WorldWideScience

Sample records for antineutrino detectors current

  1. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurement with the MINOS near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Debdatta [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 106 neutrino events and 1.60 x 105 antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section.

  2. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Gas System

    OpenAIRE

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experimen...

  3. Measurement of Neutrino and Antineutrino Charged-Current Inclusive Cross Sections with the MINERvA Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, Joshua D. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos are a nearly massless, neutral particle in the Standard Model that only interact via the weak interaction. Experimental confirmation of neutrino oscillations, in which a neutrino created as a particular type (electron, muon or tau) can be observed as a different type after propagating some distance, earned the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments rely on accurate measurements of neutrino interactions with matter, such as that presented here. Neutrinos also provide a unique probe of the nucleus, complementary to electron scattering experiments. This thesis presents a measurement of the charged-current inclusive cross section for muon neutrinos and antineutrinos in the energy range 2 to 50 GeV with the MINERvA detector. MINERvA is a neutrino scattering experiment in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab, near Chicago. A cross section measures the probability of an interaction occurring, measured here as a function of neutrino energy. To extract a cross section from data, the observed rate of interactions is corrected for detector efficiency and divided by the number of scattering nucleons in the target and the flux of neutrinos in the beam. The neutrino flux is determined with the low-$\

  4. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M.-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is described.

  5. Investigation of large LGB detectors for antineutrino detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P. [Department of Physics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Bowden, N.S., E-mail: nbowden@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2011-12-21

    A detector material or configuration that can provide an unambiguous indication of neutron capture can substantially reduce random coincidence backgrounds in antineutrino detection and capture-gated neutron spectrometry applications. Here we investigate the performance of such a material, a composite of plastic scintillator and {sup 6}Li{sub 6}{sup nat}Gd({sup 10}BO{sub 3}){sub 3}:Ce (LGB) crystal shards of Almost-Equal-To 1 mm dimension and comprising 1% of the detector by mass. While it is found that the optical propagation properties of this material as currently fabricated are only marginally acceptable for antineutrino detection, its neutron capture identification ability is encouraging.

  6. A Direction-Sensitive Detector for Electron Antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, F. D.; Drosg, M.; Smit, F. D.

    2011-12-01

    A modular design is proposed for an electron antineutrino detector based on boron-doped liquid scintillator. Tests have been carried out on small detector systems using neutrons to simulate the antineutrino detection signature. Results from these tests are reported, and the possibility of using a larger system of similar design to detect reactor antineutrinos is discussed.

  7. Towards Compact Antineutrino Detectors for Safeguarding Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, R.J. de; Smit, F.D.; Woertche, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the IAEA Division of Technical Support convened a Workshop on Antineutrino Detection for Safeguards Applications. Two of the recommendations expressed that IAEA should consider antineutrino detection and monitoring in its current R and D program for safeguarding bulk-process reactors, and consider antineutrino detection and monitoring in its Safeguards by Design approaches for power and fissile inventory monitoring of new and next generation reactors. The workshop came to these recommendations after having assessed the results obtained at the San Onofre Nuclear Generator Station (SONGS) in California. A 600 litre, 10% efficiency detector, placed at 25m from the core was shown to record 300 net antineutrino events per day. The 2*2.5*2.5 m 3 footprint of the detector and the required below background operation, prevents an easy deployment at reactors. Moreover it does not provide spatial information of the fissile inventory and, because of the shape of a PBMR reactor, would not be representative for such type of reactor. A solution to this drawback is to develop more efficient detectors that are less bulky and less sensitive to cosmic and natural radiation backgrounds. Antineutrino detection in the SONGS detector is based on the capture of antineutrinos by a proton resulting in a positron and neutron. In the SONGS detector the positron and neutron are detected by secondary gamma-rays. The efficiency of the SONGS detector is largely dominated by the low efficiency for gamma detection high background sensitivity We are investigating two methods to resolve this problem, both leading to more compact detectors, which in a modular set up also will provide spatial information. One is based on detecting the positrons on their slowdown signal and the neutrons by capturing in 10 B or 6 Li, resulting in alpha-emission. The drawback for standard liquid scintillators doped with e.g. B is the low flame point of the solvent and the strong quenching of the alpha signal. Our

  8. Reactor antineutrino detector iDREAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, M. B.; Lukyanchenko, G. A.; Novikova, G. J.; Obinyakov, B. A.; Oralbaev, A. Y.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Sukhotin, S. V.; Chepurnov, A. S.; Etenko, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Industrial Detector for Reactor Antineutrino Monitoring (iDREAM) is a compact (≈ 3.5m 2) industrial electron antineutrino spectrometer. It is dedicated for remote monitoring of PWR reactor operational modes by neutrino method in real-time. Measurements of antineutrino flux from PWR allow to estimate a fuel mixture in active zone and to check the status of the reactor campaign for non-proliferation purposes. LAB-based gadolinium doped scintillator is exploited as a target. Multizone architecture of the detector with gamma-catcher surrounding fiducial volume and plastic muon veto above and below ensure high efficiency of IBD detection and background suppression. DAQ is based on Flash ADC with PSD discrimination algorithms while digital trigger is programmable and flexible due to FPGA. The prototype detector was started up in 2014. Preliminary works on registration Cerenkov radiation produced by cosmic muons were established with distilled water inside the detector in order to test electronic and slow control systems. Also in parallel a long-term measurements with different scintillator samples were conducted.

  9. Use of Antineutrino Detectors for Nuclear Reactor Safeguards Effectiveness Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, A; Lambert, H E; Elayat, H A; O' Connell, W J; Rexroth, P; Baldwin, G; Bowden, N; Huelskamp, R

    2006-06-05

    As described in an earlier article [1], important information regarding reactor power and the amount and type of fissile material in reactor cores can be determined by measuring the antineutrino rate and energy spectrum, using a cubic meter scale antineutrino detector at tens of meters standoff from the core. Current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards techniques do not provide such real-time quantitative information regarding core power levels and isotopic composition. The possible benefits of this approach are several and have been discussed in the earlier article. One key advantage is that the method gives the inspecting agency completely independent access to real-time information on the operational status and fissile content of the core. Furthermore, the unattended and non-intrusive nature of the technology may reduce the monitoring burden on the plant operator, even though more information is being provided than is available within the current IAEA safeguards regime. Here we present a detailed analytical framework for measuring the impact that such a detector might have on IAEA safeguards, if implemented. To perform the analysis, we will use initial data from our operating detector and a standard analysis technique for safeguards regimes, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Because characterization of the prototype detector is still underway, and because improvements in the prototype could have important impact on safeguards performance, the results presented here should be understood to be preliminary, and not reflective of the ultimate performance of the system. The structure of this paper is as follows. Reactor safeguards and the relevant properties of antineutrino detectors are briefly reviewed. A set of hypothetical diversion scenarios are then described, and one of these is analyzed using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Integrated Safeguards System Analysis Tool (LISSAT) The probability of successful

  10. Development of PROSPECT detectors for precision antineutrino studies

    OpenAIRE

    Norcini, Danielle; collaboration, for the PROSPECT

    2015-01-01

    PROSPECT, the Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment, will use two segmented detectors positioned 7-20 m from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to measure the U-235 antineutrino spectrum and perform a search for short-baseline oscillations as a signature of eV-scale sterile neutrinos. PROSPECT has developed Li-6 loaded liquid scintillator detectors for efficient identification of reactor antineutrinos and has measured reactor and cosmogenic b...

  11. Monitoring of spent nuclear fuel with antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran

    2017-09-01

    We put forward the possibility of employing antineutrino detectors in order to control the amounts of spent nuclear fuel in repositories or, alternatively, to precisely localize the underground sources of nuclear material. For instance, we discuss the applicability in determining a possible leakage of stored nuclear material which would aid in preventing environmental problems. The long-term storage facilities are also addressed.

  12. Leakage Tests of the Stainless Steel Vessels of the Antineutrino Detectors in the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaohui; Luo, Xiaolan; Heng, Yuekun; Wang, Lingshu; Tang, Xiao; Ma, Xiaoyan; Zhuang, Honglin; Band, Henry; Cherwinka, Jeff; Xiao, Qiang; Heeger, Karsten M.

    2012-01-01

    The antineutrino detectors in the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment are liquid scintillator detectors designed to detect low energy particles from antineutrino interactions with high efficiency and low backgrounds. Since the antineutrino detector will be installed in a water Cherenkov cosmic ray veto detector and will run for 3 to 5 years, ensuring water tightness is critical to the successful operation of the antineutrino detectors. We choose a special method to seal the detector. Three l...

  13. Measurement of charm production in antineutrino charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Onengüt, G; De Jong, M; Konijn, J; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Van der Poel, C A F J; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Köse, U; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Kama, S; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Ieva, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Artamonov, A V; Brunner, J; Chizhov, M; Cussans, D G; Doucet, M; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Litmaath, M; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Saltzberg, D; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Rondeshagen, D; Wolff, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Pistillo, C; Santorelli, R; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; FLoverre, P; Ludovici, L; Maslennikov, A L; Righini, P; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2004-01-01

    During the years 1994-97, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wideband neutrino beam of the CERN SPS collecting about 10^6 neutrino interactions. A measurement of nubar_mu-induced charm production is performed by usingthe presence of a 5% nubarmu component in the nu_mu beam. The measurement takes advantage of the capability to observe the decay topology in the emulsion. The analysis is based on a sample of charged-current interactions with at least one identified muon. About 100 000 vere located in the emulsion target and fully reconstructed. By requiring a positive muon charge as determined by the CHORUS spectrometer, 32-nubar_mu induced charm events were observed with an estimated background of 3.2 events. At an average antineutrino energy in the neutrino beam of 18GeV, the charm production rate induced by anitneutrinos is measured to be sigma(nubar_muN -> mu+cbarX)/sigma(nubar_muN -> mu+X) = (5.0^+1.4_-0.9(stat) +- 0.7(syst))%. The ratio between neutral and charged charm productio...

  14. First Measurement of one Pion Production in Charged Current Neutrino and Antineutrino events on Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanavini, Scanavini,Giacomo [Yale U.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a work done in the context of the Fermilab Neutrino Intensity Frontier. In this analysis, the cross section of single charged pion production in charged-current neutrino and antineutrino interactions with the argon nucleus target are measured. These measurements are performed using the Argon Neutrino Test (ArgoNeuT) detector exposed to the Fermilab Neutrino From The Main Injector (NuMI) beam operating in the low energy antineutrino mode. The signal is a charged-current μ interaction in the detector, with exactly one charged pion exiting the target nucleus, with momentum above 100 MeV/c. There shouldn’t be any 0 or kaons in the final state. There is no restriction on other mesons or nucleons. Total and differential cross section measurements are presented. The results are reported in terms of outgoing muon angle and momentum, outgoing pion angle and angle between outgoing pion and muon. The total cross sections, averaged over the flux, are found to be 8.2 ± 0.9 (stat) +0.9 -1.1 (syst) × 10-38 cm2 per argon nuclei and 2.5 ± 0.4 (stat) ± 0.5 (syst) × 10-37 cm2 per argon nuclei for antineutrino and neutrino respectively at a mean neutrino energy of 3.6 GeV (antineutrinos) and 9.6 GeV (neutrinos). This is the first time the single pion production in charged-current interactions cross section is measured on argon nuclei.

  15. Antineutrino Neutral Current Interactions in MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports the antineutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic scattering cross section on CH2 measured by the MiniBooNE experiment located in Batavia, IL. The data set consists of 60,605 events passing the selection cuts corresponding to 10.1×1020 POT, which represents the world’s largest sample of antineutrino neutral current elastic scattering events. The final sample is more than one order of magnitude lager that the previous antineutrino NCE scattering cross section measurement reported by the BNL E734 experiment. The measurement presented in this dissertation also spans a wider range in Q2, including the low-Q2 regime where the cross section rollover is clearly visible. A X2-based minimization was performed to determine the best value of the axial mass, MA and the Pauli blocking scaling function, that matches the antineutrino NCE scattering data. However, the best fit values of MA=1.29 GeV and K=1.026 still give a relatively poor X2, which suggests that the underlying nuclear model (based largely on the relativistic Fermi gas model) may not be an accurate representation for this particular interaction. Additionally, we present a measurement of the antineutrino/neutrino-nucleus NCE scattering cross section ratio. The neutrino mode NCE sample used in this study, corresponding to 6.4 × 1020 POT, is also the world’s largest sample (also by an order of magnitude). We have demonstrated that the ratio measurement is robust, as most of the correlated errors cancel, as expected. Furthermore, this ratio also proves to be rather insensitive to variations in the axial mass and the Pauli blocking parameter. This is the first time that this ratio has been experimentally reported. We believe this measurement will aid the theoretical physics community to test various model predictions of neutrino-nucleon/nucleus interactions.

  16. Monte Carlo Simulation of a Segmented Detector for Low-Energy Electron Antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomi, H. Akhtari; Safari, M. J.; Davani, F. Abbasi

    2017-11-01

    Detection of low-energy electron antineutrinos is of importance for several purposes, such as ex-vessel reactor monitoring, neutrino oscillation studies, etc. The inverse beta decay (IBD) is the interaction that is responsible for detection mechanism in (organic) plastic scintillation detectors. Here, a detailed study will be presented dealing with the radiation and optical transport simulation of a typical segmented antineutrino detector withMonte Carlo method using MCNPX and FLUKA codes. This study shows different aspects of the detector, benefiting from inherent capabilities of the Monte Carlo simulation codes.

  17. Electron Neutrino and Antineutrino Appearance in the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, Adam Paul [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline neutrino experiment that utilizes a particle beam and two steel-scintillator calorimeters designed to determine the parameters associated with muon neutrino disappearance. Analysis methods developed by the MINOS νe group have facilitated the placement of limits upon the mixing angle associated with νμ → νe oscillations. Since the polarity of the focusing horns can be switched, we can perform a similar analysis with an antineutrino-enriched beam to select electron antineutrino appearance candidates. Using 3.34e20 POT (protons on target) in the antineutrino mode, we exclude θ13 = 0 at the 80% C.L. A joint fit of the 3.34e20 POT antineutrino and 10.6e20 POT neutrino samples excluded θ13 = 0 at the 96% C.L. In addition, the combined data were used to produce exclusions regarding the CP-violating phase.

  18. Search for Lorentz invariance and CPT violation with muon antineutrinos in the MINOS Near Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2012-02-01

    We have searched for sidereal variations in the rate of antineutrino interactions in the MINOS Near Detector. Using antineutrinos produced by the NuMI beam, we find no statistically significant sidereal modulation in the rate. When this result is placed in the context of the Standard Model Extension theory we are able to place upper limits on the coefficients defining the theory. These limits are used in combination with the results from an earlier analysis of MINOS neutrino data to further constrain the coefficients.

  19. A Comparison Framework for Reactor Anti-Neutrino Detectors in Near-Field Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendenhall, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brodsky, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Electron anti-neutrino ( e) detectors can support nuclear safeguards, from reactor monitoring to spent fuel characterization. In recent years, the scientific community has developed multiple detector concepts, many of which have been prototyped or deployed for specific measurements by their respective collaborations. However, the diversity of technical approaches, deployment conditions, and analysis techniques complicates direct performance comparison between designs. We have begun development of a simulation framework to compare and evaluate existing and proposed detector designs for nonproliferation applications in a uniform manner. This report demonstrates the intent and capabilities of the framework by evaluating four detector design concepts, calculating generic reactor antineutrino counting sensitivity, and capabilities in a plutonium disposition application example.

  20. Data acquisition system for segmented reactor antineutrino detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hons, Zdeněk; Vlášek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2017), č. článku P01022. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Data acquisition concepts * Detector control systems (detector and experiment monitoring and slow-control system, architecture , hardware, algorithms, databases) * Neutrino detectors Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  1. Experimental study of the nucleon structure functions and of the gluon distribution from charged-current neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, F.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jonker, M.; Nieuwenhuis, C.; Udo, F.; Allaby, J.V.; Amaldi, U.; Barbiellini, G.; Barone, L.; Capone, A.; Flegel, W.; Metcalf, M.; Panman, J.; Winter, K.; Abt, I.; Aspiazu, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Daumann, H.; Gall, P.D.; Metz, E.; Niebergall, F.; Ranitzsch, K.H.; Staehelin, P.

    1983-01-01

    Inclusive neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions were studied in the CHARM detector exposed to neutrino and antineutrino Wide Band Beams of the CERN 400 GeV SPS. The x and Q 2 dependence of the structure functions F 2 and xF 3 and of the antiquark momentum distribution q were determined. The data have been interpreted in terms of QCD theory using the Furmanski-Petronzio method. In this way we have determined #betta#sub(LO)=[190 + 70 sub(-40)(stat)+-70 (syst.)] MeV and the structure functions of quarks and gluons without specific assumptions on their analytic dependence. The results agree with previous experiments which relied on model assumptions in the analysis. We conclude that the model independent simultaneous analysis of the xF 3 , F 2 , anti q structure functions gives a more reliable determination of the gluon distribution in the nucleon. (orig.)

  2. Computer-aided design and construction of an antineutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutz, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Bugey group is setting-up a new detector for another neutrino oscillation experiment. This thesis reports on the different steps concerning its realisation. Light yield, light transmission and pulse shape discrimination properties of NE 320 a new liquid scintillator loaded with 0.15% of Lithium 6 allow to realise a large volume detector (3 x 600 l) with an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity. The benefit of the neutron capture on Lithium 6 has been conserved owing to the segmentation of the whole detector volume in 98 cells and to energy resolution and pulse shape discrimination properties of the liquid. The efficiency is expected to be 0.5 and the essential component of the background is the natural activity of the scintillator. This makes this detector the most performant for neutrino oscillation experiment at reactor [fr

  3. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H

    2002-01-01

    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  4. Study of charged current reactions induced by muon antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huss, D.

    1979-07-01

    We present in this work a study of antineutrino reactions on light targets. We have used the Gargamelle cloud chamber with a propane-freon mix. In the 2 first chapters we give a brief description of the experimental setting and we present the selection criteria of the events. In the third chapter we analyse the data for the reaction anti-ν + p → μ + + n that preserves strangeness. We have deduced the values of the axial (M A ) and vector (M V ) form factors: M A = (O.92 ± 0.08) GeV and M V = (0.86 ± 0.04) GeV. In the fourth chapter we study reactions in which strange particles appear (ΔS = 1) and we have determined their production cross-sections. The elastic reaction: anti-ν + p → μ + + Λ is studied in a more accurate manner thanks to a 3-constraint adjustment that enables the selection of events occurring on free protons. We have deduced from our data the longitudinal, orthogonal and transverse polarization of Λ, we have got respectively P l = -0.06 ± 0.44; P p = 0.29 ± 0.41; P t 1.05 ± 0.30. We have also deduced the values of the total cross-section as a function of the incident antineutrino energy E: σ (0.27 ± 0.02)*E*10 -38 cm -2 . E has been assessed from the energy deposited in the cloud chamber and we have adjusted the cross-section with a straight line as it is expected under the assumption of scale invariance. (A.C.)

  5. First Measurement of the Muon Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic Double-Differential Cross-Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grange, Joseph M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the first measurement of the muon antineutrino charged current quasi-elastic double-differential cross section. These data significantly extend the knowledge of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in the GeV range, a region that has recently come under scrutiny due to a number of conflicting experimental results. To maximize the precision of this measurement, three novel techniques were employed to measure the neutrino background component of the data set. Representing the first measurements of the neutrino contribution to an accelerator-based antineutrino beam in the absence of a magnetic field, the successful execution of these techniques carry implications for current and future neutrino experiments.

  6. Experimental study of the nucleon longitudinal structure function in charged-current neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, F.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jonker, M.; Nieuwenhuis, C.; Allaby, J.V.; Amaldi, U.; Barbiellini, G.; Barone, L.; Capone, A.; Flegel, W.; Metcalf, M.; Panman, J.; Winter, K.; Abt, I.; Aspiazu, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Daumann, H.; Gall, P.D.; Metz, E.; Niebergall, F.; Ranitzsch, K.H.; Staehelin, P.; Baroncelli, A.; Bosio, C.; Tortora, L.; Borgia, B.; Diemoz, M.; Dore, U.; Ferroni, F.; Longo, E.; Luminari, L.; Monacelli, P.; De Notaristefani, F.; Pistilli, P.; Santoni, C.; Valente, V.

    1984-01-01

    The x dependence of the longitudinal structure function Fsub(L) was determined with the CHARM neutrino detector exposed to neutrino and antineutrino wide-band beams of the CERN 400 GeV SPS. The results show a clear deviation from the Callan-Gross relation. The amount and the x dependence of this deviation are in agreement with the contribution coming from a finite transverse momentum of the partons in the nucleon if both the intrinsic and perturbative QCD terms are taken into account. (orig.)

  7. Antineutrino Monitoring of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Huber, Patrick; Kopp, Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Military and civilian applications of nuclear energy have left a significant amount of spent nuclear fuel over the past 70 years. Currently, in many countries worldwide, the use of nuclear energy is on the rise. Therefore, the management of highly radioactive nuclear waste is a pressing issue. In this paper, we explore antineutrino detectors as a tool for monitoring and safeguarding nuclear-waste material. We compute the flux and spectrum of antineutrinos emitted by spent nuclear fuel elements as a function of time, and we illustrate the usefulness of antineutrino detectors in several benchmark scenarios. In particular, we demonstrate how a measurement of the antineutrino flux can help to reverify the contents of a dry storage cask in case the monitoring chain by conventional means gets disrupted. We then comment on the usefulness of antineutrino detectors at long-term storage facilities such as Yucca mountain. Finally, we put forward antineutrino detection as a tool in locating underground "hot spots" in contaminated areas such as the Hanford site in Washington state.

  8. SoLid: An innovative anti-neutrino detector for searching oscillations at the SCK• CEN BR2 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Yamiel, E-mail: yamiel.abreu@uantwerpen.be

    2017-02-11

    The SoLid experiment intends to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline from the SCK• CEN BR2 research reactor (Mol, Belgium). A novel detector approach to measure reactor anti-neutrinos was developed based on an innovative sandwich of composite polyvinyl-toluene and {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillators. The system is highly segmented and read out by a network of wavelength shifting fibers and SiPM. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other standard technologies thanks to the combination of high granularity, good neutron–gamma discrimination using {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator and precise localisation of the Inverse Beta Decay products. This technology can be considered as a new generation of an anti-neutrino detector. This compact system requires limited passive shielding and relies on spatial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. We will describe the principle of detection and the detector design. Particular focus on the neutron discrimination will be made, as well as on the capability to use cosmic muons for channel equalisation and energy calibration. The performance of the first 288 kg SoLid module (SM1), based on the data taken at BR2 from February to September 2015, will be presented. We will conclude with the next phase, which will start in 2016, and the future plans of the experiment.

  9. SoLid: An innovative anti-neutrino detector for searching oscillations at the SCK•CEN BR2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Yamiel; SoLid Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    The SoLid experiment intends to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline from the SCK•CEN BR2 research reactor (Mol, Belgium). A novel detector approach to measure reactor anti-neutrinos was developed based on an innovative sandwich of composite polyvinyl-toluene and 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillators. The system is highly segmented and read out by a network of wavelength shifting fibers and SiPM. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other standard technologies thanks to the combination of high granularity, good neutron-gamma discrimination using 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator and precise localisation of the Inverse Beta Decay products. This technology can be considered as a new generation of an anti-neutrino detector. This compact system requires limited passive shielding and relies on spatial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. We will describe the principle of detection and the detector design. Particular focus on the neutron discrimination will be made, as well as on the capability to use cosmic muons for channel equalisation and energy calibration. The performance of the first 288 kg SoLid module (SM1), based on the data taken at BR2 from February to September 2015, will be presented. We will conclude with the next phase, which will start in 2016, and the future plans of the experiment.

  10. Cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino neutral current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, P.C.; Deden, H.; Deutschmann, M.; Fritze, P.; Graessler, H.; Hasert, F.J.; Morfin, J.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Seyfert, H.; Banerjee, S.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Beuselinck, R.; Butterworth, I.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Powell, K.J.; Davis, C.L.; Grossman, P.; McGow, R.; Mulvey, J.H.; Myatt, G.; Perkins, D.H.; Pons, R.; Radojicic, O.; Renton, P.; Saitta, B.; Stenger, V.

    1978-01-01

    The cross sections for γ and anti γ neutral current interactions for which the hadron energy is > 15 GeV have been measured. These results, and the ratios of neutral current to charged current sections, are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model. Values of sin 2 thetasub(w) have been obtained both with and without the use of a parametrisation for the hadronic part of the interaction; the values are in good agreement with each other and the preferred result, that obtained by the method independent of hadronic models, is sin 2 thetasub(w) = 0.22 +- 0.05. (Auth.)

  11. Opportunities for applied measurements using the PROSPECT antineutrino detector: reactor physics and safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Nathaniel; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Disagreement of reactor antineutrino spectrum and flux measurements with updated predictions indicates that we have much to learn about the complicated processes underlying antineutrino production in reactors, as well as hinting at new physics. A number of new efforts seek to address these questions, including the PROSPECT experiment planned at the HFIR research reactor. In addition to greatly advancing our understanding of reactor antineutrino emissions, PROSPECT can support a rich applied physics program. The detection technology developed for PROSPECT will enable precision antineutrino spectrum measurements close to essentially any reactor type. Here we describe how such measurements provide opportunities to probe fissile isotope and fission daughter distributions, and their potential use for reactor physics and safeguards applications. LLNL-ABS-673983. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Neutral current (anti)neutrino scattering: Relativistic mean field and superscaling predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Jiménez, R.; Ivanov, M.V.; Barbaro, M.B.; Caballero, J.A.; Udias, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the neutral current quasi-elastic neutrino cross section within two nuclear models: the SuSA model, based on the superscaling behavior of electron scattering data, and the RMF model, based on relativistic mean field theory. We also estimate the ratio (νp→νp)/(νN→νN) and compare with the MiniBooNE experimental data, performing a fit of the parameters M A and g A (s) within the two models. Finally, we present our predictions for antineutrino scattering.

  13. Compton current detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Campos, J.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a Compton current detector, with cylindrical geometry using teflon as dielectric material; for electromagnetic radiation in range energy between 10 KeV and 2 MeV are described. The measurements of Compton current in teflon were obtained using an electrometer. The Compton current was promoted by photon flux proceeding from X ray sources (MG 150 Muller device) and gamma rays of 60 Co. The theory elaborated to explain the experimental results is shown. The calibration curves for accumulated charge and current in detector in function of exposition rates were obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Measurement of Neutrino and Antineutrino Total Charged-Current Cross Sections on Carbon with MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Lu [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of charged-current inclusive cross sections of muon neutrino and antineutrino interaction on carbon, and antineutrino to neutrino cross section ratio, r, in the energy range 2 - 22 GeV, with data collected in the MINERA experiment. The dataset corresponds to an exposure of 3.2 x 1020 protons on target (POT) for neutrinos and 1.01020 POT for antineutrinos. Measurement of neutrino and antineutrino charged-current inclusive cross sections provides essential constraints for future long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at a few GeV energy range. Our measured antineutrino cross section has an uncertainty in the range 6.1% - 10.5% and is the most precise measurement below 6 GeV to date. The measured r has an uncertainty of 5.0% - 7.5%. This is the rst measurement below 6 GeV since Gargamelle in 1970s. The cross sections are measured as a function of neutrino energy by dividing the eciency corrected charged-current sample with extracted uxes. Fluxes are obtained using the low- method, which uses low hadronic energy subsamples of charged-current inclusive sample to extract ux. Measured cross sections show good agreement with the prediction of neutrino interaction models above 7 GeV, and are about 10% below the model below 7 GeV. The measured r agrees with the GENIE model [1] over the whole energy region. The measured cross sections and r are compared with world data.

  15. Measurement of the Antineutrino Double-Differential Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering Cross Section at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, Cheryl [Northwestern U.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments, such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, hope to measure charge-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. In order to do this, they must dramatically reduce their current levels of uncertainty, particularly those due to neutrino-nucleus interaction models. As CP violation is a measure of the difference between the oscillation properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, data about how the less-studied antineutrinos interact is especially valuable. We present the MINERvA experiment's first double-differential scattering cross sections for antineutrinos on scintillator, in the few-GeV range relevant to experiments such as DUNE and NOvA. We also present total antineutrino-scintillator quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of energy, which we compare to measurements from previous experiments. As well as being useful to help reduce oscillation experiments' uncertainty, our data can also be used to study the prevalence of various cor relation and final-state interaction effects within the nucleus. We compare to models produced by different model generators, and are able to draw first conclusions about the predictions of these models.

  16. Study of neutral current reactions with production of a pion induced by muon antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyonnet, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    In this work we have studied the 4 production reactions of a pion induced by muon anti-neutrino collisions with nucleons: anti-ν μ p → anti-ν μ pπ 0 or anti-ν μ nπ + and anti-ν μ n → anti-ν μ nπ 0 or anti-ν μ pπ - . We have processed experimental data from the Gargamelle cloud chamber to assess the pion production cross-sections. Our results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of the Adler model and of the Fogli and Nardulli model within the framework of the Weinberg and Salam unified theory. As for the isospin structure of the weak hadronic neutral current, the iso-vectorial component is highlighted in the invariant mass spectra in the channels pπ 0 and pπ - . Our results show that the isospin structure is not purely isoscalar or purely iso-vectorial but rather a mix of I = 0 and I = 1. We confirm that the sign of the product of the 2 coupling constants u L *d L is negative. (A.C.)

  17. Two particle–hole excitations in charged current quasielastic antineutrino-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, J.; Ruiz Simo, I.; Vicente Vacas, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the quasielastic and multinucleon contributions to the antineutrino-nucleus scattering cross section and compare our results with the recent MiniBooNE data. We use a local Fermi gas model that includes RPA correlations and gets the multinucleon part from a systematic many body expansion of the W boson selfenergy in the nuclear medium. The same model had been quite successful for the neutrino cross section and contains no new parameters. We have also analyzed the relevance of 2p2h events for the antineutrino energy reconstruction

  18. The reactor antineutrino anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haser, Julia; Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Major discoveries were made in the past few years in the field of neutrino flavour oscillation. Nuclear reactors produce a clean and intense flux of electron antineutrinos and are thus an essential neutrino source for the determination of oscillation parameters. Most currently the reactor antineutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO have accomplished to measure θ{sub 13}, the smallest of the three-flavour mixing angles. In the course of these experiments two anomalies emerged: (1) the reanalysis of the reactor predictions revealed a deficit in experimentally observed antineutrino flux, known as the ''reactor antineutrino anomaly''. (2) The high precision of the latest generation of neutrino experiments resolved a spectral shape distortion relative to the expected energy spectra. Both puzzles are yet to be solved and triggered new experimental as well as theoretical studies, with the search for light sterile neutrinos as most popular explanation for the flux anomaly. This talk outlines the two reactor antineutrino anomalies. Discussing possible explanations for their occurrence, recent and upcoming efforts to solve the reactor puzzles are highlighted.

  19. Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering in MINER$\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvojka, Jesse John [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of neutrino oscillation is becoming increasingly understood with results from accelerator-based and reactor-based experiments, but unanswered questions remain. The proper ordering of the neutrino mass eigenstates that compose the neutrino avor eigenstates is not completely known. We have yet to detect CP violation in neutrino mixing, which if present could help explain the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter in the universe. We also have not resolved whether sterile neutrinos, which do not interact in any Standard Model interaction, exist. Accelerator-based experiments appear to be the most promising candidates for resolving these questions; however, the ability of present and future experiments to provide answers is likely to be limited by systematic errors. A significant source of this systematic error comes from limitations in our knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions. Errors on cross-sections for such interactions are large, existing data is sometimes contradictory, and knowledge of nuclear effects is incomplete. One type of neutrino interaction of particular interest is charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) scattering, which yields a final state consisting of a charged lepton and nucleon. This process, which is the dominant interaction near energies of 1 GeV, is of great utility to neutrino oscillation experiments since the incoming neutrino energy and the square of the momentum transferred to the final state nucleon, Q2, can be reconstructed using the final state lepton kinematics. To address the uncertainty in our knowledge of neutrino interactions, many experiments have begun making dedicated measurements. In particular, the MINER A experiment is studying neutrino-nucleus interactions in the few GeV region. MINERvA is a fine-grained, high precision, high statistics neutrino scattering experiment that will greatly improve our understanding of neutrino cross-sections and nuclear effects that affect the final state particles

  20. Antineutrino detector for anti ν oscillation studies at fission weapon tests and at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, H.W.; Loncoski, R.; Mack, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two anti ν oscillation experiments are planned, incorporating large volume (4200 l) liquid scintillation detectors 1) at large distances (450 to 800 m) from fission weapon tests and 2) at 12 to 50 m from LAMPF beam dump where significant anti ν/sub e/ events are detected only if some oscillation operates, such as ν/sub μ/ → ν/sub e/. Design criteria, detector characteristics, and experimental considerations are given

  1. Current level detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a dc signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference ac signal is applied. The unknown dc signal acts on the reference ac signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown dc current. The device may be used to provide overcurrent protection for proportional wire chambers

  2. Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmel, Alexander I. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for vμ → $\\bar{v}$μ transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |Δ$\\bar{m}$atm 2| = (3.36-0.40+0.46(stat) ± 0.06(syst)) x 10-3 eV2 and sin2(2$\\bar{θ}$23) = 0.860-0.12+0.11(stat) ± 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.

  3. Tuneable Current Mode RMS Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Predrag B.

    2015-01-01

    A new realization of RMS detector, employing two CCCIIs (controlled current conveyors), metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and single grounded capacitor is present in this paper, without any external resistors and components matching requirements. The proposed circuit can be applied in measuring the RMS value of periodic, band-limited signals. The proposed circuit is very appropriate to further develop into integrated circuits. The errors related to the signal processing and errors bound were investigated and provided. To verify the theoretical analysis, the circuit PSpice simulations have also been included, showing good agreement with the theory.

  4. One meson π0 final state study in neutral current neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comtet, Alain.

    1975-01-01

    Neutral pion production by weak neutral currents was observed in the CERN-GARGAMELLE neutrino experiment. The aim of the analysis was the measurement of the ratios R(ν) and R(antiν) of neutral-current to charged-current cross sections. The background due to neutron interactions was computed. A lower and an upper limit of the background was obtained. Bounds on the ratios R(ν) and R(antiν) are given using these limits: 0.11 [fr

  5. Determination of the neutral to charged current cross-section ratio for antineutrino interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreels, J.; Van Doninck, W.; Alamatsaz, H.; Armenise, N.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J. H.; Baton, J. P.; Belusevic, R.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Calicchio, M.; Colley, D. C.; Cooper, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-muciaccia, M. T.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J. G.; Jones, G. T.; Kochowski, C.; Michette, A. G.; Natali, S.; Neveu, M.; Nuzzo, S.; O'Neale, S.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Ruggieri, F.; Sacton, J.; Sewell, S.; Tyndel, M.; Vander Velde, G.; Venus, W.; Vortuba, M. F.; BEBC TST Neutrino Collaboration

    1984-04-01

    An exposure of BEBC equipped with the hydrogen-filled TST to the overlinevμ wide band beam at the CERN SPS has been used to study overlinevμ interactions on free protons. About neutral induced interactions have been observed inside the hydrogen and separated into charged current, neutral current and neutral hadron interactions using a multivariate discriminant analysis based on the kinematics of the events. The neutral to charged current cross-section ratio has been determined to be R poverlinev = 0.33 ± 0.04 . When combined with the value of Rpv previously determined in the same experiment, the result is compatible with the prediction of the standard SU (2) × U (1) model for sin 2θW = 0.24 -0.08+0.06 and ρ = 1.07 -0.08+0.06. Fixing the parameter ρ = 1 yields sin 2θW = 0.18 ± 0.04.

  6. Measurements of cross-section of charge current inclusive of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using carbon, iron, lead and scintillator at MINER$\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotondravohitra, Laza [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Neutrino physics is one of the most active fields in the domaine of high energy physics during the last century. The need of precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus interactions required by the neutrino oscillation experiments is a an exiting step. These measurements of cross-section are more than essential for neutrino oscillation experiment. Over the year, many measurements from varieties of experiments have been presented. MINERνA is one of the world leaders in measuring cross-section of neutrino and antineutrino -nucleus interactions. MINERνA is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. In order to study nuclear dependence, MINERνA is endowed with different types of solid nuclear targets as well are liquid targets such as helium and water. This thesis presents measurements of cross-section of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using a variety of solid nuclear targets, carbon, iron, lead and also polystyrene scintillator (CH). The data set of antineutrino used for this analysis was taken between March and July 2010 with a total of 1.60X1020 protons on target. Charged current inclusive interactions were selected by requiring a positive muon and kinematics limitation of acceptance of the muon spectrometer are applied. The analysis requires neutrino energy between 2GeV et 20GeV and the angle of muon θmu < 17degree . The absolute cross-section # as function of neutrino energy and the differential cross-section dσ/ dxbj measured and shown the corresponding systematics for each nuclear targets. Data results are compared with prediction of the models implemented in the neutrino events generators GENIE 2.6.2 used by the experiment.

  7. Determining reactor fuel type from continuous antineutrino monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffke, Patrick; Huber, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the ability of an antineutrino detector to determine the fuel type of a reactor. A hypothetical 5t antineutrino detector is placed 25m from the core and measures the spectral shape and rate of antineutrinos emitted by fission fragments in the core for a number of 90 day periods. Our results indicate that four major fuel types can be differentiated from the variation of fission fractions over the irradiation time with a true positive probability of detection at 95%. In addition,...

  8. Detector of the reactor AntiNeutrino based on Solid-state plastic Scintillator (DANSS). Status and first results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseev, I.; Belov, V.; Brudanin, V.; Danilov, M.; Egorov, V.; Filosofov, D. V.; Fomina, M.; Hons, Zdeněk; Kazartsev, S.; Kobyakin, A.; Machikhiliyan, I.; Medvedev, D.; Nesterov, V.; Olshevsky, A.; Ponomarev, D.; Rozova, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Rusinov, V.; Salamatin, A.; Shevchik, Y.; Shirchenko, M.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Skrobova, N.; Starostin, A.; Svirida, D.N.; Tarkovsky, E.; Tikhomirov, I.; Vlášek, J.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 798, UNSP (2017), č. článku 012152. ISSN 1742-6588. [2nd International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics (ICPPA). Moscow, 11.10.2016-14.10.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : detector * SiPMs * beta-decay Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics

  9. Antineutrino-nucleon total cross section and ratio of antineutrino cross section on neutrons and protons

    CERN Document Server

    Erriquez, O; Bisi, V; Bonetti, S; Bullock, F W; Cavalli, D; Engel, J P; Eranzinetti, C; Escubes, B; Esten, M J; Fogli-Muciaccia, M T; Gamba, D; Guyonnet, J L; Halsteinslid, A; Henderson, R C W; Huss, D; Jones, T W; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mauri, F; Myklebost, K; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Paty, M; Pullia, A; Racca, C; Ramzan, F A; Riccati, L; Riester, J L; Rognebakke, A; Rollier, M; Romero, A; Skjeggestad, O

    1979-01-01

    On a selected sample of 2171 events, observed in the heavy liquid bubble chamber Gargamelle at CERN, the charged current total cross section for antineutrino on nucleons has been determined to the laboratory energy 8 GeV. (7 refs).

  10. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios in neutrino and antineutrino nucleon interactions and determination of the Weinberg angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Groot, J.G.H. de; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Knobloch, J.; May, J.; Navarria, F.L.; Palazzi, P.; Para, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rothberg, J.; Schlatter, D.; Steinberger, J.; Taureg, H.; Rueden, W. von; Wahl, H.; Wotschak, J.; Duda, J.; Eisele, F.; Klasen, H.P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Lierl, H.; Pollmann, D.; Pszola, B.; Renk, B.; Willutzki, H.J.; Dydak, F.; Flottmann, T.; Geweniger, C.; Hepp, V.; Krolikowski, J.; Tittel, K.; Bloch, P.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Guyot, C.; Loucatos, S.; Maillard, J.; Merlo, J.P.; Peyaud, B.; Rander, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Turlay, R.; He, J.T.; Ruan, T.Z.; Wu, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The cross section ratios of neutral and charged current interactions induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos in iron have been measured in the 200 GeV narrow-band beam at the CERN SPS. We find Rsub(ν)=0.301+-0.007 and Rsub(anti ν)=0.363+-0.015 for a hadron energy cut of 10 GeV. The results are in agreement with the standard model of electroweak interactions. In the MS renormalization scheme at the scale of the W boson mass sin 2 Osub(w)(msub(w))=0.226+-0.012 is obtained, where the error represents the experimental uncertainty. The theoretical uncertainty is estimated to be Δ sind 2 Osub(w)=+-0.006. (orig.)

  11. Reactors as a source of antineutrinos: the effect of fuel loading and burnup for mixed oxide fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel; Erickson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In a conventional light water reactor loaded with a range of uranium and plutonium-based fuel mixtures, the variation in antineutrino production over the cycle reflects both the initial core fissile inventory and its evolution. Under the assumption of constant thermal power, we calculate the rate at which antineutrinos are emitted from variously fueled cores, and the evolution of that rate as measured by a representative ton-scale antineutrino detector. We find that antineutrino flux decrease...

  12. Experimental determination of the antineutrino spectrum of the fission products of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, Nils-Holger

    2013-01-01

    Fission of 238 U contributes about 10 % to the antineutrino emission of a pressurized water reactor. In the present thesis, the beta spectrum of the fission products of 238 U was determined in an experiment at the neutron source FRM II. This beta spectrum was subsequently converted into an antineutrino spectrum. This first measurement of the antineutrino spectrum supports all current and future reactor antineutrino experiments.

  13. Experimental determination of the antineutrino spectrum of the fission products of {sup 238}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, Nils-Holger

    2013-10-09

    Fission of {sup 238}U contributes about 10 % to the antineutrino emission of a pressurized water reactor. In the present thesis, the beta spectrum of the fission products of {sup 238}U was determined in an experiment at the neutron source FRM II. This beta spectrum was subsequently converted into an antineutrino spectrum. This first measurement of the antineutrino spectrum supports all current and future reactor antineutrino experiments.

  14. Measuring Antineutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Justin John [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. A manmade beam of predominantly muon neutrinos is detected both 1 km and 735 km from the production point by two functionally identical detectors. A comparison of the energy spectra measured by the two detectors shows the energy-dependent disappearance of muon neutrinos characteristic of oscillations and allows a measurement of the parameters governing the oscillations. This thesis presents work leading to measurements of disappearance in the 6% $\\bar{v}$μ background in that beam. A calibration is developed to correct for time-dependent changes in the responses of both detectors, reducing the corresponding uncertainty on hadronic energy measurements from 1.8% to 0.4% in the near detector and from 0.8% to 0.4% in the far detector. A method of selecting charged current $\\bar{v}$μ events is developed, with purities (efficiencies) of 96.5% (74.4%) at the near detector, and 98.8% (70.9%) at the far detector in the region below 10 GeV reconstructed antineutrino energy. A method of using the measured near detector neutrino energy spectrum to predict that expected at the far detector is discussed, and developed for use in the $\\bar{v}$μ analysis. Sources of systematic uncertainty contributing to the oscillation measurements are discussed. In the far detector, 32 charged current $\\bar{v}$μ events are observed below a reconstructed energy of 30 GeV, compared to an expectation of 47.8 for Δ$\\bar{m}$atm2 = Δ$\\bar{m}$atm2, sin2(2$\\bar{θ}$23) = sin2(2θ23). This deficit, in such a low-statistics sample, makes the result difficult to interpret in the context of an oscillation parameter measurement. Possible sources for the discrepancy are discussed, concluding that considerably more data are required for a definitive solution. Running MINOS with a dedicated $\\bar

  15. Improved current type proximity detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visioli, A.J. Jr.

    1976-04-29

    A proximity detection system for non-contact displacement and proximity measurement of static or dynamic metallic or conductive surfaces is provided wherein the measurement is obtained by monitoring the change in impedance of a flat, generally spiralwound, printed circuit coil which is excited by a constant current, constant frequency source. The change in impedance, which is detected as a corresponding change in voltage across th coil, is related to the eddy current losses in the distant conductive material target. The arrangement provides for considerable linear displacement range with increased accuracies, stability, and sensitivity over the entire range.

  16. Antineutrino monitoring for the Iranian heavy water reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Eric; Huber, Patrick; Jaffke, Patrick; Shea, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this note we discuss the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the Iranian heavy water reactor at Arak, the IR-40, as a non-proliferation measure. We demonstrate that an above ground detector positioned right outside the IR-40 reactor building could meet and in some cases significantly exceed the verification goals identified by IAEA for plutonium production or diversion from declared inventories. In addition to monitoring the reactor during operation, observing antineutrino ...

  17. Applied Anti-neutrino Physics 2013

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This year, the 9th annual Applied Antineutrino Physics Workshop will be hosted by Sejong University, at the COEX conference center in Seoul South Korea. The workshop will be held on November 1(Friday) - 2(Saturday), 2013. Conveniently for many travelers, it takes place directly after and at the same venue as the 2013 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium (http://www.nss-mic.org/2013/NSSMain.asp) Applied Antineutrino Physics describes an ensemble of experimental and theoretical efforts which aim to use the antineutrino signal from nuclear reactors, and from the Earth itself, in order to address practical problems in nonproliferation and geology respectively. Since the 2004 inception of these workshops, groups worldwide have made considerable advances in defining and expanding the field, garnering interest from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which administers the worlds most important nonproliferation regime, and from the geology/geophysics community. This meeting will focus on the current activi...

