part from a systematic many body expansion of the W boson selfenergy in the nuclear medium. The same model had been quite successful for the neutrino cross section and contains no new parameters. We have also analyzed the relevance of 2p2h events for the antineutrino energy reconstruction

  11. Neutrino-antineutrino pair production by hadronic bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacca, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    I will report on recent calculations of neutrino-antineutrino pair production from bremsstrahlung processes in hadronic collisions and consider temperature conditions relevant for core collapse supernovae. Earlier studies on bremsstrahlung from neutron-neutron collisions showed that the approximation used in typical supernova simulation to model this process differs by about a factor of 2 from predictions based on chiral effective field theory, where the chiral expansion of two-body forces is considered up to the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order. When the density of neutrons is large enough this process may compete with other non-hadronic reactions in the production of neutrinos, in particular in the case of μ and τ neutrinos, which are not generated by charged-current reactions. A natural question to ask is then: what is the effect of neutrino pair production from collisions of neutrons with finite nuclei? To tackle this question, we recently have addressed the case of neutron- α collisions, given that in the P-wave channels the neutron- α scattering features a resonance near 1 MeV. We find that the resonance leads to an enhanced contribution in the neutron spin structure function at temperatures in the range of 0 . 1 - 4 MeV. For significant density fractions of α in this temperature range, this process is competitive with contributions from neutron-neutron scattering. TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada. This work was supported in parts by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Grant Number SAPIN-2015-0003).

  12. Neutrino and antineutrino charge-exchange reactions on 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samana, A. R.; Krmpotic, F.; Paar, N.; Bertulani, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    We extend the formalism of weak interaction processes, obtaining new expressions for the transition rates, which greatly facilitate numerical calculations, for both neutrino-nucleus reactions and muon capture. Explicit violation of the conserved vector current hypothesis by the Coulomb field, as well as development of a sum-rule approach for inclusive cross sections, has been worked out. We have done a thorough study of exclusive (ground-state) properties of 12 B and 12 N within the projected quasiparticle random phase approximation (PQRPA). Good agreement with experimental data achieved in this way put into evidence the limitations of the standard RPA and QRPA models, which come from the inability of the RPA to open the p 3/2 shell and from the nonconservation of the number of particles in the QRPA. The inclusive neutrino/antineutrino (ν/ν-tilde) reactions 12 C(ν,e - ) 12 N and 12 C(ν-tilde,e + ) 12 B are calculated within both the PQRPA and the relativistic QRPA. It is found that (i) the magnitudes of the resulting cross sections are close to the sum-rule limit at low energy, but significantly smaller than this limit at high energies, for both ν and ν-tilde; (ii) they increase steadily when the size of the configuration space is augmented, particularly for ν/ν-tilde energies >200 MeV; and (iii) they converge for sufficiently large configuration space and final-state spin. The quasi-elastic 12 C(ν,μ - ) 12 N cross section recently measured in the MiniBooNE experiment is briefly discussed. We study the decomposition of the inclusive cross section based on the degree of forbiddenness of different multipoles. A few words are dedicated to the ν/ν-tilde- 12 C charge-exchange reactions related to astrophysical applications.

  13. Investigations of the uptake of transuranic radionuclides by humic and fulvic acids chemically immobilized on silica gel and their competitive release by complexing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.; Szabo, G.; Clayton, R.F.; Clayton, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The chemistry of the interactions of transuranic elements (TUs) with humic substances needs to be understood so that humate-mediated movement of transuranic radionuclides through the environment can be predicted. This paper reports the chemical immobilization on silica gel of humic and fulvic acids and evaluates the potential of these new materials for the retention of Pu and Am. In addition to the preparation of the foregoing immobilized humic substances, other low molecular weight metal-binding ligands have also been immobilized on silica gel to investigate the binding sites for transuranic elements (TUs) in humic substances. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of Th(IV) complexed by humic acid and the immobilized humic acid are similar thus it appears that immobilization of humic acid does not generate any configurational changes in the Th(IV)-binding sites of the macromolecule. A variety of chelating agents partly mobilize these TUs sorbed on the solid phases. A batch method was used to determine the distribution coefficients (R d ) of Pu and Am between the silica gels and aqueous solutions of phosphate and citrate. The effects of the immobilized ligands, the anions and pH in the solution on sorption were assessed. Distributed coefficients (R d ) for the uptake of Pu and Am by these prepared solid phases are, in some cases, of a similar order of magnitude as those determined for soil and particles suspended in terrestrial surface waters

  14. Investigations of the corrosion behaviour of the Si-containing stainless steel 1.4361 with combined surface analysis, electrochemistry and radionuclide technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maar-Stumm, M.

    1990-03-01

    The present work aimed at detailed information on the corrosion behaviour and particularly the corrosion mechanism of the steel 1.4361 in concentrated nitric acid by use of a combination of electrochemical methods, radionuclide technique and surface analysis. For comparison steel samples corroded by other methods were investigated by surface analysis, too. At the beginning of the corrosion in nitric acid Fe and Ni are dissolved preferentially. Cr and Si are enriched in the surface region. A primary corrosion layer is formed which is equivalent to the oxidic overlayer of atmospherically oxidized samples. It consists of the oxides of chromium and iron mixed up with glass-like SiO 2 . Ni does not contribute to the formation of the oxidic overlayer. On top of this primary corrosion layer there is an isolating gel-like SiO 2 -layer with a thickness depending on strength and duration of the corrosive attack. Its mechanical stability decreases with increasing layer thickness. At the boundary to the primary corrosion layer this gel-like SiO 2 -layer is closed, mechanically stable and conducting. Samples corroded under the standardized conditions of the Huey-test show a similar structure of the overlayer with the exception that the primary corrosion layer consists only of glass-like SiO 2 . The combination of several methods revealed detailed information about mass loss and structure of the overlayer at different electrode potentials. (orig./MM) [de

  15. Investigation of radionuclide distribution using aircraft for surrounding environmental survey from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Masaki; Ishida, Mutsushi; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Urabe, Yoshimi; Sugita, Takeshi; Kondo, Atsuya

    2012-12-01

    We carried out aerial radiation monitoring (ARM) of all Japan area in order to investigate the influence of the radio cesium which was emitted into the atmosphere by disaster of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. AMS can measure a gamma ray quickly by flight from 300 m height above the ground. Moreover, ARM has an advantage which can grasp self-possessed quantity distribution of an air dose rate and radioactive cesium in f ield , and is visually intelligible. Although there were apparatus and the technique of ARM in our country, sufficient preparations for wide area monitoring were not made. Therefore, it fixed based on the method of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) about the method of the conversion to all radiation dose, and the conversion method to radiocesium deposition and the method of mapping. It is possible to discriminate from a background (cosmic-ray, self-contamination and natural nuclides) at the time of western-part-of-Japan measurement by improving of the method in parallel to data acquisition. By this monitoring, it was able to check about the distribution situation of the air dose rate of the Japanese whole region, or the radioactive cesium deposition. Here, the measurement technique and a result are described. (author)

  16. Geochemistry and radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretically, the geochemical barrier can provide a major line of defense in protecting the biosphere from the hazards of nuclear waste. The most likely processes involved are easily identified. Preliminary investigations using computer modeling techniques suggest that retardation is an effective control on radionuclide concentrations. Ion exchange reactions slow radionuclide migration and allow more time for radioactive decay and dispersion. For some radionuclides, solubility alone may limit concentrations to less than the maximum permissible now considered acceptable by the Federal Government. The effectiveness of the geochemical barrier is ultimately related to the repository site characteristics. Theory alone tells us that geochemical controls will be most efficient in an environment that provides for maximum ion exchange and the precipitation of insoluble compounds. In site selection, consideration should be given to rock barriers with high ion exchange capacity that might also act as semi-permeable membranes. Also important in evaluating the site's potential for effective geochemical controls are the oxidation potentials, pH and salinity of the groundwater

  17. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  18. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  19. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurement with the MINOS near detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Debdatta

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 10 6 neutrino events and 1.60 x 10 5 antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section

  20. Hybrid method to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy by supernova (anti)neutrino induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenička c. 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Rauscher, T. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Paar, N., E-mail: dvale@phy.hr, E-mail: Thomas.Rauscher@unibas.ch, E-mail: npaar@phy.hr [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a hybrid method to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy by simultaneous measurements of responses of at least two detectors to antineutrino and neutrino fluxes from accretion and cooling phases of core-collapse supernovae. The (anti)neutrino-nucleus cross sections for {sup 56}Fe and {sup 208}Pb are calculated in the framework of the relativistic nuclear energy density functional and weak interaction Hamiltonian, while the cross sections for inelastic scattering on free protons p(ν-bar {sub e},e{sup +})n are obtained using heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. The modelling of (anti)neutrino fluxes emitted from a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova include collective and Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects inside the exploding star. The particle emission rates from the elementary decay modes of the daughter nuclei are calculated for normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. It is shown that simultaneous use of (anti)neutrino detectors with different target material allows to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy from the ratios of ν{sub e}- and ν-bar {sub e}-induced particle emissions. This hybrid method favors neutrinos from the supernova cooling phase and the implementation of detectors with heavier target nuclei ({sup 208}Pb) for the neutrino sector, while for antineutrinos the use of free protons in mineral oil or water is the appropriate choice.

  1. Hybrid method to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy by supernova (anti)neutrino induced reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, D.; Rauscher, T.; Paar, N.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a hybrid method to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy by simultaneous measurements of responses of at least two detectors to antineutrino and neutrino fluxes from accretion and cooling phases of core-collapse supernovae. The (anti)neutrino-nucleus cross sections for 56Fe and 208Pb are calculated in the framework of the relativistic nuclear energy density functional and weak interaction Hamiltonian, while the cross sections for inelastic scattering on free protons p(bar nue,e+)n are obtained using heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. The modelling of (anti)neutrino fluxes emitted from a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova include collective and Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects inside the exploding star. The particle emission rates from the elementary decay modes of the daughter nuclei are calculated for normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. It is shown that simultaneous use of (anti)neutrino detectors with different target material allows to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy from the ratios of νe- and bar nue-induced particle emissions. This hybrid method favors neutrinos from the supernova cooling phase and the implementation of detectors with heavier target nuclei (208Pb) for the neutrino sector, while for antineutrinos the use of free protons in mineral oil or water is the appropriate choice.

  2. Total Absorption Spectroscopy of Fission Fragments Relevant for Reactor Antineutrino Spectra and Decay Heat Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porta A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta decay of fission products is at the origin of decay heat and antineutrino emission in nuclear reactors. Decay heat represents about 7% of the reactor power during operation and strongly impacts reactor safety. Reactor antineutrino detection is used in several fundamental neutrino physics experiments and it can also be used for reactor monitoring and non-proliferation purposes. 92,93Rb are two fission products of importance in reactor antineutrino spectra and decay heat, but their β-decay properties are not well known. New measurements of 92,93Rb β-decay properties have been performed at the IGISOL facility (Jyväskylä, Finland using Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS. TAS is complementary to techniques based on Germanium detectors. It implies the use of a calorimeter to measure the total gamma intensity de-exciting each level in the daughter nucleus providing a direct measurement of the beta feeding. In these proceedings we present preliminary results for 93Rb, our measured beta feedings for 92Rb and we show the impact of these results on reactor antineutrino spectra and decay heat calculations.

  3. Study of Anti-Neutrino Beam with Muon Monitor in the T2K experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Takahiro

    The T2K experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. In 2013, the T2K collaboration observed electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam at 7.3 sigma significance. One of the next main goals of the T2K experiment is to measure electron anti-neutrino appearance. In June 2014 we took anti-neutrino beam data for the first time. The anti-neutrino beam was obtained by reversing the polarity of horn focusing magnets. To monitor the direction and intensity of the neutrino beam which is produced from the decay of pions and kaons, the muon beam is continuously measured by Muon Monitor (MUMON). To reconstruct the profile of the muon beam, MUMON is equipped with 49 sensors distributed on a plane behind the beam dump. In this report, we show some results of the anti-neutrino beam data taken by monitors including MUMON. In particular, dependence of the muon beam intensity on electric current of the horns, correlation between the proton beam position and the MUMON profile, and beam stability are presented. Comparison between the data and Monte Carlo simulation is also discussed.

  4. Study of anti-neutrino beam with Muon Monitor in the T2K experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The T2K experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. In 2013, the T2K collaboration observed electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam at 7.3 sigma significance. One of the next main goals of the T2K experiment is to measure electron anti-neutrino appearance. In June 2014 we took anti-neutrino beam data for the first time. The anti-neutrino beam was obtained by reversing the polarity of horn focusing magnets. To monitor the direction and intensity of the neutrino beam which is produced from the decay of pions and kaons, the muon beam is continuously measured by Muon Monitor (MUMON). To reconstruct the profile of the muon beam, MUMON is equipped with 49 sensors distributed on a plane behind the beam dump. In this report, we show some results of the anti-neutrino beam data taken by monitors including MUMON. In particular, dependence of the muon beam intensity on electric current of the horns, correlation between the proton beam position and the MUMON profile, and beam stability are presented. Comparison between the data and Monte Carlo simulation is also discussed. (author)

  5. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurement with the MINOS near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Debdatta [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 106 neutrino events and 1.60 x 105 antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section.

  6. A Search for Electron Antineutrinos Associated with Gravitational-wave Events GW150914 and GW151226 Using KamLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashi, A.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Karino, Y.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oura, T.; Ozaki, H.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takai, T.; Tamae, K.; Teraoka, Y.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Berger, B. E.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Learned, J. G.; Maricic, J.; Sakai, M.; Winslow, L. A.; Krupczak, E.; Ouellet, J.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.; KamLAND Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    We present a search, using KamLAND, a kiloton-scale anti-neutrino detector, for low-energy anti-neutrino events that were coincident with the gravitational-wave (GW) events GW150914 and GW151226, and the candidate event LVT151012. We find no inverse beta-decay neutrino events within ±500 s of either GW signal. This non-detection is used to constrain the electron anti-neutrino fluence and the total integrated luminosity of the astrophysical sources.

  7. First Measurement of the Muon Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic Double-Differential Cross-Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grange, Joseph M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the first measurement of the muon antineutrino charged current quasi-elastic double-differential cross section. These data significantly extend the knowledge of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in the GeV range, a region that has recently come under scrutiny due to a number of conflicting experimental results. To maximize the precision of this measurement, three novel techniques were employed to measure the neutrino background component of the data set. Representing the first measurements of the neutrino contribution to an accelerator-based antineutrino beam in the absence of a magnetic field, the successful execution of these techniques carry implications for current and future neutrino experiments.

  8. Special features of the inverse-beta-decay reaction proceeding on a proton in a reactor-antineutrino flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeikin, V. I., E-mail: kopeikin46@yandex.ru; Skorokhvatov, M. D., E-mail: skorokhvatov-md@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The evolution of the reactor-antineutrino spectrum and the evolution of the spectrum of positrons from the inverse-beta-decay reaction in the course of reactor operation and after reactor shutdown are considered. The present-day status in determining the initial reactor-antineutrino spectrum on the basis of spectra of beta particles from mixtures of products originating from uranium and plutonium fission is described. A local rise of the experimental spectrum of reactor antineutrinos with respect to the expected spectrum is studied.

  9. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  10. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  11. Supplementary investigations on the validation of the atmospheric radionuclide transport model (ARTM); Ergaenzende Untersuchungen zur Validierung des Atmosphaerischen Radionuklid-Transport-Modells (ARTM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Cornelia; Thielen, Harald; Sogalla, Martin

    2015-09-15

    In the medium-term time scale the Gaussian plume model used so far for atmospheric dispersion calculations in the General Administrative Provision (AVV) relating to Section 47 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrISchV) as well as in the Incident Calculation Bases (SBG) relating to Section 49 StrISchV is to be replaced by a Lagrangian particle model. Meanwhile the Atmospheric Radionuclide Transportation Model (ARTM) is available, which allows the simulation of the atmospheric dispersion of operational releases from nuclear installations. ARTM is based on the program package AUSTAL2000 which is designed for the simulation of atmospheric dispersion of non-radioactive operational releases from industrial plants and was adapted to the application of airborne radioactive releases. The research project 3612S50007 serves, on the one hand, to validate ARTM systematically. On the other hand, the development of science and technology were investigated and, if reasonable and possible, were implemented to the program system. The dispersion model and the user interface were advanced and optimized. The program package was provided to the users as a free download. Notably t he work program comprises the validation of the approach used in ARTM to model short emission periods, which are of interest in view of the SBG. The simulation results of the diagnostic wind and turbulence model TALdia, which is part of the GO-ARTM program package, were evaluated with focus on the influence of buildings on the flow field. The user interface was upgraded with a wind field viewer. To simplify the comparison with the model still in use, a Gaussian plum e model was implemented into the graphical user interface. The ARTM web page was maintained, user questions and feedback were answered and analysed concerning possible improvements and further developments of the program package. Numerous improvements were implemented. An ARTM user workshop was hosted by the Federal Office for Radiation

  12. Investigation of the radiological impact of naturally occurring radionuclides from the usage of phosphate and organic fertilizers on farmlands in the New Juaben Municipality of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenfie, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    The radiological impact of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) from the usage of phosphate and organic fertilizers in the New Juaben Municipality of Ghana was investigated. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in seven (7) widely used phosphate and organic fertilizers using gamma spectroscopy. The activity concentrations were found to be 32.10±2.60 Bq/kg, 12.20±1.60 Bq/kg and 3005.50±68.80 Bq/kg respectively. The radioactivity level index (Iγ ) which gives an estimate of the level of risk associated with natural radionuclides in specific material was found to be higher than the recommended limit of one (1) in some of the fertilizer samples collected from storage. The storage also recorded a relatively high dose rates (ranging from 96-624 μSv/a) compared to the surrounding background (ranging from 109-241 μSv/a) suggesting that the storage of large quantities of these fertilizers can lead to a possible increase in the dose rates. The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in cultivated (fertilized) soils were found to be 12.50±3.30 Bq/kg, 10.60 ± 2.80 Bq/kg and 206.0 ± 30.2 Bq/kg respectively. These values were relatively higher than those found in their respective virgin (unfertilized) soils ( 226 Ra- 9.0±1.7 Bq/kg; 232 Th - 8.10±1.70 Bq/kg; and 40 K-139.0±13.3 Bq/kg). This might be considered as an indication that the use of fertilizers to increase soil fertility enhances the level of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in agricultural soils. The averages of other risk indices such as radium equivalent, the absorbed dose rate in air at 1m above the ground, the mean outdoor annual effective dose and the external hazard index estimated for the cultivated soils were found to be higher than their corresponding virgin soils but generally lower than the world averages. Therefore, the radiological impact associated with NORMs in the cultivated lands as a result of the application of fertilizers is expected to

  13. Shifts of neutrino oscillation parameters in reactor antineutrino experiments with non-standard interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss reactor antineutrino oscillations with non-standard interactions (NSIs at the neutrino production and detection processes. The neutrino oscillation probability is calculated with a parametrization of the NSI parameters by splitting them into the averages and differences of the production and detection processes respectively. The average parts induce constant shifts of the neutrino mixing angles from their true values, and the difference parts can generate the energy (and baseline dependent corrections to the initial mass-squared differences. We stress that only the shifts of mass-squared differences are measurable in reactor antineutrino experiments. Taking Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO as an example, we analyze how NSIs influence the standard neutrino measurements and to what extent we can constrain the NSI parameters.

  14. Development of the reactor antineutrino detection technology within the iDream project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, M.; Kuznetsov, D.; Murchenko, A.; Novikova, G.; Obinyakov, B.; Oralbaev, A.; Plakitina, K.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Sukhotin, S.; Chepurnov, A.; Etenko, A.

    2017-12-01

    The iDREAM (industrial Detector for reactor antineutrino monitoring) project is aimed at remote monitoring of the operating modes of the atomic reactor on nuclear power plant to ensure a technical support of IAEA non-proliferation safeguards. The detector is a scintillator spectrometer. The sensitive volume (target) is filled with a liquid organic scintillator based on linear alkylbenzene where reactor antineutrinos will be detected via inverse beta-decay reaction. We present first results of laboratory tests after physical launch. The detector was deployed at sea level without background shielding. The number of calibrations with radioactive sources was conducted. All data were obtained by means of a slow control system which was put into operation.

  15. Determination of the fission coefficients in thermal nuclear reactors for antineutrino detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Lenilson M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Cabral, Ronaldo G., E-mail: rgcabral@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, Joao C.C. dos, E-mail: janjos@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. GLN - G

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear reactors in operation periodically need to change their fuel. It is during this process that these reactors are more vulnerable to occurring of several situations of fuel diversion, thus the monitoring of the nuclear installations is indispensable to avoid events of this nature. Considering this fact, the most promissory technique to be used for the nuclear safeguard for the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, it is based on the detection and spectroscopy of antineutrino from fissions that occur in the nuclear reactors. The detection and spectroscopy of antineutrino, they both depend on the single contribution for the total number of fission of each actinide in the core reactor, these contributions receive the name of fission coefficients. The goal of this research is to show the computational and mathematical modeling used to determinate these coefficients for PWR reactors. (author)

  16. Precise measurement of neutrino and anti-neutrino differential cross sections on iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzanov, Martin Mihaylov [Pittsburgh U.

    2005-11-01

    This thesis will present a precise measurement of the differential cross section for charged current neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering from iron. The NuTeV experiment took data during 1996-97 and collected 8.6 10 º and 2.4 10 º charged-current (CC) interactions. The experiment combines sign-selected neutrino and antineutrino beams and the upgraded CCFR iron-scintillator neutrino detector. A precision continuous calibration beam was used to determine the muon and hadron energy scales to a precision of about a factor of two better than previous experiments. The structure functions F (x,Q2) and xF3(x,Q2) are extracted and compared with theory and previous measurements.

  17. Experimental spectrum of reactor antineutrinos and spectra of main fissile isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinev, V. V., E-mail: vsinev@pcbai10.inr.ruhep.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    Within the period between the years 1988 and 1990, the spectrum of positrons from the inverse-beta-decay reaction on a proton was measured at the Rovno atomic power plant in the course of experiments conducted there. The measured spectrum has the vastest statistics in relation to other neutrino experiments at nuclear reactors and the lowest threshold for positron detection. An experimental reactor-antineutrino spectrum was obtained on the basis of this positron spectrum and was recommended as a reference spectrum. The spectra of individual fissile isotopes were singled out from the measured antineutrino spectrum. These spectra can be used to analyze neutrino experiments performed at nuclear reactors for various compositions of the fuel in the reactor core.

  18. A Comparison Framework for Reactor Anti-Neutrino Detectors in Near-Field Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendenhall, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brodsky, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Electron anti-neutrino ( e) detectors can support nuclear safeguards, from reactor monitoring to spent fuel characterization. In recent years, the scientific community has developed multiple detector concepts, many of which have been prototyped or deployed for specific measurements by their respective collaborations. However, the diversity of technical approaches, deployment conditions, and analysis techniques complicates direct performance comparison between designs. We have begun development of a simulation framework to compare and evaluate existing and proposed detector designs for nonproliferation applications in a uniform manner. This report demonstrates the intent and capabilities of the framework by evaluating four detector design concepts, calculating generic reactor antineutrino counting sensitivity, and capabilities in a plutonium disposition application example.

  19. Reactor neutron converter into antineutrinos on base of lithium compounds and their solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutostanskij, Yu.S.; Lyashchuk, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    A study on the possibility of using various lithium compounds as substances for reactor neutron converter into antineutrinos, was made. It is concluded that heavy water LiOD, LiODxD 2 O, LiD solutions are the most promising ones. They provide for high efficiency with reduction of the required lithium mass (300-350 times maximum) as compared with pure lithium converter

  20. A study of quasi-elastic muon (anti)neutrino scattering in he NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubushkin, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions (v μ n→μ - p and v-bar μ p→μ + n using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly Carbon) normalizing it to the total v μ (v-bar μ ) charged current cross-section. The results for the flux averaged QEL cross-sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are qel >v μ = (0.92±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst))x10 -38 cm 2 and qel >v-bar μ = (0.81±0.05(stat)±0.09(syst))x10 -38 cm 2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter MA was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross-section. The corresponding result is M A = 1.05±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross-section and extracted from the pure Q 2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of v μ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured MA is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M A is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M A , these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value.

  1. First Measurement of one Pion Production in Charged Current Neutrino and Antineutrino events on Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanavini, Scanavini,Giacomo [Yale U.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a work done in the context of the Fermilab Neutrino Intensity Frontier. In this analysis, the cross section of single charged pion production in charged-current neutrino and antineutrino interactions with the argon nucleus target are measured. These measurements are performed using the Argon Neutrino Test (ArgoNeuT) detector exposed to the Fermilab Neutrino From The Main Injector (NuMI) beam operating in the low energy antineutrino mode. The signal is a charged-current μ interaction in the detector, with exactly one charged pion exiting the target nucleus, with momentum above 100 MeV/c. There shouldn’t be any 0 or kaons in the final state. There is no restriction on other mesons or nucleons. Total and differential cross section measurements are presented. The results are reported in terms of outgoing muon angle and momentum, outgoing pion angle and angle between outgoing pion and muon. The total cross sections, averaged over the flux, are found to be 8.2 ± 0.9 (stat) +0.9 -1.1 (syst) × 10-38 cm2 per argon nuclei and 2.5 ± 0.4 (stat) ± 0.5 (syst) × 10-37 cm2 per argon nuclei for antineutrino and neutrino respectively at a mean neutrino energy of 3.6 GeV (antineutrinos) and 9.6 GeV (neutrinos). This is the first time the single pion production in charged-current interactions cross section is measured on argon nuclei.

  2. Observation of coherent diffractive charged current interactions of antineutrinos on neon nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Armenise, N.; Azemoon, T.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Bartley, J. H.; Baton, J. P.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Calicchio, M.; Cooper, A. M.; Chwastowski, J.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Kochowski, C.; Leighton-Davies, S.; Middleton, R. P.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; Nuzzo, S.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Ruggieri, F.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Simopoulou, E.; Talebzadeh, M.; Vallee, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wells, J.; Wernhard, K. L.; Wittek, W.; Zevgolatakos, E.; WA59 Collaboration

    1984-05-01

    First observation is reported of semi-inclusive coherent diffractive charged current interactions of antineutrinos on neon nuclei. A sharp peaking towards zero is observed in the | t| distribution of interactions for which the final state charge is 0 and from which only one negative hadron is emitted, unaccompanied by any evidence of nuclear fragmentation or reinteraction. This peak is correlated with high momentum of the outgoing charged hadron and with small values of Q2 and x.

  3. Coherent production of ρ - mesons in charged current antineutrino-neon interactions in BEBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Allport, P.; Armenise, N.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Burkot, W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Guy, J.; Hamisi, F.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Katz, U. F.; Klein, H.; Matsinos, E.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallée, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.

    1987-09-01

    Coherent production of ρ - mesons in charged current antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei is studied in the BEBC bubble chamber exposed to the CERN SPS wide band beam. The cross section is measured to be (95±25)·10-40 cm2 per neon nucleus, averaged over the beam energy spectrum. The distributions of kinematical variables and the absolute value of the cross section are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the CVC hypothesis and the vector meson dominance model.

  4. Coherent production of ρ- mesons in charged current antineutrino-neon interactions in BEBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marage, P.; Bertrand, D.; Sacton, J.; Aderholz, M.; Katz, U.F.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Allport, P.; Varvell, K.; Wells, J.; Baton, J.P.; Kasper, P.; Neveu, M.; Clayton, E.F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Matsinos, E.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.

    1987-01-01

    Coherent production of ρ - mesons in charged antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei is studied in the BEBC bubbler chamber exposed to the CERN SPS wide band beam. The cross section is measured to be (95±25).10 -40 cm 2 per neon nucleus, averaged over the beam energy spectrum. The distributions of kinematical variables and the absolute value of the cross section are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the CVC hypothesis and the vector meson dominance model. (orig.)

  5. Observation of coherent diffractive charged current interactions of antineutrino on neon nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marage, P.; Sacton, J.; Bertrand, D.; Aderholz, M.; Wernhard, K.L.; Wittek, W.; Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Nuzzo, S.; Ruggieri, F.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J.H.; Bullock, F.W.; Fitch, P.J.; Leighton-Davies, S.; Sansum, R.A.; Baton, J.P.; Gerbier, G.; Kochowski, C.; Neveu, M.; Brisson, V.; Petiau, P.; Vallee, C.; Chwastowski, J.; Coghen, T.; Guy, J.; Kasper, P.; Venus, W.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Varvell, K.; Wells, J.

    1984-01-01

    First observation is reported of semi-inclusive coherent diffractive charged current interactions of antineutrinos on neon nuclei. A sharp peaking towards zero is observed in the vertical stroketvertical stroke distribution of interactions for which the final state charge is 0 and from which only one negative hadron is emitted, unaccompanied by any evidence of nuclear fragmentation or reinteraction. This peak is correlated with high momentum of the outgoing charged hadron and with small values of Q 2 and chi. (orig.)

  6. Coherent production of a1- mesons and (ρπ)- systems by antineutrinos on neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marage, P.; Sacton, J.; Willocq, S.; Aderholz, M.; Wittek, W.; Allport, P.P.; Baton, J.P.; Neveu, M.; Burtovoy, V.; Clayton, E.F.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Jones, G.T.; O'Neale, S.; Varvell, K.; Matsinos, E.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Wachsmuth, H.; Sansum, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The coherent production of 3π systems by charged current antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei is studied in the bubble chamber BEBC exposed to the CERN SPS wide band beam. The coherent signal is attributed mainly to (ρπ) production, where the (ρπ) system is either non-resonant or comes from the decay of a 1 mesons. The kinematical variables and the total cross section are compared with the predictions of the meson dominance model. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of the neutrino component of an antineutrino beam observed by a nonmagnetized detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Spitz, J.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Kobilarcik, T.; Marsh, W.; Moore, C. D.; Polly, C. C.; Russell, A. D.; Stefanski, R. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Karagiorgi, G.; Nguyen, V.

    2011-01-01

    Two methods are employed to measure the neutrino flux of the antineutrino-mode beam observed by the MiniBooNE detector. The first method compares data to simulated event rates in a high-purity ν μ -induced charged-current single π + (CC1π + ) sample while the second exploits the difference between the angular distributions of muons created in ν μ and ν μ charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) interactions. The results from both analyses indicate the prediction of the neutrino flux component of the predominately antineutrino beam is overestimated--the CC1π + analysis indicates the predicted ν μ flux should be scaled by 0.76±0.11, while the CCQE angular fit yields 0.65±0.23. The energy spectrum of the flux prediction is checked by repeating the analyses in bins of reconstructed neutrino energy, and the results show that the spectral shape is well-modeled. These analyses are a demonstration of techniques for measuring the neutrino contamination of antineutrino beams observed by future nonmagnetized detectors.

  8. Experimental results from a reactor monitoring experiment with a cubic meter scale antineutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cubic meter scale antineutrino detectors can stably and no intrusively monitor both plutonium content and reactor power at the few percent level, at a standoff of a few tens of meters. Our Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/Sandia National Laboratories collaboration has deployed a detector to demonstrate this capability at a 3 GWt pressurized water reactor in Southern California, operating 25 meters from the core center, and acquiring data over an approximate one year period. Such monitoring may be useful for tracking power output and plutonium buildup in nuclear reactors, constraining the fissile content and providing the earliest possible measurement of the amount of plutonium in the reactor core. We present our antineutrino event sample, and show that the observed change in antineutrino rate recorded in our detector over the reactor cycle correlates with plutonium ingrowth according to predictions. We present our current precision and estimate the attainable precision of the method, and discuss the benefits this technology may have for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other safeguards regimes

  9. Measurement of the electroweak coupling of neutrinos and antineutrinos on electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, M.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the analysis of the events induced by elastic scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos on electrons and interprets the results in terms of the coupling strength of (anti)neutrino on electrons. The data for this analysis were obtained with the electronic calorimeter of the CHARM (Amsterdam, Cern, Hamburg, Moscow, Rome) collaboration during the wide band neutrino beam exposures of 1979, 1980 and 1981 in the neutrino facility of the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire, Geneva, Switzerland). In chapter 1 a historical overview of the early neutrino physics and a description of the phenomenological Lagrangian is given, followed by an introduction to the electroweak unification model. The neutrino detector of the CHARM collaboration is described in chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with the on-line monitoring system of this detector which has been under the responsibility of the author. The wide band neutrino facility of the CERN SPS is described in chapter 4, followed by a discussion of the experimental method to measure the neutrino energy spectra of the neutrino beams. The electromagnetic shower development process is reviewed in chapter 5 and is followed by a description of the technique that was used to separate showers of electromagnetic and hadronic origin. Chapter 6 discusses the observed signal of the (anti)neutrinos scattering on electrons and interprets these events in terms of the parameters related to the strength of the coupling of neutrinos to electrons. (Auth.)

  10. New Monte Carlo-based method to evaluate fission fraction uncertainties for the reactor antineutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.B., E-mail: maxb@ncepu.edu.cn; Qiu, R.M.; Chen, Y.X.

    2017-02-15

    Uncertainties regarding fission fractions are essential in understanding antineutrino flux predictions in reactor antineutrino experiments. A new Monte Carlo-based method to evaluate the covariance coefficients between isotopes is proposed. The covariance coefficients are found to vary with reactor burnup and may change from positive to negative because of balance effects in fissioning. For example, between {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu, the covariance coefficient changes from 0.15 to −0.13. Using the equation relating fission fraction and atomic density, consistent uncertainties in the fission fraction and covariance matrix were obtained. The antineutrino flux uncertainty is 0.55%, which does not vary with reactor burnup. The new value is about 8.3% smaller. - Highlights: • The covariance coefficients between isotopes vs reactor burnup may change its sign because of two opposite effects. • The relation between fission fraction uncertainty and atomic density are first studied. • A new MC-based method of evaluating the covariance coefficients between isotopes was proposed.

  11. The main trends in clinical use of radionuclides in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranat, V.Z.

    1979-01-01

    The main trends of using radionuclide methods in clinical oncology are shown. Two main aspects of using radionuclide methods are pointed out: radionuclide investigation of the primary tumour as ''local'' manifestation of the cancer disease, radionuclide investigation of the body ''response'' to the tumour process. Each of the aspects of the problem is briefly considered on some examples. Examples of positive scintigraphy of tumours are given. It is shown that tumorotropic properties of some radionuclides make possible using visualization methods realizing the differential diagnosis of some tumours. Considered are direct and indirect signs which allow determining the presence of metastases and testifying to the tumour process spread

  12. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzerman, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  13. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  14. Evolution of the Reactor Antineutrino Flux and Spectrum at Daya Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F P; Balantekin, A B; Band, H R; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Cao, D; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, Y; Chen, H S; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cheng, Z K; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Chukanov, A; Cummings, J P; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dolgareva, M; Dove, J; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guo, L; Guo, X H; Guo, Y H; Guo, Z; Hackenburg, R W; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Higuera, A; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, T; Huang, E C; Huang, H X; Huang, X T; Huang, Y B; Huber, P; Huo, W; Hussain, G; Jaffe, D E; Jen, K L; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Jones, D; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Khan, A; Kohn, S; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Langford, T J; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lee, J H C; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, J K C; Li, C; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, S; Li, S C; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, S; Lin, S K; Lin, Y-C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Loh, C W; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Lu, J S; Luk, K B; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; Malyshkin, Y; Martinez Caicedo, D A; McDonald, K T; McKeown, R D; Mitchell, I; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Ngai, H Y; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevskiy, A; Pan, H-R; Park, J; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Qiu, R M; Raper, N; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Steiner, H; Stoler, P; Sun, J L; Tang, W; Taychenachev, D; Treskov, K; Tsang, K V; Tull, C E; Viaux, N; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Wei, H Y; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, C-H; Wu, Q; Wu, W J; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J L; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yang, C G; Yang, H; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Yang, Y Z; Ye, M; Ye, Z; Yeh, M; Young, B L; Yu, Z Y; Zeng, S; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, H H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, R; Zhang, X T; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhou, L; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2017-06-23

    The Daya Bay experiment has observed correlations between reactor core fuel evolution and changes in the reactor antineutrino flux and energy spectrum. Four antineutrino detectors in two experimental halls were used to identify 2.2 million inverse beta decays (IBDs) over 1230 days spanning multiple fuel cycles for each of six 2.9 GW_{th} reactor cores at the Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power plants. Using detector data spanning effective ^{239}Pu fission fractions F_{239} from 0.25 to 0.35, Daya Bay measures an average IBD yield σ[over ¯]_{f} of (5.90±0.13)×10^{-43}  cm^{2}/fission and a fuel-dependent variation in the IBD yield, dσ_{f}/dF_{239}, of (-1.86±0.18)×10^{-43}  cm^{2}/fission. This observation rejects the hypothesis of a constant antineutrino flux as a function of the ^{239}Pu fission fraction at 10 standard deviations. The variation in IBD yield is found to be energy dependent, rejecting the hypothesis of a constant antineutrino energy spectrum at 5.1 standard deviations. While measurements of the evolution in the IBD spectrum show general agreement with predictions from recent reactor models, the measured evolution in total IBD yield disagrees with recent predictions at 3.1σ. This discrepancy indicates that an overall deficit in the measured flux with respect to predictions does not result from equal fractional deficits from the primary fission isotopes ^{235}U, ^{239}Pu, ^{238}U, and ^{241}Pu. Based on measured IBD yield variations, yields of (6.17±0.17) and (4.27±0.26)×10^{-43}  cm^{2}/fission have been determined for the two dominant fission parent isotopes ^{235}U and ^{239}Pu. A 7.8% discrepancy between the observed and predicted ^{235}U yields suggests that this isotope may be the primary contributor to the reactor antineutrino anomaly.