  18. Anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.; Gari, M.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie

    1981-01-01

    The anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron (anti ν + D → anti ν + n + p and anti νsub(e) + D → + e + + n + n) is calculated using realistic two-body states. Meson-exchange currents are considered in the one-boson-exchange limit. The results are discussed as corrections to the cross sections obtained in effective range approximations. It is shown that the ratio of the cross sections (sigma - /sigma 0 ) for reactor antineutrinos is practically independent of the nuclear physics uncertainties. (orig.)

  19. Precise measurement of neutrino and anti-neutrino differential cross sections on iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzanov, Martin Mihaylov [Pittsburgh U.

    2005-11-01

    This thesis will present a precise measurement of the differential cross section for charged current neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering from iron. The NuTeV experiment took data during 1996-97 and collected 8.6 10 º and 2.4 10 º charged-current (CC) interactions. The experiment combines sign-selected neutrino and antineutrino beams and the upgraded CCFR iron-scintillator neutrino detector. A precision continuous calibration beam was used to determine the muon and hadron energy scales to a precision of about a factor of two better than previous experiments. The structure functions F (x,Q2) and xF3(x,Q2) are extracted and compared with theory and previous measurements.

  20. Anti-neutrino flux in a research reactor for non-proliferation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakshournia, Samad; Foroughi, Shokoufeh [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI)

    2017-11-15

    Owing to growing interest in the study of emitted antineutrinos from nuclear reactors to test the Atomic Energy Agency safeguards, antineutrino flux was studied in the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) using ORIGEN code. According to our prediction, antineutrino rate was obtained 2.6 x 10{sup 17} (v{sub e}/sec) in the core No. 57F of the TRR. Calculations indicated that evolution of antineutrino flux was very slow with time and the performed refueling had not an observable effect on antineutrino flux curve for a 5 MW reactor with the conventional refueling program. It is seen that for non-proliferation applications the measurement of the contribution of {sup 239}Pu to the fission using an antineutrino detector is not viable in the TRR.

  1. Antineutrino Oscillations and a Search for Non-standard Interactions with the MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isvan, Zeynep [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    MINOS searches for neutrino oscillations using the disappearance of muon neutrinos from the NuMI beam at Fermilab between two detectors. The Near Detector, located near the source, measures the beam composition before flavor change occurs. The energy spectrum is measured again at the Far Detector after neutrinos travel a distance. The mixing angle and mass splitting between the second and third mass states are extracted from the energy dependent difference between the spectra at the two detectors. NuMI is able to produce an antineutrino-enhanced beam as well as a neutrino-enhanced beam. Collecting data in antineutrino-mode allows the direct measurement of antineutrino oscillation parameters. From the analysis of the antineutrino mode data we measure $|\\Delta\\bar{m}^{2}_{\\text{atm}}| = 2.62^{+0.31}_{-0.28}\\times10^{-3}\\text{eV}^{2}$ and $\\sin^{2}(2\\bar{\\theta})_{23} = 0.95^{+0.10}_{-0.11}$, which is the most precise measurement of antineutrino oscillation parameters to date. A difference between neutrino and antineutrino oscillation parameters may indicate new physics involving interactions that are not part of the Standard Model, called non-standard interactions, that alter the apparent disappearance probability. Collecting data in neutrino and antineutrino mode independently allows a direct search for non-standard interactions. In this dissertation non-standard interactions are constrained by a combined analysis of neutrino and antineutrino datasets and no evidence of such interactions is found.

  2. The upper limit of the solar antineutrino flux according to the LSD array data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'etta, M.; Antonioli, P.; Badino, D.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the experimental data obtained at the LSD liquid scintillation detector is carried out with the aim of searching the possible flux of electron antineutrinos from Sun. The most strong at present upper limit for the electron antineutrino flux of solar origin is determined: ≤ 1.0 x 10 5 cm -2 x s -1 (the reliability level of 90%)

  3. Determining Reactor Fuel Type from Continuous Antineutrino Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffke, Patrick; Huber, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the ability of an antineutrino detector to determine the fuel type of a reactor. A hypothetical 5-ton antineutrino detector is placed 25 m from the core and measures the spectral shape and rate of antineutrinos emitted by fission fragments in the core for a number of 90-d periods. Our results indicate that four major fuel types can be differentiated from the variation of fission fractions over the irradiation time with a true positive probability of detection at approximately 95%. In addition, we demonstrate that antineutrinos can identify the burnup at which weapons-grade mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel would be reduced to reactor-grade MOX, on average, providing assurance that plutonium-disposition goals are met. We also investigate removal scenarios where plutonium is purposefully diverted from a mixture of MOX and low-enriched uranium fuel. Finally, we discuss how our analysis is impacted by a spectral distortion around 6 MeV observed in the antineutrino spectrum measured from commercial power reactors.

  4. Long Distance Reactor Antineutrino Flux Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazeley, Steven; Bergevin, Marc; Bernstein, Adam

    2015-10-01

    The feasibility of antineutrino detection as an unambiguous and unshieldable way to detect the presence of distant nuclear reactors has been studied. While KamLAND provided a proof of concept for long distance antineutrino detection, the feasibility of detecting single reactors at distances greater than 100 km has not yet been established. Even larger detectors than KamLAND would be required for such a project. Considerations such as light attenuation, environmental impact and cost, which favor water as a detection medium, become more important as detectors get larger. We have studied both the sensitivity of water based detection media as a monitoring tool, and the scientific impact such detectors might provide. A next generation water based detector may be able to contribute to important questions in neutrino physics, such as supernova neutrinos, sterile neutrino oscillations, and non standard electroweak interactions (using a nearby compact accelerator source), while also providing a highly sensitive, and inherently unshieldable reactor monitoring tool to the non proliferation community. In this talk I will present the predicted performance of an experimental non proliferation and high-energy physics program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-674192.

  5. The reactor antineutrino anomaly and low energy threshold neutrino experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, B. C.; Garcés, E. A.; Miranda, O. G.; Parada, A.

    2018-01-01

    Short distance reactor antineutrino experiments measure an antineutrino spectrum a few percent lower than expected from theoretical predictions. In this work we study the potential of low energy threshold reactor experiments in the context of a light sterile neutrino signal. We discuss the perspectives of the recently detected coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering in future reactor antineutrino experiments. We find that the expectations to improve the current constraints on the mixing with sterile neutrinos are promising. We also analyze the measurements of antineutrino scattering off electrons from short distance reactor experiments. In this case, the statistics is not competitive with inverse beta decay experiments, although future experiments might play a role when compare it with the Gallium anomaly.

  6. Towards earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wortche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.

    2006-01-01

    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection.

  7. Current technology of particle physics detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the characteristics required of new accelerator facilities, leading into a discussion of the required detectors, including position sensitive detectors, particle identification, and calorimeters

  8. Search for coherent muon pair production by neutrinos and antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, F.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jonker, M.; Nieuwenhuis, C.; Allaby, J.V.; Amaldi, U.; Barbiellini, G.; Barone, L.; Capone, A.; Flegel, W.; Metcalf, M.; Panman, J.; Winter, K.; Aspiazu, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Daumann, H.; Gall, P.D.; Metz, E.; Niebergall, F.; Ranitzsch, K.H.; Staehelin, P.; Baroncelli, A.; Borgia, B.; Bosio, C.; Ferroni, F.; Longo, E.; Monacelli, P.; De Notaristefani, F.; Pistilli, P.; Santoni, C.; Tortora, L.; Valente, V.

    1983-01-01

    A search for coherent μ + μ - pair production has been made using the CHARM neutrino detector exposed to wide-band horn-focussed neutrino and antineutrino beams at the 400 GeV CERN SPS. Out of 3.3 x 10 6 neutrino and antineutrino induced CC events with energy greater than 10 GeV, we find two events which can be attributed to coherent production off the target nuclei (CaCO 3 ). This allows a limit to be set on the diagonal four-lepton coupling constant Gsub(d) < 1.5 Gsub(f) (90% CL). (orig.)

  9. The U238 antineutrino spectrum in the Double Chooz experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, Nils; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Schreckenbach, Klaus [Technische Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Lachenmaier, Tobias [Eberhard Karls Universitaet, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The DoubleChooz experiment aims at the determination of the unknown neutrino mixing parameter {Theta}{sub 13}. Two liquid scintillator detectors will measure an electron antineutrino disappearance at the Chooz site in the French ardennes. In order to improve the sensitivity, the antineutrino spectrum emitted by the Chooz reactor cores has to be determined with high accuracy. This talk focusses on the U238 spectrum, which is the only contributing spectrum, that was not measured until now. The final U238 beta spectrum is presented, and its implementation into the analysis framework is shown.

  10. Reactor Monitoring with Antineutrinos - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam

    2012-08-01

    The Reactor Safeguards regime is the name given to a set of protocols and technologies used to monitor the consumption and production of fissile materials in nuclear reactors. The Safeguards regime is administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and is an essential component of the global Treaty on Nuclear Nonproliferation, recently renewed by its 189 remaining signators. (The 190th, North Korea, withdrew from the Treaty in 2003). Beginning in Russia in the 1980s, a number of researchers worldwide have experimentally demonstrated the potential of cubic meter scale antineutrino detectors for non-intrusive real-time monitoring of fissile inventories and power output of reactors. The detectors built so far have operated tens of meters from a reactor core, outside of the containment dome, largely unattended and with remote data acquisition for an entire 1.5 year reactor cycle, and have achieved levels of sensitivity to fissile content of potential interest for the IAEA safeguards regime. In this article, I will describe the unique advantages of antineutrino detectors for cooperative monitoring, consider the prospects and benefits of increasing the range of detectability for small reactors, and provide a partial survey of ongoing global research aimed at improving near-field and far field monitoring and discovery of nuclear reactors.

  11. Reactors as a Source of Antineutrinos: Effects of Fuel Loading and Burnup for Mixed-Oxide Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel S.; Erickson, Anna S.

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional light-water reactor loaded with a range of uranium and plutonium-based fuel mixtures, the variation in antineutrino production over the cycle reflects both the initial core fissile inventory and its evolution. Under an assumption of constant thermal power, we calculate the rate at which antineutrinos are emitted from variously fueled cores, and the evolution of that rate as measured by a representative ton-scale antineutrino detector. We find that antineutrino flux decreases with burnup for low-enriched uranium cores, increases for full mixed-oxide (MOX) cores, and does not appreciably change for cores with a MOX fraction of approximately 75%. Accounting for uncertainties in the fission yields in the emitted antineutrino spectra and the detector response function, we show that the difference in corewide MOX fractions at least as small as 8% can be distinguished using a hypothesis test. The test compares the evolution of the antineutrino rate relative to an initial value over part or all of the cycle. The use of relative rates reduces the sensitivity of the test to an independent thermal power measurement, making the result more robust against possible countermeasures. This rate-only approach also offers the potential advantage of reducing the cost and complexity of the antineutrino detectors used to verify the diversion, compared to methods that depend on the use of the antineutrino spectrum. A possible application is the verification of the disposition of surplus plutonium in nuclear reactors.

  12. Workshop applied antineutrino physics 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiri, T.; Andrieu, B.; Anjos, J.; Argyriades, J.; Barouch, G.; Bernstein, A.; Bersillon, O.; Besida, O.; Bowden, N.; Cabrera, A.; Calmet, D.; Collar, J.; Cribier, M.; Kerret, H. de; Meijer, R. de; Dudziak, F.; Enomoto, S.; Fallot, M.; Fioni, G.; Fiorentini, G.; Gale, Ph.; Georgadze, A.; Giot, L.; Gonin, M.; Guillon, B.; Henson, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kanamaru, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Kornoukhov, V.; Lasserre, Th.; Learned, J.G.; Lefebvre, J.; Letourneau, A.; Lhillier, D.; Lindner, M.; Lund, J.; Mantovani, F.; Mcdonough, B.; Mention, G.; Monteith, A.; Motta, D.; Mueller, Th.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Odrzywolek, A.; Petcov, S.; Porta, A.; Queval, R.; Reinhold, B.; Reyna, D.; Ridikas, D.; Sadler, L.; Schoenert, St.; Sida, J.L.; Sinev, V.; Suekane, F.; Suvorov, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Tang, A.; Tolich, N.; Tolich, K.; Vanka, S.; Vignaud, D.; Volpe, Ch.; Wong, H.

    2007-01-01

    The 'Applied Antineutrino Physics 2007' workshop is the fourth international meeting devoted to the opening of the neutrino physics to more applied fields, such as geophysics and geochemistry, nuclear industry, as well as the nonproliferation. This meeting highlights the world efforts already engaged to exploit the single characteristics of the neutrinos for the control of the production of plutonium in the civil nuclear power reactor. The potential industrial application of the measurement of the thermal power of the nuclear plants by the neutrinos is also approached. earth neutrinos were for the first time highlighted in 2002 by the KamLAND experiment. Several international efforts are currently underway to use earth neutrinos to reveal the interior of the Earth. This meeting is an opportunity to adapt the efforts of detection to the real needs of geophysicists and geochemists (sources of radiogenic heat, potassium in the court, feathers.) Finally more futuristic topics such as the detection of nuclear explosions, of low powers, are also discussed. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  13. Workshop applied antineutrino physics 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiri, T.; Andrieu, B.; Anjos, J.; Argyriades, J.; Barouch, G.; Bernstein, A.; Bersillon, O.; Besida, O.; Bowden, N.; Cabrera, A.; Calmet, D.; Collar, J.; Cribier, M.; Kerret, H. de; Meijer, R. de; Dudziak, F.; Enomoto, S.; Fallot, M.; Fioni, G.; Fiorentini, G.; Gale, Ph.; Georgadze, A.; Giot, L.; Gonin, M.; Guillon, B.; Henson, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kanamaru, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Kornoukhov, V.; Lasserre, Th.; Learned, J.G.; Lefebvre, J.; Letourneau, A.; Lhillier, D.; Lindner, M.; Lund, J.; Mantovani, F.; Mcdonough, B.; Mention, G.; Monteith, A.; Motta, D.; Mueller, Th.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Odrzywolek, A.; Petcov, S.; Porta, A.; Queval, R.; Reinhold, B.; Reyna, D.; Ridikas, D.; Sadler, L.; Schoenert, St.; Sida, J.L.; Sinev, V.; Suekane, F.; Suvorov, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Tang, A.; Tolich, N.; Tolich, K.; Vanka, S.; Vignaud, D.; Volpe, Ch.; Wong, H

    2007-07-01

    The 'Applied Antineutrino Physics 2007' workshop is the fourth international meeting devoted to the opening of the neutrino physics to more applied fields, such as geophysics and geochemistry, nuclear industry, as well as the nonproliferation. This meeting highlights the world efforts already engaged to exploit the single characteristics of the neutrinos for the control of the production of plutonium in the civil nuclear power reactor. The potential industrial application of the measurement of the thermal power of the nuclear plants by the neutrinos is also approached. earth neutrinos were for the first time highlighted in 2002 by the KamLAND experiment. Several international efforts are currently underway to use earth neutrinos to reveal the interior of the Earth. This meeting is an opportunity to adapt the efforts of detection to the real needs of geophysicists and geochemists (sources of radiogenic heat, potassium in the court, feathers.) Finally more futuristic topics such as the detection of nuclear explosions, of low powers, are also discussed. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  14. Current responsivity of semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignatov, Anatoly A.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    The current responsivity of a semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detector is calculated using an equivalent circuit model which takes into account the finite matching efficiency between a detector antenna and the superlattice in the presence of parasitic losses. Calculations performed for curr......The current responsivity of a semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detector is calculated using an equivalent circuit model which takes into account the finite matching efficiency between a detector antenna and the superlattice in the presence of parasitic losses. Calculations performed...... of the responsivity (2–3 A/W in the 1–3 THz-frequency band) range up to several percents of the quantum efficiency e/[h-bar] omega of an ideal superconductor tunnel junction detector. Properly designed semiconductor superlattice detectors may thus demonstrate better room temperature THz-photon responsivity than...

  15. Anti-neutrino imprint in solar neutrino flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, D.

    2006-10-01

    A future neutrino detector at megaton mass might enlarge the neutrino telescope thresholds revealing cosmic supernova background and largest solar flares (SFs) neutrinos. Indeed the solar energetic (Ep>100 MeV) flare particles (protons, α), while scattering among themselves on solar corona atmosphere must produce prompt charged pions, whose chain decays are source of a solar (electron muon) neutrino 'flare' (at tens or hundreds MeV energy). These brief (minutes) neutrino 'bursts' at largest flare peak may overcome by three to five orders of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, possibly leading to their detection above detection thresholds (in a full mixed three flavour state). Moreover the birth of anti-neutrinos at a few tens of MeV very clearly flares above a null thermal 'hep' anti-neutrino solar background and also above a tiny supernova relic and atmospheric noise. The largest prompt solar anti-neutrino 'burst' may be well detected in future Super Kamikande (gadolinium implemented) anti-neutrino \\bar\

  16. Is there a high-y anomaly in antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, M.; Knobloch, J.; May, J.; Paar, H.P.; Palazzi, P.; Schlatter, D.; Steinberger, J.; Suter, H.; Wahl, H.; Williams, E.G.H.; Eisele, F.; Geweniger, C.; Kleinknecht, K.; Spahn, G.; Wilutzki, H.; Dorth, W.; Dydak, F.; Hepp, V.; Tittel, K.; Wotschack, J.; Bloch, P.; Devaux, B.; Grimm, M.; Maillard, J.; Peyaud, B.; Rander, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Turlay, R.; Navarria, F.L.

    1977-01-01

    We have analyzed data taken in the CERN narrow-band neutrino and antineutrino beams with regard to the ''high-y anomaly'' observed by previous experiments at Fermilab. At neutrino energies between 30 and 200 GeV, the anti ν and ν charged-current cross-section ratios and muon-inelasticity distributions disagree with the earlier results. In particular, there is no evidence for energy-dependent effects in the antineutrino data which constitute an important aspect of the alleged anomaly

  17. Precision Search for Muon Antineutrino Disappearance Oscillations Using a Dual Baseline Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gary Li [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A search for short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance with the SciBooNE and MiniBooNE experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois is presented. Short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance measurements help constrain sterile neutrino models. The two detectors observe muon antineutrinos from the same beam, therefore the combined analysis of their data sets serves to partially constrain some of the flux and cross section uncertainties. A likelihood ratio method was used to set a 90% confidence level upper limit on muon antineutrino disappearance that dramatically improves upon prior sterile neutrino oscillation limits in the Δm2=0.1-100 eV2 region.

  18. Current trends in scintillator detectors and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, William W.

    2001-01-01

    The last decade has seen a renaissance in inorganic scintillator development for gamma ray detection. Lead tungstate (PbWO4) has been developed for high energy physics experiments, and possesses exceptionally high density and radiation hardness, albeit with low luminous efficiency. Lutetium orthosilicate or LSO (Lu2SiO5:Ce) possesses a unique combination of high luminous efficiency, high density, and reasonably short decay time, and is now incorporated in commercial positron emission tomography (PET) cameras. There have been advances in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that limit energy resolution, and several recently discovered materials (such as LaBr3:Ce) possess energy resolution that approaches that of direct solid state detectors. Finally, there are indications that a neglected class of scintillator materials that exhibit near band-edge fluorescence could provide scintillators with sub-nanosecond decay times and high luminescent efficiency

  19. Current trends in scintillator detectors and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, W W

    2002-01-01

    The last decade has seen a renaissance in inorganic scintillator development for gamma ray detection. Lead tungstate (PbWO sub 4) has been developed for high-energy physics experiments, and possesses exceptionally high density and radiation hardness, albeit with low luminous efficiency. Lutetium orthosilicate or LSO (Lu sub 2 SiO sub 5 :Ce) possesses a unique combination of high luminous efficiency, high density, and reasonably short decay time, and is now incorporated in commercial positron emission tomography cameras. There have been advances in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that limit energy resolution, and several recently discovered materials (such as LaBr sub 3 :Ce) possess energy resolution that approaches that of direct solid state detectors. Finally, there are indications that a neglected class of scintillator materials that exhibit near band-edge fluorescence could provide scintillators with sub-nanosecond decay times and high luminescent efficiency.

  20. Current trends in scintillator detectors and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    The last decade has seen a renaissance in inorganic scintillator development for gamma ray detection. Lead tungstate (PbWO 4 ) has been developed for high-energy physics experiments, and possesses exceptionally high density and radiation hardness, albeit with low luminous efficiency. Lutetium orthosilicate or LSO (Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce) possesses a unique combination of high luminous efficiency, high density, and reasonably short decay time, and is now incorporated in commercial positron emission tomography cameras. There have been advances in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that limit energy resolution, and several recently discovered materials (such as LaBr 3 :Ce) possess energy resolution that approaches that of direct solid state detectors. Finally, there are indications that a neglected class of scintillator materials that exhibit near band-edge fluorescence could provide scintillators with sub-nanosecond decay times and high luminescent efficiency

  1. Dark Current Reduction of IR Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-19

    extremely high dark currents, exhibited increased dark current with the contact anneal, and do not vary with junction area. All of these symptoms are...2 2.1 - Motivation ........................................................................................................................... 2 3...on this program. It has been an invaluable experience for both Prof. Bellotti and his students , whom have been able to gain a substantial amount of

  2. Neutron detection using a current biased kinetic inductance detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Takekazu; Narukami, Yoshito; Oikawa, Kenichi; Harada, Masahide; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Fujimaki, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate neutron detection using a solid state superconducting current biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which consists of a superconducting Nb meander line of 1 μm width and 40 nm thickness. 10 B-enriched neutron absorber layer of 150 nm thickness is placed on top of the CB-KID. Our neutron detectors are able to operate in a wide superconducting region in the bias current–temperature diagram. This is in sharp contrast with our preceding current-biased transition edge detector, which can operate only in a narrow range just below the superconducting critical temperature. The full width at half maximum of the signals remains of the order of a few tens of ns, which confirms the high speed operation of our detectors

  3. KamLAND and Solar Antineutrino Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, B C; Torrente-Lujan, E; Chauhan, Bhag C.; Pulido, Joao

    2004-01-01

    We use the recent KamLAND observations to predict the solar antineutrino spectrum at some confidence limits. We find that a scaling of the antineutrino probability with respect to the magnetic field profile --in the sense that the same probability function can be reproduced by any profile with a suitable peak field value-- can be utilised to obtain a general shape of the solar antineutrino spectrum. This scaling and the upper bound on the solar antineutrino event rate, that can be derived from the data, lead to: 1) an upper bound on the solar antineutrino flux, 2) the prediction of their energy spectrum, as the normalisation of the spectrum can be obtained from the total number of antineutrino events recorded in the experiment. We get $\\phi_{\\bar\

  4. Correlated background and impact on the measurement of θ13 with the Double Chooz detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remoto, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment uses antineutrinos emitted from the Chooz nuclear power plant (France) to measure the oscillation mixing parameter θ 13 . By using two detectors at different baselines, a precise measurement of antineutrinos disappearance is anticipated. The Far detector has been taking physics data since April 2011, while the Near detector is under construction. Data from April 13, 2011 to March 30, 2012 taken with the Far detector only have been analyzed and an indication for antineutrino disappearance, consistent with the current neutrino oscillation hypothesis, has been found. The best fit value for the neutrino mixing parameter sin 2 (2θ 13 ) is 0.109 ± 0.030(stat.) ± 0.025(syst.). This thesis present an accurate description of the Double Chooz experiment, with particular emphasis on the Far detector and its acquisition system. The main focus of the thesis is the accurate study of the correlated background affecting the Double Chooz antineutrinos sample and its impact on the measurement of the mixing parameter θ 13 . A general overview of the current experimental scenario which aim to the characterization of the neutrino oscillation is also provided, focusing on the recent results obtained in this field. (author) [fr

  5. Optical fiber Cherenkov detector for beam current monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pishchulin, I.V.; Solov'ev, N.G.; Romashkin, O.B.

    1991-01-01

    The results obtained in calculation of an optical fiber Cherenkov detector for accelerated beam current monitoring are presented. The technique of beam parameters monitoring is based on Cherenkov radiation excitation by accelerated electrons in the optical fiber. The formulas for calculations of optical power and time dependence of Cherenkov radiation pulse are given. The detector sensitivity and time resolution dependence on the fiber material characteristics are investigated. Parameters of a 10μm one-mode quartz optical fiber detector for the free electron laser photoinjector are calculated. The structure of a monitoring system with the optical fiber Cherenkov detector is considered. Possible applications of this technique are discussed and some recommendations are given

  6. Analysis of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Flux Changes with Fuel Burnup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, Gerard; McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Garvey, G. T.; Wang, X. B.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the recent Daya Bay results on the changes in the antineutrino flux and spectrum with the burnup of the reactor fuel. We find that the discrepancy between current model predictions and the Daya Bay results can be traced to the original measured U 235 /Pu 239 ratio of the fission β spectra that were used as a base for the expected antineutrino fluxes. An analysis of the antineutrino spectra that is based on a summation over all fission fragment β decays, using nuclear database input, explains all of the features seen in the Daya Bay evolution data. However, this summation method still allows for an anomaly. We conclude that there is currently not enough information to use the antineutrino flux changes to rule out the possible existence of sterile neutrinos.

  7. Messung der Impulsverteilung der Antiquarks im Nukleon aus der inklusiven tiefinelastischen Antineutrino Nukleon Reaktion ueber geladene Stroeme

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, Hans Peter

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis the antiquark momentum distribution in the nucleus as a function of x and Q2 is determined. This determination is based on the measurement of the differential cross-section at high y for inclusive antineutrino nucleon charged current interactions. The portion of antineutrino scattering off quarks is corrected by the also measured neutrino cross-section. For the measurement of the cross-section 150 000 anti v- und 35 000 v-events, which were produced in the CERN wide band beam, in the energy range from 20 GeV to 160 GeV and 27 000 anti v- and 63 000 v-events measured in the narrow band beam in the energy range from 20 GeV to 200 GeV are used. The measurement was performed with the detector of the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay collaboration. The detector serves at the same time as target, as hadron energy calorimeter and as muon spectrometer. The measured antiquark momentum distribution shows a strong rise for x<0.1 as a function of Q2. It will be shown that this scaling violation cannot be ...

  8. Pulsed current signals in capacitor type particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubas, E; Ceponis, T; Pavlov, J

    2015-01-01

    The problem of pulsed current signals in capacitor type sensors, due to drifting surface charge domain is considered for the analysis of the operational characteristics in photo- and particle-detectors. In this article, the models of the formation of the pulsed currents have been analyzed in vacuum and dielectric filled capacitor-like detectors. Injected charge drift regimes such as Shockley-Ramo's-type (large charge drift) and free flight within Coulomb's force field (small charge drift) are discussed. It has been shown that solutions of the injected charge drift in the vacuum gap capacitor can be employed to emulate charge drift over free path in dynamic solution of the problem with scattering. Pulsed current signals and charge drift in the detectors of the capacitor filled with dielectric type have been analyzed, where the bipolar charge injection and various drift regimes appear. The bipolar carrier drift transformation to a monopolar one is considered, after either electrons or holes, injected within the material, reach the external electrode. The impact of the dynamic capacitance and load resistance in the formation of drift current transients is highlighted. It has been illustrated that the synchronous action of carrier drift, trapping, generation and diffusion can lead to a vast variety of possible current pulse waveforms

  9. Characterization of Detector Response for PROSPECT - A Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Brian; Dolinski, Michelle; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Recently, several experiments have reported an approximately 5% deficit of antineutrinos from nuclear reactors when the measured flux is compared with that predicted by current nuclear models. This is termed the ``Reactor Antineutrino Anomaly''. Furthermore, the predicted shape of the antineutrino spectrum is not in agreement with measurements from those experiments. The PROSPECT (Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum Measurement) collaboration plans to investigate this anomaly and constrain the shape of the spectrum with a high precision, short baseline (7-20m) measurement of the antineutrino spectrum from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) which will include a search for sterile neutrinos as one possible solution to the anomaly. PROSPECT will utilize a segmented, lithium-loaded liquid scintillator detector and is taking a phased approach to detector design by building progressively larger prototypes of this final detector with several prototypes already constructed and taking data. This poster will report on the ongoing analysis of the detector response of these prototypes including aspects such as position reconstruction, energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination.

  10. Development of the reactor antineutrino detection technology within the iDream project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, M.; Kuznetsov, D.; Murchenko, A.; Novikova, G.; Obinyakov, B.; Oralbaev, A.; Plakitina, K.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Sukhotin, S.; Chepurnov, A.; Etenko, A.

    2017-12-01

    The iDREAM (industrial Detector for reactor antineutrino monitoring) project is aimed at remote monitoring of the operating modes of the atomic reactor on nuclear power plant to ensure a technical support of IAEA non-proliferation safeguards. The detector is a scintillator spectrometer. The sensitive volume (target) is filled with a liquid organic scintillator based on linear alkylbenzene where reactor antineutrinos will be detected via inverse beta-decay reaction. We present first results of laboratory tests after physical launch. The detector was deployed at sea level without background shielding. The number of calibrations with radioactive sources was conducted. All data were obtained by means of a slow control system which was put into operation.

  11. Modelling of the anti-neutrino production and spectra from a Magnox reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Robert W.; Mountford, David J.; Coleman, Jonathon P.; Metelko, Carl; Murdoch, Matthew; Schnellbach, Yan-Jie

    2018-01-01

    The anti-neutrino source properties of a fission reactor are governed by the production and beta decay of the radionuclides present and the summation of their individual anti-neutrino spectra. The fission product radionuclide production changes during reactor operation and different fissioning species give rise to different product distributions. It is thus possible to determine some details of reactor operation, such as power, from the anti-neutrino emission to confirm safeguards records. Also according to some published calculations, it may be feasible to observe different anti-neutrino spectra depending on the fissile contents of the reactor fuel and thus determine the reactor's fissile material inventory during operation which could considerable improve safeguards. In mid-2014 the University of Liverpool deployed a prototype anti-neutrino detector at the Wylfa R1 station in Anglesey, United Kingdom based upon plastic scintillator technology developed for the T2K project. The deployment was used to develop the detector electronics and software until the reactor was finally shutdown in December 2015. To support the development of this detector technology for reactor monitoring and to understand its capabilities, the National Nuclear Laboratory modelled this graphite moderated and natural uranium fuelled reactor with existing codes used to support Magnox reactor operations and waste management. The 3D multi-physics code PANTHER was used to determine the individual powers of each fuel element (8×6152) during the year and a half period of monitoring based upon reactor records. The WIMS/TRAIL/FISPIN code route was then used to determine the radionuclide inventory of each nuclide on a daily basis in each element. These nuclide inventories were then used with the BTSPEC code to determine the anti-neutrino spectra and source strength using JEFF-3.1.1 data. Finally the anti-neutrino source from the reactor for each day during the year and a half of monitored reactor

  12. Modelling of the anti-neutrino production and spectra from a Magnox reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Robert W

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-neutrino source properties of a fission reactor are governed by the production and beta decay of the radionuclides present and the summation of their individual anti-neutrino spectra. The fission product radionuclide production changes during reactor operation and different fissioning species give rise to different product distributions. It is thus possible to determine some details of reactor operation, such as power, from the anti-neutrino emission to confirm safeguards records. Also according to some published calculations, it may be feasible to observe different anti-neutrino spectra depending on the fissile contents of the reactor fuel and thus determine the reactor's fissile material inventory during operation which could considerable improve safeguards. In mid-2014 the University of Liverpool deployed a prototype anti-neutrino detector at the Wylfa R1 station in Anglesey, United Kingdom based upon plastic scintillator technology developed for the T2K project. The deployment was used to develop the detector electronics and software until the reactor was finally shutdown in December 2015. To support the development of this detector technology for reactor monitoring and to understand its capabilities, the National Nuclear Laboratory modelled this graphite moderated and natural uranium fuelled reactor with existing codes used to support Magnox reactor operations and waste management. The 3D multi-physics code PANTHER was used to determine the individual powers of each fuel element (8×6152 during the year and a half period of monitoring based upon reactor records. The WIMS/TRAIL/FISPIN code route was then used to determine the radionuclide inventory of each nuclide on a daily basis in each element. These nuclide inventories were then used with the BTSPEC code to determine the anti-neutrino spectra and source strength using JEFF-3.1.1 data. Finally the anti-neutrino source from the reactor for each day during the year and a half of

  13. Measurement of the Reactor Antineutrino Flux and Spectrum at Daya Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F P; Balantekin, A B; Band, H R; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Butorov, I; Cao, D; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Cen, W R; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chen, H S; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, J H; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y P; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, X F; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dove, J; Draeger, E; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Ely, S R; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, L; Guo, X H; Hackenburg, R W; Han, R; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Higuera, A; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, L M; Hu, L J; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E C; Huang, H X; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Hussain, G; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kohn, S; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Langford, T J; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, K Y; Leung, J K C; Lewis, C A; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, S C; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, P Y; Lin, S K; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, D W; Liu, H; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Liu, S S; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Lu, J S; Luk, K B; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; Martinez Caicedo, D A; McDonald, K T; McKeown, R D; Meng, Y; Mitchell, I; Monari Kebwaro, J; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Ngai, H Y; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevski, A; Pan, H-R; Park, J; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Piilonen, L E; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, B; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Shao, B B; Steiner, H; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tang, W; Taychenachev, D; Tsang, K V; Tull, C E; Tung, Y C; Viaux, N; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, W W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Wei, H Y; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xia, X; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, J; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yan, J; Yang, C G; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Yeh, M; Young, B L; Yu, G Y; Yu, Z Y; Zang, S L; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, H H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y F; Zhao, Y B; Zheng, L; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2016-02-12

    This Letter reports a measurement of the flux and energy spectrum of electron antineutrinos from six 2.9 GWth nuclear reactors with six detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512 and 561 m) and one far (1579 m) underground experimental halls in the Daya Bay experiment. Using 217 days of data, 296 721 and 41 589 inverse β decay (IBD) candidates were detected in the near and far halls, respectively. The measured IBD yield is (1.55±0.04) ×10(-18)  cm(2) GW(-1) day(-1) or (5.92±0.14) ×10(-43)  cm(2) fission(-1). This flux measurement is consistent with previous short-baseline reactor antineutrino experiments and is 0.946±0.022 (0.991±0.023) relative to the flux predicted with the Huber-Mueller (ILL-Vogel) fissile antineutrino model. The measured IBD positron energy spectrum deviates from both spectral predictions by more than 2σ over the full energy range with a local significance of up to ∼4σ between 4-6 MeV. A reactor antineutrino spectrum of IBD reactions is extracted from the measured positron energy spectrum for model-independent predictions.

  14. Total Absorption Spectroscopy of Fission Fragments Relevant for Reactor Antineutrino Spectra and Decay Heat Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porta A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta decay of fission products is at the origin of decay heat and antineutrino emission in nuclear reactors. Decay heat represents about 7% of the reactor power during operation and strongly impacts reactor safety. Reactor antineutrino detection is used in several fundamental neutrino physics experiments and it can also be used for reactor monitoring and non-proliferation purposes. 92,93Rb are two fission products of importance in reactor antineutrino spectra and decay heat, but their β-decay properties are not well known. New measurements of 92,93Rb β-decay properties have been performed at the IGISOL facility (Jyväskylä, Finland using Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS. TAS is complementary to techniques based on Germanium detectors. It implies the use of a calorimeter to measure the total gamma intensity de-exciting each level in the daughter nucleus providing a direct measurement of the beta feeding. In these proceedings we present preliminary results for 93Rb, our measured beta feedings for 92Rb and we show the impact of these results on reactor antineutrino spectra and decay heat calculations.

  15. Dilepton and trilepton production by antineutrinos and neutrinos in neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbier, G.; Bertrand, D.; Guy, J.; Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Armenise, N.; Bartley, J. H.; Baton, J. P.; Brisson, V.; Belusevic, R.; Brou, D.; Bullock, F. W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Kochowski, C.; Lagraa, M.; Leighton-Davis, S.; Middleton, R.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; Nuzzo, S.; O'Neale, S.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; Talebzadeh, M.; Varvell, K.; Vallee, C.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.; Zevgolatakos, E.

    1985-03-01

    A sample of over 25,000 fully measured neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions in BEBC includes 192 dilepton candidates. The prompt signal after subtraction of background is 41 ±7µ+ e -, 35±7µ+µ- events frombar v interactions, and 32±7µ-µ+ events from ν interactions. There are 2 trileptons, µ-µ- e + and µ-µ-µ+. Results are compared with other experimental data and with the standard model. Limits to prompt like sign µ+ e +, µ+µ+ and µ-µ- signals are given and compared with other experiments and with theoretical calculations.

  16. Letter of Intent to Build a MiniBooNE Near Detector: BooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancu, I. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, D. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Prescott, AZ (United States); Ford, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kobilarcik, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marsh, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Moore, C. D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grange, J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Osmanov, B. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ray, H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). et al.

    2009-10-12

    There is accumulating evidence for a difference between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations at the {approx}1 eV{sup 2} scale. The MiniBooNE experiment observes an unexplained excess of electron-like events at low energies in neutrino mode, which may be due, for example, to either a neutral current radiative interaction, sterile neutrino decay, or to neutrino oscillations involving sterile neutrinos and which may be related to the LSND signal. No excess of electron-like events (-0.5 {+-} 7.8 {+-} 8.7), however, is observed so far at low energies in antineutrino mode. Furthermore, global 3+1 and 3+2 sterile neutrino fits to the world neutrino and antineutrino data suggest a difference between neutrinos and antineutrinos with significant (sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub {mu}{mu}} {approx} 35%) {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} disappearance. In order to test whether the low-energy excess is due to neutrino oscillations and whether there is a difference between {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} disappearance, we propose building a second MiniBooNE detector at (or moving the existing MiniBooNE detector to) a distance of {approx}200 m from the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) production target. With identical detectors at different distances, most of the systematic errors will cancel when taking a ratio of events in the two detectors, as the neutrino flux varies as 1/r{sup 2} to a calculable approximation. This will allow sensitive tests of oscillations for both {nu}{sub e} and {bar {nu}} appearance and {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} disappearance. Furthermore, a comparison between oscillations in neutrino mode and antineutrino mode will allow a sensitive search for CP and CPT violation in the lepton sector at short baseline ({Delta}m{sup 2} > 0.1 eV{sup 2}). Finally, by comparing the rates for a neutral current (NC) reaction, such as NC {pi}{sup 0} scattering or NC elastic scattering, a direct search for sterile neutrinos will be made. The initial amount of running time

  17. Present and Future Experiments in Non-equilibrium Reactor Antineutrino Energy Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Kopeikin, V. I.; Mikaelyan, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable efforts that have been undertaken in the recent years in low energy antineutrino experiments require further systematic investigations in line of reactor antineutrino spectroscopy as a metrological basis of these experiments. We consider some effects associated with the non-equilibrium of reactor antineutrino radiation and residual antineutrino emission from spent reactor fuel in contemporary antineutrino experiments.

  18. Measurement of the electroweak coupling of neutrinos and antineutrinos on electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, M.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the analysis of the events induced by elastic scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos on electrons and interprets the results in terms of the coupling strength of (anti)neutrino on electrons. The data for this analysis were obtained with the electronic calorimeter of the CHARM (Amsterdam, Cern, Hamburg, Moscow, Rome) collaboration during the wide band neutrino beam exposures of 1979, 1980 and 1981 in the neutrino facility of the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire, Geneva, Switzerland). In chapter 1 a historical overview of the early neutrino physics and a description of the phenomenological Lagrangian is given, followed by an introduction to the electroweak unification model. The neutrino detector of the CHARM collaboration is described in chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with the on-line monitoring system of this detector which has been under the responsibility of the author. The wide band neutrino facility of the CERN SPS is described in chapter 4, followed by a discussion of the experimental method to measure the neutrino energy spectra of the neutrino beams. The electromagnetic shower development process is reviewed in chapter 5 and is followed by a description of the technique that was used to separate showers of electromagnetic and hadronic origin. Chapter 6 discusses the observed signal of the (anti)neutrinos scattering on electrons and interprets these events in terms of the parameters related to the strength of the coupling of neutrinos to electrons. (Auth.)

  19. Antineutrino flux and spectrum calculation for spent nuclear fuel for the Daya Bay antineutrino experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X. B.; Zhao, Y. F.; Chen, Y. X.; Zhong, W. L.; An, F. P.

    2017-10-01

    The antineutrino flux from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is an important source of uncertainty when making estimates of a reactor neutrino flux. However, to determine the contribution from SNF, sufficient data is needed such as the amount of spent fuel in the pool, the time after discharged from the reactor core, the burnup of each assembly, and the antineutrino spectrum of each isotope in the SNF. A method to calculate this contribution is proposed. A reactor simulation code verified against experimental data has been used to simulate fuel depletion by taking into account more than 2000 isotopes and fission products, the quantity of SNF in each of the six spent fuel pools, and the time variation of the antineutrino spectra after SNF discharging from the core. Results show that the SNF contribution to the total antineutrino flux is about 0.26%-0.34%, and the shutdown impact is about 20%. The SNF spectrum alters the softer part of the antineutrino spectra, and the maximum contribution from the SNF is about 3.0%. Nevertheless, there is an 18% difference between the line evaluate method and under evaluate method. In addition, non-equilibrium effects are also discussed, and the results are compatible considering the uncertainties.

  20. PROSPECT Background Studies and Operation of Li-Loaded Liquid Scintillator Detectors at a Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Thomas; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Segmented antineutrino detectors placed near compact research reactors provide an excellent opportunity to probe short-baseline neutrino oscillations and precisely measure the reactor antineutrino spectrum. PROSPECT is a phased experiment that will explore the favored reactor anomaly parameter space at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab. Measurements of the reactor correlated and ambient backgrounds will be presented, as well as a discussion of active and passive mitigation plans. A lithium-loaded liquid scintillator test detector is currently in operation at HFIR within a prototype shielding cave. Results from recent operation will be presented along with a discussion of their impact on PROSPECT. on behalf of the PROSPECT collaboration.

  1. Study for Reactor Monitoring using Anti-neutrino Detection in the Neos experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bo Young; Sun, Gwang Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Eun Ju [ISB, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-05-15

    In this study we describe a feasibility study of reactor monitoring using antineutrino detection in the Neutrino Experiment for Oscillation at Short baseline (NEOS) at Hanbit power plant. Recently, in the perspective of nonproliferation issues and misuse of nuclear energy as a fast-growing nuclear energy industry, the application of anti-neutrino measurement has been proposed and the feasibility studies has been carried out as a novel technology for monitoring the burning process of nuclear power reactor. The NEOS detector with 1000 L Gd-doped liquid scintillator was installed in tendon gallery at Hanbit power station unit 5 and has been collecting close to 2000 IBD events per day with the signal to noise ratio of ∼ 20. As a preliminary result, we demonstrate the possibility of monitoring nuclear power reactor with the IBD counting rate during reactor power ON, ramping up, and OFF.

  2. Antineutrino and gamma emission from the OSIRIS research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giot Lydie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the summation method has been coupled with a complete reactor model, in order to predict the antineutrino emission of a research reactor. This work, discussed in the first part of this paper, allows us to predict the low energy part of the antineutrino spectrum, evidencing the important contribution of actinides to the antineutrino emission. Experimental conditions at short distance from research reactors are challenging, because the reactor itself produces huge gamma background that induce accidental and correlated backgrounds in an antineutrino target. The understanding of this background is of utmost importance and triggered the second part of the work presented here.