  15. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  17. Deep sea radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.; Vobach, M.

    1993-01-01

    Every year since 1979, either in sping or in summer, the fishing research vessel 'Walther Herwig' goes to the North Atlantic disposal areas of solid radioactive wastes, and, for comparative purposes, to other areas, in order to collect water samples, plankton and nekton, and, from the deep sea bed, sediment samples and benthos organisms. In addition to data on the radionuclide contents of various media, information about the plankton, nekton and benthos organisms living in those areas and about their biomasses could be gathered. The investigations are aimed at acquiring scientifically founded knowledge of the uptake of radioactive substances by microorganisms, and their migration from the sea bottom to the areas used by man. (orig.) [de

  18. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  19. Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

  20. Short-baseline electron antineutrino disappearance study by using neutrino sources from {sup 13}C + {sup 9}Be reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Won; Cheoun, Myung-Ki [Department of Physics and Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies (OMEG) Institute, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kajino, Toshitaka [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hayakawa, Takehito, E-mail: shine8199@skku.edu, E-mail: cheoun@ssu.ac.kr, E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: hayakawa.takehito@qst.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate (QUBS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the existence of sterile neutrino, we propose a new neutrino production method using {sup 13}C beams and a {sup 9}Be target for short-baseline electron antineutrino (ν-bar {sub e} ) disappearance study. The production of secondary unstable isotopes which can emit neutrinos from the {sup 13}C + {sup 9}Be reaction is calculated with three different nucleus-nucleus (AA) reaction models. Different isotope yields are obtained using these models, but the results of the neutrino flux are found to have unanimous similarities. This feature gives an opportunity to study neutrino oscillation through shape analysis. In this work, expected neutrino flux and event rates are discussed in detail through intensive simulation of the light ion collision reaction and the neutrino flux from the beta decay of unstable isotopes followed by this collision. Together with the reactor and accelerator anomalies, the present proposed ν-bar {sub e} source is shown to be a practically alternative test of the existence of the Δ m {sup 2} ∼ 1 eV{sup 2} scale sterile neutrino.

  1. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  2. Study of neutrino- and antineutrino interactions in a neon-hydrogen mixture using the CERN narrow band beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, K.

    1977-01-01

    The charged-current cross sections for neutrinos and antineutrinos on nucleons in the energy range 20-200 GeV are given. Taken in conjunction with the previous Gargamelle results, they show that sigma/E is almost constant with energy for antineutrinos, and falls with energy for neutrinos. Above 50 GeV, sigma/E is compatible with being constant for neutrinos and antineutrinos. Rates for the production of neutral current events, di-lepton events and strange particles are given. The rate of di-lepton production shows no evidence for the production of 'bottom' states. Finally there is no indication for a charged heavy lepton coupled to the muon neutrino. (orig./WL) [de

  3. Quasi-elastic interactions and one-pion production by neutrinos and anti-neutrinos on a deuterium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlag, S.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, the weak charged current interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos with nucleons are described, in which the neutrino scatters in a quasi-elastic way with the nucleon, leaving an excited nucleon state. The experiments have been performed in the bubble chamber BEBC, filled with deuterium and exposed to the CERN Wide Band (anti-)neutrino beams. This gave the opportunity to study both interactions on protons and on neutrons separately, whereas the measurement of the exclusive channels could be performed with a high precision. After a short introduction of the relevant theories (standard model; QCD; one-pion production models; FKR quark model), the experimental set-up at CERN is described as well as the bubble chamber picture facility in Amsterdam. Next, results of the neutrino and antineutrino experiments are given followed by a comparison with theory. (Auth.)

  4. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolevatov, Yu.I.; Trykov, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252 Cf base with the activity from 10 6 to 10 9 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  5. Experimental investigation of long-lived radionuclide migration in floodplain soils of Chernobyl NPP 10-km zone and risk estimation of ground water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhirnov, V.G.; Popov, V.E.

    1993-01-01

    Heavily polluted with long-lived radionuclides, the floodplain soils of Chernobyl NPP 30-km zone is a potential danger for the river system and reservoirs of the Ukraine. In 1991, the building of a dam along the river left bank was started to isolate the river-bed. However, during the spring rise of water in the river body, the water will all the same infiltrate through the soil to the floodplain because of hydraulic pressure. The main goal of this work was to estimate the strontium 90 content in the top water and it's dependence on the depth of water over the soil surface. We studied the strontium 90 different chemical forms distribution in the left bank part of the floodplain and experimentally determined the strontium 90 washing out by river water taken into account it's upward flow

  6. Technical investigation of cerebral blood flow measurements using the Patlak plot method. A contrivance for positioning of the gamma camera at data collection in radionuclide angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Akihiro; Okada, Kazuhiro; Urata, Johji; Yonehara, Toshiro [Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital (Japan); Mizuta, Yoshihiko

    1999-02-01

    The time-activity curve for the aortic arch obtained from radionuclide angiography (RNA) is handled as an input function parameter according to the method of Matsuda et al., which determines regional cerebral blood flow non-invasively. The data are collected from a frontal view of the thorax captured by RNA by their method, however we encountered a case in which it was difficult to identify aortic arch in the data collection from the frontal view. The precise identification of the aortic arch was implemented when the RNA data were collected from the left anterior oblique view of the thorax. No significant difference was noted in the measured values between the data collection from the frontal view and from the left anterior oblique view. Our method seems to be useful modification of the Patlak plot method. (author)

  7. Status of Works on A-40-MCI-Activity Tritium Source for the Measurement of the Antineutrino Magnetic Moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.; Golubkov, A.N.; Grishechkin, S.K.; Il'kaev, R.I.; Kuryakin, A.V.; Lebedev, B.L.; Lobanov, V.N.; Mikhailov, V.N.; Tumkin, D.P.; Bogdanova, L.N.

    2005-01-01

    For the experiment on the measurement of the electron antineutrino magnetic moment we suggest a new approach to the tritium source design, namely, a configuration of annular cells filled with TiT 2 that are stacked into a hollow cylinder. Detectors are mounted in the hole inside.We present results of the optimization of geometrical and physical parameters of the source with respect to its experimental effectiveness and safety guaranty at all stages of its lifecycle. We discuss the choice of the construction materials and specify technological issues relevant to radiation purity of the source, being of the special concern in the experiment on the electron antineutrino magnetic moment measurement

  8. Energy spectrum of reactor antineutrinos and searches for new physics (Resent developments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopejkin, V.I.; Sinev, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The study of the electron neutrino properties - its mass, mixing, magnetic moment - is the main goal of the present reactor antineutrino experiments. We consider the time evolution of the reactor ν bar e spectrum during reactor ON and reactor OFF periods. An important role of the time variations of the reactor ν bar e spectrum in searches for neutrino magnetic moment is discussed. Corrections to the predicted earlier theoretical and precise measured inverse beta-decay cross sections are calculated. We found that the residual ν bar e emission during the reactor OFF period can play a non-negligible role in oscillation experiments

  9. Neutrino (antineutrino) effective charge in a magnetized electron-positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbeto, A.; Rios, L.A.; Mendonca, J.T.; Shukla, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Using dynamical techniques of the plasma physics, the neutrino (antineutrino) effective charge in a magnetized dense electron-positron plasma is determined here. It shown that its value, which is determined by the plasma collective processes, depends mainly on the propagation direction of plasma waves and neutrinos against the external magnetic field direction. The direction dependence of the effective charge occurs due to the fact that the magnetic field breaks the plasma isotropy. The present theory gives a unified picture of the problem which is valid for an external magnetic field below the Landau-Schwinger critical value. Comparison with some of the results from the quantum field theory has been made

  10. Quark jets from antineutrino interactions. 2. Inclusive particle spectra and multiplicities in the quark jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammosov, V.V.; Denisov, A.G.; Gapienko, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The results on inclusive particle production in the antineutrino charged current induced hadron jets observed in the Fermilab 15- ft. bubble chamber are presented. Fractional energy distributions, particle ratios and average multiplicities of the hadrons in the jets are measured. Ratios between the inclusive production rates of different mesons in the jets are studied to seek evidence for the d-quark origin of the observed hadrons. Good over-all agreement with the hypothesis of d-quark fragmentation with universal fragmentation functions obeying isospin systematics is established [ru

  11. Spin alignment of ρ0 mesons produced in antineutrino and neutrino neon charged-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, W.; Guy, J.; Adeholz, M.; Allport, P.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Burkot, W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M. T.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Marage, P.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallee, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.

    1987-03-01

    In a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC the spin alignment parameter η=1/2 (2ϱ00 - ϱ11 - ϱ-1-1) is measured for ϱ0 mesons produced in deep inelastic charged-current antineutrino and neutrono interactions on neon. In the current fragmentation region η is found to be ηv=0.48+/-0.27 (stat.)+/-0.15 (syst.) for vNe and ηv=0.12+/-0.20 (stat.)+/-0.10 (syst.) for vNe interactions Present address: University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

  12. Evidence for higher twist effects in fast π- production by antineutrinos in neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, P. J.; Kasper, P.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Aderholz, M.; Armenise, N.; Azemoon, T.; Bertrand, D.; Berggren, M.; Bullock, F. W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Erriquez, O.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J.; Hulth, P. O.; Iaselli, G.; Jones, G. T.; Lagraa, M.; Marage, P.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Sansum, R. A.; Simopoulou, E.; Varvell, K.; Vallée, C.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wittek, W.; Wells, J.; Zevgolatakos, E.

    1986-03-01

    Evidence for a significant higher twist contribution to high z π- production in antineutrino scattering is presented. In events with W>3 GeV and Q 2>1 GeV2 in our data, it accounts for (51 ±8)% of all π- with z above 0.5. It is consistent with the z- Q 2 correlations of Berger's higher twist prediction. The data are inconclusive concerning the predicted y-z correlation and p T dependence. The z - Q 2 correlation is not adequately described by the Lund Monte-Carlo.

  13. Evidence for higher twist effects in fast π- production by antineutrinos in neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, P.J.; Azemoon, T.; Bullock, F.W.; Sansum, R.A.; Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Iaselli, G.; Bertrand, D.; Marage, P.; Berggren, M.; Hulth, P.O.; Coghen, T.; Gerbier, G.; Lagraa, M.; Neveu, M.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Simopoulo, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Varvell, K.; Wells, J.; Vallee, C.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence for a significant higher twist contribution to high zπ - production in antineutrino scattering is presented. In events with W>3 GeV and Q 2 >1 GeV 2 in our data, it accounts for (51+-8)% of all π - with z above 0.5. It is consistent with the z-Q 2 correlations of Berger's higher twist prediction. The data are inconclusive concerning the predicted y-z correlation and psub(T) dependence. The z-Q 2 correlation is not adequately described by the Lund Monte-Carlo. (orig.)

  14. Spin alignment of ρ0 mesons produced in antineutrino and neutrino neon charged-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittek, W.; Aderholz, M.; Schmitz, N.; Guy, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Venus, W.; Brisson, V.; Petiau, P.; Vallee, C.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M.T.; Jones, G.T.; Middleton, R.P.; O'Neale, S.W.; Varvell, K.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Vayaki, A.

    1987-01-01

    In a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC the spin alignment parameter η=1/2(2ρ 00 -ρ 11 -ρ -1-1 ) is measured for ρ 0 mesons produced in deep inelastic charged-current antineutrino and neutrino interactions on neon. In the current fragmentation region η is found to be η ν =0.48±0.27(stat.)±0.15(syst.) for anti νNe and η ν =0.12±0.20(stat.)±0.10(syst.) for νNe interactions. (orig.)

  15. Angular distributions of neutrino and antineutrino scatterings by electrons and gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dass, G.V.

    1976-01-01

    Assuming a nonderivative point interaction, and Born approximation, the complete angular distributions for the scatterings of neutrinos and antineutrinos by electrons are obtained from only simple general considerations, without explicit calculation; generalisation to parton targets is noted. Two pairs of simple constraints on the angular distributions can be violated only if the interaction has a helicity-flipping component; this can serve to disfavour the large class of models which are purely helicity-conserving. Comparison is made with some explicit calculations done for some special cases of some of the results. (author)

  16. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  17. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  18. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  19. Metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1987-01-01

    Physico-chemical form of radionuclides is one of the important factors governing the concentration by marine organisms, whereas biological activities affect the existing states of radionuclides especially in coastal waters. Radioiodine in the form of iodate which is predominant species in seawater is reduced to iodide ion by biological activities and concentration factor of iodide is an order of magnitude higher than those of iodate. Extremely high accumulation of transition elements, actinides, or natural radionuclides in branchial heart of octopus is explained by the fuction of adenochrome, a glandular pigment in the organ as a natural complexing agent, and similar metal-binding proteins with relatively low molecular weight have been found in various marine invertebrates. High accumulation of some elements also found in mollusk kidney is considered to be caused by the intracellular concretions composed of calcium phosphate. All these biological processes suggest the significance of further investigations on metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms. (author)

  20. Charged current antineutrino reactions from 12C at MiniBooNE energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athar, M. Sajjad; Ahmad, Shakeb; Singh, S. K.

    2007-01-01

    A study of charged current induced antineutrino interactions from nuclei has been done for the intermediate energy antineutrinos and applied to 12 C, relevant for ongoing experiment by MiniBooNE collaboration. The calculations have been done for the quasielastic and inelastic lepton production as well as for the incoherent and the coherent pion production processes. The calculations are done in local density approximation. In the case of the quasielastic reaction the effects of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion effects, renormalization of weak transition strengths in nuclear medium and the Coulomb distortion of the outgoing lepton have been taken into account. For the inelastic processes the calculations have been done in the Δ dominance model and take into account the effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion of the nucleon, and renormalization of Δ properties in a nuclear medium. The effect of final state interactions of pions is also taken into account. The numerical results for the total cross sections for the charged current quasielastic scattering and incoherent pion production processes are compared with earlier experimental results available in freon and freon-propane. It is found that nuclear medium effects give strong reduction in the cross sections leading to satisfactory agreement with the available data

  1. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  2. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  3. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  4. Estimation of Total Error in DWPF Reported Radionuclide Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.B.

    1995-01-01

    This report investigates the impact of random errors due to measurement and sampling on the reported concentrations of radionuclides in DWPF's filled canister inventory resulting from each macro-batch. The objective of this investigation is to estimate the variance of the total error in reporting these radionuclide concentrations

  5. Measurement of the antineutrino to neutrino charged-current interaction cross section ratio in MINERvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Endress, E.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Han, J. Y.; Harris, D. A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sultana, M.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; MinerνA Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    We present measurements of the neutrino and antineutrino total charged-current cross sections on carbon and their ratio using the MINERvA scintillator-tracker. The measurements span the energy range 2-22 GeV and were performed using forward and reversed horn focusing modes of the Fermilab low-energy NuMI beam to obtain large neutrino and antineutrino samples. The flux is obtained using a subsample of charged-current events at low hadronic energy transfer along with precise higher energy external neutrino cross section data overlapping with our energy range between 12-22 GeV. We also report on the antineutrino-neutrino cross section ratio, RCC , which does not rely on external normalization information. Our ratio measurement, obtained within the same experiment using the same technique, benefits from the cancellation of common sample systematic uncertainties and reaches a precision of ˜5 % at low energy. Our results for the antineutrino-nucleus scattering cross section and for RCC are the most precise to date in the energy range Eν<6 GeV .

  6. New (anti)neutrino results from the T2K experiment on CP violation in the lepton sector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    T2K is a long-baseline neutrino experiment in which a muon neutrino beam produced by J-PARC in Tokai is sent 295 km across Japan to the Super-Kamiokande detector, to study neutrino oscillations via the disappearance of muon neutrinos and the appearance of electron neutrinos. Since the start of operations in 2010, T2K has conclusively observed muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations, opening the door to the observation of CP violation in neutrino mixing, and performed the most precise measurement of the muon neutrino disappearance parameters. In a joint analysis between these two modes, T2K placed its first constraints on the CP-violating phase delta. Starting in 2014, T2K has been running primarily with an antineutrino beam in order to study the corresponding antineutrino oscillations, resulting in leading measurements of the muon antineutrino disappearance parameters. The joint analysis of neutrino and antineutrino data indicates that CP-conserving parameters lie outside the 90% confidence interval....

  7. Measurement of the Antineutrino Double-Differential Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering Cross Section at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, Cheryl [Northwestern U.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments, such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, hope to measure charge-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. In order to do this, they must dramatically reduce their current levels of uncertainty, particularly those due to neutrino-nucleus interaction models. As CP violation is a measure of the difference between the oscillation properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, data about how the less-studied antineutrinos interact is especially valuable. We present the MINERvA experiment's first double-differential scattering cross sections for antineutrinos on scintillator, in the few-GeV range relevant to experiments such as DUNE and NOvA. We also present total antineutrino-scintillator quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of energy, which we compare to measurements from previous experiments. As well as being useful to help reduce oscillation experiments' uncertainty, our data can also be used to study the prevalence of various cor relation and final-state interaction effects within the nucleus. We compare to models produced by different model generators, and are able to draw first conclusions about the predictions of these models.

  8. Radionuclide exercise ventriculography and levels of workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchank, S.

    1982-01-01

    The wealth of useful information made available from the utilization of radionuclide cardiological investigations by non-invasive means is outlined and reasons for investigating results obtained under conditions of increased heart workload are explained. The lack of an accepted protocol for the determination of exercise levels is noted. A format for obtaining increasing heart loads dependent on increasing pulse rate is offered, with justification. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography examinations can be conducted which are simple, reproducible and allow appropriate levels of stress in patients who can benefit from such investigations

  9. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  10. Measurement of Neutrino and Antineutrino Total Charged-Current Cross Sections on Carbon with MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Lu [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of charged-current inclusive cross sections of muon neutrino and antineutrino interaction on carbon, and antineutrino to neutrino cross section ratio, r, in the energy range 2 - 22 GeV, with data collected in the MINERA experiment. The dataset corresponds to an exposure of 3.2 x 1020 protons on target (POT) for neutrinos and 1.01020 POT for antineutrinos. Measurement of neutrino and antineutrino charged-current inclusive cross sections provides essential constraints for future long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at a few GeV energy range. Our measured antineutrino cross section has an uncertainty in the range 6.1% - 10.5% and is the most precise measurement below 6 GeV to date. The measured r has an uncertainty of 5.0% - 7.5%. This is the rst measurement below 6 GeV since Gargamelle in 1970s. The cross sections are measured as a function of neutrino energy by dividing the eciency corrected charged-current sample with extracted uxes. Fluxes are obtained using the low- method, which uses low hadronic energy subsamples of charged-current inclusive sample to extract ux. Measured cross sections show good agreement with the prediction of neutrino interaction models above 7 GeV, and are about 10% below the model below 7 GeV. The measured r agrees with the GENIE model [1] over the whole energy region. The measured cross sections and r are compared with world data.

  11. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  12. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  13. Radionuclide determination of right and left ventricular stroke volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei Feng; Roubin, G S; Choong, C Y.P.; Harris, P J; Flether, P J; Kelly, D T; Uren, R F; Hutton, B F

    1985-03-01

    The relationship between radionuclide and thermodilution measurement of stroke volumes (SV) was investigated in 30 patients without valvular regurgitation or intracardiac shunt (group A) at rest and during exercise. Both attenuated radionuclide right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) SV measurements correlated well with the SV determined by the thermodilution method (r = 0.87 and r = 0.93, all P < 0.001). The reliability of the radionuclide method to estimate SV was evaluated prospectively in two additional groups of patients. In 11 patients without valvular regurgitation or intracardiac shunt (group B) the radionuclide RVSV and LVSV closely approximated to thermodilution SV at rest and during exercise. In 15 patients with aortic regurgitation (group C) the radionuclide stroke volume ratio correlated well with the angiographic regurgitant fraction. Thus, both RVSV and LVSV and the severity of aortic regurgitation can be reliably measured with gated radionuclide ventriculography.

  14. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  15. Radionuclide transport through heteogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, J.

    1980-01-01

    One-dimensional radionuclide migration for conevective water transport with sorption and longitudinal dispersion is investigated. A semianalytic solution for layered media with piecewise constant parametes can be written when taking into account mass conservation and approximate flux conservation at interlayer boundaries. The solution is analytic in the first layer and allows for a recursive calculation in the following layers. Scaling laws for the relevant parameters can be formulated. Numerical examples exhibit the importance of at least a single highly sorbing layer. Small values of dispersivity may not lead to a conservative estimate of conservation at the geological column's end

  16. Determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and θ13 with a remote detector of reactor antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learned, John G.; Pakvasa, Sandip; Dye, Stephen T.; Svoboda, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for determining the hierarchy of the neutrino mass spectrum and θ 13 through remote detection of electron antineutrinos from a nuclear reactor. This method utilizing a single, 10-kiloton scintillating liquid detector at a distance of 49-63 kilometers from the reactor complex measures mass-squared differences involving ν 3 with a one(ten)-year exposure provided sin 2 (2θ 13 )>0.05(0.02). Our technique applies the Fourier transform to the event rate as a function of neutrino flight distance over neutrino energy. Sweeping a relevant range of δm 2 resolves separate spectral peaks for δm 2 31 and δm 2 32 . For normal (inverted) hierarchy |δm 2 31 | is greater (lesser) than |δm 2 32 |. This robust determination requires a detector energy resolution of 3.5%/√(E).

  17. Study of the antineutrino-induced elastic semi-leptonic neutral current reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racca, C.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the elastic neutral current reaction antiνsub(μ)p→antiνsub(μ)p has been done using Gargamelle filled with propane and the antineutrino beam of the CERN P.S. The space-time structure of the weak neutral current is discussed, the predictions of various V-A models for the ratio of neutral to charged current elastic cross-sections Rsup(antiν) are given. The experimental set-up, the scanning criteria and the program of reconstruction are described. The background due to the contamination by the reaction np→np principally is studied. Cuts are defined to resorbe these backgrounds and corrections are made for other backgrounds and losses. The results are compared with those of the reaction antiνsub(μ)p→μ + n and the ratio Rsup(antiν) is calculated. An upper limit of this ratio is given and the results are discussed [fr

  18. Monitoring the Thermal Power of Nuclear Reactors with a Prototype Cubic Meter Antineutrino Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, A; Bowden, N; Misner, A; Palmer, T

    2007-06-27

    In this paper, we estimate how quickly and how precisely a reactor's operational status and thermal power can be monitored over hour to month time scales, using the antineutrino rate as measured by a cubic meter scale detector. Our results are obtained from a detector we have deployed and operated at 25 meter standoff from a reactor core. This prototype can detect a prompt reactor shutdown within five hours, and monitor relative thermal power to 3.5% within 7 days. Monitoring of short-term power changes in this way may be useful in the context of International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Reactor Safeguards Regime, or other cooperative monitoring regimes.

  19. aCORN: An experiment to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation in neutron decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wietfeldt, F.E., E-mail: few@tulane.ed [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Byrne, J. [University of Sussex (United Kingdom); Collett, B. [Physics Department, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Dewey, M.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Jones, G.L. [Physics Department, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Komives, A. [Physics Department, DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135 (United States); Laptev, A. [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Nico, J.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Noid, G.; Stephenson, E.J. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Stern, I.; Trull, C. [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Yerozolimsky, B.G. [Physics Department, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-12-11

    The aCORN experiment is designed to make a precision (<1%) measurement of the electron-antineutrino angular correlation (a-coefficient) in neutron beta decay. It uses a new method proposed in 1996 by Yerozolimsky and Mostovoy. Electrons and recoil protons from neutron decay in a cold beam are detected in coincidence. The momenta of the particles are selected so that the protons form two kinematically distinct time-of-flight groups as a function of electron energy. The count rate asymmetry in these two groups is proportional to the a-coefficient. Precision spectroscopy of the protons is not required. The apparatus is currently under construction. It will be integrated and tested at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) and then moved to the NIST Center for Neutron Research for the initial physics run.

  20. Experimental test of the PCAC-hypothesis in charged current neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hoffmann, E.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Allport, P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1987-03-01

    Data obtained with the bubble chamber BEBC at CERN are used for the first significant test of Adler's prediction for the neutrino and antineutrino-proton scattering cross sections at vanishing four-momentum transfer squared Q 2. An Extended Vector Meson Dominance Model (EVDM) is applied to extrapolate Adler's prediction to experimentally accessible values of Q 2. The data show good agreement with Adler's prediction for Q 2→0 thus confirming the PCAC hypothesis in the kinematical region of high leptonic energy transfer ν>2 GeV. The good agreement of the data with the theoretical predictions also at higher Q 2, where the EVDM terms are dominant, also supports this model. However, an EVDM calculation without PCAC is clearly ruled out by the data.

  1. A study of the EMC effect using neutrino and antineutrino interactions in neon and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Venus, W.; Apeldoorn, G. van; Jongejans, B.; Tenner, A.; Eijndhoven, N. van; Berggren, M.; Hulth, P.O.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Bobisut, F.; Sconza, A.; Brisson, V.; Petiau, P.; Vallee, C.; Capiluppi, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Cirio, R.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Romero, A.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Coghen, T.; Frodesen, A.G.; Gerbier, G.; Kasper, P.; Neveu, M.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Faccini-Turluer, M.L.; Vignaud, D.

    1987-01-01

    Nearly 40000 neutrino and antineutrino interactions in BEBC are compared to measure the differences between neon and deuterium in the quark and antiquark distributions and in the nucleon structure functions. The ratio of Ne to D cross sections indicates some decrease between x ≅ 0.2 and x ≅ 0.6. The y distributions show there is no significant increase in the neon sea, but prefer a small decrease. Taken altogether the x and y distributions and the measured total cross-sections indicate some change in the shape of the valence distributions. No significant dependence on A is observed for either the shape of the sea or the ratio of longitudinal to transverse cross-sections. (orig.)

  2. A study of the EMC effect using neutrino and antineutrino interactions in neon and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, J.; Saitta, B.; van Apeldoorn, G.; Allport, P.; Angelini, C.; Armenise, N.; Baldini, A.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bobisut, F.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F.; Calicchio, M.; Capiluppi, P.; Cirio, R.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Faccini-Turluer, M. L.; Fitch, P.; Frodesen, A. G.; Gerbier, G.; Giacomelli, G.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Jongejans, B.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Mandrioli, G.; Marage, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Mobayyen, M. M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Neveu, M.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Romero, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, A.; Sconza, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Schmitz, N.; Tenner, A.; Vallee, C.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Vignaud, D.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wittek, W.

    1987-09-01

    Nearly 40000 neutrino and antineutrino interactions in BEBC are compared to measure the differences between neon and deuterium in the quark and antiquark distributions and in the nucleon structure functions. The ratio of Ne to D cross sections indicates some decrease between x˜0.2 and x˜0.6. The y distributions show there is no significant increase in the neon sea, but prefer a small decrease. Taken altogether, the x and y distributions and the measured total cross-sections indicate some change in the shape of the valence distributions. No significant dependence on A is observed for either the shape of the sea or the ratio of longitudinal to transverse cross-sections.

  3. Experimental test of the PCAC-hypothesis in charged current neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Allport, P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1987-01-01

    Data obtained with the bubble chamber BEBC at CERN are used for the first significant test of Adler's prediction for the neutrino and antineutrino-proton scattering cross sections at vanishing four-momentum transfer squared Q 2 . An Extended Vector Meson Dominance Model (EVDM) is applied to extrapolate Adler's prediction to experimentally accessible values of Q 2 . The data show good agreement with Adler's prediction for Q 2 → 0 thus confirming the PCAC hypothesis in the kinematical region of high leptonic energy transfer ν > 2 GeV. The good agreement of the data with the theoretical predictions also at higher Q 2 , where the EVDM terms are dominant, also supports this model. However, an EVDM calculation without PCAC is clearly ruled out by the data. (orig.)

  4. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, I. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf Inc. D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Seitz, G. [Institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention in the precision engineering and electrical industry, D-50941 Koeln (Germany); Hartmann, M. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-10318 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  5. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, I.; Seitz, G.; Hartmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  6. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  7. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  8. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  9. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  10. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  11. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  12. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  13. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  14. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  15. Soil burden by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  16. Radionuclide body function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus is claimed. It comprises: a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; means for rotating the array about the scan field and means for imparting travel to the collimators

  17. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.; Bywater, J.

    1985-01-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  18. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperski, J; Bywater, J [Ranger Uranium Mines Proprietary Ltd., Chatswood (Australia)

    1985-04-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty. Ltd. during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish.

  19. Assessment of waste management of volatile radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, P.M.; Barbier, M.; Lord, N.; Nainan, D.

    1979-05-01

    This document presents a review of the Technologies for Waste Management of the Volatile Radionuclides of iodine-129, krypton-85, tritium, and carbon-14. The report presents an estimate of the quantities of these volatile radionuclides as are produced in the nuclear power industry. The various technologies as may be used, or which are under investigation, to immobilize these nuclides and to contain them during storage and in disposal are discussed. Also, the alternative disposal options as may be applied to isolate these radioactive wastes from the human environment are presented. The report contains information which was available through approximately January 1978

  20. Peculiarities of radionuclide transfer to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkus, D.; Andriulaityte, I.; Luksiene, B.; Druteikiene, R.

    2003-01-01

    The biosphere and its interacting components (air, soil, bottom sediments, flora, fauna, human beings) are constantly affected by ionizing radiation. One of the ionizing radiation sources is noble radioactive gas that is continually released into the environment because of the normal operation of nuclear power plants (short-lived and long-lived noble gas) and nuclear fuel-reprocessing plants (long-lived noble gas). Another source is related to nuclear tests and the Chernobyl NPP accident, when long-lived gaseous and aerosol radionuclides ( 85 Kr, transuranics, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, etc) were spread in all environmental systems. In order to evaluate the mechanism of radionuclide transfer to plants, model experimental investigation using gaseous 85 Kr and ionic state 137 Cs was undertaken. For this purpose specific chambers with defined physical parameters were applied. The gained tentative results show the importance of these experiments for the estimation of radionuclide transfer to plants and for the prognosis of human internal irradiation. (author)

  1. Measurement of total and differential cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino coherent π± production on carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislivec, A.; Higuera, A.; Aliaga, L.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Caceres v., G. F. R.; Cai, T.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Chavarria, E.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Hurtado, K.; Jena, D.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Nguyen, C.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sultana, M.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Tagg, N.; Valencia, E.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; Zavala, G.; MinerνA Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    Neutrino induced coherent charged pion production on nuclei, ν¯ μA →μ±π∓A , is a rare inelastic interaction in which the four-momentum squared transferred to the nucleus is nearly zero, leaving it intact. We identify such events in the scintillator of MINERvA by reconstructing |t | from the final state pion and muon momenta and by removing events with evidence of energetic nuclear recoil or production of other final state particles. We measure the total neutrino and antineutrino cross sections as a function of neutrino energy between 2 and 20 GeV and measure flux integrated differential cross sections as a function of Q2 , Eπ, and θπ . The Q2 dependence and equality of the neutrino and antineutrino cross sections at finite Q2 provide a confirmation of Adler's partial conservation of axial current hypothesis.

  2. Integrated readout of organic scintillator and ZnS:Ag/6LiF for segmented antineutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiff, Scott D.; Reyna, David; Monahan, James; Bowden, Nathaniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Antineutrino detection using inverse beta decay conversion has demonstrated the capability to measure nuclear reactor power and fissile material content for nuclear safeguards. Current efforts focus on aboveground deployment scenarios, for which highly efficient capture and identification of neutrons is needed to measure the anticipated antineutrino event rates in an elevated background environment. In this submission, we report on initial characterization of a new scintillation-based segmented design that uses layers of ZnS:Ag/ 6 LiF and an integrated readout technique to capture and identify neutrons created in the inverse beta decay reaction. Laboratory studies with multiple organic scintillator and ZnS:Ag/ 6 LiF configurations reliably identify 6 Li neutron captures in 60 cm-long segments using pulse shape discrimination.

  3. A measurement of the proton structure functions from neutrino-hydrogen and antineutrino-hydrogen charged-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Shotton, P.N.; Towers, S.J.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1989-01-01

    Within the framework of the quark-parton model, the quark and anti-quark structure functions of the proton have been measured by fitting them to the distributions of the events in the Bjorken y variable. The data used form the largest sample of neutrino and antineutrino interactions on a pure hydrogen target available, and come from exposures of BEBC to the CERN wide band neutrino and antineutrino beams. It is found that the ratio d ν /u ν of valence quark distributions falls with increasing Bjorken x. In the context of the quark-parton model the results constrain the isospin composition of the accompanying diquark system. Models involving scattering from diquarks are in disagreement with the data. (orig.)

  4. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  5. A feasibility study of boron-loaded liquid scintillator for the detection of electron anti-neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S C; Leung, R W S; Wang, S L; Chang, C Y; Chen Chi Ping; Cheng, K C; Ho, T I; Lai, W P; Liu, H M; Mao, Z P; Shih, I C; Wong, H T; Yu, Z Q

    1999-01-01

    Boron-loaded liquid scintillator offers some potential advantages as a detector for electron anti-neutrinos. A research program was carried out with the objective of developing such scintillators. The crucial feature is the pulse shape discrimination properties following the neutron capture by sup 1 sup 0 B. Results of the R and D efforts are presented. The feasibility and the technical difficulties of carrying out a full-scale neutrino experiment based on this approach are discussed. (author)

  6. aCORN: An experiment to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation coefficient in free neutron decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, B; Bateman, F; Bauder, W K; Byrne, J; Byron, W A; Chen, W; Darius, G; DeAngelis, C; Dewey, M S; Gentile, T R; Hassan, M T; Jones, G L; Komives, A; Laptev, A; Mendenhall, M P; Nico, J S; Noid, G; Park, H; Stephenson, E J; Stern, I; Stockton, K J S; Trull, C; Wietfeldt, F E; Yerozolimsky, B G

    2017-08-01

    We describe an apparatus used to measure the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient in free neutron decay. The apparatus employs a novel measurement technique in which the angular correlation is converted into a proton time-of-flight asymmetry that is counted directly, avoiding the need for proton spectroscopy. Details of the method, apparatus, detectors, data acquisition, and data reduction scheme are presented, along with a discussion of the important systematic effects.

  7. Investigation of the State of Radionuclides in Ultramicroconcentrations by the Method of a Horizontal Zone Electrophoresis in a Free Electrolyte. Ions of In(III) in Aqueous Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bontchev, G D; Priemyshev, A N; Bozhikov, G A; Filossofov, D V; Ivanov, P I; Maslov, O D; Milanov, M V; Dmitriev, S N

    2000-01-01

    Using the electromigration method in a free electrolyte the behaviour of In(III) in some water solutions has been investigated. Data on electrophoretic mobility of In(III) as well as its complexes with DTPA and EDTA in a wide range of pH and temperature have been collected. On the basis of experimental results the diffusion coefficient of In(III) and concentration stability constant of a complex [InDTPA]^2- have been estimated.

  8. SoLid: An innovative anti-neutrino detector for searching oscillations at the SCK•CEN BR2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Yamiel; SoLid Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    The SoLid experiment intends to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline from the SCK•CEN BR2 research reactor (Mol, Belgium). A novel detector approach to measure reactor anti-neutrinos was developed based on an innovative sandwich of composite polyvinyl-toluene and 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillators. The system is highly segmented and read out by a network of wavelength shifting fibers and SiPM. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other standard technologies thanks to the combination of high granularity, good neutron-gamma discrimination using 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator and precise localisation of the Inverse Beta Decay products. This technology can be considered as a new generation of an anti-neutrino detector. This compact system requires limited passive shielding and relies on spatial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. We will describe the principle of detection and the detector design. Particular focus on the neutron discrimination will be made, as well as on the capability to use cosmic muons for channel equalisation and energy calibration. The performance of the first 288 kg SoLid module (SM1), based on the data taken at BR2 from February to September 2015, will be presented. We will conclude with the next phase, which will start in 2016, and the future plans of the experiment.

  9. SoLid: An innovative anti-neutrino detector for searching oscillations at the SCK• CEN BR2 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Yamiel, E-mail: yamiel.abreu@uantwerpen.be

    2017-02-11

    The SoLid experiment intends to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline from the SCK• CEN BR2 research reactor (Mol, Belgium). A novel detector approach to measure reactor anti-neutrinos was developed based on an innovative sandwich of composite polyvinyl-toluene and {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillators. The system is highly segmented and read out by a network of wavelength shifting fibers and SiPM. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other standard technologies thanks to the combination of high granularity, good neutron–gamma discrimination using {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator and precise localisation of the Inverse Beta Decay products. This technology can be considered as a new generation of an anti-neutrino detector. This compact system requires limited passive shielding and relies on spatial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. We will describe the principle of detection and the detector design. Particular focus on the neutron discrimination will be made, as well as on the capability to use cosmic muons for channel equalisation and energy calibration. The performance of the first 288 kg SoLid module (SM1), based on the data taken at BR2 from February to September 2015, will be presented. We will conclude with the next phase, which will start in 2016, and the future plans of the experiment.