  3. Search for “anomalies” from neutrino and anti-neutrino oscillations at $\\Delta_m^{2} ≈ 1eV^{2}$ with muon spectrometers and large LAr–TPC imaging detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M; Baibussinov, B; Bilokon, H; Boffelli, F; Bonesini, M; Calligarich, E; Canci, N; Centro, S; Cesana, A; Cieslik, K; Cline, D B; Cocco, A G; Dequal, D; Dermenev, A; Dolfini, R; De Gerone, M; Dussoni, S; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Ferrari, A; Fiorillo, G; Garvey, G T; Gatti, F; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Guber, F; Guglielmi, A; Haranczyk, M; Holeczek, J; Ivashkin, A; Kirsanov, M; Kisiel, J; Kochanek, I; Kurepin, A; Łagoda, J; Lucchini, G; Louis, W C; Mania, S; Mannocchi, G; Marchini, S; Matveev, V; Menegolli, A; Meng, G; Mills, G B; Montanari, C; Nicoletto, M; Otwinowski, S; Palczewski, T J; Passardi, G; Perfetto, F; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Płonski, P; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rossella, M; Rubbia, C; Sala, P; Scaramelli, A; Segreto, E; Stefan, D; Stepaniak, J; Sulej, R; Suvorova, O; Terrani, M; Tlisov, D; Van de Water, R G; Trinchero, G; Turcato, M; Varanini, F; Ventura, S; Vignoli, C; Wang, H G; Yang, X; Zani, A; Zaremba, K; Benettoni, M; Bernardini, P; Bertolin, A; Bozza, C; Brugnera, R; Cecchetti, A; Cecchini, S; Collazuol, G; Creti, P; Dal Corso, F; De Mitri, I; De Robertis, G; De Serio, M; Degli Esposti, L; Di Ferdinando, D; Dore, U; Dusini, S; Fabbricatore, P; Fanin, C; Fini, R A; Fiore, G; Garfagnini, A; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, R; Grella, G; Guandalini, C; Guerzoni, M; Kose, U; Laurenti, G; Laveder, M; Lippi, I; Loddo, F; Longhin, A; Loverre, P; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marsella, G; Mauri, N; Medinaceli, E; Mengucci, A; Mezzetto, M; Michinelli, R; Muciaccia, M T; Orecchini, D; Paoloni, A; Pastore, A; Patrizii, L; Pozzato, M; Rescigno, R; Rosa, G; Simone, S; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Spurio, M; Stanco, L; Stellacci, S; Surdo, A; Tenti, M; Togo, V; Ventura, M; Zago, M

    2012-01-01

    This proposal describes an experimental search for sterile neutrinos beyond the Standard Model with a new CERN-SPS neutrino beam. The experiment is based on two identical LAr-TPC's followed by magnetized spectrometers, observing the electron and muon neutrino events at 1600 and 300 m from the proton target. This project will exploit the ICARUS T600, moved from LNGS to the CERN "Far" position. An additional 1/4 of the T600 detector will be constructed and located in the "Near" position. Two spectrometers will be placed downstream of the two LAr-TPC detectors to greatly complement the physics capabilities. Spectrometers will exploit a classical dipole magnetic field with iron slabs, and a new concept air-magnet, to perform charge identification and muon momentum measurements in a wide energy range over a large transverse area. In the two positions, the radial and energy spectra of the nu_e beam are practically identical. Comparing the two detectors, in absence of oscillations, all cross sections and experimenta...

  4. SoLid Detector Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labare, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    SoLid is a reactor anti-neutrino experiment where a novel detector is deployed at a minimum distance of 5.5 m from a nuclear reactor core. The purpose of the experiment is three-fold: to search for neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline; to measure the pure 235U neutrino energy spectrum; and to demonstrate the feasibility of neutrino detectors for reactor monitoring. This report presents the unique features of the SoLid detector technology. The technology has been optimised for a high background environment resulting from low overburden and the vicinity of a nuclear reactor. The versatility of the detector technology is demonstrated with a 288 kg detector prototype which was deployed at the BR2 nuclear reactor in 2015. The data presented includes both reactor on, reactor off and calibration measurements. The measurement results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The 1.6t SoLid detector is currently under construction, with an optimised design and upgraded material technology to enhance the detector capabilities. Its deployement on site is planned for the begin of 2017 and offers the prospect to resolve the reactor anomaly within about two years.

  5. Gadolinium-loaded gel scintillators for neutron and antineutrino detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Akers, Douglas William; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Paviet, Patricia Denise; Drigert, Mark William

    2016-11-29

    A gadolinium (Gd) loaded scintillation gel (Gd-ScintGel) compound allows for neutron and gamma-ray detection. The unique gel scintillator encompasses some of the best features of both liquid and solid scintillators, yet without many of the disadvantages associated therewith. Preferably, the gel scintillator is a water soluble Gd-DTPA compound and water soluble fluorophores such as: CdSe/ZnS (or ZnS) quantum dot (Q-dot) nanoparticles, coumarin derivatives 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid, and Alexa Fluor 350 as well as a carbostyril compound, carbostyril 124 in a stable water-based gel, such as methylcellulose or polyacrylamide polymers. The Gd-loaded ScintGel allows for a homogenious distribution of the Gd-DTPA and the fluorophores, and yields clean fluorescent emission peaks. A moderator, such as deuterium or a water-based clear polymer, can be incorporated in the Gd-ScintGel. The gel scintillators can be used in compact detectors, including neutron and antineutrino detectors.

  6. Reactor anti-neutrinos: measurement of the θ13 leptonic mixing angle and search for potential sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment aims to measure the θ 13 mixing angle through the disappearance -induced by the oscillation phenomenon - of anti-neutrinos produced by the Chooz nuclear reactors. In order to reduce systematic uncertainties, the experiment relies on the relative comparison of detected signals in two identical liquid scintillator detectors. The near one, giving the normalization of the emitted flux, is currently being built and will be delivered in spring 2014. The far detector, sensitive to θ 13 , is located at about one kilometer and is taking data since 2011. In this first phase of the experiment, the far detector data are compared to a prediction of the emitted neutrino flux to estimate θ 13 . In this thesis, the Double Chooz experiment and its analysis are presented, especially the background studies and the rejection of parasitic signals due to light emitted by photo-multipliers. Neutron fluxes between the different detector volumes impact the definition of the fiducial volume of neutrino interactions and the efficiency of detection. Detailed studies of these effects are presented. As part of the Double Chooz experiment, studies were performed to improve the prediction of neutrino flux emitted by reactors. This work revealed a deficit of observed neutrino rates in the short baseline experiments of last decades. This deficit could be explained by an oscillation to a sterile state. The Stereo project aims to observe a typical signature of oscillations: the distortion of neutrino spectra both in energy and baseline. This thesis presents the detector concept and simulations as well as sensitivity studies. Background sources and the foreseen shielding are also discussed. (author) [fr

  7. Measurement of the muon antineutrino double-differential cross section for quasielastic-like scattering on hydrocarbon at Eν˜3.5 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, C. E.; Aliaga, L.; Bashyal, A.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Caceres v., G. F. R.; Carneiro, M. F.; Chavarria, E.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Gran, R.; Han, J. Y.; Harris, D. A.; Henry, S.; Hurtado, K.; Jena, D.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Lu, X.-G.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nowak, G. M.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Perdue, G. N.; Peters, E.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sultana, M.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Teklu, A. M.; Valencia, E.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; Zhang, D.; Miner ν A Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    We present double-differential measurements of antineutrino charged-current quasielastic scattering in the MINERvA detector. This study improves on a previous single-differential measurement by using updated reconstruction algorithms and interaction models and provides a complete description of observed muon kinematics in the form of a double-differential cross section with respect to muon transverse and longitudinal momentum. We include in our signal definition zero-meson final states arising from multinucleon interactions and from resonant pion production followed by pion absorption in the primary nucleus. We find that model agreement is considerably improved by a model tuned to MINERvA inclusive neutrino scattering data that incorporates nuclear effects such as weak nuclear screening and two-particle, two-hole enhancements.

  8. Magnetotransport in quantum cascade detectors: analyzing the current under illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffaz Amandine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Photocurrent measurements have been performed on a quantum cascade detector structure under strong magnetic field applied parallel to the growth axis. The photocurrent shows oscillations as a function of B. In order to describe that behavior, we have developed a rate equation model. The interpretation of the experimental data supports the idea that an elastic scattering contribution plays a central role in the behavior of those structures. We present a calculation of electron lifetime versus magnetic field which suggests that impurities scattering in the active region is the limiting factor. These experiments lead to a better understanding of these complex structures and give key parameters to optimize them further.

  9. Radiation detectors for personnel monitoring - current developments and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.

    2003-01-01

    The radiation detectors for personnel monitoring range from the conventional passive dosimeters like the film badge and the TLD, to sophisticated active dosimeters for integrated gamma, beta and neutron dose measurement. With the availability of high accuracy active dosimeters, the process of personnel monitoring, acceptability among radiation workers, record keeping and dose control have become more simplified. However the high level of sophistication in the active dosimeter has its own inevitable price tag and the new breed of active dosimeters are prohibitively costly. The silver lining, in the otherwise dark cost scenario of these dosimeters is the potential for cost reduction at least in some of the dosimeters in the near future

  10. Evolution of the Reactor Antineutrino Flux and Spectrum at Daya Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F P; Balantekin, A B; Band, H R; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Cao, D; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, Y; Chen, H S; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cheng, Z K; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Chukanov, A; Cummings, J P; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dolgareva, M; Dove, J; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guo, L; Guo, X H; Guo, Y H; Guo, Z; Hackenburg, R W; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Higuera, A; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, T; Huang, E C; Huang, H X; Huang, X T; Huang, Y B; Huber, P; Huo, W; Hussain, G; Jaffe, D E; Jen, K L; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Jones, D; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Khan, A; Kohn, S; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Langford, T J; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lee, J H C; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, J K C; Li, C; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, S; Li, S C; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, S; Lin, S K; Lin, Y-C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Loh, C W; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Lu, J S; Luk, K B; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; Malyshkin, Y; Martinez Caicedo, D A; McDonald, K T; McKeown, R D; Mitchell, I; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Ngai, H Y; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevskiy, A; Pan, H-R; Park, J; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Qiu, R M; Raper, N; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Steiner, H; Stoler, P; Sun, J L; Tang, W; Taychenachev, D; Treskov, K; Tsang, K V; Tull, C E; Viaux, N; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Wei, H Y; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, C-H; Wu, Q; Wu, W J; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J L; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yang, C G; Yang, H; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Yang, Y Z; Ye, M; Ye, Z; Yeh, M; Young, B L; Yu, Z Y; Zeng, S; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, H H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, R; Zhang, X T; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhou, L; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2017-06-23

    The Daya Bay experiment has observed correlations between reactor core fuel evolution and changes in the reactor antineutrino flux and energy spectrum. Four antineutrino detectors in two experimental halls were used to identify 2.2 million inverse beta decays (IBDs) over 1230 days spanning multiple fuel cycles for each of six 2.9 GW_{th} reactor cores at the Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power plants. Using detector data spanning effective ^{239}Pu fission fractions F_{239} from 0.25 to 0.35, Daya Bay measures an average IBD yield σ[over ¯]_{f} of (5.90±0.13)×10^{-43}  cm^{2}/fission and a fuel-dependent variation in the IBD yield, dσ_{f}/dF_{239}, of (-1.86±0.18)×10^{-43}  cm^{2}/fission. This observation rejects the hypothesis of a constant antineutrino flux as a function of the ^{239}Pu fission fraction at 10 standard deviations. The variation in IBD yield is found to be energy dependent, rejecting the hypothesis of a constant antineutrino energy spectrum at 5.1 standard deviations. While measurements of the evolution in the IBD spectrum show general agreement with predictions from recent reactor models, the measured evolution in total IBD yield disagrees with recent predictions at 3.1σ. This discrepancy indicates that an overall deficit in the measured flux with respect to predictions does not result from equal fractional deficits from the primary fission isotopes ^{235}U, ^{239}Pu, ^{238}U, and ^{241}Pu. Based on measured IBD yield variations, yields of (6.17±0.17) and (4.27±0.26)×10^{-43}  cm^{2}/fission have been determined for the two dominant fission parent isotopes ^{235}U and ^{239}Pu. A 7.8% discrepancy between the observed and predicted ^{235}U yields suggests that this isotope may be the primary contributor to the reactor antineutrino anomaly.

  11. Evolution of the Reactor Antineutrino Flux and Spectrum at Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Z. K.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Chukanov, A.; Cummings, J. P.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dolgareva, M.; Dove, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guo, L.; Guo, X. H.; Guo, Y. H.; Guo, Z.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, T.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. B.; Huber, P.; Huo, W.; Hussain, G.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jen, K. L.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, D.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Khan, A.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. H. C.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, S.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Loh, C. W.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Malyshkin, Y.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McDonald, K. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Mitchell, I.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Park, J.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Qiu, R. M.; Raper, N.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Steiner, H.; Stoler, P.; Sun, J. L.; Tang, W.; Taychenachev, D.; Treskov, K.; Tsang, K. V.; Tull, C. E.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, C.-H.; Wu, Q.; Wu, W. J.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Yang, Y. Z.; Ye, M.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, M.; Young, B. L.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    The Daya Bay experiment has observed correlations between reactor core fuel evolution and changes in the reactor antineutrino flux and energy spectrum. Four antineutrino detectors in two experimental halls were used to identify 2.2 million inverse beta decays (IBDs) over 1230 days spanning multiple fuel cycles for each of six 2.9 G Wth reactor cores at the Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power plants. Using detector data spanning effective 239Pu fission fractions F239 from 0.25 to 0.35, Daya Bay measures an average IBD yield σ¯f of (5.90 ±0.13 )×10-43 cm2/fission and a fuel-dependent variation in the IBD yield, d σf/d F239, of (-1.86 ±0.18 )×10-43 cm2/fission . This observation rejects the hypothesis of a constant antineutrino flux as a function of the 239Pu fission fraction at 10 standard deviations. The variation in IBD yield is found to be energy dependent, rejecting the hypothesis of a constant antineutrino energy spectrum at 5.1 standard deviations. While measurements of the evolution in the IBD spectrum show general agreement with predictions from recent reactor models, the measured evolution in total IBD yield disagrees with recent predictions at 3.1 σ . This discrepancy indicates that an overall deficit in the measured flux with respect to predictions does not result from equal fractional deficits from the primary fission isotopes 235U, 239Pu, 238U, and 241Pu. Based on measured IBD yield variations, yields of (6.17 ±0.17 ) and (4.27 ±0.26 )×10-43 cm2 /fission have been determined for the two dominant fission parent isotopes 235U and 239Pu. A 7.8% discrepancy between the observed and predicted 235U yields suggests that this isotope may be the primary contributor to the reactor antineutrino anomaly.

  12. Review of Reactor Antineutrino Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Djurcic, Zelimir

    2012-01-01

    As discussed elsewhere, the measurement of a non-zero value for $\\theta_{13}$ would open up a wide range of possibilities to explore CP-violation and the mass hierarchy. Experimental methods to measure currently the unknown mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ include accelerator searches for the $\

  13. New (anti)neutrino results from the T2K experiment on CP violation in the lepton sector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    T2K is a long-baseline neutrino experiment in which a muon neutrino beam produced by J-PARC in Tokai is sent 295 km across Japan to the Super-Kamiokande detector, to study neutrino oscillations via the disappearance of muon neutrinos and the appearance of electron neutrinos. Since the start of operations in 2010, T2K has conclusively observed muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations, opening the door to the observation of CP violation in neutrino mixing, and performed the most precise measurement of the muon neutrino disappearance parameters. In a joint analysis between these two modes, T2K placed its first constraints on the CP-violating phase delta. Starting in 2014, T2K has been running primarily with an antineutrino beam in order to study the corresponding antineutrino oscillations, resulting in leading measurements of the muon antineutrino disappearance parameters. The joint analysis of neutrino and antineutrino data indicates that CP-conserving parameters lie outside the 90% confidence interval....

  14. A feasibility study of boron-loaded liquid scintillator for the detection of electron anti-neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S C; Leung, R W S; Wang, S L; Chang, C Y; Chen Chi Ping; Cheng, K C; Ho, T I; Lai, W P; Liu, H M; Mao, Z P; Shih, I C; Wong, H T; Yu, Z Q

    1999-01-01

    Boron-loaded liquid scintillator offers some potential advantages as a detector for electron anti-neutrinos. A research program was carried out with the objective of developing such scintillators. The crucial feature is the pulse shape discrimination properties following the neutron capture by sup 1 sup 0 B. Results of the R and D efforts are presented. The feasibility and the technical difficulties of carrying out a full-scale neutrino experiment based on this approach are discussed. (author)

  15. An automatic monitoring system of leak current for testing TGC detectors based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cunfeng; Lu Taiguo; Yan Zhen; Wang Suojie; Zhu Chengguang; Sun Yansheng; He Mao

    2005-01-01

    An automatic monitoring system of leak current for testing TGC detectors with high voltage was set up by using the graphic LabVIEW platform and NI 4351 data acquisition card. The leak current was automatically monitored and recorded with this system, the time and the value of the leak current were showed instantly. Good efficiency and precision of monitoring were obtained. (authors)

  16. Lithium Gadolinium Borate in Plastic Scintillator as an Antineutrino Detection Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    commercial reactor stage is fuel assembly inventory accountancy, reactor operator declarations of power and burnup and auditing by the IAEA. Current...of the groups that first established the correlation between reactor antineutrino flux, thermal power, and fuel burnup has proposed a cubic meter...certainly all escape without depositing much energy. The expected ratio for Gd captures to Li or B is hard to calculate as it depends strongly on the

  17. Leakage current in high-purity germanium detectors with amorphous semiconductor contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, Q.; Amman, M.; Vetter, K.

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous semiconductor electrical contacts on high-purity Ge radiation detectors have become a valuable technology because they are simple to fabricate, result in thin dead layers, block both electron and hole injection, and can readily be finely segmented as needed for applications requiring imaging or particle tracking. Though significant numbers of detectors have been successfully produced for a variety of applications using the amorphous semiconductor contact technology, there remains a need to better understand the dependence of performance characteristics, particularly leakage current, on the fabrication process parameters so that the performance can be better optimized. To this end, we have performed a systematic study of leakage current on RF-sputter-deposited amorphous-Ge (a-Ge) and amorphous-Si (a-Si) contacts as a function of process and operational parameters including sputter gas pressure and composition, number of detector temperature cycles, and time spent at room temperature. The study focused primarily on the current resulting from electron injection at the contact. Significant findings from the study include that a-Si produces lower electron injection than a-Ge, the time the detector spends at room temperature rather than the number of temperature cycles experienced by the detector is the primary factor associated with leakage current change when the detector is warmed, and the time stability of the a-Ge contact depends on the sputter gas pressure with a higher pressure producing more stable characteristics.

  18. Spin correlation and entanglement detection in Cooper pair splitters by current measurements using magnetic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busz, Piotr; Tomaszewski, Damian; Martinek, Jan

    2017-08-01

    We analyze a model of a double quantum dot Cooper pair splitter coupled to two ferromagnetic detectors and demonstrate the possibility of determination of spin correlation by current measurements. We use perturbation theory, taking account of the exchange interaction with the detectors, which leads to complex spin dynamics in the dots. This affects the measured spin and restricts the use of ferromagnetic detectors to the nonlinear current-voltage characteristic regime at the current plateau, where the relevant spin projection is conserved, in contrast to the linear current-voltage characteristic regime, in which the spin information is distorted. Moreover, we show that for separable states the spin correlation can only be determined in a limited parameter regime, much more restricted than in the case of entangled states. We propose an entanglement test based on the Bell inequality.

  19. Estimate of the theoretical uncertainty of the cross sections for nucleon knockout in neutral-current neutrino-oxygen interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ankowski, Artur M.; Barbaro, M. B.; Benhar, Omar; Caballero Carretero, Juan Antonio; Giusti, Carlotta; González Jiménez, Raúl; Megías Vázquez, Guillermo Daniel; Meucci, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Free nucleons propagating in water are known to produce γ rays, which form a background to the searches for diffuse supernova neutrinos and sterile neutrinos carried out with Cherenkov detectors. As a consequence, the process of nucleon knockout induced by neutral-current quasielastic interactions of atmospheric (anti)neutrinos with oxygen needs to be under control at the quantitative level in the background simulations of ongoing and future experiments. In this paper, we provide a quantitati...

  20. Heavy quark production by neutrinos and antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.M.; Tanaka, K.

    1979-01-01

    The rate for producing t- and b-quarks in, respectively, neutrino and antineutrino interactions with nucleons are estimated. Experimental quark parton distribution functions, SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) gauge group mixing angles, and threshold suppression through rescaling are used in the calculation. The ratios to total cross sections of b-quark production by anti nu, R/sub b//sup anti nu/, and t-quark production by ν, R/sub t//sup nu/, are, respectively, R/sub b//sup anti nu/ approximately equal to 10 -4 and R/sub t//sup nu/ approximately equal to 10 -5 for an incident energy of 200 GeV. 13 references

  1. Results of metrologic study on the support of eddy current flow detector operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.B.; Inchagov, A.V.; Kucherov, A.N.; Leshchinskij, A.G.; Prokudanova, G.V.

    1987-01-01

    Specimens of fuel element cladding with artificial flaws used for adjustment and testing the eddy current flaw detector are investigated. Mechanical flaws were superposed on the cladding by means of a drill (through holes) and a cutting tool in a special instrument (transverse annular and longitudinal marks). Laser flaws were superposed by means of KVANT-12 facility. Sensitivity of the eddy current flaw detector to defects is investigated. The dependence of the flaw detector response on the diameter of the through hole is stated to have linear character. Estimation of the eddy current flaw detector detection threshold to mechanical defects makes up: for marks- length-20 μm, for through holes- diameter-0.25 mm. It is suggested that traces obtained from the effect of a laser beam on the fuel cladding should be used as an artificial flaw. Reproduction of laser flaws at the given stage of studies makes up 15%. Specimens of flaws produced for adjustment of operating modes and testing the eddy current flaw detector are fabricated

  2. Process effects on leakage current of Si-PIN neutron detectors with porous microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Baoning; Zhao, Kangkang; Yang, Taotao; Jiang, Yong; Fan, Xiaoqiang; Lu, Min; Han, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Using the technique of Microfabrication, such as deep silicon dry etching, lithography, etc. Si-PIN neutron detectors with porous microstructure have been successfully fabricated. In order to lower the leakage current, the key fabrication processes, including the Al windows opening, deep silicon etching and the porous side wall smoothing, have been optimized. The cross-section morphology and current-voltage characteristics have been measured to evaluate the microfabrication processes. With the optimized conditions presented by the measurements, a neutron detector with a leakage current density of 2.67 μA cm -2 at a bias of -20 V is obtained. A preliminary neutron irradiation test with 252 Cf neutron source has also been carried out. The neutron irradiation test shows that the neutron detection efficiency of the microstructured neutron detectors is almost 3.6 times higher than that of the planar ones. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Antineutrino monitoring of burning mixed oxide plutonium fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.; Trellue, H. R.; Nieto, Michael Martin; Wilson, W. B.

    2012-02-01

    Background: Antineutrino monitoring of reactors is an enhanced nuclear safeguard that is being explored by several international groups. A key question is whether such a scheme could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium loaded in a reactor as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel.Purpose: To explore the effectiveness of antineutrino monitoring for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguarding of MOX plutonium, we examine the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different loadings of MOX fuels.Methods: Reactor burn simulations are carried out for four different MOX fuel loadings and the antineutrino signals as a function of fuel burnup are computed and compared.Results: The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium, and this signal difference increases as the MOX plutonium fraction of the reactor core increases.Conclusion: Antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, although verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  4. Prototypes of Self-Powered Radiation Detectors Employing Intrinsic High-Energy Current (HEC) (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    first conductor plate for two 7-layer detectors, AlCuAlCuAlCuAl F. 2. Computer simulation of net current j(x) as a function of distance from the...front plate of the detector for different incident x-ray energies: 60 kVp, 80 kVp, 100 kVp, 120 kVp. The highest current between the conducting layers is... photovoltaic mode, which also do not require bias voltage or require only a small bias when operated in the photoconductive mode,12,17,18 the HEC

  5. How unequal fluxes of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and antineutrinos can fake new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Panes, Boris; Funchal, Renata Zukanovich

    2016-01-01

    Flavor ratios of very high energy astrophysical neutrinos, which can be studied at the Earth by a neutrino telescope such as IceCube, can serve to diagnose their production mechanism at the astrophysical source. The flavor ratios for neutrinos and antineutrinos can be quite different as we do not know how they are produced in the astrophysical environment. Due to this uncertainty the neutrino and antineutrino flavor ratios at the Earth also could be quite different. Nonetheless, it is generally assumed that flavor ratios for neutrinos and antineutrinos are the same at the Earth, in fitting the high energy astrophysical neutrino data. This is a reasonable assumption for the limited statistics for the data we currently have. However, in the future the fit must be performed allowing for a possible discrepancy in these two fractions in order to be able to disentangle different production mechanisms at the source from new physics in the neutrino sector. To reinforce this issue, in this work we show that a wrong assumption about the distribution of neutrino flavor ratios at the Earth may indeed lead to misleading interpretations of IceCube results.

  6. How unequal fluxes of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and antineutrinos can fake new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunokawa, Hiroshi [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 38071, 22452-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Panes, Boris; Funchal, Renata Zukanovich [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66.318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-10-21

    Flavor ratios of very high energy astrophysical neutrinos, which can be studied at the Earth by a neutrino telescope such as IceCube, can serve to diagnose their production mechanism at the astrophysical source. The flavor ratios for neutrinos and antineutrinos can be quite different as we do not know how they are produced in the astrophysical environment. Due to this uncertainty the neutrino and antineutrino flavor ratios at the Earth also could be quite different. Nonetheless, it is generally assumed that flavor ratios for neutrinos and antineutrinos are the same at the Earth, in fitting the high energy astrophysical neutrino data. This is a reasonable assumption for the limited statistics for the data we currently have. However, in the future the fit must be performed allowing for a possible discrepancy in these two fractions in order to be able to disentangle different production mechanisms at the source from new physics in the neutrino sector. To reinforce this issue, in this work we show that a wrong assumption about the distribution of neutrino flavor ratios at the Earth may indeed lead to misleading interpretations of IceCube results.

  7. Commissioning the SNO+ Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caden, E.; Coulter, I.; SNO+ Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    SNO+ is a multipurpose liquid scintillator neutrino experiment based at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The experiment’s main physics goal is a search for neutrinoless double beta decay in Tellurium-130, but SNO+ will also study low energy solar neutrinos, geo- and reactor-antineutrinos, among other topics. We are reusing much of the hardware from the original SNO experiment, but significant work has taken place to transform the heavy water detector into a liquid scintillator detector. We present upgrades and improvements to the read-out electronics and trigger system to handle the higher data rates expected by a scintillator experiment. We show the successful installation and testing of a hold-down rope net for the acrylic vessel to counter-act the buoyancy of organic liquid scintillator. We also describe the new scintillator process plant and cover gas systems that have been constructed to achieve the purification necessary to meet our physics goals. We are currently commissioning the experiment with ultra-pure water in preparation for filling with scintillator in early 2017 and present the current status of this work.

  8. Current status of multi-detector row helical CT in imaging of adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current status of multi-detector row helical CT in imaging of adult acquired pancreatic diseases and assessing surgical neoplastic resectability. ... The presence of inflammation, masses, and vascular invasion was evaluated and interpreted images were obtained during each phase. Results were compared with surgery, ...

  9. Research on Mechanical Shim Application with Compensated Prompt γ Current of Vanadium Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Xu

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical shim is an advanced technology for reactor power and axial offset control with control rod assemblies. To address the adverse accuracy impact on the ex-core power range neutron flux measurements-based axial offset control resulting from the variable positions of control rod assemblies, the lead-lag-compensated in-core self-powered vanadium detector signals are utilized. The prompt γ current of self-powered detector is ignored normally due to its weakness compared with the delayed β...

  10. Evolution of silicon microstrip detector currents during proton irradiation at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Harper, R S; Allport, P P; Andricek, L; Carter, J R; Casse, G L; Dawson, I; Ferrère, D; Grigson, C; Morgan, D; Robinson, D

    2002-01-01

    Prototype ATLAS silicon microstrip detectors have been irradiated to the dose predicted for 10 years of LHC operation with 24 GeV protons at the CERN PS whilst cooled to the ATLAS design operating temperature. The detector currents were monitored during irradiation, which allows the predictions of bulk radiation damage parameterizations to be tested. Values for the damage constant cc and the rate of acceptor creation beta have been calculated and are in agreement with those previously published for the irradiation of silicon diodes. (17 refs).

  11. Detectors for X-ray diffraction and scattering: current technology and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, D.; Brugemann, L.; Gerndt, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Detectors are crucial devices determining the quality, the reliability and the throughput of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scattering investigations. This is of utmost importance in an industrial environment where in many cases untrained personnel or even without human intervention the experiments and data evaluations are running. The currently used technology of 0-dimensional to 2-dim XRD detectors is presented using selected examples. The application specific requirements on e.g. energy range and resolution, count rate limit, background and dynamic range, and size versus price are discussed. Due to the fact that x-ray diffraction investigations are becoming increasingly attractive in science, research and industry the advance in detector technology is pushed beyond existing limits. The discussion of the resultant market opportunities versus the cost of ownership and market entrance barrier is the final section of the presentation

  12. Prompt directional detection of galactic supernova by combining large liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, V.; Chirac, T.; Lasserre, T., E-mail: vincent.fischer@cea.fr, E-mail: tchirac@gmail.fr, E-mail: thierry.lasserre@cea.fr [Commissariat a l' énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2015-08-01

    Core-collapse supernovae produce an intense burst of electron antineutrinos in the few-tens-of-MeV range. Several Large Liquid Scintillator-based Detectors (LLSD) are currently operated worldwide, being very effective for low energy antineutrino detection through the Inverse Beta Decay (IBD) process. In this article, we develop a procedure for the prompt extraction of the supernova location by revisiting the details of IBD kinematics over the broad energy range of supernova neutrinos. Combining all current scintillator-based detector, we show that one can locate a canonical supernova at 10 kpc with an accuracy of 45 degrees (68% C.L.). After the addition of the next generation of scintillator-based detectors, the accuracy could reach 12 degrees (68% C.L.), therefore reaching the performances of the large water Čerenkov neutrino detectors. We also discuss a possible improvement of the SuperNova Early Warning System (SNEWS) inter-experiment network with the implementation of a directionality information in each experiment. Finally, we discuss the possibility to constrain the neutrino energy spectrum as well as the mass of the newly born neutron star with the LLSD data.

  13. Research on Mechanical Shim Application with Compensated Prompt γ Current of Vanadium Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical shim is an advanced technology for reactor power and axial offset control with control rod assemblies. To address the adverse accuracy impact on the ex-core power range neutron flux measurements-based axial offset control resulting from the variable positions of control rod assemblies, the lead-lag-compensated in-core self-powered vanadium detector signals are utilized. The prompt γ current of self-powered detector is ignored normally due to its weakness compared with the delayed β current, although it promptly reflects the flux change of the core. Based on the features of the prompt γ current, a method for configuration of the lead-lag dynamic compensator is proposed. The simulations indicate that the method can improve dynamic response significantly with negligible adverse effects on the steady response. The robustness of the design implies that the method is of great value for engineering applications.

  14. Current status and requirements for position-sensitive detectors in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Speller, R

    2002-01-01

    This review considers the current status of detector developments for medical imaging using ionising radiation. This field is divided into two major areas; the use of X-rays for transmission imaging and the use of radioactive tracers in emission imaging (nuclear medicine). Until recently, most detector developments were for applications in nuclear medicine. However, in the past 5 years new developments in large area, X-ray-sensitive detectors have meant that both application domains are equally served. In X-ray imaging, work in CT and mammography are chosen as examples of sensor developments. Photodiode arrays in multi-slice spiral CT acquisitions are described and for mammography the use of amorphous silicon flat panel arrays is considered. The latter is an excellent example where new detector developments have required a re-think of traditional imaging methods. In gamma-ray imaging the recent developments in small area, task-specific cameras are described. Their limitations and current proposals to overcome...

  15. Test beam results of a heavily irradiated Current Injected Detector (CID)

    CERN Document Server

    Harkonen, J; Tuominen, E; Moilanen, H; Maenpaa, T; Verbitskaya, E; Eremin, V; Czellar, S; Dierlamm, A; Tuovinen, E; Lampen, T; Frey, M; Li, Z; Luukka, P

    2010-01-01

    A heavily irradiated (3 x 10(15) 1 MeV n(eq)/cm(2)) Current Injected Detector (CID) was tested with 225 GeV muon beam at CERN H2 beam line. In the CID concept the current is limited by the space charge. The injected carriers will be trapped by the deep levels and this induces a stable electric field through the entire bulk regardless of the irradiation fluence the detector has been exposed to. The steady-state density of the trapped charge is defined by the balance between the trapping and the emission rates of charge carriers (detrapping). Thus, the amount of charge injection needed for the electric field stabilization depends on the temperature. AC-coupled 16 cm(2) detector was processed on high resistivity n-type magnetic Czochralski silicon, and it had 768 strips, 50 mu m pitch, 10 mu m strip width and 3.9 cm strip length. The beam test was carried out using a silicon beam telescope that is based on the CMS detector readout prototype components, APV25 readout chips, and eight strip sensors made by Hamamat...

  16. Analysis and solution of current spike occurred in dynamic compensation of self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xingjie; Li, Qing; Wang, Kan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The current spike problem is observed in the dynamic compensation process of SPNDs. • The current spike is caused by unphysical current change due to range switching. • Modification on the compensation algorithm is introduced to deal with current spike. - Abstract: Dynamic compensation methods are required to improve the response speed of the Self-Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) and make it possible to apply the SPNDs for core monitoring and surveillance. During the experimental test of the compensation method based on linear matrix inequality (LMI), spikes are observed in the compensated SPND current. After analyzing the measurement data, the cause is fixed on the unphysical change of the uncompensated SPND current due to range switching. Then some modifications on the dynamic compensation algorithms are proposed to solve the current spike problem.

  17. Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Inclusive Charged Current Cross Section on Iron using the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiacono, Laura Jean [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) produces an intense muon neutrino beam used by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), a neutrino oscillation experiment, and the Main INjector ExpeRiment v-A, (MINERv A), a neutrino interaction experiment. Absolute neutrino cross sections are determined via σv = N vv , where the numerator is the measured number of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Detector and the denominator is the flux of incident neutrinos. Many past neutrino experiments have measured relative cross sections due to a lack of precise measurements of the incident neutrino flux, normalizing to better established reaction processes, such as quasielastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. But recent measurements of neutrino interactions on nuclear targets have brought to light questions about our understanding of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. In this thesis the vμ inclusive charged current cross section on iron is measured using the MINOS Detector. The MINOS detector consists of alternating planes of steel and scintillator. The MINOS detector is optimized to measure muons produced in charged current vμ interactions. Along with muons, these interactions produce hadronic showers. The neutrino energy is measured from the total energy the particles deposit in the detector. The incident neutrino flux is measured using the muons produced alongside the neutrinos in meson decay. Three ionization chamber monitors located in the downstream portion of the NuMI beamline are used to measure the muon flux and thereby infer the neutrino flux by relation to the underlying pion and kaon meson flux. This thesis describes the muon flux instrumentation in the NuMI beam, its operation over the two year duration of this measurement, and the techniques used to derive the neutrino flux.

  18. Perspectives to measure neutrino-nuclear neutral current coherent scattering with two-phase emission detector

    OpenAIRE

    RED Collaboration; Akimov, D. Yu.; Alexandrov, I. S.; Aleshin, V. I.; Belov, V. A.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepurnov, A. S.; Danilov, M. V.; Derbin, A. V.; Dmitrenko, V. V.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Egorov, D. A.; Efremenko, Yu. V.; Etenko, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    We propose to detect and to study neutrino neutral current coherent scattering off atomic nuclei with a two-phase emission detector using liquid xenon as a working medium. Expected signals and backgrounds are calculated for two possible experimental sites: Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant in the Russian Federation and Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the USA. Both sites have advantages as well as limitations. However the experiment looks feasible at either location...

  19. Process effects on leakage current of Si-PIN neutron detectors with porous microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Baoning; Zhao, Kangkang; Yang, Taotao [Beijing University of Technology, Chaoyang District, Pingleyuan 100, 100124 Beijing (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ruoshui Road 398, 215123 Suzhou (China); Jiang, Yong; Fan, Xiaoqiang [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, CAEP, Mianshan Road 64, 621900 Mianyang (China); Lu, Min [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ruoshui Road 398, 215123 Suzhou (China); Han, Jun [Beijing University of Technology, Chaoyang District, Pingleyuan 100, 100124 Beijing (China)

    2017-06-15

    Using the technique of Microfabrication, such as deep silicon dry etching, lithography, etc. Si-PIN neutron detectors with porous microstructure have been successfully fabricated. In order to lower the leakage current, the key fabrication processes, including the Al windows opening, deep silicon etching and the porous side wall smoothing, have been optimized. The cross-section morphology and current-voltage characteristics have been measured to evaluate the microfabrication processes. With the optimized conditions presented by the measurements, a neutron detector with a leakage current density of 2.67 μA cm{sup -2} at a bias of -20 V is obtained. A preliminary neutron irradiation test with {sup 252}Cf neutron source has also been carried out. The neutron irradiation test shows that the neutron detection efficiency of the microstructured neutron detectors is almost 3.6 times higher than that of the planar ones. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrita, H.

    2005-07-01

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  1. Prospects for improved understanding of isotopic reactor antineutrino fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre, Y.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Surukuchi, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    Predictions of antineutrino fluxes produced by fission isotopes in a nuclear reactor have recently received increased scrutiny due to observed differences in predicted and measured inverse beta decay (IBD) yields, referred to as the "reactor antineutrino flux anomaly." In this paper, global fits are applied to existing IBD yield measurements to produce constraints on antineutrino production by individual plutonium and uranium fission isotopes. We find that fits including measurements from highly U 235 -enriched cores and fits including Daya Bay's new fuel evolution result produce discrepant best-fit IBD yields for U 235 and Pu 239 . This discrepancy can be alleviated in a global analysis of all data sets through simultaneous fitting of Pu 239 , U 235 , and U 238 yields. The measured IBD yield of U 238 in this analysis is (7.02 ±1.65 )×10-43 cm2/fission , nearly two standard deviations below existing predictions. Future hypothetical IBD yield measurements by short-baseline reactor experiments are examined to determine their possible impact on the global understanding of isotopic IBD yields. It is found that future improved short-baseline IBD yield measurements at both high-enriched and low-enriched cores can significantly improve constraints for U 235 , U 238 , and Pu 239 , providing comparable or superior precision to existing conversion- and summation-based antineutrino flux predictions. Systematic and experimental requirements for these future measurements are also investigated.

  2. On neutrino and antineutrino scattering by electrons, and by partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.; Dass, G.V.

    1975-09-01

    Assuming a non-derivative point interaction, and Born approximation, there are some simple relations between neutrino and antineutrino scattering on electrons or partons. They have been observed already, for some special cases, in the results of explicit calculations. Here they are obtained from simple general considerations. (author)

  3. The effect of cathode bias (field effect) on the surface leakage current of CdZnTe detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Chen, C.M.H.; Cook, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    Surface resistivity is an important parameter of multi-electrode CZT detectors such as coplanar-grid, strip, or pixel detectors. Low surface resistivity results in a high leakage current and affects the charge collection efficiency in the areas near contacts. Thus, it is always desirable to have ...

  4. Study of the prospective usefulness of the detection of antineutrinos to monitor nuclear power plants for non proliferation purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormon, S.

    2012-01-01

    The field of applied neutrino physics has shown new developments in the last decade. Indeed, the antineutrinos (n e ) emitted by a nuclear power plant depend on the composition of the fuel: thus their detection could be exploited for determining the isotopic composition of the reactor fuel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has expressed its interest in the potentialities of this detection as a new safeguard tool and has created an Ad Hoc working group devoted to this study. Our aim is to determine on the one hand, the current sensitivity reached with the n e detection and on the other hand, the sensitivity required to be useful to the IAEA and then we deduce the required performances required for a cubic meter detector. We will first present the physics on which our feasibility study relies: the neutrinos, the b-decay of the fission products (FP) and their conversion into ne spectra. We will then present our simulation tools: we use a package called MCNP Utility for Reactor Evolution (MURE), initially developed by CNRS/IN2P3 labs to study Generation IV reactors. Thanks to MURE coupled with nuclear data bases, we build the ne spectra by summing the FP contributions. The method is the only one that allows the ne spectra calculations associated to future reactors: we will present the predicted spectra for various innovative fuels. We then calculate the emitted ne associated to various concepts of current and future nuclear reactors in order to determine the sensitivity of the ne probe to various diversion scenarios, taking neutronics into account. The reactor studied are Canadian Deuterium, Pebble Bed Reactor and Fast Breeder Reactor. (author)

  5. Neutrino and antineutrino charge-exchange reactions on 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samana, A. R.; Krmpotic, F.; Paar, N.; Bertulani, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    We extend the formalism of weak interaction processes, obtaining new expressions for the transition rates, which greatly facilitate numerical calculations, for both neutrino-nucleus reactions and muon capture. Explicit violation of the conserved vector current hypothesis by the Coulomb field, as well as development of a sum-rule approach for inclusive cross sections, has been worked out. We have done a thorough study of exclusive (ground-state) properties of 12 B and 12 N within the projected quasiparticle random phase approximation (PQRPA). Good agreement with experimental data achieved in this way put into evidence the limitations of the standard RPA and QRPA models, which come from the inability of the RPA to open the p 3/2 shell and from the nonconservation of the number of particles in the QRPA. The inclusive neutrino/antineutrino (ν/ν-tilde) reactions 12 C(ν,e - ) 12 N and 12 C(ν-tilde,e + ) 12 B are calculated within both the PQRPA and the relativistic QRPA. It is found that (i) the magnitudes of the resulting cross sections are close to the sum-rule limit at low energy, but significantly smaller than this limit at high energies, for both ν and ν-tilde; (ii) they increase steadily when the size of the configuration space is augmented, particularly for ν/ν-tilde energies >200 MeV; and (iii) they converge for sufficiently large configuration space and final-state spin. The quasi-elastic 12 C(ν,μ - ) 12 N cross section recently measured in the MiniBooNE experiment is briefly discussed. We study the decomposition of the inclusive cross section based on the degree of forbiddenness of different multipoles. A few words are dedicated to the ν/ν-tilde- 12 C charge-exchange reactions related to astrophysical applications.

  6. A Current-Mode Detector for Use in NOPTREX Time Reversal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Danielle; Noptrex Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Searches for new sources of time reversal (T) violation are one of the highest intellectual priorities in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics. The Neutron Optics Time Reversal Experiment (NOPTREX) Collaboration aims to conduct a sensitive null-test search for T-violation in polarized neutron transmission through a polarized nuclear target which possesses low-energy p-wave resonances. We are developing a low-noise current-mode neutron detector with near-unit efficiency and fast time response to resolve the resonance shapes. This talk will discuss the design of the detector as well as test measurements taken on indium and tantalum resonances at the NOBORU test beam at the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) in June 2017 using a set of prototypical detectors, analog electronics, and data acquisition module. We will also briefly discuss plans for an experiment at LANSCE to measure the P-odd asymmetry in the 0.734 eV p-wave resonance in 139La to 1. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Award Number DE-SC-0014622. We would also like to acknowledge support by the NSF GRFP under Grant 1247392.

  7. Measurement of total and differential cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino coherent π± production on carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislivec, A.; Higuera, A.; Aliaga, L.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Caceres v., G. F. R.; Cai, T.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Chavarria, E.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Hurtado, K.; Jena, D.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Nguyen, C.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sultana, M.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Tagg, N.; Valencia, E.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; Zavala, G.; MinerνA Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    Neutrino induced coherent charged pion production on nuclei, ν¯ μA →μ±π∓A , is a rare inelastic interaction in which the four-momentum squared transferred to the nucleus is nearly zero, leaving it intact. We identify such events in the scintillator of MINERvA by reconstructing |t | from the final state pion and muon momenta and by removing events with evidence of energetic nuclear recoil or production of other final state particles. We measure the total neutrino and antineutrino cross sections as a function of neutrino energy between 2 and 20 GeV and measure flux integrated differential cross sections as a function of Q2 , Eπ, and θπ . The Q2 dependence and equality of the neutrino and antineutrino cross sections at finite Q2 provide a confirmation of Adler's partial conservation of axial current hypothesis.

  8. Progress of MCT Detector Technology at AIM Towards Smaller Pitch and Lower Dark Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, D.; Schirmacher, W.; Hanna, S.; Mahlein, K. M.; Fries, P.; Figgemeier, H.

    2017-09-01

    We present our latest results on cooled p-on- n planar mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) photodiode technology. Along with a reduction in dark current for raising the operating temperature ( T op), AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) has devoted its development efforts to shrinking the pixel size. Both are essential requirements to meet the market demands for reduced size, weight and power and high-operating temperature applications. Detectors based on the p-on- n technology developed at AIM now span the spectrum from the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) to the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) with cut-off wavelengths from 5 μm to about 13.5 μm at 80 K. The development of the p-on- n technology for VLWIR as well as for MWIR is mainly implemented in a planar photodetector design with a 20- μm pixel pitch. For the VLWIR, dark currents significantly reduced as compared to `Tennant's Rule 07' are demonstrated for operating temperatures between 30 K and 100 K. This allows for the same dark current performance at a 20 K higher operating temperature than with previous AIM technology. For MWIR detectors with a 20- μm pitch, noise equivalent temperature differences of less than 30 mK are obtained up to 170 K. This technology has been transferred to our small pixel pitch high resolution (XGA) MWIR detector with 1024 × 768 pixels at a 10- μm pitch. Excellent performance at an operating temperature of 160 K is demonstrated.

  9. Single neutral pion production by charged-current ν¯μ interactions on hydrocarbon at 〈Eν〉=3.6 GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Le

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Single neutral pion production via muon antineutrino charged-current interactions in plastic scintillator (CH is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI low-energy, wideband antineutrino beam at Fermilab. Measurement of this process constrains models of neutral pion production in nuclei, which is important because the neutral-current analog is a background for ν¯e appearance oscillation experiments. The differential cross sections for π0 momentum and production angle, for events with a single observed π0 and no charged pions, are presented and compared to model predictions. These results comprise the first measurement of the π0 kinematics for this process.

  10. Transient current analysis of a GaN radiation detector by TCAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinghui; Mulligan, Padhraic L.; Cao, Lei R.

    2014-01-01

    A gallium nitride (GaN) Schottky diode radiation detector has been fabricated with a successfully demonstrated radiation response to alpha particles and neutrons when using Li as a convertor. In order to understand the charge collection process for further device modification, the Sentaurus TCAD software package is employed to quantitatively study the transient current produced by energetic charge particles. By comparing the simulation and experimental results, especially the capacitance–voltage relationship and charge collection efficiency, the device parameters and physics models used for the simulation are validated. The time behavior of the transient current is studied, and the carrier generation/loss by impact ionization, recombination, and trapping are discussed. The total collected charge contributed by various components, such as drift, funneling, and diffusion are also analyzed. - Highlights: • A TCAD model is established for a GaN Schottky diode radiation detector. • Schottky side mainly collects holes, while ohmic side solely collects electrons. • The funneling region evolution is visualized by carrier current densities. • Carrier generation/loss by impact ionization/trapping is insignificant. • The collected charges are primarily drift carriers in the depletion region

  11. Transient current analysis of a GaN radiation detector by TCAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinghui; Mulligan, Padhraic L.; Cao, Lei R., E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu

    2014-10-11

    A gallium nitride (GaN) Schottky diode radiation detector has been fabricated with a successfully demonstrated radiation response to alpha particles and neutrons when using Li as a convertor. In order to understand the charge collection process for further device modification, the Sentaurus TCAD software package is employed to quantitatively study the transient current produced by energetic charge particles. By comparing the simulation and experimental results, especially the capacitance–voltage relationship and charge collection efficiency, the device parameters and physics models used for the simulation are validated. The time behavior of the transient current is studied, and the carrier generation/loss by impact ionization, recombination, and trapping are discussed. The total collected charge contributed by various components, such as drift, funneling, and diffusion are also analyzed. - Highlights: • A TCAD model is established for a GaN Schottky diode radiation detector. • Schottky side mainly collects holes, while ohmic side solely collects electrons. • The funneling region evolution is visualized by carrier current densities. • Carrier generation/loss by impact ionization/trapping is insignificant. • The collected charges are primarily drift carriers in the depletion region.

  12. A study of quasi-elastic muon neutrino and antineutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubushkin, V.; Bunyatov, S.; Chukanov, A.; Klimov, O.; Kustov, D.; Nefedov, Yu.; Samoylov, O.; Tereshchenko, V. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Popov, B. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); LPNHE, Univ. of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Kim, J.J.; Godley, A.; Ling, J.; Mishra, S.R.; Petti, R.; Seaton, M.; Wu, Q. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Camilleri, L.; Autiero, D.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Ferrere, D.; Grant, A.; Kokkonen, J.; Linssen, L.; Placci, A.; Stiegler, U.; Tsesmelis, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Wilson, F.F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Levy, J.M.; Astier, P.; Banner, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Lachaud, C.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Schahmaneche, K.; Touchard, A.M.; Vannucci, F. [LPNHE, Univ. of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Mezzetto, M.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Bobisut, F.; Collazuol, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Laveder, M.; Rebuffi, L.; Sconza, A.; Zuccon, P. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Naumov, D. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Univ. of Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence (Italy); Alekhin, S. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Baldisseri, A.; Besson, N.; Bouchez, J.; Gosset, J.; Hagner, C.; Mechain, X.; Meyer, J.P.; Stolarczyk, T.; Zaccone, H. [DAPNIA, Saclay (France); Bassompierre, G.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gouanere, M.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Nedelec, P.; Pessard, H.; Sillou, D. [LAPP, Annecy (France); Benslama, K.; Degaudenzi, H.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Sozzi, G.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Tran, M.T.; Vacavant, L.; Vieira, J.M. [Univ. of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bird, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Univ. of Lausanne (Switzerland); Blumenfeld, B.; Long, J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Boyd, S.; Ellis, M.; Peak, L.S.; Ulrichs, J.; Varvell, K.E.; Yabsley, B.D. [Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Bueno, A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); ETH Zurich (Switzerland)] [and others

    2009-10-15

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions ({nu}{sub {mu}}n {yields}{mu}{sup -}p and anti {nu}{sub {mu}}p{yields}{mu}{sup +}n) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD Collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total {nu}{sub {mu}}(anti {nu}{sub {mu}}) charged-current cross section. The results for the flux-averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are left angle {sigma}{sub qel} right angle {sub {nu}}{sub {mu}}=(0.92{+-}0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} and left angle {sigma}{sub qel} right angle {sub anti} {sub {nu}{sub {mu}}}{sub =}(0.81{+-}0.05(stat){+-}0.09(syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M{sub A} was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M{sub A}=1.05{+-}0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q{sup 2} shape analysis of the high purity sample of {nu}{sub {mu}} quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured M{sub A} is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M{sub A} is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE Collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M{sub A}, these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value. (orig.)

  13. Description of current pulses induced by heavy ions in silicon detectors (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Parlog, M. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Borderie, B., E-mail: borderie@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Lavergne, L. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Le Neindre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Rivet, M.F.; Barbey, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Chabot, M. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Chbihi, A. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Cussol, D. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Univ. de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Oliveira Santos, F. de [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Edelbruck, P. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Frankland, J.D. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Galichet, E. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Conservatoire National des Arts et Metier, F-75141 Paris Cedex 03 (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ.e Claude Bernard Lyon I, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lopez, O. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Univ. de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France)

    2011-06-21

    Current pulses induced in a silicon detector by 10 different heavy ion species at known energies around 10 A MeV have been sampled in time at high frequency. Their individual average shapes are quite well reproduced by a fit procedure based on our recent charge carrier collection treatment which considers the progressive extraction of the electrons and holes from the high carrier density zone along the ionizing particle track. This region is assumed to present a supplementary dielectric polarization and consequently a disturbed electric field. The influence of the nature of the heavy ion on the values of the three fit parameters is analyzed.

  14. Description of current pulses induced by heavy ions in silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlog, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Hamrita, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Borderie, B., E-mail: borderie@ipno.in2p3.f [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-02-01

    The polarization of the electron-hole pairs induced by 80 MeV {sup 12}C ions in a silicon detector was considered and connected to the relative dielectric permittivity. The dissociation of pairs was supposed to take place with a constant probability in a time unit. The exact coordinate dependence of the modified electric field, inside and outside the ion range, was found as the solution of the one-dimensional Maxwell's equation for the electric field in this inhomogeneous medium. The improvement of the current signal simulation with that time-dependent treatment is encouraging, as compared to a prompt carrier collection in an undisturbed electric field.

  15. Dember and photo-electromotive-force currents in silicon photoconductive detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmelik, Yamaç; Davidson, Frederic M.

    2004-09-01

    Dember and photo-electromotive-force (PEMF) currents are investigated in silicon photoconductive detectors both theoretically and experimentally. Dember photocurrents were found to dominate the response of high-purity silicon samples with top-surface electrodes to a moving interference pattern. The use of surface electrodes leads to shadowed regions beneath the electrodes, and Dember photocurrents appear under short-circuit conditions. A single-charge-carrier model of the Dember effect is in good qualitative agreement with experimental results. We also show theoretically that the PEMF effect in silicon is weak compared with other semiconductors because of its relatively high intrinsic conductivity.

  16. A 185kg NaI[Tl] Detector for Observing the Charged-Current Neutrino Interaction on 127I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Samuel; Coherent Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    A 185kg NaI[Tl] detector has been deployed to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to measure the charged-current neutrino interaction cross-section on 127I. Results from an initial run will be shown, and details of an upgrade to the 185kg detector will be discussed. Recent developments towards a 2-ton NaI[Tl] detector capable of simultaneously observing the charged-current interaction on 127I and coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CEvNS) will be presented.

  17. Solar neutrino detectors as sterile neutrino hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Marco; Borexino-SOX Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Atroshchenko, V.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Carlini, M.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; Cloué, O.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Durero, M.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Gschwender, M.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, Th.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jany, A.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Jeschke, D.; Jonquères, N.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kornoukhov, V.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Ortica, F.; Papp, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Reinert, Y.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Veyssière, C.; Vishneva, A.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The large size and the very low radioactive background of solar neutrino detectors such as Borexino at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy offer a unique opportunity to probe the existence of neutrino oscillations into new sterile components by means of carefully designed and well calibrated anti-neutrino and neutrino artificial sources. In this paper we briefly summarise the key elements of the SOX experiment, a program for the search of sterile neutrinos (and other short distance effects) by means of a 144Ce-144Pr anti-neutrino source and, possibly in the medium term future, with a 51Cr neutrino source.

  18. Scintillation light production, propagation and detection in the Stereo reactor antineutrino experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred; Roca, Christian

    2017-09-01

    The Stereo experiment’s detector has been optimized to observe reactor antineutrinos via inverse beta decay within a 1800 liter volume filled with Gadolinium-doped organic liquid scintillator (LS). The main requirements for the scintillator in Stereo are compatibility with detector materials as the acrylic vessels, transparency, light yield, pulse shape discrimination capabilities as well as chemical and optical stability over several years of data taking. With these conditions in mind, the composition of the LS is mainly a mix of 75% LAB, 20%PXE and 5% DIN combined with the two wavelength-shifters PPO and Bis-MSB. The final admixture after the full scale production lead to an attenuation length of more than 5 meters for optical photons of 430 nm. The scintillation light produced in the Gd-loaded target volume and the Gd-free outer crown is detected by 48 eight inch PMTs on top of the detector. A correct performance of the PMTs has been ensured through several tests. Common characteristics for PMTs as gain, single photoelectron peak, time behaviour, dark rate and afterpulse ratio were measured resulting in a complete agreement with the manufacturer values.

  19. Measuring of fissile isotopes partial antineutrino spectra in direct experiment at nuclear reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Sinev, V. V.

    2009-01-01

    The direct measuring method is considered to get nuclear reactor antineutrino spectrum. We suppose to isolate partial spectra of the fissile isotopes by using the method of antineutrino spectrum extraction from the inverse beta decay positron spectrum applied at Rovno experiment. This admits to increase the accuracy of partial antineutrino spectra forming the total nuclear reactor spectrum. It is important for the analysis of the reactor core fuel composition and could be applied for non-prol...

  20. A neutrino (antineutrino)-induced four lepton event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveless, R.J.; Benada, R.; Camerini, U.; Duffy, M.; Fry, W.; McCabe, P.; Minette, D.; Ngai, M.; Reeder, D.D.; Cence, R.J.; Harris, F.A.; Jones, M.D.; Parker, S.I.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Wyatt, N.; Burnett, T.H.; Holmgren, D.; Lubatti, H.J.; Moriyasu, K.; Rudnicka, H.; Swider, G.M.; Wolin, E.; Yuldashev, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    Observation of a neutrino (antineutrino)-induced event with two electrons, one positron, one positively charged muon, a neutral K meson, and seven gammas in an experiment performed in the FNAL 15-ft bubble chamber with a 47% atomic mixture of neon in hydrogen is reported. Estimated experimental electron backgrounds are approximately 10 -4 per track. At present the authors have no plausible interpretation of this event. (Auth.)

  1. Net charge of quark jets in (anti)neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.

    1981-01-01

    We analyse recent measurements of the net charges of quark jets in neutrino and antineutrino interactions. The data indicates that (i) the two quarks in the nucleon fragmentation region prefer to behave as a diquark rather than as a pair of independent quarks, and (ii) the struck quark does not appear to suffer any soft charge exchange of the kind that occurs when a valence quark inside a nucleon is slowed to x approx. O. (orig.)

  2. An overview of current developments in position-sensitive hybrid photon detectors and photo-multiplier tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Gys, Thierry

    1999-01-01

    Current developments in position-sensitive hybrid photon detectors and photo-multiplier tubes have stimulated increased interest from a variety of fields such as astronomy, biomedical imaging and high- energy physics. These devices are sensitive to single photons over a photon energy spectrum defined by the transmission of the optical entrance window and the photo-cathode type. Their spatial resolution ranges from a few millimeters for pad hybrid photon detectors and multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes down to a few tens of microns for pixel hybrid photon detectors and electron-bombarded charge-coupled devices. Basic technological and design aspects are assessed in this paper. (21 refs).

  3. Germanium detectors for nuclear spectroscopy: Current research and development activity at LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoli, D. R., E-mail: daniel.r.napoli@lnl.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Maggioni, G., E-mail: maggioni@lnl.infn.it; Carturan, S.; Gelain, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy “G. Galilei”, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35121 Padova (Italy); Eberth, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Grimaldi, M. G.; Tatí, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania (Italy); Riccetto, S. [University of Camerino and INFN of Perugia (Italy); Mea, G. Della [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); University of Trento (Italy)

    2016-07-07

    High-purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors have reached an unprecedented level of sophistication and are still the best solution for high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. In the present work, we will show the results of the characterization of new surface treatments for the production of these detectors, studied in the framework of our multidisciplinary research program in HPGe detector technologies.

  4. A CMOS detector leakage current self-adaptable continuous reset system: Theoretical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    De Geronimo, G

    1999-01-01

    A continuous reset system for the discharge of the feedback capacitance of integrated charge preamplifiers is presented. The system, based on the use of a FET operating in the saturation region, is self-adaptable with respect to a wide range of detector leakage currents. A circuit which provides compensation of the signal from the charge amplifier is also proposed. The noise analysis, which takes into account both the stationary and non-stationary noise contributions and the effect of the rate, shows that the system, when carefully designed, can offer good signal/noise performance for applications in gamma-ray and high-energy X-ray spectroscopy. Practical layout considerations are also made.

  5. Scalable large-area solid-state neutron detector with continuous p-n junction and extremely low leakage current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuan-Chih; Dahal, Rajendra; Lu, James J.-Q.; Weltz, Adam; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2014-11-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of solid-state thermal neutron detectors with detection areas up to 16 cm2 that require only a single preamplifier for data acquisition. These detectors consist of a honeycomb-like micro-structured Si diode with boron-10 filled deep holes. A continuous p-n junction formed over the entire surface of the microstructure helps to achieve a low leakage current density of ~6.1×10-9 A/cm2 at -1 V for a 2.5×2.5 mm2 detector. This low leakage current results in low electronic noise, which enables the fabrication of large-area detectors. An intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of up to 26% was measured for a 2.5×2.5 mm2 detector module and up to 24% was measured for a 1 cm2 detector module. These measurements were obtained under zero bias voltage using a moderated californium-252 source. The relative efficiency remains almost the same when scaling the detector area up to 8 cm2 by connecting 1 cm2 detector modules in series. However, it decreases to 0.89 and 0.82, respectively, for 12 and 16 cm2. Nevertheless, these results demonstrate the promise of using boron filled micro-structured Si diodes as a cost effective alternative to the helium-3 based neutron detection technology and the potential of fabricating scalable large-area solid-state neutron detectors that are desirable for many applications.

  6. Dead time of different neutron detectors associated with a pulsed electronics with current collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacconnet, Eugene; Duchene, Jean; Duquesne, Henry; Schmitt, Andre

    1968-01-01

    After having outlined that the development of fast neutron reactor physics, notably kinetics, requires highly efficient neutron detectors and pulse measurement chains able to cope with high counting rates, the authors report the measurement of dead time of various neutron detectors which are used in the experimental study of fast neutron reactors. They present the SAITB 1 electronic measurement set, its components, its general characteristics, the protected connection between the detector and the electronics. They present and report the experiment: generalities about detector location and measurements, studied detectors (fission chambers, boron counters), and report the exploitation of the obtained results (principle, data, high-threshold counting gain) [fr

  7. First Anti-neutrino Oscillation Results from the T2K Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos are some of the most abundant but yet most elusive particles in the universe. They have almost no mass, only interact weakly and relatively little is known about their properties. Furthermore it has been firmly established over the last decade that neutrinos can undergo flavour transitions as mass and flavor eigenstates are not identical. These neutrino oscillations have been studied using natural sources as well as nuclear reactors or with neutrinos produced at accelerators. T2K is a long baseline neutrino oscillation beam that uses a beam of muon (anti-)neutrinos that is directed form J-PARC at the east cost of Japan over a distance of almost 300 km to the SuperKamiokande water Cherenkov detector in the west. The facility is complemented by a near detector complex 280 m downstream of the neutrino production target to characterise the beam and the neutrino interaction dynamics. T2K has taken data with a muon neutrino beam since early 2010 and is studying the disappearance of muon neutrinos as well...

  8. Current Status of the Detector Development for the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) on ASTROF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shuji; Akazaki, Midori; Isozaki, Yosuke; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Patrashin, Mihkael A.; Shirahata, Mai; Fujiwara, Mikio; Doi, Yasuo; Hibi, Yasunori; Hirao, Takanori; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Nagata, Hirohisa; Shibai, Hiroshi; Watabe, Toyoki; Noda, Manabu

    ASTRO-F is a Japanese infrared satellite, which is scheduled for launch in early 2004. Far-infrared instrument that will be onboard the ASTRO-F, Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS), will provide the four-color all sky survey data in the 50-200 micron wavelength range with the diffraction-limited spatial resolution for the 70-cm diameter telescope. Owing to high performance of the readout circuit and to high spatial resolution to minimize the source confusion, the point source detection limit of the FIS should be more than an order of magnitude better than that of IRAS. The world's first monolithic Ge:Ga 20x3 array directly attached to the cooled readout circuit is used for the two short wave bands of 50-70μm and 50-110μm. A stressed Ge:Ga array with a novel assembling structure, which is built by stacking 20 pieces of 5- segment discrete array with light cavity, covers the long wave bands of 100-200μm and 150-200μm. The cooled readout circuit for both short and long wave arrays consists of Capacitive Trans-Impedance Amplifier (CTIA) composed of specially-made p-MOSFETs for low-temperature use. We will present the current development status of the FIS instruments, showing specific properties of the FIS detector and the readout circuit. We will also state future prospect of the advance in detector technology in Japan related to future space astronomy missions.

  9. Measurement of muon neutrino and antineutrino induced single neutral pion production cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Colin E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Elucidating the nature of neutrino oscillation continues to be a goal in the vanguard of the efforts of physics experiment. As neutrino oscillation searches seek an increasingly elusive signal, a thorough understanding of the possible backgrounds becomes ever more important. Measurements of neutrino-nucleus interaction cross sections are key to this understanding. Searches for νμ → νe oscillation - a channel that may yield insight into the vanishingly small mixing parameter θ13, CP violation, and the neutrino mass hierarchy - are particularly susceptible to contamination from neutral current single π0 (NC 1π0) production. Unfortunately, the available data concerning NC 1π0 production are limited in scope and statistics. Without satisfactory constraints, theoretical models of NC 1π0 production yield substantially differing predictions in the critical Eν ~ 1 GeV regime. Additional investigation of this interaction can ameliorate the current deficiencies. The Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (MiniBooNE) is a short-baseline neutrino oscillation search operating at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). While the oscillation search is the principal charge of the MiniBooNE collaboration, the extensive data (~ 106 neutrino events) offer a rich resource with which to conduct neutrino cross section measurements. This work concerns the measurement of both neutrino and antineutrino NC 1π0 production cross sections at MiniBooNE. The size of the event samples used in the analysis exceeds that of all other similar experiments combined by an order of magnitude. We present the first measurements of the absolute NC 1π0 cross section as well as the first differential cross sections in both neutrino and antineutrino mode. Specifically, we measure single differential cross sections with respect to pion momentum and pion angle. We find the

  10. The case for a directional dark matter detector and the status of current experimental efforts

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlen, S; Battat, J B R; Billard, J; Bozorgnia, N; Burgos, S; Caldwell, T; Carmona, J M; Cebrián, S; Colas, P; Dafni, T; Daw, E; Dujmic, D; Dushkin, A; Fedus, W; Ferrer, E; Finkbeiner, D; Fisher, P H; Forbes, J; Fusayasu, T; Galan, J; Gamble, T; Ghag, C; Giomataris, Yu; Gold, M; Gomez, H; Gómez, M E; Gondolo, P; Green, A; Grignon, C; Guillaudin, O; Hagemann, C; Hattori, K; Henderson, S; Higashi, N; Ida, C; Iguaz, F J; Inglis, A; Irastorza, I G; Iwaki, S; Kaboth, A; Kabuki, S; Kadyk, J; Kallivayalil, N; Kubo, H; Kurosawa, S; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lamy, T; Lanza, R; Lawson, T B; Lee, A; Lee, E R; Lin, T; Loomba, D; López, J; Luzón, G; Manobu, T; Martoff, J; Mayet, F; McCluskey, B; Miller, E; Miuchi, K; Monroe, J; Morgan, B; Muna, D; Murphy, A St J; Naka, T; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Nicklin, G G; Nishimura, H; Niwa, K; Paling, S M; Parker, J; Petkov, A; Pipe, M; Pushkin, K; Robinson, M; Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez-Quintero, J; Sahin, T; Sanderson, R; Sanghi, N; Santos, D; Sato, O; Sawano, T; Sciolla, G; Sekiya, H; Slatyer, T R; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Sugiyama, A; Takada, A; Takahashi, M; Takeda, A; Tanimori, T; Taniue, K; Tomas, A; Tomita, H; Tsuchiya, K; Turk, J; Tziaferi, E; Ueno, K; Vahsen, S; Vanderspek, R; Vergados, J; Villar, J A; Wellenstein, H; Wolfe, I; Yamamoto, R K; Yegoryan, H

    2010-01-01

    We present the case for a dark matter detector with directional sensitivity. This document was developed at the 2009 CYGNUS workshop on directional dark matter detection, and contains contributions from theorists and experimental groups in the field. We describe the need for a dark matter detector with directional sensitivity; each directional dark matter experiment presents their project's status; and we close with a feasibility study for scaling up to a one ton directional detector, which would cost around $150M.

  11. Search for the Neutrino Magnetic Moment in the Non-Equilibrium Reactor Antineutrino Energy Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Kopeikin, V. I.; Mikaelyan, L. A.; Sinev, V. V.

    1999-01-01

    We study the time evolution of the typical nuclear reactor antineutrino energy spectrum during reactor ON period and the decay of the residual antineutrino spectrum after reactor is stopped. We find that relevant variations of the soft recoil electron spectra produced via weak and magnetic ${\\widetilde {\

  12. Calorimetric measurement of the SOX anti-neutrino source for sterile neutrino search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenmueller, Konrad; Agostini, Matteo; Papp, Laszlo; Schoenert, Stefan [Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: Borexino-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    A thermal calorimeter is under development to measure with <1% accuracy the heat release of the Cerium anti-neutrino source for the SOX experiment, which is looking for eV-scale sterile neutrinos. The heat release is proportional to the source activity and thus to the emitted neutrino flux, which is an important parameter of the experiment. The calorimeter design is based on a copper heat exchanger mounted around the source with integrated water lines for the heat extraction. Heat loss through conduction and radiation is minimized by suspending the set-up through Kevlar ropes and inserting it inside a thermalized vacuum tank with radiation shields. The device is currently being assembled and tested at TUM in Garching.

  13. Unfolding neutron spectrum with Markov Chain Monte Carlo at MIT research Reactor with He-3 Neutral Current Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, A.; Anderson, A. J.; Billard, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Formaggio, J. A.; Hasselkus, C.; Newman, E.; Palladino, K.; Phuthi, M.; Winslow, L.; Zhang, L.

    2018-02-01

    The Ricochet experiment seeks to measure Coherent (neutral-current) Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CEνNS) using dark-matter-style detectors with sub-keV thresholds placed near a neutrino source, such as the MIT (research) Reactor (MITR), which operates at 5.5 MW generating approximately 2.2 × 1018 ν/second in its core. Currently, Ricochet is characterizing the backgrounds at MITR, the main component of which comes in the form of neutrons emitted from the core simultaneous with the neutrino signal. To characterize this background, we wrapped Bonner cylinders around a 32He thermal neutron detector, whose data was then unfolded via a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to produce a neutron energy spectrum across several orders of magnitude. We discuss the resulting spectrum and its implications for deploying Ricochet at the MITR site as well as the feasibility of reducing this background level via the addition of polyethylene shielding around the detector setup.

  14. Bilocal current densities and mean trajectories in a Young interferometer with two Gaussian slits and two detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, L. P., E-mail: lpwithers@mitre.org [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030-4444 (United States); Narducci, F. A., E-mail: francesco.narducci@navy.mil [Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The recent single-photon double-slit experiment of Steinberg et al., based on a weak measurement method proposed by Wiseman, showed that, by encoding the photon’s transverse momentum behind the slits into its polarization state, the momentum profile can subsequently be measured on average, from a difference of the separated fringe intensities for the two circular polarization components. They then integrated the measured average velocity field, to obtain the average trajectories of the photons enroute to the detector array. In this paper, we propose a modification of their experiment, to demonstrate that the average particle velocities and trajectories change when the mode of detection changes. The proposed experiment replaces a single detector by a pair of detectors with a given spacing between them. The pair of detectors is configured so that it is impossible to distinguish which detector received the particle. The pair of detectors is then analogous to the simple pair of slits, in that it is impossible to distinguish which slit the particle passed through. To establish the paradoxical outcome of the modified experiment, the theory and explicit three-dimensional formulas are developed for the bilocal probability and current densities, and for the average velocity field and trajectories as the particle wavefunction propagates in the volume of space behind the Gaussian slits. Examples of these predicted results are plotted. Implementation details of the proposed experiment are discussed.

  15. Shell-model computed cross sections for charged-current scattering of astrophysical neutrinos off 40Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostensalo, Joel; Suhonen, Jouni; Zuber, K.

    2018-03-01

    Charged-current (anti)neutrino-40Ar cross sections for astrophysical neutrinos have been calculated. The initial and final nuclear states were calculated using the nuclear shell model. The folded solar-neutrino scattering cross section was found to be 1.78 (23 ) ×10-42cm2 , which is higher than what the previous papers have reported. The contributions from the 1- and 2- multipoles were found to be significant at supernova-neutrino energies, confirming the random-phase approximation (RPA) result of a previous study. The effects of neutrino flavor conversions in dense stellar matter (matter oscillations) were found to enhance the neutrino-scattering cross sections significantly for both the normal and inverted mass hierarchies. For the antineutrino scattering, only a small difference between the nonoscillating and inverted-hierarchy cross sections was found, while the normal-hierarchy cross section was 2-3 times larger than that of the nonoscillating cross section, depending on the adopted parametrization of the Fermi-Dirac distribution. This property of the supernova-antineutrino signal could probably be used to distinguish between the two hierarchies in megaton LAr detectors.

  16. CVD Diamond Detectors for Current Mode Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy at OMEGA/NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. J. Schmid; V. Yu. Glebov; A. V. Friensehner; D. R. Hargrove; S. P. Hatchett; N. Izumi; R. A. Lerche; T. W. Phillips; T. C. Sangster; C. Silbernagel; C. Stoecki

    2001-01-01

    We have performed pulsed neutron and pulsed laser tests of a CVD diamond detector manufactured from DIAFILM, a commercial grade of CVD diamond. The laser tests were performed at the short pulse UV laser at Bechtel Nevada in Livermore, CA. The pulsed neutrons were provided by DT capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser fusion facility in Rochester, NY. From these tests, we have determined the impulse response to be 250 ps fwhm for an applied E-field of 500 V/mm. Additionally, we have determined the sensitivity to be 2.4 mA/W at 500 V/mm and 4.0 mA/W at 1000 V/mm. These values are approximately 2 to 5x times higher than those reported for natural Type IIa diamond at similar E-field and thickness (1mm). These characteristics allow us to conceive of a neutron time-of-flight current mode spectrometer based on CVD diamond. Such an instrument would sit inside the laser fusion target chamber close to target chamber center (TCC), and would record neutron spectra fast enough such that backscattered neutrons and x-rays from the target chamber wall would not be a concern. The acquired neutron spectra could then be used to extract DD fuel areal density from the downscattered secondary to secondary ratio

  17. CVD diamond detectors for current mode neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy at OMEGA/NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Gregory J.; Glebov, Vladimir Y.; Friensehner, Allen V.; Hargrove, Dana R.; Hatchett, Steven P., II; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Lerche, Richard A.; Phillips, Thomas W.; Sangster, Thomas C.; Silbernagel, Christopher T.; Stoeckl, Christian

    2001-12-01

    We have performed pulsed neutron and pulsed laser tests of a CVD diamond detector manufactured from DIAFILM, a commercial grade of CVD diamond. The laser tests were performed at the short pulse UV laser at Bechtel Nevada in Livermore, CA. The pulsed neutrons were provided by DT capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser fusion facility in Rochester, NY. From these tests, we have determined the impulse response to be 250 ps fwhm for an applied E-field of 500 V/mm. Additionally, we have determined the sensitivity to be 2.4 mA/W at 500 V/mm and 4.0 mA/W at 100 V/mm. These values are approximately 2 to 5x times higher than those reported for natural Type IIa diamond at similar E-field and thickness (1mm). These characteristics allow us to conceive of a neutron time-of-flight current mode spectrometer based on CVD diamond. Such an instrument would sit inside the laser fusion target chamber close to target chamber center (TCC), and would record neutron spectra fast enough such that backscattered neutrons and (gamma) rays from the target chamber wall would not be a concern. The acquired neutron spectra could then be used to extract DD fuel areal density from the downscattered secondary to secondary ratio.

  18. Current tendencies in the development of neutron and X-ray detectors for common use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikerov, V. I.; Sviridov, A. S.; Yurkov, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper is a brief review of activities of Federal State Unitary Enterprise “VNIIA” and National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” in the development of radiation detectors for various applications.

  19. Search for differences in oscillation parameters for atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos at Super-Kamiokande.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Hayato, Y; Iida, T; Ikeda, M; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Koshio, Y; Kozuma, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takenaga, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Ueno, K; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Yamada, S; Yokozawa, T; Ishihara, C; Kaji, H; Lee, K P; Kajita, T; Kaneyuki, K; McLachlan, T; Okumura, K; Shimizu, Y; Tanimoto, N; Martens, K; Vagins, M R; Labarga, L; Magro, L M; Dufour, F; Kearns, E; Litos, M; Raaf, J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Goldhaber, M; Bays, K; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Regis, C; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Ganezer, K S; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Jang, J S; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Albert, J B; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wendell, R; Wongjirad, T M; Tasaka, S; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Nishino, H; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Suzuki, A T; Minamino, A; Nakaya, T; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Tanaka, T; Jung, C K; Taylor, I; Yanagisawa, C; Ishino, H; Kibayashi, A; Mino, S; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Toyota, H; Kuno, Y; Kim, S B; Yang, B S; Ishizuka, T; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Yokoyama, M; Totsuka, Y; Chen, S; Heng, Y; Yang, Z; Zhang, H; Kielczewska, D; Mijakowski, P; Connolly, K; Dziomba, M; Wilkes, R J

    2011-12-09

    We present a search for differences in the oscillations of antineutrinos and neutrinos in the Super-Kamiokande-I, -II, and -III atmospheric neutrino sample. Under a two-flavor disappearance model with separate mixing parameters between neutrinos and antineutrinos, we find no evidence for a difference in oscillation parameters. Best-fit antineutrino mixing is found to be at (Δm2,sin2 2θ)=(2.0×10(-3)  eV2, 1.0) and is consistent with the overall Super-K measurement.

  20. Data analysis in beta-spectroscopy with cryogenic detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fontanelli, F; Gatti, F; Swift, A M; Vitale, S

    1999-01-01

    In the environment of the 'Manu' experiment for the electron anti-neutrino mass determination with microcalorimeters, we developed a full system to analyze data and extract sensible results. Here we report on data simulation and analysis. We show that, with a single detector with the energy resolution we obtained up to now (15 eV RMS) and a rate of 1 Hz, we may put an upper limit to the electron anti-neutrino mass of the order of 20 eV at 95% C.L. in three months of data taking.

  1. Study on the output current for electrochemical low-energy neutrino detector with regards to oxygen concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Shoya; Ishibashi, Kenji; Riyana, Eka Sapta [Dept. of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Aida, Yani Nur [SyarifHidatatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta (Indonesia); Nakamura, Shohei [Infrastructure System Company, Hitachi, Tokyo (Japan); Imahayashi, Yoichi [Mitsubishi Electric, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Experiments with small electrochemical apparatus were previously carried out for detecting low-energy neutrinos under irradiation of reactor neutrinos and under natural neutrino environment. The experimental result indicated that the output current of reactor-neutrino irradiated detector was appreciably larger than that of natural environmental one. Usual interaction cross-sections of neutrinos are quite small, so that they do not explain the experimental result at all. To understand the experimental data, we propose that some biological products may generate AV-type scalar field B0, leading to a large interaction cross-section. The output current generation is ascribed to an electrochemical process that may be assisted by weak interaction phenomena. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the detector solution were measured in this study, for the purpose of understanding the mechanism of the detector output current generation. It was found that the time evolution of experimental output current was mostly reproduced in simulation calculation on the basis of the measured dissolved oxygen concentration. We mostly explained the variation of experimental data by using the electrochemical half-cell analysis model based on the DO concentration that is consistent to the experiment.

  2. Current applications of semiconductor x-ray detectors in chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, N.E.

    1975-07-01

    In the last few years, semiconductor detectors have been used as X-ray detectors with great success, and the routine rapid accumulation of X-ray spectra is now possible. This review surveys the historical development of the detectors, the utilisation, and relative merits of various means of exciting the X-radiation from the elements in the sample, and compares the technique with other methods claiming to offer the capability of simultaneous multi-element analysis. It is concluded that it is of average sensitivity, but offers some advantages from its non-destructive nature, and in some cases its ability to offer information about the spatial distribution of elements in a sample. Other types of analysis may also be possible simultaneously. Sample preparation techniques are reviewed, especially techniques of manufacturing thin samples. An appendix contains details of the very wide variety of samples which have been analysed. More than 350 references are included. (auth.)

  3. Pin Diode Detector For Radiation Field Monitoring In A Current Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.; Wengrowicz, U.; Kadmon, Y.; Tirosh, D.; Osovizky, A.; Vulasky, E.; Tal, N.

    1999-01-01

    Thus paper presents calculations and tests made for a detector based on a bare Pin diode and a Pin diode coupled to a plastic scintillator. These configurations have a variety of applications in radiation field monitoring. For example, the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology which becomes an established diagnostic imaging modality. Flour-18 is one of the major isotopes being used by PET imaging. The PET method utilizes short half life β + radioisotopes which, by annihilation, produce a pair of high energy photons (511 keV). Fluoro-deoxyglucose producers are required to meet federal regulations and licensing requirements. Some of the regulations are related to the production in chemistry modules regarding measuring the Start Of Synthesis (SOS) activity and verifying the process repeatability. Locating a radiation detector based on Pin diode inside the chemistry modules is suitable for this purpose. The dimensions of a Pin diode based detector can be small, with expected linearity over several scale decades

  4. Low dark current MCT-based focal plane detector arrays for the LWIR and VLWIR developed at AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Kai Uwe; Eich, Detlef; Fick, Wolfgang; Figgemeier, Heinrich; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard

    2015-10-01

    For nearly 40 years AIM develops, manufactures and delivers photo-voltaic and photo-conductive infrared sensors and associated cryogenic coolers which are mainly used for military applications like pilotage, weapon sights, UAVs or vehicle platforms. In 2005 AIM started to provide the competences also for space applications like IR detector units for the SLSTR instrument on board of the Sentinel 3 satellite, the hyperspectral SWIR Imager for EnMAP or pushbroom detectors for high resolution Earth observation satellites. Meanwhile AIM delivered more than 25 Flight Models for several customers. The first European pulse-tube cooler ever operating on-board of a satellite is made by AIM. AIM homes the required infrared core capabilities such as design and manufacturing of focal plane assemblies, detector housing technologies, development and manufacturing of cryocoolers and also data processing for thermal IR cameras under one roof which enables high flexibility to react to customer needs and assures economical solutions. Cryogenically cooled Hg(1-x)CdxTe (MCT) quantum detectors are unequalled for applications requiring high imaging as well as high radiometric performance in the infrared spectral range. Compared with other technologies, they provide several advantages, such as the highest quantum efficiency, lower power dissipation compared to photoconductive devices and fast response times, hence outperforming micro-bolometer arrays. However, achieving an excellent MCT detector performance at long (LWIR) and very long (VLWIR) infrared wavelengths is challenging due to the exponential increase in the thermally generated photodiode dark current with increasing cut-off wavelength and / or operating temperature. Dark current is a critical design driver, especially for LWIR / VLWIR multi-spectral imagers with moderate signal levels or hyper-spectral Fourier spectrometers operating deep into the VLWIR spectral region. Consequently, low dark current (LDC) technologies are the

  5. Prospects for observation of neutrino-nuclear neutral current coherent scattering with two-phase Xenon emission detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, D. Yu; Alexandrov, I. S.; Aleshin, V. I.; Belov, V. A.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepurnov, A. S.; Danilov, M. V.; Derbin, A. V.; Dmitrenko, V. V.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Efremenko, Yu V.; Etenko, A. V.; Gromov, M. B.; Gulin, M. A.; Ivakhin, S. V.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kaplin, V. A.; Karelin, A. K.; Khromov, A. V.; Kirsanov, M. A.; Klimanov, S. G.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Konovalov, A. M.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Kopeikin, V. I.; Krakhmalova, T. D.; Kuchenkov, A. V.; Kumpan, A. V.; Litvinovich, E. A.; Lukyanchenko, G. A.; Machulin, I. N.; Martemyanov, V. P.; Nurakhov, N. N.; Rudik, D. G.; Saldikov, I. S.; Skorokhatov, M. D.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Sukhotin, S. V.; Tarasenkov, V. G.; Tikhomirov, G. V.; Zeldovich, O. Ya

    2013-10-01

    We propose to detect and to study neutrino neutral current coherent scattering off atomic nuclei with a two-phase emission detector using liquid xenon as a working medium. Expected signals and backgrounds are calculated for two possible experimental sites: the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant in the Russian Federation and the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the U.S.A. Both sites have advantages as well as limitations. The experiment looks feasible at either location.

  6. A study of inclusive antineutrino interactions in propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, F.A.

    1979-02-01

    Some results obtained using the heavy liquid bubble chamber Gargamelle situated at the CERN Proton Synchrotron neutrino beam facility are presented. The deep inelastic scattering of antineutrinos is analysed and interpreted in the theoretical framework of Bjorken scaling and the Quark Parton model of the nucleon. This model predicts that scaling should occur in regions of high four momentum squared. The effect of not being in that region is investigated. In particular the data suggest that in the region of low four momentum transfer the results can still be interpreted in the scaling framework. A model is presented which enables extraction of the neutron to proton cross section, and the result is interpreted within the quark model. (author)

  7. 2.6 μm MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Ji

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We fabricate 2.6 μm InGaAs photodetectors by MBE technology and study its dark current mechanisms. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS demonstrates a deep-level trap located at Ec - 0.25 eV in the absorption layer. Using the trap parameters, a dark current model is constructed and the device simulation generates the dark current characteristic which agrees well with the experimental data. The model suggests that the dark current at low reverse voltage is dominated by the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH and trap-assisted tunneling (TAT. Furthermore, it predicts some basic rules for suppressing the dark current in 2.6 μm InGaAs detectors.

  8. CeLAND: search for a 4th light neutrino state with a 3 PBq 144Ce-144Pr electron antineutrino generator in KamLAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gando, A; Gando, Y; Hayashida, S; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Ishidoshiro, K; Ishikawa, H; Koga, M; Matsuda, R; Matsuda, S; Mitsui, T; Motoki, D; Nakamura, K; Oki, Y; Otani, M; Shimizu, I; Shirai, J; Suekane, F; Suzuki, A; Takemoto, Y; Tamae, K; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Xu, BD; Yamada, S; Yamauchi, Y; Yoshida, H; Cribier, M; Durero, M; Fischer, V; Gaffiot, J; Jonqueres, N; Kouchner, A; Lasserre, T; Leterme, D; Letourneau, A; Lhuillier, D; Mention, G; Rampal, G; Scola, L; Veyssiere, C; Vivier, M; Yala, P; Berger, BE; Kozlov, A; Banks, T; Dwyer, D; Fujikawa, BK; Han, K; Kolomensky, YG; Mei, Y; O' Donnell, T; Decowski, P; Markoff, DM; Yoshida, S; Kornoukhov, VN; Gelis, TVM; Tikhomirov, GV; Learned, JG; Maricic, J; Matsuno, S; Milincic, R; Karwowski, HJ; Efremenko, Y; Detwiler, A; Enomoto, S

    2017-05-12

    The reactor neutrino and gallium anomalies can be tested with a 3-4 PBq (75-100 kCi scale) 144Ce-144Pr antineutrino beta-source deployed at the center or next to a large low-background liquid scintillator detector. The antineutrino generator will be produced by the Russian reprocessing plant PA Mayak as early as 2014, transported to Japan, and deployed in the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) as early as 2015. KamLAND's 13 m diameter target volume provides a suitable environment to measure the energy and position dependence of the detected neutrino flux. A characteristic oscillation pattern would be visible for a baseline of about 10 m or less, providing a very clean signal of neutrino disappearance into a yet-unknown, sterile neutrino state. This will provide a comprehensive test of the electron dissaperance neutrino anomalies and could lead to the discovery of a 4th neutrino state for Δm$2\\atop{new}$ ≳ 0.1 eV2 and sin2(2θnew) > 0.05.

  9. Principles and applications of a neutral current detector for neutrino physics and astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukier, A.; Stodolsky, L.

    1982-01-01

    We study neutrino detection through the elastic scattering of neutrinos on nuclei and identification of the recoil energy. The very large value of the cross section compared to previous methods indicates a detector would be relatively light and suggests the possibility of a true 'neutrino observatory'. We examine a realization in terms of the superconducting grain idea, which appears in principle feasible through extension and extrapolation of presently known techniques. Such a detector would permit determination of the neutrino spectrum and should be intensive to neutrino oscillations. Various applications and tests are discussed, including spallation sources, reactors, supernovas, solar and terrestrial neutrinos. A supernova would permit a simple determination of the number of neutrinos and their masses, while for solar neutrinos rates of thousands of S.N.U. are theoretically attainable. A preliminary estimate of the most difficult backgrounds is attempted. (orig.)

  10. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-15

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  11. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-01

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of the mixing leptonic parameter θ13 at the Double Chooz reactor antineutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment aims at measuring the neutrino mixing parameter θ13 by studying the oscillations of de ν-bar e produced by the Chooz nuclear reactors located in France. The experimental concept consists in comparing the signal of two identical 10.3 m 3 detectors, allowing to cancel most of the experimental systematic uncertainties. The near detector, whose goal is the flux normalization and a measurement without oscillation, is expected to be delivered in 2013. The farthest detector from the source is taking data since April 2011 and is sensitive to θ 13 , which is expected to affect both the rate and the shape of the measured de ν-bar e . In this thesis, are first presented the Double Chooz experiment, with its ν-bar e source, its detection method, and the expected signal and backgrounds. In order to perform a selection, important quantities have to be reconstructed, calibrated, and saved in data files. The channel time offsets determination, the energy and vertex reconstruction algorithm CocoReco, the reconstruction packages of the Common Trunk, and the light trees maker Cheetah are especially presented. Concerning the data analysis, all the selection cuts and results for signal and backgrounds are discussed, particularly the multiplicity cut, the multiple off time window method, the lithium veto cut, and the cosmogenic 9 Li background studies. The Double Chooz experiment observed 8,249 de ν-bar e candidates in 227.93 days in its far detector only. The reactor antineutrino flux prediction used the Bugey 4 flux measurement after correction for differences in core composition. The expectation in case of no-oscillation is 8,937 events and this deficit is interpreted as evidence for ν-bar e disappearance. From a rate and shape analysis, is found sin 2 2θ = 0,109± 0,030 (stat) ± 0,025 (syst), with Δm 2 31 = 2,32 x 10 -3 eV 2 , while the no-oscillation hypothesis is even excluded at 2.9 σ. (author) [fr

  13. Uso de detectores de neutrinos para el monitoreo de reactores nucleares Uso de detectores de neutrinos para el monitoreo de reactores nucleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Moreno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la factibilidad del uso de los detectores de antineutrinos para el monitoreo de reactores nucleares. Usando un modelo sencillo de cascada de fisión a dos componentes, se ilustra la dependencia del número de antineutrinos detectados a una distancia L del reactor según la composición nuclear del combustible. Se explica el principio de detección de neutrinos de reactores en base al decaimiento beta inverso y se describe como los detectores de neutrinos pueden emplearse para el monitoreo de la producción de materiales fisibles en el reactor. Se comenta como generalizar este análisis al caso real de un reactor nuclear in situ y uno de los principales experimentos internacionales dedicados a este propósito. We study the feasibility to use antineutrinos detectors for monitoring of nuclear reactors. Using a simple model of fission shower with two components, we illustrate how the numbers of antineutrinos detected at a distance L from the reactor depend on the composition of the nuclear combustible. We explain the principles of reactor neutrino detection using inverse beta decays and we describe how neutrinos detectors can be used for monitoring the production of fissile materials within the reactors. We comment how to generalize this analysis to the realistic case of a nuclear reactor in situ and one of the main international experiments dedicated to study the use of neutrinos detectors as nuclear safeguards.

  14. Calculation of induced current densities and specific absorption rates (SAR) for pregnant women exposed to hand-held metal detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Wolfgang; Chan, Dulciana D.; Casamento, Jon P.; Bassen, Howard I.