  10. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  11. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  13. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  14. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  15. Research on sorption behavior of radionuclides under shallow land environment. Mechanism and standard methodologies for measurement of distribution coefficients of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Tadao; Takebe, Shinichi; Nagao, Seiya; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Hagiwara, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    This study consists of two categories' research works. One is research on sorption mechanism of radionuclides with long half-life, which are Technetium-99, TRU elements and U series radionuclides, on soil and rocks, including a development of database of distribution coefficients of radionuclides. The database on the distribution coefficients of radionuclides with information about measurement conditions, such as shaking method, soil characteristics and solution composition, has been already opened to the public (JAERI-DATABASE 20001003). Another study is investigation on a standard methodology of the distribution coefficient of radionuclide on soils, rocks and engineering materials in Japan. (author)

  16. Radionuclide diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, A.I.; Gerasimov, V.G.; Lenskaya, O.P.; Narkevich, B.Ya.; Bogdasarov, Yu.B.; Krotovskij, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    Pathogenesis of vasculogenic impotence is most adequately revealed by modern methods of the investigation of the hemodynamic mechanisms of erection with the enhancement of arterial perfusion of corpora cavernosa by artificial sexual stimulation. Radionuclide diagnostic methods effectively differ from the methods of radiocontrast phalloangiography by the simplicity of investigation and the absence of traumatism for a patient. The authors have proposed a mathematical model of a process of filling in the functioning volume of the penile vascular bed with a radiopharmaceutical prepation against the background of erection induced by intracavernous administration of papaverine hydrochloride solution. Parameters of the model determine the ratio of blood flow volumetric rates in the penis at rest and when erect

  17. An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamponnet, C.; Martin-Garin, A.; Gonze, M.-A.; Parekh, N.; Vallejo, R.; Sauras-Yera, T.; Casadesus, J.; Plassard, C.; Staunton, S.; Norden, M.; Avila, R.; Shaw, G.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K d for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance its

  18. An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamponnet, C. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SECRE, CADARACHE, B.P. 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France)], E-mail: christian.tamponnet@irsn.fr; Martin-Garin, A.; Gonze, M.-A. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SECRE, CADARACHE, B.P. 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Parekh, N. [Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Vallejo, R.; Sauras-Yera, T.; Casadesus, J. [Department of Plant Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Plassard, C.; Staunton, S. [INRA, UMR Rhizosphere and Symbiosis, Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier (France); Norden, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, 171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Avila, R. [Facilia AB, Valsgaerdevaegen 12, 168 53 Bromma, Stockholm (Sweden); Shaw, G. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K{sub d} for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance

  19. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  20. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  1. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  2. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  3. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  4. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  5. Transfer parameters of radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To increase the accuracy of estimation of exposure dose by radionuclides in the marine, the informations of environmental parameter data in the marine were collected, arranged and discussed. The informations were discussed by 'a sectional committee of marine suspended solids and sediment'. The following problems were investigated and the studies were recorded in this report, clear explanation about the distribution factor (kd), the estimation method of kd, the fluctuating factor of kd data (properties of suspension and sediment, differences among the experimental methods), the physical and chemical behavior of radionuclides, sediment of radionuclides by means of sorption to the suspended particles in the marine, sorption of radionuclides into the marine soil (sediment), re-eluent of radionuclides sorpted in the marine soil (sediment), and relation between marine organism and marine suspended materials and sediment. (S.Y.)

  6. Removal of some radionuclides from water by bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovic, D.; Conkic, L.; Dalmacija, B.; Gantar, M.

    1992-01-01

    First objective of this study was to investigate the application of biologically activated carbon (BAC) as well as its comparison to adsorption, with the aim of removing some radionuclides from water. The isotopes Cs 134 and Cs 137 were bioaccumulated by BAC up to 50%, while the I 131 isotope was only physicochemically adsorbed (about 40%). Also, the process of radionuclides (Cs 137 , Ce 139 , Co 57 , Co 60 ) fixation on blue-green algae (Nostoc sp.) was investigated. The kinetics of the removal of these radionuclides from water was recorded. It was found that after a contact period of about half an hour 40-70% of the activity was removed. (Author)

  7. Biological accessibility of Chernobyl radionuclides and aspects of environmental rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Leinova, S.L.; Ivanova, T.G.; Duksina, V.V.; Rubinchik, S.Ya.; Zaharenkov, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The redistribution of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am within natural ecosystems and the determination of natural and artificial factors influencing on processes of radionuclide migration on biogeochemical chains were investigated. There are three main directions of investigation. The first of them is to estimate the intensity of self-purification of damaged region soil cover, taking into account landscape, soil, land-use differentiation and also peculiarities of physico-chemical occurrence forms of the radioactive fallout. In particular, the change dynamics of radionuclide physico-chemical state and vertical migration in soil of different genesis were estimated, the soil varieties with high and low rate of radionuclide migration were discovered, the peculiarities of 'hot' particles destruction, the change of their dispersity and structure composition under the influence of natural reagents were studied, the radionuclide bond strength with some components of different soil types was determined. The second problem is to estimate the biological accessibility of radionuclides. In particular, the radionuclide contamination of different components of forest and meadow phytocenoses was investigated, the change of radionuclide accumulation coefficients in system 'soil-plant' was estimated. The third problem is ecological and practice measures for environmental rehabilitation. In particular, the soil self-purification hypothesis in different natural conditions were created and the permissible criterion's of interference in natural processes were developed

  8. First Anti-neutrino Oscillation Results from the T2K Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos are some of the most abundant but yet most elusive particles in the universe. They have almost no mass, only interact weakly and relatively little is known about their properties. Furthermore it has been firmly established over the last decade that neutrinos can undergo flavour transitions as mass and flavor eigenstates are not identical. These neutrino oscillations have been studied using natural sources as well as nuclear reactors or with neutrinos produced at accelerators. T2K is a long baseline neutrino oscillation beam that uses a beam of muon (anti-)neutrinos that is directed form J-PARC at the east cost of Japan over a distance of almost 300 km to the SuperKamiokande water Cherenkov detector in the west. The facility is complemented by a near detector complex 280 m downstream of the neutrino production target to characterise the beam and the neutrino interaction dynamics. T2K has taken data with a muon neutrino beam since early 2010 and is studying the disappearance of muon neutrinos as well...

  9. Experimental conditions for determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy with reactor antineutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Youl Pac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the optimized experimental requirements to determine neutrino mass hierarchy using electron antineutrinos (ν¯e generated in a nuclear reactor. The features of the neutrino mass hierarchy can be extracted from the |Δm312| and |Δm322| oscillations by applying the Fourier sine and cosine transforms to the L/E spectrum. To determine the neutrino mass hierarchy above 90% probability, the requirements on the energy resolution as a function of the baseline are studied at sin2⁡2θ13=0.1. If the energy resolution of the neutrino detector is less than 0.04/Eν and the determination probability obtained from Bayes' theorem is above 90%, the detector needs to be located around 48–53 km from the reactor(s to measure the energy spectrum of ν¯e. These results will be helpful for setting up an experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, which is an important problem in neutrino physics.

  10. A new anti-neutrino detection technique based on positronium tagging with plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consolati, G. [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Franco, D., E-mail: dfranco@in2p3.fr [APC, Univ. Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75205 Paris (France); Jollet, C. [IPHC, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Meregaglia, A., E-mail: amerega@in2p3.fr [IPHC, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Minotti, A. [IPHC, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Perasso, S.; Tonazzo, A. [APC, Univ. Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75205 Paris (France)

    2015-09-21

    The main signature for anti-neutrino detection in reactor and geo-neutrino experiments based on scintillators is provided by the space–time coincidence of positron and neutron produced in the Inverse Beta Decay reaction. Such a signature strongly suppresses backgrounds and allows for measurements performed underground with a relatively high signal-to-background ratio. In an aboveground environment, however, the twofold coincidence technique is not sufficient to efficiently reject the high background rate induced by cosmogenic events. Enhancing the positron–neutron twofold coincidence efficiency may pave the way to future aboveground detectors for reactor monitoring. We propose a new detection scheme based on a threefold coincidence, among the positron ionization, the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) decay, and the neutron capture, in a sandwich detector with alternated layers of plastic scintillator and aerogel powder. We present the results of a set of dedicated measurements on the achievable light yield and on the o-Ps formation and lifetime. The efficiencies for signal detection and background rejection of a preliminary detector design are also discussed.

  11. Geneva University: Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 19 March 2012 COLLOQUE DE PHYSIQUE 5 p.m. - École de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay  Professor Yifang Wang Institute of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, a multinational collaboration operating in the south of China, today reported the first results of its search for the last, most elusive piece of a long-standing puzzle: how is it that neutrinos can appear to vanish as they travel? The surprising answer opens a gateway to a new understanding of fundamental physics and may eventually solve the riddle of why there is far more ordinary matter than antimatter in the Universe today....

  12. Production of strange particles in antineutrino interactions at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Erriquez, O; Bisi, V; Bonetti, S; Bonneaud, G; Bullock, F W; Cavalli, D; Escoubés, B; Fogli-Muciaccia, M T; Franzinetti, Carlo; Gamba, D; Guyonnet, J L; Halsteinslid, A; Huss, D; Jarlskog, C; Jones, T W; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Michette, A G; Myklebost, K; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Paty, M; Pullia, A; Racca, C; Riccati, L; Riester, J L; Rognebakke, A; Rollier, M; Romero, A; Sacco, R; Schäffer, M; Skjeggestad, O; Tvedt, B

    1978-01-01

    The authors have studied neutral strange particle production in the bubble chamber Gargamelle filled with propane and exposed to antineutrinos from the CERN PS. Cross sections are presented for Lambda , Sigma /sup 0/ and K/sup 0/ production. Associated production reactions ( Delta S=0) have been observed in the charged and the neutral current channels. From 45 candidates for the quasi-elastic reaction nu p to mu /sup +/ Lambda , on bound and free protons, estimates of the axial transition form factor M/sub A/ have been made using the total cross section and the t distribution. The weighted average from the two methods is M/sub A/=862+or-190 MeV. From a subsample of 15 candidates for nu interactions on free protons in propane, with (28+or-6)% background from nu interactions on bound protons, M/sub A/=883+or-243 MeV is obtained. The polarization of the Lambda hyperons has been studied for the quasi-elastic reaction. (11 refs).

  13. Observation of Energy and Baseline Dependent Reactor Antineutrino Disappearance in the RENO Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J H; Choi, W Q; Choi, Y; Jang, H I; Jang, J S; Jeon, E J; Joo, K K; Kim, B R; Kim, H S; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kim, S Y; Kim, W; Kim, Y D; Ko, Y; Lee, D H; Lim, I T; Pac, M Y; Park, I G; Park, J S; Park, R G; Seo, H; Seo, S H; Seon, Y G; Shin, C D; Siyeon, K; Yang, J H; Yeo, I S; Yu, I

    2016-05-27

    The RENO experiment has analyzed about 500 live days of data to observe an energy dependent disappearance of reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} by comparing their prompt signal spectra measured in two identical near and far detectors. In the period between August of 2011 and January of 2013, the far (near) detector observed 31 541 (290 775) electron antineutrino candidate events with a background fraction of 4.9% (2.8%). The measured prompt spectra show an excess of reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} around 5 MeV relative to the prediction from a most commonly used model. A clear energy and baseline dependent disappearance of reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} is observed in the deficit of the observed number of ν[over ¯]_{e}. Based on the measured far-to-near ratio of prompt spectra, we obtain sin^{2}2θ_{13}=0.082±0.009(stat)±0.006(syst) and |Δm_{ee}^{2}|=[2.62_{-0.23}^{+0.21}(stat)_{-0.13}^{+0.12}(syst)]×10^{-3}  eV^{2}.

  14. π0, rho0 ω0 production in high energy neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, J.

    1980-09-01

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with the hadronic shower in the neutrino and antineutrino interactions of the high energy charged-current type. The π 0 particles issued from this hadronic shower are analysed and the rho 0 and ω 0 production rate are determined in view to try to understand the quark fragmentation process, that is to say the QCD theory relative to the quark confinement problem. The experimental device is described in the chapter II. Chapter III is dealing with the analysis of the exposures obtained with this device, together with the incident neutrino energy determination methods and a general description of the final data characteristics. The π 0 production is studied from the decay γ observed in the bubble chamber. The existing different methods are analyzed and compared with the used one. The π 0 properties are studied in detail. In chapter 5, the rho 0 and ω 0 resonance production rate is calculated, using the previous chapter results. Finally, chapter 6 summarizes the thesis conclusions [fr

  15. Method of fission product beta spectra measurements for predicting reactor anti-neutrino emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, D.M.; Burns, K.; Campbell, L.W.; Greenfield, B.; Kos, M.S., E-mail: markskos@gmail.com; Orrell, J.L.; Schram, M.; VanDevender, B.; Wood, L.S.; Wootan, D.W.

    2015-03-11

    The nuclear fission process that occurs in the core of nuclear reactors results in unstable, neutron-rich fission products that subsequently beta decay and emit electron antineutrinos. These reactor neutrinos have served neutrino physics research from the initial discovery of the neutrino to today's precision measurements of neutrino mixing angles. The prediction of the absolute flux and energy spectrum of the emitted reactor neutrinos hinges upon a series of seminal papers based on measurements performed in the 1970s and 1980s. The steadily improving reactor neutrino measurement techniques and recent reconsiderations of the agreement between the predicted and observed reactor neutrino flux motivates revisiting the underlying beta spectra measurements. A method is proposed to use an accelerator proton beam delivered to an engineered target to yield a neutron field tailored to reproduce the neutron energy spectrum present in the core of an operating nuclear reactor. Foils of the primary reactor fissionable isotopes placed in this tailored neutron flux will ultimately emit beta particles from the resultant fission products. Measurement of these beta particles in a time projection chamber with a perpendicular magnetic field provides a distinctive set of systematic considerations for comparison to the original seminal beta spectra measurements. Ancillary measurements such as gamma-ray emission and post-irradiation radiochemical analysis will further constrain the absolute normalization of beta emissions per fission. The requirements for unfolding the beta spectra measured with this method into a predicted reactor neutrino spectrum are explored.

  16. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and 67 Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of 111 In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation

  17. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  18. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  19. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  20. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  1. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, L.J.; Toste, A.P.; Thomas, C.W.; Rickard, W.H.; Nielson, H.L.; Campbell, R.M.; McShane, M.C.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Robertson, D.E.

    1991-02-01

    During the past several years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted research at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site (MFDS) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This work has identified the spectrum of radionuclides present in the waste trenches, determined the processes that were occurring relative to degradation of radioactive material within the burial trenches, determined the chemical and physical characteristics of the trench leachates and the chemical forms of the leached radionuclides, determined the mobility of these radionuclides, investigated the subsurface and surface transport processes, determined the biological uptake by the native vegetation, developed strategies for environmental monitoring, and investigated other factors that influence the long-term fate of the radionuclide inventory at the disposal site. This report is a final summary of the research conducted by PNL and presents the results and discussions relative to the above investigative areas. 45 refs., 31 figs., 17 tabs

  2. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis

  3. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  4. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  5. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  6. Comparative investigations of osteotropic radionuclides. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, H.; Gerdts, K.G.; Creutzig, A.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamics of uptake of osteotropic radionucleides in normal and abnormal bone were studied by means of sequential and functional scans. Various phosphate and phosphonate complexes were compared in vivo and in vitro. Only phosphonates were considered as suitable for bone scanning. In normal bones in beagles, radioactivity after HEDP fell to 65% after two hours, but was 105% with 18 F. In relation to healing fractures, the curves differ quantitatively and qualitatively. In this situation, functional curves derived from dynamic scans provide a better parallel with histological findings than does static scintigraphy with an uptake quotient. Sequential and functional scannung are able to document the therapeutic effect of irradiation of bone metastases. (orig.) [de

  7. Risk for the patient in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltrukiewicz, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The rule of ''justification'' in the radiological protection system needs an analysis of advantages and disadvantages of the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnosis. Coefficients of stochastic risk, absorbed doses in organs and effective doses received by patients in the course of diagnostic examinations are presented. Uncertainly about assessment of radiation risk using risk coefficients is also discussed. 2 tabs

  8. The electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in free neutron decay. Testing the standard model with the aSPECT-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The β-decay of free neutrons is a strongly over-determined process in the Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics and is described by a multitude of observables. Some of those observables are sensitive to physics beyond the SM. For example, the correlation coefficients of the involved particles belong to them. The spectrometer aSPECT was designed to measure precisely the shape of the proton energy spectrum and to extract from it the electron anti-neutrino angular correlation coefficient a. A first test period (2005/2006) showed the ''proof-of-principles''. The limiting influence of uncontrollable background conditions in the spectrometer made it impossible to extract a reliable value for the coefficient a (published in 2008). A second measurement cycle (2007/2008) aimed to under-run the relative accuracy of previous experiments (δa)/(a)=5%. I performed the analysis of the data taken there which is the emphasis of this doctoral thesis. A central point are background studies. The systematic impact of background on a was reduced to (δa (syst.) )/(a)=0.61 %. The statistical accuracy of the analyzed measurements is (δa (stat.) )/(a)∼1.4 %. Besides, saturation effects of the detector electronics were investigated which were initially observed. These turned out not to be correctable on a sufficient level. An applicable idea how to avoid the saturation effects is discussed in the last chapter. (orig.)

  9. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, Filip; Dumarey, Nicolas; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99m Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67 Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [ 18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  10. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  11. Preliminary study on the establishment of the radionuclide declaration methods for radionuclides in LILW radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. H.; Lee, K. J.; Jung, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The preliminary study on declaration methods has been done for each radionuclide in LILW radwaste drum in Korean NPPs. View from the preliminary establishment of radio nuclide declaration methods, The selection of assessment target nuclide through the qualitative method and preliminary criteria for routine declaration methods in each radio nuclide was derived. First of all, selection criteria and preliminary assessment method for each target radionuclide was surveyed and investigated. And, the selection criteria and selected the target radio nuclides from the basis on criteria was derived. And the preliminary suggestion about the declaration methods for each target radio nuclide was established

  12. Exposure-dose research for radionuclides in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNelis, D.N.; Patzer, R.G.

    1969-01-01

    The fate determination of specific radionuclides in natural gas stimulated by underground engineering applications is being examined. An experimental program, now in its initial stages, is using gas artificially labeled with krypton-85 and tritium under simulated domestic situations. The following topics are being investigated in this study: 1. The concentration of the radionuclides in a gas-heated home. 2. The build-up of contamination on appliances in the kitchen environment. 3. The concentration in foods as a function of radionuclide, food type and preparation. 4. The maximum exposure plausible under specified conditions. (author)

  13. Diffusion of radionuclide chains through an adsorbing medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.; DeFigh-Price, C.