    2003-08-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method in combination with a well established frequency scaling method was used to calculate the internal fields and current densities induced in a simple model of a pregnant woman and her foetus, when exposed to hand-held metal detectors. The pregnant woman and foetus were modelled using a simple semi-heterogeneous model in 10 mm resolution, consisting of three different types of tissue. The model is based on the scanned shape of a pregnant woman in the 34th gestational week. Nine different representative models of hand-held metal detectors operating in the frequency range from 8 kHz to 2 MHz were evaluated. The metal detectors were placed directly on the abdomen of the computational model with a spacing of 1 cm. Both the induced current density and the specific absorption rate (SAR) are well below the recommended limits for exposure of the general public published in the ICNIRP Guidelines and the IEEE C95.1 Standard. The highest current density is 8.3 mA m-2 and the highest SAR is 26.5 µW kg-1. Compared to the limits for the induced current density recommended in the ICNIRP Guidelines, a minimum safety factor of 3 exists. Compared to the IEEE C95.1 Standard, a safety factor of 60 000 for the specific absorption rate was found. Based on the very low specific absorption rate and an induced current density below the recommended exposure limits, significant temperature rise or nerve stimulation in the pregnant woman or in the foetus can be excluded.

  15. Calculation of induced current densities and specific absorption rates (SAR) for pregnant women exposed to hand-held metal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, Wolfgang; Chan, Dulciana D; Casamento, Jon P; Bassen, Howard I

    2003-01-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method in combination with a well established frequency scaling method was used to calculate the internal fields and current densities induced in a simple model of a pregnant woman and her foetus, when exposed to hand-held metal detectors. The pregnant woman and foetus were modelled using a simple semi-heterogeneous model in 10 mm resolution, consisting of three different types of tissue. The model is based on the scanned shape of a pregnant woman in the 34th gestational week. Nine different representative models of hand-held metal detectors operating in the frequency range from 8 kHz to 2 MHz were evaluated. The metal detectors were placed directly on the abdomen of the computational model with a spacing of 1 cm. Both the induced current density and the specific absorption rate (SAR) are well below the recommended limits for exposure of the general public published in the ICNIRP Guidelines and the IEEE C95.1 Standard. The highest current density is 8.3 mA m -2 and the highest SAR is 26.5 μW kg -1 . Compared to the limits for the induced current density recommended in the ICNIRP Guidelines, a minimum safety factor of 3 exists. Compared to the IEEE C95.1 Standard, a safety factor of 60,000 for the specific absorption rate was found. Based on the very low specific absorption rate and an induced current density below the recommended exposure limits, significant temperature rise or nerve stimulation in the pregnant woman or in the foetus can be excluded

  16. Calculation of induced current densities and specific absorption rates (SAR) for pregnant women exposed to hand-held metal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainz, Wolfgang; Chan, Dulciana D; Casamento, Jon P; Bassen, Howard I [Food and Drug Administration, Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), 12725 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2003-08-07

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method in combination with a well established frequency scaling method was used to calculate the internal fields and current densities induced in a simple model of a pregnant woman and her foetus, when exposed to hand-held metal detectors. The pregnant woman and foetus were modelled using a simple semi-heterogeneous model in 10 mm resolution, consisting of three different types of tissue. The model is based on the scanned shape of a pregnant woman in the 34th gestational week. Nine different representative models of hand-held metal detectors operating in the frequency range from 8 kHz to 2 MHz were evaluated. The metal detectors were placed directly on the abdomen of the computational model with a spacing of 1 cm. Both the induced current density and the specific absorption rate (SAR) are well below the recommended limits for exposure of the general public published in the ICNIRP Guidelines and the IEEE C95.1 Standard. The highest current density is 8.3 mA m{sup -2} and the highest SAR is 26.5 {mu}W kg{sup -1}. Compared to the limits for the induced current density recommended in the ICNIRP Guidelines, a minimum safety factor of 3 exists. Compared to the IEEE C95.1 Standard, a safety factor of 60,000 for the specific absorption rate was found. Based on the very low specific absorption rate and an induced current density below the recommended exposure limits, significant temperature rise or nerve stimulation in the pregnant woman or in the foetus can be excluded.

  17. Isotopic identification using Pulse Shape Analysis of current signals from silicon detectors: Recent results from the FAZIA collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Gruyer, D.; Ottanelli, P.; Le Neindre, N.; Pasquali, G.; Alba, R.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Bruno, M.; Casini, G.; Chbihi, A.

    2017-01-01

    The FAZIA apparatus exploits Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) to identify nuclear fragments stopped in the first layer of a Silicon-Silicon-CsI(Tl) detector telescope. In this work, for the first time, we show that the isotopes of fragments having atomic number as high as Z∼20 can be identified. Such a remarkable result has been obtained thanks to a careful construction of the Si detectors and to the use of low noise and high performance digitizing electronics. Moreover, optimized PSA algorithms are needed. This work deals with the choice of the best algorithm for PSA of current signals. A smoothing spline algorithm is demonstrated to give optimal results without requiring too much computational resources.

  18. Isotopic identification using Pulse Shape Analysis of current signals from silicon detectors: Recent results from the FAZIA collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, G., E-mail: pastore@fi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Gruyer, D. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Ottanelli, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Le Neindre, N. [LPC Caen, Normandie Univ, ENSICAEN, UNICAEN, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen, 14000 Caen (France); Pasquali, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Alba, R. [INFN LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Barlini, S.; Bini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bonnet, E. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Université de Nantes, Nantes (France); GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 5027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Borderie, B. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC Caen, Normandie Univ, ENSICAEN, UNICAEN, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen, 14000 Caen (France); Bruno, M. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Casini, G. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chbihi, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 5027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); and others

    2017-07-11

    The FAZIA apparatus exploits Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) to identify nuclear fragments stopped in the first layer of a Silicon-Silicon-CsI(Tl) detector telescope. In this work, for the first time, we show that the isotopes of fragments having atomic number as high as Z∼20 can be identified. Such a remarkable result has been obtained thanks to a careful construction of the Si detectors and to the use of low noise and high performance digitizing electronics. Moreover, optimized PSA algorithms are needed. This work deals with the choice of the best algorithm for PSA of current signals. A smoothing spline algorithm is demonstrated to give optimal results without requiring too much computational resources.

  19. A comprehensive search for “anomalies” from neutrino and anti-neutrino oscillations at large mass differences (Δm^2 ~ 1eV^2) with two LAr–TPC imaging detectors at different distances from the CERN-PS.

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, C; Bagliani, D; Baibussinov, B; Bilokon, H; Boffelli, F; Bonesini, M; Calligarich, E; Canci, N; Centro, S; Cesana, A; Cieslik, K; Cline, D B; Cocco, A G; De Gerone, M; Dequal, D; Dermenev, A; Dolfini, R; Dussoni, S; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Ferrari, A; Fiorillo, G; Garvey, G T; Gatti, F; Gibin, D; Gigli Berzolari, A; Gninenko, S; Guber, F; Guglielmi, A; Haranczyk, M; Holeczek, J; Ivashkin, A; Kirsanov, M; Kisiel, J; Kochanek, I; Kurepin, A; Łagoda, J; Louis, W C; Lucchini, G; Mania, S; Mannocchi, G; Matveev, V; Menegolli, A; Meng, G; Mills, G B; Montanari, C; Otwinowski, S; Palczewski, T J; Perfetto, F; Periale, L; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Płoński, P; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rossella, M; Sala, P; Scantamburlo, E; Scaramelli, A; Segreto, E; Sergiampietri, F; Suvorova, O; Stefan, D; Stepaniak, J; Sulej, R; Terrani, M; Testera, G; Tlisov, D; Trinchero, G; Van de Water, R G; Varanini, F; Ventura, S; Vignoli, C; Wang, H G; Yang, X; Zani, A; Zaremba, K

    2011-01-01

    The present proposal describes an experimental search of sterile neutrinos beyond the Standard Model with the CERN-PS beam and the innovative technology of imaging in ultra-pure cryogenic liquid Argon. The proposal is based on two strictly identical LAr-TPC detectors observing the electron-neutrino signal in the ”Far” and “Near” positions, the first one of about 600 tons placed 850 m the second one of about 150 tons at about 6.5 times shorter distance from the proton target. This project will exploit the ICARUS T600 — now running in the underground experiment CNGS2 with neutrinos from the CERN-SPS — moved from GranSasso to the CERN “Far” position. The additional T150 will be constructed and located in the “Near” position. In the two positions, the radial and energy spectra of the nu_e beam are practically identical. Comparing the two detectors, in absence of oscillations, all cross sections and experimental biases cancel out and the two experimentally observed event distributions must be ...

  20. Status of a Deep Learning Based Measurement of the Inclusive Muon Neutrino Charged-current Cross Section in the NOvA Near Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Biswaranjan [Indian Inst. Tech., Hyderabad

    2017-10-10

    NOvA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It uses the NuMI beam from Fermilab and two sampling calorimeter detectors placed off-axis from the beam. The 293 ton Near Detector measures the unoscillated neutrino energy spectrum, which can be used to predict the neutrino energy spectrum observed at the 14 kton Far Detector. The Near Detector also provides an excellent opportunity to measure neutrino interaction cross sections with high statistics, which will benefit current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. This analysis implements new algorithms to identify $\

  1. Angular detector of defects in a metallic tube by eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broudeur, R.

    1990-01-01

    The angular detector of defects in a metallic tube has two centering pieces for the clad positioning on both sides of a backing ring of the measuring coil. The inner diameter of the backing ring and the diameter of the centering pieces are in the ratio 4/3±0.6/3 and their axis are eccentric. This setting over associated at the guiding piece of the sheath in rotation gives at the measuring coil a functioning as a ponctual probe [fr

  2. The LHCb RICH system: current detector performance and status of the upgrade program

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    LHCb is a precision experiment devoted to the study of CP violation and rare decays of b and c quarks, and to the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The Ring-Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system is a key component of the LHCb experiment: it consists of two RICH detectors that provide charged particle identification over a wide momentum range (2-100 GeV/c) and angular acceptance (15-300 mrad). The LHCb RICH system has been performing extremely well during Run 1 and is providing the LHCb experiment also in Run 2 with a robust, reliable and precise particle identification system. Performance of the RICH detectors measured from data will be presented, with special reference to its dependence on calibration parameters and event multiplicities. The LHCb experiment is preparing for an upgrade during the second LHC long shutdown (2019-2020) in order to fully exploit the LHC flavour physics potential. A five-fold increase in instantaneous luminosity is foreseen reac...

  3. Analysis of a Current-Mode Detector for the NOPTREX Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera Velarde, Daniela; Noptrex Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Charge, Parity and Time reversal (CPT) symmetries are an important aspect of the Standard Model. One of the outstanding problems in cosmology is the observed matter/antimatter asymmetry seen in the universe, which requires the violation of time reversal symmetry (T). The primary goal of the Neutron Optics Time Reversal Experiment (NOPTREX) is to search for T-violation in polarized neutron transmission through a polarized nuclear target. Preliminary measurements were taken on indium and tantalum resonances at the NOBORU test beam at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) to test the functionality of a prototype detector for the full experiment. We will discuss the analysis of this data as well as the construction of a secondary experiment to measure the angular correlation κ (J) of liquid 131Xe. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract DE-SC0008107 and Berea College Office of Internships.

  4. Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howcroft, Caius Leo Frederick [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for vμ and $\\bar{v}$μ are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

  5. Signal from a single neutron by using current-biased kinetic inductance detector made of superconducting Nb nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narukami, Yoshito; Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Shishido, Hiroaki; Ishida, Takekazu; Fujimaki, Akira; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Oikawa, Kenichi; Harada, Masahide; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a current-biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), as a different type of superconducting neutron detector, which senses a change in kinetic inductance in the superconducting Nb nanowire biased by dc current I b . Kinetic inductance depends on the density of Cooper pairs. Therefore, when Cooper pairs are broken by energy of nuclear reaction between neutron and 10 B near the Nb nanowire, a change in kinetic inductance ΔL k can be detected by monitoring a voltage V across the sensor. We irradiated 20 ps pulsed laser to our CB-KID and confirmed 4-K operation and the possibility of attaining 0.6-μm positional resolution. Furthermore, we succeeded in detecting a neutron by using CB-KID for the first time. It is important to note that the signal from neutron irradiation was similar to that from pulsed laser irradiation. It indicates that pulsed laser irradiation is a good simulation instead of neutron irradiation. (author)

  6. Measurement of neutral current e{sup {+-}}p cross sections at high Bjorken x with the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration; and others

    2013-12-15

    The neutral current e{sup {+-}}p cross section has been measured up to values of Bjorken x{approx_equal}1 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 187 pb{sup -1} of e{sup -}p and 142 pb{sup -1} of e{sup +}p collisions at {radical}(s)=318 GeV. Differential cross sections in x and Q{sup 2}, the exchanged boson virtuality, are presented for Q{sup 2}{>=}725 GeV{sup 2}. An improved reconstruction method and greatly increased amount of data allows a finer binning in the high-x region of the neutral current cross section and leads to a measurement with much improved precision compared to a similar earlier analysis. The measurements are compared to Standard Model expectations based on a variety of recent parton distribution functions.

  7. Development and Characterization of 6Li-doped Liquid Scintillator Detectors for PROSPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaison, Jeremy; Prospect Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    PROSPECT, the Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum experiment, is a phased reactor antineutrino experiment designed to search for eV-scale sterile neutrinos via short-baseline neutrino oscillations and to make a precision measurement of the 235U reactor antineutrino spectrum. A multi-ton, optically segmented detector will be deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to measure the reactor spectrum at baselines ranging from 7-12m. A two-segment detector prototype with 50 liters of active liquid scintillator target has been built to verify the detector design and to benchmark its performance. In this presentation, we will summarize the performance of this detector prototype and describe the optical and energy calibration of the segmented PROSPECT detectors.

  8. Pulse shape discrimination with silicon detectors using charge and current-sensitive preamplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H.; Rauly, E.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Borderie, B.; Chabot, M.; Edelbruck, P.; Lavergne, L.; Le Bris, J.; Le Neindre, N.; Richard, A.; Rivet, M.F.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Barbey, S.; Becheva, E.; Bzyl, F.R.; D' Esesquelles, P.; Galichet, E.; Lalu, G.; Martinet, G.; Pierre, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Legou, Th.; Tillier, J.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Carniol, B.; Cussol, D.; Etasse, D.; Grevy, S.; Lopez, O.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Caen Univ., LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSI, 14 - Caen (France); Galichet, E. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metier, 75 - Paris (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph. [Villeurbanne Univ., Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 69 (France); Lanzalone, G. [Catania Univ., INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, (Italy); Politi, G. [Catania Univ., INFN, Sezione di Catania and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Rosato, E. [Napoli, Univ., Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche e Sezione INFN (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    For the first time shapes of current pulses from light charged particles and carbon ions are presented. Capabilities for pulse shape discrimination techniques are demonstrated. In this work, charge and current-sensitive preamplifier prototypes for nuclear structure and dynamics experiments have been developed and tested with the aim of improving PSD (pulse shape discrimination) method by studying in detail current signal shapes from particles and ions over a large energy range. Note that current signal shapes have been recently used in atomic cluster studies to identify partitions of carbon cluster fragmentation. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 is devoted to characterization of preamplifiers. In section 3, results of on beam tests will be presented, discussed and compared to a simple simulation.

  9. The deployment of three prototype detectors for reactor monitoring and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, N S; Bernstein, A; Dazeley, S; Svoboda, R; Lund, J; Reyna, D; Sadler, L

    2008-01-01

    Fission reactors emit large numbers of antineutrinos and this flux may be useful for the measurement of two quantities of interest for reactor safeguards: the reactor's power and plutonium inventory throughout its cycle. The high antineutrino flux and relatively low background rates means that simple cubic meter scale detectors at tens of meters standoff can record hundreds or thousands of antineutrino events per day. Such antineutrino detectors would add online, quasi-real-time bulk material accountancy to the set of reactor monitoring tools available to the IAEA and other safeguards agencies with minimal impact on reactor operations. Our LLNL/SNL collaboration has deployed a total of three prototype safeguards detectors at a reactor in Southern California in order to test both the method and the practicality of its implementation in the field. Results from these detectors will be presented, and their respective advantages and disadvantages described. LLNL-POST-404014 This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in part under Contract W-7405-Eng-48 and in part under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Muon response in ICAL detector at India-based neutrino observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (ICAL) detector. Oscillation sensitivity for neutrinos and antineutrinos is different in the presence of matter effects. Oscillation signatures and mass hierarchy are sensitive to the momentum P and zenith angle cos θ of neutrinos. But, reconstruction of momentum and cos θ further depends on the energy and direction of muons ...

  11. An assessment of anti-neutrino mass determination via electrostatic measurements of tritium beta-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bas, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the mass of the anti-neutrino determined via electrostatic measurements of tritium beta-decay are assessed. Relativistic calculations concerning the finite mass of the electron anti-neutrino and the recoil of the nucleus, are given for the theoretical end-point spectrum of tritium beta-decay. The specifications are given for an electrostatic Spherical Retarding Beta-Spectrometer, and an electrostatic Cylindrical Mirror Analyser, both used in the tritium beta-decay experiment. The electrostatic measurements lead to a value of less than 50 ev (90% C.L.) for the electron anti-neutrino mass. These results are discussed in terms of the resolution of the electrostatic equipment and the Monte Carlo simulations of the data collection. (UK)

  12. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} neutral current cross-sections with longitudinally polarised positrons with the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Trevor P.

    2012-07-15

    The cross sections for neutral current (NC) deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in e{sup +}p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are measured at high momentum transfer squared (Q{sup 2}>185 GeV{sup 2}) at the ZEUS detector at HERA. The HERA accelerator provides e{sup {+-}}p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV, which allows the weak contribution to the NC process to be studied at high Q{sup 2}. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector in 2006 and 2007. The single differential NC cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy and the reduced cross section {sigma} are measured. The structure function xF{sub 3} is determined by combining the e{sup +}p NC reduced cross sections with the previously measured e{sup -}p measurements. The interference structure function xF{sub 3}{sup {gamma}Z} is extracted at Q{sup 2}=1500 GeV{sup 2}. The cross-section asymmetry between the positive and negative polarisation of the positron beam is measured and the parity violation effects of the electroweak interaction are observed. The predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics agree well with the measurements. (orig.)

  13. A 0.7 V, 40 nW Compact, Current-Mode Neural Spike Detector in 65 nm CMOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Enyi; Chen, Yi; Basu, Arindam

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel low power, compact, current-mode spike detector circuit for real-time neural recording systems where neural spikes or action potentials (AP) are of interest. Such a circuit can enable massive compression of data facilitating wireless transmission. This design can generate a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) output by approximating the popularly used nonlinear energy operator (NEO) through standard analog blocks. We show that a low pass filter after the NEO can be used for two functions-(i) estimate and cancel low frequency interference and (ii) estimate threshold for spike detection. The circuit is implemented in a 65 nm CMOS process and occupies 200 μm × 150 μ m of chip area. Operating from a 0.7 V power supply, it consumes about 30 nW of static power and 7 nW of dynamic power for 100 Hz input spike rate making it the lowest power consuming spike detector reported so far.

  14. First test of Lorentz violation with a reactor-based antineutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Konno, T.; Kuze, M.; Aberle, C.; Buck, C.; Hartmann, F.X.; Haser, J.; Kaether, F.; Lindner, M.; Reinhold, B.; Schwetz, T.; Wagner, S.; Watanabe, H.; Anjos, J.C. dos; Gama, R.; Lima, H.P.-Jr.; Pepe, I.M.; Bergevin, M.; Felde, J.; Maesano, C.N.; Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N.S.; Dazeley, S.; Erickson, A.; Keefer, G.; Bezerra, T.J.C.; Furuta, H.; Suekane, F.; Bezrukhov, L.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.K.; Yanovitch, E.; Blucher, E.; Conover, E.; Crum, K.; Strait, M.; Worcester, M.; Busenitz, J.; Goon, J.TM.; Habib, S.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Reichenbacher, J.; Stancu, I.; Sun, Y.; Cabrera, A.; Franco, D.; Kryn, D.; Obolensky, M.; Roncin, R.; Tonazzo, A.; Caden, E.; Damon, E.; Lane, C.E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Perasso, S.; Smith, E.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Franke, A.J.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Toups, M.; Cerrada, M.; Crespo-Anadon, J.I.; Gil-Botella, I.; Lopez-Castano, J.M.; Novella, P.; Palomares, C.; Santorelli, R.; Chang, P.J.; Horton-Smith, G.A.; McKee, D.; Shrestha, D.; Chimenti, P.; Classen, T.; Collin, A.P.; Cucoanes, A.; Durand, V.; Fechner, M.; Fischer, V.; Hayakawa, T.; Lasserre, T.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Mention, G.; Mueller, Th.A.; Perrin, P.; Sida, J.L.; Sinev, V.; Veyssiere, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for Lorentz violation with 8249 candidate electron antineutrino events taken by the Double Chooz experiment in 227.9 live days of running. This analysis, featuring a search for a sidereal time dependence of the events, is the first test of Lorentz invariance using a reactor-based antineutrino source. No sidereal variation is present in the data and the disappearance results are consistent with sidereal time independent oscillations. Under the Standard-Model Extension, we set the first limits on 14 Lorentz violating coefficients associated with transitions between electron and tau flavor, and set two competitive limits associated with transitions between electron and muon flavor. (authors)

  15. Measurement of neutral current cross sections at high Bjorken-x with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    A new method is employed to measure the neutral current cross section up to Bjorken-x values of one with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 65.1 pb{sup -1} for e{sup +}p collisions and 16.7 pb{sup -1} for e{sup -}p collisions at {radical}(s)=318 GeV and 38.6 pb{sup -1} for e{sup +}p collisions at {radical}(s)=300 GeV. Cross sections have been extracted for Q{sup 2}{>=}648 GeV{sup 2} and are compared to predictions using different parton density functions. For the highest x bins, the data have a tendency to lie above the expectations using recent parton density function parametrizations. (orig.)

  16. CPT conservation and atmospheric neutrinos in the MINOS far detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Bernard Raymond [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2006-02-01

    The MINOS Far Detector is a 5400 ton iron calorimeter located at the Soudan state park in Soudan Minnesota. The MINOS far detector can observe atmospheric neutrinos and separate charge current νμ and $\\bar{v}$μ interactions by using a 1.4 T magnetic field to identify the charge of the produced muon. The CPT theorem requires that neutrinos and anti-neutrinos oscillate in the same way. In a fiducial exposure of 5.0 kilo-ton years a total of 41 candidate neutrino events are observed with an expectation of 53.1 ± 7.6(system.) ± 7.2(stat.) unoscillated events or 31.6 ± 4.7(system.) ± 5.6(stat.) events with Δm2 = 2.4 x 10-3 eV2, sin2(2θ) = 1.0 as oscillation parameters. These include 28 events which can have there charge identified with high confidence. These 28 events consist of 18 events consistent with being produced by νμ and 10 events being consistent with being produced by $\\bar{v}$μ. No evidence of CPT violation is observed.

  17. A floating multi-channel picoammeter for micropattern gaseous detector current monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrobicic, A.; Kovacic, M.; Erhardt, F.; Poljak, N.; Planinic, M.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a concept of a multiple channel picoammeter suitable for operation at a high voltage. To ensure floating operation, 1 kHz readout rate and low battery usage, the picoammeter employs an optical fibre for data transmission. The analogue conditioning section consists of a transimpedance amplifier that is connected to a 16 bit ΣΔ ADC which is integrated into the microcontroller. Simultaneous reception of data sent from multiple picoammeter units is achieved using an FPGA device and a USB interface to the host PC. A prototype with a ± 125 nA range was constructed. The paper includes a calibration procedure of the prototype and an example of a current leakage test conducted on a 10×10 cm2 GEM foil. The resolution achieved by the prototype in a 15 min test at 0.5 nA bias was 6.5 pA FWHM.

  18. Current state-of-the-art industrial and research applications using room-temperature CdTe and CdZnTe solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Improvements of CdTe crystal quality and significant progress in the growth of large ingots of high resistivity CdZnTe material enable the fabrication of larger area detectors in single element form or monolithic arrays. These advances allow for the development of imaging devices of improved spatial resolution for industrial, research and medical applications. CdTe and CdZnTe detectors operate in single photon counting mode or in current mode (charge integrating mode). The paper presents advantages of CdTe and CdZnTe over common scintillator type detectors, but also presents the shortcomings of the former detectors with respect to charge collection which limit the yields of good spectrometers. The paper reviews industrial and research applications utilizing these detectors and in particular describes in detail two imaging systems for security screening and custom inspection. These systems are characterized by large dynamic range and good spatial resolution and are composed of large arrays of CdTe spectrometers and discriminator grade detectors. A wide energy range detector assembly, for astrophysical research of gamma ray bursts composed of CdTe, HgI 2 and CdZnTe spectrometers in two dimensional arrays is also presented. (orig.)

  19. Sterile neutrinos or flux uncertainties? — Status of the reactor anti-neutrino anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentler, Mona; Hernández-Cabezudo, Álvaro; Kopp, Joachim; Maltoni, Michele; Schwetz, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The ˜ 3 σ discrepancy between the predicted and observed reactor anti-neutrino flux, known as the reactor anti-neutrino anomaly, continues to intrigue. The recent discovery of an unexpected bump in the reactor anti-neutrino spectrum, as well as indications that the flux deficit is different for different fission isotopes seems to disfavour the explanation of the anomaly in terms of sterile neutrino oscillations. We critically review this conclusion in view of all available data on electron (anti)neutrino disappearance. We find that the sterile neutrino hypothesis cannot be rejected based on global data and is only mildly disfavored compared to an individual rescaling of neutrino fluxes from different fission isotopes. The main reason for this is the presence of spectral features in recent data from the NEOS and DANSS experiments. If state-of-the-art predictions for reactor fluxes are taken at face value, sterile neutrino oscillations allow a consistent description of global data with a significance close to 3 σ relative to the no-oscillation case. Even if reactor fluxes and spectra are left free in the fit, a 2 σ hint in favour of sterile neutrinos remains, with allowed parameter regions consistent with an explanation of the anomaly in terms of oscillations.

  20. New Decay Data Sub-library for Calculation of Nuclear Reactors Antineutrino Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, Alejandro; McCutchan, Elizabeth; Johnson, Timothy

    2015-10-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.1 decay data sub-library contains up-to-date decay properties for all known nuclides and can be used in a wide variety of applications such as decay heat, delayed nu-bar and astrophysics. We have recently completed an upgrade to the ENDF/B-VII.1 decay data sub-library in order to better calculate antineutrino spectra from fission of actinide nuclides. This sub-library has been used to identify the main contributors to the antineutrino spectra as well as to derive a systematic behavior of the energy integrated spectra similar to that of the beta-delayed neutron multiplicities. The main improvements have been the use of the TAGS data from Algora et al and Greenwood et al, as well as some of the single beta spectrum data from Rudstam et al to obtain beta minus level feedings. Additionally, we have calculated the antineutrino spectra for neutron energies higher than thermal, needed for highly-enriched uranium cores, such as the HFIR in ORNL that will be used in the PROSPECT experiment. These calculations are relevant since the high precision beta spectra which are used in many antineutrino calculations were measured at thermal energies. The impact of the fission yield data on these calculations will be discussed. This work was sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  1. Application of automatic tube current modulation with 64-detector CT in infant brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianming; Xu Wenbiao; Luo Yuanli; Liu Hongsheng; Zhou Ning

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of automatic tube modulation on imaging quality and lesion revealed in infant brain. Methods: The infant patients of 200 cases were divided into four groups according to the values of SD (2.5, 2.75, 3.0, 4.0), 50 cases in each group. They were performed with the automatic tube current modulation scanning in brain. The imaging quality and radiation dose were analyzed. Results: When the values of SD were 2.5, 2.75, 3.0 and 4.0, the high values of CTDI vol were 60.0, 49.8, 42.9 and 25.8 mGy, respectively. The effective doses were (3.27±1.01), (2.78±0.85), (2.40±0.74) and (1.49±0.45) mSv·mGy -1 ·cm -1 , respectively. There was significant difference among those groups (F=48.99, P<0.05). The excellent imaging qualities were 100%, 96%, 70% and 20%, 12 cases were neonate in SD 2.5 group. In SD 2.75 group, the imaging quality of neonate (2 cases) were all fine. In SD 3.0 group, the imaging quality was not ideal for the ages less than 1 year. In SD 4.0 group, when the infants aged over 2 years and 6 months, or with the larger head circumference, their imaging quality were all excellent. Conclusions: The individual application of ATCM could obtain the best balance among imaging quality, radiation dose and diagnostic quality. The SD 2.5, 2.75, 3.0 and 4.0 might be suitable to infants of newborn, 1 month to 1 year old, 1 to 3 years, the larger head circumference and part of the reviewed cases. (authors)

  2. The relevance of the vertex bremsstrahlung photon detection in the electron-neutrino (antineutrino) electron scattering experiments at low energy

    CERN Document Server

    Broggini, C; Moretti, M

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the size of the electron-antineutrino electron into electron-antineutrino electron cross section reduction due to the rejection of the events with a vertex bremsstrahlung photon above a certain energy in the final state. In particular we analyze the effect in experiments designed to detect the low energy electron-antineutrino and electron-neutrino from a nuclear reactor and from the Sun. We find that such reduction has to be considered in a relatively high statistic reactor experiment, while it is negligible for pp and 7Be solar neutrino detection.

  3. Sensitivities to charged-current nonstandard neutrino interactions at DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhti, Pouya; Khan, Amir N.; Wang, W.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the effects of charged-current (CC) nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSIs) at the source and at the detector in the simulated data for the planned Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). We neglect the neutral-current NSIs at the propagation because several solutions have already been proposed for resolving the degeneracies posed by neutral-current NSIs but no solutions exist for the degeneracies due to the CC NSIs. We study the effects of CC NSIs on the simultaneous measurements of {θ }23 and {δ }{{CP}} in DUNE. The analysis reveals that 3σ C.L. measurement of the correct octant of {θ }23 in the standard mixing scenario is spoiled if the CC NSIs are taken into account. Likewise, the CC NSIs can deteriorate the uncertainty of the {δ }{{CP}} measurement by a factor of two relative to that in the standard oscillation scenario. We also show that the source and the detector CC NSIs can induce a significant amount of fake CP-violation and the CP-conserving case can be excluded by more than 80% C.L. in the presence of fake CP-violation. We further find DUNE’s potential for constraining the relevant CC NSI parameters from the single parameter fits for both neutrino and antineutrino appearance and disappearance channels at both the near and far detectors. The results show that there could be improvements in the current bounds by at least one order of magnitude at DUNE’s near and far detectors, except for a few parameters which remain weaker at the far detector.

  4. Measurement of neutral current Drell-Yan production at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00379325

    Neutral current Drell-Yan production, $q\\bar{q} \\rightarrow Z/\\gamma^* \\rightarrow e^-e^+$, in proton-proton collisions at the LHC was studied with the ATLAS detector. The 20.1 fb$^{-1}$ data set used in this precision measurement was collected in 2012 during which the LHC collided protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The production rate or differential cross-section was measured in three-dimensions: invariant mass $M_{ee}$, absolute rapidity $|y_{ee}|$, and cosine of the polar angle $\\theta^*$ in the Collins-Soper frame. A measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry $A_{\\rm FB}$ was obtained from the differential cross-section by summing over the $\\cos\\theta^* > 0$ (forward) and the $\\cos\\theta^* < 0$ (backward) events and taking their difference. The three-dimensional differential cross-section measurement presented in this dissertation can be used to constrain the $M_{ee}$- and $|y_{ee}|$-dependent parton distribution functions of the proton and the $A_{\\rm FB}$ results can be used to extract ...

  5. Current Status of RENO Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo-Bong

    2010-01-01

    The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) is under construction to measure the value of the smallest and unknown neutrino mixing angle θ 13 . The experiment will compare the measured fluxes of electron antineutrinos at two detectors located at 290 m and 1.4 km distances from the center of the Yonggwang nuclear reactors in Korea, with world-second largest thermal power output of 16.4 GW. Construction of experimental halls and access tunnels for both near and far detector sites was completed in early 2009. The detectors are near completion, and data-taking is planned to start in mid 2010. An expected number of observed antineutrino is roughly 510 and 80 per day in the near detector and far detector, respectively. An estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%, and an expected statistical error is about 0.3%. With three years of data, the experiment will search for the mixing angle values of sin 2 (2θ 13 ) down to 0.02 in 90% C.L. limit. In this talk, the construction status will be presented. (author)

  6. Measurement of the total flux averaged neutrino induced neutral current elastic scattering cross section with the T2K Pi-Zero detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruterbories, Daniel

    Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) is a second generation accelerator neutrino oscillation experiment. T2K uses a high intensity proton beam produced at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) incident on a carbon target and focused with three magnetic horns to produce a high intensity and nearly pure muon neutrino beam with a peak energy of 600 MeV at a 2.5º axis angle. The muon neutrino beam travels 295 km across Japan to the Super Kamiokande (SK) water Cherenkov detector in the Kamioka mine. The neutrino beam is also sampled by a complex of near detectors 280 m downstream of the carbon target located both on and off the beam axis. These detectors measure the neutrino beam before neutrino oscillations occur to provide input constraints to oscillation searches using SK. The off-axis near detector, ND280, is a composite detector made up of a tracker section and a Pi-Zero detector (POD), all surrounded by an electromagnetic calorimeter. The entire detector is enclosed in a dipole magnet with a field of 0.2 T. The primary purpose of the tracker section is to measure neutrino induced charged current events characterized by the production of muons. The POD is primarily designed to detect electromagnetic showers and to measure interactions on water through the use of a removable water target. In addition to these measurements, the ND280 detector is also used to study the cross sections of neutrino interactions on the various materials in the detectors. Limited knowledge of the cross sections in this neutrino energy regime are an important source of systematic error in neutrino oscillation measurements. This thesis presents a measurement of one neutrino interaction channel in the POD, neutral current elastic scattering (NCE). In this process a neutrino elastically scatters off a proton or neutron in the target nucleus producing a proton or neutron with higher energy. The signature of this process is a single proton track. A particle identification algorithm (PID) was

  7. Particle detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The lecture series will present an overview of the basic techniques and underlying physical principles of particle detectors, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, mainly from the field of collider experiments, will demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. After an introduction the following topics will be covered: Tracking (gas, solid state based) - Scintillation and light detection Calorimetry - Particle Identification - Electronics and Data Acquisition - Detector Systems

  8. Readout electronics validation and target detector assessment for the Neutrinos Angra experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, T.A. [Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora-MG (Brazil); Anjos, J.C.; Azzi, G. [Brazilian Center for Research in Physics, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Cerqueira, A.S. [Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora-MG (Brazil); Chimenti, P. [Federal University of ABC, Santo André-SP (Brazil); Costa, J.A.; Dornelas, T.I. [Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora-MG (Brazil); Farias, P.C.M.A. [Federal University of Bahia, Salvador-BA (Brazil); Guedes, G.P. [State University of Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana-BA (Brazil); Gonzalez, L.F.G.; Kemp, E. [State University of Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Lima, H.P.; Machado, R. [Brazilian Center for Research in Physics, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Nóbrega, R.A., E-mail: rafael.nobrega@ufjf.edu.br [Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora-MG (Brazil); Pepe, I.M. [Federal University of Bahia, Salvador-BA (Brazil); Ribeiro, D.B.S. [Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora-MG (Brazil); Simas Filho, E.F. [Federal University of Bahia, Salvador-BA (Brazil); Valdiviesso, G.A. [Federal University of Alfenas, Poços de Caldas-MG (Brazil); Wagner, S. [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2016-09-11

    A compact surface detector designed to identify the inverse beta decay interaction produced by anti-neutrinos coming from near operating nuclear reactors is being developed by the Neutrinos Angra Collaboration. In this document we describe and test the detector and its readout system by means of cosmic rays acquisition. In this measurement campaign, the target detector has been equipped with 16 8-in PMTs and two scintillator paddles have been used to trigger cosmic ray events. The achieved results disclosed the main operational characteristics of the Neutrinos Angra system and have been used to assess the detector and to validate its readout system.

  9. Determination of the fission coefficients in thermal nuclear reactors for antineutrino detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Lenilson M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Cabral, Ronaldo G., E-mail: rgcabral@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, Joao C.C. dos, E-mail: janjos@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. GLN - G

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear reactors in operation periodically need to change their fuel. It is during this process that these reactors are more vulnerable to occurring of several situations of fuel diversion, thus the monitoring of the nuclear installations is indispensable to avoid events of this nature. Considering this fact, the most promissory technique to be used for the nuclear safeguard for the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, it is based on the detection and spectroscopy of antineutrino from fissions that occur in the nuclear reactors. The detection and spectroscopy of antineutrino, they both depend on the single contribution for the total number of fission of each actinide in the core reactor, these contributions receive the name of fission coefficients. The goal of this research is to show the computational and mathematical modeling used to determinate these coefficients for PWR reactors. (author)

  10. Shifts of neutrino oscillation parameters in reactor antineutrino experiments with non-standard interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss reactor antineutrino oscillations with non-standard interactions (NSIs at the neutrino production and detection processes. The neutrino oscillation probability is calculated with a parametrization of the NSI parameters by splitting them into the averages and differences of the production and detection processes respectively. The average parts induce constant shifts of the neutrino mixing angles from their true values, and the difference parts can generate the energy (and baseline dependent corrections to the initial mass-squared differences. We stress that only the shifts of mass-squared differences are measurable in reactor antineutrino experiments. Taking Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO as an example, we analyze how NSIs influence the standard neutrino measurements and to what extent we can constrain the NSI parameters.

  11. Reactor neutron converter into antineutrinos on base of lithium compounds and their solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutostanskij, Yu.S.; Lyashchuk, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    A study on the possibility of using various lithium compounds as substances for reactor neutron converter into antineutrinos, was made. It is concluded that heavy water LiOD, LiODxD 2 O, LiD solutions are the most promising ones. They provide for high efficiency with reduction of the required lithium mass (300-350 times maximum) as compared with pure lithium converter

  12. Resonant antineutrino induced electron capture with low energy bound-beta beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldeman, R.G.C.; Meloni, M.; Saitta, B. [Universita degli Studi di Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Cagliari (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    Antineutrino induced electron capture is a resonant process that can have a large cross-section for beams of monochromatic antineutrinos. We calculate the cross-section of this process and investigate an experimental setup where monochromatic antineutrinos are produced from the bound-beta decay of fully ionized radioactive atoms in a storage ring. If the energy between the source and the target is well matched, the cross-sections can be significantly larger than the cross-sections of commonly used non-resonant processes. The rate that can be achieved at a small distance between the source and two targets of 10{sup 3} kg is up to one interaction per 8.3.10{sup 18} decaying atoms. For a source-target distance corresponding to the first atmospheric neutrino oscillation maximum, the largest rate is one interaction per 3.2.10{sup 21} decaying atoms, provided that extremely stringent monochromaticity conditions (10{sup -7} or better) are achieved in future ion beams. (orig.)

  13. Characterizing and validating the PROSPECT segmented scintillator detector design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini, Danielle; Prospect Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PROSPECT experiment will use two segmented liquid scintillator detectors positioned 7-20m from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core to perform a search for eV-scale sterile neutrinos and measure the antineutrino spectrum of uranium-235. A multi-year R&D program focused on background studies at the HFIR reactor, lithium-loaded liquid scintillator development, and characterization of multiple prototype detectors has culminated in the design of a segmented, 3-ton liquid scintillator detector for PROSPECT Phase I. This detector design is being validated with a 50 liter, 2-segment prototype detector, PROSPECT-50. We will report results of on-going performance and calibration studies and discuss implications for the PROSPECT physics program.

  14. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIGI,I.; BOLTON,T.; FORMAGGIO,J.; HARRIS,D.; MORFIN,J.; SPENTZOURIS,P.; YU,J.; KAYSER,B.; KING,B.J.; MCFARLAND,K.; PETROV,A.; SCHELLMAN,H.; VELASCO,M.; SHROCK,R.

    2000-05-11

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters.

  15. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIGI, I.; BOLTON, T.; FORMAGGIO, J.; HARRIS, D.; MORFIN, J.; SPENTZOURIS, P.; YU, J.; KAYSER, B.; KING, B.J.; MCFARLAND, K.; PETROV, A.; SCHELLMAN, H.; VELASCO, M.; SHROCK, R.

    2000-01-01

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters

  16. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions; Reponse en courant des detecteurs silicium aux particules chargees et aux ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H

    2005-07-01

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  17. Optical Simulations and Studies with the PROSPECT-20 Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemen, Nathaniel; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The PROSPECT (Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum) experiment at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will make a precise measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum from a highly-enriched uranium nuclear reactor while also probing for short-baseline oscillations as a signature of possible sterile-neutrinos. Two liquid scintillator detectors at distances of 7-10m and 16-20m from the reactor will identify inverse beta decay events initiated by reactor antineutrinos. The near detector will be divided into optically separated segments filled with lithium loaded liquid scintillator read out by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) on either end. Light guides will be employed to direct photons from the scintillator cells to the active PMT photo-cathodes. An optical simulation was built to optimize the performance of the detectors with respect to both light collection and detector uniformity and guide the design of the scintillator cells. We present experimental data and simulation results from the PROSPECT-20 prototype detector.

  18. Properties of the hadronic system produced in antineutrino proton interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrave, B.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of the hadronic system produced in anti νp charged-current reactions into the current and target fragmentation components is discussed. The current fragments show properties in good qualitative agreement with the expectations of the naive quark-parton model. In particular, there is no evidence for either a Q 2 - or X/sub BJ/-dependence of the fragmentation functions. 7 references

  19. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J

    2008-01-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  20. Observation of Muon Neutrino Charged Current Events in an Off-Axis Horn-Focused Neutrino Beam Using the NOvA Prototype Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Enrique Arrieta [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The NOνA is a long base-line neutrino oscillation experiment. It will study the oscillations between muon and electron neutrinos through the Earth. NOνA consists of two detectors separated by 810 km. Each detector will measure the electron neutrino content of the neutrino (NuMI) beam. Differences between the measurements will reveal details about the oscillation channel. The NOνA collaboration built a prototype detector on the surface at Fermilab in order to develop calibration, simulation, and reconstruction tools, using real data. This 220 ton detector is 110 mrad off the NuMI beam axis. This off-axis location allows the observation of neutrino interactions with energies around 2 GeV, where neutrinos come predominantly from charged kaon decays. During the period between October 2011 and April 2012, the prototype detector collected neutrino data from 1.67 × 1020 protons on target delivered by the NuMI beam. This analysis selected a number of candidate charged current muon neutrino events from the prototype data, which is 30% lower than predicted by the NOνA Monte Carlo simulation. The analysis suggests that the discrepancy comes from an over estimation of the neutrino flux in the Monte Carlo simulation, and in particular, from neutrinos generated in charged kaon decays. The ratio of measured divided by the simulated flux of muon neutrinos coming from charged kaon decays is: 0.70+0.108 -0.094. The NOνA collaboration may use the findings of this analysis to introduce a more accurate prediction of the neutrino flux produced by the NuMI beam in future Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Current Status of Luminosity Measurement with the CMD-3 Detector at the VEPP-2000 e + e − Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhenenkov, A E; Amirkhanov, A N; Anisenkov, A V; Aulchenko, V M; Banzarov, V Sh; Bashtovoy, N S; Bondar, A E; Bragin, A V; Eidelman, S I; Epifanov, D A; Epshteyn, L B; Erofeev, A L; Fedotovich, G V; Gayazov, S E; Grebenuk, A A; Gribanov, S S; Grigoriev, D N; Ignatov, F V; Ivanov, V L; Karpov, S V; Kazanin, V F; Korobov, A A; Kovalenko, O A; Kozyrev, A N; Kozyrev, E A; Krokovny, P P; Kuzmenko, A E; Kuzmin, A S; Logashenko, I B; Lukin, P A; Mikhailov, K Yu; Okhapkin, V S; Pestov, Yu N; Popov, A S; Razuvaev, G P; Ruban, A A; Ryskulov, N M; Shebalin, V E; Shemyakin, D N; Shwartz, B A; Sibidanov, A L; Solodov, E P; Talyshev, A A; Titov, V M; Vorobiov, A I; Yudin, Yu V

    2017-01-01

    The CMD-3 detector has taken data at the electron-positron collider VEPP-2000 since december 2010. The collected data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 60 pb-6 in the c.m. energy range from 0.32 up to 2 GeV. Preliminary results of the luminosity measurement are presented for various energy ranges and its accuracy is estimated to be 1%.

  2. Current and expected performance of tracking and vertexing with the ATLAS detector at the LHC and the HL-LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Kastanas, Alex; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has had an extremely successful data collecting period during 2017, recording over 45 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV. This was achieved, in part, by running the LHC at a high instantaneous lumi- nosity level of over 1.5 x 10+34 cm-2s-1, which corresponds to over 57 inelastic proton-proton collisions per beam crossing. This talk will highlight the tracking and vertexing performance of the tracking detector within ATLAS (Inner Detector) throughout this successful year of data taking. In order to increase its potential for discoveries, the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) aims to increase the LHC data-set by an order of magnitude by collecting 3,000 fb-1 of recorded data. Starting, from mid-2026, the HL-LHC is expected to reach the peak instantaneous luminosity of 7.5 x 10+34 cm-2s-1, which corresponds to about 200 inelastic proton-proton collisions per beam crossing. To cope with the large radiation doses and high pile...

  3. A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight (nTOF) detector response in current mode to inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Alan J. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Cooper, Gary Wayne [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew; Fehl, David Lee; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Smelser, Ruth Marie; Torres, Jose A.

    2013-09-01

    There are several machines in this country that produce short bursts of neutrons for various applications. A few examples are the Zmachine, operated by Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM; the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester in Rochester, NY; and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) operated by the Department of Energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. They all incorporate neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors which measure neutron yield, and the shapes of the waveforms from these detectors contain germane information about the plasma conditions that produce the neutrons. However, the signals can also be %E2%80%9Cclouded%E2%80%9D by a certain fraction of neutrons that scatter off structural components and also arrive at the detectors, thereby making analysis of the plasma conditions more difficult. These detectors operate in current mode - i.e., they have no discrimination, and all the photomultiplier anode charges are integrated rather than counted individually as they are in single event counting. Up to now, there has not been a method for modeling an nTOF detector operating in current mode. MCNPPoliMiwas developed in 2002 to simulate neutron and gammaray detection in a plastic scintillator, which produces a collision data output table about each neutron and photon interaction occurring within the scintillator; however, the postprocessing code which accompanies MCNPPoliMi assumes a detector operating in singleevent counting mode and not current mode. Therefore, the idea for this work had been born: could a new postprocessing code be written to simulate an nTOF detector operating in current mode? And if so, could this process be used to address such issues as the impact of neutron scattering on the primary signal? Also, could it possibly even identify sources of scattering (i.e., structural materials) that

  4. Investigation of chemical vapour deposition diamond detectors by X- ray micro-beam induced current and X-ray micro-beam induced luminescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Olivero, P; Vittone, E; Fizzotti, F; Paolini, C; Lo Giudice, A; Barrett, R; Tucoulou, R

    2004-01-01

    Tracking detectors have become an important ingredient in high-energy physics experiments. In order to survive the harsh detection environment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), trackers need to have special properties. They must be radiation hard, provide fast collection of charge, be as thin as possible and remove heat from readout electronics. The unique properties of diamond allow it to fulfill these requirements. In this work we present an investigation of the charge transport and luminescence properties of "detector grade" artificial chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond devices developed within the CERN RD42 collaboration, performed by means of X-ray micro-beam induced current collection (XBICC) and X-ray micro- beam induced luminescence (XBIL) techniques. XBICC technique allows quantitative estimates of the transport parameters of the material to be evaluated and mapped with micrometric spatial resolution. In particular, the high resolution and sensitivity of the technique has allowed a quantitati...

  5. Beta-spectrometer with Si-detectors for the study of 144Ce-144Pr decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, I. E.; Bakhlanov, S. V.; Bazlov, N. V.; Chmel, E. A.; Derbin, A. V.; Drachnev, I. S.; Kotina, I. M.; Muratova, V. N.; Pilipenko, N. V.; Semyonov, D. A.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Yeremin, V. K.

    2018-05-01

    Here we present the specifications of a newly developed beta-spectrometer, based on full absorption Si(Li) detector and thin transmission detector, allowing one to perform efficient separation beta-radiation and accompanying X-rays and gamma radiation. Our method is based on registration of coincident events from both detectors. The spectrometer can be used for precision measurements of various beta-spectra, namely for the beta-spectrum shape study of 144Pr, which is considered to be an advantageous anti-neutrino source for sterile neutrino searches.

  6. Microwave detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  7. Development of segmented germanium detectors for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing

    2009-06-09

    The results from neutrino oscillation experiments indicate that at least two neutrinos have mass. However, the value of the masses and whether neutrinos and anti-neutrinos are identical, i.e., Majorana particles, remain unknown. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments can help to improve our understanding in both cases and are the only method currently possible to tackle the second question. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, which will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge, is currently under construction in Hall A of the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. In order to achieve an extremely low background level, segmented germanium detectors are considered to be operated directly in liquid argon which serves simultaneously as cooling and shielding medium. Several test cryostats were built at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik in Muenchen to operate segmented germanium detectors both in vacuum and submerged in cryogenic liquid. The performance and the background discrimination power of segmented germanium detectors were studied in detail. It was proven for the first time that segmented germanium detectors can be operated stably over long periods submerged in a cryogenic liquid. It was confirmed that the segmentation scheme employed does well in the identification of photon induced background and demonstrated for the first time that also neutron interactions can be identified. The C++ Monte Carlo framework, MaGe (Majorana-GERDA), is a joint development of the Majorana and GERDA collaborations. It is based on GEANT4, but tailored especially to simulate the response of ultra-low background detectors to ionizing radiation. The predictions of the simulation were veri ed to be accurate for a wide range of conditions. Some shortcomings were found and corrected. Pulse shape analysis is complementary to segmentation in identifying background events. Its efficiency can only be correctly determined using reliable pulse

  8. Hadronic final states in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallini, B.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analyses concerning the hadronic systems produced in ν/antiν nucleon interactions are reviewed. Particular attention is devoted to the questions of factorization, scaling deviations of fragmentation functions, and the behavior of 2 (T)> of individual hadrons as a function of Q 2 . Tests of QCD ideas concerning these effects are discussed. Also the present status of the production of charmed states in ν/antiν interactions in bubble chambers is summarized

  9. Charged-current neutrino and antineutrino scattering off Cd-116 described by Skyrme forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Almosly, W.; Carlsson, B. G.; Dobaczewski, J.; Suhonen, J.; Toivanen, J.; Veselý, Petr; Ydrefors, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2014), 024308 ISSN 0556-2813 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : double-beta decay * nuclear structure Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.733, year: 2014

  10. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  11. Angular distributions of neutrino and antineutrino scatterings by electrons and gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dass, G.V.

    1976-01-01

    Assuming a nonderivative point interaction, and Born approximation, the complete angular distributions for the scatterings of neutrinos and antineutrinos by electrons are obtained from only simple general considerations, without explicit calculation; generalisation to parton targets is noted. Two pairs of simple constraints on the angular distributions can be violated only if the interaction has a helicity-flipping component; this can serve to disfavour the large class of models which are purely helicity-conserving. Comparison is made with some explicit calculations done for some special cases of some of the results. (author)

  12. Measurement of the neutron and proton structure functions from neutrino and antineutrino scattering in deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allasia, D.; Angelini, C.; Baldini, A.; Barlag, S.; Bertanza, L.; Bigi, A.; Bisi, V.; Bobisut, F.; Bolognese, T.; Borg, A.; Calimani, E.; Capiluppi, P.; Casali, R.; Ciampolillo, S.; Derkaoui, J.; Faccini-Turluer, M. L.; Fantechi, R.; Flaminio, V.; Frodesen, A. G.; Gamba, D.; Giacomelli, G.; Graziani, G.; Halsteinslid, A.; Hornaes, A.; Huzita, H.; Jongejans, B.; Lippi, I.; Loreti, M.; Louedec, C.; Mandrioli, G.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Nappi, A.; Pazzi, R.; Pierazzini, G. M.; Riccati, L.; Romero, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Sconza, A.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Tenner, A.; van Apeldoorn, G. W.; van Dam, P.; Vignaud, D.; Visser, C.; Wigmans, R.

    1984-02-01

    Data from an exposure of the BEBC bubble chamber filled with deuterium to neutrino and antineutrino wide band beams have been used to extract the x dependence of the structure functions for scattering on protons and neutrons and the fractional momentum distributions of the valence quarks and the antiquarks of different flavours. The difference F n2 - F p2 is compared with recent data from high energy μD scattering. A result is also obtained on the sum rule giving the difference between the number of up and down quarks in the nucleon.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: Current status and issues in the surface passivation technology of mercury cadmium telluride infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, O. P.; Musca, C. A.; Faraone, L.

    1998-08-01

    Surface passivation has been recognized as a crucial step in the fabrication of mercury cadmium telluride photoconductive as well as photovoltaic detectors. The subject has attracted considerable attention in the past and several reviews existed by 1991. The subject matter, however, received added impetus with the development of techniques like MOCVD and MBE and recently there has been considerable work on MCT passivation using in situ grown II-VI semiconductors. In this report, we have tried to give the present status and identify the issues particularly with reference to the recent work on the subject.

  14. Measurement of the Water to Scintillator Charged-Current Cross-Section Ratio for Muon Neutrinos at the T2K Near Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083872

    2017-10-02

    The T2K experiment is a 295-km long-baseline neutrino experiment which aims at the measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters. Precise measurements of these parameters require accurate extrapolation of interaction rates from the near detector, ND280, mainly made of scintillator (hydrocarbon), to Super-Kamiokande, the water Cherenkov far detector. Measurements on water and of the water to hydrocarbon ratio, contribute to eliminate the uncertainties arising from carbon/oxygen differences. The cross section on water is obtained by subtraction of event distributions in two almost identical sub-detectors, one of which is equipped with water-filled modules. The measurement is performed by selecting a muon neutrino charged-current sample, in an exposure of 5.80 × 10^(20) protons on target. The water to hydrocarbon cross-section ratio is extracted for good acceptance kinematic regions (only forward muons with momentum higher than 100 MeV), in bins of reconstructed energy, the very quantity used in T2K oscillatio...

  15. First Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Charged Current Single Pion Production Cross Section on Water with the T2K Near Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K.

    2017-01-26

    The T2K off-axis near detector, ND280, is used to make the first differential cross section measurements of muon neutrino charged current single positive pion production on a water target at energies ${\\sim}0.8$~GeV. The differential measurements are presented as a function of muon and pion kinematics, in the restricted phase-space defined by $p_{\\pi^+}>200$MeV/c, $p_{\\mu^-}>200$MeV/c, $\\cos \\theta_{\\pi^+}>0.3$ and $\\cos \\theta_{\\mu^-}>0.3$. The total flux integrated $\

  16. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfín, Jorge G.; Nieves, Juan; Sobczyk, Jan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  17. Measuring the neutrino mass hierarchy with the future KM3NeT/ORCA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofestaedt, Jannik

    2017-02-22

    The neutrino mass hierarchy can be determined by measuring the energy- and zenith-angle-dependent oscillation pattern of few-GeV atmospheric neutrinos that have traversed the Earth. This measurement is the main science goal of KM3NeT/ORCA ('Oscillation Research with Cosmics in the Abyss'), a planned multi-megaton underwater Cherenkov detector in the Mediterranean Sea. A key task is the reconstruction of shower-like events induced by electron neutrinos in charged-current interactions, which substantially affect the neutrino mass hierarchy sensitivity. In this thesis, numerous aspects of the expected neutrino detection performance of the planned ORCA detector are investigated. A new reconstruction algorithm for neutrino-induced shower-like events is developed. Excellent reconstruction accuracies are achieved, with a neutrino energy resolution better than 26%/24%, and a median neutrino direction resolution better than 11 /9 for electron neutrinos/antineutrinos in charged-current interactions with energies above 7 GeV. It is shown that these resolutions are close to the reconstruction accuracy limits imposed by intrinsic fluctuations in the Cherenkov light signatures. These intrinsic resolution limits are based on generic assumptions about event reconstruction in Cherenkov detectors and are derived as part of this thesis. Differences in event reconstruction capabilities between water- and ice-based Cherenkov detectors are discussed. The configuration of existing trigger algorithms is optimised for the ORCA detector. Based on the developed shower reconstruction, a detector optimisation study of the photosensor density is performed. In addition, it is shown that optical background noise in the deep Mediterranean Sea is not expected to compromise the feasibility of the neutrino mass hierarchy measurement with ORCA. Together, these investigations contribute significantly to the estimated neutrino mass hierarchy sensitivity of ORCA published in the 'Letter of

  18. Simulating detectors dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  19. The electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in free neutron decay. Testing the standard model with the aSPECT-spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Michael

    2011-02-04

    The {beta}-decay of free neutrons is a strongly over-determined process in the Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics and is described by a multitude of observables. Some of those observables are sensitive to physics beyond the SM. For example, the correlation coefficients of the involved particles belong to them. The spectrometer aSPECT was designed to measure precisely the shape of the proton energy spectrum and to extract from it the electron anti-neutrino angular correlation coefficient a. A first test period (2005/2006) showed the ''proof-of-principles''. The limiting influence of uncontrollable background conditions in the spectrometer made it impossible to extract a reliable value for the coefficient a (published in 2008). A second measurement cycle (2007/2008) aimed to under-run the relative accuracy of previous experiments ({delta}a)/(a)=5%. I performed the analysis of the data taken there which is the emphasis of this doctoral thesis. A central point are background studies. The systematic impact of background on a was reduced to ({delta}a{sup (syst.)})/(a)=0.61 %. The statistical accuracy of the analyzed measurements is ({delta}a{sup (stat.)})/(a){approx}1.4 %. Besides, saturation effects of the detector electronics were investigated which were initially observed. These turned out not to be correctable on a sufficient level. An applicable idea how to avoid the saturation effects is discussed in the last chapter. (orig.)

  20. The electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in free neutron decay. Testing the standard model with the aSPECT-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The β-decay of free neutrons is a strongly over-determined process in the Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics and is described by a multitude of observables. Some of those observables are sensitive to physics beyond the SM. For example, the correlation coefficients of the involved particles belong to them. The spectrometer aSPECT was designed to measure precisely the shape of the proton energy spectrum and to extract from it the electron anti-neutrino angular correlation coefficient a. A first test period (2005/2006) showed the ''proof-of-principles''. The limiting influence of uncontrollable background conditions in the spectrometer made it impossible to extract a reliable value for the coefficient a (published in 2008). A second measurement cycle (2007/2008) aimed to under-run the relative accuracy of previous experiments (δa)/(a)=5%. I performed the analysis of the data taken there which is the emphasis of this doctoral thesis. A central point are background studies. The systematic impact of background on a was reduced to (δa (syst.) )/(a)=0.61 %. The statistical accuracy of the analyzed measurements is (δa (stat.) )/(a)∼1.4 %. Besides, saturation effects of the detector electronics were investigated which were initially observed. These turned out not to be correctable on a sufficient level. An applicable idea how to avoid the saturation effects is discussed in the last chapter. (orig.)

  1. An extremely stable and sensitive end-column electrochemical detector based on heated copper microdisk electrode with direct current for CE and CE-Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi-Zhen; Fang, Yi-Min; Wei, Hang; Huang, Zong-Xiong; Chen, Guo-Nan; Sun, Jian-Jun

    2010-05-01

    A heated copper microdisk electrode (HCME) was fabricated and successfully applied to capillary electrophoresis (CE) and CE-Chip as an electrochemical detector (ECD) for the detection of three carbohydrates and shikimic acid (SA) in Illicium verum Hook F., respectively. The temperature of HCME was heated by twin-wire-wound coil with direct current to reduce the magnetic interference. Coupled with CE and CE-chip, this detector exhibits both extremely stable and sensitive performance at elevated temperature compared with that at room temperature. In successive detection of three carbohydrates and shikimic acid (SA), the HCME exhibits very stable response with RSD of ca. 2% with elevated temperature without renewing the electrode, while at room temperature, RSD of ca. 20% is obtained. This is very important in practical applications that tedious works, such as polishing and re-fixing the electrode at each detection, can be therefore avoided. In addition, the sensitivity is about 2-6 time increased, and the linear range is about an order wider at elevated temperature (ca. 60 degrees C) than that at room temperature (ca. 25 degrees C).

  2. Time-dependent flux from pulsed neutrons revealed by superconducting Nb current-biased kinetic inductance detector with 10B converter operated at 4 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Narukami, Yoshito; Shishido, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Naohito; Ishida, Takekazu; Fujimaki, Akira; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Oikawa, Kenichi; Harada, Masahide; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated a new superconducting detector for a neutron based on Nb superconductor meanderline with a 10 B conversion layer. We use a current-biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which is composed of a meanderline, for detection of a neutron with high spatial resolution and fast response. The thickness of Nb meanderlines is 40 nm and widths are 3 μm, 1 μm, and 0.6 μm. The CB-KIDs are fabricated at the center of the Si chip of the size 22 mm × 22 mm and the total area of CB-KIDs covers 8 mm × 8 mm. The chip was cooled to a temperature lower than 4 K below the transition temperature of Nb using a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler. The Nb CB-KIDs with a 10 B conversion layer output the voltage by irradiating pulsed neutrons at the material life science experimental facility (MLF) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) center. The response time of CB-KIDs is about a few tens ns. We have also obtained the time dependence of neutron flux generated from pulsed neutrons using a CB-KID. Experimental results were in good agreement with the simulated results. (author)

  3. Principle and modelling of Transient Current Technique for interface traps characterization in monolithic pixel detectors obtained by CMOS-compatible wafer bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Bronuzzi, J.; Moll, M.; Sallese, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of monolithic silicon radiation detectors, a fabrication process based on a recently developed silicon wafer bonding technique at low temperature was proposed. Ideally, this new process would enable direct bonding of a read-out electronic chip wafer on a highly resistive silicon substrate wafer, which is expected to present many advantages since it would combine high performance IC's with high sensitive ultra-low doped bulk silicon detectors. But electrical properties of the bonded interface are critical for this kind of application since the mobile charges generated by radiation inside the bonded bulk are expected to transit through the interface in order to be collected by the read-out electronics. In this work, we propose to explore and develop a model for the so-called Transient Current Technique (TCT) to identify the presence of deep traps at the bonded interface. For this purpose, we consider a simple PIN diode reversely biased where the ultra-low doped active region of interest is set ...

  4. Bringing the SciBar detector to the booster neutrino beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Alcaraz, J.; Andringa, S.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Catala, J.; Cervera, A.; Conrad, J. M.; Couce, E.; Dore, U.; Espinal, X.; Finley, D. A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Ishii, T.; Jover, G.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kurimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, Y. [et al.

    2005-11-15

    This document presents the physics case for bringing SciBar, the fully active, finely segmented tracking detector at KEK, to the FNAL Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) line. This unique opportunity arose with the termination of K2K beam operations in 2005. At that time, the SciBar detector became available for use in other neutrino beam lines, including the BNB, which has been providing neutrinos to the MiniBooNE experiment since late 2002. The physics that can be done with SciBar/BNB can be put into three categories, each involving several measurements. First are neutrino cross section measurements which are interesting in their own right, including analyses of multi-particle final states, with unprecedented statistics. Second are measurements of processes that represent the signal and primary background channels for the upcoming T2K experiment. Third are measurements which improve existing or planned MiniBooNE analyses and the understanding of the BNB, both in neutrino and antineutrino mode. For each of these proposed measurements, the SciBar/BNB combination presents a unique opportunity or will significantly improve upon current or near-future experiments for several reasons. First, the fine granularity of SciBar allows detailed reconstruction of final states not possible with the MiniBooNE detector. Additionally, the BNB neutrino energy spectrum is a close match to the expected T2K energy spectrum in a region where cross sections are expected to vary dramatically with energy. As a result, the SciBar/BNB combination will provide cross-section measurements in an energy range complementary to MINERvA and complete the knowledge of neutrino cross sections over the entire energy range of interest to the upcoming off-axis experiments.

  5. SoLid: Search for Oscillations with Lithium-6 Detector at the SCK-CEN BR2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, G.; Beaumont, W.; Buhour, J. M.; Coupé, B.; Cucoanes, A. S.; D'Hondt, J.; Durand, D.; Fallot, M.; Fresneau, S.; Giot, L.; Guillon, B.; Guilloux, G.; Janssen, X.; Kalcheva, S.; Koonen, E.; Labare, M.; Moortgat, C.; Pronost, G.; Raes, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Ryder, N.; Shitov, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Weber, A.; Yermia, F.

    2016-04-01

    Sterile neutrinos have been considered as a possible explanation for the recent reactor and Gallium anomalies arising from reanalysis of reactor flux and calibration data of previous neutrino experiments. A way to test this hypothesis is to look for distortions of the anti-neutrino energy caused by oscillation from active to sterile neutrino at close stand-off (˜ 6- 8m) of a compact reactor core. Due to the low rate of anti-neutrino interactions the main challenge in such measurement is to control the high level of gamma rays and neutron background. The SoLid experiment is a proposal to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillation at very short baseline of the SCK•CEN BR2 research reactor. This experiment uses a novel approach to detect anti-neutrino with a highly segmented detector based on Lithium-6. With the combination of high granularity, high neutron-gamma discrimination using 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) and precise localization of the Inverse Beta Decay products, a better experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other state-of-the-art technology. This compact system requires minimum passive shielding allowing for very close stand off to the reactor. The experimental set up of the SoLid experiment and the BR2 reactor will be presented. The new principle of neutrino detection and the detector design with expected performance will be described. The expected sensitivity to new oscillations of the SoLid detector as well as the first measurements made with the 8 kg prototype detector deployed at the BR2 reactor in 2013-2014 will be reported.

  6. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068232

    1998-01-01

    The lecture series will present and overview of the basic techniques and underlying physical principles of particle detectors, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, mainly from the field of collider experiments, will demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. After and introduction we shall concentrate on particle tracking. Wire chambers, drift chambers, micro gaseous tracking devices and solid state trackers will be discussed. It follows and overview of scintillators, photon detection, fiber tracking and nuclear emulsions. One lecture will deal with the various techniques of calorimetry. Finally we shall focus on methods developed for particle identification. These comprise specific energy loss, time of flight Cherenkov and transition radiation detectors.

  7. Feasibility of creating a specialized reactimeter based on the inverse solution to kinetics equation with a current-mode neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelev, A. S.; Arapov, A. V.; Ovchinnikov, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The file-evaluation results of a reactimeter based on the inverse solution to the kinetics equation (ISKE) are presented, which were obtained using an operating hardware-measuring complex with a KNK-4 neutron detector working in the current mode. The processing of power-recording files of the BR-1M, BR-K1, and VIR-2M reactors of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center—All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, which was performed with the use of Excel simulation of the ISKE formalism, demonstrated the feasibility of implementation of the reactivity monitoring (during the operation of these reactors at stationary power) beginning from the level of ~5 × 10 –4 β eff .

  8. Measurement of the Energy Dependent Numu Charged Current Inclusive Cross Section on Iron with the T2K INGRID Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kento

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment is designed to measure neutrino oscillation parameters. INGRID is installed 280 m downstream from the T2K target to monitor the direction and intensity of the neutrino beam. It has 14 independent modules which are composed of iron plates and scintillator planes. The purpose of this analysis is to measure the energy dependent muon neutrino charged current inclusive cross section on iron. We estimate the sensitivity of the measurement using toy MC data and the expected error size is 11.5-13.8%.

  9. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  10. Inverter ratio failure detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

  11. Search for tZ Flavour Changing Neutral Currents in top-quark decays with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Durglishvili, Archil; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for flavour-changing neutral current (FCNC) processes in top-quark decays is presented. Data collected from proton-proton collisions at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 fb$^{−1}$, are analysed. A search is performed for top-quark pair-production events, with one top-quark decaying through the $t\\rightarrow qZ$ ($q=u,c$) FCNC channel, and other through the dominant Standard Model mode $t\\rightarrow bW$. Only decays of the $Z$ boson to charged leptons and leptonic $W$ boson decays are considered as signal. No evidence for a signal is found and the observed (expected) upper limits on the $t\\rightarrow uZ$ and $t\\rightarrow cZ$ branching ratios of $1.7\\times10^{-4}$ ($2.4\\times10^{-4}$) and $2.3\\times10^{-4}$ ($3.2\\times10^{-4}$) are set at 95% confidence level, respectively.

  12. Detectors on the drawing board

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

  13. Search for single top-quark production via flavour changing neutral currents at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

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Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; 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Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; 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Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; 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    2016-01-29

    A search for single top-quark production via flavour changing neutral current processes from gluon plus up- or charm--quark initial states in proton--proton collisions at the LHC is presented. Data collected with the ATLAS detector in 2012 at a centre-of-mass energy of $8\\;\\mbox{TeV}$ and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $20.3\\;\\mbox{fb}^{-1}$ are used. Candidate events for a top quark decaying into a lepton, a neutrino and a jet are selected and classified into signal- and background-like candidates using a neural network. No signal is observed and an upper limit on the production cross-section multiplied by the $t \\rightarrow Wb$ branching fraction is set. The observed $95\\,\\%$ CL limit is $\\sigma_{qg \\rightarrow t} \\times B(t \\rightarrow Wb)< 3.4\\;\\mbox{pb}$ and the expected $95\\,\\%$ CL limit is $\\sigma_{qg \\rightarrow t} \\times B(t \\rightarrow Wb)< 2.9\\;\\mbox{pb}$. The observed limit can be interpreted as upper limits on the coupling constants of the flavour changing neutral current inte...

  14. Search for single top-quark production via flavour-changing neutral currents at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bieniek, S P; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, J E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Breaden Madden, W D; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, K; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Brown, J; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burghgrave, B; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Butt, A I; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Camarri, P

    A search for single top-quark production via flavour-changing neutral current processes from gluon plus up- or charm-quark initial states in proton-proton collisions at the LHC is presented. Data collected with the ATLAS detector in 2012 at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb[Formula: see text] are used. Candidate events for a top quark decaying into a lepton, a neutrino and a jet are selected and classified into signal- and background-like candidates using a neural network. No signal is observed and an upper limit on the production cross-section multiplied by the [Formula: see text] branching fraction is set. The observed 95 % CL limit is [Formula: see text] and the expected 95 % CL limit is [Formula: see text]. The observed limit can be interpreted as upper limits on the coupling constants of the flavour-changing neutral current interactions divided by the scale of new physics [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] and on the branching fractions [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text].

  15. A Self-Powered Thin-Film Radiation Detector Using Intrinsic High-Energy Current (HEC) (Author’s Final Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    need for external bias voltage or amplification. The detector is a thin-film multilayer device, composed of alternating disparate electrically... composed of alternating disparate electrically conductive and insulating layers. The optimal design of HEC detectors consists of micro- or...photodiode) is used to read the 40 secondary light emission originating in or passing through the medium. By contrast, in direct-conversion detectors

  16. Prospect for Charge Current Neutrino Interactions Measurements at the CERN-PS

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, P; Bozza, C; Brugnera, R; Cecchetti, A; Cecchini, S; Collazuol, G; Corso, F Dal; De Mitri, I; De Serio, M; Di Ferdinando, D; Dore, U; Dusini, S; Fabbricatore, P; Fanin, C; Fini, R A; Garfagnini, A; Grella, G; Kose, U; Laveder, M; Loverre, P; Longhin, A; Marsella, G; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Mauri, N; Medinaceli, E; Mezzetto, M; Muciaccia, M T; Orecchini, D; Paoloni, A; Pastore, A; Patrizii, L; Pozzato, M; Rescigno, R; Rosa, G; Simone, S; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Spurio, M; Stanco, L; Stellacci, S; Surdo, A; Tenti, M; Togo, V

    2011-01-01

    Tensions in several phenomenological models grew with experimental results on neutrino/antineutrino oscillations at Short-Baseline (SBL) and with the recent, carefully recomputed, antineutrino fluxes from nuclear reactors. At a refurbished SBL CERN-PS facility an experiment aimed to address the open issues has been proposed [1], based on the technology of imaging in ultra-pure cryogenic Liquid Argon (LAr). Motivated by this scenario a detailed study of the physics case was performed. We tackled specific physics models and we optimized the neutrino beam through a full simulation. Experimental aspects not fully covered by the LAr detection, i.e. the measurements of the lepton charge on event-by-event basis and their energy over a wide range, were also investigated. Indeed the muon leptons from Charged Current (CC) (anti-)neutrino interactions play an important role in disentangling different phenomenological scenarios provided their charge state is determined. Also, the study of muon appearance/disappearance ca...

  17. Prospect for Charge Current Neutrino Interactions Measurements at the CERN-PS

    CERN Document Server

    Stanco, Luca (INFN-Padova)

    2011-01-01

    Tensions in several phenomenological models grew with experimental results on neu- trino/antineutrino oscillations at Short-Baseline (SBL) and with the recent, carefully recomputed, antineutrino fluxes from nuclear reactors. At a refurbished SBL CERN- PS facility an experiment aimed to address the open issues has been proposed [1], based on the technology of imaging in ultra-pure cryogenic Liquid Argon (LAr). Motivated by this scenario a detailed study of the physics case was performed. We tackled specific physics models and we optimized the neutrino beam through a full simulation. Experimental aspects not fully covered by the LAr detection, i.e. the measurements of the lepton charge on event-by-event basis and their energy over a wide range, were also investigated. Indeed the muon leptons from Charged Current (CC) (anti-)neutrino interactions play an important role in disentangling different phenomenological scenarios provided their charge state is determined. Also, the study of muon appearance/disappearance...

  18. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  19. A PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF THE NEUTRINO MIXING ANGLE THETA (SUB 13) USING REACTOR ANTINEUTRINOS AT DAYA BAY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETTELL, S.; ET AL.

    2006-10-16

    This document describes the design of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment. Recent discoveries in neutrino physics have shown that the Standard Model of particle physics is incomplete. The observation of neutrino oscillations has unequivocally demonstrated that the masses of neutrinos are nonzero. The smallness of the neutrino masses (<2 eV) and the two surprisingly large mixing angles measured have thus far provided important clues and constraints to extensions of the Standard Model. The third mixing angle, {delta}{sub 13}, is small and has not yet been determined; the current experimental bound is sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} < 0.17 at 90% confidence level (from Chooz) for {Delta}m{sub 31}{sup 2} = 2.5 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}. It is important to measure this angle to provide further insight on how to extend the Standard Model. A precision measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} using nuclear reactors has been recommended by the 2004 APS Multi-divisional Study on the Future of Neutrino Physics as well as a recent Neutrino Scientific Assessment Group (NUSAG) report. We propose to perform a precision measurement of this mixing angle by searching for the disappearance of electron antineutrinos from the nuclear reactor complex in Daya Bay, China. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will be vital in resolving the neutrino-mass hierarchy and future measurements of CP violation in the lepton sector because this technique cleanly separates {theta}{sub 13} from CP violation and effects of neutrino propagation in the earth. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will provide important, complementary information to that from long-baseline, accelerator-based experiments. The goal of the Daya Bay experiment is to reach a sensitivity of 0.01 or better in sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} at 90% confidence level.

  20. First results of the deployment of a SoLid detector module at the SCK•CEN BR2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, N.

    The SoLid experiment aims to resolve the reactor neutrino anomaly by searching for electron-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations. The search will be performed between 5.5 and 10 m from the highly enriched uranium core of the BR2 reactor at SCK-CEN. The experiment utilises a novel approach to anti-neutrino detection based on a highly segmented, composite scintillator detector design. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved using a combination of high neutron-gamma discrimination using 6 LiF:ZnS(Ag) and precise localisation of the inverse beta decay products. This compact detector system requires limited passive shielding as it relies on spacial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. The first full scale, 288 kg, detector module was deployed at the BR2 reactor in November 2014. A phased three tonne experimental deployment will begin in the second half of 2016, allowing a precise search for oscillations that will resolve the reactor anomaly using a three tonne detector running for three years. In this talk the novel detector design is explained and initial detector performance results from the module level deployment are presented along with an estimation of the physics reach of the next phase.

  1. Search for Flavour Changing Neutral Currents in Single Top-Quark Production at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alhroob, Muhammad; Desch, Klaus

    This thesis represents the search for single top-quark production through flavour changing neutral currents using data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011, at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.05 fb$^{-1}$. Candidate events are selected with one isolated lepton, missing transverse momentum associated to the undetected neutrino and a jet originated from the hadronisation of a $b$ quark. Given the large expected number of background events and the small number of expected signal events, a neural network classifier is developed to combine many kinematic variables to create a powerful separator in order classify the events as a signal- or a background-like events. As no sign of new physics is seen in the neural network output distribution, a Bayesian statistical method is used to set an upper limit at 95% confidence level (C.L.) on the single top-quark production cross section through FCNC processes. The observed upper limit at 95% C.L. on the cro...

  2. Geneva University: Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 19 March 2012 COLLOQUE DE PHYSIQUE 5 p.m. - École de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay  Professor Yifang Wang Institute of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, a multinational collaboration operating in the south of China, today reported the first results of its search for the last, most elusive piece of a long-standing puzzle: how is it that neutrinos can appear to vanish as they travel? The surprising answer opens a gateway to a new understanding of fundamental physics and may eventually solve the riddle of why there is far more ordinary matter than antimatter in the Universe today....

  3. Method of fission product beta spectra measurements for predicting reactor anti-neutrino emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, David M.; Burns, Kimberly A.; Campbell, Luke W.; Greenfield, Bryce A.; Kos, Marek S.; Orrell, John L.; Schram, Malachi; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wood, Lynn S.; Wootan, David W.

    2015-03-01

    The nuclear fission process that occurs in the core of nuclear reactors results in unstable, neutron-rich fission products that subsequently beta decay and emit electron antineutrinos. These reactor neutrinos have served neutrino physics research from the initial discovery of the neutrino to today's precision measurements of neutrino mixing angles. The prediction of the absolute flux and energy spectrum of the emitted reactor neutrinos hinges upon a series of seminal papers based on measurements performed in the 1970s and 1980s. The steadily improving reactor neutrino measurement techniques and recent reconsiderations of the agreement between the predicted and observed reactor neutrino flux motivates revisiting the underlying beta spectra measurements. A method is proposed to use an accelerator proton beam delivered to an engineered target to yield a neutron field tailored to reproduce the neutron energy spectrum present in the core of an operating nuclear reactor. Foils of the primary reactor fissionable isotopes placed in this tailored neutron flux will ultimately emit beta particles from the resultant fission products. Measurement of these beta particles in a time projection chamber with a perpendicular magnetic field provides a distinctive set of systematic considerations for comparison to the original seminal beta spectra measurements. Ancillary measurements such as gamma-ray emission and post-irradiation radiochemical analysis will further constrain the absolute normalization of beta emissions per fission. The requirements for unfolding the beta spectra measured with this method into a predicted reactor neutrino spectrum are explored.

  4. Supernova relic electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos in future large-scale observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, C.; Welzel, J. [Institut de Physique Nuclueaire, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the signal from supernova relic neutrinos in future large scale observatories, such as MEMPHYS (UNO, Hyper-K), LENA and GLACIER, at present under study. We discuss that complementary information might be gained from the observation of supernova relic electron antineutrinos and neutrinos using the scattering on protons on one hand, and on nuclei such as oxygen, carbon or argon on the other hand. When determining the relic neutrino fluxes we also include, for the first time, the coupling of the neutrino magnetic moment to magnetic fields within the core collapse supernova. We present numerical results on both the relic {nu}{sub e} and {nu}-bar{sub e} fluxes and on the number of events for {nu}{sub e} + C{sup 12}, {nu}{sub e} + O{sup 16}, {nu}{sub e} + Ar{sup 40} and {nu}-bar{sub e} + p for various oscillation scenarios. The observation of supernova relic neutrinos might provide us with unique information on core-collapse supernova explosions, on the star formation history and on neutrino properties, that still remain unknown. (authors)

  5. Ionization detectors, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevcik, J.

    1976-01-01

    Most measuring devices used in gas chromatography consist of detectors that measure the ionization current. The process is based on the collision of a moving high-energy particle with a target particle that is ionised while an electron is freed. The discussion of the conditions of the collision reaction, the properties of the colliding particles, and the intensity of the applied field point to a unified classification of ionisation detectors. Radioactive sources suitable for use in these detectors are surveyed. The slow-down mechanism, recombination and background current effect are discussed

  6. Reactor neutrinos study: integration and characterization of the Nucifer detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffiot, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The major advances done in the understanding of neutrinos properties and in detector technology have opened the door to a new discipline: the Applied Antineutrino Physics. Indeed, this particle has the great advantage to carry information from its emission place without perturbation. Because neutrinos are inextricably linked to nuclear processes, new applications are in nuclear safeguards. In this context, the Nucifer project aims to test a small electron-antineutrino detector to be installed a few 10 meters from a reactor core for monitoring its thermal power and for testing the sensitivity to the plutonium content. Moreover, recent re-analysis of previous short-distance reactor-neutrino experiments shows a significant discrepancy between measured and expected neutrino count rates. Among the various hypotheses a new phenomenon as the existence of a fourth sterile neutrino can explain this anomaly. To be able to count neutrinos and get the corresponding energy spectrum, the detection is based on the inverse beta decay in about 850 kg of doped liquid scintillator. The experimental challenge is to operate such a small detector in a high background place, due to the closeness with the surface and the reactor radiations. The detector is now finished and data taking has begun at the Osiris research reactor in Saclay since April 2012. Sadly, unexpected low liquid attenuation length and high gamma background level prevented us to highlight neutrinos. We are now waiting for a liquid change and a new lead wall to study reactor monitoring and to test the sterile neutrino hypothesis. (author) [fr

  7. The status of BAT detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Amy; Markwardt, Craig B.; Krimm, Hans Albert; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, Bradley

    2018-01-01

    We will present the current status of the Swift/BAT detector. In particular, we will report the updated detector gain calibration, the number of enable detectors, and the global bad time intervals with potential calibration issues. We will also summarize the results of the yearly BAT calibration using the Crab nebula. Finally, we will discuss the effects on the BAT survey, such as the sensitivity, localization, and spectral analysis, due to the changes in detector status.

  8. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  9. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  10. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  11. Topological track reconstruction in liquid scintillator and LENA as a far-detector in an LBNO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Unsegmented liquid scintillator (LSc) neutrino detectors have proven to be successful instruments of neutrino physics. They usually measure terrestrial and astrophysical low-energy (LE) neutrinos and antineutrinos with energies up to some tens of MeV. Designs for next-generation detectors based on this technology intend to use several tens of kilotons of LSc. Two examples are the Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) project with 50 kt considered in Europe and the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with 20 kt already under construction in China. A key factor to reach the scientific goals of these projects, e.g., the determination of the neutrino mass ordering (MO) in the case of JUNO, will be the efficient rejection of background from radioisotopes produced by cosmogenic muons. This requires accurate reconstructions of extended muon event topologies in the LSc volume.The first part of this work is about the implementation of a novel, iterative track reconstruction procedure for unsegmented LSc detectors and a basic evaluation of its performance with the LENA detector simulation. The ultimate goal of the new method is to reconstruct the spatial number density distribution of optical photon emissions. This will give access to a charged particle's differential energy loss dE/dx in LSc and resolve details of an event's topology, e.g., induced particle showers. Visual comparisons of reconstruction outcomes with Monte Carlo (MC) truths already provide evidence for this capability. First quantitative results were extracted from the 3D reconstruction data of fully-contained muons in the kinetic energy range from 1 to 10 GeV: Despite some well understood systematic effects in the current method to find start and end point of a track, resolutions current analysis

  12. Search for flavour changing neutral currents in single top-quark production at √(s)=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhroob, Muhammad

    2013-03-01

    This thesis represents the search for single top-quark production through flavour changing neutral currents using data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011, at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.05 fb -1 . Candidate events are selected with one isolated lepton, missing transverse momentum associated to the undetected neutrino and a jet originated from the hadronisation of a b quark. Given the large expected number of background events and the small number of expected signal events, a neural network classifier is developed to combine many kinematic variables to create a powerful separator in order classify the events as a signal- or a background-like events. As no sign of new physics is seen in the neural network output distribution, a Bayesian statistical method is used to set an upper limit at 95% confidence level (C.L.) on the single top-quark production cross section through FCNC processes. The observed upper limit at 95% C.L. on the cross-section multiplied by the t→Wb branching fraction is measured to be σ qg→t x B(t →Wb) ugt )/(Λ) -3 TeV -1 and (K cgt )/(Λ) -2 TeV -1 , where Λ is the new physics scale, and on the branching fractions B(t→ug) -5 and B(t→cg) -4 . The limits on the branching fractions are the world's best limits to date and significantly improving the previous limits obtained by the DOe collaboration by a factor of 15.

  13. Nuclear attenuation of fast hadrons produced in charged-current ν and anti ν interactions in neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkot, W.; Coghen, T.; Czyzewski, J.

    1996-01-01

    The production of hadrons in charged-current (anti)neutrino interactions is studied with the bubble chamber BEBC exposed to the CERN (anti)neutrino wide-band beam. Fast-hadron production in a neon target is found to be attenuated as compared to that in a hydrogen target. This feature is discussed within theoretical models based on the idea of a hadron formation length. The experimental results favour the 'constituent' over the 'yo-yo' length concept, and suggest a quark cross section in the order of 3 mb. (orig.)

  14. Modelling of current-voltage characteristics of infrared photo-detectors based on type – II InAs/GaSb super-lattice diodes with unipolar blocking layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Gopal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that current-voltage characteristics of infrared photo-detectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb super-lattices with uni-polar blocking layers can be modelled similar to a junction diode with a finite series resistance on account of blocking barriers. As an example this paper presents the results of a study of current-voltage characteristics of a type II InAs/GaSb super-lattice diode with PbIbN architecture using a recently proposed [J. Appl. Phys. 116, 084502 (2014] method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. The thermal diffusion, generation – recombination (g-r, and ohmic currents are found as principal components besides a component of photocurrent due to background illumination. The experimentally observed reverse bias diode current in excess of thermal current (diffusion + g-r, photo-current and ohmic shunt current is reported to be best described by an exponential function of the type, Iexcess = Ir0 + K1exp(K2 V, where Ir0, K1 and K2 are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. The present investigations suggest that the exponential growth of excess current with the applied bias voltage may be taking place along the localized regions in the diode. These localized regions are the shunt resistance paths on account of the surface leakage currents and/or defects and dislocations in the base of the diode.

  15. Vector boson scattering and electroweak production of two like-charge W bosons and two jets at the current and future ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnoor, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The scattering of electroweak gauge bosons is closely connected to the electroweak gauge symmetry and its spontaneous breaking through the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism. Since it contains triple and quartic gauge boson vertices, the measurement of this scattering process allows to probe the self-interactions of weak bosons. The contribution of the Higgs boson to the weak boson scattering amplitude ensures unitarity of the scattering matrix. Therefore, the scattering of massive electroweak gauge bosons is sensitive to deviations from the Standard Model prescription of the electroweak interaction and of the properties of the Higgs boson. At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the scattering of massive electroweak gauge bosons is accessible through the measurement of purely electroweak production of two jets and two gauge bosons. No such process has been observed before. Being the channel with the least amount of background from QCD-mediated production of the same final state, the most promising channel for the first measurement of a process containing massive electroweak gauge boson scattering is the one with two like-charge W bosons and two jets in the final state. This thesis presents the first measurement of electroweak production of two jets and two identically charged W bosons, which yields the first observation of a process with contributions from quartic gauge interactions of massive electroweak gauge bosons. An overview of the most important issues in Monte Carlo simulation of vector boson scattering processes with current Monte Carlo generators is given in this work. The measurement of the final state of two jets and two leptonically decaying same-charge W bosons is conducted based on proton-proton collision data with a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=8 TeV, taken in 2012 with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The cross section of electroweak production of two jets and two like-charge W bosons is measured with a significance of 3.6 standard deviations to be

  16. Search for flavour changing neutral currents in single top-quark production at {radical}(s)=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhroob, Muhammad

    2013-03-15

    This thesis represents the search for single top-quark production through flavour changing neutral currents using data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011, at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.05 fb{sup -1}. Candidate events are selected with one isolated lepton, missing transverse momentum associated to the undetected neutrino and a jet originated from the hadronisation of a b quark. Given the large expected number of background events and the small number of expected signal events, a neural network classifier is developed to combine many kinematic variables to create a powerful separator in order classify the events as a signal- or a background-like events. As no sign of new physics is seen in the neural network output distribution, a Bayesian statistical method is used to set an upper limit at 95% confidence level (C.L.) on the single top-quark production cross section through FCNC processes. The observed upper limit at 95% C.L. on the cross-section multiplied by the t{yields}Wb branching fraction is measured to be {sigma}{sub qg{yields}t} x B(t {yields}Wb)< 3.9 pb. This upper limit is converted using a model-independent approach into upper limits on the coupling strengths (K{sub ugt})/({Lambda})<6.9.10{sup -3} TeV{sup -1} and (K{sub cgt})/({Lambda})<1.6.10{sup -2} TeV{sup -1}, where {Lambda} is the new physics scale, and on the branching fractions B(t{yields}ug)<5.7 .10{sup -5} and B(t{yields}cg)< 2.7.10{sup -4}. The limits on the branching fractions are the world's best limits to date and significantly improving the previous limits obtained by the DOe collaboration by a factor of 15.

  17. Search for sub-eV sterile neutrinos in the precision multiple baselines reactor antineutrino oscillation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Luo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to different effects on neutrino oscillations, the unitarity violation in the MNSP matrix can be classified into the direct unitarity violation and the indirect unitarity violation which are induced by the existence of the light and the heavy sterile neutrinos respectively. Of which sub-eV sterile neutrinos are of most interesting. We study in this paper the possibility of searching for sub-eV sterile neutrinos in the precision reactor antineutrino oscillation experiments with three different baselines at around 500 m, 2 km and 60 km. We find that the antineutrino survival probabilities obtained in the reactor experiments are sensitive only to the direct unitarity violation and offer very concentrated sensitivity to the two parameters θ14 and Δm412. If such light sterile neutrinos do exist, the active–sterile mixing angle θ14 could be acquired by the combined rate analysis at all the three baselines and the mass-squared difference Δm412 could be obtained by taking the Fourier transformation to the L/E spectrum. Of course, for such measurements to succeed, both high energy resolution and large statistics are essentially important.