    1977-01-01

    The diffusion of radionuclide chains from an underground nuclear waste disposal site through the surrounding geologic medium to the surface is investigated for impulse and band releases. Numerical calculation of the analytical solutions shows that differences in adsorption characteristics among chain members and radioactive decay during transit reduce radionuclide discharges to the biosphere. Results suggest that molecular diffusion is unlikely to be an important transfer mechanism from geologic isolation, and that disposal of radionuclides in deep geologic formations and in the seabed under conditions of very low or nonexistent water flow is likely to be very effective in preventing radioactivity releases to the biosphere

  14. Exposure-dose research for radionuclides in natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNelis, D N; Patzer, R G [Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory, U.S. Public Health Service, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The fate determination of specific radionuclides in natural gas stimulated by underground engineering applications is being examined. An experimental program, now in its initial stages, is using gas artificially labeled with krypton-85 and tritium under simulated domestic situations. The following topics are being investigated in this study: 1. The concentration of the radionuclides in a gas-heated home. 2. The build-up of contamination on appliances in the kitchen environment. 3. The concentration in foods as a function of radionuclide, food type and preparation. 4. The maximum exposure plausible under specified conditions. (author)

  15. Measurements of the inclusive neutrino and antineutrino charged current cross sections in MINERvA using the low-ν flux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devan, J.; Ren, L.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Endress, E.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    The total cross sections are important ingredients for the current and future neutrino oscillation experiments. We present measurements of the total charged-current neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on scintillator (CH) in the NuMI low-energy beamline using an in situ prediction of the shape of the flux as a function of neutrino energy from 2-50 GeV. This flux prediction takes advantage of the fact that neutrino and antineutrino interactions with low nuclear recoil energy (ν ) have a nearly constant cross section as a function of incident neutrino energy. This measurement is the lowest energy application of the low-ν flux technique, the first time it has been used in the NuMI antineutrino beam configuration, and demonstrates that the technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies. The cross section measurements presented are the most precise measurements to date below 5 GeV.

  16. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  17. Intervention procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    As in the case of smoking and lung cancer, for large radionuclide releases, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. On the other hand, we feel compelled to do something sensible after an accident even if the principal benefit of intervention may be to comfort the population at risk. Of course, for populations near the site of an accident, evacuation should be considered, but it is unreasonable to apply this measure to distant populations, e.g., large segments of the European community could not be moved about as we observe the shifting of a radioactive cloud in response to changing winds. If the radionuclides are delivered as particulates, bringing people indoors and employing primitive air filters can temporarily reduce exposures, but these stratagems are not very effective against gaseous or volatile elements. What, then, can be done for populations downwind of a radioactive release whose air, water, and/or food supply are, or are about to become contaminated? 5 refs

  18. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author).

  19. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1994-01-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  20. Influence of the transversal diffusion/dispersion on the radionuclide migration in porous media - investigation of analytically solvable problems for geological layer structures. Der Einfluss der transversalen Diffusion/Dispersion auf die Migration von Radionukliden in poroesen Medien - Untersuchung analytisch loesbarer Probleme fuer geolog. Schichtstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmocker, U

    1980-07-01

    Repositories in geological formations are planned for the final disposal of radioactive wastes produced by nuclear power. Generally, water entry leading to leaching of the waste matrix is considered as the critical process which can result in release of radionuclides from a waste repository. In risk analyses for waste repositories the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere is usually described mathematically by a one-dimensional transport model. On the other hand the hydrological calculational models used for determining the critical migration paths are invariably two- or three-dimensional. A one-dimensional transport calculation always gives conservative results for a specific migration path because the influence of the transverse dispersion/diffusion effect is neglected. This effect results in an additional decrease of the nuclide concentration along the migration path. On the other hand radionuclides can spread to adjacent geological formations which are not taken into account in a one-dimensional model. If the water velocities in these formations are higher than along the original (one-dimensional) migration path or if the distance to the biosphere (e.g. lake, river or well) is shorter, then the process of the transverse diffusion/dispersion can represent an additional risk. The present work deals with the influence of the transverse diffusion/dispersion effect on the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. We restrict ourselves to migration in porous media which is the standard approach of most existing transport models. For modelling the transport of radionuclides in fissured systems there exist only a few preliminary calculational approaches to date. We are mainly interested in analytically soluble problems which take into account the transverse diffusion/dispersion effect. This procedure permits investigation of the most important effects in a simple and direct manner. 17 refs., 36 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  2. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  3. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  4. RADIONUCLIDES DISTRIBUTION NEAR FORMER URANIUM MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zaredinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows, that radionuclides from the stony rocks of uranium mines can be leached by atmospheric precipitations. In acid conditions, a degree of leaching is greater.Goal. The aim of this investigation was to study the distribution of radionuclides in uranium minings and their impact on the environmental contamination.Materials and methods. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a blade of rock was mixed with distilled water in proportions of 0,3 kg of gravel and 1 liter of water. After thirty days of soaking, water was sent to the gamma-spectrometric analysis to Canberra’s spectrometer (USA with a high-purity germanium detector. In the second stage, we carried out the similar experiment with water, wich was acidified to pH = 3. Contamination levels of areas near the in-situ leaching mine were determined. Intervention levels were used to estimate risk and possible water consumption by the population. Estimations were carried out taking into account the combined presence of several radionuclides in the water.Results. The results of these studies have shown that the distribution of radionuclides from the source of the contamination is about 360 meters during the 30 y period. The stream, along which samples of soil were collected and studied, was formed by the miner waters that flow along small ruts towards a village, thereby increasing the likelihood of water use by the public.Conclusions. The uranium mines are the source of radioactive contamination. Radionuclides are distributed due to the erosion of rocks and leached out of the stony rock by precipitations. The extent of leaching is significantly increased in an acidic environment, which takes place near the in-situ leaching mines.

  5. Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated--therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129 Xe + for the determination of 129 I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass

  6. Sorption of radionuclides on a soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami

    1979-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes into the ground has been discussed, and this paper emphasized significance of the investigation for underground water flow and for the prediction of radionuclides through a stratified aquifer using column experiments to evaluate the internal radiation dose. Distributions and redistributions of radionuclides in a sandy layer were observed to identify the sorption model which predicts the behavior, and the underground water flow in the Plio-Pleistocene Osaka Group was investigated as an example, by mean of the measurement of 222 Rn concentration, the pumping technique and the tracer technique using the activation analysis. Then, the estimation of radioactive concentration in the underground water was worked out for the boundary condition of steady state inflow of liquid wastes and of which the 90 Sr are leached from the solidified body, moreover, the equation which easily evaluates the suitability of the disposal site was proposed. These approach may be useful for the actual site selection of radioactive wastes disposal. (author)

  7. Experimental results on one-pion neutral current reaction in all channels induced by antineutrinos at CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Erriquez, O; Bullock, F W; Cavalli, D; Engel, J P; Fogli-Muciaccia, M T; Gamba, D; Guyonnet, J L; Halsteinslid, A; Henderson, R C W; Huss, D; Jones, T W; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Myklebost, K; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Paty, M; Pullia, A; Riccati, L; Riester, J L; Rognebakke, A; Rollier, M; Romero, A

    1980-01-01

    Single pion production, in antineutrino-nucleon interactions via the neutral current, has been studied in the bubble chamber Gargamelle, filled with propane. Complete analysis of the secondaries, including pi /sup 0/'s, has allowed a detailed study of all channels. After background and nuclear corrections, results are obtained which can be interpreted in terms of isospin structure of the neutral weak current and of the Salam-Weinberg angle. Agreement is found with the currently accepted value of sin/sup 2/ theta /sub w/ and the data suggest an important contribution of I=/sup 3///sub 2/ final states. (11 refs).

  8. Study of strange particle production by neutral currents induced by 1 and 12 GeV neutrinos and antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, T.L.B.

    1977-01-01

    Strange particles production by weak neutral currents was experimentally studied. The first result is a direct confirmation that neutral currents conserve strangeness (by an upper limit on ΔS=-1 production). The two other results, production rate of strange neutral particles and ratio of strange particles production for antineutrinos and neutrinos, prove that these particles are mainly produced in the final hadronic state rather than on strange sea-quarks and give an upper limit on the rate of this type of quark in the nucleon [fr

  9. Diffractive production of p-mesons and of pπ-systems by neutrinos and antineutrinos on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is presented for diffractive production of ρ-mesons and of ρπ-systems in νp and anti νp charged-current interactions. In the (anti-)neutrino energy range 10 GeV ν 1 production. However, the data cannot distinguish between diffractive a 1 and diffractive nonresonant ρπ production. The experimental distributions of W, Q 2 , x Bj and y Bj for diffractive ρ and ρπ events are consistent with model predictions. (orig.)

  10. Exchange of certain radionuclides between environment and freshwater algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchyulenene, E. D.P.

    1978-01-01

    Data on the dynamics and levels of accumulation of strontium, cesium, cerium and ruthenium radionuclides by Charophyta and Cladophora fresh-water algae are presented. An attempt has been made to investigate some processes that accompany the accumulation of radionuclides by plants. Under experimental conditions, the intensity and levels of radionuclide accumulation can be presented in the following order: 144 Ce> 106 Ru> 90 Sr> 137 Cs. The dynamics of radionuclide accumulation varied greatly with the radionuclide and the algae species studied. The 144 Ce accumulation coefficients (AC) in the course of experiment (from 3 hours to 16 days) increased 8-, 9-, 23.4-, 27-, 14.3- and 20.4-fold for Cladophora glomerata, Nitella syncarpa, Nitellopsis obtusa, Chara vulgaris, Ch. rudis, and Ch. aspera, respectively. In the case of 106 Ru, AC for C.glomerata, N. syncarapa, Ch. vulgaris and Ch. rudis increased 34-, 18-,24- and 23-fold, respectively. In all algae species studied the equilibrium of radionuclide accumulation was attained after 2-4 days of experiment. Levels of accumulated 90 Sr and 137 Cs in most species depended on the season while that of 144 Cs and 106 Ru remained constant throughout the vegetation period. The levels of radionuclide elimination, like the accumulation levels, are shown to depend on both isotopes and algae species

  11. Radionuclide methods application in cardiac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotina, E.D.; Ploskikh, V.A.; Babin, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide methods are one of the most modern methods of functional diagnostics of diseases of the cardio-vascular system that requires the use of mathematical methods of processing and analysis of data obtained during the investigation. Study is carried out by means of one-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Mathematical methods and software for SPECT data processing are developed. This software allows defining physiologically meaningful indicators for cardiac studies

  12. Verification and improvement of predictive algorithms for radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.; Miller, C.W.; Remer, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This research investigated the adequacy of current numerical codes in simulating geochemical interactions affecting radionuclide migration, the level of complexity required in chemical algorithms of transport models, and the validity of the constant-k/sub D/ concept in chemical transport modeling. An initial survey of the literature led to the conclusion that existing numerical codes did not encompass the full range of chemical and physical phenomena influential in radionuclide migration

  13. Estimation of total error in DWPF reported radionuclide inventories. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is required to determine and report the radionuclide inventory of its glass product. For each macro-batch, the DWPF will report both the total amount (in curies) of each reportable radionuclide and the average concentration (in curies/gram of glass) of each reportable radionuclide. The DWPF is to provide the estimated error of these reported values of its radionuclide inventory as well. The objective of this document is to provide a framework for determining the estimated error in DWPF's reporting of these radionuclide inventories. This report investigates the impact of random errors due to measurement and sampling on the total amount of each reportable radionuclide in a given macro-batch. In addition, the impact of these measurement and sampling errors and process variation are evaluated to determine the uncertainty in the reported average concentrations of radionuclides in DWPF's filled canister inventory resulting from each macro-batch

  14. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  15. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  16. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  17. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  18. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  19. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  20. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  1. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  2. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in a Ribble Estuary saltmarsh: transport and deposition of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; McDonald, P.; Parker, A.; Rae, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Routine discharges of low-level liquid radioactive waste by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfields have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. Variations in radionuclide concentrations ( 137 Cs, 230 Th, and 239240 Pu) with depth in a mature saltmarsh core were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends and waste-dispersal mechanisms. Core samples from Longton/Hutton Marsh were analysed by gamma-spectrometry and α-spectrometry for radionuclides and by laser granulometry to establish grain-size variations with depth. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137 Cs and 239240 Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs and 600 Bq kg -1 for 239240 Pu. Thorium-230 exhibited complex activity profiles with depth, specific activities ranging between 200 and 2400 Bq kg -1 . The vertical distributions of Sellafield-derived radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 239240 Pu) in mature saltmarsh deposits reflect the time-integrated discharge pattern from Sellafield, implying a transport mechanism that has involved the mixing of sediment labelled with radioactivity from recent discharges and sediment labelled from historical discharge events before deposition. A mechanism involving the transport of contaminated silt therefore seems to dominate. The vertical distribution of Springfields-derived 230 Th in the same areas reflects the annual gross-α discharge pattern from BNFL Springfields. In contrast to the Sellafield-derived radionuclides, a fairly rapid transport mechanism from source to sink is implied, with little or no time for mixing with radionuclides discharged years earlier. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Fukushima radionuclides in the NW Pacific, and assessment of doses for Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Variations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs) in seawater and biota offshore Fukushima and in the NW Pacific Ocean were investigated and radiation doses to the Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood contaminated by Fukushima radionuclides were estimated and compared with those from other sources of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. The total effective dose commitment from ingestion of radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweed caught in coasta...

  4. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  5. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  6. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - 137 Cs and 90 Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. 137 Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than 90 Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  7. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L. [Novosibirsk State Agrarian University (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. {sup 137}Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than {sup 90}Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  8. Radionuclides retention: from macroscopic to microscopic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoni, E.

    2002-01-01

    In order to determine the radionuclides' sorption constants on solid natural minerals, both thermodynamic and structural investigations, using spectroscopic techniques, are presented. The natural clays, that could be used as engineering barriers in the nuclear waste geological repository, are rather complex minerals. Therefore, in order to understand how these natural materials retain the radionuclides, it is necessary first to perform these studies on simple substrates such as single crystal, oxides and silicates, and then extrapolate the obtained results on the natural minerals. We examine in this paper the sorption processes of the hexavalent uranium on zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) and the trivalent curium on a natural clay (bentonite). The corresponding sorption curves are simulated using the results obtained with the following spectroscopic techniques: laser induced spectro-fluorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT). (authors)

  9. Sorption of radionuclides from Pb-Bi melt. Report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, Eh.E.; Il'icheva, N.S.; Trifonova, O.E.

    2015-01-01

    Results of laboratory investigations of sorption and interfacial distribution of 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 154,155 Eu and 235,238 U radionuclides in the system Pb-Bi melt - steel surface are analyzed. It is shown that 106 Ru and 125 Sb are concentrated in Pb-Bi melt and other radionuclides with higher oxygen affinity are sorbed on oxide deposits on structural materials. Temperature dependences of sorption efficiency of radionuclides are studied. It is shown that there is sharp increase of this value for all radionuclides near the temperature range 350-400 deg C. Recommendations are given on the use of 106 Ru and 125 Sb as a reference for fuel element rupture detection system with radiometric monitoring of coolant melt samples and 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 134m Cs with radiometric monitoring of sorbing samples [ru

  10. Transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere during complex meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Telenta, B.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclides from various sources (nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, nuclear facilities, medical facilities, etc.) are being released to the atmosphere. The meteorological conditions determine the atmospheric turbulence, dispersion, and removal processes of the radionuclides. A two-dimensional version of the cloud model based on the Klemp-Wilhelmson dynamic and Lin et al.'s microphysics and thermodynamics has been adapted and used to simulate the transport of radionuclides emitted from a power plant or other source to the atmosphere. Calculations of the trajectories and radii for a few puffs are included in this paper. These numerical investigations show that the presented model can be used for the transport simulation of radionuclides and for the assessment of the radiological impact of power plants and other sources in safety assessments and comparative studies. Because it can simulate puff trajectories, this model is especially valuable in the presence of complex meteorological conditions

  11. Absorption of radionuclide through wounded skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Ogaki, Kazushi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    The translocation and absorption of 58 Co(CoCl 2 ) through a wound was investigated experimentally with mice. Physical and chemical skin damages became the objects of the investigation. Abrasion, puncture and incision were made for types of the physical damage. The chemical damage included both acid and alkaline burns. The absorptions of the radionuclide through the contaminated wounds were measured with both a 2 inches NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and an auto well gamma counter at 15,30 and 60 min after the contamination. The radionuclide was hardly absorbed through an undamaged skin. After 30 min, 20 to 40% of the radionuclide applied on the physically damaged skin was absorbed, but was not absorbed through the chemically damaged skin. The absorption rate through the physically damaged skin reached a maximum at 15 to 60 min after the contamination. The velocity of the absorption through the physically damaged skin was 100 times as much as the chemically damaged skin. The absorption rates through the physically and the chemically damaged skins were expressed by the following formulas: A=a(1-e sup(-bt)) and A=a(e sup(bt)-1), where a and b is constant, respectively. (author)

  12. Removal of radionuclides from liquid streams by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, U.A.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Separation of radionuclides in trace concentrations by cellulose acetate membranes has been under investigation in this laboratory, and the behaviour of some important radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr under reverse osmosis has been reported earlier. The present work deals with a few other typical radionuclides such as 60 Co, 103 Ru and 131 I which are not fully amenable to conventional methods for their removal. Separation of these radionuclides from liquid streams by the reverse osmosis process was studied using a small reverse osmosis test cell. Various parameters like membrane porosity, applied pressure and feed activity levels were investigated. Cellulose acetate membranes offer reasonable separation of 60 Co, 103 Ru and 131 I radionuclides, indicating the potential of reverse osmosis for treatment of effluents containing these radioisotopes. The percent separation is found to be in the order of Co > Ru > I. The percent radioactive separation improves with increases in feed activity. The performance data are explained in terms of solution-diffusion mechanism. It appears that the separation of radionuclides is not governed by diffusion alone, but by the interaction of solutes with the membranes. (author)

  13. Radionuclide chain migration in fissured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, A.; Neretnieks, I.

    1982-04-01

    Diffusion into the rock matrix has a large impact on the migration of radionuclides in the geosphere. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of this mechanism on radionuclide chain migration. For this purpose a previously used numerical code TRUMP is extended to incorporate chain decay. The algorithm is also changed to directly include the decay terms. The extended version was given the acronym TRUCHN. Numerical solutions from TRUCHN are compared with the analytical solutions developed by Lester et al. A good agreement is obtained. To illustrate the impact of matrix diffusion on the arrival times to the biosphere of the members of a radionuclide chain a number of numerical calculations were done for the two chains U-238 to Th-230 to Ra-226 and Pu-239 to U-235 to Pa-231. The resulting curves are compared with the results for surface sorption (penetration depth 10 - 4 m) and volume sorption (complete penetration) obtained with the computer program GETOUT. The difference in first arrival times are very large. The arrival times in the surface and volume sorption cases, differ with as much as four orders of magnitude. The corresponding times for instationary diffusion are located between these extreme values. A daughter nuclide which is strongly sorbed may be heavily retarded if it is produced far inside the rock matrix and has a long way to diffuse before it reaches the flowing water. This effect is investigated, by considering diffusion only of a radionuclide chain, with analytical and numerical (TRUCHN) methods. Finally, in connection with the reconcentration effect, some means of describing the outflow of a daughter nuclide in terms of the outflow of its parent nuclide are proposed. (Authors)

  14. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  15. Radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Ruth, C.; Samanek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology is discussed for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial function and perfusion, regional lung perfusion and ventilation, and for measuring central and peripheral hemodynamics. (H.W.). 16 refs

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  17. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  18. Retardation characteristics of radionuclides in geologic media through batch and packed column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Han, Kyung Won; Han, Pil Soo; Lee, Jae Owan; Park, Chung Kyun; Yang, Ho Yeon

    1988-03-01

    Batch and packed column experiments are performed to investigate the retardation characteristics of radionuclide,i.e, Cs-137 in geologic media. In batch experiment, the effects of important parameters on the sorption of radionuclide in geologic media, such as nuclide concentration, pH, and particle size are examined. The Kd value obtained from breakthrough curve was compared with that from the batch sorption experiment to investigate the applicability of the Kd value from batch experiment to prediction of radionuclide migration in dynamic flow through porous media. The proposed model of radionuclide migration in porous media is also verified using the experimental results. (Author)

  19. Measurement of the mixing leptonic parameter θ13 at the Double Chooz reactor antineutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment aims at measuring the neutrino mixing parameter θ13 by studying the oscillations of de ν-bar e produced by the Chooz nuclear reactors located in France. The experimental concept consists in comparing the signal of two identical 10.3 m 3 detectors, allowing to cancel most of the experimental systematic uncertainties. The near detector, whose goal is the flux normalization and a measurement without oscillation, is expected to be delivered in 2013. The farthest detector from the source is taking data since April 2011 and is sensitive to θ 13 , which is expected to affect both the rate and the shape of the measured de ν-bar e . In this thesis, are first presented the Double Chooz experiment, with its ν-bar e source, its detection method, and the expected signal and backgrounds. In order to perform a selection, important quantities have to be reconstructed, calibrated, and saved in data files. The channel time offsets determination, the energy and vertex reconstruction algorithm CocoReco, the reconstruction packages of the Common Trunk, and the light trees maker Cheetah are especially presented. Concerning the data analysis, all the selection cuts and results for signal and backgrounds are discussed, particularly the multiplicity cut, the multiple off time window method, the lithium veto cut, and the cosmogenic 9 Li background studies. The Double Chooz experiment observed 8,249 de ν-bar e candidates in 227.93 days in its far detector only. The reactor antineutrino flux prediction used the Bugey 4 flux measurement after correction for differences in core composition. The expectation in case of no-oscillation is 8,937 events and this deficit is interpreted as evidence for ν-bar e disappearance. From a rate and shape analysis, is found sin 2 2θ = 0,109± 0,030 (stat) ± 0,025 (syst), with Δm 2 31 = 2,32 x 10 -3 eV 2 , while the no-oscillation hypothesis is even excluded at 2.9 σ. (author) [fr

  20. Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering in MINER$\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvojka, Jesse John [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    in neutrino interactions. We present the first cross-section measurement for MINER A, the differential cross-section dσ/dQ2 for muon anti-neutrino CCQE scattering on polystyrene scintillator (CH) as well as comparisons to several final state models.

  1. The biotic factors role in radionuclide migration of natural-vegetable complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakushev, B.I.; Kazej, A.I.; Sak, M.M.; Kuz'mich, O.T.; Golushko, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In Byelorussiyn from first months after the Chernobyl' accident investigation are conducting on the radionuclide de dynamics in the soil-plant-soil system. The isotope composition of soil contamination density and specific plants radioactivity are studying, the radionuclide migration dynamic through the soil profile is investigating. The data are shown on considerable reduction of the plants radioactivity (1986-91 years) in connection with the reduction in the soil contamination density with gamma-spectrum radionuclides, accounting for Ce-144, Pr-144, Ru-106, Cs-134 decay; information is done on gamma-spectrum radionuclides of organs in natural pine and meadows system. It is shown, that the radionuclides are actively absorbed by roots in a zone of the highest radionuclide concentration and are delivered into the overground plant parts, then actively are removed into environment in the breathing process. 11 refs.; 4 tabs

  2. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, M [Ingenieurgesellschaft Bonnenberg und Drescher, Juelich (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10/sup -3/) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10/sup -2/) and one tenth (10/sup -1/) that of T respectively.

  3. Radionuclide migration in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10 -3 ) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10 -2 ) and one tenth (10 -1 ) that of T respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  5. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  6. Radionuclides migration or isolation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Grambow, B.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    After 20 years of research, the chemical behaviour of actinides and fission products in nuclear waste disposal environments is much better understood. Consistent thermodynamic data have been gathered and allow much more accurate previsions. Through the considerable development of analytical spectroscopy, including time resolved laser fluorescence and X ray absorption, a better understanding of the chemical reactivity (complexation, sorption) of actinides and fission products at a molecular scale has been possible. Chemically reducing conditions are found in most selected disposal host rock formations, generally chosen for their high sorption capacity (clays); such conditions favour the chemical confinement of most radionuclides through precipitation or sorption. Low permeability host rocks participate to this confinement, as convective fluxes are lower than diffusive fluxes. The most recent performance assessment exercises have taken into account the recent progress of knowledge in the chemical evolution of the near field. They show that the dose rates at the outlet are far lower than existing recommendations for normal and most altered evolution scenarios. (authors)

  7. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  8. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  9. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  10. Gut-related studies of radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of radioactive materials that may be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain is investigated. Current emphasis is on evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. The authors are also concerned with the behavior of actinides that are inhaled and pass through the gastro-intestinal tract after clearance from the lungs. The radionuclides being investigated are 238 Pu, 241 Am, 244 Cm, 147 Pm, 109 Cd, and 210 Pb. 2 tables

  11. Radionuclides in forest biogeocenose elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavik, I.M.; Zhuchenko, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 year investigations are made on a studying of the radionuclide distribution (CS-137 and Sr-90) through the main forest biogeocenose elements (a litter a mineral soil layer, overground trees parts) on 5 experimental objects of Gomel' region with a various contamination. Radiation characters of the objects are done. As compared with 1989 year cesium and strontium migration from tress into the litter and from the litter to the soil is shown. In the litter and upper soil layer (5 m) contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are 95 and 80% accordingly. The Sr-90 concentration in the wood and the isotope concentration change through yearly layers (1986-1991 years) are studied. Wood layers formed to the accident have a lesser cesium concentration, especially in the oax-tree. The highest Cs and Se translocation, into the wood is noted in the pine the lesse one in the oax-tree. Among all elements of the biogeocenose the highest Cs-137 concentration the litter has and then one-year-old shoots, needles, lives, the bark and the wood go on. Even on the sixth year after the accident Cs concentration in the wood was 20-30 times less, than the one in needes and one-year-old shoot of this year. 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  12. Uptake of Radionuclide Metals by SPME Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-01

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ( 239/240 Pu, 238 U, 237 Np, 85 Sr, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 226 Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

  13. Radionuclide transfer from soil to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, D.; Steinhilber-Schwab, B.; Hoepfner, U.; Ratka, R.; Sand, H. van de; Franke, B.

    1979-01-01

    The planned nuclear reprocessing plant (NEZ) Gorleben will fundamentally differ from actually operating nuclear power plants with regard to its radioactive emissions because relatively long-life isotopes will play a greater role in the emissions. The longevity of the radionuclides emitted in the planned NEZ implies that there will be an accumulation of radionuclides in the surroundings of the plant and long-term effects of the plant on the environment will get higher significance. As radionuclides mainly reach milk and meat via the food of farm animals the transfer of cesium and strontium from the ground into plants was amply investigated. The results show that the correlation calculations are suitable to describe the effect of different parameters on the transfer factor. They are not suited for a forecast of the transfer conditions on a certain location for the reasons explained before. Location-specific measurements seem to be indispensable for these purposes. Besides the greenhouse tests open air measurements of fall-out nuclides with and without elimination of external contamination seem to represent a realistic possibility for the determination of transfer factors. Great attention has to be paid in this kind of tests to the growth conditions (especially fertilization) which have to be accurately registered. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Concentration parameters for radionuclides by marine molluscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Makamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Matsuba, Mitsue

    1994-01-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine molluscs was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were 57 Co, 95m Tc, 103 Ru, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into nonradioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus) were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except 137 Cs and 54 Mn. Retention of 137 Cs and 54 Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25% of the radioactivity dosed. (author)

  15. Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program, 1985--1986 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (formerly the Radionuclide Migration Project) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal years 1985 and 1986. The report discusses studies of the partitioning and movement of dissolved and colloidal radionuclides at the Cheshire (U20n) site; tracer studies of shallow recharge and of plant-water uptake at the Cambric-site ditch carrying the effluent water pumped from well RNM-2; development of a rapid and sensitive assay for 99 Tc in groundwater and its application to a survey of technetium activities at a variety of test wells; and a series of methodological studies directed toward calibration, understanding, and improving our low-level radionuclide determinations. Groundwater sampled from the Cheshire cavity and from adjacent aquifers contains substantial concentrations (mg/L) of colloids that appear to consist primarily of natural minerals. These colloids were found to contain detectable amounts of strongly sorbed radionuclides, leading to the hypothesis that radionuclides are being transported by the groundwater in colloidal form. The RNM ditch at the Cambric site has provided a unique tritium-labeled, irrigated test plot in the desert. One study at this site continued earlier investigations of water and tritium migration in the shallow vadose (unsaturated-soil) zone adjacent to the ditch and extended that study to include using a tracer to determine the velocity of vertical water flow in the recharge zone directly below the ditch. 57 refs., 15 figs., 23 tabs

  16. Assessment of the important radionuclides in nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1985-10-01

    The relative importance of the various radionuclides contained in nuclear waste has been assessed by consideration of (1) the quantity of each radionuclide present, (2) the Environmental Protection Agency's release limits for radionuclides, (3) how retardation processes such as solubility and sorption affect radionuclie transport, and (4) the physical and chemical forms of radionuclides in the waste. Three types of waste were reviewed: spent fuel, high-level waste, and defense high-level waste. Conditions specific to the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project potential site at Yucca Mountain were used to describe radionuclide transport. The actinides Am, Pu, Np, and U were identified as the waste elements for which solubility and sorption data were most urgently needed. Other important waste elements were identified as Sr, Cs, C, Ni, Zr, Tc, Th, Ra, and Sn. Under some conditions, radionuclides of three elements (C, Tc, and I) may have high solubility and negligible sorption. The potential for transport of some waste elements (C and I) in the gas phase must also be evaluated for the Yucca Mountain Site. 12 refs., 17 tabs

  17. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified

  18. Vertical soil migration of radionuclide fallout from the Chernobyl' accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silant'ev, A.N.; Shkuratova, I.G.; Bobovnikova, T.I.

    1989-01-01

    The most suitable model for describing the behavior of radionuclide fallout on a soil surface is quasidiffusion transfer with directional transfer taken into account. The parameter values for this have been determined previously and are supplemented by the results of this work. To investigate the initial radionuclide distribution along the soil profile, monolithic soil samples 5 cm thick were taken in June-September 1986 in areas which had been subjected to contamination due to the Chernobyl' accident. The samples taken were cut up into layers. The first layer, 0.5 cm thick, was cut off from the surface of the soil monolith together with the grass. The next layer cut off was also 0.5 cm thick. Then two layers, each 1 cm in thickness, were cut off. The thickness of the last layer was 2 cm. The vertical distribution of radionuclides along the soil profile which was examined may be called the initial distribution, which will then change due to nonimmediate migration of radionuclides in the soil. Based on the research which has been performed, the following conclusions may be drawn. One portion of the radionuclides resulting from fallout is trapped by plant cover, while the other enters immediately into the soil. For a thick plant covering, about 80% of the radionuclide fallout is sorbed by the grass; for sparse cover, about 40%. The radionuclides entering the soil along with rainwater penetrate into the soil depths, producing contamination which falls off exponentially with depth. The exponent index is close to 1 cm -1 . In a forest, the main amount of radionuclide fallout is trapped by litter. Approximately 10% of the contamination fallout penetrates beneath the litter

  19. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-11-15

    Two sites in Sweden are currently under investigation by SKB for their suitability as places for deep repository of radioactive waste, the Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar area. As a part of the safety assessment, SKB has formulated a biosphere model with different sub-models for different parts of the ecosystem in order to be able to predict the dose to humans following a possible radionuclide discharge from a future deep repository. In this report, a new model concept describing radionuclide transport in streams is presented. The main difference from the previous model for running water used by SKB, where only dilution of the inflow of radionuclides was considered, is that the new model includes parameterizations also of the exchange processes present along the stream. This is done in order to be able to investigate the effect of the retention on the transport and to be able to estimate the resulting concentrations in the different parts of the system. The concentrations determined with this new model could later be used for order of magnitude predictions of the dose to humans. The presented model concept is divided in two parts, one hydraulic and one radionuclide transport model. The hydraulic model is used to determine the flow conditions in the stream channel and is based on the assumption of uniform flow and quasi-stationary conditions. The results from the hydraulic model are used in the radionuclide transport model where the concentration is determined in the different parts of the stream ecosystem. The exchange processes considered are exchange with the sediments due to diffusion, advective transport and sedimentation/resuspension and uptake of radionuclides in biota. Transport of both dissolved radionuclides and sorbed onto particulates is considered. Sorption kinetics in the stream water phase is implemented as the time scale of the residence time in the stream water probably is short in comparison to the time scale of the kinetic sorption. In the sediment

  20. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark

    2005-11-01

    Two sites in Sweden are currently under investigation by SKB for their suitability as places for deep repository of radioactive waste, the Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar area. As a part of the safety assessment, SKB has formulated a biosphere model with different sub-models for different parts of the ecosystem in order to be able to predict the dose to humans following a possible radionuclide discharge from a future deep repository. In this report, a new model concept describing radionuclide transport in streams is presented. The main difference from the previous model for running water used by SKB, where only dilution of the inflow of radionuclides was considered, is that the new model includes parameterizations also of the exchange processes present along the stream. This is done in order to be able to investigate the effect of the retention on the transport and to be able to estimate the resulting concentrations in the different parts of the system. The concentrations determined with this new model could later be used for order of magnitude predictions of the dose to humans. The presented model concept is divided in two parts, one hydraulic and one radionuclide transport model. The hydraulic model is used to determine the flow conditions in the stream channel and is based on the assumption of uniform flow and quasi-stationary conditions. The results from the hydraulic model are used in the radionuclide transport model where the concentration is determined in the different parts of the stream ecosystem. The exchange processes considered are exchange with the sediments due to diffusion, advective transport and sedimentation/resuspension and uptake of radionuclides in biota. Transport of both dissolved radionuclides and sorbed onto particulates is considered. Sorption kinetics in the stream water phase is implemented as the time scale of the residence time in the stream water probably is short in comparison to the time scale of the kinetic sorption. In the sediment

  1. Behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water (Crouzille, Limousin). Geochemical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, J.

    2008-06-01

    Understanding natural radionuclides behaviour in surface water is a required step to achieve uranium mine rehabilitation and preserve water quality. The first objective of this thesis is to determine which are the radionuclides sources in a drinking water reservoir. The second objective is to improve the knowledge about the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides, especially actinium. The investigated site is a brook (Sagnes, Limousin, France) which floods a peat bog contaminated by a former uranium mine and which empties into the Crouzille lake. It allows studying radionuclides transport in surface water and radionuclides retention through organic substance or water reservoir. Radionuclides distribution in particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases is determined thanks to ultra-filtrations. Gamma spectrometry allows measuring almost all natural radionuclides with only two counting stages. However, low activities of 235 U series radionuclides impose the use of very low background well-type Ge detectors, such as those of the Underground Laboratory of Modane (France). Firstly, this study shows that no or few radionuclides are released by the Sagnes peat bog, although its radioactivity is important. Secondly, it provides details on the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water. More specifically, it provides the first indications of actinium solubility in surface water. Actinium's behaviour is very close to uranium's even if it is a little less soluble. (author)

  2. Distribution coefficients for radionuclides in aquatic environments. Volume 2. Dialysis experiments in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibley, T.H.; Nevissi, A.E.; Schell, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to obtain new information that can be used to predict the fate of radionuclides that may enter the aquatic environment from nuclear power plants, waste storage facilities or fuel reprocessing plants. Important parameters for determining fate are the distribution of radionuclides between the soluble and particulate phases and the partitioning of radionuclides among various suspended particulates. This report presents the results of dialysis experiments that were used to study the distribution of radionuclides among suspended sediments, phytoplankton, organic detritus, and filtered sea water. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium distribution of (59)Fe, (60)Co, (65)Zn, (106)Ru, (137)Cs, (207)Bi, (238)Pu, and (241)Am in marine system. Diffusion across the dialysis membranes depends upon the physico-chemical form of the radionuclides, proceeding quite rapidly for ionic species of (137)Cs and (60)Co but much more slowly for radionuclides which occur primarily as colloids and solid precipitates such as (59)Fe, (207)Bi, and (241)Am. All the radionuclides adsorb to suspended particulates although the amount of adsorption depends upon the specific types and concentration of particulates in the system and the selected radionuclide. High affinity of some radionuclides - e.g., (106)Ru and (241)Am - for detritus and phytoplankton suggests that suspended organics may significantly affect the eventual fate of those radionuclides in marine ecosystems

  3. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  4. Criteria of reference radionuclides for safety analysis of spent fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    1998-01-01

    Study on the criteria for reference radionuclides selection for assessment on spent fuel disposal have done. The reference radionuclides in this study means radionuclides are predicted to contribute of the most radiological effect for man if spent fuel waste are discharged on deep geology formation. The research was done by investigate critically of parameters were used on evaluation a kind of radionuclide. Especially, this research study of parameter which relevant disposal case and or spent fuel waste on deep geology formation . The research assumed that spent fuel discharged on deep geology by depth 500-1000 meters from surface of the land. The migration scenario Radionuclides from waste form to man was assumed particularly for normal release in which Radionuclides discharge from waste form in a series thorough container, buffer, geological, rock, to fracture(fault) and move together with ground water go to biosphere and than go into human body. On this scenario, the parameter such as radionuclides inventory, half life, heat generation, hazard index based on maximum permissible concentration (MPC) or annual limit on intake (ALI) was developed as criteria of reference radionuclides selection. The research concluded that radionuclides inventory, half live, heat generated, hazard index base on MPC or ALI can be used as criteria for selection of reference Radionuclide. The research obtained that the main radionuclides are predicted give the most radiological effect to human are as Cs-137, Sr-90, I-129, Am-243, Cm-244, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240. The radionuclides reasonable to be used as reference radionuclides in safety analysis at spent fuel disposal. (author)

  5. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  6. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  7. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  8. Migration of radionuclides in the soil-crop-food product system and assessment of agricultural countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Ageyets, V.