  18. Neutral current induced neutrino oscillations in a supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A; Kusenko, Alexander; Segre, Gino

    1997-01-01

    Neutral currents induced matter oscillations of electroweak-active (anti-)neutrinos to sterile neutrinos can explain the observed motion of pulsars. In contrast to a recently proposed explanation of the pulsar birth velocities based on the electron to tau (muon) neutrino oscillations [hep-ph/9606428], the heaviest neutrino (either active or sterile) would have to have mass of order several keV.

  19. Transmutation detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Klupák, V.; Sus, F.; Kučera, Jan; Kůs, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 632, č. 1 (2011), s. 109-111 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Transmutation detector * Activation method * Neutron detector * Neutron fluence Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  20. Vapor Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, H. M.; Garrard, G. C.; Houston, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Detector eliminates need for removing covers to take samples. Detector is canister consisting of screw-in base and clear plastic tube that contains two colors of silica gel. Monoethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide vapors are visually monitored with canister containing color-changing gels.

  1. The CLIC Detector Concept

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)779659

    2016-01-01

    CLIC is a concept for a future linear collider that would provide e+e- collisions at up to 3 TeV. The physics aims require a detector system with excellent jet energy and track momentum resolution, highly efficient flavour-tagging and lepton identification capabilities, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles and timing information in the order of nanoseconds to reject beam-induced background. To deal with those requirements, an extensive R&D programme is in place to overcome current technological limits. The CLIC detector concept includes a low-mass all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system and fine-grained calorimeters designed for particle flow analysis techniques, surrounded by a 4 T solenoid magnet. An overview of the requirements and design optimisations for the CLIC detector concept is presented.

  2. A silicon pixel detector prototype for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Vicente Barreto Pinto, Mateus

    2017-01-01

    A silicon pixel detector prototype for CLIC, currently under study for the innermost detector surrounding the collision point. The detector is made of a High-Voltage CMOS sensor (top) and a CLICpix2 readout chip (bottom) that are glued to each other. Both parts have a size of 3.3 x 4.0 $mm^2$ and consist of an array of 128 x 128 pixels of 25 x 25 $\\micro m^2$ size.

  3. A precise determination of the nucleon structure functions in charged-current interactions on an iron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallage, B.

    1987-01-01

    570 000 neutrino-iron and 370 000 antineutrino-iron charged-current events were obtained from the Wide Band Beam exposure of the CDHS detector at CERN in 1983, at energies ranging from 20 to 400 GeV. These large statistics allowed a precise measurement of the charged-current differential cross-sections and a detailed study of systematic effects. The nucleon structure functions have been determined in the framework of the quark-parton model, in the kinematic range: 0.015 2 2 /c 2 . The longitudinal structure function F L (x) is in good agreement with the QCD predicted shape. Deviations from scale invariance are clearly seen from the functions F 2 and xF 3 . The Q 2 evolution of the valence quark distribution has been compared with the QCD prediction in order to measure the scale parameter Λ. A good agreement is obtained only if the low Q 2 points are removed from the comparison. Our experiment favours a value of Λ between 50 and 250 MeV [fr

  4. Semiconductor neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos, NM; Littlewood, Peter B [Cambridge, GB; Blagoev, Krastan B [Arlington, VA; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos, NM; Smith, James L [Los Alamos, NM; Sullivan, Clair J [Los Alamos, NM; Alexandrov, Boian S [Los Alamos, NM; Lashley, Jason Charles [Santa Fe, NM

    2011-03-08

    A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

  5. Cryogenic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, A.

    1987-01-01

    Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  6. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  7. A low energy neutrino factory with non-magnetic detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    We show that a very precise neutrino/anti-neutrino event separation is not mandatory to cover the physics program of a low energy neutrino factory and thus non-magnetized detectors like water Cerenkov or liquid Argon detectors can be used. We point out, that oscillation itself strongly enhances the signal to noise ratio of a wrong sign muon search, provided there is sufficiently accurate neutrino energy reconstruction. Further, we argue that apart from a magnetic field, other means to distinguish neutrino from anti-neutrino events (at least statistically) can be explored. Combined with the fact that non-magnetic detectors potentially can be made very big, we show that modest neutrino/anti-neutrino separations at the level of 50% to 90% are sufficient to obtain good sensitivity to CP violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy for $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}>10^{-3}$. These non-magnetized detectors have a rich physics program outside the context of a neutrino factory, including topics like supernova neutrinos and proton...

  8. Transition Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A

    2012-01-01

    We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

  9. Detectors for CBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, N.; Gordon, H.A.; Palmer, R.B.; Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise

  10. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  11. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  12. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  13. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  14. CARIOCA : A Fast Binary Front-End Implemented in 0.25Pm CMOS using a Novel Current-Mode Technique for the LHCb Muon Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The CARIOCA front-end is an amplifier discriminator chip, using 0.25mm CMOS technology, developed with a very fast and low noise preamplifier. This prototype was designed to have input impedance below 10W. Measurements showed a peaking time of 14ns and noise of 450e- at zero input capacitance, with a noise slope of 37.4 e-/pF. The sensitivity of 8mV/fC remains almost unchanged up to a detector capacitance of 120pF.

  15. Ideas on DC-DC Converters for Delivery of Low Voltage and High Currents for the SLHC / ILC Detector Electronics in Magnetic field and Radiation environments

    CERN Document Server

    Dhawan, Satish; Neal, H; Sumner, R; Weber, M; Weber, R

    2007-01-01

    For more efficient power transport to the electronics embedded inside large colliding beam detectors, we explore the feasibility of supplying 48 Volts DC and using local DCDC conversion to 2 V (or lower, depending upon on the lithography of the embedded electronics) using switch mode regulators located very close to the front end electronics. These devices will be exposed to high radiation and high magnetic fields, 10 – 100 Mrads and 2 - 4 Tesla at the SLHC, and 20 Krads and 6 Tesla at the ILC.

  16. Monte-Carlo simulations on the antineutrino detection in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zude, E.

    1991-09-01

    Aim of the present thesis was to study, how far a large-area neutron detector with high efficiency operated at the Corporation for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt can also by applied for experiments on the sub-threshold antineutron production in heavy ion reactions for the study of the equation of state of highly excited nuclear matter. The experimental part consisted in the partition at the construction, the taking into operation, and the calibration measurements of the target-detector system, as well at the experiments with the LAND detector for the study of the Coulomb excitation of 136 Xe projectiles in the reaction 136 Xe+ 208 Pb at 700 respectively 800 MeV/u. Studies on the suppression of neutron events against antineutron events in the data acquisition in a typical SIS/LAND experiment on the antineutron production in heavy ion collisions were performed. The possibilities available on the level of the hardware trigger for the suppression of (multiple) neutron events were studied. Thereby resulted a reachable suppression factor of ≅ 10 -3 . Studies on the off-line analysis of antineutron events exhibited problems, which base on the high matter density in the detector. (orig./HSI) [de

  17. Photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF 2 windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission

  18. Shaped detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector or detector array which has a non-constant spatial response, is disclosed individually and in combination with a tomographic scanner. The detector has a first dimension which is oriented parallel to the plane of the scan circle in the scanner. Along the first dimension, the detector is most responsive to radiation received along a centered segment of the dimension and less responsive to radiation received along edge segments. This non-constant spatial response can be achieved in a detector comprised of a scintillation crystal and a photoelectric transducer. The scintillation crystal in one embodiment is composed of three crystals arranged in layers, with the center crystal having the greatest light conversion efficiency. In another embodiment, the crystal is covered with a reflective substance around the center segment and a less reflective substance around the remainder. In another embodiment, an optical coupling which transmits light from adjacent the center segment with the greatest intensity couples the scintillation crystal and the photoelectric transducer. In yet another embodiment, the photoelectric transducer comprises three photodiodes, one receiving light produced adjacent the central segment and the other two receiving light produced adjacent the edge segments. The outputs of the three photodiodes are combined with a differential amplifier

  19. Vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10 -13 s, among them the τ lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

  20. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  1. The Borexino Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, David

    2010-04-01

    The Borexino detector is a large volume liquid scintillator detector for low energy neutrino spetroscopy currently running underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. Main goal of the experiment is the real-time measurement of sub-MeV solar neutrinos, and particularly of the mono-energetic (862KeV) 7Be electron capture neutrinos, via neutrino-electron scattering in ultra-pure liquid scintillator. We report the description of the detector itself from its construction to the final current configuration. The initial requirements are first presented, then the strategy developed to achieve them: choice of materials and components, purification of the scintillator, cleaning, leak tightness, fluid handling. Every single point is analyzed, particularly the purification plants, that allowed reaching an ultra high pure scintillator and the fluid handling system, a large modular system connecting fluid receiving, purification and fluid delivery processes for every fluid involved. The different phases of the filling follow: from air to water to the final liquid scintillator, mainly focusing on the scintillator filling. The performances of the detector and the results are then presented.

  2. Semiconductor Detectors; Detectores de Semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-07-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  3. First charged current data from the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinknecht, K.

    1977-01-01

    The CDHS Collaboration has analyzed data taken in the CERN narrow-band antineutrino and neutrino beams. From 12000 antineutrino and 36000 neutrino charged current events at neutrino energies between 30 GeV and 200 GeV, we obtain the average inelasticity and the cross-section ratio sigma antisub(ν)/sigmasub(ν) as a function of neutrino energy. On the basis of these data we cannot confirm the high y anomaly observed by previous experiments at Fermilab. Instead, the measured average inelasticity in anti neutrino reactions and the ratio of charged current total cross-sections sigma anti sub(ν)/sigma%sub(ν) are compatible with no energy variation within their errors in the energy range 30 + . (orig.) [de

  4. Ionization detectors in environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Ionization detectors (IDs) use the information contained in the radiation-produced ionization current regarding the chemical composition of gas mixtures. The radionuclide radiation sources, 3 H, 55 Fe, 63 Ni, 85 Kr, 90 Sr, 241 Am, are used to produce carriers. Using recombination effects and carrier multiplication by electrical fields the response of IDs can be improved. There are electron capture detectors, cross-section detectors and noble-gas detectors, mainly used in gas chromatographic devices, and continuously working aerosol ionization detectors. Halocarbons, metal chelates, metal organic and inorganic compounds, pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, but also SO 2 , AsH 3 , ClCN, HCN, HF, NH 3 , CO, CO 2 , H 2 O, can be determined within the pp10 9 range. They are used in automatic systems to control air pollution around industrial plants, in hospitals and factories, but also to prevent high levels of pesticides in agriculture products. (author)

  5. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  6. Neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TN; Jardret,; Vincent, D [Powell, TN

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  7. MUST detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The IPN-Orsay, in collaboration with the SPhN-Saclay and the DPTA Bruyeres, has built an array of 8 telescopes based on Si-strip technology for the study of direct reactions induced by radioactive beams. The detectors are described, along with the compact high density VXI electronics and the stand-alone data acquisition system developed in the laboratory. One telescope was tested using an 40 Ar beam and the measured performances are discussed. (authors)

  8. Pixels detectors and silicon X-rays detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Delpierre, P.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are beginning to be used in large particle physics experiments. The hybrid technique (detector and electronics on two separate wafers) allows large surfaces to be built. For ATLAS at LHC it is proposed to cover areas of more than 1 m2 with 5000 to 10000 pixels/cm2. Each pixel has a full electronic chain directly connected which means very low input capacitance and no integration of dark current. Furthermore, silicon strip detectors and CCD's have been successfully test...

  9. A search for muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance in the Booster Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna McConnel [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This dissertation presents a search for vμ and $\\bar{v}$μ disappearance with the MiniBooNE experiment in the Δm2 region of a few eV2. Disappearance measurements in this oscillation region constrain sterile neutrino models and CPT violation in the lepton sector. Fits to the shape of the vμ and $\\bar{v}$μ energy spectra reveal no evidence for disappearance in either mode. This is the first test of $\\bar{v}$μ disappearance between Δm2 = 0.1 - 10 eV2. In addition, prospects for performing a joint analysis using the SciBooNE detector in conjunction with MiniBooNE are discussed.

  10. ACCESS: Detector Control and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (companion poster, Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been selected and integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been successfully performed. Further improvements to the flight controller housing have been made. A cryogenic ground test system has been built. Dark current and read noise tests have been performed, yielding results consistent with the initial characterization tests of the detector performed by Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL). Detector control software has been developed and implemented for ground testing. Performance and integration of the detector and controller with the flight software will be presented. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  11. Thin epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stab, L.

    1989-01-01

    Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported

  12. The neutrino experiment Double Chooz and data analysis with the near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Michael Werner

    2016-03-07

    During the last years there has been a huge progress in the field of neutrino physics. Neutrino oscillations are well established and almost all parameters, except a possible CP-violating phase, are determined to high precision. One experiment providing a precise measurement of the neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} is the Double Chooz reactor antineutrino experiment. The reactor antineutrinos are detected via the inverse beta decay in two identical liquid scintillator based detectors. A few years ago, the value of θ{sub 13} was unknown and only an upper limit existed. Double Chooz was the first reactor antineutrino experiment presenting a result for a nonzero value of θ{sub 13}. The value for sin{sup 2}2θ{sub 13} from the latest Double Chooz publication is 0.090{sup +0.032}{sub -0.029}. As part of this thesis, an infrastructure for filling the Double Chooz near detector was established and 190 m{sup 3} of detector liquids were prepared successfully. The filling process was optimized to allow an efficient filling of the near detector. The total operation time was reduced to only 22 days. Compared to the far detector filling time of 2 months, this is a great improvement. The development of a completely new level measurement system was as well part of this thesis. Due to the excellent performance of the level measurement system, the hard restrictions for the safety of the Double Chooz detector were met during the entire filling process. Several power glitches and network failures did not harm the system and did not result in any loss of data. These irregularities and the simple maintenance and repair possibilities certify the success of the design concept for the new level measurement system. For this thesis, data from the Double Chooz near detector with a total live time of 110.4 days was used. The mass concentrations of uranium and thorium in the near detector were determined using BiPo coincidences. These events originate from the β-decay of {sup 214}Bi and {sup

  13. Spiral biasing adaptor for use in Si drift detectors and Si drift detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-05

    A drift detector array, preferably a silicon drift detector (SDD) array, that uses a low current biasing adaptor is disclosed. The biasing adaptor is customizable for any desired geometry of the drift detector single cell with minimum drift time of carriers. The biasing adaptor has spiral shaped ion-implants that generate the desired voltage profile. The biasing adaptor can be processed on the same wafer as the drift detector array and only one biasing adaptor chip/side is needed for one drift detector array to generate the voltage profiles on the front side and back side of the detector array.

  14. Neutrino scattering off the stable cadmium isotopes: II. Charged-current processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosly, W.; Ydrefors, E.; Suhonen, J.

    2015-09-01

    The present study is a continuation of our previous work (2015 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 42 025106) on neutral-current supernova-neutrino processes in the stable cadmium isotopes. Here we concentrate on the charged-current scattering processes of neutrinos off the stable cadmium isotopes covering an energy range characteristic of supernova neutrinos. As a theory framework we adopt the quasiparticle random-phase approximation in its charge-changing mode (pnQRPA) and the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model to construct the required nuclear wave functions of the odd-odd and odd-even isobars of the stable even-even reference cadmium isotopes, respectively. The cross sections of the charged-current neutrino and antineutrino scatterings off the stable cadmium isotopes are subsequently computed. The nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos are also estimated by folding the cross sections with neutrino-energy spectra including the effects of matter oscillations within an effective two-neutrino framework. The calculations indicate that the folded cross sections have mass-number dependencies that are different for neutrinos and antineutrinos, and that odd-mass nuclei have relatively large cross sections. The matter oscillations affect the cross sections strongly and it is found that the computed averaged cross sections for antineutrinos differ notably for the normal/inverted mass hierarchy. This could have interesting consequences for the experimental solution of the mass-hierarchy problem in future large-scale neutrino telescopes.

  15. STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Vu,Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard; Szelezniak, Michal; Sun, Xiangming

    2008-01-28

    We report on the development and prototyping efforts undertaken with the goal of producing a micro-vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL. We present the basic detector requirements and show a sensor development path, conceptual mechanical design candidates and readout architecture. Prototyping and beam test results with current generation MimoSTAR-2 sensors and a readout system featuring FPGA based on-the-fly hit finding and data sparsification are also presented.

  16. STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard; Szelezniak, Michal; Sun, Xiangming

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development and prototyping efforts undertaken with the goal of producing a micro-vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL. We present the basic detector requirements and show a sensor development path, conceptual mechanical design candidates and readout architecture. Prototyping and beam test results with current generation MimoSTAR-2 sensors and a readout system featuring FPGA based on-the-fly hit finding and data sparsification are also presented

  17. Standardization of detector control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Chikara

    2000-01-01

    Current and future detectors for high-energy and/or nuclear physics experiments require highly intelligent detector control systems. In order to reduce resources, the construction of a standardized template for the control systems based on the commercially available superviser control and data acquisition (SCADA) system has been proposed. The possibility of constructing this template is discussed and several key issues for evaluation of SCADA as the basis for such a template are presented. (author)

  18. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agouridis, D.C.; Fox, R.J.

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semi-conductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  19. Ionizing radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  20. Preparative isolation and purification of five steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright by high-speed counter-current chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Liang, Jinru; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Yongmin; Liu, Jianli; Sun, Wenji

    2013-01-01

    A high-speed counter current chromatography (HSCCC) method was successfully applied to separate and purify steroid saponins from the traditional Chinese medicine Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright for the first time. Ethyl cetate-n-butanol-methanol-water (4:1:2:4, v/v) was used as the two-phase solvent system, and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was used as the detector in this method. The method separated in a single run the following five steroid saponins: 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost- 5-en-3β,22ζ,26-triol-3- O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranol- (1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (Compound A); 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22ζ,26- triol-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (Compound B); 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β, 22ζ, 26-triol- 3-O- [α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (Compound C); 26- O-β-D- glucopyranosyl- (25R)- furost-5, 20(22)-diene-3β, 26-diol-3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1→4)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]}-β-D-glucopyranoside (Compound D); and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5, 20(22)-diene-3β, 26-diol-3 -O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl- (1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (Compound E). Their structural identification of the five steroid saponins was performed by means of ESI-MS, and 13C NMR. PMID:23831486

  1. Workshop on detectors for third-generation synchrotron sources: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The aims of the workshop were (1) to acquaint APS users with current R and D being carried out on detectors, (2) to identify new detector systems possible during the next five years, (3) to identify new detectors theoretically possible in the future, (4) to stimulate interactions between user groups and detector developers, and (5) to obtain recommendations from expert panels on technical issues needing resolution. Development of detectors at ESRF, Spring-8, BNL, CERN and LBL are included

  2. Workshop on detectors for third-generation synchrotron sources: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The aims of the workshop were (1) to acquaint APS users with current R and D being carried out on detectors, (2) to identify new detector systems possible during the next five years, (3) to identify new detectors theoretically possible in the future, (4) to stimulate interactions between user groups and detector developers, and (5) to obtain recommendations from expert panels on technical issues needing resolution. Development of detectors at ESRF, Spring-8, BNL, CERN and LBL are included.

  3. Report of the working group on detector simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.E.; Lebrun, P.

    1986-01-01

    An ad hoc group at Snowmass reviewed the need for detector simulation to support detectors at the SSC. This report first reviews currently available programs for detector simulation, both those written for single specific detectors and those aimed at general utility. It then considers the requirements for detector simulation for the SSC, with particular attention to enhancements that are needed relative to present programs. Finally, a list of recommendations is given.

  4. Report of the working group on detector simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.; Lebrun, P.

    1986-01-01

    An ad hoc group at Snowmass reviewed the need for detector simulation to support detectors at the SSC. This report first reviews currently available programs for detector simulation, both those written for single specific detectors and those aimed at general utility. It then considers the requirements for detector simulation for the SSC, with particular attention to enhancements that are needed relative to present programs. Finally, a list of recommendations is given

  5. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  6. Search for flavour-changing neutral current top-quark decays $t\\to qZ$ in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Afik, Yoav; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akilli, Ece; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Alderweireldt, Sara; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allaire, Corentin; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Álvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amoroso, Simone; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahmani, Marzieh; Bahrasemani, Sina; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; Bakshi Gupta, Debottam; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Bandyopadhyay, Anjishnu; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barkeloo, Jason Tyler Colt; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bauer, Kevin Thomas; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Beck, Helge Christoph; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Bergsten, Laura Jean; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Betti, Alessandra; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolz, Arthur Eugen; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Bonilla, Johan Sebastian; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozson, Adam James; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Braren, Frued; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Bruno, Salvatore; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burch, Tyler James; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Buschmann, Eric; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cai, Huacheng; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrá, Sonia; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casha, Albert Francis; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, David; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jue; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgeniya; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Kingman; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Yun Sang; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioară, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Corradi, Massimo; Corrigan, Eric Edward; Corriveau, François; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czekierda, Sabina; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Eramo, Louis; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dahbi, Salah-eddine; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Daneri, Maria Florencia; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Dann, Nick; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davis, Douglas; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Dickinson, Jennet; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobre, Monica; Dodsworth, David; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dreyer, Etienne; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Dubinin, Filipp; Dubreuil, Arnaud; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dülsen, Carsten; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duperrin, Arnaud; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Duvnjak, Damir; Dyndal, Mateusz; Dziedzic, Bartosz Sebastian; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Epland, Matthew Berg; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Estrada Pastor, Oscar; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Fabiani, Veronica; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Minyu; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Fomin, Nikolai; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Förster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Spolidoro Freund, Werner; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; García Pascual, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gessner, Gregor; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiacomi, Nico; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; Gonnella, Francesco; Gonski, Julia; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gottardo, Carlo Alberto; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Goy, Corinne; Gozani, Eitan; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Graham, Emily Charlotte; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guerguichon, Antinea; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gugel, Ralf; Gui, Bin; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gurbuz, Saime; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutelman, Benjamin Jacque; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Kunlin; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handl, David Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hankache, Robert; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Eva; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heer, Sebastian; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herr, Holger; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hildebrand, Kevin; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Hohov, Dmytro; Holmes, Tova Ray; Holzbock, Michael; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hostiuc, Alexandru; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Huhtinen, Mika; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Huo, Peng; Hupe, Andre Marc; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Hyneman, Rachel; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Iltzsche, Franziska; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jäkel, Gunnar; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanjir, Luka; Kano, Yuya; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kellermann, Edgar; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kiehn, Moritz; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitali, Vincent; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klitzner, Felix Fidelio; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Konya, Balazs; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; La Ruffa, Francesco; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lack, David Philip John; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Jörn Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Tak Shun; Laudrain, Antoine; Laurelli, Paolo; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Les, Robert; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Quanyin; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Chiao-ying; Lin, Kuan-yu; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linck, Rebecca Anne; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jesse; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lutz, Margaret Susan; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyu, Feng; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Madysa, Nico; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magerl, Veronika; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majersky, Oliver; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mankinen, Katja Hannele; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mason, Lara Hannan; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Thomas; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McNicol, Christopher John; McPherson, Robert; Meadows, Zachary Alden; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Melzer, Alexander; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Merlassino, Claudia; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Millar, Declan Andrew; Miller, David; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirto, Alessandro; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murray, Bill; Muškinja, Miha; Mwewa, Chilufya; Myagkov, Alexey; Myers, John; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Ng, Sam Yanwing; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nitsche, Isabel; Nitta, Tatsumi; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Novotny, Radek; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Connor, Kelsey; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, Jason; Olsson, Joakim; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oppen, Henrik; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orgill, Emily Claire; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Peri, Francesco; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Pham, Thu; Phillips, Forrest Hays; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pitt, Michael; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggi, Riccardo; Poggioli, Luc; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Pohl, David-leon; Pokharel, Ishan; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Ponomarenko, Daniil; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Portillo Quintero, Dilia María; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potti, Harish; Poulsen, Trine; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proklova, Nadezda; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Radeka, Veljko; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rashid, Tasneem; Raspopov, Sergii; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ripellino, Giulia; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivera Vergara, Juan Cristobal; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocco, Elena; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Rodríguez Vera, Ana María; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Röhrig, Rainer; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Roy, Debarati; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Rüttinger, Elias Michael; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sampsonidou, Despoina; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Christian Oliver; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sano, Yuta; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawada, Ryu; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schenck, Ferdinand; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Enrico Junior; Schioppa, Marco; Schleicher, Katharina; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scornajenghi, Matteo; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Scyboz, Ludovic Michel; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Severini, Horst; Šfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherafati, Nima; Sherman, Alexander David; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shipsey, Ian Peter Joseph; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silva Jr, Manuel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffa, Aaron Michael; Soffer, Abner; Søgaard, Andreas; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Weimin; Sopczak, Andre; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Sottocornola, Simone; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapf, Birgit Sylvia; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Stegler, Martin; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Thomas James; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultan, D M S; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sydorenko, Alexander; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Tahirovic, Elvedin; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takasugi, Eric Hayato; Takeda, Kosuke; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Alan James; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thais, Savannah Jennifer; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thiele, Fabian; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tian, Yun; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Todt, Stefanie; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsang, Ka Wa; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Uno, Kenta; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vadla, Knut Oddvar Hoie; Vaidya, Amal; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valente, Marco; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valéry, Loïc; Vallier, Alexis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Furelos, David; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Ambrosius Thomas; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; von Buddenbrock, Stefan; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakamiya, Kotaro; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Ann Miao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Sebastian Mario; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weirich, Marcel; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Weston, Thomas; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Aaron; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Whitmore, Ben William; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkels, Emma; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Anton; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Vincent Wai Sum; Woods, Natasha Lee; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Xu, Tairan; Xu, Wenhao; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yajima, Kazuki; Yallup, David; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamane, Fumiya; Yamatani, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Siqi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemaityte, Gabija; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, You; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2018-01-01

    AA search for flavour-changing neutral-current processes in top-quark decays is presented. Data collected with the ATLAS detector from proton--proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb$^{-1}$, are analysed. The search is performed using top-quark pair events, with one top quark decaying through the $t\\rightarrow qZ$ $(q = u, c)$ flavour-changing neutral-current channel, and the other through the dominant Standard Model mode $t\\rightarrow bW$. Only $Z$ boson decays into charged leptons and leptonic $W$ boson decays are considered as signal. Consequently, the final-state topology is characterized by the presence of three isolated charged leptons (electrons or muons) and at least two jets, one of the jets originating from a $b$-quark. The data are consistent with Standard Model background contributions, and at 95\\% confidence level the search sets observed (expected) upper limits of $1.7\\times10^{-4}$...

  7. Radiation emitter-detector package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.T.; Limm, A.C.; Nyul, P.; Tassia, V.S. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Mounted on the metallic base of a radiation emitter-detector is a mounting block is a first projection, and a second projection. A radiation detector is on the first projection and a semiconductor electroluminescent device, i.e., a radiation emitter, is on the second projection such that the plane of the recombination region of the electroluminescent device is perpendicular to the radiation incident surface of the radiation detector. The electroluminescent device has a primary emission and a secondary emission in a direction different from the primary emission. A radiation emitter-detector package as described is ideally suited to those applications wherein the secondary radiation of the electroluminescent device is fed into a feedback circuit regulating the biasing current of the electroluminescent device

  8. Measurement of Charged Current Coherent Pion Production by Neutrinos on Carbon at MINER$\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mislivec, Aaron Robert [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus coherent pion production is a rare neutrino scattering process where the squared four-momentum transferred to the nucleus is small, a lepton and pion are produced in the forward direction, and the nucleus remains in its initial state. This process is an important background in neutrino oscillation experiments. Measurements of coherent pion production are needed to constrain models which are used to predict coherent pion production in oscillation experiments. This thesis reports measurements of νµ and νµ charged current coherent pion production on carbon for neutrino energies in the range 2 < Eν < 20 GeV. The measurements were made using data from MINERνA, which is a dedicated neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment that uses a fi scintillator tracking detector in the high-intensity NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. Coherent interactions were isolated from the data using only model-independent signatures of the reaction, which are a forward muon and pion, no evidence of nuclear breakup, and small four-momentum transfer to the nucleus. The measurements were compared to the coherent pion production model used by oscillation experiments. The data and model agree in the total interaction rate and are similar in the dependence of the interaction rate on the squared four- momentum transferred from the neutrino. The data and model disagree significantly in the pion kinematics. The measured νµ and νµ interaction rates are consistent, which supports model predictions that the neutrino and antineutrino interaction rates are equal.

  9. Signal development in irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kramberger, Gregor; Mikuz, Marko

    2001-01-01

    This work provides a detailed study of signal formation in silicon detectors, with the emphasis on detectors with high concentration of irradiation induced defects in the lattice. These defects give rise to deep energy levels in the band gap. As a consequence, the current induced by charge motion in silicon detectors is signifcantly altered. Within the framework of the study a new experimental method, Charge correction method, based on transient current technique (TCT) was proposed for determination of effective electron and hole trapping times in irradiated silicon detectors. Effective carrier trapping times were determined in numerous silicon pad detectors irradiated with neutrons, pions and protons. Studied detectors were fabricated on oxygenated and non-oxygenated silicon wafers with different bulk resistivities. Measured effective carrier trapping times were found to be inversely proportional to fuence and increase with temperature. No dependence on silicon resistivity and oxygen concentration was observ...

  10. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2013-01-01

    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  11. Neutron detector with monitoring elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, P.

    1976-01-01

    To check the reliable reading of a neutron detector the signal of which results from (n,e) processes and which is used for neutron flux supervision in the reactor core of pressurized-water reactors, a circuit is given which makes it possible to record the isolation resistivity of the cable connected to the input of the current amplifier and of the neutron detector, this resistivity determining, among others, the output signal. For supervision, the input offset voltage of the current amplifier is modulated by a low-frequency ac voltage and a filter is assigned to the output of an op amplifier, this filter feeding a limiting value recorder. (ORU) [de

  12. Calibration of detector efficiency of neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongsheng; He Xijun; Xu Rongkun; Peng Taiping

    2001-01-01

    BF 3 neutron detector has been set up. Detector efficiency is calibrated by associated particle technique. It is about 3.17 x 10 -4 (1 +- 18%). Neutron yield of neutron generator per pulse (10 7 /pulse) is measured by using the detector

  13. Test Plan for Cask Identification Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This document serves to outline the testing of a Used Fuel Cask Identification Detector (CID) currently being designed under the DOE-NE MPACT Campaign. A bench-scale prototype detector will be constructed and tested using surrogate neutron sources. The testing will serve to inform the design of the full detector that is to be used as a way of fingerprinting used fuel storage casks based on the neutron signature produced by the used fuel inside the cask.

  14. New Detector Development for X-ray Astronomy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We propose to continue our detector development program in X-ray astronomy. Under our current grant we are developing a new type of active pixel detector. The...

  15. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

  16. Thermal noise reduction for present and future gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, P.; Bosi, L.; Gammaitoni, L.; Losurdo, G.; Marchesoni, F.; Mazzoni, M.; Punturo, M. E-mail: michele.punturo@pg.infn.it; Stanga, R.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Travasso, F.; Vetrano, F.; Vocca, H

    2004-02-01

    Thermal noise in mirror suspension is and will be the most severe fundamental limit to the low-frequency sensitivity of interferometric gravitational wave detectors currently under construction. The technical solutions, adopted in the Virgo detector, optimize the current suspension scheme, but new materials and new designs are needed to further reduce the suspension thermal noise. Silicon fibers are promising candidates both for room temperature advanced detectors and for future cryogenic interferometric detectors.

  17. Neutron detector cable monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, P.

    1976-01-01

    In a neutron detector connected by a cable with a current amplifier for the signal based on (n,e)-processes, any change in the insulation resistance of the cable is monitored by means of an a-c voltage which is super-imposed on the offset voltage of the amplifier. The resistance-dependent a-c variable at the output of the amplifier, is used to make a limit indicator respond via a connected filter. The invention is of importance particularly for monitoring the internal core instrumentation of pressurized-water reactors

  18. Search for flavour-changing neutral current top quark decays $t\\to Hq$ in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-12-10

    A search for flavour-changing neutral current decays of a top quark to an up-type quark ($q=u, c$) and the Standard Model Higgs boson, where the Higgs boson decays to $b\\bar{b}$, is presented. The analysis searches for top quark pair events in which one top quark decays to $Wb$, with the $W$ boson decaying leptonically, and the other top quark decays to $Hq$. The search is based on $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV recorded in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and uses an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$. Data are analysed in the lepton-plus-jets final state, characterised by an isolated electron or muon and at least four jets. The search exploits the high multiplicity of $b$-quark jets characteristic of signal events, and employs a likelihood discriminant that uses the kinematic differences between the signal and the background, which is dominated by $t\\bar{t} \\to WbWb$ decays. No significant excess of events above the background expectation is found, and observed (expec...

  19. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

  20. New class of neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirr, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    An optimized neutron scattering instrument design must include all significant components, including the detector. For example, useful beam intensity is limited by detector dead time; detector pixel size determines the optimum beam diameter, sample size, and sample to detector distance; and detector efficiency vs. wavelength determines the available energy range. As an example of the next generation of detectors that could affect overall instrumentation design, we will describe a new scintillator material that is potentially superior to currently available scintillators. We have grown and tested several small, single crystal scintillators based upon the general class of cerium-activated lithium lanthanide borates. The outstanding characteristic of these materials is the high scintillation efficiency-as much as five times that of Li-glass scintillators. This increase in light output permits the practical use of the exothermic B (n, alpha) reaction for low energy neutron detection. This reaction provides a four-fold increase in capture cross section relative to the Li (n, alpha) reaction, and the intriguing possibility of demanding a charged-particle/gamma ray coincidence to reduce background detection rates. These new materials will be useful in the thermal and epithermal energy ran at reactors and pulsed neutron sources

  1. Multi-sensor radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.G.; Cyboron, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    The invention is a multi-sensor radiation detection system including a self-powered detector and an ion or fission chamber, preferably joined as a unitary structure, for removable insertion into a nuclear reactor. The detector and chamber are connected electrically in parallel, requiring but two conductors extending out of the reactor to external electrical circuitry which includes a load impedance, a voltage source, and switch means. The switch means are employed to alternately connect the detector and chamber either with th load impedance or with the load impedance and the voltage source. In the former orientation, current through the load impedance indicates flux intensity at the self-powered detector and in the latter orientation, the current indicates flux intensity at the detector and fission chamber, though almost all of the current is contributed by the fission chamber. (auth)

  2. Neutron energy response measurement of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongqiong; Peng Taiping; Yang Jianlun; Tang Zhengyuan; Yang Gaozhao; Li Linbo; Hu Mengchun; Wang Zhentong; Zhang Jianhua; Li Zhongbao; Wang Lizong

    2004-01-01

    Neutron sensitivities of detectors composed of plastic scintillator ST401, ST1422, ST1423 and phyotomultiplier tube in primary energy range of fission neutron are calibrated by direct current. The energy response curve of the detectors is obtained in this experiment. The experimental result has been compared with the theoretical calculation and they are in agreement within measuring uncertainty. (authors)

  3. The GRANDE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Bond, R.; Coleman, L.; Rollefson, A.; Wold, D.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, H.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Wilson, C.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a detector facility which meets the requirements outlined above for a next-generation instrument. GRANDE (Gamma Ray and Neutrino DEtector) is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. (orig.)

  4. Using Nucleon Multiplicities to Analyze Anti-Neutrino Interactions with Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, Miranda J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The most commonly used, simple interaction models have not accurately described the nuclear effects on either neutrino-nucleus or anti-neutrino-nucleus interactions. Comparison of data collected by the MINERvA experiment and these models shows a discrepancy in the reconstructed hadronic energy distribution at momentum transfers below 0.8 GeV. Two nuclear model effects that were previously not modeled are possible culprits of this discrepancy. The first is known as random-phase-approximation and the second is the addition of a meson exchange current process, also known as two-particle two-hole due to its result in two particles leaving the nucleus with two holes left in their place. For the first time a neutron counting software algorithm has been created and used to compare the multiplicity and spatial distributions of neutrons between the simulation and data. There is localized sensitivity to the RPA and 2p2h effects and both help the simulation better describe the data. Ad ditional systematic or model effects are present which cause the simulation to overproduce neutrons, and potential causes are discussed.

  5. Scintillating optical fiber detectors for DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendali, M.; Mastrippolito, R.; Charon, Y.; Leblanc, M.; Tricoire, H.; Valentin, L. (Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France) Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, Univ. Paris 7, 75 (France)); Martin, B. (Lab. de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1991-12-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional detector (SOFI) for {sup 32}P emitting molecules used in molecular biology by combining scinitillating optical fibers (SOFs) and a multianode photomultiplier (MAPM). A good efficiency (15%) was obtained by suppressing the internal cross talk of the MAPM with a new electronic device. Using this improvement we are developing two new detectors using SOFs for DNA sequencing. We shall present the basic principle of these detectors and the results in efficiency and position accuracy obtained with the first prototypes. The advantage of these detectors over currently available DNA sequencers will be discussed. (orig.).

  6. Status of the ATLAS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra Aldo, F

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is currently being constructed and will be installed in 2006 to be ready for commissioning at the Large Hadron Collider. The complete pixel detector is composed of three concentric barrels and six disks that are populated by 1744 ATLAS Pixel modules. The main components of the pixel module are the readout electronics and the silicon sensor whose active region is instrumented with rectangular pixels. The module has been designed to be able to survive 10 years of operation within the ATLAS detector. A brief description of the pixel detector will be presented with results and problems encountered during the production stage.

  7. Development of innovative silicon radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Balbuena, JuanPablo

    Silicon radiation detectors fabricated at the IMB-CNM (CSIC) Clean Room facilities using the most innovative techniques in detector technology are presented in this thesis. TCAD simulation comprises an important part in this work as becomes an essential tool to achieve exhaustive performance information of modelled detectors prior their fabrication and subsequent electrical characterization. Radiation tolerance is also investigated in this work using TCAD simulations through the potential and electric field distributions, leakage current and capacitance characteristics and the response of the detectors to the pass of different particles for charge collection efficiencies. Silicon detectors investigated in this thesis were developed for specific projects but also for applications in experiments which can benefit from their improved characteristics, as described in Chapter 1. Double-sided double type columns 3D (3D-DDTC) detectors have been developed under the NEWATLASPIXEL project in the framework of the CERN ...

  8. Evidence for neutral neutrino current coupling to right-handed quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaby, J.V.; Amaldi, U.; Barbiellini, G.; Baubillier, M.; Bergsma, F.; Capone, A.; Flegel, W.; Lanceri, L.; Metcalf, M.; Nieuwenhuis, C.; Pain, R.; Panman, J.; Winter, K.; Abt, I.; Blobel, V.; Buengener, A.; Buesser, F.W.; Gall, P.D.; Hebbeker, T.; Niebergall, F.; Staehelin, P.; Borgia, B.; Diemoz, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dore, U.; Ferroni, F.; Longo, E.; Loverre, P.F.; Luminari, L.; Monacelli, P.; Morganti, S.; De Notaristefani, F.; Santacesaria, R.; Santoni, C.; Rome-1 Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Differential cross sections dσ/dy have been measured in semileptonic neutral- and charged-current reactions induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos. The comparison of the neutral- and the charged-current differential cross sections allows the direct determination of the chiral coupling of the neutral (νanti ν) current to left- and right-handed quarks. The result, with a value of g R 2 =0.042±0.010, is the first direct determination, with a significance of more than four standard deviations, of a non-zero value of g R . (orig.)

  9. Signal generation in gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillman, A.

    1993-01-01

    This tutorial describes the generation of electrical signals in gas detectors. Ionization of the gas by the passage of charged particles generates these signals. Starting with the Bethe-Bloch equation, the treatment is a general introduction to the production of ion-pairs in gas devices. I continue with the characterization of the ionization as an electrical signal, and calculate the signal current in a simple example. Another example demonstrates the effect of space charge on the design of a detector. The AGS Booster ionization profile monitor is a model for this calculation

  10. Signal generation in gas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillman, A.

    1993-11-01

    This tutorial describes the generation of electrical signals in gas detectors. Ionization of the gas by the passage of charged particles generates these signals. Starting with the Bethe-Bloch equation, the treatment is a general introduction to the production of ion-pairs in gas devices. I continue with the characterization of the ionization as an electrical signal, and calculate the signal current in a simple example. Another example demonstrates the effect of space charge on the design of a detector. The AGS Booster ionization profile monitor is a model for this calculation.

  11. The Super-Kamiokande detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichihara, E.; Ishitsuka, M.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Namba, T.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Oketa, M.; Okumura, K.; Oyabu, T.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Toshito, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Desai, S.; Earl, M.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Masuzawa, M.; Messier, M.D.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.W.; Wang, W.; Scholberg, K.; Barszczak, T.; Casper, D.; Liu, D.W.; Gajewski, W.; Halverson, P.G.; Hsu, J.; Kropp, W.R.; Mine, S.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.W.; Vagins, M.R.; Ganezer, K.S.; Keig, W.E.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Tasaka, S.; Flanagan, J.W.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V.J.; Hayato, Y.; Ishii, T.; Ichikawa, A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Maruyama, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O.; Echigo, S.; Iwashita, T.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A.T.; Hasegawa, M.; Inagaki, T.; Kato, I.; Maesaka, H.; Nakaya, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Haines, T.J.; Kim, B.K.; Sanford, R.; Svoboda, R.; Blaufuss, E.; Chen, M.L.; Conner, Z.; Goodman, J.A.; Guillian, E.; Sullivan, G.W.; Turcan, D.; Habig, A.; Ackerman, M.; Goebel, F.; Hill, J.; Jung, C.K.; Kato, T.; Kerr, D.; Malek, M.; Martens, K.; Mauger, C.; McGrew, C.; Sharkey, E.; Viren, B.; Yanagisawa, C.; Doki, W.; Inaba, S.; Ito, K.; Kirisawa, M.; Kitaguchi, M.; Mitsuda, C.; Miyano, K.; Saji, C.; Takahata, M.; Takahashi, M.; Higuchi, K.; Kajiyama, Y.; Kusano, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Nitta, K.; Takita, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshida, M.; Kim, H.I.; Kim, S.B.; Yoo, J.; Okazawa, H.; Etoh, M.; Fujita, K.; Gando, Y.; Hasegawa, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Iwamoto, T.; Koga, M.; Nishiyama, I.; Ogawa, H.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takayama, T.; Tsushima, F.; Koshiba, M.; Ichikawa, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hatakeyama, Y.; Koike, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Nemoto, M.; Nishijima, K.; Takeda, H.; Fujiyasu, H.; Futagami, T.; Ishino, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Morii, M.; Nishihama, H.; Nishimura, H.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Kielczewska, D.; Golebiewska, U.; Berns, H.G.; Boyd, S.B.; Doyle, R.A.; George, J.S.; Stachyra, A.L.; Wai, L.L.; Wilkes, R.J.; Young, K.K.; Kobayashi, H.

    2003-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting stringent limits on nucleon decay. In this paper, we describe the detector in detail, including its site, configuration, data acquisition equipment, online and offline software, and calibration systems which were used during Super-Kamiokande I

  12. Low-temperature tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, T O; Anbinderis, P; Anbinderis, T; D'Ambrosio, N; de Boer, Wim; Borchi, E; Borer, K; Bruzzi, M; Buontempo, S; Chen, W; Cindro, V; Dezillie, B; Dierlamm, A; Eremin, V; Gaubas, E; Gorbatenko, V; Granata, V; Grigoriev, E; Grohmann, S; Hauler, F; Heijne, Erik H M; Heising, S; Hempel, O; Herzog, R; Härkönen, J; Ilyashenko, Yu S; Janos, S; Jungermann, L; Kalesinskas, V; Kapturauskas, J; Laiho, R; Li, Z; Luukka, Panja; Mandic, I; De Masi, R; Menichelli, D; Mikuz, M; Militaru, O; Nüssle, G; O'Shea, V; Pagano, S; Paul, S; Perea-Solano, B; Piotrzkowski, K; Pirollo, S; Pretzl, K; Rahman, M; Rato-Mendes, P; Rouby, X; Ruggiero, G; Smith, K; Sousa, P; Tuominen, E; Tuovinen, E; Vaitkus, J; Verbitskaya, E; Da Vià, C; Vlasenko, L; Vlasenko, M; Wobst, E; Zavrtanik, M

    2004-01-01

    RD39 collaboration develops new detector techniques for particle trackers, which have to withstand fluences up to 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -2 / of high-energy particles. The work focuses on the optimization of silicon detectors and their readout electronics while keeping the temperature as a free parameter. Our results so far suggest that the best operating temperature is around 130 K. We shall also describe in this paper how the current-injected mode of operation reduces the polarization of the bulk silicon at low temperatures, and how the engineering and materials problems related with vacuum and low temperature can be solved. (9 refs).

  13. Silicon Detector Letter of Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, H.; Burrows, P.; Oreglia, M.

    2010-05-26

    This document presents the current status of SiD's effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R&D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

  14. Upgrade of ATLAS ITk Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenges to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with an entirely-silicon inner tracker (ITk) which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation levels are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors and low mass global and local support structures. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the ITk ATLAS Pixel detector developments as well as different layout options will be reviewed.