    1996-01-01

    Studies on dynamics of redistribution of radionuclides through of profile of the different soils on uncultivated agricultural lands of Belarus during the 1986-1995 period show that vertical migration occurs with low rate. In arable soils the radionuclides are distributed in comparatively uniform way through the whole depth of the 25-30 cm cultivated layer. Investigations on migration of radionuclides with wind erosion on the drained series of wet sandy and peat soils and water erosion on sloping lands show that one should take into consideration the secondary contamination of soils while forecasting a possible accumulation of radionuclides in farm products

  9. Technogenic radionuclides of Chernobyl NPP accidental release and their physical and chemical forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lypska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of radionuclides in the vertical soil profile on the nearest Chernobyl NPP zone of alienation was investigated. It is showed experimentally that the main activity of radionuclides is concentrated in the topsoil (10 сm. Coefficients of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides by plants are estimated. The physico-chemical forms of radionuclides in soil and plants were defined using the method of sequential chemical extraction. It was established that the main contents of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils are represented in non-exchange and fixed forms, in plants - mainly in exchange-adsorption and organic forms.

  10. A basis for modelling of radionuclide flow in the Forsmark biotest basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notter, M.; Snoeijs, P.; Argaerde, L.; Elert, M.

    1987-01-01

    Certain radionuclides are discharged together with the cooling water of Forsmark power station. Of these, Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65 and Ag-110 m are easily detectable in the environment. This report gives a conceptual five-compartment model for the flows of radionuclides within the basin ecosystem. The available data from biological and radio-ecological investigations in the biotest basin were used to quantify the amounts of radionuclides in each of the reservoirs. The subsystem water-sediment-primary producers was pointed out to be the most interesting part of the ecosystem for studying radionuclides with mathematical modelling in the future. (orig./DG)

  11. Search for Electron Antineutrino Appearance at the Δm2∼1 eV2 Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Spitz, J.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Kobilarcik, T.; Marsh, W.; Moore, C. D.; Russell, A. D.; Stefanski, R. J.; Bugel, L.; Djurcic, Z.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sorel, M.; Conrad, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The MiniBooNE Collaboration reports initial results from a search for ν μ →ν e oscillations. A signal-blind analysis was performed using a data sample corresponding to 3.39x10 20 protons on target. The data are consistent with background prediction across the full range of neutrino energy reconstructed assuming quasielastic scattering, 200 ν QE <3000 MeV: 144 electronlike events have been observed in this energy range, compared to an expectation of 139.2±17.6 events. No significant excess of events has been observed, both at low energy, 200-475 MeV, and at high energy, 475-1250 MeV. The data are inconclusive with respect to antineutrino oscillations suggested by data from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  12. Neutral current in the Weinberg-Salam gauge model and elastic scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos on nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    We study the elastic scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos on nucleons in the Weinberg-Salam model of the neutral current. In particular, we incorporate into our calculation the experimental cuts relevant to the two recent BNL experiments and also fold in the BNL ν and anti ν spectra. Sensitivity of the calculation to the changes in the axial-vector-meson mass and the Weinberg angle are explored. We conclude that the Weinberg-Salam model prediction for R/sub el/ = / and the differential-cross-section measurements are not inconsistent with the data provided the uncertainty in the mass of the axial-vector meson M/sub A/ is taken into account. Similar predictions are given for anti νN scattering

  13. Determination of the parton distributions and structure functions of the proton from neutrino and antineutrino reactions on hydrogen and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1994-12-01

    This analysis is based on data from neutrino and antineutrino scattering on hydrogen and deuterium, obtained with BEBC in the (anti) neutrino wideband beam of the CERN SPS. The parton momentum distributions in the proton and the proton structure functions are determined in the range 0.01

  14. A study of single-meson production in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P.; Grässler, H.; Schulte, R.; Jones, G. T.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Gebel, W.; Hofmann, E.; Klein, H.; Mittendorfer, J.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Clayton, E. F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P. N.; Towers, S. J.; Aachen-Birmingham-Bonn-CERN-London IC-Munich (MPI)-Oxford Collaboration

    1986-01-01

    We present results on exclusive single-charged pion and kaon production in neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons in the energy range from 5 to 120 GeV. The data were obtained from exposures of BEBC to wide band beams at the CERN SPS. For invariant masses of the (pπ) system below 2 GeV, the pions originate predominantly from decays of baryon resonances excited by the weak charged current. Similarly, we observe the production of Λ(1520) decaying into p and K -. For invariant masses above 2 GeV pion production becomes peripheral by interaction of the weak current with a virtual π0. We establish a contribution of longitudinally polarised intermediate vector bosons to this process.

  15. Measurement of the ratios of neutral-current to charged current cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, P. C.; Fritze, P.; Grässler, H.; Hasert, F. J.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Nellen, B.; Pech, R.; Wünsch, B.; Grant, A.; Hulth, P. O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Pape, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Vayaki, A.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Beuselinck, R.; Clayton, E. F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Petrides, A.; Albajar, C.; Myatt, G.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.; Bolognese, T.; Vignaud, D.; Aachen-Bonn-CERN-Democritos-Imperial College, London-Oxford-Saclay Collaboration

    1983-05-01

    The ratios of neutral current to charged current cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in heavy Ne/H 2 mixture have been measured in BEBC. The beam was the CERN SPS 200 GeV/ c narrow band beam. The ratios were obtained using a cut in the transverse momentum of the hadronic system. In the standard Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model, our results correspond to the value of sin 2θw = 0.182 ± 0.020 ± 0.012. By combining this experiment with data from a hydrogen target the coupling constants uL2 and L2 are found to be 0.15 ± 0.04 and 0.19 ± 0.05, respectively.

  16. Measurement of the ratios of neutral-current to charged current cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, P.C.; Fritze, P.; Graessler, H.; Hasert, F.J.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Vayaki, A.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Beuselinck, R.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Petrides, A.; Albajar, C.; Myatt, G.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.

    1983-01-01

    The ratios of neutral current to charged current cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in heavy Ne/H 2 mixture have been measured in BEBC. The beam was the CERN SPS 200 GeV/c narrow band beam. The ratios were obtained using a cut in the transverse momentum of the hadronic system. In the standard Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model, our results correspond to the value of sin 2 THETAsub(w)=0.182+-0.020+-0.012. By combining this experiment with data from a hydrogen target the coupling constants usub(L) 2 and dsub(L) 2 are found to be 0.15+-0.04 and 0.19+-0.05, respectively. (orig.)

  17. Diffractive production of ρ-mesons and of ρπ-systems by neutrinos and antineutrinos on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1993-09-01

    Evidence is presented for diffractive production of ρ-mesons and of ρπ-systems in vp andbar ν p chargedcurrent interactions. In the (anti-)neutrino energy range 10 GeV< E v <60 GeV the cross sections for diffractive ρ and diffractive ρπ production are found to be (0.64±0.14 (stat.)±0.08 (syst.))% and (0.28±0.08 (stat.)±0.04 (syst.))% of the charged-current cross section. The diffractive ρπ signal is consistent with being entirely due to diffractive a 1 production. However, the data cannot distinguish between diffractive a 1 and diffractive nonresonant ρπ production. The experimental distributions of W, Q 2, x Bj and y Bj for diffractive ρ and ρπ events are consistent with model predictions.

  18. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobayyen, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ratios R νp and R a ntiν a ntip of the neutral current to charged current cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons have been measured in BEBC. For a total transverse momentum of the charged hadrons above 0.45 GeV/c and a charged multiplicity of at least 3, it was found that R νp = 0.384±0.024±0.015 and R a ntiν a nti p = 0.338±0.014±0.016, corresponding to a value of sin 2 θ W (M W ) a nti M a nti S of 0.225±0.030. 20 refs

  19. A study of single-meson production in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.; Graessler, H.; Schulte, R.; Gebel, W.; Hofmann, E.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Clayton, E.F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P.N.; Towers, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    We present results on exclusive single-charged pion and kaon production in neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons in the energy range from 5 to 120 GeV. The data were obtained from exposures of BEBC to wide band beams at the CERN SPS. For invariant masses of the (pπ) system below 2 GeV, the pions originate predominantly from decays of baryon resonances excited by the weak charged current. Similarly, we observe the production of Λ(1520) decaying into p and K - . For invariant masses above 2 GeV pion production becomes peripheral by interaction of the weak current with a virtual π 0 . We establish a contribution of longitudinally polarised intermediate vector bosons to this process. (orig.)

  20. Dosimetric substantiation of the use of radionuclide methods in obstetrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volobuev, A.I.; Filatov, V.I.; Turaev, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of a possible use of radionuclide methods of investigation (placentography and renography) in obstetrics was considered. Doses and permissibles activities in pregnant women of the AP category belonging to groups at high risk of obstetric and perinated pathology were worked out on the basis of the ''Rules and standards of open radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic purposes'' (1984). The above investigations using the administration of short-lived radionuclides with total activity of 7.4 MBq ( 99m Tc-albumin and DTPA) were shown to be safe for mother and fetus

  1. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  2. Possible applications of radionuclide techniques in criminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stverak, B.; Kopejtko, J.; Chodora, F.; Chyska, J.

    1976-01-01

    The use of radioindicator methods in dactyloscopy is described, in which is used the bond of suitable radioindicators to certain components of the sweat secretion with subsequent detection of the local distribution of these radionuclides using the autoradiographic method. The use of autoradiography and gamma spectrometry is given in ballistics, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis in the investigation of motor car accidents and in the verification of historical objects, in forensic medicine, the use of autoradiography in the expertise of photographs, beta radiography in graphology and the use of radioactive labelling for trapping criminals. (J.P.)

  3. Chemical controls on subsurface radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, K.J.; Killey, R.W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical and biochemical processes can affect the movement of contaminants in groundwater. Materials can be almost completely removed from circulation by processes such as precipitation and coprecipitation. Organic compounds or contaminants that are hazardous may be degraded or formed during groundwater transport. Studies at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL have focused on radionuclide transport, although other contaminants have been and are being investigated. This paper summarizes findings from research that extends back more than 30 years. Much of the work on reactive contaminant transport has centered on 90 Sr; other contaminants have also been considered, however, and features of their behaviour are also reviewed. (25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.)

  4. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  5. Removal of some radionuclides from water by bioaccumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskovic, D.; Conkic, L.; Dalmacija, B.; Gantar, M. (Trg D. Obradvica 3, Novi Sad (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    First objective of this study was to investigate the application of biologically activated carbon (BAC) as well as its comparison to adsorption, with the aim of removing some radionuclides from water. The isotopes Cs[sup 134] and Cs[sup 137] were bioaccumulated by BAC up to 50%, while the I[sup 131] isotope was only physicochemically adsorbed (about 40%). Also, the process of radionuclides (Cs[sup 137], Ce[sup 139], Co[sup 57], Co[sup 60]) fixation on blue-green algae (Nostoc sp.) was investigated. The kinetics of the removal of these radionuclides from water was recorded. It was found that after a contact period of about half an hour 40-70% of the activity was removed. (Author).

  6. The biological transport of radionuclides in grassland and freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, S.A.

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examines the biological transport of radionuclides through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with particular reference to radiocaesium. The semi-natural grassland habitat was located at Drigg, W. Cumbria, contaminated primarily by radioactive fallout, from several sources over the past decade. Advantage was made of the deposition of radionuclides from the Chernobyl reactor incident, which occurred during the early stages of the investigation. The study examined the distribution of radiocaesium for the major components of the grassland ecosystem, within the soil-plant-invertebrate-small mammal food chain. Data concerning temporal fluctuation of radionuclide transfer factors between food chain components are presented. The final section examines the spatial distribution of radiocaesium in sediment and the freshwater eel (Anguilla anguilla) in a small stream contaminated by radioactive effluent. The relationship between activity levels in eels and the sediments in which they rest and forage was investigated. Factors influencing uptake of radiocaesium in freshwater fish were also examined. (author)

  7. Production of selected cosmogenic radionuclides by muons; 1, Fast muons

    CERN Document Server

    Heisinger, B; Jull, A J T; Kubik, P W; Ivy-Ochs, S; Neumaier, S; Knie, K; Lazarev, V A; Nolte, E

    2002-01-01

    To investigate muon-induced nuclear reactions leading to the production of radionuclides, targets made of C/sub 9/H/sub 12/, SiO /sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Al, S, CaCO/sub 3/, Fe, Ni, Cu, Gd, Yb and Tl were irradiated with 100 and 190 GeV muons in the NA54 experimental setup at CERN. The radionuclide concentrations were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry and gamma -spectroscopy. Results are presented for the corresponding partial formation cross- sections. Several of the long-lived and short-lived radionuclides studied are also produced by fast cosmic ray muons in the atmosphere and at depths underground. Because of their importance to Earth sciences investigations, calculations of the depth dependence of production rates by fast cosmic ray muons have been made. (48 refs).

  8. Activation analysis with neutron generators using short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.

    1993-01-01

    The short half-life involves a number of important differences in production, transportation and measurement of radionuclides, and in counting statistics as compared with those in traditional activation analysis. Experiments were performed to investigate the analytical possibilities and prospective utilization of short-lived radionuclides produced by 14-MeV neutron irradiation. A rapid pneumatic transfer system for use with neutron generators was installed and applied for detecting radionuclides with a half-life from 300 ms to 30 s. The transport time for samples with a total mass of 1-4 g is between 130 and 160 ms for pressurized air of 0.1-0.4 MPa. 11 elements were studied by the conventional activation method using both a typical pneumatic transport system (run time 3 s) and the fast pneumatic transport facility. The effect of the cyclic activation technique on the elemental sensitivities was also investigated. (orig.)

  9. Effects of culinary preparation on radionuclide levels in vegetable foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Bradley, E.J.; Dodd, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vegetables contaminated by fall-out from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident have been used to investigate how simple culinary methods can affect the levels of various radionuclides in the portion consumed by man. Only ..gamma.. ray emitting radionuclides were investigated. Those parts of vegetables normally considered inedible, for example coarse outer leaves, foliage or roots, can account for between 50% and 97% of the total radionuclide content. Washing of the edible parts of vegetables can reduce the levels still further, although the efficacy is dependent on both the radionuclide and the vegetable type. These normal domestic procedures can reduce intakes of recently deposited radionuclides on vegetables by about an order of magnitude. The results have implications for the scope of monitoring programmes that might follow any future accidental release. They also reinforce very strongly the requirement for measurements on edible parts rather than whole samples as a direct input to dose evaluation. These results further suggest that there is no need to revise the general assumptions made in accident consequence models regarding losses of activity between harvest and consumption. However, more rigorous assessments of dose should take account of vegetable type and probable means of preparation.

  10. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  11. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  12. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  13. Radionuclide techniques for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.J.; Moody, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past decade, many of the prime indications for radionuclide brain scanning have become instead indications for CCT, and nuclear medicine studies of the brain have assumed more of a complementary, supportive role. However, there is great promise for improvement in central nervous system radionuclide applications with advances anticipated in both radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation. Nuclear medicine is continuing to function as a powerful research tool and, in the relatively near future, may regain its role as a major clinical test of the central nervous system

  14. Hydrology and radionuclide migration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal year 1988. The report discusses studies at a new well 100 m down the hydrologic gradient from the previous sampling point at the Cheshire site; laboratory investigations of the mineralogical composition of NTS colloids; the strength of colloidal deposits and parameters affecting their formation and release; accelerator mass spectrometric measurements of 129 I in water from the Cheshire stie; 222 Rn concentrations in water from several pumped wells at the NTS; and a description of a new well (PM3) drilled off the NTS near Area 20. Further studies on groundwater sampled show that both technetium and iodine are quite mobile; both closely track the trend of the decreasing tritium concentration with increasing distance. Antimony and cesium concentrations decrease much more rapidly than tritium, and europium was not detected at all in the new well. Colloidal particles found in water collected from the Cheshire cavity are in size range of 0.050 to 0.003 μm and are dominated by quartz and (Ca, K) feldspars. A new well was drilled on US Air Force land adjacent to the NTS Area 20. Static water level measurements and geochemical data from this well will help to determine the extent to which Pahute Mesa base flow infiltrates Oasis Valley. Preliminary results indicate tritium concentrations in water samples from this well to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 pCi/ml as measured under field conditions

  15. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the oxygen

  16. Radionuclide release from PWR spent fuel specimens with induced cladding defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Oversby, V.M.

    1984-03-01

    Radionuclide releases from pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel rod specimens containing various artificially induced cladding defects were compared by leach testing. The study was conducted in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Waste Package Task to evaluate the effectiveness of failed cladding as a barrier to radionuclide release. Test description and results are presented

  17. Radionuclide release from PWR spent fuel specimens with induced cladding defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Oversby, V.M.

    1984-03-01

    Radionuclide releases from pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel rod specimens containing various artificially induced cladding defects were compared by leach testing. The study was conducted in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Waste Package Task to evaluate the effectiveness of failed cladding as a barrier to radionuclide release. Test description and results are presented. 6 references, 4 figures

  18. Abstracts of papers of International Meeting 'Ecological status of territories polluted by radionuclides'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The collection contains the results of investigations implemented on the territories of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia within the realization of Chernobyl Ecological Science Network: dynamics of radionuclides migration in the environment, state of plant community on the areas polluted by radionuclides, biological changes of biocenoses, metabolic and genetic effects of Chernobyl catastrophe (author)

  19. Behaviour of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides deposited on peat and urban surfaces in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, A.

    1992-10-01

    In the thesis the impact of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on Finland was studied in three aspects: (1) the areal distribution of Chernobyl fallout in Finland was determined by measuring peat samples, (2) the behaviour of fallout radionuclides was investigated in the combustion of peat in power plants, and (3) the removal rates of fallout radionuclides on urban surfaces were resolved

  20. The distribution and abundance of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, R.S.

    1985-03-01

    The distribution of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments was investigated. Samples were collected using a systematic design in the vicinity of Pickering and Darlington, and supplemented by lakewide offshore samples. Naturally occurring 40 K was the predominant source of gamma activity. 60 Co was the only potentially CANDU released radionuclide which showed a distributional association with the Pickering 'A' NGS discharge