  15. High-speed counter-current chromatography coupled online to high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry for purification, analysis and identification of target compounds from natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuejuan; Zhang, Yuping; Chen, Wei; Cai, Ping; Zhang, Shuihan; Chen, Xiaoqin; Shi, Shuyun

    2015-03-13

    A challenge in coupling high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) online with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for purity analysis was their time incompatibility. Consequently, HSCCC-HPLC was conducted by either controlling HPLC analysis time and HSCCC flow rate or using stop-and-go scheme. For natural products containing compounds with a wide range of polarities, the former would optimize experimental conditions, while the latter required more time. Here, a novel HSCCC-HPLC-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (HSCCC-HPLC-DAD-MS) was developed for undisrupted purification, analysis and identification of multi-compounds from natural products. Two six-port injection valves and a six-port switching valve were used as interface for collecting key HSCCC effluents alternatively for HPLC-DAD-MS analysis and identification. The ethyl acetate extract of Malus doumeri was performed on the hyphenated system to verify its efficacy. Five main flavonoids, 3-hydroxyphloridzin (1), phloridzin (2), 4',6'-dihydroxyhydrochalcone-2'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, first found in M. doumeri), phloretin (4), and chrysin (5), were purified with purities over 99% by extrusion elution and/or stepwise elution mode in two-step HSCCC, and 25mM ammonium acetate solution was selected instead of water to depress emulsification in the first HSCCC. The online system shortened manipulation time largely compared with off-line analysis procedure and stop-and-go scheme. The results indicated that the present method could serve as a simple, rapid and effective way to achieve target compounds with high purity from natural products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phase Detector for Power-Factor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Positive feedback assures reliable switching. Three Phase Power Factor Controller includes three phase detectors, each produces rectangular waves of duration approximately equal to lag time between line voltage and motor current.

  17. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M

    2002-01-01

    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  18. Semiconductor radiation detectors. Device physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, G. [Max-Planck-Institutes for Physics and Extraterrestrial Physics, Muenchen (Germany). Semiconductor Lab.

    2007-07-01

    Starting from basic principles, the author, whose own contributions to these developments have been significant, describes the rapidly growing field of modern semiconductor detectors used for energy and position measurement radiation. This development was stimulated by requirements in elementary particle physics where it has led to important scientific discoveries. It has now spread to many other fields of science and technology. The book is written in a didactic way and includes an introduction to semiconductor physics. The working principles of semiconductor radiation detectors are explained in an intuitive way, followed by formal quantitative analysis. Broad coverage is also given to electronic signal readout and to the subject of radiation damage. The book is the first to comprehensively cover the semiconductor radiation detectors currently in use. It is useful as a teaching guide and as a reference work for research and applications. (orig.)

  19. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  20. The CMS Detector Power System

    CERN Document Server

    Lusin, S

    2008-01-01

    The power system for the on-detector electronics of the CMS Experiment comprises approximately 12000 low voltage channels, with a total power requirement of 1.1 MVA. The radiation environment inside the CMS experimental cavern combined with an ambient magnetic field (reaching up to 1.3 kGauss at the detector periphery) severely limit the available choices of low voltage supplies, effectively ruling out the use of commercial off-the-shelf DC power supplies. Typical current requirements at the CMS detector front end range from 1A-30A per channel at voltages ranging between 1.25V and 8V. This requires in turn that the final stage of the low voltage power supply be located on the detector periphery. Power to the CMS front-end electronics is stabilized by a 2 MVA uninterruptible power supply (UPS) located in a CMS surface building. This UPS isolates the CMS detector from disturbances on the local power grid and provides for 2 minutes of autonomy following a power failure, allowing for an orderly shutdown of detect...

  1. Neutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic interactions measurement in MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevalov, Denis [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) was designed to search for vμ → ve neutrino oscillations at Δm2 ~ 1 eV2 using an intense neutrino flux with an average energy Ev ~ 700 MeV. From 2002 to 2009 MiniBooNE has accumulated more than 1.0 x 1021 protons on target (POT) in both neutrino and antineutrino modes. MiniBooNE provides a perfect platform for detailed measurements of exclusive and semiinclusive neutrino cross-sections, for which MiniBooNE has the largest samples of events up to date, such as neutral current elastic (NCE), neutral current π0, charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE), charged current π+, and other channels. These measured cross-sections, in turn, allow to improve the knowledge of nucleon structure. This thesis is devoted to the study of NCE interactions. Neutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic scattering (vN → vN) accounts for about 18% of all neutrino interactions in MiniBooNE. Using a high-statistics, high purity sample of NCE interactions in MiniBooNE, the flux-averaged NCE differential cross-section has been measured and is being reported here. Further study of the NCE cross-section allowed for probing the structure of nuclei. The main interest in the NCE cross-section is that it may be sensitive to the strange quark contribution to the nucleon spin, Δs, this however requires a separation of NCE proton (vp → vp) from NCE neutron (vn → vn) events, which in general is a challenging task. MiniBooNE uses a Cherenkov detector, which imposes restrictions on the measured nucleon kinematic variables, mainly due to the impossibility to reconstruct the nucleon direction below the Cherenkov threshold. However, at kinetic energies above this threshold MiniBooNE is able to identify NCE proton events that do not experience final state interactions (FSI). These events were used for the Δs measurement. In this thesis

  2. Fabrication, Quality Assurance, and Quality Control for PROSPECT Detector Component Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Ian; Prospect (The Precision Reactor Oscillation; Spectrum Experiment) Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) is an electron antineutrino (νe) detector intended to make a precision measurement of the 235U neutrino spectrum and to search for the possible existence of sterile neutrinos with a mass splitting of Δm2 on the order of 1 eV2 . As a short baseline detector, PROSPECT will be located less than 10 meters from the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As PROSPECT intends to search for baseline-dependent oscillations, physical segmentation is needed to better measure the interaction position. PROSPECT will therefore be a segmented detector in two dimensions, thereby improving position measurements. PROSPECT will be segmented into 154 (11×14) 1.2-meter long rectangular tubes, using optical separators. Each separator will consist of a carbon fiber core, laminated with optical reflector (to increase light collection) and Teflon (to ensure compatibility with the scintillator). These optical separators will be held in place via strings of 3D printed PLA rods called `pinwheels.' This poster discusses the fabrication and quality assurance (QA) procedures used in the production of both the PROSPECT optical separators and pinwheels. For the PROSPECT collaboration.

  3. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  4. Radiation damage in silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, Mara

    2000-01-01

    This work presents an overview of the most important mechanisms of radiation damage in silicon detectors to be used for high energy experiments in LHC. The changes in the shallow concentration have been studied by Thermally Stimulated Currents (TSC) after proton and neutron irradiation with fluences up to 1015 cm-2 to investigate the role of thermal donors and the donor-removal effect in standard and oxygen enriched silicon with different resistivities. Deep defects in irradiated silicon have been analysed by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy (P1CTS) in the same materials. The radiation-induced microscopic disorder has been related with the carrier transport properties of irradiated silicon measured by Hall effect, by capacitance and current vs. voltage characteristics and with charge collection efficiency. The dependence of the irradiated silicon detectors performances on crystal orientation, on incident particle type and on the starting concentration o...

  5. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli

    During the last 3 months the RPC group has made impressive improvements in the refinement of the operation tools and understanding of the detector. The full barrel and part of the plus end cap participated systematically to global runs producing millions of trigger on cosmics. The main monitoring tools were robust and efficient in controlling the detector and in diagnosis of problems. After the refinement of the synchronization procedure, detailed studies of the chamber performances, as a function of high voltage and front-end threshold, were pursued. In parallel, new tools for the prompt analysis were developed which have enabled a fast check of the data at the CMS Centre. This effort has been very valuable since it has helped in discovering many minor bugs in the reconstruction software and database which are now being fixed. Unfortunately, a large part of the RE2 station has developed increasing operational current. Some preliminary investigation leads to the conclusion that the serial gas circulation e...

  6. A new measurement of the ratio of the cross sections of muon-neutrino and muon-antineutrino scattering on electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, F.; Dorenbosch, J.; Allaby, J.V.; Amaldi, U.; Barbiellini, G.; Baubillier, M.; Busi, C.; Flegel, W.; Grancagnolo, F.; Lanceri, L.; Metcalf, M.; Nieuwenhuis, C.; Panman, J.; Plunkett, R.; Santoni, C.; Winter, K.; Abt, I.; Aspiazu, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Daumann, H.; Gall, P.D.; Hebbeker, T.; Niebergall, F.; Schuett, P.; Staehelin, P.; Barone, L.; Borgia, B.; Capone, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dore, U.; Ferroni, F.; Longo, E.; Luminari, L.; Monacelli, P.; Notaristefani, F. de; Rome Univ.; Morganti, S.; Valente, V.

    1984-01-01

    A new experimental determination of the electro-weak mixing angle thetasub(W) is reported based on a second exposure of the CHARM calorimeter to the CERN-SPS wide-band beam. The ratio R of muon-neutrino- and muon-antineutrino-electron scattering cross sections has been determined from a sample of 37+-10 and 35+-10 events. The experimental result is R=1.26 (+0.72-0.45), corresponding to a value of sin 2 thetasub(W)=0.216+-0.055. The total sample of events collected in the CHARM calorimeter during the two exposures is (83+-16)νsub(μ)e events and (112+-21)anti νsub(μ)e events, leading to the final result sin 2 thetasub(W)=0.215+-0.032. The systematic error is estimated to be +-0.012. (orig.)

  7. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  8. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force ...

  9. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  10. Thermal kinetic inductance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Thomas; Gades, Lisa; Miceli, Antonio; Quaranta, Orlando

    2016-12-20

    A microcalorimeter for radiation detection that uses superconducting kinetic inductance resonators as the thermometers. The detector is frequency-multiplexed which enables detector systems with a large number of pixels.

  11. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2011-01-01

    The CSC detector continued to operate well during the March-June 2011 period. As the luminosity has climbed three orders of magnitude, the currents drawn in the CSC high-voltage system have risen correspondingly, and the current trip thresholds have been increased from 1 μA to 5 μA (and 20 in ME1/1 chambers). A possible concern is that a long-lasting and undesirable corona is capable of drawing about 1 μA, and thus may not be detected by causing current trips; on the other hand it is easily dealt with by cycling HV when detected. To better handle coronas, software is being developed to better detect them, although a stumbling block is the instability of current measurements in some of the channels of the CAEN supplies used in ME1/1. A survey of other issues faced by the CSC Operations team was discussed at the 8th June 2011 CSC Operations/DPG meeting (Rakness). The most important issues, i.e. those that have caused a modest amount of downtime, are all being actively addressed. These are:...

  12. Does radiation improve silicon detectors?

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, P; Cheremuhin, A E; Golutvin, I A; Zamiatin, N I

    2000-01-01

    Sensors designed for the CMS preshower detector were irradiated with protons and neutrons to fluences equivalent up to 2*10/sup 14/ n/cm /sup 2/. The leakage current and the capacitance as well as the charge collection efficiency and the noise were measured, before and after the irradiation, for most of the detectors. We noticed, that for some detectors of a lower quality, the breakdown voltage increases after type inversion and that their leakage current, charge collection efficiency and noise are comparable to good detectors. We explain this phenomenon by two effects: a change of the distribution of the electric field and a decrease of the carrier lifetime. Defects on the p-side do much less harm after type inversion, because the maximum of the E-field is now on the n-side. Defects on the n-side still generate charge carriers, but their lifetime is much shorter and most of them recombine before reaching by diffusion the space charge volume. The article presents the measurements of the breakdown voltage, the...

  13. Does radiation improve silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, P; Golutvin, I A; Peisert, Anna; Zamiatin, N I

    1999-01-01

    Sensors designed for the CMS Preshower detector were irradiated with protons and neutrons to fluences equivalent up to 2x10^14 n/cm^2. The leakage current and the capacitance as well as the charge collection efficiency and the noise were measured, before and after the irradiation, for most of the detectors. We noticed, that for some detectors of a lower quality, the breakdown voltage increases after type inversion and that their leakage current, charge collection efficiency and noise are comparable to good detectors. We explain this phenomenon by two effects: a change of the distribution of the electric field and a decrease of the carriers lifetime. Defects on the p-side do much less harm after type inversion, because the maximum of the E-field is now on the n-side. Defects on the n-side still generate charge carriers, but their lifetime is much shorter and most of them recombine beforereaching by diffusion the space charge volume. The article presents the measurements of the breakdown voltage, the charge col...

  14. Radiation detector arrangements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.

    1989-01-01

    The patent describes a radiation detector arrangement. It comprises at least one detector element in the form of a temperature-sensitive resistor whose electrical resistance changes in response to radiation incident on the detector element, the resistor having a high positive temperature coefficient of electrical resistance at a transition in its electrical conductance, circuit means for applying a voltage across the resistor during operation of the detector arrangement, and temperature-regulation means for regulating the temperature of the resistor so as to operate the resistor in the transition, characterised in that the temperature-regulation means comprises the resistor and the circuit means which passes sufficient current through the resistor by resistance heating to a position in the transition at which a further increase in its temperature in response to incident radiation reduces the resistance heating by reducing the current, thereby stabilizing the temperature of the resistor at the position. The positive temperature coefficient at the position being sufficiently high that the change in the resistance heating produced by a change in the temperature of the resistor at the position is larger than a change in power of the incident radiation required to produce that same change in temperature of the resistor in the absence of any change in resistance heating

  15. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004. Its goal is to design a complete detector concept for the LDC, based on a gaseous central tracking detector, and on granular calorimetry. The concept is heavily based on the concept of particle flow for event reconstruction. LDC started from the TESLA detector, developed for the TESLA TDR [2] and published in 2001.

  16. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basini, G.; De Pascale, M.P.; Golden, R.L.; Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M.

    1995-01-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight

  18. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force behind the LDC is the particle flow concept. Keywords. International linear collider; large detector concept. PACS No. 13.66-a. 1. Introduction. The large detector concept (LDC) detector concept group [1] was formed early in. 2004. Its goal is to design a complete ...

  19. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  20. DETECTORS: scintillating fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the continual search for improved detection techniques, new materials are continually proving profitable. A good example is scintillating plastic fibres - tiny transparent threads sometimes finer than a human hair which transmit light. The narrowness and flexibility of these fibres was a major breakthrough for endoscopy - non-invasive techniques for viewing the otherwise inaccessible in surgery or machine inspection. In a more sophisticated form, these fibres find ready application in communications technology, where the goal is to transmit information rather than electrical power, replacing conventional and unwieldy current-carrying wire conductors. In particle physics, fibres have long been used to take the tiny scintillations produced when high energy particles hit fluorescent materials and 'conduct' them to photosensitive detectors some distance away

  1. MCP detector development for UV space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Lauro; Barnstedt, Jürgen; Hanke, Lars; Kalkuhl, Christoph; Kappelmann, Norbert; Rauch, Thomas; Stelzer, Beate; Werner, Klaus; Elsener, Hans-Rudolf; Schaadt, Daniel M.

    2018-04-01

    We are developing imaging and photon counting UV-MCP detectors, which are sensitive in the wavelength range from far ultraviolet to near ultraviolet. A good quantum efficiency, solar blindness and high spatial resolution is the aim of our development. The sealed detector has a Cs-activated photoactive layer of GaN (or similarly advanced photocathode), which is operated in semitransparent mode on (001)-MgF2. The detector comprises a stack of two long-life MCPs and a coplanar cross strip anode with advanced readout electronics. The main challenge is the flawless growth of the GaN photocathode layer as well as the requirements for the sealing of the detector, to prevent a degradation of the photocathode. We present here the detector concept and the experimental setup, examine in detail the status in the production and describe the current status of the readout electronics development.

  2. PAMELA Space Mission: The Transition Radiation Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2003-07-01

    PAMELA telescope is a satellite-b orne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific objectives of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) in the cosmic rays, and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is currently under integration and is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time of flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD detector is composed of 9 sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD detector characteristics will be described along with its performance studied exposing the detector to particle beams of electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities.

  3. Diamond Detector Technology: Status and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Reichmann, M; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H; Bellini, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; Dauvergne, D; de Boer, W; Dorfer, C; Dünser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gallin-Martel, L; Gallin-Martel, M L; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kagan, H; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Konovalov, V; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz-Becerra, D A; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Smith, S; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Tannenwald, B; Taylor, A; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, S; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2018-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC to the High-Luminosity-LHC will push the luminosity limits above the original design values. Since the current detectors will not be able to cope with this environment ATLAS and CMS are doing research to find more radiation tolerant technologies for their innermost tracking layers. Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond is an excellent candidate for this purpose. Detectors out of this material are already established in the highest irradiation regimes for the beam condition monitors at LHC. The RD42 collaboration is leading an effort to use CVD diamonds also as sensor material for the future tracking detectors. The signal behaviour of highly irradiated diamonds is presented as well as the recent study of the signal dependence on incident particle flux. There is also a recent development towards 3D detectors and especially 3D detectors with a pixel readout based on diamond sensors.

  4. Neutron Position Sensitive Detectors for the ESS

    CERN Document Server

    Kirstein, Oliver; Stefanescu, Irina; Etxegarai, Maddi; Anastasopoulos, Michail; Fissum, Kevin; Gulyachkina, Anna; Höglund, Carina; Imam, Mewlude; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Khaplanov, Anton; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kolya, Scott; Nilsson, Björn; Ortega, Luis; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Piscitelli, Francesco; Ramos, Judith Freita; Robinson, Linda; Scherzinger, Julius

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden will become the world's leading neutron source for the study of materials. The instruments are being selected from conceptual proposals submitted by groups from around Europe. These instruments present numerous challenges for detector technology in the absence of the availability of Helium-3, which is the default choice for detectors for instruments built until today and due to the extreme rates expected across the ESS instrument suite. Additionally a new generation of source requires a new generation of detector technologies to fully exploit the opportunities that this source provides. The detectors will be sourced from partners across Europe through numerous in-kind arrangements; a process that is somewhat novel for the neutron scattering community. This contribution presents briefly the current status of detectors for the ESS, and outlines the timeline to completion. For a conjectured instrument suite based upon instruments recommended for construction, ...

  5. Advanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Saulson, Peter R

    2019-01-01

    Gravitational waves are one of the most exciting and promising emerging areas of physics and astrophysics today. The detection of gravitational waves will rank among the most significant physics discoveries of the 21st century.Advanced Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Detectors brings together many of the world's top experts to deliver an authoritative and in-depth treatment on current and future detectors. Volume I is devoted to the essentials of gravitational-wave detectors, presenting the physical principles behind large-scale precision interferometry, the physics of the underlying noise sources that limit interferometer sensitivity, and an explanation of the key enabling technologies that are used in the detectors. Volume II provides an in-depth look at the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo interferometers that have just finished construction, as well as examining future interferometric detector concepts. This two-volume set will provide students and researchers the comprehensive background needed to und...

  6. Current Status and Future Prospects of the SNO+ Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Andringa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SNO+ is a large liquid scintillator-based experiment located 2 km underground at SNOLAB, Sudbury, Canada. It reuses the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector, consisting of a 12 m diameter acrylic vessel which will be filled with about 780 tonnes of ultra-pure liquid scintillator. Designed as a multipurpose neutrino experiment, the primary goal of SNO+ is a search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ of 130Te. In Phase I, the detector will be loaded with 0.3% natural tellurium, corresponding to nearly 800 kg of 130Te, with an expected effective Majorana neutrino mass sensitivity in the region of 55–133 meV, just above the inverted mass hierarchy. Recently, the possibility of deploying up to ten times more natural tellurium has been investigated, which would enable SNO+ to achieve sensitivity deep into the parameter space for the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy in the future. Additionally, SNO+ aims to measure reactor antineutrino oscillations, low energy solar neutrinos, and geoneutrinos, to be sensitive to supernova neutrinos, and to search for exotic physics. A first phase with the detector filled with water will begin soon, with the scintillator phase expected to start after a few months of water data taking. The 0νββ Phase I is foreseen for 2017.

  7. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  8. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The National Institute for Nuclear Research has established a Radiation detector laboratory that has the possibility of providing to the consultants on the handling and applications of the nuclear radiation detectors. It has special equipment to repair the radiation detectors used in spectroscopy as the hyper pure Germanium for gamma radiation and the Lithium-silica for X-rays. There are different facilities in the laboratory that can become useful for other institutions that use radiation detectors. This laboratory was created to satisfy consultant services, training and repairing of the radiation detectors both in national and regional levels for Latin America. The laboratory has the following sections: Nuclear Electronic Instrumentation; where there are all kind of instruments for the measurement and characterization of detectors like multichannel analyzers of pulse height, personal computers, amplifiers and nuclear pulse preamplifiers, nuclear pulses generator, aleatories, computer programs for radiation spectra analysis, etc. High vacuum; there is a vacuum escape measurer, two high vacuum pumps to restore the vacuum of detectors, so the corresponding measurers and the necessary tools. Detectors cleaning; there is an anaerobic chamber for the detectors handling at inert atmosphere, a smoke extraction bell for cleaning with the detector solvents. Cryogenic; there are vessels and tools for handling liquid nitrogen which is used for cooling the detectors when they required it. (Author)

  9. The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Miao, HaiXing; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Hammond, Giles; Paik, Ho Jung; Fafone, Viviana; Rocchi, Alessio; Blair, Carl; Ma, YiQiu; Qin, JiaYi; Page, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which arise from fluctuations in gravity gradient forces acting on test masses. Such gravitational perturbations cannot be shielded, and set limits to low frequency sensitivity unless measured and suppressed. Sects. 4 and 5 address critical operational technologies that will be ongoing issues in future detectors. Sect. 4 addresses the design of thermal compensation systems needed in all high optical power interferometers operating at room temperature. Parametric instability control is addressed in sect. 5. Only recently proven to occur in Advanced LIGO, parametric instability phenomenon brings both risks and opportunities for future detectors. The path to future enhancements of detectors will come from quantum measurement technologies. Sect. 6 focuses on the use of optomechanical devices for obtaining enhanced sensitivity, while sect. 7 reviews a range of quantum measurement options.

  10. Measurement of the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, G.

    2007-01-01

    In the four beam times we performed at the FRM-II, we were able to show that the spectrometer works in principle and that a determination of a with it is possible. A set of routines has been written for decoding and analyzing the raw data. The routines are written in C using the ROOT libraries and can be easily adapted or expanded. We have found a reliable way to extract the proton count rates from the data by building pulseheight spectra for each measurement, subtracting background measurements from those and fitting the resulting peak with a Gaussian. The background of the measurements was studied in detail. The background caused by electrons from neutron decay is very well understood and conforms quantitatively to our expectation. Due to the spatial resolution of our detector and the time resolution provided by our DAQ electronics, we were able to study correlated electron-proton pairs from one neutron decay event. They form a clearly visible peak in a time- and channel-distance spectrum, which can be shifted in the channel-dimension by varying the voltages applied to the lower and upper E x B electrodes. Performing a pulseheight analysis for both involved particles allowed us to obtain a fairly clean energy spectrum of the background caused by electrons from neutron decay in our detector. Using these correlations for data analysis may be of interest for future neutron decay experiments which use segmented detectors. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, G.

    2007-08-29

    In the four beam times we performed at the FRM-II, we were able to show that the spectrometer works in principle and that a determination of a with it is possible. A set of routines has been written for decoding and analyzing the raw data. The routines are written in C using the ROOT libraries and can be easily adapted or expanded. We have found a reliable way to extract the proton count rates from the data by building pulseheight spectra for each measurement, subtracting background measurements from those and fitting the resulting peak with a Gaussian. The background of the measurements was studied in detail. The background caused by electrons from neutron decay is very well understood and conforms quantitatively to our expectation. Due to the spatial resolution of our detector and the time resolution provided by our DAQ electronics, we were able to study correlated electron-proton pairs from one neutron decay event. They form a clearly visible peak in a time- and channel-distance spectrum, which can be shifted in the channel-dimension by varying the voltages applied to the lower and upper E x B electrodes. Performing a pulseheight analysis for both involved particles allowed us to obtain a fairly clean energy spectrum of the background caused by electrons from neutron decay in our detector. Using these correlations for data analysis may be of interest for future neutron decay experiments which use segmented detectors. (orig.)

  12. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  13. The STAR detector magnet subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    The RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) Accelerator currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory will have large detectors at two of its six intersection regions. One of these detectors, known as STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC), weighs 1100 tons and is being built around a large solenoid magnet. The magnet is 7.32 in in diameter, 7.25 m long and utilizes three different sizes of room temperature aluminum coils. The magnet will operate with a field set from 0.25 T to 0.5 T and have a field uniformity of better than 1000 ppm over a portion of its interior region. This paper describes the magnet design, fabrication and assembly requirements and presents the current construction status

  14. Strip detector for the ATLAS detector upgrade for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veloce, Laurelle Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High Luminosity LHC, scheduled for 2025. The expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000fb-1 will require the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1x1016 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, the existing Inner Detector will have to be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The ITk strip detector consists of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel. The current prototyping phase has resulted in the ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which starts the pre-production readiness phase at the involved institutes. In this contribution we present the design of the ITk Strip Detector and current status of R&D of various detector components.

  15. Strip Detector for the ATLAS Detector Upgrade for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, reaching 1*10^35 cm2s-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000/fb, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1*10^16 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixelated silicon detectors. The physics motivations, required performance characteristics and basic design of the proposed upgrade of the strip detector will be a subject of this talk. Present ideas and solutions for the strip detector and current research and development program will be discussed.

  16. Strip Detector for the ATLAS Detector Upgrade for the High - Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, reaching 1*10^35 cm2s-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000/fb, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1*10^16 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixelated silicon detectors. The physics motivations, required performance characteristics and basic design of the proposed upgrade of the strip detector will be a subject of this talk. Present ideas and solutions for the strip detector and current research and development program will be discussed.

  17. Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, methods of making same and measuring wand and detector modules utilizing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Shultis, John K.; Rice, Blake B.; McNeil, Walter J.; Solomon, Clell J.; Patterson, Eric L.; Bellinger, Steven L.

    2010-12-21

    Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, method of making same and measuring wands and detector modules utilizing same are disclosed. The detectors have improved mechanical structure, flattened angular detector responses, and reduced leakage current. A plurality of such detectors can be assembled into imaging arrays, and can be used for neutron radiography, remote neutron sensing, cold neutron imaging, SNM monitoring, and various other applications.

  18. Cryogenic 3-D Detectors for Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. A.

    2003-05-01

    Space and ground-based astronomy is currently undergoing a revolution in detector technology with the advent of cryogenic sensors operating in the sub-Kelvin temperature range. These detectors provide non-dispersive energy resolution at optical through gamma ray energies (e.g, E/Δ E ˜ 1500 at 6 keV), high time resolution (msec or better), and can be made into arrays using a combination of microlithography and multiplexing using SQUID amplifiers. The application of such ``3-D'' detector technology to solar physics could lead to significant advances in our understanding of magnetic reconnection in the Sun, including X-ray jet phenomena, and active region dynamics. In this talk, I will review some of the basic principles of cryogenic 3-D detectors, current astronomical applications, and their potential for future NASA solar physics Explorer-class missions. This work was supported in part by the Lockheed Martin Independent Research Program

  19. Fast-timing methods for semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, H.

    1982-03-01

    The basic parameters are discussed which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter

  20. Operational Experience with the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00205212

    2015-05-15

    In the first LHC running period the CMS-pixel detector had to face various operational challenges and had to adapt to the rapidly changing beam conditions. In order to maximize the physics potential and the quality of the data, online and offline calibrations were performed on a regular basis. The detector performed excellently with an average hit efficiency above 99\\% for all layers and disks. In this contribution the operational challenges of the silicon pixel detector in the first LHC run and the current long shutdown are summarized and the expectations for 2015 are discussed.

  1. Fast timing methods for semiconductor detectors. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, H.

    1984-10-01

    This tutorial paper discusses the basic parameters which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter

  2. ISABELLE. Volume 4. Detector R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Workshop participants were asked to assess the current status of detector R and D in terms of the specific needs for ISABELLE experiments: the demands of high particle rates, extremely selective triggers on complex and rare events, and the economics of large detector systems. The detailed results of working groups convened to consider specific areas of detector development are presented. The key points of this assessment, as regards the continuing R and D program for ISABELLE are summarized here. Twenty-six items from the volume were prepared separately for the data base, along with five items previously prepared

  3. Ionization smoke detector and alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector particularly suited to residential use is disclosed. The detector is battery-operated and is connected with a non-latching, pulsating alarm circuit. The detector has a sensing chamber formed by a perforated metallic shell and an electrode within which an insulated radiation source is centrally positioned to generate an ionization current for detecting smoke or other similar aerosols. The alarm circuit provides a pulsating alarm signal when smoke levels above a pre-determined value are sensed. The alarm circuit also includes a low voltage detection circuit for sounding the alarm when the end of useful battery life is approaching. (Auth.)

  4. High-resolution detectors in nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gerl, J

    2000-01-01

    The sensitivity of gamma-ray spectrometers for nuclear structure studies has improved by two to three orders of magnitude within the last 10 years. This impressive progress is based on larger HPGe crystals, composition of several crystals into a detection unit and electrical segmentation of the detector contacts. Current development projects are concentrating on optimizing the solid angle coverage of detector arrays to further increase the efficiency and on increasing the effective granularity of the detectors. The latter requires further segmentation and gamma-hit position determination by signal-shape analysis.

  5. ISABELLE. Volume 4. Detector R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Workshop participants were asked to assess the current status of detector R and D in terms of the specific needs for ISABELLE experiments: the demands of high particle rates, extremely selective triggers on complex and rare events, and the economics of large detector systems. The detailed results of working groups convened to consider specific areas of detector development are presented. The key points of this assessment, as regards the continuing R and D program for ISABELLE are summarized here. Twenty-six items from the volume were prepared separately for the data base, along with five items previously prepared. (GHT)

  6. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  7. Nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present monograph is intended to treat the commonly used detectors in the field of nuclear physics covering important developments of the recent years. After a general introduction, a brief account of interaction of radiation with matter relevant to the processes in radiation detection is given in Chapter II. In addition to the ionization chamber, proportional counters and Geiger Mueller counters, several gas-filled detectors of advanced design such as those recently developed for heavy ion physics and other types of studies have been covered in Chapter III. Semiconductor detectors are dealt with in Chapter IV. The scintillation detectors which function by sensing the photons emitted by the luminescence process during the interaction of the impinging radiation with the scintillation detector medium are described in Chapter V. The topic of neutron detectors is covered in Chapter VI, as in this case the emphasis is more on the method of neutron detection rather than on detector type. Electronic instrumentation related to signal pulse processing dealt with in Chapter VII. The track etch detectors based on the visualization of the track of the impinging charge particle have also been briefly covered in the last chapter. The scope of this monograph is confined to detectors commonly used in low and medium energy nuclear physics research and applications of nuclear techniques. The monograph is intended for post-graduate students and those beginning to work with the radiation detectors. (author)

  8. Detector magnets for charged particle momentum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Arduini, Gianluigi

    1995-01-01

    Basic formulae related to the momentum measurement of charged particles by tracking devices in magnetic fields and typical detector magnet geometries are briefly revised. From these, guidelines are worked out for the determination of the basic specifications (yoke size, excitation current, conductor type and size, cooling) both for normal and superconducting magnets. The problem of magnetic shielding of components placed near big detector magnets is also considered.

  9. Failure Detector for Power-Factor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    New protective circuits have been developed for power-factor ac motor controllers. Circuits prevent direct current and consequent motor heating that would normally result from failure of solid-state switch in controller. Single-phase power-factor controller with short detector compensates for short-circuit failure in either direction by applying full power to motor. Controller with open detector compensates for open-circuit failure in either direction by turning off power to motor.

  10. Current Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Drexlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we review the status and perspectives of direct neutrino mass experiments, which investigate the kinematics of β-decays of specific isotopes (3H, 187Re, 163Ho to derive model-independent information on the averaged electron (antineutrino mass. After discussing the kinematics of β-decay and the determination of the neutrino mass, we give a brief overview of past neutrino mass measurements (SN1987a-ToF studies, Mainz and Troitsk experiments for 3H, cryobolometers for 187Re. We then describe the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN experiment currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, which will use the MAC-E-Filter principle to push the sensitivity down to a value of 200 meV (90% C.L.. To do so, many technological challenges have to be solved related to source intensity and stability, as well as precision energy analysis and low background rate close to the kinematic endpoint of tritium β-decay at 18.6 keV. We then review new approaches such as the MARE, ECHO, and Project8 experiments, which offer the promise to perform an independent measurement of the neutrino mass in the sub-eV region. Altogether, the novel methods developed in direct neutrino mass experiments will provide vital information on the absolute mass scale of neutrinos.

  11. BATSE spectroscopy detector calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, D.; Ford, L.; Matteson, J.; Lestrade, J. P.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.; Cline, T.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the channel-to-energy calibration of the Spectroscopy Detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). These detectors consist of NaI(TI) crystals viewed by photomultiplier tubes whose output in turn is measured by a pulse height analyzer. The calibration of these detectors has been complicated by frequent gain changes and by nonlinearities specific to the BATSE detectors. Nonlinearities in the light output from the NaI crystal and in the pulse height analyzer are shifted relative to each other by changes in the gain of the photomultiplier tube. We present the analytical model which is the basis of our calibration methodology, and outline how the empirical coefficients in this approach were determined. We also describe the complications peculiar to the Spectroscopy Detectors, and how our understanding of the detectors' operation led us to a solution to these problems.

  12. SDC detector foundation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western, J.L.; Butalla, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) Detector weighs approximately 32,000 metric tons, and its ability to perform to design specifications is directly related to its internal alignment. The limits of the misalignment tolerance envelope in combination with the detector weight impose a set of tolerance limits of performance directly upon the foundation structure. The foundation must accommodate different detector loading conditions during installation, operation, maintenance, and future enhancements. The foundation must also respond to the loading conditions within a restrictive set of displacement limitations in order to maintain the detector's critical alignment, thereby guaranteeing its operational integrity. This paper will present the results of this study, which has been issued to the Architect Engineer/Construction Manager as user requirements of design. The total structural system performance of the combination of both the detector and its foundation will be discussed

  13. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  14. arXiv Performance of a full scale prototype detector at the BR2 reactor for the SoLid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Y.; Arnold, L.; Ban, G.; Beaumont, W.; Bongrand, M.; Boursette, D.; Castle, B.C.; Clark, K.; Coupé, B.; Cussans, D.; De Roeck, A.; D'Hondt, J.; Durand, D.; Fallot, M.; Ghys, L.; Giot, L.; Guillon, B.; Ihantola, S.; Janssen, X.; Kalcheva, S.; Kalousis, L.N.; Koonen, E.; Labare, M.; Lehaut, G.; Manzanillas, L.; Mermans, J.; Michiels, I.; Moortgat, C.; Newbold, D.; Park, J.; Pestel, V.; Petridis, K.; Piñera, I.; Pommery, G.; Popescu, L.; Pronost, G.; Rademacker, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Ryder, N.; Saunders, D.; Schune, M.-H.; Simard, L.; Vacheret, A.; Van Dyck, S.; Van Mulders, P.; van Remortel, N.; Vercaemer, S.; Verstraeten, M.; Weber, A.; Yermia, F.

    The SoLid collaboration has developed a new detector technology to detect electron anti-neutrinos at close proximity to the Belgian BR2 reactor at surface level. A 288$\\,$kg prototype detector was deployed in 2015 and collected data during the operational period of the reactor and during reactor shut-down. Dedicated calibration campaigns were also performed with gamma and neutron sources. This paper describes the construction of the prototype detector with a high control on its proton content and the stability of its operation over a period of several months after deployment at the BR2 reactor site. All detector cells provide sufficient light yields to achieve a target energy resolution of better than 20%/$\\sqrt{E(MeV)}$. The capability of the detector to track muons is exploited to equalize the light response of a large number of channels to a precision of 3% and to demonstrate the stability of the energy scale over time. Particle identification based on pulse-shape discrimination is demonstrated with calibr...

  15. Noble Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

  16. History of infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  17. Preliminary results from a novel CVD diamond detector system for molecular imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    A novel biomolecular imaging system incorporating a Chemical Vapour Deposition diamond detector is in development. The synthetic diamond is used as a UV detector to image nucleic acids in electrophoresis gels. The microstrip diamond detector currently has a spatial resolution of 30 μm. Preliminary results are presented which include: QE measurements of diamond detectors, detector time response, detector UV response and current detection limits of biomolecules in gel. The potential applications of the technology, and its significant advantages in speed and sensitivity over the current systems are discussed

  18. The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

  19. detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolins, M.; Barnett, B.A.; Binnie, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The 4π Detector Working Group tried to address two major questions: can general 4π detectors be built for the SSC that will be able to study rare processes at center-of-mass energies of 40 TeV and at luminosities of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 ; what are realistic cost estimates for such detectors? The general conclusions of these studies were that these types of detectors could be built, would be able to do physics under these conditions, and would each cost between 200 and 300 million dollars

  20. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  1. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  2. Front End Spectroscopy ASIC for Germanium Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Eric

    Large-area, tracking, semiconductor detectors with excellent spatial and spectral resolution enable exciting new access to soft (0.2-5 MeV) gamma-ray astrophysics. The improvements from semiconductor tracking detectors come with the burden of high density of strips and/or pixels that require high-density, low-power, spectroscopy quality readout electronics. CMOS ASIC technologies are a natural fit to this requirement and have led to high-quality readout systems for all current semiconducting tracking detectors except for germanium detectors. The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI), formerly NCT, at University of California Berkeley and the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) at Goddard Space Flight Center utilize germanium cross-strip detectors and are on the forefront of NASA's Compton telescope research with funded missions of long duration balloon flights. The development of a readout ASIC for germanium detectors would allow COSI to replace their discrete electronics readout and would enable the proposed Gamma-Ray Explorer (GRX) mission utilizing germanium strip-detectors. We propose a 3-year program to develop and test a germanium readout ASIC to TRL 5 and to integrate the ASIC readout onto a COSI detector allowing a TRL 6 demonstration for the following COSI balloon flight. Our group at NRL led a program, sponsored by another government agency, to produce and integrate a cross-strip silicon detector ASIC, designed and fabricated by Dr. De Geronimo at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ASIC was designed to handle the large (>30 pF) capacitance of three 10 cm^2 detectors daisy-chained together. The front-end preamplifier, selectable inverter, shaping times, and gains make this ASIC compatible with a germanium cross-strip detector as well. We therefore have the opportunity and expertise to leverage the previous investment in the silicon ASIC for a new mission. A germanium strip detector ASIC will also require precise timing of the signals at

  3. Self-powered flux detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, R.B.

    1983-02-01

    This bibliography attempts to cover the published literature on the class of radiation detectors most often referred to as 'self-powered'. For this purpose, self-powered detectors are defined as those that have two or more conducting electrodes separated by solid insulation and that generate a signal current without an external power source. Primary sensitivity is unrestricted, but it is usually to neutrons or gamma-rays. The main application is in the core of a nuclear reactor. All relevant facets of the subject are covered including: theory, experiment, development, design, manufacture, instrumentation and application. In addition to the usual reference information, various other designations are included where available, such as CONF-and abstract serial numbers. Where possible, a summary of the content is given with emphasis on specific results and conclusions. Indexing is by author and subject

  4. Large aperture electrostatic dust detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Hensley, R.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 V has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5 x 5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles

  5. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Hensley, R.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 v has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  6. GaN-based PIN alpha particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guo [Peking University, Shenzhen Graduate School, Guangdong Shenzhen 518055 (China); Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Fu Kai; Yao Changsheng [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Science, Jiangsu Suzhou 215123 (China); Su Dan; Zhang Guoguang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Wang Jinyan [Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Lu Min, E-mail: mlu2006@sinano.ac.cn [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Science, Jiangsu Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-01-21

    GaN-based PIN alpha particle detectors are studied in this article. The electrical properties of detectors have been investigated, such as current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V). The reverse current of all detectors is in nA range applied at 30 V, which is suitable for detector operation. The charge collection efficiency (CCE) is measured to be approximately 80% but the energy resolution is calculated to be about 40% mostly because the intrinsic layer is not sufficiently thick enough.

  7. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  8. Performance of GLD detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to achieve better jet energy resolution, the so-called particle flow algorithm (PFA) will be employed and there is a general consensus that PFA derives overall ILC detector design. Four detector concepts for the ILC .... However, the world-wide consensus of the performance goal for jet energy resolution is 30%/. √.

  9. Future particle detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Allan G.

    2000-01-01

    Starting with a short summary of the major new experimental physics programs, we attempt to motivate the reasons why existing general-purpose detectors at Hadron Colliders are what they are, why they are being upgraded, and why new facilities are being constructed. The CDF and ATLAS detectors are used to illustrate these motivations. Selected physics results from the CDF experiment provide evidence for limitations on the detector performance, and new physics opportunities motivate both machine and detector upgrades. This is discussed with emphasis on the improved physics reach of the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron (√(s)=2 TeV). From 2005, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will become operational at a collision energy of √(s)=14 TeV, seven times larger than at the Tevatron Collider. To exploit the physics capability of the LHC, several large detectors are being constructed. The detectors are significantly more complex than those at the Tevatron Collider because of physics and operational constraints. The detector design and technology of the aspects of the large general-purpose detector ATLAS is described

  10. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  11. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design ...

  12. The TESLA Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Moenig, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    For the superconducting linear collider TESLA a multi purpose detector has been designed. This detector is optimised for the important physics processes expected at a next generation linear collider up to around 1 TeV and is designed for the specific environment of a superconducting collider.

  13. CHERENKOV RADIATION DETECTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1981-03-01

    Mar 1, 1981 ... Most of Radiation detectors based on the Cherenkov Effect are essentially very bulky and expensive for schools and colleges. An inexpensive yet very compact radiation detector is designed, built and tested. It is used to measure the Cherenkov angles for natural radioactivity from sources as. Cs137.

  14. CMS Detector Posters

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CMS Detector posters (produced in 2000): CMS installation CMS collaboration From the Big Bang to Stars LHC Magnetic Field Magnet System Trackering System Tracker Electronics Calorimetry Eletromagnetic Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon System Muon Detectors Trigger and data aquisition (DAQ) ECAL posters (produced in 2010, FR & EN): CMS ECAL CMS ECAL-Supermodule cooling and mechatronics CMS ECAL-Supermodule assembly

  15. Detector Systems at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

  16. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  17. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  18. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  19. Stanford's big new detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A detector constructed for the Standford Linear Collider is described. It consists of a central drift chamber in the field of a surrounding superconducting solenoid. Furthermore included are a Cherenkov ring imaging detector for particle identification and a liquid argon calorimeter. (HSI).

  20. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  1. Characterisation of a Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrientos, D., E-mail: diego_barrientos@usal.es [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, University of Salamanca (Spain); Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Quintana, B.; Sagrado, I.C. [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, University of Salamanca (Spain); Unsworth, C.; Moon, S.; Cresswell, J.R. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-21

    Characterisation of Germanium detectors used for gamma-ray tracking or medical imaging is one of the current goals in the Nuclear physics community. Good knowledge of detector response to different gamma radiations is needed for this purpose. In order to develop this task, Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) techniques have been developed for different detector geometries or setups. In this work, we present the results of the application of PSA for a Canberra Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector. This detector was scanned across its front and bottom face using a fully digital data acquisition system; allowing to record detector charge pulse shapes from well defined positions with collimated sources of {sup 241}Am, {sup 22}Na and {sup 137}Cs. With the study of the data acquired, characteristics of the inner detector geometry like crystal limits or positions of contact and isolate can be found, as well as the direction of the axes for the Germanium crystal.

  2. Measurement of the electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes measurements with the retardation spectrometer aSPECT at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. The goal of the measurement is to determine the angular correlation coefficient a from the form of the proton recoil spectrum in the decay of the free neutron in order to determine a precise value for the ratio of the weak axial vector and vector coupling constants of the nucleon. A big improvement was achieved with the use of a silicon drift detector which was used here for the first time to detect low energetic protons. A saturation effect of the electronics that was only discovered during the analysis of the data from neutron decay proved to be not correctable. The findings from analysis, simulations and test experiments gained in this work should allow a measurement of a with high precision in a future beamtime. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of the electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simson, Martin

    2010-09-21

    This thesis describes measurements with the retardation spectrometer aSPECT at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. The goal of the measurement is to determine the angular correlation coefficient a from the form of the proton recoil spectrum in the decay of the free neutron in order to determine a precise value for the ratio of the weak axial vector and vector coupling constants of the nucleon. A big improvement was achieved with the use of a silicon drift detector which was used here for the first time to detect low energetic protons. A saturation effect of the electronics that was only discovered during the analysis of the data from neutron decay proved to be not correctable. The findings from analysis, simulations and test experiments gained in this work should allow a measurement of a with high precision in a future beamtime. (orig.)

  4. Peltier battery thermostat for semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caini, V.

    1980-01-01

    The description is given of a Peltier battery cooling thermostat for semiconductor detectors, whose sensing element is the detector itself. A signal proportional to the leakage current is amplified and compared with a chosen reference voltage. The difference, amplified and sensed, regulates the cooling current to the Peltier battery. Special mechanical devices speed up measurement-taking. The leakage current proved to be reducible to as little as 1/1000 of that at ambient temperature and the stabilization obtained is between +-5 nA (although between +-1 nA is also feasible). Hence it is possible to use very high load resistance preamplifiers to reduce noise and to improve stability and pulse height resolution in α spectroscopy, even with a detector unsuitable for work at very low temperatures. Other applications can be foreseen. (orig.)

  5. Nanomechanical resonance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-10-29

    An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated na