WorldWideScience

Sample records for antineutrino beams

  1. Resonant antineutrino induced electron capture with low energy bound-beta beams

    CERN Document Server

    Oldeman, R G C; Saitta, B

    2009-01-01

    Antineutrino induced electron capture is a resonant process that can have a larg e cross-section for beams of monochromatic antineutrinos. We calculate the cross-section of this process and investigate an experimental setup where monochromatic antineutrinos are produced from the bound-beta decay of fully ionized radioactive atoms in a storage ring. If the energy between the source and the target is well matched, the cross-sections can be significantly larger than the cross-sections of commonly used non-resonant processes. The rate that can be achieved at a small distance between the source and two targets of $10^3$ kg is up to one interaction per $8 .3\\cdot10^{18}$ decaying atoms. For a source-target distance corresponding to the first atmospheric neutrino osc illation maximum, the largest rate is one interaction per $3.2\\cdot10^{21}$ decaying atoms.

  2. Search for the disappearance of muon antineutrinos in the NuMI neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Ayres, D S; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Cavanaugh, S; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Coelho, J A B; Coleman, S J; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Danko, I Z; de Jong, J K; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grant, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Lefeuvre, G; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mathis, M; Mayer, N; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mitchell, J; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Ratchford, J; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Strait, M; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Walding, J J; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Yang, T; Zwaska, R

    2011-01-01

    We report constraints on muon antineutrino oscillation parameters that were obtained by using the two MINOS detectors to measure the 7% antineutrino component of the NuMI neutrino beam. In the Far Detector, we select 130 events in the charged-current muon antineutrino sample, compared to a prediction of 136.4 +/- 11.7(stat) ^{+10.2}_{-8.9}(syst) events under the assumption |dm2bar|=2.32x10^-3 eV^2, snthetabar=1.0. A fit to the two-flavor oscillation approximation constrains |dm2bar|<3.37x10^-3 eV^2 at the 90% confidence level with snthetabar=1.0.

  3. Measurement of neutrino and antineutrino oscillations using beam and atmospheric data in MINOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P; Anghel, I; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Castromonte, C M; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; de Jong, J K; Devan, A V; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hahn, S R; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mathis, M; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Medeiros, M M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Moed Sher, S; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; O'Connor, J; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R B; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Radovic, A; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Tognini, S C; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S G; Zwaska, R

    2013-06-21

    We report measurements of oscillation parameters from ν(μ) and ν(μ) disappearance using beam and atmospheric data from MINOS. The data comprise exposures of 10.71×10(20) protons on target in the ν(μ)-dominated beam, 3.36×10(20) protons on target in the ν(μ)-enhanced beam, and 37.88 kton yr of atmospheric neutrinos. Assuming identical ν and ν oscillation parameters, we measure |Δm2| = (2.41(-0.10)(+0.09))×10(-3)  eV2 and sin2(2θ) = 0.950(-0.036)(+0.035). Allowing independent ν and ν oscillations, we measure antineutrino parameters of |Δm2| = (2.50(-0.25)(+0.23))×10(-3)  eV2 and sin2(2θ) = 0.97(-0.08)(+0.03), with minimal change to the neutrino parameters.

  4. Prospects for antineutrino running at MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wascko, M.O.; /Louisiana State U.

    2006-02-01

    MiniBooNE began running in antineutrino mode on 19 January, 2006. We describe the sensitivity of MiniBooNE to LSND-like {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillations and outline a program of antineutrino cross-section measurements necessary for the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. We describe three independent methods of constraining wrong-sign (neutrino) backgrounds in an antineutrino beam, and their application to the MiniBooNE antineutrino analyses.

  5. Searching for cavities of various densities in the Earth's crust with a low-energy electron-antineutrino beta-beam

    CERN Document Server

    Argüelles, C A; Gago, A M

    2012-01-01

    We propose searching for deep underground cavities of different densities in the Earth's crust using a long-baseline electron-antineutrino disappearance experiment, realised through a low-energy beta-beam with highly enhanced luminosity. We focus on four real-world cases: water-filled cavities, iron-banded formations, heavier mineral deposits, and regions of abnormal charge accumulation that, supposedly, appear prior to the occurrence of an intense earthquake. The sensitivity to identify cavities attains confidence levels higher than 3$\\sigma$ and 5$\\sigma$ for exposures times of 3 months and 1.5 years, respectively, and cavity densities below 1 g cm$^{-3}$ or above 5 g cm$^{-3}$, with widths greater than 200 km. We reconstruct the cavity density, width, and position, assuming one of them known while keeping the other two free, in each of the aforementioned cases. Finally, we introduce an observable to quantify the presence of a cavity by changing the orientation of the electron-antineutrino beam.

  6. Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmel, Alexander I. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for vμ → $\\bar{v}$μ transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |Δ$\\bar{m}$atm 2| = (3.36-0.40+0.46(stat) ± 0.06(syst)) x 10-3 eV2 and sin2(2$\\bar{θ}$23) = 0.860-0.12+0.11(stat) ± 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.

  7. Neutrino and Antineutrino Cross sections at MiniBooNE

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan

    2011-01-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment has reported a number of high statistics neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections-among which are the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) and neutral current elastic (NCE) neutrino scattering on mineral oil. Recently a study of the neutrino contamination of the anti-neutrino beam has concluded and the analysis of the anti-neutrino CCQE and NCE scattering is ongoing.

  8. Antineutrino induced antikaon production off the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M Rafi; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The charged current antikaon production off nucleons induced by antineutrinos is studied at low and intermediate energies. We extend here our previous calculation on kaon production induced by neutrinos. We have developed a microscopic model that starts from the SU(3) chiral Lagrangians and includes background terms and the resonant mechanisms associated to the lowest lying resonance in the channel, namely, the Sigma*(1385). Our results could be of interest for the background estimation of various neutrino oscillation experiments like MiniBooNE and SuperK. They can also be helpful for the planned antineutrino experiments like MINERvA, NOvA and T2K phase II and for beta-beam experiments with antineutrino energies around 1 GeV.

  9. Directional Antineutrino Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdi, B. R.; Suerfu, J.

    2014-12-01

    We propose the first truly directional antineutrino detector for antineutrinos near the threshold for the inverse beta decay (IBD) of hydrogen, with potential applications including the spatial mapping of geo-neutrinos, searches for stellar antineutrinos, and the monitoring of nuclear reactors. The detector consists of adjacent and separated target and neutron-capture layers. The IBD events, which result in a neutron and a positron, take place in the target layers. These layers are thin enough so that the neutrons escape without scattering elastically. The neutrons are detected in the thicker neutron-capture layers. The location of the IBD event is determined from the energy deposited by the positron as it slows in the medium and from the two gamma rays that come from the positron annihilation. Since the neutron recoils in the direction of the antineutrino's motion, a line may then be drawn between the IBD event location and the neutron-capture location to approximate the antineutrino's velocity. In some events, we may even measure the positron's velocity, which further increases our ability to reconstruct the antineutrino's direction of motion. Our method significantly improves upon previous methods by allowing the neutron to freely travel a long distance before diffusing and being captured. Moreover, our design is a straightforward modification of existing antineutrino detectors; a prototype could easily be built with existing technology. We verify our design through Monte Carlo simulations in Geant4, using commercially-available boron-loaded plastic scintillators for the target and neutron-capture layer materials. We are able to discriminate from background using multiple coincidence signatures within a short, ~microsecond time interval. We conclude that the detector could likely operate above ground with minimal shielding.

  10. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H

    2002-01-01

    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  11. Antineutrino Monitoring of Thorium Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A; Norman, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuels types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring.Thorium molten salt reactors (MSR) breed U-233, that if diverted constitute an IAEA direct use material. The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of U-233 has been determined, the feasibility of detecting the diversion of a significant quantity, 8 kg of U-233, within the IAEA timeliness goal of 30 days has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario at a 25 meter standoff by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos. It was found that the diversion of a signifi...

  12. An improved measurement of muon antineutrino disappearance in MINOS

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Danko, I Z; de Jong, J K; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mathis, M; Mayer, N; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mitchell, J; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R B; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Radovic, A; Ratchford, J; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Strait, M; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Walding, J J; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Zwaska, R

    2012-01-01

    We report an improved measurement of muon anti-neutrino disappearance over a distance of 735km using the MINOS detectors and the Fermilab Main Injector neutrino beam in a muon anti-neutrino enhanced configuration. From a total exposure of 2.95e20 protons on target, of which 42% have not been previously analyzed, we make the most precise measurement of the anti-neutrino "atmospheric" delta-m squared = 2.62 +0.31/-0.28 (stat.) +/- 0.09 (syst.) and constrain the anti-neutrino atmospheric mixing angle >0.75 (90%CL). These values are in agreement with those measured for muon neutrinos, removing the tension reported previously.

  13. Antineutrino Oscillations and a Search for Non-standard Interactions with the MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isvan, Zeynep [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    MINOS searches for neutrino oscillations using the disappearance of muon neutrinos from the NuMI beam at Fermilab between two detectors. The Near Detector, located near the source, measures the beam composition before flavor change occurs. The energy spectrum is measured again at the Far Detector after neutrinos travel a distance. The mixing angle and mass splitting between the second and third mass states are extracted from the energy dependent difference between the spectra at the two detectors. NuMI is able to produce an antineutrino-enhanced beam as well as a neutrino-enhanced beam. Collecting data in antineutrino-mode allows the direct measurement of antineutrino oscillation parameters. From the analysis of the antineutrino mode data we measure $|\\Delta\\bar{m}^{2}_{\\text{atm}}| = 2.62^{+0.31}_{-0.28}\\times10^{-3}\\text{eV}^{2}$ and $\\sin^{2}(2\\bar{\\theta})_{23} = 0.95^{+0.10}_{-0.11}$, which is the most precise measurement of antineutrino oscillation parameters to date. A difference between neutrino and antineutrino oscillation parameters may indicate new physics involving interactions that are not part of the Standard Model, called non-standard interactions, that alter the apparent disappearance probability. Collecting data in neutrino and antineutrino mode independently allows a direct search for non-standard interactions. In this dissertation non-standard interactions are constrained by a combined analysis of neutrino and antineutrino datasets and no evidence of such interactions is found.

  14. Anti-neutrino oscillations with T2K

    CERN Document Server

    Salzgeber, M Ravonel

    2015-01-01

    T2K is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, in which a muon neutrino beam is produced at J-PARC and detected 295 km away at the Super-Kamiokande detector. The T2K experiment observed electron-neutrino appearance in 2012. This observation enables T2K to explore CP violation in the lepton sector by comparing electron-neutrino appearance and electron-antineutrino appearance. Indeed, the number of observed electron neutrino events up to 2012 is, though within statistical fluctuation, larger than the expectation, which suggests maximal CP violation. Since 2013, T2K has been accumulating data with a muon antineutrino beam. If the suggested maximal CP violation is true, electron-antineutrino appearance would be suppressed. The signal is further suppressed by the smaller cross section for antineutrinos compared to neutrinos. Hence the observation of electron-antineutrino appearance is an important next step. Furthermore, the CPT theorem imposes that the muon disappearance rate must be the same for muon ne...

  15. Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, N. S.

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

  16. The physics of antineutrinos in DUNE and determination of octant and δCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Newton; Ghosh, Monojit; Goswami, Srubabati

    2016-12-01

    The octant of the leptonic mixing angle θ23 and the CP phase δCP are the two major unknowns (apart from neutrino mass hierarchy) in neutrino oscillation physics. It is well known that the precise determination of octant and δCP is interlinked through the octant-δCP degeneracy. In this paper we study the proficiency of the DUNE experiment to determine these parameters scrutinizing, in particular, the role played by the antineutrinos, the broadband nature of the beam and the matter effect. It is well known that for Pμe and P μ bar e bar the octant-δCP degeneracy occurs at different values of δCP, combination of neutrino and antineutrino runs help to resolve this. However, in regions where neutrinos do not have octant degeneracy adding antineutrino data is expected to decrease the sensitivity because of the degeneracy and reduced statistics. However we find that in case of DUNE baseline, the antineutrino runs help even in parameter space where the antineutrino probabilities suffer from degeneracies. We explore this point in detail and point out that this happens because of the (i) broad-band nature of the beam so that even if there is degeneracy at a particular energy bin, over the whole spectrum the degeneracy may not be there; (ii) the enhanced matter effect due to the comparatively longer baseline which creates an increased tension between the neutrino and the antineutrino probabilities which raises the overall χ2 in case of combined runs. This feature is more prominent for IH since the antineutrino probabilities in this case are much higher than the neutrino probabilities due to matter effects. The main role of antineutrinos in enhancing CP sensitivity is their ability to remove the octant-δCP degeneracy. However even if one assumes octant to be known the addition of antineutrinos can give enhanced CP sensitivity in some parameter regions due to the tension between the neutrino and antineutrino χ2s.

  17. Electron Neutrino and Antineutrino Appearance in the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, Adam Paul [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline neutrino experiment that utilizes a particle beam and two steel-scintillator calorimeters designed to determine the parameters associated with muon neutrino disappearance. Analysis methods developed by the MINOS νe group have facilitated the placement of limits upon the mixing angle associated with νμ → νe oscillations. Since the polarity of the focusing horns can be switched, we can perform a similar analysis with an antineutrino-enriched beam to select electron antineutrino appearance candidates. Using 3.34e20 POT (protons on target) in the antineutrino mode, we exclude θ13 = 0 at the 80% C.L. A joint fit of the 3.34e20 POT antineutrino and 10.6e20 POT neutrino samples excluded θ13 = 0 at the 96% C.L. In addition, the combined data were used to produce exclusions regarding the CP-violating phase.

  18. Precision Search for Muon Antineutrino Disappearance Oscillations Using a Dual Baseline Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gary Li [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A search for short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance with the SciBooNE and MiniBooNE experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois is presented. Short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance measurements help constrain sterile neutrino models. The two detectors observe muon antineutrinos from the same beam, therefore the combined analysis of their data sets serves to partially constrain some of the flux and cross section uncertainties. A likelihood ratio method was used to set a 90% confidence level upper limit on muon antineutrino disappearance that dramatically improves upon prior sterile neutrino oscillation limits in the Δm2=0.1-100 eV2 region.

  19. AGM2015: Antineutrino Global Map 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Usman, Shawn M; Dye, Stephen T; McDonough, William F; Learned, John G

    2015-01-01

    Every second greater than $10^{25}$ antineutrinos radiate to space from Earth, shining like a faint antineutrino star. Underground antineutrino detectors have revealed the rapidly decaying fission products inside nuclear reactors, verified the long-lived radioactivity inside our planet, and informed sensitive experiments for probing fundamental physics. Mapping the anisotropic antineutrino flux and energy spectrum advance geoscience by defining the amount and distribution of radioactive power within Earth while critically evaluating competing compositional models of the planet. We present the Antineutrino Global Map 2015 (AGM2015), an experimentally informed model of Earth's surface antineutrino flux over the 0 to 11 MeV energy spectrum, along with an assessment of systematic errors. The open source AGM2015 provides fundamental predictions for experiments, assists in strategic detector placement to determine neutrino mass hierarchy, and aids in identifying undeclared nuclear reactors. We use cosmochemically a...

  20. Reactor antineutrinos and nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    Short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments successfully measured the neutrino parameters they set out to measure, but they also identified a shape distortion in the 5-7 MeV range as well as a reduction from the predicted value of the flux. Nuclear physics input into the calculations of reactor antineutrino spectra needs to be better refined if this anomaly is to be interpreted as due to sterile neutrino states.

  1. First Measurement of the Muon Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic Double-Differential Cross-Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grange, Joseph M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the first measurement of the muon antineutrino charged current quasi-elastic double-differential cross section. These data significantly extend the knowledge of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in the GeV range, a region that has recently come under scrutiny due to a number of conflicting experimental results. To maximize the precision of this measurement, three novel techniques were employed to measure the neutrino background component of the data set. Representing the first measurements of the neutrino contribution to an accelerator-based antineutrino beam in the absence of a magnetic field, the successful execution of these techniques carry implications for current and future neutrino experiments.

  2. AGM2015: Antineutrino Global Map 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, S M; Jocher, G R; Dye, S T; McDonough, W F; Learned, J G

    2015-09-01

    Every second greater than 10(25) antineutrinos radiate to space from Earth, shining like a faint antineutrino star. Underground antineutrino detectors have revealed the rapidly decaying fission products inside nuclear reactors, verified the long-lived radioactivity inside our planet, and informed sensitive experiments for probing fundamental physics. Mapping the anisotropic antineutrino flux and energy spectrum advance geoscience by defining the amount and distribution of radioactive power within Earth while critically evaluating competing compositional models of the planet. We present the Antineutrino Global Map 2015 (AGM2015), an experimentally informed model of Earth's surface antineutrino flux over the 0 to 11 MeV energy spectrum, along with an assessment of systematic errors. The open source AGM2015 provides fundamental predictions for experiments, assists in strategic detector placement to determine neutrino mass hierarchy, and aids in identifying undeclared nuclear reactors. We use cosmochemically and seismologically informed models of the radiogenic lithosphere/mantle combined with the estimated antineutrino flux, as measured by KamLAND and Borexino, to determine the Earth's total antineutrino luminosity at . We find a dominant flux of geo-neutrinos, predict sub-equal crust and mantle contributions, with ~1% of the total flux from man-made nuclear reactors.

  3. AGM2015: Antineutrino Global Map 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, S. M.; Jocher, G. R.; Dye, S. T.; McDonough, W. F.; Learned, J. G.

    2015-09-01

    Every second greater than 1025 antineutrinos radiate to space from Earth, shining like a faint antineutrino star. Underground antineutrino detectors have revealed the rapidly decaying fission products inside nuclear reactors, verified the long-lived radioactivity inside our planet, and informed sensitive experiments for probing fundamental physics. Mapping the anisotropic antineutrino flux and energy spectrum advance geoscience by defining the amount and distribution of radioactive power within Earth while critically evaluating competing compositional models of the planet. We present the Antineutrino Global Map 2015 (AGM2015), an experimentally informed model of Earth’s surface antineutrino flux over the 0 to 11 MeV energy spectrum, along with an assessment of systematic errors. The open source AGM2015 provides fundamental predictions for experiments, assists in strategic detector placement to determine neutrino mass hierarchy, and aids in identifying undeclared nuclear reactors. We use cosmochemically and seismologically informed models of the radiogenic lithosphere/mantle combined with the estimated antineutrino flux, as measured by KamLAND and Borexino, to determine the Earth’s total antineutrino luminosity at . We find a dominant flux of geo-neutrinos, predict sub-equal crust and mantle contributions, with ~1% of the total flux from man-made nuclear reactors.

  4. Reactor monitoring and safeguards using antineutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, N S

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactors, as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway across the globe.

  5. Precise Measurement of Neutrino and Anti-neutrino Differential Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Tzanov, M; Boyd, S; McDonald, J; Radescu, V; Adams, T; Alton, A; Avvakumov, S; De Barbaro, L; De Barbaro, P; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, A; Bolton, T; Brau, J E; Buchholz, D; Budd, H; Bugel, L; Conrad, J; Drucker, R B; Fleming, B T; Frey, R; Formaggio, J A; Goldman, J; Goncharov, M; Harris, D A; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; Koutsoliotas, S; Lamm, M J; Marsh, W; Mason, D; McFarland, K S; McNulty, C; Nienaber, P; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schellman, H; Shaevitz, M H; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E G; Suwonjandee, N; Tobien, N; Vakili, M; Vaitaitis, A; Yang, U K; Yu, J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2006-01-01

    The NuTeV experiment at Fermilab has obtained a unique high statistics sample of neutrino and anti-neutrino interactions using its high-energy sign-selected beam. We present a measurement of the differential cross section for charged-current neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering from iron. Structure functions, F_2(x,Q^2) and xF_3(x,Q^2), are determined by fitting the inelasticity, y, dependence of the cross sections. This measurement has significantly improved systematic precision as a consequence of more precise understanding of hadron and muon energy scales.

  6. Experimental Determination of the Antineutrino Spectrum of the Fission Products of $^{238}$U

    CERN Document Server

    Haag, N; Hofmann, M; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Schreckenbach, K; Wagner, F M

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was performed at the scientific neutron source FRM II in Garching to determine the cumulative antineutrino spectrum of the fission products of $^{238}$U. This was achieved by irradiating target foils of natural uranium with a thermal and a fast neutron beam and recording the emitted $\\beta$-spectra with a gamma-suppressing electron-telescope. The obtained $\\beta$-spectrum of the fission products of $^{235}$U was normalized to the data of the magnetic spectrometer BILL of $^{235}$U. This method strongly reduces systematic errors in the $^{238}$U measurement. The $\\beta$-spectrum of $^{238}$U was converted into the corresponding antineutrino spectrum. The final $\\bar\

  7. Search for Lorentz invariance and CPT violation with muon antineutrinos in the MINOS Near Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2012-02-01

    We have searched for sidereal variations in the rate of antineutrino interactions in the MINOS Near Detector. Using antineutrinos produced by the NuMI beam, we find no statistically significant sidereal modulation in the rate. When this result is placed in the context of the Standard Model Extension theory we are able to place upper limits on the coefficients defining the theory. These limits are used in combination with the results from an earlier analysis of MINOS neutrino data to further constrain the coefficients.

  8. The Physics of antineutrinos in DUNE and resolution of octant degeneracy

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Newton; Goswami, Srubabati

    2016-01-01

    We study the capability of the DUNE experiment, which will be the first beam based experiment with a wide band flux profile, to uncover the octant of the leptonic mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$ (i.e., $\\theta_{23}$ is $45^\\circ$). In this work, we find that for the DUNE baseline of 1300 km, due to enhanced matter effect, the neutrino and antineutrino probabilities are different which creates a tension in the case of combined runs because of which octant sensitivity also can come from disappearance channel. In view of this, we study the physics of antineutrinos in DUNE and explore the role of antineutrinos run that is required to resolve the octant degeneracy at a certain confidence levels.

  9. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Gas System

    CERN Document Server

    Band, H R; Chu, M-C; Heeger, K M; Kwok, M W; Shih, K; Wise, T; Xiao, Q

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya...

  10. Reactor Antineutrinos: From Confusion to Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Antineutrinos emitted by nuclear reactors have been a powerful tool for particle physics, demonstrating the existence of these weakly-interacting particles as well as their flavor oscillation. Despite these successes, our understanding of the total flux and energy spectra of reactor antineutrinos has been fraught with problems. I will give a brief overview of the unexpected developments in this field, and discuss upcoming measurements of antineutrinos, beta decays, and nuclear fission which are relevant to these questions. These measurements are expected to clarify many currently murky issues, including the hypothetical oscillation of reactor antineutrinos to sterile states. The results should also provide a unique perspective into the nuclear physics of fission reactors. DOE OHEP DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  11. Web Application for Modeling Global Antineutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Barna, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Electron antineutrinos stream freely from rapidly decaying fission products within nuclear reactors and from long-lived radioactivity within Earth. Those with energy greater than 1.8 MeV are regularly observed by several kiloton-scale underground detectors. These observations estimate the amount of terrestrial radiogenic heating, monitor the operation of nuclear reactors, and measure the fundamental properties of neutrinos. The analysis of antineutrino observations at operating detectors or the planning of projects with new detectors requires information on the expected signal and background rates. We present a web application for modeling global antineutrino energy spectra and detection rates for any surface location. Antineutrino sources include all registered nuclear reactors as well as the crust and mantle of Earth. Visitors to the website may model the location and power of a hypothetical nuclear reactor, copy energy spectra, and analyze the significance of a selected signal relative to background.

  12. Neutrino Data and Neutrino-Antineutrino Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeyev, E N

    2005-01-01

    A problem, whether a neutrino-antineutrino transition could be responsible for the muon neutrino deficit found in underground experiments (Super-Kamiokande, MACRO, Soudan 2) and in the accelerator long-baseline K2K experiment, is discussed in this paper. The intention of the work is not consideration of concrete models for muon neutrino-antineutrino transition but a desire to attract an attention to another possibility of understanding the nature of the measured muon neutrino deficit in neutrino experiments.

  13. Antineutrino monitoring of spent nuclear fuel

    CERN Document Server

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Military and civilian applications of nuclear energy have left a significant amount of spent nuclear fuel over the past 70 years. Currently, in many countries world wide, the use of nuclear energy is on the rise. Therefore, the management of highly radioactive nuclear waste is a pressing issue. In this letter, we explore antineutrino detectors as a tool for monitoring and safeguarding nuclear waste material. We compute the flux and spectrum of antineutrinos emitted by spent nuclear fuel elements as a function of time, and we illustrate the usefulness of antineutrino detectors in several benchmark scenarios. In particular, we demonstrate how a measurement of the antineutrino flux can help to re-verify the contents of a dry storage cask in case the monitoring chain by conventional means gets disrupted. We then comment on the usefulness of antineutrino detectors at long-term storage facilities such as Yucca mountain. Finally, we put forward antineutrino detection as a tool in locating underground "hot spots" in ...

  14. Workshop applied antineutrino physics 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiri, T.; Andrieu, B.; Anjos, J.; Argyriades, J.; Barouch, G.; Bernstein, A.; Bersillon, O.; Besida, O.; Bowden, N.; Cabrera, A.; Calmet, D.; Collar, J.; Cribier, M.; Kerret, H. de; Meijer, R. de; Dudziak, F.; Enomoto, S.; Fallot, M.; Fioni, G.; Fiorentini, G.; Gale, Ph.; Georgadze, A.; Giot, L.; Gonin, M.; Guillon, B.; Henson, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kanamaru, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Kornoukhov, V.; Lasserre, Th.; Learned, J.G.; Lefebvre, J.; Letourneau, A.; Lhillier, D.; Lindner, M.; Lund, J.; Mantovani, F.; Mcdonough, B.; Mention, G.; Monteith, A.; Motta, D.; Mueller, Th.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Odrzywolek, A.; Petcov, S.; Porta, A.; Queval, R.; Reinhold, B.; Reyna, D.; Ridikas, D.; Sadler, L.; Schoenert, St.; Sida, J.L.; Sinev, V.; Suekane, F.; Suvorov, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Tang, A.; Tolich, N.; Tolich, K.; Vanka, S.; Vignaud, D.; Volpe, Ch.; Wong, H

    2007-07-01

    The 'Applied Antineutrino Physics 2007' workshop is the fourth international meeting devoted to the opening of the neutrino physics to more applied fields, such as geophysics and geochemistry, nuclear industry, as well as the nonproliferation. This meeting highlights the world efforts already engaged to exploit the single characteristics of the neutrinos for the control of the production of plutonium in the civil nuclear power reactor. The potential industrial application of the measurement of the thermal power of the nuclear plants by the neutrinos is also approached. earth neutrinos were for the first time highlighted in 2002 by the KamLAND experiment. Several international efforts are currently underway to use earth neutrinos to reveal the interior of the Earth. This meeting is an opportunity to adapt the efforts of detection to the real needs of geophysicists and geochemists (sources of radiogenic heat, potassium in the court, feathers.) Finally more futuristic topics such as the detection of nuclear explosions, of low powers, are also discussed. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  15. Measuring Antineutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Justin John [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. A manmade beam of predominantly muon neutrinos is detected both 1 km and 735 km from the production point by two functionally identical detectors. A comparison of the energy spectra measured by the two detectors shows the energy-dependent disappearance of muon neutrinos characteristic of oscillations and allows a measurement of the parameters governing the oscillations. This thesis presents work leading to measurements of disappearance in the 6% $\\bar{v}$μ background in that beam. A calibration is developed to correct for time-dependent changes in the responses of both detectors, reducing the corresponding uncertainty on hadronic energy measurements from 1.8% to 0.4% in the near detector and from 0.8% to 0.4% in the far detector. A method of selecting charged current $\\bar{v}$μ events is developed, with purities (efficiencies) of 96.5% (74.4%) at the near detector, and 98.8% (70.9%) at the far detector in the region below 10 GeV reconstructed antineutrino energy. A method of using the measured near detector neutrino energy spectrum to predict that expected at the far detector is discussed, and developed for use in the $\\bar{v}$μ analysis. Sources of systematic uncertainty contributing to the oscillation measurements are discussed. In the far detector, 32 charged current $\\bar{v}$μ events are observed below a reconstructed energy of 30 GeV, compared to an expectation of 47.8 for Δ$\\bar{m}$atm2 = Δ$\\bar{m}$atm2, sin2(2$\\bar{θ}$23) = sin2(2θ23). This deficit, in such a low-statistics sample, makes the result difficult to interpret in the context of an oscillation parameter measurement. Possible sources for the discrepancy are discussed, concluding that considerably more data are required for a definitive solution. Running MINOS with a dedicated $\\bar

  16. Uncertainties in the Anti-neutrino Production at Nuclear Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Djurcic, Z.(Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439, U.S.A.); Detwiler, J. A.; Piepke, A.; Foster Jr., V. R.; Miller, L.; Gratta, G.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-neutrino emission rates from nuclear reactors are determined from thermal power measurements and fission rate calculations. The uncertainties in these quantities for commercial power plants and their impact on the calculated interaction rates in electron anti-neutrino detectors is examined. We discuss reactor-to-reactor correlations between the leading uncertainties and their relevance to reactor anti-neutrino experiments.

  17. Detection of Antineutrinos for Non-Proliferation

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto, M M; Teeter, C M; Wilson, W B; Stanbro, W D; Nieto, Michael Martin; Teeter, Corinne M.; Wilson, William B.; Stanbro, William D.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the feasibility of using the detection of electron antineutrinos produced in fission to monitor the time dependence of the Plutonium content of nuclear power reactors and large (> 1 MWatt) research reactors. If practical such a scheme would allow world-wide, automated monitoring of reactors and, thereby, the detection of proliferation attempts. Although this idea shows some promise, we find that a practical scheme is difficult to envision. We also consider using fission antineutrino spectra to determine and attribute the fuel in an unexploded nuclear device. We find it would not be possible to determine the isotopic content of such a device in this manner. Finally, we examine the possibility of antineutrino detection of an unannounced low-yield (~ 1kton) nuclear explosion. We argue this can be ruled out completely.

  18. Applied Anti-neutrino Physics 2013

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This year, the 9th annual Applied Antineutrino Physics Workshop will be hosted by Sejong University, at the COEX conference center in Seoul South Korea. The workshop will be held on November 1(Friday) - 2(Saturday), 2013. Conveniently for many travelers, it takes place directly after and at the same venue as the 2013 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium (http://www.nss-mic.org/2013/NSSMain.asp) Applied Antineutrino Physics describes an ensemble of experimental and theoretical efforts which aim to use the antineutrino signal from nuclear reactors, and from the Earth itself, in order to address practical problems in nonproliferation and geology respectively. Since the 2004 inception of these workshops, groups worldwide have made considerable advances in defining and expanding the field, garnering interest from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which administers the worlds most important nonproliferation regime, and from the geology/geophysics community. This meeting will focus on the current activi...

  19. Search for Time-Independent Lorentz Violation using Muon Neutrino to Muon Antineutrino Transitions in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P.; et al.

    2016-05-10

    Data from the MINOS experiment has been used to search for mixing between muon neutrinos and muon antineutrinos using a time-independent Lorentz-violating formalism derived from the Standard-Model Extension (SME). MINOS is uniquely capable of searching for muon neutrino-antineutrino mixing given its long baseline and ability to distinguish between neutrinos and antineutrinos on an event-by-event basis. Neutrino and antineutrino interactions were observed in the MINOS Near and Far Detectors from an exposure of 10.56$\\times10^{20}$ protons-on-target from the NuMI neutrino-optimized beam. No evidence was found for such transitions and new, highly stringent limits were placed on the SME coefficients governing them. We place the first limits on the SME parameters $(c_{L})^{TT}_{\\mu\\mu} $ and $(c_{L})^{TT}_{\\tau\\tau}$ at $-8.4\\times10^{-23} < (c_{L})^{TT}_{\\mu\\mu} < 8.0\\times10^{-23}$ and $-8.0\\times10^{-23} < (c_{L})^{TT}_{\\tau\\tau} < 8.4\\times10^{-23}$, and the world's best limits on the $\\tilde{g}^{ZT}_{\\mu\\overline{\\mu}}$ and $\\tilde{g}^{ZT}_{\\tau\\overline{\\tau}}$ parameters at $|\\tilde{g}^{ZT}_{\\mu\\overline{\\mu}}| < 3.3\\times 10^{-23}$ and $|\\tilde{g}^{ZT}_{\\tau\\overline{\\tau}}| < 3.3\\times 10^{-23}$, all limits quoted at $3\\sigma$.

  20. Search for time-independent Lorentz violation using muon neutrino to muon antineutrino transitions in MINOS

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Aurisano, A; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Carroll, T J; Castromonte, C M; Chen, R; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; de Jong, J K; de Rijck, S; Devan, A V; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Flanagan, W; Frohne, M V; Gabrielyan, M; Gallagher, H R; Germani, S; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hahn, S R; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Holin, A; Huang, J; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGivern, C; Medeiros, M M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Sher, S Moed; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; O'Connor, J; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R B; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Perch, A; Pfützner, M M; Phan, D D; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Poonthottathil, N; Qiu, X; Radovic, A; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sail, P; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tian, X; Timmons, A; Todd, J; Tognini, S C; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S G; Zwaska, R

    2016-01-01

    Data from the MINOS experiment has been used to search for mixing between muon neutrinos and muon antineutrinos using a time-independent Lorentz-violating formalism derived from the Standard-Model Extension (SME). MINOS is uniquely capable of searching for muon neutrino-antineutrino mixing given its long baseline and ability to distinguish between neutrinos and antineutrinos on an event-by-event basis. Neutrino and antineutrino interactions were observed in the MINOS Near and Far Detectors from an exposure of 10.56$\\times10^{20}$ protons-on-target from the NuMI neutrino-optimized beam. No evidence was found for such transitions and new, highly stringent limits were placed on the SME coefficients governing them. We place the first limits on the SME parameters $(c_{L})^{TT}_{\\mu\\mu} $ and $(c_{L})^{TT}_{\\tau\\tau}$ at $-8.4\\times10^{-23} < (c_{L})^{TT}_{\\mu\\mu} < 8.0\\times10^{-23}$ and $-8.0\\times10^{-23} < (c_{L})^{TT}_{\\tau\\tau} < 8.4\\times10^{-23}$, and the world's best limits on the $\\tilde{g}^{Z...

  1. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurement with the MINOS near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Debdatta [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 106 neutrino events and 1.60 x 105 antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section.

  2. Reactor antineutrino fluxes - status and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we describe the current understanding of reactor antineutrino fluxes and point out some recent developments. This is not intended to be a complete review of this vast topic but merely a selection of observations and remarks, which despite their incompleteness, will highlight the status and the challenges of this field.

  3. Reactor antineutrino fluxes – Status and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Patrick, E-mail: pahuber@vt.edu

    2016-07-15

    In this contribution we describe the current understanding of reactor antineutrino fluxes and point out some recent developments. This is not intended to be a complete review of this vast topic but merely a selection of observations and remarks, which despite their incompleteness, will highlight the status and the challenges of this field.

  4. Measurement of muon-neutrino and -antineutrino scattering off electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Faissner, Helmut; Bobisut, F; De Witt, H; Fasold, H G; Frenzel, E; Hansl, T; Hoffmann, D; Huzita, H; Loreti, M; Maull, K; Puglierin, G; Radermacher, E; Reithler, H; Scotoni, I; Vascon, Mario

    1978-01-01

    Muon-neutrino and -antineutrino scattering off electrons was detected in a 19-ton Al spark chamber, exposed to the wide-band nu ( nu ) beam from the CERN proton synchrotron. The background was determined experimentally. 11 (10) genuine nu /sub mu -/( nu /sub mu -/) e scattering events were found. The respective cross sections are (1.1+or-0.6)*10/sup -42/ (E/sub nu //GeV) cm/sup 2/ and (2.2+or-1.0) *10/sup -42/ (E/sub nu //GeV) cm/sup 2/. The analysis excludes a pure V-A interaction, and makes a pure V or A theory improbable. The data agree well with the Salam-Weinberg model and sin/sup 2/ theta /sub w /=0.35+or-0.08. (13 refs).

  5. High flux lithium antineutrino source with variable hard spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Lyashuk, V I

    2016-01-01

    The high flux antineutrino source with hard antineutrino spectrum based on neutron activation of 7Li and subsequent fast beta-decay (T 1/2 = 0.84 s) of the 8Li isotope with emission of antineutrino with energy up to 13 MeV - is discussed. Creation of the intensive isotope neutrino source of hard spectrum will allow to increase the detection statistics of neutrino interaction and it is especially urgent for oscillation experiments. The scheme of the proposed neutrino source is based on the continuous transport of the created 8Li to the neutrino detector, which moved away from the place of neutron activation. Analytical expressions for lithium antineutrino flux is obtained. The discussed source will ensure to increase the cross section for reactions with deuteron from several times to tens compare to the reactor antineutrino spectrum. An another unique feature of the installation is the possibility to vary smoothly the hardness of the antineutrino spectrum.

  6. Precisely determined the spent nuclear fuel antineutrino flux and spectrum for Daya Bay antineutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, X B; Chen, Y X; Zhong, W L; An, F P

    2015-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) antineutrino flux is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino flux prediction. However, if one want to determine the contribution of spent fuel, many data are needed, such as the amount of spent fuel in the pool, the time after discharged from the reactor core, the burnup of each assembly, and the antineutrino spectrum of the isotopes in the spend fuel. A method to calculate the contribution of SNF is proposed in this study. In this method, reactor simulation code verified by experiment have been used to simulate the fuel depletion by taking into account more than 2000 isotopes and fission products, the quantity of SNF in each six spend fuel pool, and the antineutrino spectrum of SNF varying with time after SNF discharged from core. Results show that the contribution of SNF to the total antineutrino flux is about 0.26%~0.34%, and the shutdown impact is about 20%. The SNF spectrum would distort the softer part of antineutrino spectra, and the maximum contribution fro...

  7. Precision spectroscopy with reactor anti-neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, P; Huber, Patrick; Schwetz, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In this work we present an accurate parameterization of the anti-neutrino flux produced by the isotopes 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu in nuclear reactors. We determine the coefficients of this parameterization, as well as their covariance matrix, by performing a fit to spectra inferred from experimentally measured beta spectra. Subsequently we show that flux shape uncertainties play only a minor role in the KamLAND experiment, however, we find that future reactor neutrino experiments to measure the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ are sensitive to the fine details of the reactor neutrino spectra. Finally, we investigate the possibility to determine the isotopic composition in nuclear reactors through an anti-neutrino measurement. We find that with a 3 month exposure of a one ton detector the isotope fractions and the thermal reactor power can be determined at a few percent accuracy, which may open the possibility of an application for safeguard or non-proliferation objectives.

  8. Hanohano:A Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Batygov, M; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Pakvasa, S; Varner, G

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii and elsewhere. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observaory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables preecision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and theta_13. At a mid-Pacific location, the observatory measures the flux of uranium and thorium decay series antineutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral homogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle. These measurements have significance for earth energy studies.

  9. The antineutrino energy structure in reactor experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Novella, P

    2015-01-01

    The recent observation of an energy structure in the reactor antineutrino spectrum is reviewed. The reactor experiments Daya Bay, Double Chooz and RENO have reported a consistent excess of antineutrinos deviating from the flux predictions, with a local significance of about 4$\\sigma$ between 4 and 6 MeV of the positron energy spectrum. The possible causes of the structure are analyzed in this work, along with the different experimental approaches developed to identify its origin. Considering the available data and results from the three experiments, the most likely explanation concerns the reactor flux predictions and the associated uncertainties. Therefore, the different current models are described and compared. The possible sources of incompleteness or inaccuracy of such models are discussed, as well as the experimental data required to improve their precision.

  10. Reactor Antineutrino Signals at Morton and Boulby

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the distance from which an antineutrino detector is capable of monitoring the operation of a registered reactor, or discovering a clandestine reactor, strengthens the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty. This report presents calculations of reactor antineutrino interactions, from quasi-elastic neutrino-proton scattering and elastic neutrino-electron scattering, in a water-based detector operated >10 km from a commercial power reactor. It separately calculates signal from the proximal reactor and background from all other registered reactors. The main results are interaction rates and kinetic energy distributions of charged leptons scattered from quasi-elastic and elastic processes. Comparing signal and background distributions evaluates reactor monitoring capability. Scaling the results to detectors of different sizes, target media, and standoff distances is straightforward. Calculations are for two examples of a commercial reactor (P_th~3 GW) operating nearby (L~20 km) an underground facil...

  11. KamLAND, solar antineutrinos and the solar magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, B C; Torrente-Lujan, E; Chauhan, Bhag C.; Pulido, Joao

    2003-01-01

    In this work the possibility of detecting solar electron antineutrinos produced by a solar core magnetic field from the KamLAND recent observations is investigated. We find a scaling of the antineutrino probability with respect to the magnetic field profile in the sense that the same probability function can be reproduced by any profile with a suitable peak field value. In this way the solar electron antineutrino spectrum can be unambiguosly predicted. We use this scaling and the negative results indicated by the KamLAND experiment to obtain upper bounds on the solar electron antineutrino flux. We get $\\phi_{\\bar\

  12. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C; Nieto, Michael Martin; WIlson, W B

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  13. New (anti)neutrino results from the T2K experiment on CP violation in the lepton sector

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    T2K is a long-baseline neutrino experiment in which a muon neutrino beam produced by J-PARC in Tokai is sent 295 km across Japan to the Super-Kamiokande detector, to study neutrino oscillations via the disappearance of muon neutrinos and the appearance of electron neutrinos. Since the start of operations in 2010, T2K has conclusively observed muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations, opening the door to the observation of CP violation in neutrino mixing, and performed the most precise measurement of the muon neutrino disappearance parameters. In a joint analysis between these two modes, T2K placed its first constraints on the CP-violating phase delta. Starting in 2014, T2K has been running primarily with an antineutrino beam in order to study the corresponding antineutrino oscillations, resulting in leading measurements of the muon antineutrino disappearance parameters. The joint analysis of neutrino and antineutrino data indicates that CP-conserving parameters lie outside the 90% confidence interval....

  14. Measurements of the inclusive neutrino and antineutrino charged current cross sections in MINERvA using the low-ν flux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devan, J.; Ren, L.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Endress, E.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    The total cross sections are important ingredients for the current and future neutrino oscillation experiments. We present measurements of the total charged-current neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on scintillator (CH) in the NuMI low-energy beamline using an in situ prediction of the shape of the flux as a function of neutrino energy from 2-50 GeV. This flux prediction takes advantage of the fact that neutrino and antineutrino interactions with low nuclear recoil energy (ν ) have a nearly constant cross section as a function of incident neutrino energy. This measurement is the lowest energy application of the low-ν flux technique, the first time it has been used in the NuMI antineutrino beam configuration, and demonstrates that the technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies. The cross section measurements presented are the most precise measurements to date below 5 GeV.

  15. Assembly and Installation of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Band, H R; Carr, R; Chen, X C; Chen, X H; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Draeger, E; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Gill, R; Goett, J; Greenler, L S; Gu, W Q; He, W S; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Hinrichs, P; Ho, T H; Hoff, M; Hsiung, Y B; Jin, Y; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Lewis, C A; Li, G S; Li, N; Li, S F; Li, X N; Lin, C J; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, J L; Luk, K B; Luo, X L; Ma, X Y; McFarlane, M C; McKeown, R D; Nakajima, Y; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Pagac, A; Qian, X; Seilhan, B; Shih, K; Steiner, H; Tang, X; Themann, H; Tsang, K V; Tsang, R H M; Virostek, S; Wang, L; Wang, W; Wang, Z M; Webber, D M; Wei, Y D; Wen, L J; Wenman, D L; Wilhelmi, J; Wingert, M; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wu, F F; Xiao, Q; Yang, L; Zhang, Z J; Zhong, W L; Zhuang, H L

    2013-01-01

    The Daya Bay reactor antineutrino experiment is designed to make a precision measurement of the neutrino mixing angle theta13, and recently made the definitive discovery of its nonzero value. It utilizes a set of eight, functionally identical antineutrino detectors to measure the reactor flux and spectrum at baselines of 300 - 2000m from the Daya Bay and Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plants. The Daya Bay antineutrino detectors were built in an above-ground facility and deployed side-by-side at three underground experimental sites near and far from the nuclear reactors. This configuration allows the experiment to make a precision measurement of reactor antineutrino disappearance over km-long baselines and reduces relative systematic uncertainties between detectors and nuclear reactors. This paper describes the assembly and installation of the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors.

  16. Uncertainty analysis of fission fraction for reactor antineutrino experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X. B.; Lu, F.; Wang, L. Z.; Chen, Y. X.; Zhong, W. L.; An, F. P.

    2016-06-01

    Reactor simulation is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. Therefore, how to evaluate the antineutrino flux uncertainty results from reactor simulation is an important question. In this study, a method of the antineutrino flux uncertainty result from reactor simulation was proposed by considering the correlation coefficient. In order to use this method in the Daya Bay antineutrino experiment, the open source code DRAGON was improved and used for obtaining the fission fraction and correlation coefficient. The average fission fraction between DRAGON and SCIENCE code was compared and the difference was less than 5% for all the four isotopes. The uncertainty of fission fraction was evaluated by comparing simulation atomic density of four main isotopes with Takahama-3 experiment measurement. After that, the uncertainty of the antineutrino flux results from reactor simulation was evaluated as 0.6% per core for Daya Bay antineutrino experiment.

  17. JUNO: A Next Generation Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The mass hierarchy and the CP phase are the main focus of the next generation neutrino oscillation experiments. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), as a medium baseline reactor antineutrino experiment, can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy independent of the CP phase. The physics potential on the mass hierarchy, and other measurements are reviewed. The preliminary design options for a 20~kton detector with an energy resolution of $3\\%/\\sqrt{E_{vis}}$ are illustrated. The main technical challenges on the PMT and scintillator are discussed and the corresponding R\\&D efforts are presented.

  18. Measurement of the Antineutrino to Neutrino Charged-Current Interaction Cross Section Ratio in MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, L.; et al.

    2017-01-17

    We present measurements of the neutrino and antineutrino total charged-current cross sections on carbon and their ratio using the MINERvA scintillator-tracker. The measurements span the energy range 2-22 GeV and were performed using forward and reversed horn focusing modes of the Fermilab low-energy NuMI beam to obtain large neutrino and antineutrino samples. The flux is obtained using a sub-sample of charged-current events at low hadronic energy transfer along with precise higher energy external neutrino cross section data overlapping with our energy range between 12-22 GeV. We also report on the antineutrino-neutrino cross section ratio, Rcc, which does not rely on external normalization information. Our ratio measurement, obtained within the same experiment using the same technique, benefits from the cancellation of common sample systematic uncertainties and reaches a precision of 5% at low energy. Our results for the antineutrino-nucleus scattering cross section and for Rcc are the most precise to date in the energy range $E_{\

  19. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  20. Antineutrino reactor safeguards - a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Eric; Jaffke, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Antineutrinos have been proposed as a means of reactor safeguards for more than 30 years and there has been impressive experimental progress in neutrino detection. In this paper we conduct, for the first time, a case study of the application of antineutrino safeguards to a real-world scenario - the North Korean nuclear crisis in 1994. We derive detection limits to a partial or full core discharge in 1989 based on actual IAEA safeguards access and find that two independent methods would have yielded positive evidence for a second core with very high confidence. To generalize our results, we provide detailed estimates for the sensitivity to the plutonium content of various types of reactors, including most types of plutonium production reactors, based on detailed reactor simulations. A key finding of this study is that a wide class of reactors with a thermal power of less than 0.1-1 GWth can be safeguarded achieving IAEA goals for quantitative sensitivity and timeliness with detectors right outside the reactor ...

  1. The structure of the weak neutral current an analysis of the hadronic energy distribution from neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Deden, H; Baruzzi, V; Beuselinck, R; Bloch, M; Clayton, E F; Cundy, Donald C; Davis, C L; Deutschmann, Martin; Emans, H; Figiel, J; Fritze, P; Geich-Gimbel, C; Grant, A; Grässler, Herbert; Grossmann, P; Haidt, D; Hartmann, R; Hasert, F J; Hulth, P O; Keller, A; Kocher, D J; Kokott, T P; McGow, R; Miller, D B; Morfin, J; Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston; Mulvey, J H; Myatt, G; Nellen, B; Pagiola, E; Pape, L; Pech, R; Perkins, Donald Hill; Peterson, V; Peyrou, Charles; Pons, R; Porth, Paul; Powell, K J; Radojicic, D; Renton, P B; Sacquin, Yu; Saitta, B; Schmid, P; Schulte, R; Schultze, K; Scott, W G; Seyfert, H; Stenger, V; Tallini, B; Vignaud, D; Wachsmuth, H W; Wernhard, Karl-Ludwig

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the distribution of hadronic energy in neutrino and antineutrino neutral current interactions occurring in BEBC, filled with a neon-hydrogen mixture and exposed to the CERN-SPS narrow-band neutrino beam. This shows that the contributions by scalar or pseudo-scalar forms of the interaction are consistent with zero and pure V, A and V+A are excluded; there is good agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model. (10 refs).

  2. Testing Geological Models with Terrestrial Antineutrino Flux Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Uranium and thorium are the main heat producing elements in the earth. Their quantities and distributions, which specify the flux of detectable antineutrinos generated by the beta decay of their daughter isotopes, remain unmeasured. Geological models of the continental crust and the mantle predict different quantities and distributions of uranium and thorium. Many of these differences are resolvable with precision measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. This precision depends on both statistical and systematic uncertainties. An unavoidable background of antineutrinos from nuclear reactors typically dominates the systematic uncertainty. This report explores in detail the capability of various operating and proposed geo-neutrino detectors for testing geological models.

  3. Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Stephen T

    2008-01-01

    Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce a major portion of terrestrial heat along with a measurable flux of electron antineutrinos. These elements are key components in geophysical and geochemical models. Their quantity and distribution drive the dynamics, define the thermal history, and are a consequence of the differentiation of the Earth. Knowledge of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemical model calculations. This research report describes the methods and criteria to experimentally determine average concentrations of uranium and thorium in the continental crust and in the mantle using site-specific measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. Optimal, model-independent determinations involve significant exposures of antineutrino detectors remote from nuclear reactors at both a mid-continental and a mid-oceanic site. This would require major, new antineutrino detection projects. The results of such projects could yield a greatly improved understa...

  4. Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    An, F P; Balantekin, A B; Band, H R; Beavis, D; Beriguete, W; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Brown, R L; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Carr, R; Chan, W T; Chang, J F; Chang, Y; Chasman, C; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, S J; Chen, S M; Chen, X C; Chen, X H; Chen, X S; Chen, Y; Chen, Y X; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Cummings, J P; Deng, Z Y; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dong, L; Draeger, E; Du, X F; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Ely, S R; Fang, S D; Fu, J Y; Fu, Z W; Ge, L Q; Ghazikhanian, V; Gill, R L; Goett, J; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Gornushkin, Y A; Greenler, L S; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, X H; Hackenburg, R W; Hahn, R L; Hans, S; He, M; He, Q; He, W S; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Hinrichs, P; Ho, T H; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, T; Hu, T; Huang, H X; Huang, H Z; Huang, P W; Huang, X; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; Jetter, S; Ji, X L; Ji, X P; Jiang, H J; Jiang, W Q; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Lai, C Y; Lai, W C; Lai, W H; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lee, M K P; Leitner, R; Leung, J K C; Leung, K Y; Lewis, C A; Li, B; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, J; Li, Q J; Li, S F; Li, W D; Li, X B; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, J; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, S K; Lin, S X; Lin, Y C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, B J; Liu, C; Liu, D W; Liu, H; Liu, J C; Liu, J L; Liu, S; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Luk, A; Luk, K B; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Ma, L H; Ma, Q M; Ma, X B; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y Q; Mayes, B; McDonald, K T; McFarlane, M C; McKeown, R D; Meng, Y; Mohapatra, D; Morgan, J E; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Nemchenok, I; Newsom, C; Ngai, H Y; Ngai, W K; Nie, Y B; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevski, A; Pagac, A; Patton, S; Pearson, C; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Piilonen, L E; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Seilhan, B; Shao, B B; Shih, K; Steiner, H; Stoler, P; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tam, Y H; Tanaka, H K; Tang, X; Themann, H; Torun, Y; Trentalange, S; Tsai, O; Tsang, K V; Tsang, R H M; Tull, C; Viren, B; Virostek, S; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, L S; Wang, L Y; Wang, L Z; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, T; Wang, W; Wang, X; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Webber, D M; Wei, Y D; Wen, L J; Wenman, D L; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Whitten, C A; Wilhelmi, J; Wise, T; Wong, H C; Wong, H L H; Wong, J; Worcester, E T; Wu, F F; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xiang, S T; Xiao, Q; Xing, Z Z; Xu, G; Xu, J; Xu, J; Xu, J L; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yang, C G; Yang, L; Ye, M; Yeh, M; Yeh, Y S; Yip, K; Young, B L; Yu, Z Y; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, F H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, K; Zhang, Q X; Zhang, S H; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y B; Zheng, L; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, Z Y; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has measured a non-zero value for the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ with a significance of 5.2 standard deviations. Antineutrinos from six 2.9 GW$_{\\rm th}$ reactors were detected in six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (flux-weighted baseline 470 m and 576 m) and one far (1648 m) underground experimental halls. With 55 days of data, 10416 (80376) electron antineutrino candidates were detected at the far hall (near halls). The ratio of the observed to expected number of antineutrinos at the far hall is $R=0.940\\pm 0.011({\\rm stat}) \\pm 0.004({\\rm syst})$. A rate-only analysis finds $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}=0.092\\pm 0.016({\\rm stat})\\pm0.005({\\rm syst})$ in a three-neutrino framework.

  5. Improved Scintillator Materials For Compact Electron Antineutrino Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter; Wortche, Heinrich J.; Browne, Wesley R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments provide new components holding the potential to improve the performance of liquid scintillation electron antineutrino detectors used as nuclear reactors monitors. Current systems raise issues regarding size, quantum efficiency, stability, and spatial resolution of the vertex dete

  6. Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Stephen T; Guillian, Eugene H

    2008-01-01

    Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce a major portion of terrestrial heat along with a measurable flux of electron antineutrinos. These elements are key components in geophysical and geochemical models. Their quantity and distribution drive the dynamics, define the thermal history, and are a consequence of the differentiation of the Earth. Knowledge of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemical model calculations. This article describes the methods and criteria to experimentally determine average concentrations of uranium and thorium in the continental crust and in the mantle by using site-specific measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. Optimal, model-independent determinations involve significant exposures of antineutrino detectors remote from nuclear reactors at both a midcontinental and a midoceanic site. This would require major, new antineutrino detection projects. The results of such projects could yield a greatly improved understanding of the deep interior of the Earth.

  7. Geoneutrinos and reactor antineutrinos at SNO+

    CERN Document Server

    Baldoncini, M; Wipperfurth, S A; Fiorentini, G; Mantovani, F; McDonough, W F; Ricci, B

    2016-01-01

    In the heart of the Creighton Mine near Sudbury (Canada), the SNO+ detector is foreseen to observe almost in equal proportion electron antineutrinos produced by U and Th in the Earth and by nuclear reactors. SNO+ will be the first long baseline experiment to measure a reactor signal dominated by CANDU cores ($\\sim$55\\% of the total reactor signal), which generally burn natural uranium. Approximately 18\\% of the total geoneutrino signal is generated by the U and Th present in the rocks of the Huronian Supergroup-Sudbury Basin: the 60\\% uncertainty on the signal produced by this lithologic unit plays a crucial role on the discrimination power on the mantle signal as well as on the geoneutrino spectral shape reconstruction, which can in principle provide a direct measurement of the Th/U ratio in the Earth.

  8. Applications of Antineutrino Monitoring to Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Antineutrinos are highly penetrating particles emitted by the fission process in operating nuclear power and research reactors. Their rate of emission and energy spectrum can provide useful information about reactor operations, including the existence of the reactor, its power level, and the fissile mass inventories in the core. Because the signal cannot be attenuated or masked, this information can be gathered at long standoff outside the core (further detail is available in [1]). Building on our group’s successful experimental demonstrations of plutonium content monitoring at 25 meters from a reactor core, the goal of this project is to demonstrate detectors for reactor monitoring and discovery detectors at increasing standoffs, out to a practical limit of about 1000 kilometers. Our two main goals for FY16 and 17 are: 1) design a detector capable of monitoring nuclear reactor operations at 25 kilometer standoff, and 2) engag

  9. Applications of Antineutrino Monitoring to Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-04

    Antineutrinos are highly penetrating particles emitted by the fission process in operating nuclear power and research reactors. Their rate of emission and energy spectrum can provide useful information about reactor operations, including the existence of the reactor, its power level, and the fissile mass inventories in the core. Because the signal cannot be attenuated or masked, this information can be gathered at long standoff outside the core. Building on our group’s successful experimental demonstrations of plutonium content monitoring at 25 meters from a reactor core, the goal of this project is to demonstrate detectors for reactor monitoring and discovery detectors at increasing standoffs, out to a practical limit of about 1000 kilometers. Our two main goals for FY16 and 17 are: 1) design a detector capable of monitoring nuclear reactor operations at 25 kilometer standoff, and 2) engage in a cooperative effort to monitor a former plutonium production reactor in India (at close range).

  10. Simulation of the SONGS Reactor Antineutrino Flux Using DRAGON

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, C L

    2011-01-01

    For reactor antineutrino experiments, a thorough understanding of the fuel composition and isotopic evolution is of paramount importance for the extraction of $\\theta_{13}$. To accomplish these goals, we employ the deterministic lattice code DRAGON, and analyze the instantaneous antineutrino rate from the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Unit 2 reactor in California. DRAGON's ability to predict the rate for two consecutive fuel cycles is examined.

  11. Limits on the oscillation plus decay model using published MINOS neutrino and antineutrino data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Abner Leonel Gadelha; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Peres, Orlando Goulart [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The neutrino oscillation model is the theoretical model that explains the so called anomalous neutrino phenomena. Models such as neutrino decay and decoherence failed to explain the neutrino experimental results. Nevertheless, it was proposed that the oscillation model could be the dominant model with the possibility to add alternative models to it and determine limits for the parameters of the additional models. In this phenomenological work we considered the neutrino oscillation plus decay model and used the published data from the MINOS experiment. MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino experiment with two magnetized detectors (the Near Detector at Fermilab, 1 km from the target and depth of 225 meters of water equivalent (mwe), and the Far Detector at Soudan, MN, 735 km from the target and depth of 2100 mwe) exposed to the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam. We used recent results from neutrino and antineutrino configurations of the NuMI beam and fitted by a 2-flavor oscillation model - transition from ν{sub μ} (ν{sub -}bar{sub μ}) to ν{sub τ} (ν{sub -}bar{sub τ}). We show the best fit and allowed region found for neutrino and antineutrino data, reproducing the published results. We then combined the data and under the oscillation plus decay framework calculated 1D and 2D allowed regions to determine limits for the decay parameter. (author)

  12. Status of the Prediction of Reactor Anti-neutrino Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallot, Muriel

    2015-04-01

    New generation neutrino physics experiments at reactors have recently determined the value of the θ13 mixing angle. Even though their principle is to use multiple detectors allowing to minimize the influence of reactor and nuclear physics ingredients on their results, these ingredients cannot be totally eliminated. They include reactor simulations, but also new computations of reactor anti-neutrino energy spectra. Recently, after a new computation of the reactor anti-neutrino energy spectra, based on the conversion of integral data of the beta spectra from 235U, and 239;241Pu, a deficit of reactor anti-neutrinos measured by short baseline experiments was pointed out. This is called the reactor anomaly, a new puzzle in the neutrino physics area. Since then, numerous new experimental neutrino projects have emerged. In parallel, computations of the anti-neutrino spectra independent from the ILL data would be desirable. One possibility is the use of the summation method, summing all the contributions of the fission product beta decay branches that can be found in nuclear databases. Studies have shown that in order to obtain reliable summation anti-neutrino energy spectra, new nuclear physics measurements of selected fission product beta decay properties are required. Lately, the first integral measurement of the beta spectrum associated to fast fission of 238U has been performed. Even more recently, the question of the influence of forbidden decays in the determination of reactor anti-neutrino energy spectrum has been raised. At this conference, we will present the methods used to compute reactor anti-neutrino energy spectra, the recent published developments on the topic, remaining open questions and some experimental outlooks.

  13. Experimental determination of the antineutrino spectrum of the fission products of {sup 238}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, Nils-Holger

    2013-10-09

    Fission of {sup 238}U contributes about 10 % to the antineutrino emission of a pressurized water reactor. In the present thesis, the beta spectrum of the fission products of {sup 238}U was determined in an experiment at the neutron source FRM II. This beta spectrum was subsequently converted into an antineutrino spectrum. This first measurement of the antineutrino spectrum supports all current and future reactor antineutrino experiments.

  14. Progress Towards Deployable Antineutrino Detectors for Reactor Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, N; Bernstein, A; Dazeley, S; Keefer, G; Reyna, D; Cabrera-Palmer, B; Kiff, S

    2010-04-05

    Fission reactors emit large numbers of antineutrinos and this flux may be useful for the measurement of two quantities of interest for reactor safeguards: the reactor's power and plutonium inventory throughout its cycle. The high antineutrino flux and relatively low background rates means that simple cubic meter scale detectors at tens of meters standoff can record hundreds or thousands of antineutrino events per day. Such antineutrino detectors would add online, quasi-real-time bulk material accountancy to the set of reactor monitoring tools available to the IAEA and other safeguards agencies with minimal impact on reactor operations. Between 2003 and 2008, our LLNL/SNL collaboration successfully deployed several prototype safeguards detectors at a commercial reactor in order to test both the method and the practicality of its implementation in the field. Partially on the strength of the results obtained from these deployments, an Experts Meeting was convened by the IAEA Novel Technologies Group in 2008 to assess current antineutrino detection technology and examine how it might be incorporated into the safeguards regime. Here we present a summary of our previous deployments and discuss current work that seeks to provide expanded capabilities suggested by the Experts Panel, in particular aboveground detector operation.

  15. Yale High Energy Physics Research: Precision Studies of Reactor Antineutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeger, Karsten M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-09-13

    This report presents experimental research at the intensity frontier of particle physics with particular focus on the study of reactor antineutrinos and the precision measurement of neutrino oscillations. The experimental neutrino physics group of Professor Heeger and Senior Scientist Band at Yale University has had leading responsibilities in the construction and operation of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment and made critical contributions to the discovery of non-zero$\\theta_{13}$. Heeger and Band led the Daya Bay detector management team and are now overseeing the operations of the antineutrino detectors. Postdoctoral researchers and students in this group have made leading contributions to the Daya Bay analysis including the prediction of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, the analysis of the oscillation signal, and the precision determination of the target mass yielding unprecedented precision in the relative detector uncertainty. Heeger's group is now leading an R\\&D effort towards a short-baseline oscillation experiment, called PROSPECT, at a US research reactor and the development of antineutrino detectors with advanced background discrimination.

  16. Observation of the Isotopic Evolution of PWR Fuel Using an Antineutrino Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, N S; Dazeley, S; Svoboda, R; Misner, A; Palmer, T

    2008-01-01

    By operating an antineutrino detector of simple design during several fuel cycles, we have observed long term changes in antineutrino flux that result from the isotopic evolution of a commercial pressurized water reactor. Measurements made with simple antineutrino detectors of this kind offer an alternative means for verifying fissile inventories at reactors, as part of IAEA and other reactor safeguards regimes.

  17. A reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Baldoncini, Marica; Fiorentini, Giovanni; Mantovani, Fabio; Ricci, Barbara; Strati, Virginia; Xhixha, Gerti

    2014-01-01

    Antineutrinos produced at nuclear reactors constitute a severe source of background for the detection of geoneutrinos, which bring to the Earth's surface information about natural radioactivity in the whole planet. In this framework we provide a reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors, in view of reactors operational records yearly published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). We evaluate the expected signal from commercial reactors for ongoing (KamLAND and Borexino), planned (SNO+) and proposed (Juno, RENO-50, LENA and Hanohano) experimental sites. Uncertainties related to reactor antineutrino production, propagation and detection processes are estimated using a Monte Carlo based approach, which provides an overall site dependent uncertainty on the signal in the geoneutrino energy window on the order of 3%. We also implement the off-equilibrium correction to the reference reactor spectra associated with the long-lived isotopes and we estimate a 2.4% increase of the unoscillate...

  18. Data acquisition system for segmented reactor antineutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hons, Z.; Vlášek, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition system used for data readout from the PMT channels of a segmented detector of reactor antineutrinos with active shielding. Theoretical approach to the data acquisition is described and two possible solutions using QDCs and digitizers are discussed. Also described are the results of the DAQ performance during routine data taking operation of DANSS. DANSS (Detector of the reactor AntiNeutrino based on Solid Scintillator) is a project aiming to measure a spectrum of reactor antineutrinos using inverse beta decay (IBD) in a plastic scintillator. The detector is located close to an industrial nuclear reactor core and is covered by passive and active shielding. It is expected to have about 15000 IBD interactions per day. Light from the detector is sensed by PMT and SiPM.

  19. Simulation of Reactors for Antineutrino Experiments Using DRAGON

    CERN Document Server

    Winslow, L

    2011-01-01

    From the discovery of the neutrino to the precision neutrino oscillation measurements in KamLAND, nuclear reactors have proven to be an important source of antineutrinos. As their power and our knowledge of neutrino physics has increased, more sensitive measurements have become possible. The next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments require more detailed simulations of the reactor core. Many of the reactor simulation codes are proprietary which makes detailed studies difficult. Here we present the results of the open source DRAGON code and compare it to other industry standards for reactor modeling. We use published data from the Takahama reactor to determine the quality of the simulations. The propagation of the uncertainty to the antineutrino flux is also discussed.

  20. Antineutrino monitoring for the Iranian heavy water reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Eric; Jaffke, Patrick; Shea, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this note we discuss the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the Iranian heavy water reactor at Arak, the IR-40, as a non-proliferation measure. We demonstrate that an above ground detector positioned right outside the IR-40 reactor building could meet and in some cases significantly exceed the verification goals identified by IAEA for plutonium production or diversion from declared inventories. In addition to monitoring the reactor during operation, observing antineutrino emissions from long-lived fission products could also allow monitoring the reactor when it is shutdown. Antineutrino monitoring could also be used to distinguish different levels of fuel enrichment. Most importantly, these capabilities would not require a complete reactor operational history and could provide a means to re-establish continuity of knowledge in safeguards conclusions should this become necessary.

  1. Stopping power of neutrinos and antineutrinos in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustgi, M. L.; Leung, P. T.; Long, S. A. T.

    1985-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam model is applied to quantify the energy loss of antineutrinos and neutrinos encountering polymers. The scattering cross-sectional energy due to encounters with electrons is calculated, along with the probability that an antineutrino will remain the same particle. The energy loss reaches a maximum, i.e., stopping occurs, when the probability is unity. The technique is applied to study the energy losses in kapton, a solid organic insulator used for antennas on spacecraft exposed to solar neutrinos with energies ranging from 0.5-10 MeV. The energy loss is found to be negligible.

  2. Spectral Structure of Electron Antineutrinos from Nuclear Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Dwyer, D A

    2014-01-01

    Recent measurements of the positron energy spectrum obtained from inverse beta decay interactions of reactor electron antineutrinos show an excess in the 4 to 6 MeV region relative to current predictions. First-principle calculations of fission and beta decay processes within a typical pressurized water reactor core identify prominent fission daughter isotopes as a possible origin for this excess. These calculations also predict percent-level substructure in the antineutrino spectrum due to Coulomb effects in beta decay. Precise measurement of this substructure can constrain nuclear reactor physics. The substructure can be a systematic uncertainty for measurements utilizing the detailed spectral shape.

  3. Antineutrino Flux from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Chavez-Estrada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a calculation of the antineutrino flux produced by the reactors at the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant in México, based on the antineutrino spectra produced in the decay chains of the fission fragments of the main isotopes in the reactor core, and their fission rates, which have been calculated using the DRAGON simulation code. We also present an estimate of the number of expected events in a detector made of plastic scintillator with a mass of 1 ton, at 100 m from the reactor cores.

  4. Spectral structure of electron antineutrinos from nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, D A; Langford, T J

    2015-01-01

    Recent measurements of the positron energy spectrum obtained from inverse beta decay interactions of reactor electron antineutrinos show an excess in the 4 to 6 MeV region relative to current predictions. First-principles calculations of fission and beta decay processes within a typical pressurized water reactor core identify prominent fission daughter isotopes as a possible origin for this excess. These calculations also predict percent-level substructures in the antineutrino spectrum due to Coulomb effects in beta decay. Precise measurement of these substructures can elucidate the nuclear processes occurring within reactors. These substructures can be a systematic issue for measurements utilizing the detailed spectral shape.

  5. Geophysics with Hawaiian Anti-neutrino Observatory (Hanohano)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maricic, J., E-mail: jelena.maricic@physics.drexel.edu [Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 96822 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The design studies are under way for the deep ocean anti-neutrino observatory located in the vicinity of the Big Island (Hawaii) with the main goal of measuring geo-neutrino flux from the mantle and core which can exclusively be done in a location far from the continental plates such is Hawaiian Islands chain. Hanohano will also accomplish the definitive measurement of the electron anti-neutrino signal from the core to observe or eliminate a hypothetical natural reactor in the Earth's core.

  6. Geophysics with Hawaiian Anti-neutrino Observatory (Hanohano)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricic, J.; Hanohano Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The design studies are under way for the deep ocean anti-neutrino observatory located in the vicinity of the Big Island (Hawaii) with the main goal of measuring geo-neutrino flux from the mantle and core which can exclusively be done in a location far from the continental plates such is Hawaiian Islands chain. Hanohano will also accomplish the definitive measurement of the electron anti-neutrino signal from the core to observe or eliminate a hypothetical natural reactor in the Earth's core.

  7. Reactor Simulation for Antineutrino Experiments using DRAGON and MURE

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, C L; Conrad, J M; Djurcic, Z; Fallot, M; Giot, L; Keefer, G; Onillon, A; Winslow, L

    2011-01-01

    Rising interest in nuclear reactors as a source of antineutrinos for experiments motivates validated, fast, and accessible simulations to predict reactor fission rates. Here we present results from the DRAGON and MURE simulation codes and compare them to other industry standards for reactor core modeling. We use published data from the Takahama-3 reactor to evaluate the quality of these simulations against the independently measured fuel isotopic composition. The propagation of the uncertainty in the reactor operating parameters to the resulting antineutrino flux predictions is also discussed.

  8. Antineutrino flux from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez-Estrada, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    We present a a calculation of the antineutrino flux produced by the reactors at the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant in M\\'exico, based on the antineutrino spectra produced in the decay chains of the fission fragments of the main isotopes in the reactor core, and their fission rates, that have been calculated using the DRAGON simulation code. We also present an estimate of the number of expected events in a detector made of plastic scintillator with a mass of 1 ton, at 100 m from the reactor cores.

  9. Improved Measurement of Electron-antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, D.A. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    With 2.5× the previously reported exposure, the Daya Bay experiment has improved the measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter sin{sup 2}2θ{sub 13}=0.089±0.010(stat)±0.005(syst). Reactor anti-neutrinos were produced by six 2.9 GW{sub th} commercial power reactors, and measured by six 20-ton target-mass detectors of identical design. A total of 234,217 anti-neutrino candidates were detected in 127 days of exposure. An anti-neutrino rate of 0.944±0.007(stat)±0.003(syst) was measured by three detectors at a flux-weighted average distance of1648 m from the reactors, relative to two detectors at 470 m and one detector at 576 m. Detector design and depth underground limited the background to 5±0.3% (far detectors) and 2±0.2% (near detectors) of the candidate signals. The improved precision confirms the initial measurement of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance, and continues to be the most precise measurement of θ{sub 13}.

  10. Monitoring Akkuyu Nuclear Reactor Using Anti-Neutrino Flux Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Ozturk, Sertac; Ozcan, V Erkcan; Unel, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    We present a simulation based study for monitoring Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant's activity using anti-neutrino flux originating from the reactor core. A water Cherenkov detector has been designed and optimization studies have been performed using Geant4 simulation toolkit. A first study for the design of a monitoring detector facility for Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant has been discussed in this paper.

  11. Neutron Capture and the Antineutrino Yield from Nuclear Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Patrick; Jaffke, Patrick

    2016-03-25

    We identify a new, flux-dependent correction to the antineutrino spectrum as produced in nuclear reactors. The abundance of certain nuclides, whose decay chains produce antineutrinos above the threshold for inverse beta decay, has a nonlinear dependence on the neutron flux, unlike the vast majority of antineutrino producing nuclides, whose decay rate is directly related to the fission rate. We have identified four of these so-called nonlinear nuclides and determined that they result in an antineutrino excess at low energies below 3.2 MeV, dependent on the reactor thermal neutron flux. We develop an analytic model for the size of the correction and compare it to the results of detailed reactor simulations for various real existing reactors, spanning 3 orders of magnitude in neutron flux. In a typical pressurized water reactor the resulting correction can reach ∼0.9% of the low energy flux which is comparable in size to other, known low-energy corrections from spent nuclear fuel and the nonequilibrium correction. For naval reactors the nonlinear correction may reach the 5% level by the end of cycle.

  12. Neutron capture and the antineutrino yield from nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We identify a new, flux-dependent correction to the antineutrino spectrum as produced in nuclear reactors. The abundance of certain nuclides, whose decay chains produce antineutrinos above the threshold for inverse beta decay, has a nonlinear dependence on the neutron flux, unlike the vast majority of antineutrino producing nuclides, whose decay rate is directly related to the fission rate. We have identified four of these so-called nonlinear nuclides and determined that they result in an antineutrino excess at low-energies below 3.2MeV, dependent on the reactor thermal neutron flux. We develop an analytic model for the size of the correction and compare it to the results of detailed reactor simulations for various real existing reactors, spanning 3 orders of magnitude in neutron flux. In a typical pressurized water reactor the resulting correction can reach 0.9% of the low energy flux which is comparable in size to other, known low-energy corrections from spent nuclear fuel and the non-equilibrium correction...

  13. Neutron Capture and the Antineutrino Yield from Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Patrick; Jaffke, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    We identify a new, flux-dependent correction to the antineutrino spectrum as produced in nuclear reactors. The abundance of certain nuclides, whose decay chains produce antineutrinos above the threshold for inverse beta decay, has a nonlinear dependence on the neutron flux, unlike the vast majority of antineutrino producing nuclides, whose decay rate is directly related to the fission rate. We have identified four of these so-called nonlinear nuclides and determined that they result in an antineutrino excess at low energies below 3.2 MeV, dependent on the reactor thermal neutron flux. We develop an analytic model for the size of the correction and compare it to the results of detailed reactor simulations for various real existing reactors, spanning 3 orders of magnitude in neutron flux. In a typical pressurized water reactor the resulting correction can reach ˜0.9 % of the low energy flux which is comparable in size to other, known low-energy corrections from spent nuclear fuel and the nonequilibrium correction. For naval reactors the nonlinear correction may reach the 5% level by the end of cycle.

  14. Improved Measurement of Electron Antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    An, F P; Balantekin, A B; Band, H R; Beriguete, W; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Brown, R L; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Carr, R; Chan, W T; Chang, J F; Chang, Y; Chasman, C; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, S J; Chen, S M; Chen, X C; Chen, X H; Chen, X S; Chen, Y; Chen, Y X; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Cummings, J P; Deng, Z Y; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dong, L; Draeger, E; Dwyer, D; Edwards, W R; Ely, S R; Fang, S D; Fu, J Y; Fu, Z W; Ge, L Q; Gill, R L; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Gornushkin, Y A; Greenler, L S; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, X H; Hackenburg, R W; Hahn, R L; Hans, S; He, M; He, Q; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Hinrichs, P; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, T; Huang, H X; Huang, H Z; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Issakov, V; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; Jetter, S; Ji, X L; Ji, X P; Jiang, H J; Jiang, W Q; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Lai, C Y; Lai, W C; Lai, W H; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Leitner, R; Leung, J K C; Leung, K Y; Lewis, C A; Li, B; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, J; Li, Q J; Li, S F; Li, W D; Li, X B; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, J; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, S K; Lin, S X; Lin, Y C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, B J; Liu, D W; Liu, J C; Liu, J L; Liu, S; Liu, Y B; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Luk, A; Luk, K B; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Ma, Q M; Ma, X B; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y Q; McDonald, K T; McFarlane, M C; McKeown, R D; Meng, Y; Mohapatra, D; Morgan, J E; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Nemchenok, I; Ngai, H Y; Ngai, W K; Nie, Y B; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevski, A; Pagac, A; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Piilonen, L E; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Shao, B B; Shih, K; Steiner, H; Stoler, P; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tam, Y H; Tanaka, H K; Tang, X; Tagg, N; Themann, H; Torun, Y; Trentalange, S; Tsai, O; Tsang, R H M; Tsang, K V; Tull, C; Tung, Y C; Viren, B; Virostek, S; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, L S; Wang, L Y; Wang, L Z; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, T; Wang, W; Wang, X; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Webber, D M; Wei, Y D; Wen, L J; Wenman, D L; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wilhelmi, J; Williamson, Y; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, J; Worcester, E T; Wu, F F; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xiang, S T; Xiao, Q; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J; Xu, J; Xu, J L; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yang, C G; Yang, L; Ye, M; Yeh, M; Yeh, Y S; Young, B L; Yu, Z Y; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, F H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, Q X; Zhang, S H; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y B; Zheng, L; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, Z Y; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2012-01-01

    We report an improved measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ from the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. We exclude a zero value for $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations. Electron antineutrinos from six reactors of 2.9 GW$_{\\rm th}$ were detected in six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (flux-weighted baselines of 470 m and 576 m) and one far (1648 m) underground experimental halls. Using 139 days of data, 28909 (205308) electron antineutrino candidates were detected at the far hall (near halls). The ratio of the observed to the expected number of antineutrinos assuming no oscillations at the far hall is $0.944\\pm 0.007({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.003({\\rm syst.})$. An analysis of the relative rates in six detectors finds $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}=0.089\\pm 0.010({\\rm stat.})\\pm0.005({\\rm syst.})$ in a three-neutrino framework.

  15. Measurement of Muon Antineutrino Quasi-Elastic Scattering on a Hydrocarbon Target at E_{\

    CERN Document Server

    Fields, L; Aliaga, L; Altinok, O; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, D; Bradford, R; Brooks, W K; Budd, H; Butkevich, A; Caicedo, D A M; Castromonte, C M; Christy, M E; da Motta, H; Damiani, D S; Danko, I; Datta, M; Day, M; DeMaat, R; Devan, J; Diaz, G A; Dytman, S A; Eberly, B; Edmondson, D A; Felix, J; Fitzpatrick, T; Fiorentini, G A; Gago, A M; Gallagher, H; Gobbi, B; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Howley, I J; Hurtado, K; Jerkins, M; Kafka, T; Kanter, M O; Keppel, C; Kordosky, M; Krajeski, A H; Kulagin, S A; Le, T; Leister, A G; Maggi, G; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Mislivec, A; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Ochoa, N; O'Connor, C D; Osta, J; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Pena, C; Rakotondravohitra, L; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rodrigues, P A; Sassin, K E; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Schneider, R M; Schulte, E C; Sedita, P; Simon, C; Snider, F D; Snyder, M C; Sobczyk, J T; Salinas, C J Solano; Tagg, N; Tan, W; Tice, B G; Tzanakos, G; Velasquez, J P; Walding, J; Walton, T; Wolcott, J; Wolthuis, B A; Zavala, G; Zhang, D; Ziemer, B P

    2013-01-01

    We have isolated muon anti-neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic interactions occurring in the segmented scintillator tracking region of the MINERvA detector running in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We measure the flux-averaged differential cross-section, d{\\sigma}/dQ^2, and compare to several theoretical models of quasi-elastic scattering. Good agreement is obtained with a model where the nucleon axial mass, M_A, is set to 0.99 GeV/c^2 but the nucleon vector form factors are modified to account for the observed enhancement, relative to the free nucleon case, of the cross-section for the exchange of transversely polarized photons in electron-nucleus scattering. Our data at higher Q^2 favor this interpretation over an alternative in which the axial mass is increased.

  16. Method of Fission Product Beta Spectra Measurements for Predicting Reactor Anti-neutrino Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, D M; Campbell, L W; Greenfield, B; Kos, M S; Orrell, J L; Schram, M; VanDevender, B; Wood, 1 L S; Wootan, D W

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear fission process that occurs in the core of nuclear reactors results in unstable, neutron rich fission products that subsequently beta decay and emit electron anti-neutrinos. These reactor neutrinos have served neutrino physics research from the initial discovery of the neutrino to current precision measurements of neutrino mixing angles. The prediction of the absolute flux and energy spectrum of the emitted reactor neutrinos hinges upon a series of seminal papers based on measurements performed in the 1970s and 1980s. The steadily improving reactor neutrino measurement techniques and recent re-considerations of the agreement between the predicted and observed reactor neutrino flux motivates revisiting the underlying beta spectra measurements. A method is proposed to use an accelerator proton beam delivered to an engineered target to yield a neutron field tailored to reproduce the neutron energy spectrum present in the core of an operating nuclear reactor. Foils of the primary reactor fissionable i...

  17. Neutrino and antineutrino induced reactions with nuclei between 1 and 30 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Lalakulich, O; Mosel, U

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nuclear effects can have a significant impact on neutrino-nucleus interactions. In particular data from neutrino experiments with broad energy distributions require complex theoretical models that are able to take all the relevant channels into account as well as incorporate nuclear effects in both initial and final state interactions. Purpose: We investigate neutrino and antineutrino scattering on iron and carbon in the energy range from 1 to 30 GeV, which is relevant to current and coming experiments (MINOS, NOvA, Minerva). Method: The Giessen Boltzmann--Uehling--Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) model, which implements all reaction channels relevant for neutrino energies under consideration, is used for an investigation of neutrino-nucleus reactions. Results: Our calculations are compared with the recent NOMAD and MINOS data for the integrated inclusive cross sections. Predictions are made for the differential cross sections for semiinclusive final states (pions, kaons, nucleons) for the MINOS and NOvA beams. ...

  18. First Anti-neutrino Oscillation Results from the T2K Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos are some of the most abundant but yet most elusive particles in the universe. They have almost no mass, only interact weakly and relatively little is known about their properties. Furthermore it has been firmly established over the last decade that neutrinos can undergo flavour transitions as mass and flavor eigenstates are not identical. These neutrino oscillations have been studied using natural sources as well as nuclear reactors or with neutrinos produced at accelerators. T2K is a long baseline neutrino oscillation beam that uses a beam of muon (anti-)neutrinos that is directed form J-PARC at the east cost of Japan over a distance of almost 300 km to the SuperKamiokande water Cherenkov detector in the west. The facility is complemented by a near detector complex 280 m downstream of the neutrino production target to characterise the beam and the neutrino interaction dynamics. T2K has taken data with a muon neutrino beam since early 2010 and is studying the disappearance of muon neutrinos as well...

  19. Measuring of fissile isotopes partial antineutrino spectra in direct experiment at nuclear reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Sinev, V V

    2009-01-01

    The direct measuring method is considered to get nuclear reactor antineutrino spectrum. We suppose to isolate partial spectra of the fissile isotopes by using the method of antineutrino spectrum extraction from the inverse beta decay positron spectrum applied at Rovno experiment. This admits to increase the accuracy of partial antineutrino spectra forming the total nuclear reactor spectrum. It is important for the analysis of the reactor core fuel composition and could be applied for non-proliferation purposes.

  20. Contribution of recently measured nuclear data to reactor antineutrino energy spectra predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Fallot M.; Cormon S.; Estienne M.; Algora A.; Bui V.M.; Cucoanes A.; Elnimr M.; Giot L.; Jordan D.; Martino J.; Onillon A.; Porta A.; Pronost G.; Remoto A.; Taín J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to summarize the actual problematic of reactor antineutrino energy spectra in the frame of fundamental and applied neutrino physics. Nuclear physics is an important ingredient of reactor antineutrino experiments. These experiments are motivated by neutrino oscillations, i.e. the measure of the θ13 mixing angle. In 2011, after a new computation of the reactor antineutrino energy spectra, based on the conversion of integral data of the beta spectra from 235U, and 239;241Pu, ...

  1. Precise Measurement of Dimuon Production Cross-Sections in muon neutrino Fe and muon antineutrino Fe Deep Inelastic Scattering at the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Goncharov, M; Alton, A; Bolton, T; Goldman, J; Spentzouris, P; Conrad, J; Fleming, B T; Formaggio, J A; Koutsoliotas, S; Kim, J H; McNulty, C; Romosan, A; Shaevitz, M H; Stern, E G; Vaitaitis, A G; Zimmerman, E D; Johnson, R A; Vakili, M; Suwonjandee, N; Bernstein, R H; Bugel, L; Lamm, M J; Marsh, W; Nienaber, P; Yu, J; De Barbaro, L; Buchholz, D; Schellman, H; Zeller, G P; Brau, J E; Drucker, R B; Frey, R; Mason, D; McDonald, J E; Naples, D; Tzanov, M; Avvakumov, S; De Barbaro, P; Bodek, Arie; Budd, H S; Harris, D A; McFarland, K S; Sakumoto, W K; Yang, U K

    2001-01-01

    We present measurements of the semi-inclusive cross-sections for muon neutrino and muon antineutrino-nucleon deep inelastic scattering interactions with two oppositely charged muons in the final state. These events dominantly arise from production of a charm quark during the scattering process. The measurement was obtained from the analysis of 5102 muon neutrino-induced and 1458 muon antineutrino-induced events collected with the NuTeV detector exposed to a sign-selected beam at the Fermilab Tevatron. We also extract a cross-section measurement from a re-analysis of 5030 muon neutrino-induced and 1060 muon antineutrino-induced vents collected from the exposure of the same detector to a quad-triplet beam by the CCFR experiment. The results are combined to obtain the most statistically precise measurement of neutrino-induced dimuon production cross-sections to date. These measurements should be of broad use to phenomenologists interested in the dynamics of charm production, the strangeness content of the nucleo...

  2. Reactor electron antineutrino disappearance in the Double Chooz experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Y; Anjos, J C dos; Barriere, J C; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bezerra, T J C; Bezrukhov, L; Blucher, E; Bowden, N S; Buck, C; Busenitz, J; Cabrera, A; Caden, E; Camilleri, L; Carr, R; Cerrada, M; Chang, P -J; Chimenti, P; Classen, T; Collin, A P; Conover, E; Conrad, J M; Crespo-Anadón, J I; Crum, K; Cucoanes, A; D'Agostino, M V; Damon, E; Dawson, J V; Dazeley, S; Dietrich, D; Djurcic, Z; Dracos, M; Durand, V; Ebert, J; Efremenko, Y; Elnimr, M; Etenko, A; Fallot, M; Fechner, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Felde, J; Franco, D; Franke, A J; Franke, M; Furuta, H; Gama, R; Gil-Botella, I; Giot, L; Goger-Neff, M; Gonzalez, L F G; Goodman, M C; Goon, J TM; Greiner, D; Haag, N; Hagner, C; Hara, T; Hartmann, F X; Haser, J; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hayakawa, T; Hofmann, M; Horton-Smith, G A; Hourlier, A; Ishitsuka, M; Jochum, J; Jollet, C; Jones, C L; Kaether, F; Kalousis, L N; Kamyshkov, Y; Kaplan, D M; Kawasaki, T; Keefer, G; Kemp, E; de Kerret, H; Kibe, Y; Konno, T; Kryn, D; Kuze, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lane, C E; Langbrandtner, C; Lasserre, T; Letourneau, A; Lhuillier, D; Lima, H P; Lindner, M; López-Castanõ, J M; LoSecco, J M; Lubsandorzhiev, B K; Lucht, S; McKee, D; Maeda, J; Maesano, C N; Mariani, C; Maricic, J; Martino, J; Matsubara, T; Mention, G; Meregaglia, A; Miletic, T; Milincic, R; Miyata, H; Mueller, Th A; Nagasaka, Y; Nakajima, K; Novella, P; Obolensky, M; Oberauer, L; Onillon, A; Osborn, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Palomares, C; Pepe, I M; Perasso, S; Perrin, P; Pfahler, P; Porta, A; Potzel, W; Reichenbacher, J; Reinhold, B; Remoto, A; Rohling, M; Roncin, R; Roth, S; Sakamoto, Y; Santorelli, R; Sato, F; Schonert, S; Schoppmann, S; Schwetz, T; Shaevitz, M H; Shimojima, S; Shrestha, D; Sida, J-L; Sinev, V; Skorokhvatov, M; Smith, E; Spitz, J; Stahl, A; Stancu, I; Stokes, L F F; Strait, M; Stuken, A; Suekane, F; Sukhotin, S; Sumiyoshi, T; Sun, Y; Svoboda, R; Terao, K; Tonazzo, A; Toups, M; Thi, H H Trinh; Valdiviesso, G; Veyssiere, C; Wagner, S; Watanabe, H; White, B; Wiebusch, C; Winslow, L; Worcester, M; Wurm, M; Yermia, F; Zimmer, V

    2012-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment has observed 8,249 candidate electron antineutrino events in 227.93 live days with 33.71 GW-ton-years (reactor power x detector mass x livetime) exposure using a 10.3 cubic meter fiducial volume detector located at 1050 m from the reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power plant in France. The expectation in case of theta13 = 0 is 8,937 events. The deficit is interpreted as evidence of electron antineutrino disappearance. From a rate plus spectral shape analysis we find sin^2 2{\\theta}13 = 0.109 \\pm 0.030(stat) \\pm 0.025(syst). The data exclude the no-oscillation hypothesis at 99.9% CL (3.1{\\sigma}).

  3. Which reactor antineutrino flux may be responsible for the anomaly?

    CERN Document Server

    Giunti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate which among the reactor antineutrino fluxes from the decays of the fission products of $^{235}\\text{U}$, $^{238}\\text{U}$, $^{239}\\text{Pu}$, and $^{241}\\text{Pu}$ may be responsible for the reactor antineutrino anomaly. We find that it is the $^{235}\\text{U}$ flux, which contributes to the rates of all reactor neutrino experiments. From the fit of the data we obtain the precise determination $ \\sigma_{^{235}\\text{U}} = ( 6.34 \\pm 0.10 ) \\times 10^{-43} \\, \\text{cm}^2 / \\text{fission} $ of the $^{235}\\text{U}$ cross section per fission, which is more precise than the calculated value and differs from it by $2.0\\sigma$.

  4. Neutrino mass hierarchy determination at reactor antineutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    After the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ has been precisely measured by the reactor antineutrino experiments, one of the most important open questions left in neutrino physics is the neutrino mass hierarchy. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) without exploring the matter effect. The JUNO site location is optimized to have the best sensitivity for the mass hierarchy determination. JUNO will employ a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector located in a laboratory 700 meters underground. The excellent energy resolution and PMT coverage will give us an unprecedented opportunity to reach a 3-4 $\\sigma$ precision. In this paper, the JUNO detector design and simulation work will be presented. Also, RENO-50, another medium distance reactor antineutrino experiment, will do a similar measurement. With the efforts of these experiments, it is very likely that the neutrino mass hierarchy will be determined in the next 10 years.

  5. Messung der Impulsverteilung der Antiquarks im Nukleon aus der inklusiven tiefinelastischen Antineutrino Nukleon Reaktion ueber geladene Stroeme

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, Hans Peter

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis the antiquark momentum distribution in the nucleus as a function of x and Q2 is determined. This determination is based on the measurement of the differential cross-section at high y for inclusive antineutrino nucleon charged current interactions. The portion of antineutrino scattering off quarks is corrected by the also measured neutrino cross-section. For the measurement of the cross-section 150 000 anti v- und 35 000 v-events, which were produced in the CERN wide band beam, in the energy range from 20 GeV to 160 GeV and 27 000 anti v- and 63 000 v-events measured in the narrow band beam in the energy range from 20 GeV to 200 GeV are used. The measurement was performed with the detector of the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay collaboration. The detector serves at the same time as target, as hadron energy calorimeter and as muon spectrometer. The measured antiquark momentum distribution shows a strong rise for x<0.1 as a function of Q2. It will be shown that this scaling violation cannot be ...

  6. Inverse-square law violation and reactor antineutrino anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, D. V.; Naumov, V. A.; Shkirmanov, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss a possibility that the so-called reactor antineutrino anomaly can be, at least in part, explained by applying a quantum field-theoretical approach to neutrino oscillations, which in particular predicts a small deviation from the classical inverse-square law at short but macroscopic distances between the neutrino source and detector. An extensive statistical analysis of the reactor data is performed to examine this speculation.

  7. Inverse-square law violation and reactor antineutrino anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Naumov, D V; Shkirmanov, D S

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a possibility that the so-called reactor antineutrino anomaly can be, at least in part, explained by applying a quantum field-theoretical approach to neutrino oscillations, which in particular predicts a small deviation from the classical inverse-square law at short but macroscopic distances between the neutrino source and detector. An extensive statistical analysis of the reactor data is performed to examine this speculation.

  8. Uncertainties in the Anti-neutrino Production at Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurcic, Zelimir; Detwiler, Jason A.; Piepke, Andreas; Foster Jr., Vince R.; Miller, Lester; Gratta, Giorgio

    2008-08-06

    Anti-neutrino emission rates from nuclear reactors are determined from thermal power measurements and fission rate calculations. The uncertainties in these quantities for commercial power plants and their impact on the calculated interaction rates in {bar {nu}}{sub e} detectors is examined. We discuss reactor-to-reactor correlations between the leading uncertainties, and their relevance to reactor {bar {nu}}{sub e} experiments.

  9. Reactor antineutrino oscillations and gadolinium loaded Super-Kamiokande detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, Sandhya; Petcov, S.T

    2004-08-05

    We explore the potential of measuring the solar neutrino oscillation parameters in the proposed gadolinium loaded Super-Kamiokande (SK-Gd) detector. Gadolinium dissolved in water can detect neutrons much more efficiently than pure water. This imparts the detector the ability to observe electron type antineutrinos, transforming Super-Kamiokande into a huge reactor antineutrino detector with an event rate approximately 43 times higher than that observed in KamLAND. We simulate the reactor antineutrino data expected in this high statistics detector. We use these prospective data to study the precision with which the solar neutrino oscillation parameters, {delta}m{sup 2}{sub o} and sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub o}, can be determined (i) with the SK-Gd detector, and (ii) by combining the SK-Gd data with the global data on solar neutrino oscillations. For comparison and completeness the allowed regions of {delta}m{sup 2}{sub o} and sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub o}, expected to be obtained from the data of the solar neutrino and KamLAND experiments, are also presented. We find that the SK-Gd experiment could provide one of the most precise (if not the most precise) determination of the solar neutrino oscillation parameters {delta}m{sup 2}{sub o} and sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub o}.

  10. Recent Improvements in the Summation Calculation of Antineutrino Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, Alejandro; Johnson, Timothy; McCutchan, Elizabeth; Dimitriou, Paraskevi

    2016-09-01

    The antineutrino spectrum following the fission of an actinide nucleus can be calculated using a comprehensive set of fission yields and decay data, an approach known as the summation method. We have recently updated our databases to incorporate newly published results as well as to perform some corrections and updates. These summation calculations are now in better agreement with those from the conversion method. The advantage of the summation method is that one can understand the rich correlations between the different radiation types - gammas, electrons, neutrons and antineutrinos - as well as study the time dependence of the radiation intensity in a variety of situations. Additionally, we have performed a sensitivity study to identify different elements of the input nuclear data which have an important impact in the calculation of antineutrino spectra and which would benefit from a precise measurement. Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  11. Antineutrino Neutral Current Interactions in MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports the antineutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic scattering cross section on CH2 measured by the MiniBooNE experiment located in Batavia, IL. The data set consists of 60,605 events passing the selection cuts corresponding to 10.1×1020 POT, which represents the world’s largest sample of antineutrino neutral current elastic scattering events. The final sample is more than one order of magnitude lager that the previous antineutrino NCE scattering cross section measurement reported by the BNL E734 experiment. The measurement presented in this dissertation also spans a wider range in Q2, including the low-Q2 regime where the cross section rollover is clearly visible. A X2-based minimization was performed to determine the best value of the axial mass, MA and the Pauli blocking scaling function, that matches the antineutrino NCE scattering data. However, the best fit values of MA=1.29 GeV and K=1.026 still give a relatively poor X2, which suggests that the underlying nuclear model (based largely on the relativistic Fermi gas model) may not be an accurate representation for this particular interaction. Additionally, we present a measurement of the antineutrino/neutrino-nucleus NCE scattering cross section ratio. The neutrino mode NCE sample used in this study, corresponding to 6.4 × 1020 POT, is also the world’s largest sample (also by an order of magnitude). We have demonstrated that the ratio measurement is robust, as most of the correlated errors cancel, as expected. Furthermore, this ratio also proves to be rather insensitive to variations in the axial mass and the Pauli blocking parameter. This is the first time that this ratio has been experimentally reported. We believe this measurement will aid the theoretical physics community to test various model predictions of neutrino-nucleon/nucleus interactions.

  12. Neutrino and Antineutrino Interactions in Deuterium

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment uses BEBC filled with deuterium and exposed to the wide-band neutrino beam N1. The use of deuterium as the target material allows to study interactions on both neutrons and protons. The charge of the target nucleon can be inferred from the number of positive and negative particles in the final state. \\\\ \\\\ Some of the physics aims of this experiment are to measure separately the cross sections @s^n and @s^p on neutrons and protons to determine the structure functions F|n(x,Q|2) and F|p(x,Q|2), the fragmentation functions D(z,Q|2) and the ratio of neutral to charged current interactions. \\\\ \\\\ Additional problems under investigation are the production of nucleon isobars, and of resonances in general, the production of strange and of charmed particles, and the problems of deuterium structure.

  13. Reactor antineutrino monitoring with a plastic scintillator array as a new safeguards method

    CERN Document Server

    Oguri, S; Kato, Y; Nakata, R; Inoue, Y; Ito, C; Minowa, M

    2014-01-01

    We developed a segmented reactor-antineutrino detector made of plastic scintillators for application as a tool in nuclear safeguards inspection and performed mostly unmanned field operations at a commercial power plant reactor. At a position outside the reactor building, we measured the difference in reactor antineutrino flux above the ground when the reactor was active and inactive.

  14. White paper: CeLAND - Investigation of the reactor antineutrino anomaly with an intense 144Ce-144Pr antineutrino source in KamLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Gando, A; Ichimura, K; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Kibe, Y; Kishimoto, Y; Koga, M; Minekawa, Y; Mitsui, T; Morikawa, T; Nagai, N; Nakamura, K Nakajima K; Narita, K; Shimizu, I; Shimizu, Y; Shirai, J; Suekane, F; Suzuki, A; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, N; Takemoto, Y; Tamae, K; Watanabe, H; Xu, B D; Yabumoto, H; Yoshida, H; Yoshida, S; Berger, B E; Cribier, M; Decowski, P; Detwiler, J A; Durero, M; Dwyer, D; Efremenko, Y; Enomoto, S; Fischer, V; Fujikawa, B K; Gaffiot, J; Gelis, V M; Karwowski, H J; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kornoukhov, N; Lasserre, T; Learned, J G; Letourneau, A; Lhuillier, D; Maricic, J; Markoff, D M; Matsuno, S; Mention, G; Milincic, R; O'Donnell, T; Saldikov, I S; Scola, L; Tikhomirov, G V; Veyssiere, Ch; Vivier, M

    2013-01-01

    We propose to test for short baseline neutrino oscillations, implied by the recent reevaluation of the reactor antineutrino flux and by anomalous results from the gallium solar neutrino detectors. The test will consist of producing a 75 kCi 144Ce - 144Pr antineutrino source to be deployed in the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND). KamLAND's 13m diameter target volume provides a suitable environment to measure energy and position dependence of the detected neutrino flux. A characteristic oscillation pattern would be visible for a baseline of about 10 m or less, providing a very clean signal of neutrino disappearance into a yet-unknown, "sterile" state. Such a measurement will be free of any reactor-related uncertainties. After 1.5 years of data taking the Reactor Antineutrino Anomaly parameter space will be tested at > 95% C.L.

  15. What antineutrinos can tell about octant and $\\delta_{CP}$ in DUNE?

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Newton; Goswami, Srubabati

    2016-01-01

    We study the efficiency of DUNE, a next generation long baseline oscillation experiment to resolve two major unknowns in neutrino oscillation physics. These are, octant of $\\theta_{23}$ (i.e. if $\\theta_{23}$ is $45^\\circ$) and Dirac CP phase $\\delta_{CP}$. We mainly focus on the role of antineutrinos when they travel 1300 km baseline of DUNE. We observe that for DUNE, the antineutrino runs help to remove parameter degeneracies even in the parameter space where the antineutrino probability suffers from various degeneracies. We study these points in detail and find that, due to enhanced matter effect longer baseline experiments create an increased tension between the neutrino and the antineutrino probabilities which helps to increase total sensitivity in case of combined runs. We also find that, antineutrino run increases overall CP sensitivity due to its ability to abolish octant-$\\delta_{CP}$ degeneracy.

  16. A study of antineutrino spectra from spent nuclear fuel at Daya Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bin; RUAN Xi-Chao; NIE Yang-Bo; ZHOU Zu-Ying; AN Feng-Peng; CAO Jun

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment is designed to determine the as yet unknown neutrino mixing angle,θ13,by measuring the disappearance of electron antineutrinos from several nuclear reactor cores.The projected sensitivity in sin2(2θ13) of better than 0.01 at a 90% CL should be achieved after three years of data-taking.Antineutrinos emitted from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) distort the soft part of the energy spectrum.In this article,a calculation of the antineutrino spectra from the long-life isotopes in SNF is performed.A non-equilibrium generation of long half-life isotopes during the running time of the reactor is also analyzed.Finally,we show that the antineutrino event rate contribution from SNF,which has been stored in the SNF pool for several years,may be non-negligible.

  17. The muon system of the Daya Bay Reactor antineutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, F.P. [Institute of Modern Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Balantekin, A.B. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Band, H.R. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Blyth, S. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); National United University, Miao-Li, Taiwan (China); Brown, R.E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Butorov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cao, G.F.; Cao, J. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carr, R. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Chan, Y.L. [Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chang, J.F. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chang, L. [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y. [National United University, Miao-Li, Taiwan (China); Chasman, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Chen, H.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, H.Y. [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, Q.Y. [Shandong University, Jinan (China); Chen, S.J. [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); and others

    2015-02-11

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. Design, construction, operation, and performance of these muon detectors are described.

  18. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, S

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory under development at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy. At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle.

  19. Development and Prototyping of the PROSPECT Antineutrino Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commeford, Kelley; Prospect Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The PROSPECT experiment will make the most precise measurement of the 235U reactor antineutrino spectrum as well as search for sterile neutrinos using a segmented Li-loaded liquid scintillator neutrino detector. Several prototype detectors of increasing size, complexity, and fidelity have been constructed and tested as part of the PROSPECT detector development program. The challenges to overcome include the efficient rejection of cosmogenic background and collection of optical photons in a compact volume. Design choices regarding segment structure and layout, calibration source deployment, and optical collection methods are discussed. Results from the most recent multi-segment prototype, PROSPECT-50, will also be shown.

  20. Investigating the Spectral Anomaly with Different Reactor Antineutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Buck, Christian; Haser, Julia; Lindner, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The spectral shape of reactor antineutrinos measured in recent experiments shows anomalies in the neutrino flux predictions. New precision measurements of the reactor neutrino spectra as well as more complete input in nuclear data bases are needed to resolve the observed discrepancies between flux models and experimental results. We combine experiments at reactors which are highly enriched in ${}^{235}$U with commercial reactors with typically lower enrichment to gain new insights into the origin of the anomalous neutrino spectrum. As an example, we discuss the option of a direct comparison of the measured shape in the currently running Double Chooz near detector and the upcoming Stereo experiment.

  1. Experimental Study Of Terrestrial Electron Anti-neutrinos With Kamland

    CERN Document Server

    Tolich, N R

    2005-01-01

    The analysis presented here uses Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) to measure the rate of electron anti-neutrinos, ne&d1;' s , produced from terrestrial 238U and 212Th. 238U and 212Th are thought to be the main heat source driving mantle convection in the Earth, which in turn is responsible for plate tectonics. The total terrestrial 238U and 212Th content has been estimated from Earth models and rock samples from a very small fraction of the Earth. Until now there have been no direct measurements. Since ne&d1;' s have an exceedingly small cross section, they propagate undisturbed in the Earth interior, and their measurement near the Earth surface can be used to gain information on their sources. Based on a total of (2.63 ± 0.19) × 1031 target proton-years (0.506 kton- years), the 90% confidence interval for the total number of terrestrial 238U and 212Th ne&d1;' s detected is 4 to 40. This is consistent with the best models of terrestrial 23...

  2. Contribution of recently measured nuclear data to reactor antineutrino energy spectra predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallot M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to summarize the actual problematic of reactor antineutrino energy spectra in the frame of fundamental and applied neutrino physics. Nuclear physics is an important ingredient of reactor antineutrino experiments. These experiments are motivated by neutrino oscillations, i.e. the measure of the θ13 mixing angle. In 2011, after a new computation of the reactor antineutrino energy spectra, based on the conversion of integral data of the beta spectra from 235U, and 239;241Pu, a deficit of reactor antineutrinos measured by short baseline experiments was pointed out. This is called the “reactor anomaly”, a new puzzle in the neutrino physics area. Since then, numerous new experimental neutrino projects have emerged. In parallel, computations of the antineutrino spectra independant from the ILL data would be desirable. One possibility is the use of the summation method, summing all the contributions of the fission product beta decay branches that can be found in nuclear databases. Studies have shown that in order to obtain reliable summation antineutrino energy spectra, new nuclear physics measurements of selected fission product beta decay properties are required. In these proceedings, we will present the computation methods of reactor antineutrino energy spectra and the impact of recent beta decay measurements on summation method spectra. The link of these nuclear physics studies with short baseline line oscillation search will be drawn and new neutrino physics projects at research reactors will be briefly presented.

  3. Search for Differences in Oscillation Parameters for Atmospheric Neutrinos and Antineutrinos at Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Iida, T; Ikeda, M; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Koshio, Y; Kozuma, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takenaga, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Ueno, K; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Yamada, S; Yokozawa, T; Ishihara, C; Kaji, H; Lee, K P; Kajita, T; Kaneyuki, K; McLachlan, T; Okumura, K; Shimizu, Y; Tanimoto, N; Martens, K; Vagins, M R; Labarga, L; Magro, L M; Dufour, F; Kearns, E; Litos, M; Raaf, J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Goldhaber, M; Bays, K; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Regis, C; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Ganezer, K S; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Jang, J S; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Albert, J B; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wendell, R; Wongjirad, T M; Tasaka, S; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Nishino, H; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Suzuki, A T; Minamino, A; Nakaya, T; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Tanaka, T; Jung, C K; Taylor, I; Yanagisawa, C; Ishino, H; Kibayashi, A; Mino, S; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Toyota, H; Kuno, Y; Kim, S B; Yang, B S; Ishizuka, T; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Yokoyama, M; Totsuka, Y; Chen, S; Heng, Y; Yang, Z; Zhang, H; Kielczewska, D; Mijakowski, P; Connolly, K; Dziomba, M; Wilkes, R J

    2011-01-01

    We present a search for differences in the oscillations of antineutrinos and neutrinos in the Super-Kamiokande -I, -II, and -III atmospheric neutrino sample. Under a two-flavor disappearance model with separate mixing parameters between neutrinos and antineutrinos, we find no evidence for a difference in oscillation parameters. Best fit antineutrino mixing is found to be at (dm2bar, sin2 2 thetabar) = (2.0x10^-3 eV^2, 1.0) and is consistent with the overall Super-K measurement.

  4. Decay heat and anti-neutrino energy spectra in fission fragments from total absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-10-01

    Decay studies of over forty 238U fission products have been studied using ORNL's Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer. The results are showing increased decay heat values, by 10% to 50%, and the energy spectra of anti-neutrinos shifted towards lower energies. The latter effect is resulting in a reduced number of anti-neutrinos interacting with matter, often by tens of percent per fission product. The results for several studied nuclei will be presented and their impact on decay heat pattern in power reactors and reactor anti-neutrino physics will be discussed.

  5. Total Absorption Spectroscopy Study of 92Rb Decay: A Major Contributor to Reactor Antineutrino Spectrum Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Valencia, E.; Rice, S.; Bui, V. M.; Cormon, S.; Estienne, M.; Agramunt, J.; ńystö, J.; Bowry, M.; Briz, J. A.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cucoanes, A.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Estévez, E.; Farrelly, G. F.; Garcia, A. R.; Gelletly, W.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Jordan, M. D.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Kondev, F. G.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Molina, F.; Moore, I.; Perez-Cerdán, A. B.; Podolyák, Zs.; Penttilä, H.; Regan, P. H.; Reponen, M.; Rissanen, J.; Rubio, B.; Shiba, T.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Weber, C.

    2015-09-01

    The antineutrino spectra measured in recent experiments at reactors are inconsistent with calculations based on the conversion of integral beta spectra recorded at the ILL reactor. 92Rb makes the dominant contribution to the reactor antineutrino spectrum in the 5-8 MeV range but its decay properties are in question. We have studied 92Rb decay with total absorption spectroscopy. Previously unobserved beta feeding was seen in the 4.5-5.5 region and the GS to GS feeding was found to be 87.5(25)%. The impact on the reactor antineutrino spectra calculated with the summation method is shown and discussed.

  6. Method of fission product beta spectra measurements for predicting reactor anti-neutrino emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, D.M.; Burns, K.; Campbell, L.W.; Greenfield, B.; Kos, M.S., E-mail: markskos@gmail.com; Orrell, J.L.; Schram, M.; VanDevender, B.; Wood, L.S.; Wootan, D.W.

    2015-03-11

    The nuclear fission process that occurs in the core of nuclear reactors results in unstable, neutron-rich fission products that subsequently beta decay and emit electron antineutrinos. These reactor neutrinos have served neutrino physics research from the initial discovery of the neutrino to today's precision measurements of neutrino mixing angles. The prediction of the absolute flux and energy spectrum of the emitted reactor neutrinos hinges upon a series of seminal papers based on measurements performed in the 1970s and 1980s. The steadily improving reactor neutrino measurement techniques and recent reconsiderations of the agreement between the predicted and observed reactor neutrino flux motivates revisiting the underlying beta spectra measurements. A method is proposed to use an accelerator proton beam delivered to an engineered target to yield a neutron field tailored to reproduce the neutron energy spectrum present in the core of an operating nuclear reactor. Foils of the primary reactor fissionable isotopes placed in this tailored neutron flux will ultimately emit beta particles from the resultant fission products. Measurement of these beta particles in a time projection chamber with a perpendicular magnetic field provides a distinctive set of systematic considerations for comparison to the original seminal beta spectra measurements. Ancillary measurements such as gamma-ray emission and post-irradiation radiochemical analysis will further constrain the absolute normalization of beta emissions per fission. The requirements for unfolding the beta spectra measured with this method into a predicted reactor neutrino spectrum are explored.

  7. Method of fission product beta spectra measurements for predicting reactor anti-neutrino emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, David M.; Burns, Kimberly A.; Campbell, Luke W.; Greenfield, Bryce A.; Kos, Marek S.; Orrell, John L.; Schram, Malachi; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wood, Lynn S.; Wootan, David W.

    2015-03-01

    The nuclear fission process that occurs in the core of nuclear reactors results in unstable, neutron-rich fission products that subsequently beta decay and emit electron antineutrinos. These reactor neutrinos have served neutrino physics research from the initial discovery of the neutrino to today's precision measurements of neutrino mixing angles. The prediction of the absolute flux and energy spectrum of the emitted reactor neutrinos hinges upon a series of seminal papers based on measurements performed in the 1970s and 1980s. The steadily improving reactor neutrino measurement techniques and recent reconsiderations of the agreement between the predicted and observed reactor neutrino flux motivates revisiting the underlying beta spectra measurements. A method is proposed to use an accelerator proton beam delivered to an engineered target to yield a neutron field tailored to reproduce the neutron energy spectrum present in the core of an operating nuclear reactor. Foils of the primary reactor fissionable isotopes placed in this tailored neutron flux will ultimately emit beta particles from the resultant fission products. Measurement of these beta particles in a time projection chamber with a perpendicular magnetic field provides a distinctive set of systematic considerations for comparison to the original seminal beta spectra measurements. Ancillary measurements such as gamma-ray emission and post-irradiation radiochemical analysis will further constrain the absolute normalization of beta emissions per fission. The requirements for unfolding the beta spectra measured with this method into a predicted reactor neutrino spectrum are explored.

  8. Uncertainties analysis of fission fraction for reactor antineutrino experiments using DRAGON

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, X B; Chen, Y X; Zhong, W L; An, F P

    2014-01-01

    Rising interest in nuclear reactors as a source of antineutrinos for experiments motivates validated, fast, and accessible simulation to predict reactor rates. First, DRAGON was developed to calculate the fission rates of the four most important isotopes in fissions,235U,238U,239Pu and141Pu, and it was validated for PWRs using the Takahama benchmark. The fission fraction calculation function was validated through comparing our calculation results with MIT's results. we calculate the fission fraction of the Daya Bay reactor core, and compare its with those calculated by the commercial reactor simulation program SCIENCE, which is used by the Daya Bay nuclear power plant, and the results was consist with each other. The uncertainty of the antineutrino flux by the fission fraction was studied, and the uncertainty of the antineutrino flux by the fission fraction simulation is 0.6% per core for Daya Bay antineutrino experiment.

  9. A new approach to anti-neutrino running in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib K; Link, Jonathan M; Mohapatra, Debabrata

    2010-01-01

    We study the possibility to replace the anti-neutrino run of a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, with anti-neutrinos from muon decay at rest. The low energy of these neutrinos allows the use of inverse beta decay for detection in a Gadolinium-doped water Cerenkov detector. We show that this approach yields a factor of five times larger anti-neutrino event sample. The resulting discovery reaches in theta_13, the mass hierarchy and leptonic CP violation are compared with those from a conventional superbeam experiment with combined neutrino and anti-neutrino running. We find that this approach yields a greatly improved reach for CP violation and theta_13 while leaving the ability to measure the mass hierarchy intact.

  10. The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Filling System and Liquid Mass Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Band, H R; Draeger, E; Heeger, K M; Hinrichs, P; Lewis, C A; Mattison, H; McFarlane, M C; Webber, D M; Wenman, D; Wang, W; Wise, T; Xiao, Q

    2013-01-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has measured the neutrino mixing angle \\theta_{13} to world-leading precision. The experiment uses eight antineutrino detectors filled with 20-tons of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator to detect antineutrinos emitted from the Daya Bay nuclear power plant through the inverse beta decay reaction. The precision measurement of sin^{2}2\\theta_{13} relies on the relative antineutrino interaction rates between detectors at near (400 m) and far (roughly 1.8 km) distances from the nuclear reactors. The measured interaction rate in each detector is directly proportional to the number of protons in the liquid scintillator target. A precision detector filling system was developed to simultaneously fill the three liquid zones of the antineutrino detectors and measure the relative target mass between detectors to <0.02%. This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of the system and the resulting precision measurement of the detectors' target liquid masses.

  11. An Improved Measurement of Electron Antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, David M

    2012-01-01

    The theory of neutrino oscillations explains changes in neutrino flavor, count rates, and spectra from solar, atmospheric, accelerator, and reactor neutrinos. These oscillations are characterized by three mixing angles and two mass-squared differences. The solar mixing angle, {\\theta}_12, and the atmospheric mixing angle, {\\theta}_23, have been well measured, but until recently the neutrino mixing angle {\\theta}_13 was not well known. The Daya Bay experiment, located northeast of Hong Kong at the Guangdong Nuclear Power Complex in China, has made a precise measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance using six functionally-identical gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator-based detectors at three sites with distances between 364 and 1900 meters from six reactor cores. This proceeding describes the Daya Bay updated result, using 127 days of good run time collected between December 24, 2011 and May 11, 2012. For the far site, the ratio of the observed number of events to the expected number of events assumin...

  12. Quasielastic production of polarized hyperons in antineutrino--nucleon reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Akbar, F; Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the longitudinal and perpendicular polarizations of final hyperon($\\Lambda$,$\\Sigma$) produced in the antineutrino induced quasielastic charged current reactions on nucleon targets. The nucleon-hyperon transition form factors are determined from the experimental data on quasielastic $(\\Delta S =0)$ charged current (anti)neutrino--nucleon scattering and the semileptonic decay of neutron and hyperons assuming G--invariance, T--invariance and SU(3) symmetry. The vector transition form factors are obtained in terms of nucleon electromagnetic form factors for which various parameterizations available in literature have been used. A dipole parameterization for the axial vector form factor and the pseudoscalar transition form factor derived in terms of axial vector form factor assuming PCAC and GT relation extended to strangeness sector have been used in numerical evaluations. The flux averaged cross section and polarization observables corresponding to CERN Gargamelle experiment have been calculated...

  13. Above-ground antineutrino detection for nuclear reactor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweany, M.; Brennan, J.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Kiff, S.; Reyna, D.; Throckmorton, D.

    2015-01-01

    Antineutrino monitoring of nuclear reactors has been demonstrated many times (Klimov et al., 1994 [1]; Bowden et al., 2009 [2]; Oguri et al., 2014 [3]), however the technique has not as of yet been developed into a useful capability for treaty verification purposes. The most notable drawback is the current requirement that detectors be deployed underground, with at least several meters-water-equivalent of shielding from cosmic radiation. In addition, the deployment of liquid-based detection media presents a challenge in reactor facilities. We are currently developing a detector system that has the potential to operate above ground and circumvent deployment problems associated with a liquid detection media: the system is composed of segments of plastic scintillator surrounded by {sup 6}LiF/ZnS:Ag. ZnS:Ag is a radio-luminescent phosphor used to detect the neutron capture products of {sup 6}Li. Because of its long decay time compared to standard plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination can be used to distinguish positron and neutron interactions resulting from the inverse beta decay (IBD) of antineutrinos within the detector volume, reducing both accidental and correlated backgrounds. Segmentation further reduces backgrounds by identifying the positron's annihilation gammas, a signature that is absent for most correlated and uncorrelated backgrounds. This work explores different configurations in order to maximize the size of the detector segments without reducing the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency. We believe that this technology will ultimately be applicable to potential safeguards scenarios such as those recently described by Huber et al. (2014) [4,5].

  14. Search for electron antineutrinos associated with gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226 using KamLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Gando, A; Hachiya, T; Hayashi, A; Hayashida, S; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Ishidoshiro, K; Karino, Y; Koga, M; Matsuda, S; Mitsui, T; Nakamura, K; Obara, S; Oura, T; Ozaki, H; Shimizu, I; Shirahata, Y; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Takai, T; Tamae, K; Teraoka, Y; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Kozolov, A; Takemoto, Y; Yoshida, S; Fushimi, K; Piepke, A; Banks, T I; Berger, B E; Fujikawa, B K; O'Donnell, T; Learned, J G; Maricic, J; Sakai, M; Winslow, L A; Krupczak, E; Ouellet, J; Efremenko, Y; Karwowski, H J; Markoff, D M; Tornow, W; Detwiler, J A; Enomoto, S; Decowski, M P

    2016-01-01

    We present a search for low energy antineutrino events coincident with the gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226, and the candidate event LVT151012 using KamLAND, a kiloton-scale antineutrino detector. We find no inverse beta-decay neutrino events within $\\pm 500$ seconds of either gravitational wave signal. This non-detection is used to constrain the electron antineutrino fluence and the luminosity of the astrophysical sources.

  15. Measurements of cross-section of charge current inclusive of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using carbon, iron, lead and scintillator at MINER$\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotondravohitra, Laza [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Neutrino physics is one of the most active fields in the domaine of high energy physics during the last century. The need of precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus interactions required by the neutrino oscillation experiments is a an exiting step. These measurements of cross-section are more than essential for neutrino oscillation experiment. Over the year, many measurements from varieties of experiments have been presented. MINERνA is one of the world leaders in measuring cross-section of neutrino and antineutrino -nucleus interactions. MINERνA is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. In order to study nuclear dependence, MINERνA is endowed with different types of solid nuclear targets as well are liquid targets such as helium and water. This thesis presents measurements of cross-section of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using a variety of solid nuclear targets, carbon, iron, lead and also polystyrene scintillator (CH). The data set of antineutrino used for this analysis was taken between March and July 2010 with a total of 1.60X1020 protons on target. Charged current inclusive interactions were selected by requiring a positive muon and kinematics limitation of acceptance of the muon spectrometer are applied. The analysis requires neutrino energy between 2GeV et 20GeV and the angle of muon θmu < 17degree . The absolute cross-section # as function of neutrino energy and the differential cross-section dσ/ dxbj measured and shown the corresponding systematics for each nuclear targets. Data results are compared with prediction of the models implemented in the neutrino events generators GENIE 2.6.2 used by the experiment.

  16. Gadolinium-loaded gel scintillators for neutron and antineutrino detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Akers, Douglas William; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Paviet, Patricia Denise; Drigert, Mark William

    2016-11-29

    A gadolinium (Gd) loaded scintillation gel (Gd-ScintGel) compound allows for neutron and gamma-ray detection. The unique gel scintillator encompasses some of the best features of both liquid and solid scintillators, yet without many of the disadvantages associated therewith. Preferably, the gel scintillator is a water soluble Gd-DTPA compound and water soluble fluorophores such as: CdSe/ZnS (or ZnS) quantum dot (Q-dot) nanoparticles, coumarin derivatives 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid, and Alexa Fluor 350 as well as a carbostyril compound, carbostyril 124 in a stable water-based gel, such as methylcellulose or polyacrylamide polymers. The Gd-loaded ScintGel allows for a homogenious distribution of the Gd-DTPA and the fluorophores, and yields clean fluorescent emission peaks. A moderator, such as deuterium or a water-based clear polymer, can be incorporated in the Gd-ScintGel. The gel scintillators can be used in compact detectors, including neutron and antineutrino detectors.

  17. Investigating the spectral anomaly with different reactor antineutrino experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, C.; Collin, A. P.; Haser, J.; Lindner, M.

    2017-02-01

    The spectral shape of reactor antineutrinos measured in recent experiments shows anomalies in comparison to neutrino reference spectra. New precision measurements of the reactor neutrino spectra as well as more complete input in nuclear data bases are needed to resolve the observed discrepancies between models and experimental results. This article proposes the combination of experiments at reactors which are highly enriched in 235U with commercial reactors with typically lower enrichment to gain new insights into the origin of the anomalous neutrino spectrum. The presented method clarifies, if the spectral anomaly is either solely or not at all related to the predicted 235U spectrum. Considering the current improvements of the energy scale uncertainty of present-day experiments, a significance of three sigma and above can be reached. As an example, we discuss the option of a direct comparison of the measured shape in the currently running Double Chooz near detector and the upcoming Stereo experiment. A quantitative feasibility study emphasizes that a precise understanding of the energy scale systematics is a crucial prerequisite in recent and next generation experiments investigating the spectral anomaly.

  18. Investigating the spectral anomaly with different reactor antineutrino experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buck

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The spectral shape of reactor antineutrinos measured in recent experiments shows anomalies in comparison to neutrino reference spectra. New precision measurements of the reactor neutrino spectra as well as more complete input in nuclear data bases are needed to resolve the observed discrepancies between models and experimental results. This article proposes the combination of experiments at reactors which are highly enriched in U235 with commercial reactors with typically lower enrichment to gain new insights into the origin of the anomalous neutrino spectrum. The presented method clarifies, if the spectral anomaly is either solely or not at all related to the predicted U235 spectrum. Considering the current improvements of the energy scale uncertainty of present-day experiments, a significance of three sigma and above can be reached. As an example, we discuss the option of a direct comparison of the measured shape in the currently running Double Chooz near detector and the upcoming Stereo experiment. A quantitative feasibility study emphasizes that a precise understanding of the energy scale systematics is a crucial prerequisite in recent and next generation experiments investigating the spectral anomaly.

  19. Improved Measurement of Electron Antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay (Proceeding to NuFact12)

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay experiment was designed to be the largest and the deepest underground among the many current-generation reactor antineutrino experiments. With functionally identical detectors deployed at multiple baselines, the experiment aims to achieve the most precise measurement of $\\sin^2 2\\theta_{13}$. The antineutrino rates measured in the two near experimental halls are used to predict the rate at the far experimental hall (average distance of 1648 m from the reactors), assuming there is no neutrino oscillation. The ratio of the measured over the predicted far-hall antineutrino rate is then used to constrain the $\\sin^2 2\\theta_{13}$. The relative systematic uncertainty on this ratio is expected to be 0.2$\\sim$0.4%. In this talk, we present an improved measurement of the electron antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay. With data of 139 days, the deficit of the antineutrino rate in the far experimental hall was measured to be 0.056 $\\pm$ 0.007 (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.003 (sys.). In the standard three-neutrino fra...

  20. A search for low-energy neutrino and antineutrino signals correlated with gamma-ray bursts with Borexino

    CERN Document Server

    Agostini, M; Appel, S; Atroshchenko, V; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Caccianiga, B; Calaprice, F; Caminata, A; Carlini, M; Cavalcante, P; Chepurnov, A; Choi, K; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; de Kerret, H; Derbin, A; Di Noto, L; Drachnev, I; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Gabriele, F; Galbiati, C; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Gromov, M; Hagner, C; Hungerford, E; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jany, A; Jedrzejczak, K; Jeschke, D; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lehnert, B; Litvinovich, E; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Lukyanchenko, G; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Manuzio, G; Marcocci, S; Meroni, E; Meyer, M; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Montuschi, M; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Neumair, B; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Pocar, A; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Roncin, R; Rossi, N; Scheonert, S; Semenov, D; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Thurn, J; Toropova, M; Unzhakov, E; Vishneva, A; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Wang, H; Weinz, S; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wurm, M; Yokley, Z; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2016-01-01

    A search for neutrino and antineutrino events correlated with 2,350 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is performed with Borexino data collected between December 2007 and November 2015. No statistically significant excess over background is observed. We look for electron antineutrinos ($\\bar{\

  1. Measurement of Neutrino and Antineutrino Charged-Current Inclusive Cross Sections with the MINERvA Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, Joshua D. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos are a nearly massless, neutral particle in the Standard Model that only interact via the weak interaction. Experimental confirmation of neutrino oscillations, in which a neutrino created as a particular type (electron, muon or tau) can be observed as a different type after propagating some distance, earned the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments rely on accurate measurements of neutrino interactions with matter, such as that presented here. Neutrinos also provide a unique probe of the nucleus, complementary to electron scattering experiments. This thesis presents a measurement of the charged-current inclusive cross section for muon neutrinos and antineutrinos in the energy range 2 to 50 GeV with the MINERvA detector. MINERvA is a neutrino scattering experiment in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab, near Chicago. A cross section measures the probability of an interaction occurring, measured here as a function of neutrino energy. To extract a cross section from data, the observed rate of interactions is corrected for detector efficiency and divided by the number of scattering nucleons in the target and the flux of neutrinos in the beam. The neutrino flux is determined with the low-$\

  2. New Monte Carlo-based method to evaluate fission fraction uncertainties for the reactor antineutrino experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X. B.; Qiu, R. M.; Chen, Y. X.

    2017-02-01

    Uncertainties regarding fission fractions are essential in understanding antineutrino flux predictions in reactor antineutrino experiments. A new Monte Carlo-based method to evaluate the covariance coefficients between isotopes is proposed. The covariance coefficients are found to vary with reactor burnup and may change from positive to negative because of balance effects in fissioning. For example, between 235U and 239Pu, the covariance coefficient changes from 0.15 to -0.13. Using the equation relating fission fraction and atomic density, consistent uncertainties in the fission fraction and covariance matrix were obtained. The antineutrino flux uncertainty is 0.55%, which does not vary with reactor burnup. The new value is about 8.3% smaller.

  3. Precise determination of the 235U reactor antineutrino cross section per fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunti, C.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate which among the reactor antineutrino fluxes from the decays of the fission products of 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Pu may be responsible for the reactor antineutrino anomaly if the anomaly is due to a miscalculation of the antineutrino fluxes. We find that it is very likely that at least the calculation of the 235U flux must be revised. From the fit of the data we obtain the precise determination σ235 = (6.33 ± 0.08) ×10-43cm2 /fission of the 235U cross section per fission, which is more precise than the calculated value and differs from it by 2.2σ. The cross sections per fission of the other fluxes have large uncertainties and in practice their values are undetermined by the fit.

  4. Antineutrino emission and gamma background characteristics from a thermal research reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bui, V M; Fallot, M; Communeau, V; Cormon, S; Estienne, M; Lenoir, M; Peuvrel, N; Shiba, T; Cucoanes, A S; Elnimr, M; Martino, J; Onillon, A; Porta, A; Pronost, G; Remoto, A; Thiolliere, N; Yermia, F; Zakari-Issoufou, A -A

    2016-01-01

    The detailed understanding of the antineutrino emission from research reactors is mandatory for any high sensitivity experiments either for fundamental or applied neutrino physics, as well as a good control of the gamma and neutron backgrounds induced by the reactor operation. In this article, the antineutrino emission associated to a thermal research reactor: the OSIRIS reactor located in Saclay, France, is computed in a first part. The calculation is performed with the summation method, which sums all the contributions of the beta decay branches of the fission products, coupled for the first time with a complete core model of the OSIRIS reactor core. The MCNP Utility for Reactor Evolution code was used, allowing to take into account the contributions of all beta decayers in-core. This calculation is representative of the isotopic contributions to the antineutrino flux which can be found at research reactors with a standard 19.75\\% enrichment in $^{235}$U. In addition, the required off-equilibrium correction...

  5. Target mass monitoring and instrumentation in the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Greenler, L. S.; Heeger, K. M.; Hinrichs, P.; Kang, L.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, S. F.; Lin, S. X.; McFarlane, M. C.; Wang, W.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, Y. D.; Wise, T. S.; Xiao, Q.; Yang, L.; Zhang, Z. J.

    2013-04-01

    The Daya Bay experiment measures sin 22θ13 using functionally identical antineutrino detectors located at distances of 300 to 2000 meters from the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Each detector consists of three nested fluid volumes surrounded by photomultiplier tubes. These volumes are coupled to overflow tanks on top of the detector to allow for thermal expansion of the liquid. Antineutrinos are detected through the inverse beta decay reaction on the proton-rich scintillator target. A precise and continuous measurement of the detector's central target mass is achieved by monitoring the the fluid level in the overflow tanks with cameras and ultrasonic and capacitive sensors. In addition, the monitoring system records detector temperature and levelness at multiple positions. This monitoring information allows the precise determination of the detectors' effective number of target protons during data taking. We present the design, calibration, installation and in-situ tests of the Daya Bay real-time antineutrino detector monitoring sensors and readout electronics.

  6. Monitoring nuclear reactors with anti-neutrino detectors: the ANGRA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimenti, Pietro; Leigui, Marcelo Augusto [UFABC - Universidade Federal do ABC. Rua Santa Adelia, 166. Bairro Bangu. Santo Andre - SP (Brazil); Anjos, Joao; Azzi, Gabriel; Rafael, Gama; Ademarlaudo, Barbosa; Lima, Herman; VAZ, Mario; Villar, Arthur [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas - CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 22290-180 (Brazil); Gonzales, Luis Fernando; Bezerra, Thiago; Kemp, Ernesto [Unicamp, State University of Campinas, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , Barao Geraldo - Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nunokawa, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Pontifical Catholic University - PUC, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente, 225, 22451-900 Gavea - Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Guedes, Germano; Faria, Paulo Cesar [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana - UEFS, Avenida Transnordestina, Novo Horizonte (Brazil); Pepe, Iuri [Universidade Federal da Bahia - UFBA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    We describe the status of the ANGRA Project, aimed at developing an anti-neutrino detector for monitoring nuclear reactors. Indeed the detection of anti-neutrinos provides a unique handle for non-invasive measurements of the nuclear fuel. This kind of measurements are of deep interest for developing new safeguards tools which may help in nuclear non-proliferation programs. The ANGRA experiment, placed at about 30 m from the core of the 4 GW Brazilian nuclear power reactor ANGRA II, is based on a water Cherenkov detector with about one ton target mass. A few thousand antineutrino interactions per day are expected. The latest results from simulations and the status of the construction are presented. (authors)

  7. Tests of Lorentz and CPT Violation in the Medium Baseline Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tests of Lorentz and CPT violation in the medium baseline reactor antineutrino experiment are presented in the framework of the Standard Model Extension (SME). Both the spectral distortion and sidereal variation are employed to derive the limits of Lorentz violation (LV) coefficients. We do the numerical analysis of the sensitivity of LV coefficients by taking the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) as an illustration, which can improve the sensitivity by more than two orders of magnitude compared with the current limits from reactor antineutrino experiments.

  8. Two Particle-Hole Excitations in Charged Current Quasielastic Antineutrino--Nucleus Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, J; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the quasielastic and multinucleon contributions to the antineutrino nucleus scattering cross section and compare our results with the recent MiniBooNE data. We use a local Fermi gas model that includes RPA correlations and gets the multinucleon part from a systematic many body expansion of the $W$ boson selfenergy in the nuclear medium. The same model had been quite successful for the neutrino cross section and contains no new parameters. We have also analysed the relevance of 2p2h events for the antineutrino energy reconstruction.

  9. Two particle–hole excitations in charged current quasielastic antineutrino-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, J., E-mail: jmnieves@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia–CSIC, Institutos de Investigación de Paterna, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Ruiz Simo, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Vicente Vacas, M.J. [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia–CSIC, Institutos de Investigación de Paterna, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-04-10

    We evaluate the quasielastic and multinucleon contributions to the antineutrino-nucleus scattering cross section and compare our results with the recent MiniBooNE data. We use a local Fermi gas model that includes RPA correlations and gets the multinucleon part from a systematic many body expansion of the W boson selfenergy in the nuclear medium. The same model had been quite successful for the neutrino cross section and contains no new parameters. We have also analyzed the relevance of 2p2h events for the antineutrino energy reconstruction.

  10. First Test of Lorentz Violation with a Reactor-based Antineutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Y; Anjos, J C dos; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bezerra, T J C; Bezrukhov, L; Blucher, E; Bowden, N S; Buck, C; Busenitz, J; Cabrera, A; Caden, E; Camilleri, L; Carr, R; Cerrada, M; Chang, P -J; Chimenti, P; Classen, T; Collin, A P; Conover, E; Conrad, J M; Crespo-Anadón, J I; Crum, K; Cucoanes, A; D'Agostino, M V; Damon, E; Dawson, J V; Dazeley, S; Dietrich, D; Djurcic, Z; Dracos, M; Durand, V; Ebert, J; Efremenko, Y; Elnimr, M; Erickson, A; Fallot, M; Fechner, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Felde, J; Fischer, V; Franco, D; Franke, A J; Franke, M; Furuta, H; Gama, R; Gil-Botella, I; Giot, L; Göger-Neff, M; Gonzalez, L F G; Goodman, M C; Goon, J TM; Greiner, D; Haag, N; Habib, S; Hagner, C; Hara, T; Hartmann, F X; Haser, J; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hayakawa, T; Hofmann, M; Horton-Smith, G A; Ishitsuka, M; Jochum, J; Jollet, C; Jones, C L; Kaether, F; Kalousis, L N; Kamyshkov, Y; Kaplan, D M; Katori, T; Kawasaki, T; Keefer, G; Kemp, E; de Kerret, H; Konno, T; Kryn, D; Kuze, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lane, C E; Lasserre, T; Letourneau, A; Lhuillier, D; Lima, H P; Lindner, M; López-Castanõ, J M; LoSecco, J M; Lubsandorzhiev, B K; Lucht, S; McKee, D; Maeda, J; Maesano, C N; Mariani, C; Maricic, J; Martino, J; Matsubara, T; Mention, G; Meregaglia, A; Meyer, M; Miletic, T; Milincic, R; Miyata, H; Mueller, Th A; Nagasaka, Y; Nakajima, K; Novella, P; Obolensky, M; Oberauer, L; Onillon, A; Osborn, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Palomares, C; Pepe, I M; Perasso, S; Perrin, P; Pfahler, P; Porta, A; Potzel, W; Pronost, G; Reichenbacher, J; Reinhold, B; Remoto, A; Röhling, M; Roncin, R; Roth, S; Rybolt, B; Sakamoto, Y; Santorelli, R; Sato, F; Schönert, S; Schoppmann, S; Schwetz, T; Shaevitz, M H; Shrestha, D; Sida, J -L; Sinev, V; Skorokhvatov, M; Smith, E; Spitz, J; Stahl, A; Stancu, I; Stokes, L F F; Strait, M; Stüken, A; Suekane, F; Sukhotin, S; Sumiyoshi, T; Sun, Y; Terao, K; Tonazzo, A; Toups, M; Thi, H H Trinh; Valdiviesso, G; Veyssiere, C; Wagner, S; Watanabe, H; White, B; Wiebusch, C; Winslow, L; Worcester, M; Wurm, M; Yanovitch, E; Yermia, F; Zimmer, V

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for Lorentz violation with 8249 candidate electron antineutrino events taken by the Double Chooz experiment in 227.9 live days of running. This analysis, featuring a search for a sidereal time dependence of the events, is the first test of Lorentz invariance using a reactor-based antineutrino source. No sidereal variation is present in the data and the disappearance results are consistent with sidereal time independent oscillations. Under the Standard-Model Extension (SME), we set the first limits on fourteen Lorentz violating coefficients associated with transitions between electron and tau flavor, and set two competitive limits associated with transitions between electron and muon flavor.

  11. Total absorption spectroscopy study of $^{92}$Rb decay: a major contributor to reactor antineutrino flux

    CERN Document Server

    Zakari-Issoufou, A -A; Porta, A; Algora, A; Tain, J L; Valencia, E; Rice, S; Bui, V M; Cormon, S; Estienne, M; Agramunt, J; Äystö, J; Bowry, M; Briz, J A; Caballero-Folch, R; Cano-Ott, D; Cucoanes, A; Elomaa, V -V; Eronen, T; Estévez, E; Farrelly, G F; Garcia, A R; Gelletly, W; Gomez-Hornillos, M B; Gorlychev, V; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Jordan, M D; Kankainen, A; Karvonen, P; Kolhinen, V S; Kondev, F G; Martinez, T; Mendoza, E; Molina, F; Moore, I; Perez, A; Podolyák, Zs; Penttilä, H; Regan, P H; Reponen, M; Rissanen, J; Rubio, B; Shiba, T; Sonzogni, A A; Weber, C

    2015-01-01

    The antineutrino spectra measured in recent experiments at reactors are inconsistent with calculations based on the conversion of integral beta spectra recorded at the ILL reactor. $^{92}$Rb makes the dominant contribution to the reactor spectrum in the 5-8 MeV range but its decay properties are in question. We have studied $^{92}$Rb decay with total absorption spectroscopy. Previously unobserved beta feeding was seen in the 4.5-5.5 region and the GS to GS feeding was found to be 87.5(25)%. The impact on the reactor antineutrino spectra calculated with the summation method is shown and discussed.

  12. Does asymmetric dark matter always lead to an anti-neutrino signal?

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Hajime; Mukhopadhyay, Satyanarayan

    2014-01-01

    Under rather generic assumptions, we show that in the asymmetric dark matter (ADM) scenario, the sign of the B-L asymmetry stored in the dark matter sector and the standard model sector are always the same. One particularly striking consequence of this result is that, when the dark matter decays or annihilates in the present universe, the resulting final state always involves an anti-neutrino. As a concrete example of this, we construct a composite ADM model and explore the feasibility of detecting such an anti-neutrino signal in atmospheric neutrino detectors.

  13. Final Report for Monitoring of Reactor Antineutrinos with Compact Germanium Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, John L.; Collar, J. I.

    2009-07-01

    This 2008 NCMR project has pursued measurement of the antineutrino-nucleus coherent scattering interaction using a low-energy threshold germanium gamma-ray spectrometer of roughly one-half kilogram total mass. These efforts support development of a compact system for monitoring the antineutrino emission from nuclear reactor cores. Such a monitoring system is relevant to nuclear safeguards and nuclear non-proliferation in general by adding a strong method for assuring quantitative material balance of special nuclear material in the nuclear fuel cycle used in electricity generation.

  14. Large scale Gd-beta-diketonate based organic liquid scintillator production for antineutrino detection

    CERN Document Server

    Aberle, C; Gramlich, B; Hartmann, F X; Lindner, M; Schönert, S; Schwan, U; Wagner, S; Watanabe, H

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of several decades organic liquid scintillators form the basis for successful neutrino detectors. For electron antineutrino detection at nuclear reactor plants, gadolinium loaded liquid scintillators provide efficient background suppression. In the Double Chooz reactor antineutrino experiment a newly developed gadolinium-loaded scintillator is utilized for the first time. Its large scale production and characterization as well as the creation of an additional metalfree scintillator are presented. Both organic liquids are used in the inner part of the Double Chooz detectors.

  15. Neutrino-antineutrino pair production by hadronic bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacca, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    I will report on recent calculations of neutrino-antineutrino pair production from bremsstrahlung processes in hadronic collisions and consider temperature conditions relevant for core collapse supernovae. Earlier studies on bremsstrahlung from neutron-neutron collisions showed that the approximation used in typical supernova simulation to model this process differs by about a factor of 2 from predictions based on chiral effective field theory, where the chiral expansion of two-body forces is considered up to the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order. When the density of neutrons is large enough this process may compete with other non-hadronic reactions in the production of neutrinos, in particular in the case of μ and τ neutrinos, which are not generated by charged-current reactions. A natural question to ask is then: what is the effect of neutrino pair production from collisions of neutrons with finite nuclei? To tackle this question, we recently have addressed the case of neutron- α collisions, given that in the P-wave channels the neutron- α scattering features a resonance near 1 MeV. We find that the resonance leads to an enhanced contribution in the neutron spin structure function at temperatures in the range of 0 . 1 - 4 MeV. For significant density fractions of α in this temperature range, this process is competitive with contributions from neutron-neutron scattering. TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada. This work was supported in parts by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Grant Number SAPIN-2015-0003).

  16. Reconstructing the direction of reactor antineutrinos via electron scattering in Gd-doped water Cherenkov detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellfeld, D.; Bernstein, A.; Dazeley, S.; Marianno, C.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of elastic antineutrino-electron scattering in a Gd-doped water Cherenkov detector to determine the direction of a nuclear reactor antineutrino flux was investigated using the recently proposed WATCHMAN antineutrino experiment as a baseline model. The expected scattering rate was determined assuming a 13-km standoff from a 3.758-GWt light water nuclear reactor and the detector response was modeled using a Geant4-based simulation package. Background was estimated via independent simulations and by scaling published measurements from similar detectors. Background contributions were estimated for solar neutrinos, misidentified reactor-based inverse beta decay interactions, cosmogenic radionuclides, water-borne radon, and gamma rays from the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), detector walls, and surrounding rock. We show that with the use of low background PMTs and sufficient fiducialization, water-borne radon and cosmogenic radionuclides pose the largest threats to sensitivity. Directional sensitivity was then analyzed as a function of radon contamination, detector depth, and detector size. The results provide a list of experimental conditions that, if satisfied in practice, would enable antineutrino directional reconstruction at 3σ significance in large Gd-doped water Cherenkov detectors with greater than 10-km standoff from a nuclear reactor.

  17. Measurement of the Reactor Antineutrino Flux and Spectrum at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    An, F P; Band, H R; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Butorov, I; Cao, D; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Cen, W R; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chen, H S; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, J H; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y P; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, X F; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dove, J; Draeger, E; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Ely, S R; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, L; Guo, X H; Hackenburg, R W; Han, R; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Higuera, A; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, L M; Hu, L J; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E C; Huang, H X; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Hussain, G; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kohn, S; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Langford, T J; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, K Y; Leung, J K C; Lewis, C A; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, S C; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, P Y; Lin, S K; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, D W; Liu, H; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Liu, S S; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Lu, J S; Luk, K B; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McDonald, K T; McKeown, R D; Meng, Y; Mitchell, I; Kebwaro, J Monari; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Ngai, H Y; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevski, A; Pan, H -R; Park, J; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Piilonen, L E; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, B; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Shao, B B; Steiner, H; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tang, W; Taychenachev, D; Tsang, K V; Tull, C E; Tung, Y C; Viaux, N; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, W W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Wei, H Y; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xia, X; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, J; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yan, J; Yang, C G; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Yeh, M; Young, B L; Yu, G Y; Yu, Z Y; Zang, S L; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, H H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y F; Zhao, Y B; Zheng, L; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2015-01-01

    This Letter reports a measurement of the flux and energy spectrum of electron antineutrinos from six 2.9~GW$_{th}$ nuclear reactors with six detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512~m and 561~m) and one far (1,579~m) underground experimental halls in the Daya Bay experiment. Using 217 days of data, 296,721 and 41,589 inverse beta decay (IBD) candidates were detected in the near and far halls, respectively. The measured IBD yield is (1.55 $\\pm$ 0.04) $\\times$ 10$^{-18}$~cm$^2$/GW/day or (5.92 $\\pm$ 0.14) $\\times$ 10$^{-43}$~cm$^2$/fission. This flux measurement is consistent with previous short-baseline reactor antineutrino experiments and is $0.946\\pm0.022$ ($0.991\\pm0.023$) relative to the flux predicted with the Huber+Mueller (ILL+Vogel) fissile antineutrino model. The measured IBD positron energy spectrum deviates from both spectral predictions by more than 2$\\sigma$ over the full energy range with a local significance of up to $\\sim$4$\\sigma$ between 4-6 MeV. A reactor antineutrino spectrum...

  18. Improved Measurement of the Reactor Antineutrino Flux and Spectrum at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    An, F P; Band, H R; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Cao, D; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Cen, W R; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chen, H S; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, J -H; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y P; Cheng, Z K; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Chukanov, A; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, X F; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dolgareva, M; Dove, J; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, L; Guo, R P; Guo, X H; Guo, Z; Hackenburg, R W; Han, R; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Higuera, A; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E C; Huang, H X; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Huo, W; Hussain, G; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Joshi, J; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kohn, S; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Langford, T J; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lee, J H C; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Li, C; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, S; Li, S C; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, S; Lin, S K; Lin, Y -C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, D W; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Loh, C W; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Lu, J S; Luk, K B; Lv, Z; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; Malyshkin, Y; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McDonald, K T; McKeown, R D; Mitchell, I; Mooney, M; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Ngai, H Y; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevskiy, A; Pan, H -R; Park, J; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Steiner, H; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tang, W; Taychenachev, D; Treskov, K; Tsang, K V; Tull, C E; Viaux, N; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Wei, H Y; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, C -H; Wu, Q; Wu, W J; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yang, C G; Yang, H; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Ye, Z; Yeh, M; Young, B L; Yu, Z Y; Zeng, S; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, H H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, X T; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y B; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2016-01-01

    A new measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and energy spectrum by the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is reported. The antineutrinos were generated by six 2.9 GW$_{\\mathrm{th}}$ nuclear reactors and detected by eight antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (510~m and 560~m flux-weighted baselines) and one far (1580~m flux-weighted baseline) underground experimental halls. With 621 days of data, more than 1.2 million inverse beta decay (IBD) candidates were detected. The IBD yield in the eight detectors was measured, and the ratio of measured to predicted flux was found to be $0.946\\pm0.020$ ($0.992\\pm0.021$) for the Huber+Mueller (ILL+Vogel) model. A 2.9 $\\sigma$ deviation was found in the measured IBD positron energy spectrum compared to the predictions. In particular, an excess of events in the region of 4-6~MeV was found in the measured spectrum, with a local significance of 4.4 $\\sigma$. A reactor antineutrino spectrum weighted by the IBD cross section is extracted for model-independent p...

  19. Total Absorption Spectroscopy of Fission Fragments Relevant for Reactor Antineutrino Spectra and Decay Heat Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porta A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta decay of fission products is at the origin of decay heat and antineutrino emission in nuclear reactors. Decay heat represents about 7% of the reactor power during operation and strongly impacts reactor safety. Reactor antineutrino detection is used in several fundamental neutrino physics experiments and it can also be used for reactor monitoring and non-proliferation purposes. 92,93Rb are two fission products of importance in reactor antineutrino spectra and decay heat, but their β-decay properties are not well known. New measurements of 92,93Rb β-decay properties have been performed at the IGISOL facility (Jyväskylä, Finland using Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS. TAS is complementary to techniques based on Germanium detectors. It implies the use of a calorimeter to measure the total gamma intensity de-exciting each level in the daughter nucleus providing a direct measurement of the beta feeding. In these proceedings we present preliminary results for 93Rb, our measured beta feedings for 92Rb and we show the impact of these results on reactor antineutrino spectra and decay heat calculations.

  20. Reconstructing the direction of reactor antineutrinos via electron scattering in Gd-doped water Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellfeld, D. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Dazeley, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marianno, C. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-11-25

    The potential of elastic antineutrino-electron scattering (ν¯e + e → ν¯e + e) in a Gd-doped water Cherenkov detector to determine the direction of a nuclear reactor antineutrino flux was investigated using the recently proposed WATCHMAN antineutrino experiment as a baseline model. The expected scattering rate was determined assuming a 13 km standoff from a 3.758 GWt light water nuclear reactor. Background was estimated via independent simulations and by appropriately scaling published measurements from similar detectors. Many potential backgrounds were considered, including solar neutrinos, misidentified reactor-based inverse beta decay interactions, cosmogenic radionuclide and water-borne radon decays, and gamma rays from the photomultiplier tubes, detector walls, and surrounding rock. The detector response was modeled using a GEANT4-based simulation package. The results indicate that with the use of low radioactivity PMTs and sufficient fiducialization, water-borne radon and cosmogenic radionuclides pose the largest threats to sensitivity. The directional sensitivity was then analyzed as a function of radon contamination, detector depth, and detector size. Lastly, the results provide a list of theoretical conditions that, if satisfied in practice, would enable nuclear reactor antineutrino directionality in a Gd-doped water Cherenkov detector approximately 10 km from a large power reactor.

  1. A new measurement of antineutrino oscillation with the full detector configuration at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    An, F.P.; Band, H.R.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Butorov, I.; Cao, G.F.; Cao, J.; Cen, W.R.; Chan, Y.L.; Chang, J.F.; Chang, L.C.; Chang, Y.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Q.Y.; Chen, S.M.; Chen, Y.X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Y.P.; Cherwinka, J.J.; Chu, M.C.; Cummings, J.P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z.Y.; Ding, X.F.; Ding, Y.Y.; Diwan, M.V.; Draeger, E.; Dwyer, D.A.; Edwards, W.R.; Ely, S.R.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G.H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W.Q.; Guan, M.Y.; Guo, L.; Guo, X.H.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Han, R.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K.M.; Heng, Y.K.; Hor, Y.K.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Hu, B.Z.; Hu, L.M.; Hu, L.J.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E.C.; Huang, H.X.; Huang, X.T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Jaffe, D.E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K.L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X.P.; Ji, X.L.; Jiao, J.B.; Johnson, R.A.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S.H.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K.K.; Kwok, M.W.; Kwok, T.; Langford, T.J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lei, R.T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, A.; Leung, J.K.C.; Lewis, C.A.; Li, D.J.; Li, F.; Li, G.S.; Li, Q.J.; Li, S.C.; Li, W.D.; Li, X.N.; Li, X.Q.; Li, Y.F.; Li, Z.B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C.J.; Lin, G.L.; Lin, P.Y.; Lin, S.K.; Ling, J.J.; Link, J.M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Liu, D.W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.L.; Liu, J.C.; Liu, S.S.; Lu, C.; Lu, H.Q.; Lu, J.S.; Luk, K.B.; Ma, Q.M.; Ma, X.Y.; Ma, X.B.; Ma, Y.Q.; McDonald, K.T.; McKeown, R.D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Kebwaro, J.Monari; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Ngai, H.Y.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J.P.; Olshevski, A.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J.C.; Piilonen, L.E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C.S.J.; Qi, F.Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X.C.; Shao, B.B.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G.X.; Sun, J.L.; Tang, W.; Themann, H.; Tsang, K.V.; Tull, C.E.; Tung, Y.C.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C.H.; Wang, M.; Wang, N.Y.; Wang, R.G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W.W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.M.; Wei, H.Y.; Wen, L.J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C.G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H.L.H.; Wong, S.C.F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D.M.; Xia, J.K.; Xia, X.; Xing, Z.Z.; Xu, J.Y.; Xu, J.L.; Xu, J.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, L.; Yang, M.S.; Yang, M.T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y.S.; Young, B.L.; Yu, G.Y.; Yu, Z.Y.; Zang, S.L.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, H.H.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, Q.M.; Zhang, Y.M.; Zhang, Y.X.; Zhang, Y.M.; Zhang, Z.J.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q.W.; Zhao, Y.F.; Zhao, Y.B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W.L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zou, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    We report a new measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance using the fully-constructed Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. The final two of eight antineutrino detectors were installed in the summer of 2012. Including the 404 days of data collected from October 2012 to November 2013 resulted in a total exposure of 6.9$\\times$10$^5$ GW$_{\\rm th}$-ton-days, a 3.6 times increase over our previous results. Improvements in energy calibration limited variations between detectors to 0.2%. Removal of six $^{241}$Am-$^{13}$C radioactive calibration sources reduced the background by a factor of two for the detectors in the experimental hall furthest from the reactors. Direct prediction of the antineutrino signal in the far detectors based on the measurements in the near detectors explicitly minimized the dependence of the measurement on models of reactor antineutrino emission. The uncertainties in our estimates of $\\sin^{2}2\\theta_{13}$ and $|\\Delta m^2_{ee}|$ were halved as a result of these improvements. Ana...

  2. Measurement of electron antineutrino oscillation based on 1230 days of operation of the Daya Bay experiment

    CERN Document Server

    An, F P; Band, H R; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Cao, D; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Cen, W R; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chen, H S; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, J -H; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y P; Cheng, Z K; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Chukanov, A; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, X F; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dolgareva, M; Dove, J; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, L; Guo, X H; Guo, Z; Hackenburg, R W; Han, R; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Higuera, A; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E C; Huang, H X; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Huo, W; Hussain, G; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Jones, D; Joshi, J; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kohn, S; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Langford, T J; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lee, J H C; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, J K C; Li, C; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, S; Li, S C; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, S; Lin, S K; Lin, Y -C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, D W; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Loh, C W; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Lu, J S; Luk, K B; Lv, Z; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; Malyshkin, Y; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McDonald, K T; McKeown, R D; Mitchell, I; Mooney, M; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Ngai, H Y; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevskiy, A; Pan, H -R; Park, J; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Steiner, H; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tang, W; Taychenachev, D; Treskov, K; Tsang, K V; Tull, C E; Viaux, N; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Wei, H Y; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, C -H; Wu, Q; Wu, W J; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yang, C G; Yang, H; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Ye, Z; Yeh, M; Young, B L; Yu, Z Y; Zeng, S; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, H H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, X T; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y B; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2016-01-01

    A measurement of electron antineutrino oscillation by the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment is described in detail. Six 2.9-GW$_{\\rm th}$ nuclear power reactors of the Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power facilities served as intense sources of $\\overline{\

  3. Determination of the Sensitivity of the Antineutrino Probe for Reactor Core Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormon, S.; Fallot, M., E-mail: fallot@subatech.in2p3.fr; Bui, V.-M.; Cucoanes, A.; Estienne, M.; Lenoir, M.; Onillon, A.; Shiba, T.; Yermia, F.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents a feasibility study of the use of the detection of reactor-antineutrinos (ν{sup ¯}{sub e}) for non proliferation purpose. To proceed, we have started to study different reactor designs with our simulation tools. We use a package called MCNP Utility for Reactor Evolution (MURE), initially developed by CNRS/IN2P3 labs to study Generation IV reactors. The MURE package has been coupled to fission product beta decay nuclear databases for studying reactor antineutrino emission. This method is the only one able to predict the antineutrino emission from future reactor cores, which don't use the thermal fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu. It is also the only way to include off-equilibrium effects, due to neutron captures and time evolution of the fission product concentrations during a reactor cycle. We will present here the first predictions of antineutrino energy spectra from innovative reactor designs (Generation IV reactors). We will then discuss a summary of our results of non-proliferation scenarios involving the latter reactor designs, taking into account reactor physics constraints.

  4. Measurement of the Reactor Antineutrino Flux and Spectrum at Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Butorov, I.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Cen, W. R.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, X. F.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dove, J.; Draeger, E.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, L.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Han, R.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, K. Y.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. K.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, S. S.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McDonald, K. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Monari Kebwaro, J.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevski, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Park, J.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Shao, B. B.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tang, W.; Taychenachev, D.; Tsang, K. V.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xia, X.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zang, S. L.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y. F.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    This Letter reports a measurement of the flux and energy spectrum of electron antineutrinos from six 2.9 GWt h nuclear reactors with six detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512 and 561 m) and one far (1579 m) underground experimental halls in the Daya Bay experiment. Using 217 days of data, 296 721 and 41 589 inverse β decay (IBD) candidates were detected in the near and far halls, respectively. The measured IBD yield is (1.55 ±0.04 ) ×10-18 cm2 GW-1 day-1 or (5.92 ±0.14 ) ×10-43 cm2 fission-1 . This flux measurement is consistent with previous short-baseline reactor antineutrino experiments and is 0.946 ±0.022 (0.991 ±0.023 ) relative to the flux predicted with the Huber -Mueller (ILL -Vogel ) fissile antineutrino model. The measured IBD positron energy spectrum deviates from both spectral predictions by more than 2 σ over the full energy range with a local significance of up to ˜4 σ between 4-6 MeV. A reactor antineutrino spectrum of IBD reactions is extracted from the measured positron energy spectrum for model-independent predictions.

  5. Photon emission in (anti)neutrino neutral current interactions with nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang En; Alvarez-Ruso, Luis; Nieves, Juan [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Centro Mixto CSIC-UV, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-06-10

    Photon emission induced by E{sub {nu}}{approx} 1 GeV (anti)neutrino neutral current (NC) interactions with nuclei is studied with a dynamical microscopic model. This process is a relevant background for {nu}{sub e} appearance oscillation experiments. We find a strong reduction of the cross section due to nuclear effects.

  6. Solar Neutrino Oscillation Parameters in Experiments with Reactor Anti-Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2004-01-01

    We review the current status of the solar neutrino oscillation parameters. We discuss the conditions under which measurements from future solar neutrino experiments would determine the oscillation parameters precisely. Finally we expound the potential of long baseline reactor anti-neutrino experiments in measuring the solar neutrino oscillation parameters.

  7. Measurement of the Reactor Antineutrino Flux and Spectrum at Daya Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F P; Balantekin, A B; Band, H R; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Butorov, I; Cao, D; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Cen, W R; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chen, H S; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, J H; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y P; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, X F; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dove, J; Draeger, E; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Ely, S R; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, L; Guo, X H; Hackenburg, R W; Han, R; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Higuera, A; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, L M; Hu, L J; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E C; Huang, H X; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Hussain, G; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kohn, S; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Langford, T J; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, K Y; Leung, J K C; Lewis, C A; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, S C; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, P Y; Lin, S K; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, D W; Liu, H; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Liu, S S; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Lu, J S; Luk, K B; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; Martinez Caicedo, D A; McDonald, K T; McKeown, R D; Meng, Y; Mitchell, I; Monari Kebwaro, J; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Ngai, H Y; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevski, A; Pan, H-R; Park, J; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Piilonen, L E; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, B; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Shao, B B; Steiner, H; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tang, W; Taychenachev, D; Tsang, K V; Tull, C E; Tung, Y C; Viaux, N; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, W W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Wei, H Y; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xia, X; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, J; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yan, J; Yang, C G; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Yeh, M; Young, B L; Yu, G Y; Yu, Z Y; Zang, S L; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, H H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y F; Zhao, Y B; Zheng, L; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2016-02-12

    This Letter reports a measurement of the flux and energy spectrum of electron antineutrinos from six 2.9 GWth nuclear reactors with six detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512 and 561 m) and one far (1579 m) underground experimental halls in the Daya Bay experiment. Using 217 days of data, 296 721 and 41 589 inverse β decay (IBD) candidates were detected in the near and far halls, respectively. The measured IBD yield is (1.55±0.04) ×10(-18)  cm(2) GW(-1) day(-1) or (5.92±0.14) ×10(-43)  cm(2) fission(-1). This flux measurement is consistent with previous short-baseline reactor antineutrino experiments and is 0.946±0.022 (0.991±0.023) relative to the flux predicted with the Huber-Mueller (ILL-Vogel) fissile antineutrino model. The measured IBD positron energy spectrum deviates from both spectral predictions by more than 2σ over the full energy range with a local significance of up to ∼4σ between 4-6 MeV. A reactor antineutrino spectrum of IBD reactions is extracted from the measured positron energy spectrum for model-independent predictions.

  8. Total Absorption Spectroscopy of Fission Fragments Relevant for Reactor Antineutrino Spectra and Decay Heat Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, A.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Fallot, M.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Valencia, E.; Rice, S.; Bui, V. M.; Cormon, S.; Estienne, M.; Agramunt, J.; Äystö, J.; Bowry, M.; Briz, J. A.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cucouanes, A.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Estévez, E.; Farrelly, G. F.; Garcia, A. R.; Gelletly, W.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Jordan, M. D.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Kondev, F. G.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Molina, F.; Moore, I.; Perez-Cerdán, A. B.; Podolyák, Zs.; Penttilä, H.; Regan, P. H.; Reponen, M.; Rissanen, J.; Rubio, B.; Shiba, T.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Weber, C.

    2016-03-01

    Beta decay of fission products is at the origin of decay heat and antineutrino emission in nuclear reactors. Decay heat represents about 7% of the reactor power during operation and strongly impacts reactor safety. Reactor antineutrino detection is used in several fundamental neutrino physics experiments and it can also be used for reactor monitoring and non-proliferation purposes. 92,93Rb are two fission products of importance in reactor antineutrino spectra and decay heat, but their β-decay properties are not well known. New measurements of 92,93Rb β-decay properties have been performed at the IGISOL facility (Jyväskylä, Finland) using Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS). TAS is complementary to techniques based on Germanium detectors. It implies the use of a calorimeter to measure the total gamma intensity de-exciting each level in the daughter nucleus providing a direct measurement of the beta feeding. In these proceedings we present preliminary results for 93Rb, our measured beta feedings for 92Rb and we show the impact of these results on reactor antineutrino spectra and decay heat calculations.

  9. New Decay Data Sub-library for Calculation of Nuclear Reactors Antineutrino Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, Alejandro; McCutchan, Elizabeth; Johnson, Timothy

    2015-10-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.1 decay data sub-library contains up-to-date decay properties for all known nuclides and can be used in a wide variety of applications such as decay heat, delayed nu-bar and astrophysics. We have recently completed an upgrade to the ENDF/B-VII.1 decay data sub-library in order to better calculate antineutrino spectra from fission of actinide nuclides. This sub-library has been used to identify the main contributors to the antineutrino spectra as well as to derive a systematic behavior of the energy integrated spectra similar to that of the beta-delayed neutron multiplicities. The main improvements have been the use of the TAGS data from Algora et al and Greenwood et al, as well as some of the single beta spectrum data from Rudstam et al to obtain beta minus level feedings. Additionally, we have calculated the antineutrino spectra for neutron energies higher than thermal, needed for highly-enriched uranium cores, such as the HFIR in ORNL that will be used in the PROSPECT experiment. These calculations are relevant since the high precision beta spectra which are used in many antineutrino calculations were measured at thermal energies. The impact of the fission yield data on these calculations will be discussed. This work was sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  10. Determination of the Sensitivity of the Antineutrino Probe for Reactor Core Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormon, S.; Fallot, M.; Bui, V.-M.; Cucoanes, A.; Estienne, M.; Lenoir, M.; Onillon, A.; Shiba, T.; Yermia, F.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of the use of the detection of reactor-antineutrinos (νbare) for non proliferation purpose. To proceed, we have started to study different reactor designs with our simulation tools. We use a package called MCNP Utility for Reactor Evolution (MURE), initially developed by CNRS/IN2P3 labs to study Generation IV reactors. The MURE package has been coupled to fission product beta decay nuclear databases for studying reactor antineutrino emission. This method is the only one able to predict the antineutrino emission from future reactor cores, which don't use the thermal fission of 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu. It is also the only way to include off-equilibrium effects, due to neutron captures and time evolution of the fission product concentrations during a reactor cycle. We will present here the first predictions of antineutrino energy spectra from innovative reactor designs (Generation IV reactors). We will then discuss a summary of our results of non-proliferation scenarios involving the latter reactor designs, taking into account reactor physics constraints.

  11. Search for extraterrestrial antineutrino sources with the KamLAND detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abe, S.; et al., [Unknown; Decowski, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a search for extraterrestrial electron antineutrinos ( 's) in the energy range 8.3 MeV < Eve < 31.8 MeV using the KamLAND detector. In an exposure of 4.53 kton-year, we identify 25 candidate events. All of the candidate events can be attributed to background, most important

  12. Viability of $\\Delta m^2\\sim$ 1 eV$^2$ sterile neutrino mixing models in light of MiniBooNE electron neutrino and antineutrino data from the Booster and NuMI beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Karagiorgi, G; Conrad, J; Shaevitz, M H; Sorel, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines sterile neutrino oscillation models in light of recently published results from the MiniBooNE Experiment. The new MiniBooNE data include the updated neutrino results, including the low energy region, and the first antineutrino results, as well as first results from the off-axis NuMI beam observed in the MiniBooNE detector. These new global fits also include data from LSND, KARMEN, NOMAD, Bugey, CHOOZ, CCFR84, and CDHS. Constraints from atmospheric oscillation data have been imposed.

  13. Neutrino and antineutrino CCQE scattering in the SuperScaling Approximation from MiniBooNE to NOMAD energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megias, G.D. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Amaro, J.E. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Instituto Carlos I de Física Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Barbaro, M.B., E-mail: barbaro@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Caballero, J.A. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Donnelly, T.W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-08-09

    We compare the predictions of the SuperScaling model for charged-current quasielastic muonic neutrino and antineutrino scattering from {sup 12}C with experimental data spanning an energy range up to 100 GeV. We discuss the sensitivity of the results to different parametrizations of the nucleon vector and axial-vector form factors. Finally, we show the differences between electron and muon (anti)neutrino cross sections relevant for the νSTORM facility.

  14. Neutrino and antineutrino CCQE scattering in the SuperScaling Approximation from MiniBooNE to NOMAD energies

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro, J E; Caballero, J A; Donnelly, T W; Megias, G D

    2013-01-01

    We compare the predictions of the SuperScaling model for charged current quasielastic muonic neutrino and antineutrino scattering from $^{12}$C with experimental data spanning an energy range up to 100 GeV. We discuss the sensitivity of the results to different parametrizations of the nucleon vector and axial-vector form factors. Finally, we show the differences between electron and muon (anti-)neutrino cross sections relevant for the $\

  15. A search for muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance in the Booster Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna McConnel [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This dissertation presents a search for vμ and $\\bar{v}$μ disappearance with the MiniBooNE experiment in the Δm2 region of a few eV2. Disappearance measurements in this oscillation region constrain sterile neutrino models and CPT violation in the lepton sector. Fits to the shape of the vμ and $\\bar{v}$μ energy spectra reveal no evidence for disappearance in either mode. This is the first test of $\\bar{v}$μ disappearance between Δm2 = 0.1 - 10 eV2. In addition, prospects for performing a joint analysis using the SciBooNE detector in conjunction with MiniBooNE are discussed.

  16. The Physics and Nuclear Nonproliferation Goals of WATCHMAN: A WAter CHerenkov Monitor for ANtineutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Askins, M; Bernstein, A; Dazeley, S; Dye, S T; Handler, T; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hellfeld, D; Jaffke, P; Kamyshkov, Y; Land, B J; Learned, J G; Marleau, P; Mauger, C; Gann, G D Orebi; Roecker, C; Rountree, S D; Shokair, T M; Smy, M B; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Vagins, M R; van Bibber, K A; Vogelaar, R B; Wetstein, M J; Yeh, M

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the physics and nonproliferation goals of WATCHMAN, the WAter Cherenkov Monitor for ANtineutrinos. The baseline WATCHMAN design is a kiloton scale gadolinium-doped (Gd) light water Cherenkov detector, placed 13 kilometers from a civil nuclear reactor in the United States. In its first deployment phase, WATCHMAN will be used to remotely detect a change in the operational status of the reactor, providing a first- ever demonstration of the potential of large Gd-doped water detectors for remote reactor monitoring for future international nuclear nonproliferation applications. During its first phase, the detector will provide a critical large-scale test of the ability to tag neutrons and thus distinguish low energy electron neutrinos and antineutrinos. This would make WATCHMAN the only detector capable of providing both direction and flavor identification of supernova neutrinos. It would also be the third largest supernova detector, and the largest underground in the western hemisphere. In a...

  17. Determination of the fission coefficients in thermal nuclear reactors for antineutrino detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Lenilson M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Cabral, Ronaldo G., E-mail: rgcabral@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, Joao C.C. dos, E-mail: janjos@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. GLN - G

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear reactors in operation periodically need to change their fuel. It is during this process that these reactors are more vulnerable to occurring of several situations of fuel diversion, thus the monitoring of the nuclear installations is indispensable to avoid events of this nature. Considering this fact, the most promissory technique to be used for the nuclear safeguard for the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, it is based on the detection and spectroscopy of antineutrino from fissions that occur in the nuclear reactors. The detection and spectroscopy of antineutrino, they both depend on the single contribution for the total number of fission of each actinide in the core reactor, these contributions receive the name of fission coefficients. The goal of this research is to show the computational and mathematical modeling used to determinate these coefficients for PWR reactors. (author)

  18. Indication for the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos in the Double Chooz experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Y; Akiri, T; Anjos, J C dos; Ardellier, F; Barbosa, A F; Baxter, A; Bernstein, A; Bezerra, T J C; Bezrukhov, L; Blucher, E; Bongrand, M; Bowden, N S; Buck, C; Busenitz, J; Cabrera, A; Caden, E; Camilleri, L; Carr, R; Cerrada, M; Chang, P -J; Chimenti, P; Classen, T; Collin, A; Conover, E; Conrad, J M; Cormon, S; Crespo-Anadón, J I; Cribier, M; Crum, K; Cucoanes, A; D'Agostino, M V; Damon, E; Dawson, J V; Dazeley, S; Dierckxsens, M; Dietrich, D; Djurcic, Z; Dracos, M; Durand, V; Efremenko, Y; Endo, Y; Etenko, A; Falk, E; Fallot, M; Fechner, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Felde, J; Fernandes, S M; Franco, D; Franke, A; Franke, M; Furuta, H; Gama, R; Gil-Botella, I; Giot, L; Göger-Neff, M; Gonzalez, L F G; Goodman, M C; Goon, J TM; Greiner, D; Guillon, B; Haag, N; Hagner, C; Hara, T; Hartmann, F X; Hartnell, J; Haruna, T; Haser, J; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hayakawa, T; Hofmann, M; Horton-Smith, G; Ishitsuka, M; Jochum, J; Jollet, C; Jones, C L; Kaether, F; Kalousis, L; Kamyshkov, Y; Kaplan, D; Kawasaki, T; Keefer, G; Kemp, E; de Kerret, H; Kibe, Y; Konno, T; Kryn, D; Kuze, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lane, C E; Langbrandtner, C; Lasserre, T; Letourneau, A; Lhuillier, D; Lima, H P; Lindner, M; Liu, Y; López-Castanõ, J M; LoSecco, J M; Lubsandorzhiev, B K; Lucht, S; McKee, D; Maeda, J; Maesano, C N; Mariani, C; Maricic, J; Martino, J; Matsubara, T; Mention, G; Meregaglia, A; Miletic, T; Milincic, R; Milzstajn, A; Miyata, H; Motta, D; Mueller, Th A; Nagasaka, Y; Nakajima, K; Novella, P; Obolensky, M; Oberauer, L; Onillon, A; Osborn, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Palomares, C; Peeters, S J M; Pepe, I M; Perrin, P; Pfahler, P; Porta, A; Potzel, W; Queval, R; Reichenbacher, J; Reinhold, B; Remoto, A; Reyna, D; Röhling, M; Roth, S; Rubin, H A; Sakamoto, Y; Santorelli, R; Sato, F; Schönert, S; Schoppmann, S; Schwan, U; Schwetz, T; Shaevitz, M; Shrestha, D; Sida, J-L; Sinev, V; Skorokhvatov, M; Smith, E; Stahl, A; Stancu, I; Strait, M; Stüken, A; Suekane, F; Sukhotin, S; Sumiyoshi, T; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Svoboda, R; Tabata, H; Tamura, N; Terao, K; Tonazzo, A; Toups, M; Thi, H H Trinh; Veyssiere, C; Vignaud, D; Wagner, S; Watanabe, H; White, B; Wiebusch, C; Winslow, L; Worcester, M; Wurm, M; Yanovitch, E; Yermia, F; Zbiri, K; Zimmer, V

    2011-01-01

    The Double Chooz Experiment presents an indication of reactor electron antineutrino disappearance consistent with neutrino oscillations. A ratio of 0.944 $\\pm$ 0.016 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.040 (syst) observed to predicted events was obtained in 101 days of running at the Chooz Nuclear Power Plant in France, with two 4.25 GW$_{th}$ reactors. The results were obtained from a single 10 m$^3$ fiducial volume detector located 1050 m from the two reactor cores. The reactor antineutrino flux prediction used the Bugey4 measurement as an anchor point. The deficit can be interpreted as an indication of a non-zero value of the still unmeasured neutrino mixing parameter \\sang. Analyzing both the rate of the prompt positrons and their energy spectrum we find \\sang = 0.086 $\\pm$ 0.041 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.030 (syst), or, at 90% CL, 0.015 $<$ \\sang $\\ <$ 0.16.

  19. Measurement of antineutrino oscillation with the full detector configuration at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this poster, we present the latest measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance using the fully constructed Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. A total exposure of $6.9 \\times 10^5$ GW$_{\\mathrm{th}}$ ton days was achieved in November 2013 after 617 day of data taking. The most precise estimates to date of the neutrino mass and mixing parameters $|\\Delta \\mathrm{m}^2_{ee}|$ and $\\sin^2 2 \\theta_{13}$ were obtained with an analysis of the relative antineutrino rates and energy spectra between detectors. The value of the two parameters was found to be $\\sin^2 2 \\theta_{13} = 0.084 \\pm 0.005$ and $|\\Delta \\mathrm{m}^2_{ee}| = (2.42 \\pm 0.11) \\times 10^{-3}\\,\\mathrm{eV}^2$. This report focuses in particular on describing how improvements in the calibration and in the energy response model contributed to achieve this result.

  20. Target Mass Monitoring and Instrumentation in the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Band, Henry R; Greenler, Lee S; Heeger, Karsten M; Hinrichs, Paul; Kang, Li; Lewis, Christine; Li, Shanfeng; Lin, Shengxin; McFarlane, Michael C; Wang, Wei; Webber, David M; Wei, Yadong; Wise, Thomas; Xiao, Qiang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Zhijian

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay experiment measures sin^2 2{\\theta}_13 using functionally identical antineutrino detectors located at distances of 300 to 2000 meters from the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Each detector consists of three nested fluid volumes surrounded by photomultiplier tubes. These volumes are coupled to overflow tanks on top of the detector to allow for thermal expansion of the liquid. Antineutrinos are detected through the inverse beta decay reaction on the proton-rich scintillator target. A precise and continuous measurement of the detector's central target mass is achieved by monitoring the the fluid level in the overflow tanks with cameras and ultrasonic and capacitive sensors. In addition, the monitoring system records detector temperature and levelness at multiple positions. This monitoring information allows the precise determination of the detectors' effective number of target protons during data taking. We present the design, calibration, installation and in-situ tests of the Daya Bay real-time ant...

  1. Shifts of neutrino oscillation parameters in reactor antineutrino experiments with non-standard interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss reactor antineutrino oscillations with non-standard interactions (NSIs at the neutrino production and detection processes. The neutrino oscillation probability is calculated with a parametrization of the NSI parameters by splitting them into the averages and differences of the production and detection processes respectively. The average parts induce constant shifts of the neutrino mixing angles from their true values, and the difference parts can generate the energy (and baseline dependent corrections to the initial mass-squared differences. We stress that only the shifts of mass-squared differences are measurable in reactor antineutrino experiments. Taking Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO as an example, we analyze how NSIs influence the standard neutrino measurements and to what extent we can constrain the NSI parameters.

  2. Search for Perturbations of Nuclear Decay Rates Induced by Reactor Electron Antineutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, V E; Bryan, C D; Cinko, N; Deichert, G G; Gruenwald, J T; Heim, J M; Kaplan, H B; LaZur, R; Neff, D; Nistor, J M; Sahelijo, N; Fischbach, E

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of an experiment conducted near the High Flux Isotope Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, designed to address the question of whether a flux of reactor-generated electron antineutrinos can alter the rates of weak nuclear interaction-induced decays for Mn-54, Na-22, and Co-60. This experiment, while quite sensitive, cannot exclude perturbations less than one or two parts in $10^4$ in $\\beta$ decay (or electron capture) processes, in the presence of an antineutrino flux of $3\\times 10^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. The present experimental methods are applicable to a wide range of isotopes. Improved sensitivity in future experiments may be possible if we can understand and reduce the dominant systematic uncertainties.

  3. Stringent Constraints on Cosmological Neutrino-Antineutrino Asymmetries from Synchronized Flavor Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Abazajian, Kevork N.; Beacom, John F.; Bell, Nicole F.

    2002-01-01

    We assess a mechanism which can transform neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries between flavors in the early universe, and confirm that such transformation is unavoidable in the near bi-maximal framework emerging for the neutrino mixing matrix. We show that the process is a standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein flavor transformation dictated by a synchronization of momentum states. We also show that flavor ``equilibration'' is a special feature of maximal mixing, and carefully examine new constra...

  4. Improved measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum at Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Cen, W. R.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.-H.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cheng, Z. K.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Chukanov, A.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, X. F.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dolgareva, M.; Dove, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, L.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, X. H.; Guo, Z.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Han, R.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Huo, W.; Hussain, G.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, D.; Joshi, J.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. H. C.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, S.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Loh, C. W.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, K. B.; Lv, Z.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Malyshkin, Y.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McDonald, K. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Mitchell, I.; Mooney, M.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Park, J.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tang, W.; Taychenachev, D.; Treskov, K.; Tsang, K. V.; Tull, C. E.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, C.-H.; Wu, Q.; Wu, W. J.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, M.; Young, B. L.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A new measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and energy spectrum by the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is reported. The antineutrinos were generated by six 2.9 GWth nuclear reactors and detected by eight antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (560 m and 600 m flux-weighted baselines) and one far (1640 m flux-weighted baseline) underground experimental halls. With 621 days of data, more than 1.2 million inverse beta decay (IBD) candidates were detected. The IBD yield in the eight detectors was measured, and the ratio of measured to predicted flux was found to be 0.946±0.020 (0.992±0.021) for the Huber+Mueller (ILL+Vogel) model. A 2.9σ deviation was found in the measured IBD positron energy spectrum compared to the predictions. In particular, an excess of events in the region of 4-6 MeV was found in the measured spectrum, with a local significance of 4.4σ. A reactor antineutrino spectrum weighted by the IBD cross section is extracted for model-independent predictions. Supported in part by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, the United States Department of Energy, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Guangdong provincial government, the Shenzhen municipal government, the China General Nuclear Power Group, the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, the MOST and MOE in Taiwan, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, the NSFC-RFBR joint research program, the National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research of Chile

  5. Hybrid method to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy by supernova (anti)neutrino induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Vale, D; Paar, N

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a hybrid method to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy by simultaneous measurements of responses of at least two detectors to antineutrino and neutrino fluxes from accretion and cooling phases of core-collapse supernovae. The (anti)neutrino-nucleus cross sections for $^{56}$Fe and $^{208}$Pb are calculated in the framework of the relativistic nuclear energy density functional and weak interaction Hamiltonian, while the cross sections for inelastic scattering on free protons $\\mathrm{p}(\\bar{\

  6. Advances toward a transportable antineutrino detector system for reactor monitoring and safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyna, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lund, J.; Kiff, S.; Cabrera-Palmer, B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bowden, N. S.; Dazeley, S.; Keefer, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the neutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Our SNL/LLNL collaboration has demonstrated that such antineutrino based monitoring is feasible using a relatively small cubic meter scale liquid scintillator detector at tens of meters standoff from a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). With little or no burden on the plant operator we have been able to remotely and automatically monitor the reactor operational status (on/off), power level, and fuel burnup. The initial detector was deployed in an underground gallery that lies directly under the containment dome of an operating PWR. The gallery is 25 meters from the reactor core center, is rarely accessed by plant personnel, and provides a muon-screening effect of some 20-30 meters of water equivalent earth and concrete overburden. Unfortunately, many reactor facilities do not contain an equivalent underground location. We have therefore attempted to construct a complete detector system which would be capable of operating in an aboveground location and could be transported to a reactor facility with relative ease. A standard 6-meter shipping container was used as our transportable laboratory - containing active and passive shielding components, the antineutrino detector and all electronics, as well as climate control systems. This aboveground system was deployed and tested at the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) in southern California in 2010 and early 2011. We will first present an overview of the initial demonstrations of our below ground detector. Then we will describe the aboveground system and the technological developments of the two antineutrino

  7. An anti-neutrino detector to monitor nuclear reactor's power and fuel composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglieri, M., E-mail: battaglieri@ge.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); DeVita, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Firpo, G.; Neuhold, P. [Ansaldo Nucleare, Corso Perrone 25, 16161 Genova (Italy); Osipenko, M.; Piombo, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Ricco, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Ripani, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Taiuti, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    In this contribution, we present the expected performance of a new detector to measure the absolute energy-integrated flux and the energy spectrum of anti-neutrinos emitted by a nuclear power plant. The number of detected anti-neutrino is a direct measure of the power while from the energy spectrum is possible to infer the evolution in time of the core isotopic composition. The proposed method should be sensitive to a sudden change in the core burn-up as caused, for instance, by a fraudulent subtraction of plutonium. The detector, a 130x100x100cm{sup 3} cube with 1m{sup 3} active volume, made by plastic scintillator wrapped in thin Gd foils, is segmented in 50 independent optical channels read, side by side, by a pair of 3 in. photomultipliers. Anti-neutrino interacts with hydrogen contained in the plastic scintillator via the neutron inverse {beta}- decay ({nu}-barp{yields}e{sup +}n). The high segmentation of the detector allows to reduce the background from other reactions by detecting independent hits for the positron, the two photons emitted in the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation and the neutron.

  8. Upper limit on the cross section for reactor antineutrinos changing 22Na decay rates

    CERN Document Server

    de Meijer, R J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a long-term observation of the decay of 22Na in the presence of a nuclear fission reactor. The measurements were made outside the containment wall of and underneath the Koeberg nuclear power plant near Cape Town, South Africa. Antineutrino fluxes ranged from ~5*10^11 to 1.6*10^13 cm^-2 s^-1 during this period. We show that the coincidence summing technique provides a sensitive tool to measure a change in the total decay constant as well as the branching ratio between EC and beta+ decay of 22Na to the first excited state in 22Ne. We observe a relative change in count rate between reactor-ON and reactor-OFF equal to (-0.51+/-0.11)*10^-4. After evaluating possible systematic uncertainties we conclude that the effect is either due to a hidden instrumental cause or due to an interaction between antineutrinos and the 22Na nucleus. An upper limit of ~0.03 barn has been deduced for observing any change in the decay rate of 22Na due to antineutrino interactions.

  9. Hanohano: A Deep Ocean Anti-Neutrino Detector for Unique Neutrino Physics and Geophysics Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Learned, John G; Pakvasa, Sandip

    2008-01-01

    The science potential of a 10 kiloton deep-ocean liquid scintillation detector for ~1 MeV energy scale electron anti-neutrinos has been studied. Such an instrument, designed to be portable and function in the deep ocean (3-5 km) can make unique measurements of the anti-neutrinos from radioactive decays in the Earth'.s mantle. Ths information speaks to some of the most fundamental questions in geology about the origin of the Earth, plat e tectonics, the geomagnetic field and even somewhat indirectly to global warming. Measurements in multiple locations will strengthen the potential insights. On the particle physics side, we have identified a unique role in the study of anti-neutrinos from a nuclear power complex, at a range of 55-60 km off shore. Not only can precision measurements be made of most neutrino mixing parameters, including $\\theta_{13}$ (depending on magnitude), but the neutrino mass hierarchy can be determined in a method not heretofore discussed, and one which does not rely upon matter effects. T...

  10. How unequal fluxes of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and antineutrinos can fake new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunokawa, Hiroshi [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 38071, 22452-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Panes, Boris; Funchal, Renata Zukanovich [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66.318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-10-21

    Flavor ratios of very high energy astrophysical neutrinos, which can be studied at the Earth by a neutrino telescope such as IceCube, can serve to diagnose their production mechanism at the astrophysical source. The flavor ratios for neutrinos and antineutrinos can be quite different as we do not know how they are produced in the astrophysical environment. Due to this uncertainty the neutrino and antineutrino flavor ratios at the Earth also could be quite different. Nonetheless, it is generally assumed that flavor ratios for neutrinos and antineutrinos are the same at the Earth, in fitting the high energy astrophysical neutrino data. This is a reasonable assumption for the limited statistics for the data we currently have. However, in the future the fit must be performed allowing for a possible discrepancy in these two fractions in order to be able to disentangle different production mechanisms at the source from new physics in the neutrino sector. To reinforce this issue, in this work we show that a wrong assumption about the distribution of neutrino flavor ratios at the Earth may indeed lead to misleading interpretations of IceCube results.

  11. Detection of anomalous reactor activity using antineutrino count evolution over the course of a reactor cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaevskaya, Vera; Bernstein, Adam

    2011-06-01

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity of antineutrino count rate measurements to changes in the fissile content of civil power reactors. Such measurements may be useful in IAEA reactor safeguards applications. We introduce a hypothesis testing procedure to identify statistically significant differences between the antineutrino count rate evolution of a standard "baseline" fuel cycle and that of an anomalous cycle, in which plutonium is removed and replaced with an equivalent fissile worth of uranium. The test would allow an inspector to detect anomalous reactor activity, or to positively confirm that the reactor is operating in a manner consistent with its declared fuel inventory and power level. We show that with a reasonable choice of detector parameters, the test can detect replacement of 82 kg of plutonium in 90 days with 95% probability, while controlling the false positive rate at 5%. We show that some improvement on this level of sensitivity may be obtained by various means, including use of the method in conjunction with existing reactor safeguards methods. We also identify a necessary and sufficient minimum daily antineutrino count rate and a maximum tolerable background rate to achieve the quoted sensitivity, and list examples of detectors in which such rates have been attained.

  12. Reactor Anti-Neutrino Oscillations and Gadolinium Loaded Super-Kamiokande Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, Sandhya; Choubey, Sandhya

    2004-01-01

    We explore the potential of measuring the solar neutrino oscillation parameters in the proposed gadolinium loaded Super-Kamiokande (SK-Gd) detector. Gadolinium dissolved in water can detect neutrons much more efficiently than pure water. This imparts the detector the ability to observe eletron type antineutrinos, transforming Super-Kamiokande into a huge reactor antineutrino detector with an event rate approximately 43 times higher than that observed in KamLAND. We simulate the reactor antineutrino data expected in this high statistics detector. We use these prospective data to study the precision with which the solar neutrino oscillation parameters, $\\Delta m^2_{\\odot}$ and $\\sin^2\\theta_{\\odot}$, can be determined i) with the SK-Gd detector, and ii) by combining the SK-Gd data with the global data on solar neutrino oscillations. For comparison and completeness the allowed regions of $\\Delta m^2_{\\odot}$ and $\\sin^2\\theta_{\\odot}$, expected to be obtained from the data of the solar neutrino and KamLAND exper...

  13. Neutrino–antineutrino mass splitting in the Standard Model and baryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Fujikawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a previously proposed mechanism of neutrino–antineutrino mass splitting in the Standard Model, which is Lorentz and SU(2×U(1 invariant but non-local to evade the CPT theorem, we discuss the possible implications of neutrino–antineutrino mass splitting on neutrino physics and baryogenesis. It is shown that non-locality within a distance scale of the Planck length, that may not be fatal to unitarity in a generic effective theory, can generate the neutrino–antineutrino mass splitting of the order of the observed neutrino mass differences, which is tested in oscillation experiments, and a non-negligible baryon asymmetry depending on the estimate of sphaleron dynamics. The one-loop order induced electron–positron mass splitting in the Standard Model is shown to be finite and estimated at ∼10−20 eV, well below the experimental bound <10−2 eV. The induced CPT violation in the K-meson in the Standard Model is expected to be even smaller and well below the experimental bound |mK−mK¯|<0.44×10−18 GeV.

  14. Borexino's search for low-energy neutrino and antineutrino signals correlated with gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Atroshchenko, V.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Carlini, M.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; de Kerret, H.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jany, A.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Jeschke, D.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-01-01

    A search for neutrino and antineutrino events correlated with 2350 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is performed with Borexino data collected between December 2007 and November 2015. No statistically significant excess over background is observed. We look for electron antineutrinos (νbare) that inverse beta decay on protons with energies from 1.8 MeV to 15 MeV and set the best limit on the neutrino fluence from GRBs below 8 MeV. The signals from neutrinos and antineutrinos from GRBs that scatter on electrons are also searched for, a detection channel made possible by the particularly radio-pure scintillator of Borexino. We obtain currently the best limits on the neutrino fluence of all flavors and species below 7 MeV. Finally, time correlations between GRBs and bursts of events are investigated. Our analysis combines two semi-independent data acquisition systems for the first time: the primary Borexino readout optimized for solar neutrino physics up to a few MeV, and a fast waveform digitizer system tuned for events above 1 MeV.

  15. Lithium antineutrino source in the tandem scheme of the accelerator and neutron producting tungsten target

    CERN Document Server

    Lyashuk, V I

    2016-01-01

    The antineutrinos of the neutron rich 8Li isotope is characterized by hard and good defined spectrum - averaged energy is 6.5 MeV and maximal - up to 13 MeV. An intensive antineutrino source with such parameters can be unique instrument for neutrino investigations and especially for search of sterile neutrinos. The 8Li can be produced by (n,gamma)-activation of 7Li isotope. The proposed scheme of the antineutrino source is based on the lithium blanket around the accelerator neutron producting target. We propose to use heavy water solution of the lithium hydroxide instead of lithium in metallic state. Such solution for lithium blanket substance ensure the large perspectives in real steps for creation of this installation. An analyses of neutron fields in the blanket and distribution of 8Li creation allows to propose the next principal steps in the construction of the lithium blanket. We propose to enclose the blanket volume isolating it's central part with more high 8Li production. This solution allows to decr...

  16. Conceptual design report for a Beta-Beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, M; Borgnolutti, F; Bouquerel, E; Bozyk, L; Bruer, J; Chance, A; Delahaye, P; Fabich, A; Hancock, S; Hansen, C; Jensen, E; Kallberg, A; Kirk, M; Lachaize, A; Lindroos, M; Loiselet, M; Magistris, M; Mitrofanov, S; Mueller, A C; Payet, J; Podlech, H; Puppel, P; Silari, M; Simonsson, A; Spiller, P; Stadlmann, J; Stora, T; Tkatchenko, A; Trovati, S; Vlachoudis, V; Wildner, E

    2011-01-01

    The Beta-Beam is a concept of large-scale facility that aims at providing pure electronic neutrino and antineutrino beams for the measurement of v(e) -> v(mu) oscillations. Beta-decaying nuclides are produced in large amounts in a facility of the scale of EURISOL, and are then post-accelerated and stored at large gamma in a racetrack decay ring. We present here a conceptual design of the accelerator chain of a Beta-Beam based at CERN.

  17. Nuclear Reactor Simulations for Unveiling Diversion Scenarios: capabilities of the antineutrino probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, V.M.; Fallot, M.; Giot, L.; Guillon, B.; Martino, J.; Yermia, F. [SUBATECH - CNRS-IN2P3 - Univ. of Nantes - EMN, Nantes (France); Nuttin, A. [LPSC - CNRS-IN2P3/UJF/INPG, Grenoble (France)

    2009-06-15

    After many years of fundamental research, physicists have a good understanding of the neutrinos detection techniques. It is now possible to apply neutrino physics as a new tool to monitor nuclear power plants. We already know that modest size detectors are achievable to fulfill that task such as the SONGS 1 and the future Nucifer detectors. In parallel, sophisticated simulations of reactors and their associated antineutrino flux and energy spectrum have been developed to predict the neutrino signature of the fuel burnup and of a diversion. Taking advantage of the tremendous quantity of information available nowadays in nuclear databases, the total {beta} spectrum of a reactor is built by adding the contributions of all the {beta} branches involved in the decay of all fission products (FP). A package called MCNP Utility for Reactor Evolution (MURE) computes the fuel and FP inventories by simulating the neutronics and time evolution of a reactor core. MURE, initially developed by CNRS/IN2P3/LPSC Grenoble and IPN Orsay to study Generation IV reactors, is a precision code written in C++ which automates the preparation and computation of successive MCNP calculations either for precision burnup or thermal-hydraulics purpose. MURE will be soon available at NEA. The only user-defined inputs driving the time evolution of the isotopic composition of the core are the initial fuel composition, the refueling scheme, and the thermal power. The evolution of the antineutrino flux and energy spectrum with the fuel burnup, as well as the effect of neutron capture on various nuclei are taken into account. Nonproliferation scenarios and burnup monitoring with antineutrinos have been studied using these tools for PWR and Candu reactors. A full core simulation of an N4-PWR will be presented in a first part. Gross unveiling diversion scenarios using a PWR have been simulated in order to test the ability of the antineutrino probe. A channel of a Heavy Water Reactor (Candu 600) loaded with

  18. Improved measurement of muon antineutrino disappearance in MINOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P; Ayres, D S; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Danko, I Z; de Jong, J K; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mathis, M; Mayer, N; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mitchell, J; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R B; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Radovic, A; Ratchford, J; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Strait, M; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Walding, J J; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Zwaska, R

    2012-05-11

    We report an improved measurement of ν(μ) disappearance over a distance of 735 km using the MINOS detectors and the Fermilab Main Injector neutrino beam in a ν(μ)-enhanced configuration. From a total exposure of 2.95×10(20) protons on target, of which 42% have not been previously analyzed, we make the most precise measurement of Δm2=[2.62(-0.28)(+0.31)(stat)±0.09(syst)]×10(-3)  eV2 and constrain the ν(μ) mixing angle sin2(2θ)>0.75 (90% C.L.). These values are in agreement with Δm2 and sin2(2θ) measured for ν(μ), removing the tension reported in [P. Adamson et al. (MINOS), Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 021801 (2011).].

  19. A side-by-side comparison of Daya Bay antineutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, F.P. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); An, Q. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Bai, J.Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Balantekin, A.B.; Band, H.R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Blyth, S. [National United University, Miao-Li, Taiwan (China); Brown, R.L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Cao, G.F. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Cao, J., E-mail: caoj@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carr, R. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Chang, J.F. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chang, Y. [National United University, Miao-Li, Taiwan (China); Chasman, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Chen, H.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, S.J. [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Chen, S.M. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Chen, X.C. [Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chen, X.H. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); and others

    2012-09-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment is designed to determine precisely the neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} with a sensitivity better than 0.01 in the parameter sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} at the 90% confidence level. To achieve this goal, the collaboration will build eight functionally identical antineutrino detectors. The first two detectors have been constructed, installed and commissioned in Experimental Hall 1, with steady data-taking beginning September 23, 2011. A comparison of the data collected over the subsequent three months indicates that the detectors are functionally identical, and that detector-related systematic uncertainties are smaller than requirements.

  20. Measurement of the electron antineutrino mass from the beta spectrum of gaseous tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, D.A.

    1986-12-01

    A measurement has been made of the mass of the electron antineutrino using the beta spectrum from a source of gaseous molecular tritium, and an upper limit of 36 eV/c/sup 2/ has been set on this mass. This measurement is the first upper limit on neutrino mass that does not rely on assumptions about the atomic configuration after the beta decay, and it has significantly smaller systematic errors associated with it than do previous measurements. 130 refs., 83 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Neutrino-antineutrino pair production by a photon in a dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanov, A E

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of radiative effects that are due to interaction of fermions with a dense matter is investigated. Neutrino-antineutrino photo-production is studied. The rate of this process is calculated in the Furry picture. It is demonstrated that this effect does not disappear even if the medium refractive index is assumed to be equal to unity. The rate obtained strongly depends on the polarization states of the particles involved. This leads to evident spatial asymmetries, which may have certain consequences observable in astrophysical and cosmological studies.

  2. Charged kaon production by coherent scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Simo, I Ruiz; Valverde, M; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of achieving a better and more complete understanding of neutrino interactions with nuclear targets, the coherent production of charged kaons induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos is investigated in the energy range of some of the current neutrino experiments. We follow a microscopic approach which, at the nucleon level, incorporates the most important mechanisms allowed by the chiral symmetry breaking pattern of QCD. The distortion of the outgoing (anti)kaon is taken into account by solving the Klein-Gordon equation with realistic optical potentials. Angular and momentum distributions are studied, as well as the energy and nuclear dependence of the total cross section.

  3. Reactor Anti-Neutrino Oscillations and Gadolinium Loaded Super-Kamiokande Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, Sandhya [INFN and SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Petcov, S.T. [INFN and SISSA, Trieste (Italy)

    2005-06-15

    We explore the potential of measuring the solar neutrino oscillation parameters in the proposed gadolinium loaded Super-Kamiokande (SK-Gd) detector. We simulate the expected reactor antineutrino data and use these prospective data to study the precision with which the solar neutrino oscillation parameters, {delta}m{sub sun}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub sun}, can be determined i) with the SK-Gd detector, and ii) by combining the SK-Gd data with the global data on solar neutrino oscillations.

  4. Monitoring the Thermal Power of Nuclear Reactors with a Prototype Cubic Meter Antineutrino Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, A; Misner, A; Palmer, T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate how quickly and how precisely a reactor's operational status and thermal power can be monitored over hour to month time scales, using the antineutrino rate as measured by a cubic meter scale detector. Our results are obtained from a detector we have deployed and operated at 25 meter standoff from a reactor core. This prototype can detect a prompt reactor shutdown within five hours, and monitor relative thermal power to three percent within seven days. Monitoring of short-term power changes in this way may be useful in the context of International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Reactor Safeguards Regime, or other cooperative monitoring regimes.

  5. A study of quasi-elastic muon neutrino and antineutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubushkin, V.; Bunyatov, S.; Chukanov, A.; Klimov, O.; Kustov, D.; Nefedov, Yu.; Samoylov, O.; Tereshchenko, V. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Popov, B. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); LPNHE, Univ. of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Kim, J.J.; Godley, A.; Ling, J.; Mishra, S.R.; Petti, R.; Seaton, M.; Wu, Q. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Camilleri, L.; Autiero, D.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Ferrere, D.; Grant, A.; Kokkonen, J.; Linssen, L.; Placci, A.; Stiegler, U.; Tsesmelis, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Wilson, F.F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Levy, J.M.; Astier, P.; Banner, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Lachaud, C.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Schahmaneche, K.; Touchard, A.M.; Vannucci, F. [LPNHE, Univ. of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Mezzetto, M.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Bobisut, F.; Collazuol, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Laveder, M.; Rebuffi, L.; Sconza, A.; Zuccon, P. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Naumov, D. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Univ. of Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence (Italy); Alekhin, S. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Baldisseri, A.; Besson, N.; Bouchez, J.; Gosset, J.; Hagner, C.; Mechain, X.; Meyer, J.P.; Stolarczyk, T.; Zaccone, H. [DAPNIA, Saclay (France); Bassompierre, G.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gouanere, M.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Nedelec, P.; Pessard, H.; Sillou, D. [LAPP, Annecy (France); Benslama, K.; Degaudenzi, H.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Sozzi, G.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Tran, M.T.; Vacavant, L.; Vieira, J.M. [Univ. of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bird, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Univ. of Lausanne (Switzerland); Blumenfeld, B.; Long, J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Boyd, S.; Ellis, M.; Peak, L.S.; Ulrichs, J.; Varvell, K.E.; Yabsley, B.D. [Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Bueno, A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); ETH Zurich (Switzerland)] [and others

    2009-10-15

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions ({nu}{sub {mu}}n {yields}{mu}{sup -}p and anti {nu}{sub {mu}}p{yields}{mu}{sup +}n) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD Collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total {nu}{sub {mu}}(anti {nu}{sub {mu}}) charged-current cross section. The results for the flux-averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are left angle {sigma}{sub qel} right angle {sub {nu}}{sub {mu}}=(0.92{+-}0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} and left angle {sigma}{sub qel} right angle {sub anti} {sub {nu}{sub {mu}}}{sub =}(0.81{+-}0.05(stat){+-}0.09(syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M{sub A} was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M{sub A}=1.05{+-}0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q{sup 2} shape analysis of the high purity sample of {nu}{sub {mu}} quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured M{sub A} is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M{sub A} is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE Collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M{sub A}, these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value. (orig.)

  6. Light Collection and Pulse-Shape Discrimination in Elongated Scintillator Cells for the PROSPECT Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ashenfelter, J; Band, H R; Barclay, G; Bass, C D; Berish, D; Bowden, N S; Bowes, A; Brodsky, J P; Bryan, C D; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, R; Classen, T; Commeford, K; Davee, D; Dean, D; Deichert, G; Diwan, M V; Dolinski, M J; Dolph, J; Dwyer, D A; Gaison, J K; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilje, K; Glenn, A; Goddard, B W; Green, M; Han, K; Hans, S; Heeger, K M; Heffron, B; Jaffe, D E; Langford, T J; Littlejohn, B R; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McKeown, R D; Mendenhall, M P; Mueller, P; Mumm, H P; Napolitano, J; Neilson, R; Norcini, D; Pushin, D; Qian, X; Romero, E; Rosero, R; Saldana, L; Seilhan, B S; Sharma, R; Sheets, S; Stemen, N T; Surukuchi, P T; Varner, R L; Viren, B; Wang, W; White, B; White, C; Wilhelmi, J; Williams, C; Wise, T; Yao, H; Yeh, M; Yen, Y -R; Zangakis, G; Zhang, C; Zhang, X

    2015-01-01

    A meter-long, 23-liter EJ-309 liquid scintillator detector has been constructed to study the light collection and pulse-shape discrimination performance of elongated scintillator cells for the PROSPECT reactor antineutrino experiment. The magnitude and uniformity of light collection and neutron/gamma discrimination power in the energy range of antineutrino inverse beta decay products have been studied using gamma and spontaneous fission calibration sources deployed along the cell long axis. We also study neutron-gamma discrimination and light collection abilities for differing PMT and reflector configurations. Key design features for optimizing MeV-scale response and background rejection capabilities are identified.

  7. Measurements of the Inclusive Neutrino and Antineutrino Charged Current Cross Sections in MINERvA Using the Low-$\

    CERN Document Server

    DeVan, J; Aliaga, L; Altinok, O; Bellantoni, L; Bercellie, A; Betancourt, M; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Cai, T; Carneiro, M F; da Motta, H; Devan, J; Dytman, S A; Díaz, G A; Eberly, B; Endress, E; Felix, J; Fields, L; Fine, R; Gago, A M; Galindo, R; Gallagher, H; Ghosh, A; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Hurtado, K; Kleykamp, J; Kordosky, M; Le, T; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Messerly, B; Miller, J; Mislivec, A; Morfín, J G; Mousseau, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Norrick, A; Nuruzzaman,; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Ramirez, M A; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Rimal, D; Rodrigues, P A; Ruterbories, D; Schellman, H; Salinas, C J Solano; Sultana, M; Falero, S Sánchez; Tice, B G; Valencia, E; Wolcott, J; Wospakrik, M; Zhang, D

    2016-01-01

    The total cross sections are important ingredients for the current and future neutrino oscillation experiments. We present measurements of the total charged-current neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on scintillator (CH) in the NuMI low-energy beamline using an {\\em in situ} prediction of the shape of the flux as a function of neutrino energy from 2--50 GeV. This flux prediction takes advantage of the fact that neutrino and antineutrino interactions with low nuclear recoil energy ($\

  8. Beta Beams for Precision Measurements of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Hansen, C; De Melo Mendonca, T; Stora, T; Damjanovic, S; Payet, J; Chancé, A; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Rasin, S; Sidorov, A; Skalyga, V; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Cinausero, M; Kravchuk, V; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Collazuol, G; Mezzetto, M; Delbar, T; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, T; Mitrofanov, S; Burt, G; Dexter, A; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Marie-Jeanne, M; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Debray, F; Trophime, C; Hass, M; Hirsh, T; Berkovits, D; Stahl, A; Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; La Rana, G; Moro, R; De Rosa, G; Palladino, V

    2012-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations have implications for the Standard Model of particle physics. The CERN Beta Beam has outstanding capabilities to contribute to precision measurements of the parameters governing neutrino oscillations. The FP7 collaboration EUROnu (2008-2012) is a design study that will review three facilities (Super-Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories) and perform a cost assessment that, coupled with the physics performance, will give means to the European research authorities to make decisions on future European neutrino oscillation facilities. ”Beta Beams” produce collimated pure electron (anti)neutrinos by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and having them decay in a storage ring. Using existing machines and infrastructure is an advantage for the cost evaluation; however, this choice is also constraining the Beta Beams. Recent work to make the Beta Beam facility a solid option will be described: production of Beta Beam isotopes, the 60 GHz pulsed ECR source development, integratio...

  9. New antineutrino energy spectra predictions from the summation of beta decay branches of the fission products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallot, M; Cormon, S; Estienne, M; Algora, A; Bui, V M; Cucoanes, A; Elnimr, M; Giot, L; Jordan, D; Martino, J; Onillon, A; Porta, A; Pronost, G; Remoto, A; Taín, J L; Yermia, F; Zakari-Issoufou, A-A

    2012-11-16

    In this Letter, we study the impact of the inclusion of the recently measured beta decay properties of the (102;104;105;106;107)Tc, (105)Mo, and (101)Nb nuclei in an updated calculation of the antineutrino energy spectra of the four fissible isotopes (235,238)U and (239,241)Pu. These actinides are the main contributors to the fission processes in pressurized water reactors. The beta feeding probabilities of the above-mentioned Tc, Mo, and Nb isotopes have been found to play a major role in the γ component of the decay heat of (239)Pu, solving a large part of the γ discrepancy in the 4-3000 s range. They have been measured by using the total absorption technique, insensitive to the pandemonium effect. The calculations are performed by using the information available nowadays in the nuclear databases, summing all the contributions of the beta decay branches of the fission products. Our results provide a new prediction of the antineutrino energy spectra of (235)U, (239,241)Pu, and, in particular, (238)U for which no measurement has been published yet. We conclude that new total absorption technique measurements are mandatory to improve the reliability of the predicted spectra.

  10. New antineutrino energy spectra predictions from the summation of beta decay branches of the fission products

    CERN Document Server

    Fallot, M; Estienne, M; Algora, A; Bui, V M; Cucoanes, A; Elnimr, M; Giot, L; Jordan, D; Martino, J; Onillon, A; Porta, A; Pronost, G; Taín, J L; Yermia, F; Zakari-Issoufou, A -A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the impact of the inclusion of the recently measured beta decay properties of the $^{102;104;105;106;107}$Tc, $^{105}$Mo, and $^{101}$Nb nuclei in an updated calculation of the antineutrino energy spectra of the four fissible isotopes $^{235, 238}$U, and $^{239,241}$Pu. These actinides are the main contributors to the fission processes in Pressurized Water Reactors. The beta feeding probabilities of the above-mentioned Tc, Mo and Nb isotopes have been found to play a major role in the $\\gamma$ component of the decay heat of $^{239}$Pu, solving a large part of the $\\gamma$ discrepancy in the 4 to 3000\\,s range. They have been measured using the Total Absorption Technique (TAS), avoiding the Pandemonium effect. The calculations are performed using the information available nowadays in the nuclear databases, summing all the contributions of the beta decay branches of the fission products. Our results provide a new prediction of the antineutrino energy spectra of $^{235}$U, $^{239,241}$Pu ...

  11. Model-independent determination of the axial mass parameter in quasielastic antineutrino-nucleon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Tropiano, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the charged current quasielestic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleus interaction is important for precision studies of neutrino oscillations. The theoretical description of the interaction depends on the combination of a nuclear model with the knowledge of form factors. While the former has received considerable attention, the latter, in particular the axial form factor, is implemented using the historical dipole model. Instead, we use a model-independent approach, presented in a previous study, to analyze the muon antineutrino CCQE mineral oil data published by the MiniBooNE collaboration. We combine the cross section for scattering of antineutrinos off protons in carbon and hydrogen, using the same axial form factor for both. The extracted value of the axial mass parameter $m_A = 0.84^{+0.12}_{-0.04} \\pm {0.11} \\, {\\rm GeV}$ is in very good agreement with the model-independent value extracted from MiniBooNE's neutrino data. Going beyond a one-parameter description of the axial form factor, we extract valu...

  12. Measurement of the Antineutrino Double-Differential Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering Cross Section at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, Cheryl [Northwestern U.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments, such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, hope to measure charge-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. In order to do this, they must dramatically reduce their current levels of uncertainty, particularly those due to neutrino-nucleus interaction models. As CP violation is a measure of the difference between the oscillation properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, data about how the less-studied antineutrinos interact is especially valuable. We present the MINERvA experiment's first double-differential scattering cross sections for antineutrinos on scintillator, in the few-GeV range relevant to experiments such as DUNE and NOvA. We also present total antineutrino-scintillator quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of energy, which we compare to measurements from previous experiments. As well as being useful to help reduce oscillation experiments' uncertainty, our data can also be used to study the prevalence of various cor relation and final-state interaction effects within the nucleus. We compare to models produced by different model generators, and are able to draw first conclusions about the predictions of these models.

  13. First Observations of Separated Atmospheric Muon Neutrino and Muon Anti-Neutrino Events in the MINOS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arroyo, C; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Byon-Wagner, A; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; De Muth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J; Fackler, O D; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M A; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T M; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Krakauer, D A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Liu, J; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; McDonald, J; McGowan, A; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, Cristopher; Morf, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F A; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovich, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, A V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G S; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Webb, R C; Weber, A; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

    2006-01-01

    The complete 5.4 kton MINOS far detector has been taking data since the beginning of August 2003 at a depth of 2070 meters water-equivalent in the Soudan mine, Minnesota. This paper presents the first MINOS observations of muon neutrino and muon anti-neutrino charged-current atmospheric neutrino interactions based on an exposure of 418 days. The ratio of upward to downward-going events in the data is compared to the Monte Carlo expectation in the absence of neutrino oscillations giving: R_data(up/down)/R_MC(up/down) = 0.62^{+0.19}_{-0.14} (stat.) +- 0.02 (sys.). An extended maximum likelihood analysis of the observed L/E distributions excludes the null hypothesis of no neutrino oscillations at the 98 % confidence level. Using the curvature of the observed muons in the 1.3 T MINOS magnetic field muon neutrino and muon anti-neutrino interactions are separated. The ratio of muon neutrino to muon anti-neutrino events in the data is compared to the Monte Carlo expectation assuming neutrinos and anti-neutrinos osci...

  14. Measurement of muon neutrino and antineutrino induced single neutral pion production cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Colin E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Elucidating the nature of neutrino oscillation continues to be a goal in the vanguard of the efforts of physics experiment. As neutrino oscillation searches seek an increasingly elusive signal, a thorough understanding of the possible backgrounds becomes ever more important. Measurements of neutrino-nucleus interaction cross sections are key to this understanding. Searches for νμ → νe oscillation - a channel that may yield insight into the vanishingly small mixing parameter θ13, CP violation, and the neutrino mass hierarchy - are particularly susceptible to contamination from neutral current single π0 (NC 1π0) production. Unfortunately, the available data concerning NC 1π0 production are limited in scope and statistics. Without satisfactory constraints, theoretical models of NC 1π0 production yield substantially differing predictions in the critical Eν ~ 1 GeV regime. Additional investigation of this interaction can ameliorate the current deficiencies. The Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (MiniBooNE) is a short-baseline neutrino oscillation search operating at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). While the oscillation search is the principal charge of the MiniBooNE collaboration, the extensive data (~ 106 neutrino events) offer a rich resource with which to conduct neutrino cross section measurements. This work concerns the measurement of both neutrino and antineutrino NC 1π0 production cross sections at MiniBooNE. The size of the event samples used in the analysis exceeds that of all other similar experiments combined by an order of magnitude. We present the first measurements of the absolute NC 1π0 cross section as well as the first differential cross sections in both neutrino and antineutrino mode. Specifically, we measure single differential cross sections with respect to pion momentum and pion angle. We find the

  15. A new anti-neutrino detection technique based on positronium tagging with plastic scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Consolati, G; Jollet, C; Meregaglia, A; Minotti, A; Perasso, S; Tonazzo, A

    2015-01-01

    The main signature for anti-neutrino detection in reactor and geo-neutrino experiments based on scintillators is provided by the space-time coincidence of positron and neutron produced in the Inverse Beta Decay reaction. Such a signature strongly suppresses backgrounds and allows for measurements performed underground with a relatively high signal-to-background ratio. In an aboveground environment, however, the twofold coincidence technique is not sufficient to efficiently reject the high background rate induced by cosmogenic events. Enhancing the positron-neutron twofold coincidence efficiency has the potential to pave the way future aboveground detectors for reactor monitoring. We propose a new detection scheme based on a threefold coincidence, between the positron ionization, the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) decay, and the neutron capture, in a sandwich detector with alternated layers of plastic scintillator and aerogel powder. We present the results of a set of dedicated measurements on the achievable light y...

  16. A study of extraterrestrial antineutrino sources with the KamLAND detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The KamLAND Collaboration; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ichimura, K.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Morikawa, T.; Nagai, N.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Narita, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, N.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yabumoto, H.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, S.; Enomoto, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; Kadel, R.; O' Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Dwyer, D. A.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Sakai, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K. M.; Decowski, M. P.

    2011-05-18

    We present the results of a search for extraterrestrial electron antineutrinos ({bar {nu}}{sub e}'s) in the energy range 8.3 MeV < E{sub {bar {nu}}}{sub e} < 30.8 MeV using the KamLAND detector. In an exposure of 4.53 kton-year, we identify 25 candidate events. All of the candidate events can be attributed to background, most importantly neutral current atmospheric neutrino interactions, setting an upper limit on the probability of {sup 8}B solar {nu}{sub e}'s converting into {bar {nu}}{sub e}'s at 5.3 x 10{sup -5} (90% C.L.). The present data also allows us to set more stringent limits on the diffuse supernova neutrino flux and on the annihilation rates for light dark matter particles.

  17. Terrestrial matter effects on reactor antineutrino oscillations at JUNO or RENO-50: how small is small?

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Feng; Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2016-01-01

    We have carefully examined, in both analytical and numerical ways, how small the terrestrial matter effects can be in a given medium-baseline reactor antineutrino oscillation experiment like JUNO or RENO-50. Taking the ongoing JUNO experiment for example, we show that the inclusion of terrestrial matter effects may reduce the sensitivity of the neutrino mass ordering measurement by \\Delta \\chi^2_{\\rm MO} \\simeq 0.6, and a neglect of such effects may shift the best-fit values of the flavor mixing angle \\theta_{12} and the neutrino mass-squared difference \\Delta_{21} by about 1\\sigma to 2\\sigma in the future data analysis. In addition, a preliminary estimate indicates that a 2\\sigma sensitivity of establishing the terrestrial matter effects can be achieved for about 10 years of data taking at JUNO with the help of a proper near detector implementation.

  18. Calorimetric measurement of the SOX anti-neutrino source for sterile neutrino search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenmueller, Konrad; Agostini, Matteo; Papp, Laszlo; Schoenert, Stefan [Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: Borexino-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    A thermal calorimeter is under development to measure with <1% accuracy the heat release of the Cerium anti-neutrino source for the SOX experiment, which is looking for eV-scale sterile neutrinos. The heat release is proportional to the source activity and thus to the emitted neutrino flux, which is an important parameter of the experiment. The calorimeter design is based on a copper heat exchanger mounted around the source with integrated water lines for the heat extraction. Heat loss through conduction and radiation is minimized by suspending the set-up through Kevlar ropes and inserting it inside a thermalized vacuum tank with radiation shields. The device is currently being assembled and tested at TUM in Garching.

  19. Consistent analysis of neutral- and charged-current (anti)neutrino scattering off carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Ankowski, Artur M

    2013-01-01

    Good understanding of the cross sections for (anti)neutrino scattering off nuclear targets in the few-GeV energy region is a prerequisite for the correct interpretation of results of ongoing and planned oscillation experiments. To clarify a possible source of disagreement between recent measurements of the cross sections on carbon, we analyze the available data within an approach based on the realistic spectral function of carbon, treating neutral-current elastic (NCE) and charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) processes on equal footing. We show that the axial mass from the shape analysis of the MiniBooNE data is in good agreement with the results reported by the BNL E734 and NOMAD Collaborations. However, the combined analysis of the NCE and CCQE data does not seem to support the contribution of multinucleon final states being large enough to explain the normalization of the MiniBooNE-reported cross sections.

  20. Consistent analysis of neutral- and charged-current (anti)neutrino scattering off carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankowski, Artur M.

    2015-05-01

    Good understanding of the cross sections for (anti)neutrino scattering off nuclear targets in the few-GeV energy region is a prerequisite for the correct interpretation of results of ongoing and planned oscillation experiments. To clarify a possible source of disagreement between recent measurements of the cross sections on carbon, we analyze the available data within an approach based on the realistic spectral function of carbon, treating neutral-current elastic (NCE) and charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) processes on equal footing. We show that the axial mass from the shape analysis of the MiniBooNE data is in good agreement with the results reported by the BNL E734 and NOMAD Collaborations. However, the combined analysis of the NCE and CCQE data does not seem to support the contribution of multinucleon final states being large enough to explain the normalization of the MiniBooNE-reported cross sections.

  1. Consistent analysis of neutral- and charged-current (anti)neutrino scattering off carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankowski, Artur M. [INFN and Department of Physics,“Sapienza” Università di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Good understanding of the cross sections for (anti)neutrino scattering off nuclear targets in the few-GeV energy region is a prerequisite for the correct interpretation of results of ongoing and planned oscillation experiments. To clarify a possible source of disagreement between recent measurements of the cross sections on carbon, we analyze the available data within an approach based on the realistic spectral function of carbon, treating neutral-current elastic (NCE) and charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) processes on equal footing. We show that the axial mass from the shape analysis of the MiniBooNE data is in good agreement with the results reported by the BNL E734 and NOMAD Collaborations. However, the combined analysis of the NCE and CCQE data does not seem to support the contribution of multinucleon final states being large enough to explain the normalization of the MiniBooNE-reported cross sections.

  2. Anharmonicity of internal atomic oscillation and effective antineutrino mass evaluation from gaseous molecular tritium \\beta -decay

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhov, Alexey V

    2016-01-01

    Data analysis of the next generation effective antineutrino mass measurement experiment KATRIN requires reliable knowledge of systematic corrections. In particular, the width of the daughter molecular ion excitation spectrum rovibrational band should be known with a better then 1% precision. Very precise ab initio quantum calculations exist, and we compare them with the well known tritium molecule parameters within the framework of a phenomenological model. The rovibrational band width with accuracy of a few percent is interpreted as a result of the zero-point atomic oscillation in the harmonic potential. The Morse interatomic potential is used to investigate the impact of anharmonic atomic oscillations. The calculated corrections cannot account for the difference between the ab initio quantum calculations and the phenomenological model.

  3. Poster: The EURISOL Beta-beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    The beta-beam concept for the generation of an electron (anti-)neutrino beam was proposed by Piero Zucchelli (CERN) in 2002. A first study of the possibility of using the existing CERN machines for the acceleration for radioactive ions to a relativistic gamma of roughly 100, for later storage in a new decay ring of approximately the size of SPS, was made in 2002. The results from this very first short study were very encouraging.In 2004 it was decided to incorporate a design study for the beta-beam within the EURISOL DS proposal. EURISOL is a project name for a next-generation radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL method for the production of intense radioactive beams for nuclear physics, astrophysics and other applications. The proposal was accepted with the beta-beam task as an integral part. The design study officially started 1 February 2005 and will run for 4 years resulting in a conceptual design report for a beta-beam facility.

  4. NEOS Data and the Origin of the 5 MeV Bump in the Reactor Antineutrino Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We perform a combined analysis of recent NEOS and Daya Bay data on the reactor antineutrino spectrum. This analysis includes approximately 1.5 million antineutrino events, which is the largest neutrino event sample analyzed to date. We use a double ratio which cancels flux model dependence and related uncertainties as well as the effects of the detector response model. We find at 3-4 standard deviation significance level, that plutonium-239 and plutonium-241 are disfavored as the single source for the so-called 5 MeV bump. This analysis method has general applicability and, in particular, with higher statistics data sets, will be able to shed significant light on the issue of the bump. With some caveats, this should also allow us to improve the sensitivity for sterile neutrino searches in NEOS.

  5. Detection of Anomalous Reactor Activity Using Antineutrino Count Rate Evolution Over the Course of a Reactor Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bulaevskaya, Vera

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity of antineutrino count rate measurements to changes in the fissile content of civil power reactors. Such measurements may be useful in IAEA reactor safeguards applications. We introduce a hypothesis testing procedure to identify statistically significant differences between the antineutrino count rate evolution of a standard 'baseline' fuel cycle and that of an anomalous cycle, in which plutonium is removed and replaced with an equivalent fissile worth of uranium. The test would allow an inspector to detect anomalous reactor activity, or to positively confirm that the reactor is operating in a manner consistent with its declared fuel inventory and power level. We show that with a reasonable choice of detector parameters, the test can detect replacement of 73 kg of plutonium in 90 days with 95% probability, while controlling the false positive rate at 5%. We show that some improvement on this level of sensitivity may be expected by various means, including use of the method i...

  6. A feasibility study of boron-loaded liquid scintillator for the detection of electron anti-neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S C; Leung, R W S; Wang, S L; Chang, C Y; Chen Chi Ping; Cheng, K C; Ho, T I; Lai, W P; Liu, H M; Mao, Z P; Shih, I C; Wong, H T; Yu, Z Q

    1999-01-01

    Boron-loaded liquid scintillator offers some potential advantages as a detector for electron anti-neutrinos. A research program was carried out with the objective of developing such scintillators. The crucial feature is the pulse shape discrimination properties following the neutron capture by sup 1 sup 0 B. Results of the R and D efforts are presented. The feasibility and the technical difficulties of carrying out a full-scale neutrino experiment based on this approach are discussed. (author)

  7. New Results from MiniBooNE: A Search for Electron Antineutrino Appearance at $\\sim$1 eV$^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Karagiorgi, G

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the first MiniBooNE electron antineutrino appearance search results, corresponding to a data sample collected for 3.39$\\times10^{20}$ protons on target (POT). The search serves as a direct test of the LSND oscillation signature, and provides complementary information which can be used in studies addressing the MiniBooNE neutrino-mode low-energy excess.

  8. SoLid: An innovative anti-neutrino detector for searching oscillations at the SCK•CEN BR2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Yamiel

    2017-02-01

    The SoLid experiment intends to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline from the SCK•CEN BR2 research reactor (Mol, Belgium). A novel detector approach to measure reactor anti-neutrinos was developed based on an innovative sandwich of composite polyvinyl-toluene and 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillators. The system is highly segmented and read out by a network of wavelength shifting fibers and SiPM. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other standard technologies thanks to the combination of high granularity, good neutron-gamma discrimination using 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator and precise localisation of the Inverse Beta Decay products. This technology can be considered as a new generation of an anti-neutrino detector. This compact system requires limited passive shielding and relies on spatial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. We will describe the principle of detection and the detector design. Particular focus on the neutron discrimination will be made, as well as on the capability to use cosmic muons for channel equalisation and energy calibration. The performance of the first 288 kg SoLid module (SM1), based on the data taken at BR2 from February to September 2015, will be presented. We will conclude with the next phase, which will start in 2016, and the future plans of the experiment.

  9. A new anti-neutrino detection technique based on positronium tagging with plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consolati, G. [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Franco, D., E-mail: dfranco@in2p3.fr [APC, Univ. Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75205 Paris (France); Jollet, C. [IPHC, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Meregaglia, A., E-mail: amerega@in2p3.fr [IPHC, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Minotti, A. [IPHC, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Perasso, S.; Tonazzo, A. [APC, Univ. Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75205 Paris (France)

    2015-09-21

    The main signature for anti-neutrino detection in reactor and geo-neutrino experiments based on scintillators is provided by the space–time coincidence of positron and neutron produced in the Inverse Beta Decay reaction. Such a signature strongly suppresses backgrounds and allows for measurements performed underground with a relatively high signal-to-background ratio. In an aboveground environment, however, the twofold coincidence technique is not sufficient to efficiently reject the high background rate induced by cosmogenic events. Enhancing the positron–neutron twofold coincidence efficiency may pave the way to future aboveground detectors for reactor monitoring. We propose a new detection scheme based on a threefold coincidence, among the positron ionization, the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) decay, and the neutron capture, in a sandwich detector with alternated layers of plastic scintillator and aerogel powder. We present the results of a set of dedicated measurements on the achievable light yield and on the o-Ps formation and lifetime. The efficiencies for signal detection and background rejection of a preliminary detector design are also discussed.

  10. Earth Radioactivity Measurements with a Deep Ocean Anti-neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, S T; Learned, J G; Maricic, J; Matsuno, S; Pakvasa, S; Varner, G; Wilcox, M

    2006-01-01

    We consider the detector size, location, depth, backgrounds, and radio-purity required of a mid-Pacific deep-ocean instrument to accomplish the twin goals of making a definitive measurement of the electron anti-neutrino flux due to uranium and thorium decays from Earth's mantle and core, and of testing the hypothesis for a natural nuclear reactor at the core of Earth. We take the experience with the KamLAND detector in Japan as our baseline for sensitivity and background estimates. We conclude that an instrument adequate to accomplish these tasks should have an exposure of at least 10 kilotonne-years (kT-y), should be placed at least at 4 km depth, may be located close to the Hawaiian Islands (no significant background from them), and should aim for KamLAND radio-purity levels, except for radon where it should be improved by a factor of at least 40. With an exposure of 10 kT-y we should achieve a 24% measurement of the U/Th content of the mantle plus core. Exposure at multiple ocean locations for testing late...

  11. Experimental conditions for determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy with reactor antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Myoung Youl

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the optimized experimental requirements to determine neutrino mass hierarchy using electron antineutrinos (νbare) generated in a nuclear reactor. The features of the neutrino mass hierarchy can be extracted from the | Δ m312 | and | Δ m322 | oscillations by applying the Fourier sine and cosine transforms to the L / E spectrum. To determine the neutrino mass hierarchy above 90% probability, the requirements on the energy resolution as a function of the baseline are studied at sin2 ⁡ 2θ13 = 0.1. If the energy resolution of the neutrino detector is less than 0.04 /√{Eν} and the determination probability obtained from Bayes' theorem is above 90%, the detector needs to be located around 48-53 km from the reactor(s) to measure the energy spectrum of νbare. These results will be helpful for setting up an experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, which is an important problem in neutrino physics.

  12. Neutrino-antineutrino Mass Splitting in the Standard Model: Neutrino Oscillation and Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    By adding a neutrino mass term to the Standard Model, which is Lorentz and $SU(2)\\times U(1)$ invariant but non-local to evade $CPT$ theorem, it is shown that non-locality within a distance scale of the Planck length, that may not be fatal to unitarity in generic effective theory, can generate the neutrino-antineutrino mass splitting of the order of observed neutrino mass differences, which is tested in oscillation experiments, and non-negligible baryon asymmetry depending on the estimate of sphaleron dynamics. The one-loop order induced electron-positron mass splitting in the Standard Model is shown to be finite and estimated at $\\sim 10^{-20}$ eV, well below the experimental bound $< 10^{-2}$ eV. The induced $CPT$ violation in the $K$-meson in the Standard Model is expected to be even smaller and well below the experimental bound $|m_{K}-m_{\\bar{K}}|<0.44\\times 10^{-18}$ GeV.

  13. Effects of Recent Reactor Anti-neutrino Spectra on Neutrino Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterbenz, Ciara

    2015-10-01

    The β-decay of nuclear fission fragments produces a very large ve flux from nuclear reactions. The shape of the expected flux has previously been predicted by converting the measured β-electron spectrum to an ve spectrum. Recent reactor neutrino experiments, however, find a large shoulder in the observed ve spectrum relative to this prediction in the energy region 5 - 7 MeV. Accurate knowledge of the expected ve flux from reactors is important for oscillation experiments that only involve one neutrino detector. In this project, I examine the implications of these spectral changes on the ν oscillation result found by the KamLAND experiment. At the time of their finding, the spectral anomaly from 5 - 7 MeV had not be observed. I have re-derived the oscillation parameters Δm2 and sin2 (2 θ) using the anti-neutrino flux from Daya Bay and from nuclear database predictions. With these new expected fluxes, these oscillation parameters shifted and their uncertainties increased. I compare the new oscillation parameters with those derived from solar neutrino oscillation data.

  14. Geneva University: Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 19 March 2012 COLLOQUE DE PHYSIQUE 5 p.m. - École de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay  Professor Yifang Wang Institute of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, a multinational collaboration operating in the south of China, today reported the first results of its search for the last, most elusive piece of a long-standing puzzle: how is it that neutrinos can appear to vanish as they travel? The surprising answer opens a gateway to a new understanding of fundamental physics and may eventually solve the riddle of why there is far more ordinary matter than antimatter in the Universe today....

  15. The diffuse neutrino flux from supernovae: upper limit on the electron neutrino component from the non-observation of antineutrinos at SuperKamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Lunardini, C

    2006-01-01

    I derive an upper bound on the electron neutrino component of the diffuse supernova neutrino flux from the constraint on the antineutrino component at SuperKamiokande. The connection between antineutrino and neutrino channels is due to the similarity of the muon and tau neutrino and antineutrino fluxes produced in a supernova, and to the conversion of these species into electron neutrinos and antineutrinos inside the star. The limit on the electron neutrino flux is 5.5 cm^-2 s^-1 above 19.3 MeV of neutrino energy, and is stronger than the direct limit from LSD by three orders of magnitude. It represents the minimal sensitivity required at future direct searches, and is intriguingly close to the reach of the SNO and ICARUS experiments. The electron neutrino flux will have a lower bound if the electron antineutrino flux is measured. Indicatively, the first can be smaller than the second at most by a factor of 2-3 depending on the details of the neutrino spectra at production.

  16. Beta Beams: an accelerator based facility to explore Neutrino oscillation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Hansen, C; De Melo Mendonca, T; Stora, T; Payet, J; Chance, A; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Rasin, S; Sidorov, A; Skalyga, V; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Cinausero, M; Kravchuk, VL; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Collazuol, G; De Rosa, G; Delbar, T; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, T; Mitrofanov, S; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Marie-Jeanne, M; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Debray, F; Trophime, C; Hass, M; Hirsh, T; Berkovits, D; Stahl, A

    2011-01-01

    The discovery that the neutrino changes flavor as it travels through space has implications for the Standard Model of particle physics (SM)[1]. To know the contribution of neutrinos to the SM, needs precise measurements of the parameters governing the neutrino oscillations. This will require a high intensity beam-based neutrino oscillation facility. The EURONu Design Study will review three currently accepted methods of realizing this facility (the so-called Super-Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories) and perform a cost assessment that, coupled with the physics performance, will give means to the European research authorities to make a decision on the layout and construction of the future European neutrino oscillation facility. ”Beta Beams” produce collimated pure electron neutrino and antineutrino beams by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and letting them decay in a race-track shaped storage ring. EURONu Beta Beams are based on CERNs infrastructure and the fact that some of the already ...

  17. Results for quasi-elastic anti-neutrino scattering on scintillator from the MINERvA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellman, Heidi; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We present a new preliminary measurement of the charge-current quasi-elastic scattering cross section for anti-neutrinos on scintillator (CH) over the energy range 1.5-10 GeV. The data were taken with the MINERvA detector in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab and cover the energy range of interest for the proposed DUNE long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment and of JLAB elastic scattering experiments. Of particular interest to the nuclear community are possible signatures for short range correlations and/or meson exchange currents in these data. We present comparisons to a range of nuclear models.

  18. Search for sub-eV sterile neutrinos in the precision multiple baselines reactor antineutrino oscillation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Luo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to different effects on neutrino oscillations, the unitarity violation in the MNSP matrix can be classified into the direct unitarity violation and the indirect unitarity violation which are induced by the existence of the light and the heavy sterile neutrinos respectively. Of which sub-eV sterile neutrinos are of most interesting. We study in this paper the possibility of searching for sub-eV sterile neutrinos in the precision reactor antineutrino oscillation experiments with three different baselines at around 500 m, 2 km and 60 km. We find that the antineutrino survival probabilities obtained in the reactor experiments are sensitive only to the direct unitarity violation and offer very concentrated sensitivity to the two parameters θ14 and Δm412. If such light sterile neutrinos do exist, the active–sterile mixing angle θ14 could be acquired by the combined rate analysis at all the three baselines and the mass-squared difference Δm412 could be obtained by taking the Fourier transformation to the L/E spectrum. Of course, for such measurements to succeed, both high energy resolution and large statistics are essentially important.

  19. Global Analysis of the Source and Detector Nonstandard Interactions Using the Short Baseline Neutrino- and Antineutrino-Electron Scattering Data

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Amir N

    2016-01-01

    We present a global analysis of the semileptonic and purely Leptonic nonuniversal and flavor-changing nonstandard neutrino interactions in all the known short-baseline neutrino- and antineutrino-electron scattering experiments. The nonstandard effects at the source and at the detector can be more transparent in these experiments because of the negligibly small ratio between the baselines and the neutrino energies, which is not enough for the neutrinos to oscillate, and thus can be sensitive to the new physics at the both ends. We use data from two electron-neutrino electron scattering experiments and six electron-antineutrino electron scattering experiments and combine them to find the best fits on the nonstandard parameters using the source-only, detector-only analyses, and then find the interplay between the two cases. The bounds obtained in some cases are stronger and new, in some cases comparable to the current ones, and in the other cases weaker. For instance, the bound obtained from the interplay betwee...

  20. Intermediate γ beta beams with a cluster of detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, D.; Mena, O.; Orme, C.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Pascoli, S.

    2008-05-01

    The acceleration of radionuclides in a beta beam provides an alternative experimental design to superbeam and neutrino factory long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Only single baseline beta beam scenarios have been considered thus far although a storage ring could source at least two baselines. The multitude of possible detector sites in Europe potentially allows for numerous baselines for future long baseline experiments sourced at CERN. Here, we will consider an example taking the CERN-Canfranc and CERN-Boulby baselines. We present results that indicate good sensitivity to the mass hierarchy for values of sin2 2θ13 as small as 10-3 and CP-violation discovery for sin2 2θ13 down to 10-4. These results are achieved with a single helicity since the second baseline provides the synergies usually associated with an anti-neutrino run.

  1. Effects of Fission Yield Data in the Calculation of Antineutrino Spectra for 235U (n ,fission) at Thermal and Fast Neutron Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, A. A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Johnson, T. D.; Dimitriou, P.

    2016-04-01

    Fission yields form an integral part of the prediction of antineutrino spectra generated by nuclear reactors, but little attention has been paid to the quality and reliability of the data used in current calculations. Following a critical review of the thermal and fast ENDF/B-VII.1 235U 235 fission yields, deficiencies are identified and improved yields are obtained, based on corrections of erroneous yields, consistency between decay and fission yield data, and updated isomeric ratios. These corrected yields are used to calculate antineutrino spectra using the summation method. An anomalous value for the thermal fission yield of 86Ge generates an excess of antineutrinos at 5-7 MeV, a feature which is no longer present when the corrected yields are used. Thermal spectra calculated with two distinct fission yield libraries (corrected ENDF/B and JEFF) differ by up to 6% in the 0-7 MeV energy window, allowing for a basic estimate of the uncertainty involved in the fission yield component of summation calculations. Finally, the fast neutron antineutrino spectrum is calculated, which at the moment can only be obtained with the summation method and may be relevant for short baseline reactor experiments using highly enriched uranium fuel.

  2. Effects of Fission Yield Data in the Calculation of Antineutrino Spectra for ^{235}U(n,fission) at Thermal and Fast Neutron Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, A A; McCutchan, E A; Johnson, T D; Dimitriou, P

    2016-04-01

    Fission yields form an integral part of the prediction of antineutrino spectra generated by nuclear reactors, but little attention has been paid to the quality and reliability of the data used in current calculations. Following a critical review of the thermal and fast ENDF/B-VII.1 ^{235}U fission yields, deficiencies are identified and improved yields are obtained, based on corrections of erroneous yields, consistency between decay and fission yield data, and updated isomeric ratios. These corrected yields are used to calculate antineutrino spectra using the summation method. An anomalous value for the thermal fission yield of ^{86}Ge generates an excess of antineutrinos at 5-7 MeV, a feature which is no longer present when the corrected yields are used. Thermal spectra calculated with two distinct fission yield libraries (corrected ENDF/B and JEFF) differ by up to 6% in the 0-7 MeV energy window, allowing for a basic estimate of the uncertainty involved in the fission yield component of summation calculations. Finally, the fast neutron antineutrino spectrum is calculated, which at the moment can only be obtained with the summation method and may be relevant for short baseline reactor experiments using highly enriched uranium fuel.

  3. Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering in MINER$\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvojka, Jesse John [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    in neutrino interactions. We present the first cross-section measurement for MINER A, the differential cross-section dσ/dQ2 for muon anti-neutrino CCQE scattering on polystyrene scintillator (CH) as well as comparisons to several final state models.

  4. Loss management in the beta-beam decay ring

    CERN Document Server

    Chancé, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the beta-beams is to produce pure electron neutrino and anti-neutrino highly energetic beams, coming from β-decay of the 18Ne10+ and 6He2+, both at γ = 100, directed towards experimental halls situated in the Fréjus tunnel [1], [2]. The high intensity ion beams are stored in a ring, until the ions decay. Consequently, all the injected particles will be lost anywhere around the ring generating a high level of irradiation. In order to keep a constant neutrino flux, the losses due to the decay of the radioactive ions are compensated with regular injections. The new ion beam is then merged with the stored beam with a specific RF program [3]. We have to consider two sources of losses: – The β-decay products: their magnetic rigidity being different from the reference one, they are bent differently and lost. – The losses during the injection merging process. The first one needs a particular ring design in order to insert appropriate beam stoppers at the right place. The second one needs a specific...

  5. The Physics of antineutrinos in DUNE and resolution of octant degeneracy

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Newton; Goswami, Srubabati

    2015-01-01

    We study the proficiency of the DUNE experiment, which will be the first beam based experiment to use a baseline longer than 1000 km and a wide band flux profile, to unmask the octant of the leptonic mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. It has been realized, in the context of the off-axis experiments T2K and NO$\

  6. Baseline ion production dedicated to beta-beams

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Beta-beams, a concept introduced in 1991, require a large facility that produces and accelerates to high energy electron neutrino and antineutrino beams for oscillation experiments. They are produced by b decay of radioactive ion beams in a dedicated ring directed towards underground detectors. This article addresses the production of the 6He and 18Ne baseline ions. Part of the results were obtained within EURISOL-DS, a design study for the next generation OnLine Isotope Separation facility for nuclear physics in Europe. 200 kW, 2 GeV protons on a solid neutron spallation source surrounded by a thick beryllium oxide target produce the required 6He rates, while 18Ne production falls short by more than an order of magnitude. A first alternative might fulfil the objectives with a 30 MeV 3He primary beam onto large solid oxide target disks at several MW. A second 18Ne production alternative is based on a 700 kW proton beam at medium energy (70-160 MeV) and a target made of a circulating molten salt loop.

  7. Automated Calibration System for a High-Precision Measurement of Neutrino Mixing Angle $\\theta_{13}$ with the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Carr, R; Dwyer, D A; Gu, W Q; Li, G S; Qian, X; McKeown, R D; Tsang, R H M; Wang, W; Wu, F F; Zhang, C

    2013-01-01

    We describe the automated calibration system for the antineutrino detectors in the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment. This system consists of 24 identical units instrumented on 8 identical 20-ton liquid scintillator detectors. Each unit is a fully automated robotic system capable of deploying an LED and various radioactive sources into the detector along given vertical axes. Selected results from performance studies of the calibration system are reported.

  8. Automated calibration system for a high-precision measurement of neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} with the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J., E-mail: jianglai.liu@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Cai, B.; Carr, R. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Dwyer, D.A. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gu, W.Q.; Li, G.S. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Qian, X. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); McKeown, R.D. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Tsang, R.H.M. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wang, W. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wu, F.F. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Zhang, C. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We describe the automated calibration system for the antineutrino detectors in the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment. This system consists of 24 identical units instrumented on 8 identical 20-ton liquid scintillator detectors. Each unit is a fully automated robotic system capable of deploying an LED and various radioactive sources into the detector along given vertical axes. Selected results from performance studies of the calibration system are reported.

  9. CeLAND: search for a 4th light neutrino state with a 3 PBq 144Ce-144Pr electron antineutrino generator in KamLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Gando, A; Hayashida, S; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Ishidoshiro, K; Ishikawa, H; Koga, M; Matsuda, R; Matsuda, S; Mitsui, T; Motoki, D; Nakamura, K; Oki, Y; Otani, M; Shimizu, I; Shirai, J; Suekane, F; Suzuki, A; Takemoto, Y; Tamae, K; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Xu, B D; Yamada, S; Yamauchi, Y; Yoshida, H; Cribier, M; Durero, M; Fischer, V; Gaffiot, J; Jonqueres, N; Kouchner, A; Lasserre, T; Leterme, D; Letourneau, A; Lhuillier, D; Mention, G; Rampal, G; Scola, L; Veyssiere, Ch; Vivier, M; Yala, P; Berger, B E; Kozlov, A; Banks, T; Dwyer, D; Fujikawa, B K; Han, K; Kolomensky, Yu G; Mei, Y; O'Donnell, T; Decowski, P; Markoff, D M; Yoshida, S; Kornoukhov, V N; Gelis, T V M; Tikhomirov, G V; Learned, J G; Maricic, J; Matsuno, S; Milincic, R; Karwowski, H J; Efremenko, Y; Detwiler, A; Enomoto, S

    2013-01-01

    The reactor neutrino and gallium anomalies can be tested with a 3-4 PBq (75-100 kCi scale) 144Ce-144Pr antineutrino beta-source deployed at the center or next to a large low-background liquid scintillator detector. The antineutrino generator will be produced by the Russian reprocessing plant PA Mayak as early as 2014, transported to Japan, and deployed in the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) as early as 2015. KamLAND's 13 m diameter target volume provides a suitable environment to measure the energy and position dependence of the detected neutrino flux. A characteristic oscillation pattern would be visible for a baseline of about 10 m or less, providing a very clean signal of neutrino disappearance into a yet-unknown, sterile neutrino state. This will provide a comprehensive test of the electron dissaperance neutrino anomalies and could lead to the discovery of a 4th neutrino state for Delta_m^2 > 0.1 eV^2 and sin^2(2theta) > 0.05.

  10. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  11. Untersuchung der Eigenschaften neutraler Stroeme in der semileptonischen inklusiven Neutrino und Antineutrino Nukleon Wechselwirkung

    CERN Document Server

    Kroger, Bernd

    1981-01-01

    In the dechromatic neutron beam of the CERN-SPS results obtained with the CHARM detector from the deep inelastic inclusive neutrino-nucleon scattering were analyzed according to following reactions: #betta#sub(μ)(anti #betta#sub(μ))+N->μ-(μ+) + hadrons and #betta#sub(μ)(anti #betta#sub(μ))+N->#betta#sub(μ)(anti #betta#sub(μ)) + hadrons. The aim of these studies was the determination of the coupling of neutral currents in the weak interaction. All data can be well described by the standard model for the unification of the electrogmagnetic and weak interaction in connection with the quarkparton model, if a Weinberg angle of sin2deltasub(w)=0.222+-0.016 is assumed. (orig./HSI)

  12. Electron neutrino and antineutrino appearance in the full MINOS data sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P; Anghel, I; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; de Jong, J K; Devan, A V; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hahn, S R; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mathis, M; Mayer, N; Medeiros, M M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Moed Sher, S; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; O'Connor, J; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R B; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Radovic, A; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Yang, T; Zwaska, R

    2013-04-26

    We report on ν(e) and ν(e) appearance in ν(μ) and ν(μ) beams using the full MINOS data sample. The comparison of these ν(e) and ν(e) appearance data at a 735 km baseline with θ13 measurements by reactor experiments probes δ, the θ23 octant degeneracy, and the mass hierarchy. This analysis is the first use of this technique and includes the first accelerator long-baseline search for ν(μ) → ν(e). Our data disfavor 31% (5%) of the three-parameter space defined by δ, the octant of the θ23, and the mass hierarchy at the 68% (90%) C.L. We measure a value of 2sin(2)(2θ13)sin(2)(θ23) that is consistent with reactor experiments.

  13. A Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment Using J-PARC Neutrino Beam and Hyper-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Aihara, H; Andreopoulos, C; Anghel, I; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Asfandiyarov, R; Askins, M; Back, J J; Ballett, P; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bay, F; Beltrame, P; Berardi, V; Bergevin, M; Berkman, S; Berry, T; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Boyd, S B; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Cafagna, F S; Carminati, G; Cartwright, S L; Catanesi, M G; Choi, K; Choi, J H; Collazuol, G; Cowan, G; Cremonesi, L; Davies, G; De Rosa, G; Densham, C; Detwiler, J; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Fernandez, P; Feusels, T; Finch, A; Fitton, M; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Fukuda, D; Galymov, V; Ganezer, K; Gonin, M; Gumplinger, P; Hadley, D R; Haegel, L; Haesler, A; Haga, Y; Hartfiel, B; Hartz, M; Hayato, Y; Hierholzer, M; Hill, J; Himmel, A; Hirota, S; Horiuchi, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Iijima, T; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Inoue, K; Insler, J; Intonti, R A; Irvine, T; Ishida, T; Ishino, H; Ishitsuka, M; Itow, Y; Izmaylov, A; Jamieson, B; Jang, H I; Jiang, M; Joo, K K; Jung, C K; Kaboth, A; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Karadhzov, Y; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kishimoto, Y; Kobayashi, T; Koga, M; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W R; Kudenko, Y; Kutter, T; Kuze, M; Labarga, L; Lagoda, J; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Learned, J G; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Ma, W; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Mariani, C; Marti, L; Martin, J F; Martin, C; Martins, P P J; Mazzucato, E; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Mezzetto, M; Minakata, H; Minamino, A; Mine, S; Mineev, O; Miura, M; Monroe, J; Mori, T; Moriyama, S; Mueller, T; Muheim, F; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakaya, T; Nakayama, S; Needham, M; Nicholls, T; Nirkko, M; Nishimura, Y; Noah, E; Nowak, J; Nunokawa, H; O'Keeffe, H M; Okajima, Y; Okumura, K; Oser, S M; O'Sullivan, E; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Perez, J; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Pistillo, C; Playfer, S; Posiadala-Zezula, M; Poutissou, J -M; Quilain, B; Quinto, M; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M; Redij, A; Retiere, F; Riccio, C; Richard, E; Rondio, E; Rose, H J; Ross-Lonergan, M; Rott, C; Rountree, S D; Rubbia, A; Sacco, R; Sakuda, M; Sanchez, M C; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Shaikhiev, A; Shimizu, I; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Sinnis, G; Smy, M B; Sobczyk, J; Sobel, H W; Stewart, T; Stone, J L; Suda, Y; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, A T; Svoboda, R; Tacik, R; Takeda, A; Taketa, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, H K M; Tanaka, H; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorpe, M; Tobayama, S; Tolich, N; Tomura, T; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vagins, M R; Vasseur, G; Vogelaar, R B; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilson, J R; Xin, T; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Zito, M

    2014-01-01

    Hyper-Kamiokande will be a next generation underground water Cherenkov detector with a total (fiducial) mass of 0.99 (0.56) million metric tons, approximately 20 (25) times larger than that of Super-Kamiokande. One of the main goals of Hyper-Kamiokande is the study of $CP$ asymmetry in the lepton sector using accelerator neutrino and anti-neutrino beams. In this document, the physics potential of a long baseline neutrino experiment using the Hyper-Kamiokande detector and a neutrino beam from the J-PARC proton synchrotron is presented. The analysis has been updated from the previous Letter of Intent [K. Abe et al., arXiv:1109.3262 [hep-ex

  14. Plasma Lens for Muon and Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn,S.A.; Korenev, S.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; Gallardo, J.C.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.

    2008-06-23

    The plasma lens is examined as an alternate to focusing horns and solenoids for use in a neutrino or muon beam facility. The plasma lens concept is based on a combined high-energy lens/target configuration. The current is fed at electrodes located upstream and downstream from the target where pion capturing is needed. The current flows primarily in the plasma, which has a lower resistivity than the target. A second plasma lens section, with an additional current feed, follows the target to provide shaping of the plasma for optimum focusing. The plasma lens is immersed in an additional solenoid magnetic field to facilitate the plasma stability. The geometry of the plasma is shaped to provide optimal pion capture. Simulations of this plasma lens system have shown a 25% higher neutrino production than the horn system. Plasma lenses have the additional advantage of negligible pion absorption and scattering by the lens material and reduced neutrino contamination during anti-neutrino running. Results of particle simulations using plasma lens will be presented.

  15. Production of W-+ with an anomalous magnetic moment via the collision of an ultrahigh-energy (anti)neutrino on a target nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, A

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the production of W-+ bosons in deep inelastic processes (anti-nu)nu + nucleon --> l+- + W-+ + X, in the context of an electroweak model in which the vector boson self interactions may be different from those prescribed by the electroweak standard model. We present results which show the strong dependence of the cross section on the anomalous magnetic dipole moment kappa of the W+-. We show that even small deviations from the standard model value of kappa (kappa=1) could imply observable deviations in the cross section rates of W-+ production through the collision of an ultrahigh energy (anti)neutrino on a target nucleon.

  16. Neutron radiative capture reactions on nuclei of relevance to 0νββ, dark matter and neutrino/antineutrino searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornow W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A program is underway at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL to measure the neutron capture cross section in the 0.5 to 15 MeV energy range on nuclei whose radioactive daughters could potentially create backgrounds in searches for rare events. Here, we refer to neutrino-less double-beta decay and dark-matter searches, and to detectors built for neutrino and/or antineutrino studies. Neutron capture cross-section data obtained by using the activation method are reported for 40Ar, 74,76Ge, 128,130Te and 136Xe and compared to model calculations and evaluations.

  17. Beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    A four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with SPS secondary beams, the collimator operates under vacuum conditions. See Annual Report 1976 p. 121 and photo 7701014.

  18. PLASMA LENS FOR US BASED SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM AT EITHER FNAL OR BNL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERSHCOVITCH,A.; WENG, W.; DIWAN, M.; GALLARDO, J.; KIRK, H.; JOHNSON, B.; KAHN, S.; GARATE, E.; VAN DRIE, A.; ROSTOKER, N.

    2007-06-25

    The plasma lens concept is examined as an alternative to focusing horns and solenoids for a neutrino beam facility. The concept is based on a combined high-current lens/target configuration. Current is fed at an electrode located downstream from the beginning of the target where pion capturing is needed. The current is carried by plasma outside the target. A second plasma lens section, with an additional current feed, follows the target. The plasma is immersed in a relatively small solenoidal magnetic field to facilitate its current profile shaping to optimize pion capture. Simulations of the not yet fully optimized configuration yielded a 25% higher neutrino flux at a detector situated at 3 km from the target than the horn system for the entire energy spectrum and a factor of 2.47 higher flux for neutrinos with energy larger than 3 GeV. A major advantage of plasma lenses is in background reduction. In anti-neutrino operation, neutrino background is reduced by a factor of close to 3 for the whole spectrum, and for and for energy larger than 3 GeV, neutrino background is reduced by a factor of 3.6. Plasma lenses have additional advantages: larger axial currents, high signal purity: minimal neutrino background in anti-neutrino runs. The lens medium consists of plasma, consequently, particle absorption and scattering is negligible. Withstanding high mechanical and thermal stresses in a plasma is not an issue.

  19. A PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF THE NEUTRINO MIXING ANGLE THETA (SUB 13) USING REACTOR ANTINEUTRINOS AT DAYA BAY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETTELL, S.; ET AL.

    2006-10-16

    This document describes the design of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment. Recent discoveries in neutrino physics have shown that the Standard Model of particle physics is incomplete. The observation of neutrino oscillations has unequivocally demonstrated that the masses of neutrinos are nonzero. The smallness of the neutrino masses (<2 eV) and the two surprisingly large mixing angles measured have thus far provided important clues and constraints to extensions of the Standard Model. The third mixing angle, {delta}{sub 13}, is small and has not yet been determined; the current experimental bound is sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} < 0.17 at 90% confidence level (from Chooz) for {Delta}m{sub 31}{sup 2} = 2.5 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}. It is important to measure this angle to provide further insight on how to extend the Standard Model. A precision measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} using nuclear reactors has been recommended by the 2004 APS Multi-divisional Study on the Future of Neutrino Physics as well as a recent Neutrino Scientific Assessment Group (NUSAG) report. We propose to perform a precision measurement of this mixing angle by searching for the disappearance of electron antineutrinos from the nuclear reactor complex in Daya Bay, China. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will be vital in resolving the neutrino-mass hierarchy and future measurements of CP violation in the lepton sector because this technique cleanly separates {theta}{sub 13} from CP violation and effects of neutrino propagation in the earth. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will provide important, complementary information to that from long-baseline, accelerator-based experiments. The goal of the Daya Bay experiment is to reach a sensitivity of 0.01 or better in sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} at 90% confidence level.

  20. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos (νμ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos (νe), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of νe appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of νμ disappearance and νe appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  1. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This is nal report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is fo- cussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using in- tense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino exper- iment [6], currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design e ort for a future Long-Baseline Neu- trino Facility (LBNF) in the US.1 She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that e ort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos ( ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos ( e), using a beam of muon neu- trino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K rst reported indications of e appearance [2], a pre- viously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of disappearance and e appearance [1], and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the uni- verse. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This e ort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  2. 3-flavor and 4-flavor implications of the latest T2K and NOνA electron (anti-)neutrino appearance results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The two long-baseline experiments T2K and NO νA have recently presented new findings. T2K has shown the first νbare appearance data while NO νA has released the first νe appearance results. These data are of particular importance because they allow us to probe for the first time in a direct (or manifest) way the leptonic CP-violation. In fact, it is the first time that a hint of CP-violation arises from the comparison of the observations of neutrinos and antineutrinos. We consider the implications of such new results both for the standard 3-flavor framework and for the non-standard 3 + 1 scheme involving one sterile neutrino species. The 3-flavor analysis shows a consolidation of the previous trends, namely a slight preference for sin ⁡ δ discriminating the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  3. Reactor antineutrino experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Haoqi

    2014-01-01

    Neutrinos are elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics. There are 3 flavors of neutrinos that oscillate among themselves. Their oscillation can be described by a 3$\\times$3 unitary matrix, containing three mixing angles $\\theta_{12}$, $\\theta_{23}$, $\\theta_{13}$, and one CP phase. Both $\\theta_{12}$ and $\\theta_{23}$ are known from previous experiments. $\\theta_{13}$ was unknown just two years ago. The Daya Bay experiment gave the first definitive non-zero value in 2012...

  4. Optimization of Neutrino Rates from the EURISOL Beta-beam Acclerator Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Emelianenko, N; Fabich, A; Hancock, S; Lindroos, M

    The beta beam concept for the production of intense (anti-)neutrino beams is now well established. A baseline design has recently been published for a beta-beam facility at CERN. It has the virtue of respecting the known limitations of the CERN PS and SPS synchrotrons, but falls short of delivering the requestedannual rate of neutrinos. We report on a first analysis to increase the rate using the baseline ions of 6He and18 Ne. A powerful method to understand the functional dependence of the many parameters that influencethe figure of merit for a given facility is available with modern analytical calculation software. The methodrequires that a symbolic analytical description is produced of the full accelerator chain. Such a descriptionhas been made using Mathematica for the proposed beta beam facility at CERN. The direct access fromMathematica to an ORACLE database for reading basic design parameters and re-injecting derivedparameters for completion of the parameter list is both convenient and efficient.We ack...

  5. Optimization of Neutrino Rates from the EURISOL Beta-Beam Accelerator Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Emelianenko, N; Fabich, A; Hancock, S; Lindroos, M

    2007-01-01

    The beta beam concept for the production of intense (anti-)neutrino beams is now well established. A baseline design has recently been published for a beta-beam facility at CERN. It has the virtue of respecting the known limitations of the CERN PS and SPS synchrotrons, but falls short of delivering the requested annual rate of neutrinos. We report on a first analysis to increase the rate using the baseline ions of 6He and 18 Ne. A powerful method to understand the functional dependence of the many parameters that influence the figure of merit for a given facility is available with modern analytical calculation software. The method requires that a symbolic analytical description is produced of the full accelerator chain. Such a description has been made using Mathematica for the proposed beta beam facility at CERN. The direct access from Mathematica to an ORACLE database for reading basic design parameters and re-injecting derived parameters for completion of the parameter list is both convenient and efficient...

  6. Beam screens for the LHC beam pipes

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    1997-01-01

    Cross-section of LHC prototype beam pipes showing the beam screens. Slits in the screens allow residual gas molecules to be pumped out and become frozen to the walls of the ultra-cold beam pipe. Beam screens like these have been designed to line the beam pipes, absorbing radiation before it can hit the magnets and warm them up, an effect that would greatly reduce the magnetic field and cause serious damage.

  7. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  8. Physics Potential of a Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment Using J-PARC Neutrino Beam and Hyper-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Andreopoulos, C; Anghel, I; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Asfandiyarov, R; Askins, M; Back, J J; Ballett, P; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bay, F; Beltrame, P; Berardi, V; Bergevin, M; Berkman, S; Berry, T; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Boyd, S B; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Cafagna, F S; Carminati, G; Cartwright, S L; Catanesi, M G; Choi, K; Choi, J H; Collazuol, G; Cowan, G; Cremonesi, L; Davies, G; De Rosa, G; Densham, C; Detwiler, J; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Fernández, P; Feusels, T; Finch, A; Fitton, M; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Fukuda, D; Galymov, V; Ganezer, K; Gonin, M; Gumplinger, P; Hadley, D R; Haegel, L; Haesler, A; Haga, Y; Hartfiel, B; Hartz, M; Hayato, Y; Hierholzer, M; Hill, J; Himmel, A; Hirota, S; Horiuchi, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Iijima, T; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Inoue, K; Insler, J; Intonti, R A; Irvine, T; Ishida, T; Ishino, H; Ishitsuka, M; Itow, Y; Izmaylov, A; Jamieson, B; Jang, H I; Jiang, M; Joo, K K; Jung, C K; Kaboth, A; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Karadhzov, Y; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kishimoto, Y; Kobayashi, T; Koga, M; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W R; Kudenko, Y; Kutter, T; Kuze, M; Labarga, L; Lagoda, J; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Learned, J G; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Ma, W; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Mariani, C; Marti, L; Martin, J F; Martin, C; Martins, P P J; Mazzucato, E; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Mezzetto, M; Minakata, H; Minamino, A; Mine, S; Mineev, O; Miura, M; Monroe, J; Mori, T; Moriyama, S; Mueller, T; Muheim, F; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakaya, T; Nakayama, S; Needham, M; Nicholls, T; Nirkko, M; Nishimura, Y; Noah, E; Nowak, J; Nunokawa, H; O'Keeffe, H M; Okajima, Y; Okumura, K; Oser, S M; O'Sullivan, E; Ovsiannikova, T; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Pérez, J; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Pistillo, C; Playfer, S; Posiadala-Zezula, M; Poutissou, J -M; Quilain, B; Quinto, M; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A; Redij, A; Retiere, F; Riccio, C; Richard, E; Rondio, E; Rose, H J; Ross-Lonergan, M; Rott, C; Rountree, S D; Rubbia, A; Sacco, R; Sakuda, M; Sanchez, M C; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Shaikhiev, A; Shimizu, I; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Sinnis, G; Smy, M B; Sobczyk, J; Sobel, H W; Stewart, T; Stone, J L; Suda, Y; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, A T; Svoboda, R; Tacik, R; Takeda, A; Taketa, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, H K M; Tanaka, H; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorpe, M; Tobayama, S; Tolich, N; Tomura, T; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vagins, M R; Vasseur, G; Vogelaar, R B; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilson, J R; Xin, T; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Zito, M

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-Kamiokande will be a next generation underground water Cherenkov detector with a total (fiducial) mass of 0.99 (0.56) million metric tons, approximately 20 (25) times larger than that of Super-Kamiokande. One of the main goals of Hyper-Kamiokande is the study of $CP$ asymmetry in the lepton sector using accelerator neutrino and anti-neutrino beams. In this paper, the physics potential of a long baseline neutrino experiment using the Hyper-Kamiokande detector and a neutrino beam from the J-PARC proton synchrotron is presented. The analysis uses the framework and systematic uncertainties derived from the ongoing T2K experiment. With a total exposure of 7.5 MW $\\times$ 10$^7$ sec integrated proton beam power (corresponding to $1.56\\times10^{22}$ protons on target with a 30 GeV proton beam) to a $2.5$-degree off-axis neutrino beam, it is expected that the leptonic $CP$ phase $\\delta_{CP}$ can be determined to better than 19 degrees for all possible values of $\\delta_{CP}$, and $CP$ violation can be establis...

  9. Beam imaging sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAninch, Michael D.; Root, Jeffrey J.

    2016-07-05

    The present invention relates generally to the field of sensors for beam imaging and, in particular, to a new and useful beam imaging sensor for use in determining, for example, the power density distribution of a beam including, but not limited to, an electron beam or an ion beam. In one embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other items, a circumferential slit that is either circular, elliptical or polygonal in nature.

  10. Ultracold ordered electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  11. Measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA detector in the CNGS beam using the 2012 dedicated data

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, T; Aleksandrov, A; Anokhina, A; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Autiero, D; Badertscher, A; Dhahbi, A.Ben; Beretta, M; Bertolin, A; Bozza, C; Brugiere, T; Brugnera, R; Brunet, F; Brunetti, G; Buettner, B; Buontempo, S; Carlus, B; Cavanna, F; Cazes, A; Chaussard, L; Chernyavsky, M; Chiarella, V; Chukanov, A; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Serio, M; del Amo Sanchez, P; Di Crescenzo, A; Di Ferdinando, D; Di Marco, N; Dmitrievsky, S; Dracos, M; Duchesneau, D; Dusini, S; Dzhatdoev, T; Ebert, J; Ereditato, A; Esposito, L S; Favier, J; Felici, G; Ferber, T; Fini, R A; Fukuda, T; Garfagnini, A; Giacomelli, G; Girerd, C; Goellnitz, C; Goldberg, J; Golubkov, D; Gornushkin, Y; Grella, G; Grianti, F; Guerin, C; Guler, A M; Gustavino, C; Hagner, C; Hamada, K; Hara, T; Hierholzer, M; Hollnagel, A; Ishida, H; Ishiguro, K; Jakovcic, K; Jollet, C; Kamiscioglu, C; Kamiscioglu, M; Kawada, J; Kim, J H; Kim, S H; Kimura, M; Kitagawa, N; Klicek, B; Kodama, K; Komatsu, M; Kose, U; Kreslo, I; Lauria, A; Lazzaro, C; Lenkeit, J; Ljubicic, A; Longhin, A; Mancini-Terracciano, C; Malgin, A; Mandrioli, G; Marteau, J; Matsuo, T; Matveev, V; Mauri, N; Medinaceli, E; Meregaglia, A; Migliozzi, P; Mikado, S; Monacelli, P; Montesi, M C; Morishima, K; Moser, U; Muciaccia, M T; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Nakatsuka, Y; Naumov, D; Nikitina, V; Ogawa, S; Olchevsky, A; Ozaki, K; Palamara, O; Paoloni, A; Park, B D; Park, I G; Pastore, A; Patrizii, L; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Pistillo, C; Podgrudkov, D; Polukhina, N; Pozzato, M; Pretzl, K; Pupilli, F; Rescigno, R; Roda, M; Roganova, T; Rokujo, H; Rosa, G; Rostovtseva, I; Rubbia, A; Russo, A; Ryazhskaya, O; Sato, O; Sato, Y; Schembri, A; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Schuler, J; Shakiryanova, I; Sheshukov, A; Shibuya, H; Shoziyoev, G; Simone, S; Sioli, M; Sirignano, C; Sirri, G; Song, J S; Spinetti, M; Stanco, L; Starkov, N; Stellacci, S M; Stipcevic, M; Strauss, T; Takahashi, S; Tenti, M; Terranova, F; Tioukov, V; Tolun, P; Tufanli, S; Vilain, P; Vladimirov, M; Votano, L; Vuilleumier, J L; Wilquet, G; Wonsak, B; Wurtz, J; Yoon, C S; Yoshida, J; Zaitsev, Y; Zemskova, S; Zghiche, A; Zimmermann, R

    2013-01-01

    In spring 2012 CERN provided two weeks of a short bunch proton beam dedicated to the neutrino velocity measurement over a distance of 730 km. The OPERA neutrino experiment at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory used an upgraded setup compared to the 2011 measurements, improving the measurement time accuracy. An independent timing system based on the Resistive Plate Chambers was exploited providing a time accuracy of $\\sim$1 ns. Neutrino and anti-neutrino contributions were separated using the information provided by the OPERA magnetic spectrometers. The new analysis profited from the precision geodesy measurements of the neutrino baseline and of the CNGS/LNGS clock synchronization. The neutrino arrival time with respect to the one computed assuming the speed of light in vacuum is found to be $\\delta t_\

  12. The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S.K.; Aittola, M.; Alekou, A.; Andrieu, B.; Antoniou, F.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Autiero, D.; Besida, O.; Balik, A.; Ballett, P.; Bandac, I.; Banerjee, D.; Bartmann, W.; Bay, F.; Biskup, B.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Bolognesi, S.; Borriello, E.; Brancus, I.; Bravar, A.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Caiulo, D.; Calin, M.; Calviani, M.; Campanelli, M.; Cantini, C.; Cata-Danil, G.; Chakraborty, S.; Charitonidis, N.; Chaussard, L.; Chesneanu, D.; Chipesiu, F.; Crivelli, P.; Dawson, J.; De Bonis, I.; Declais, Y.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Delbart, A.; Di Luise, S.; Duchesneau, D.; Dumarchez, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Eliseev, A.; Emery, S.; Enqvist, T.; Enqvist, K.; Epprecht, L.; Erykalov, A.N.; Esanu, T.; Franco, D.; Friend, M.; Galymov, V.; Gavrilov, G.; Gendotti, A.; Giganti, C.; Gilardoni, S.; Goddard, B.; Gomoiu, C.M.; Gornushkin, Y.A.; Gorodetzky, P.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Horikawa, S.; Huitu, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jipa, A.; Kainulainen, K.; Karadzhov, Y.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kopylov, A.N.; Korzenev, A.; Kosyanenko, S.; Kryn, D.; Kudenko, Y.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lazanu, I.; Lazaridis, C.; Levy, J.M.; Loo, K.; Maalampi, J.; Margineanu, R.M.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Mari, C.; Matveev, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Mefodiev, A.; Mineev, O.; Mirizzi, A.; Mitrica, B.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Narita, S.; Nesterenko, D.A.; Nguyen, K.; Nikolics, K.; Noah, E.; Novikov, Yu.; Oprima, A.; Osborne, J.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pascoli, S.; Patzak, T.; Pectu, M.; Pennacchio, E.; Periale, L.; Pessard, H.; Popov, B.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Resnati, F.; Ristea, O.; Robert, A.; Rubbia, A.; Rummukainen, K.; Saftoiu, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sanchez-Galan, F.; Sarkamo, J.; Saviano, N.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Slupecki, M.; Smargianaki, D.; Stanca, D.; Steerenberg, R.; Sterian, A.R.; Sterian, P.; Stoica, S.; Strabel, C.; Suhonen, J.; Suvorov, V.; Toma, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsenov, R.; Tuominen, K.; Valram, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vannucci, F.; Vasseur, G.; Velotti, F.; Velten, P.; Venturi, V.; Viant, T.; Vihonen, S.; Vincke, H.; Vorobyev, A.; Weber, A.; Wu, S.; Yershov, N.; Zambelli, L.; Zito, M.

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of $\\sim 20$ kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure ...

  13. TITUS: An Intermediate Distance Detector for the Hyper-Kamiokande Neutrino Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Lasorak, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The Tokai Intermediate Tank with Unoscillated Spectrum (TITUS) detector is a proposed addition to the Hyper-Kamiokande (HK) experiment located approximately 2 km from the J-PARC neutrino beam. The design consists of a 2 kton Gadolinium (Gd) doped water Cherenkov detector, surrounded by a magnetized iron detector designed to range-out muons. The target material and location are chosen so that the neutrino interactions and beam spectrum at TITUS will match those of HK. Including a 0.1% Gd concentration allows for neutrino/antineutrino discrimination via neutron tagging. The primary goal of TITUS is to directly measure the neutrino flux and make cross-section measurements that reduce the systematic uncertainty of the long-baseline oscillation physics program at HK and enhance its sensitivity to CP violation. TITUS can also be used for physics unrelated to the J-PARC beam, functioning as an independent detector for supernova neutrino bursts and measuring the neutron rate to improve HK proton decay searches.

  14. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  15. Cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino induced pion production on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region using MINERvA

    CERN Document Server

    McGivern, C L; Eberly, B; Aliaga, L; Altinok, O; Bellantoni, L; Bercellie, A; Betancourt, M; Bodek, A; Bravar, A; Budd, H; Cai, T; Carneiro, M F; Christy, M E; da Motta, H; Dytman, S A; Diaz, G A; Endress, E; Felix, J; Fields, L; Fine, R; Galindo, R; Gallagher, H; Golan, T; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Hurtado, K; Kiveni, M; Kleykamp, J; Kordosky, M; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McFarland, K S; McGowan, A M; Messerly, B; Miller, J; Mislivec, A; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Norrick, A; Nuruzzaman,; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Rakotondravohitra, L; Ramirez, M A; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rimal, D; Rodrigues, P A; Ruterbories, D; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Simon, C; Salinas, C J Solano; Falero, S Sanchez; Tice, B G; Valencia, E; Walton, T; Wolcott, J; Wospakrik, M; Zhang, D

    2016-01-01

    Separate samples of charged-current pion production events representing two semi-inclusive channels nu_mu-CC(pi+) and anu_mu-CC(pi0) have been obtained using neutrino and antineutrino exposures of the MINERvA detector. Distributions in kinematic variables based upon muon-track reconstructions are analyzed and compared for the two samples. The differential cross sections for muon production angle, muon momentum, and four-momentum transfer Q2, are reported, and cross sections versus neutrino energy are obtained. Comparisons with predictions of current neutrino event generators are used to clarify the role of the Delta(1232) and higher-mass baryon resonances in CC pion production and to show the importance of pion final-state interactions. For the nu_mu-CC(pi+) (anu_mu-CC(pi0)) sample, the absolute data rate is observed to lie below (above) the predictions of some of the event generators by amounts that are typically 1-to-2 sigma. However the generators are able to reproduce the shapes of the differential cross ...

  16. ISR beam scrapers

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Beam scrapers seen in the direction of the beam. The two horizontal scraper foils are near the centre of the beam pipe andthe two scrapers for protection of the vacuum chamber are further outside. In the lower part of the beam pipe is the vertical halo scraping blade.

  17. Telecommunication using muon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  18. Ultracold Ordered Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  19. Parabolic scaling beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing

    2014-06-15

    We generalize the concept of diffraction free beams to parabolic scaling beams (PSBs), whose normalized intensity scales parabolically during propagation. These beams are nondiffracting in the circular parabolic coordinate systems, and all the diffraction free beams of Durnin's type have counterparts as PSBs. Parabolic scaling Bessel beams with Gaussian apodization are investigated in detail, their nonparaxial extrapolations are derived, and experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions.

  20. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  1. Measurement of the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, G.

    2007-08-29

    In the four beam times we performed at the FRM-II, we were able to show that the spectrometer works in principle and that a determination of a with it is possible. A set of routines has been written for decoding and analyzing the raw data. The routines are written in C using the ROOT libraries and can be easily adapted or expanded. We have found a reliable way to extract the proton count rates from the data by building pulseheight spectra for each measurement, subtracting background measurements from those and fitting the resulting peak with a Gaussian. The background of the measurements was studied in detail. The background caused by electrons from neutron decay is very well understood and conforms quantitatively to our expectation. Due to the spatial resolution of our detector and the time resolution provided by our DAQ electronics, we were able to study correlated electron-proton pairs from one neutron decay event. They form a clearly visible peak in a time- and channel-distance spectrum, which can be shifted in the channel-dimension by varying the voltages applied to the lower and upper E x B electrodes. Performing a pulseheight analysis for both involved particles allowed us to obtain a fairly clean energy spectrum of the background caused by electrons from neutron decay in our detector. Using these correlations for data analysis may be of interest for future neutron decay experiments which use segmented detectors. (orig.)

  2. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Pyramid beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.; Fairer, George

    1992-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention provides means for obtaining accurate, dependable, measurement of bearings and directions for geologic mapping in subterranean shafts, such as, for example, nuclear waste storage investigations. In operation, a laser beam is projected along a reference bearing. A pyramid is mounted such that the laser beam is parallel to the pyramid axis and can impinge on the apex of the pyramid thus splitting the beam several ways into several beams at right angles to each other and at right angles to the reference beam. The pyramid is also translatable and rotatable in a plane perpendicular to the reference beam.

  4. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  5. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  6. Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip Aaron [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the TEL are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the TEL provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.

  7. Bringing the SciBar Detector to the Booster Neutrino Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A A; Andringa, S; Brice, S J; Brown, B C; Bugel, L; Catala, J; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Conrad, J M; Couce, E; Dore, U; Espinal, X; Finley, D A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Hayato, Y; Hiraide, K; Ishii, T; Jover, G; Kobilarcik, T; Kurimoto, Y; Kurosawa, Y; Louis, W C; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Lux, T; Martín-Albo, J; Mariani, C; Mahn, K B M; Matsuoka, K; Metcalf, W; Monroe, J; Nakaya, T; Nova, F; Novella, P; Rodriguez, A Y; Sánchez, F; Shaevitz, M H; Sorel, M; Stefanski, R; Taguchi, M; Tanaka, H; Tornero, A; Vande Water, R; Wascko, M O; Wilking, M; Yokoyama, M; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the physics case for bringing SciBar, the fully active, finely segmented tracking detector at KEK, to the FNAL Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) line. This unique opportunity arose with the termination of K2K beam operations in 2005. The physics that can be done with SciBar/BNB can be put into three categories, each involving several measurements. First are neutrino cross section measurements which are interesting in their own right, including analyses of multi-particle final states, with unprecedented statistics. Second are measurements of processes that represent the signal and primary background channels for the upcoming T2K experiment. Third are measurements which improve existing or planned MiniBooNE analyses and the understanding of the BNB, both in neutrino and antineutrino mode. SciBar and BNB have both been built and operated with great success. As a result, the cost of SciBar/BNB is far less than building a detector from scratch and both systems are well understood with existing det...

  8. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  9. High energy beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  10. Empirical model for controlling beam-beam effects in ISABELLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzen, G

    1980-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction may limit the beam intensity in ISABELLE. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the beam-beam interaction, there appears to be no reliable method at present for computing the effects of the beam-beam interaction. The steps taken at ISABELLE to limit beam-beam effects are based largely on the experience accumulated at the ISR. At the ISR, the beam-beam effects do not appear to be large, and the beam intensity at the ISR does not appear to be limited by beam-beam effects. The beam-beam effects may be much stronger in ISABELLE because of factors like higher intensity and stronger non-linearities.

  11. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    CERN Document Server

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  12. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  13. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  14. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Zschornacka, G.; Schmidt, M.; Thorn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviole...

  15. Beam injection into RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  16. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  17. Halo formation from mismatched beam-beam interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2003-05-23

    In this paper, we report on the halo formation and emittance growth driven by a parametric resonance during mismatched beam-beam collisions. In the regime of the weak-strong beam-beam interaction, if two beams have the same machine tunes, on-axis head-on collisions between a mismatched strong beam and a weak beam will not cause the formation of halo. However, if the two beams collide with an initial offset, the beam-beam force from the mismatched strong beam can cause halo formation and emittance growth in the weak beam. Meanwhile, if two beams have different machine tunes, for opposite charged colliding beams, when the machine tune of the weak beam is smaller than that of strong beam, there is emittance growth in the weak beam. When the machine tune of the weak beam is larger than that of the strong beam, there is little emittance growth. In the regime of strong-strong beam-beam interaction, halo is formed in both beams even when the two beams collide head-on on the axis with equal machine tunes. This puts a strong requirement for a good beam match during the injection to colliders in order to avoid the emittance growth.

  18. Refractive beam shapers for focused laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2016-09-01

    Focusing of laser radiation is most often used approach in various industrial micromachining applications like scribing, PCB drilling, and is important in scientific researches like laser heating in geophysics experiments with diamond anvil cells (DAC). Control of intensity distribution in focal spot is important task since optimum intensity profiles are rather flat-top, doughnut or "inverse-Gauss" than typical for lasers Gaussian profile. Because of high intensity of modern CW and pulsed lasers it is advisable to use refractive beam shaping optics with smooth optical surfaces providing high radiation resistance. Workable optical solutions can be built on the base of diffraction theory conclusion that flat-top intensity profile in focal plane of a lens is created when input beam has Airy-disk intensity distribution. It is suggested to apply refractive beam shapers converting, with minimum wavefront deformation, Gaussian profile of TEM00 beam to a beam with Airy disk intensity distribution, thereby optimizing conditions of interference near the focal plane of a lens after the beam shaper and providing flat-top, doughnut, "inverse-Gauss" profiles. This approach allows operation with CW and ultra-short pulse lasers, using F-theta lenses and objectives, mirror scanners, provides extended depth of field similar to Rayleigh length of comparable TEM00 beam, easy integration in industrial equipment, simple adjustment procedure and switching between profiles, telescope and collimator implementations. There will be considered design basics of beam shapers, analysis of profile behaviour near focal plane, examples of implementations in micromachining systems and experimental DAC setups, results of profile measurements and material processing.

  19. Validation of electro-thermal simulation with experimental data to prepare online operation of a molten salt target at ISOLDE for the Beta Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Cimmino, S; Marzari, S; Stora, T

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the Beta Beams is to study oscillation property of pure electrons neutrinos. It produces high energy beams of pure electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos for oscillation experiments by beta decay of He-6 and Ne-18 radioactive ion beams, stored in a decay ring at gamma = 100. The production of He-6 beam has already been accomplished using a thick beryllium oxide target. However, the production of the needed rate of Ne-18 has proven to be more challenging. In order to achieve the requested yield for Ne-18 a new high power target design based on a circulating molten salt loop has been proposed. To verify some elements of the design, a static molten salt target prototype has been developed at ISOLDE and operated successfully. This paper describes the electro-thermal study of the molten salt target taking into account the heat produced by Joule effect, radiative heat exchange, active water cooling due to forced convection and air passive cooling due to natural convection. The numerical results...

  20. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  1. KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaga, M.; Flanagan, J.; Hiramatsu, S.; Ieiri, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishii, H.; Kikutani, E.; Mimashi, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mizuno, H.; Mori, K.; Tejima, M.; Tobiyama, M.

    2003-02-01

    For the stable high-luminosity operation and luminosity increase, the electron and positron storage rings of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) is equipped with various beam instrumentations, which have been working well since the start of the commissioning in December, 1998. Details and performance of the beam-position monitor system based on the spectrum analysis using DSPs, the turn-by-turn BPM with four-dimensional function available for measurements of the individual bunch position, phase and intensity, the parametric beam-DCCTs designed so as to avoid the magnetic-core-selection problems for the parametric flux modulation, the bunch-by-bunch feedback system indispensable to suppress the strong multibunch instabilities in KEKB, the various optical beam diagnostic systems, such as synchrotron radiation interferometers for precise beam-size measurement, the tune meters, the bunch length monitors and the beam-loss monitors are described. Delicate machine tuning of KEKB is strongly supported by these instrumentations.

  2. Hyperon beam physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report reviews the present status and recent results in hyperon physics concentrating on results from high energy hyperon beam experiments performed at Fermilab over the past several years. The report focuses on hyperon production polarization, precision hyperon magnetic moment measurements and radiative decay studies. Modern charged hyperon beam experiments are characterized by {approx}100m long apparatus and hyperon beams with {gamma}{sub Y}{approx}100 and hyperon fluxes in the 1-100 kHz range.

  3. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  4. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... the mechanical behavior of the beam is explained. Finally, some design criterions for reinforced glass beams are discussed....

  5. Resolving Two Beams in Beam Splitters with a Beam Position Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    2002-04-01

    The beam transport system for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) anticipates multiple beam splitters. Monitoring two transversely separated beams in a common beam pipe in the splitter sections imposes certain requirements on beam diagnostics for these sections. We explore a two-beam system in a generic beam monitor and study the feasibility of resolving the transverse positions of the two beams with one diagnostics device. Effects of unequal beam currents and of finite transverse sizes of the beams are explored analytically for both the ultra relativistic case and the long-wavelength limit.

  6. Beam cavity interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, A

    2011-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the rf generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, rf feedback, and feed-forward are described. Examples of digital rf phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  7. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  8. Plasma Beam Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    GUN PLASMA BEAM / ,I 21 cm diameter = 0 GLASS DRIFT TUBE 50 cm diameter MCP CAMERA CLASS CROSSES (a) Gun muzzle /"- PLASA BEAM / TAROT z = 10 m MCP...discusses some of the hydrodynamic issues related to the calcula- tions. The reader may well wonder why hydrodynamics should be an issue in a 116 WL-TR-90...answer is yes for the slow beam cases and no for the fast beam cases. This is explained further. 118 WL-TR-90-83 The reader will recall the

  9. (Pulsed electron beam precharger)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on electron beam guns: Precharger Modification; Installation of Charge vs. Radius Apparatus; High Concentration Aerosol Generation; and Data Acquisition and Analysis System.

  10. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  11. Observation of Electron Neutrino Appearance in the NuMI Beam with the NOvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niner, Evan David [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    NOvA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that uses two functionally identical detectors separated by 810 kilometers at locations 14 milliradians off-axis from the NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab. At these locations the beam energy peaks at 2 GeV. This baseline is the longest in the world for an accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiment, which enhances the sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering. The experiment studies oscillations of the muon neutrino and anti-neutrino beam that is produced. Both detectors completed commissioning in the summer of 2014 and continue to collect data. One of the primary physics goals of the experiment is the measurement of electron neutrino appearance in the muon neutrino beam which yields measurements of the oscillation parameters sin213, δ , and the neutrino mass ordering within the standard model of neutrino oscillations. This thesis presents the analysis of data collected between February 2014 and May 2015, corresponding to 3.52 X 1020 protons-on-target. In this first analysis NOvA recorded 6 electron neutrino candidates, which is a 3.3σ observation of electron neutrino appearance. The T2K experiment performs the same measurement on a baseline of 295 kilometers and has a 1 σ preference for the normal mass ordering over the inverted ordering over the phase space of the CP violating parameter δ, which is also weakly seen in the NOvA result. By the summer of 2016 NOvA will triple its statistics due to increased beam power and a completed detector. If electron neutrinos continue to be observed at the current rate NOvA will be able to establish a mass ordering preference at a similar confidence level to T2K.

  12. Resolving Two Beams in Beam Splitters with a Beam Position Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, S S

    2002-01-01

    The beam transport system for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) anticipates multiple beam splitters [1]. Monitoring two separated beams in a common beam pipe in the splitter sections imposes certain requirements on diagnostics for these sections. In this note we explore a two-beam system in a generic beam monitor and study the feasibility of resolving the positions of the two beams with a single diagnostic device.

  13. Implementation of depolarization due to beam-beam effects in the beam-beam interaction simulation tool GUINEA-PIG++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbault, C.; Le Meur, G.; Blampuy, F.; Bambade, P.; Schulte, D.

    2009-12-01

    Depolarization is a new feature in the beam-beam simulation tool GUINEA-PIG++ (GP++). The results of this simulation are studied and compared with another beam-beam simulation tool, CAIN, considering different beam parameters for the International Linear Collider (ILC) with a centre-of-mass energy of 500 GeV.

  14. Bringing the SciBar detector to the booster neutrino beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Alcaraz, J.; Andringa, S.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Catala, J.; Cervera, A.; Conrad, J.M.; Couce, E.; Dore, U.; Espinal, X.; Finley,; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Ishii, T.; Jover, G.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kurimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, Y.; /Columbia U. /Fermilab /KEK, Tsukuba /Barcelona, IFAE /Tokyo

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the physics case for bringing SciBar, the fully active, finely segmented tracking detector at KEK, to the FNAL Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) line. This unique opportunity arose with the termination of K2K beam operations in 2005. At that time, the SciBar detector became available for use in other neutrino beam lines, including the BNB, which has been providing neutrinos to the MiniBooNE experiment since late 2002. The physics that can be done with SciBar/BNB can be put into three categories, each involving several measurements. First are neutrino cross section measurements which are interesting in their own right, including analyses of multi-particle final states, with unprecedented statistics. Second are measurements of processes that represent the signal and primary background channels for the upcoming T2K experiment. Third are measurements which improve existing or planned MiniBooNE analyses and the understanding of the BNB, both in neutrino and antineutrino mode. For each of these proposed measurements, the SciBar/BNB combination presents a unique opportunity or will significantly improve upon current or near-future experiments for several reasons. First, the fine granularity of SciBar allows detailed reconstruction of final states not possible with the MiniBooNE detector. Additionally, the BNB neutrino energy spectrum is a close match to the expected T2K energy spectrum in a region where cross sections are expected to vary dramatically with energy. As a result, the SciBar/BNB combination will provide cross-section measurements in an energy range complementary to MINERvA and complete the knowledge of neutrino cross sections over the entire energy range of interest to the upcoming off-axis experiments.

  15. Beam distribution reconstruction simulation for electron beam probe

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yongchun; Li, Peng; Kang, Xincai; Yin, Yan; Liu, Tong; You, Yaoyao; Chen, Yucong; Zhao, Tiecheng; Xu, Zhiguo; Wang, Yanyu; Yuan, Youjin

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam probe (EBP) is a new principle detector, which makes use of a low-intensity and low-energy electron beam to measure the transverse profile, bunch shape, beam neutralization and beam wake field of an intense beam with small dimensions. While can be applied to many aspects, we limit our analysis to beam distribution reconstruction. This kind of detector is almost non-interceptive for all of the beam and does not disturb the machine environment. In this paper, we present the theoretical aspects behind this technique for beam distribution measurement and some simulation results of the detector involved. First, a method to obtain parallel electron beam is introduced and a simulation code is developed. And then, EBP as a profile monitor for dense beam is simulated using fast scan method under various target beam profile, such as KV distribution, waterbag distribution, parabolic distribution, Gaussian distribution and halo distribution. Profile reconstruction from the deflected electron beam trajectory...

  16. Beaming teaching application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup;

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophon...

  17. Ionization beam scanner

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Inner structure of an ionization beam scanner, a rather intricate piece of apparatus which permits one to measure the density distribution of the proton beam passing through it. On the outside of the tank wall there is the coil for the longitudinal magnetic field, on the inside, one can see the arrangement of electrodes creating a highly homogeneous transverse electric field.

  18. Entangled vector vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Carvacho, Gonzalo; Graffitti, Francesco; Vitelli, Chiara; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Light beams having a vectorial field structure, or polarization, that varies over the transverse profile and a central optical singularity are called vector vortex (VV) beams and may exhibit specific properties such as focusing into "light needles" or rotation invariance. VV beams have already found applications in areas ranging from microscopy to metrology, optical trapping, nano-optics, and quantum communication. Individual photons in such beams exhibit a form of single-particle quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the quantum states of two photons can be also entangled with each other. Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate the generation of quantum entanglement between two photons that are both in VV states: a form of entanglement between two complex vectorial fields. This result may lead to quantum-enhanced applications of VV beams as well as to quantum information protocols fully exploiting the vectorial features of light.

  19. Beam director design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  20. Muon Beam at the Fermilab Test Beam Area

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, Dmitri; Lukić, Strahinja; Ujić, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    The intensities and profiles of the muon beam behind the beam dump of the Fermilab test beam area when the facility is running in the "pion" beam mode are measured and summarized in this note. This muon beam with momenta in the range 10 - 50 GeV/c provides an opportunity to perform various measurements in parallel with other users of the test beam area.

  1. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  2. Probing neutrino parameters with a Two-Baseline Beta-beam set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S K; Raychaudhuri, A

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the prospects of exploring the neutrino mass parameters with a CERN based Beta-beam experiment using two different detectors at two different baselines. The proposed set-up consists of a 50 kton iron calorimeter (ICAL) at a baseline of around 7150 km which is roughly the magic baseline, e.g., ICAL@INO, and a 50 kton Totally Active Scintillator Detector at a distance of 730 km, e.g., at Gran Sasso. We take 8B and 8Li source ions with a boost factor $\\gamma$ of 650 for the magic baseline while for the closer detector we consider 18Ne and 6He ions with a range of Lorentz boosts. We find that the locations of the two detectors complement each other leading to an exceptional high sensitivity. With $\\gamma=650$ for 8B/8Li and $\\gamma=575$ for 18Ne/6He and total luminosity corresponding to $5\\times (1.1\\times 10^{19})$ and $5\\times (2.9\\times 10^{19})$ useful ion decays in neutrino and antineutrino modes respectively, we find that the two-detector set-up can probe maximal CP violation and establish the ne...

  3. Exceptional Sensitivity to Neutrino Parameters with a Two Baseline Beta-Beam Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2008-01-01

    We examine the reach of a Beta-beam experiment with two detectors at carefully chosen baselines for exploring neutrino mass parameters. Locating the source at CERN, the two detectors and baselines are: (a) a 50 kton iron calorimeter (ICAL) at a baseline of around 7150 km which is roughly the magic baseline, e.g., ICAL@INO, and (b) a 50 kton Totally Active Scintillator Detector at a distance of 730 km, e.g., at Gran Sasso. We choose 8B/8Li source ions with a boost factor \\gamma of 650 for the magic baseline while for the closer detector we consider 18Ne/6He ions with a range of Lorentz boosts. We find that the locations of the two detectors complement each other leading to an exceptional high sensitivity. With \\gamma=650 for 8B/8Li and \\gamma=575 for 18Ne/6He and total luminosity corresponding to 5\\times (1.1 \\times 10^{18}) and 5\\times (2.9\\times 10^{18}) useful ion decays in neutrino and antineutrino modes respectively, we find that our two detector set-up can probe maximal CP violation and establish the neu...

  4. Multi-Beam Optical Tweezers

    OpenAIRE

    Glückstad, Jesper; Eriksen, Rene Lynge; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2003-01-01

    A set of multi-beam electromagnetic tweezers is provided comprising a multi-beam generator for emission of a plurality of electromagnetic beams, at least some of the electromagnetic beams intersecting each other, or, having an individually controlled polarization whereby the position and/or angular orientation of a plurality of micro-objects may be individually controlled.A set of multi-beam electromagnetic tweezers is provided comprising a multi-beam generator for emission of a plurality of ...

  5. Beam Imaging and Luminosity Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Klute, Markus; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method to reconstruct two-dimensional proton bunch densities using vertex distributions accumulated during LHC beam-beam scans. The $x$-$y$ correlations in the beam shapes are studied and an alternative luminosity calibration technique is introduced. We demonstrate the method on simulated beam-beam scans and estimate the uncertainty on the luminosity calibration associated to the beam-shape reconstruction to be below 1\\%.

  6. Multi-Beam Optical Tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A set of multi-beam electromagnetic tweezers is provided comprising a multi-beam generator for emission of a plurality of electromagnetic beams, at least some of the electromagnetic beams intersecting each other, or, having an individually controlled polarization whereby the position and/or angular...... orientation of a plurality of micro-objects may be individually controlled.A set of multi-beam electromagnetic tweezers is provided comprising a multi-beam generator for emission of a plurality of electromagnetic beams, at least some of the electromagnetic beams intersecting each other, or, having...

  7. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  8. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G; Thorn, A

    2013-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  9. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  10. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  11. HIRENASD Beam FEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This contains attempts to create BEAM FEM model. I have started a Blog to discuss this... please put your comments there and I will attempt to keep everything...

  12. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    Electron beam precharging of a high resistivity aerosol was successfully demonstrated during this reporting period (Quarters Five and Six). The initial E-beam particle precharging experiments completed this term were designed to confirm and extend some of the work performed under the previous contract. There are several reasons for doing this: (1) to re-establish a baseline performance criterion for comparison to other runs, (2) to test several recently upgraded or repaired subsystems, and (3) to improve upon the collection efficiency of the electron beam precipitator when testing precharging effectiveness with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high concentration dust load. In addition, these shakedown runs were used to determine a set of suitable operational parameters for the wind tunnel, the electrostatic collecting sections, and the MINACC E-beam accelerator. These parameters will generally be held constant while the precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge.

  13. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaupa, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2016-11-01

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  14. Measurement Error Effects of Beam Parameters Determined by Beam Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Ji-Ho; Jeon, Dong-O

    2015-01-01

    A conventional method to determine beam parameters is using the profile measurements and converting them into the values of twiss parameters and beam emittance at a specified position. The beam information can be used to improve transverse beam matching between two different beam lines or accelerating structures. This work is related with the measurement error effects of the beam parameters and the optimal number of profile monitors in a section between MEBT (medium energy beam transport) and QWR (quarter wave resonator) of RAON linear accelerator.

  15. Transverse Beam Size Effects in Beam Position Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    2001-04-01

    The fields produced by a long beam with a given transverse charge distribution in a homogeneous vacuum chamber are studied. Signals induced by the displaced finite-size beam on electrodes of a beam position monitor (BPM) are calculated and compared to those from a pencil beam. The corrections to BPM signals due to a finite beam size are found analytically for a few particular transverse distributions of the beam current. The results for fields can also be directly applied for calculating the beam coupling impedances of small discontinuities.

  16. LHCb: Beam Pipe portrait

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector: it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  17. LHCb: Beam Pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector:it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  18. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Fermin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  19. High power beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Oren

    2014-02-01

    In various modern scientific and industrial laser applications, beam-shaping optics manipulates the laser spot size and its intensity distribution. However the designed laser spot frequently deviates from the design goal due to real life imperfections and effects, such as: input laser distortions, optical distortion, heating, overall instabilities, and non-linear effects. Lasers provide the ability to accurately deliver large amounts of energy to a target area with very high accuracy. Thus monitoring beam size power and beam location is of high importance for high quality results and repeatability. Depending on the combination of wavelength, beam size and pulse duration , laser energy is absorbed by the material surface, yielding into processes such as cutting, welding, surface treatment, brazing and many other applications. This article will cover the aspect of laser beam measurements, especially at the focal point where it matters the most. A brief introduction to the material processing interactions will be covered, followed by fundamentals of laser beam propagation, novel measurement techniques, actual measurement and brief conclusions.

  20. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  1. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden Ralph [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Yuan, Zongwei [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  2. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  3. Bringing up beams

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Last month, commissioning began on CERN’s newest linear accelerator: Linac4. As the replacement machine for Linac2, Linac4 will take a negative hydrogen ion beam to a staggering 160 MeV. We check in to see how the Linac4 team is preparing its machine for its new role as the first link in the accelerator chain.   The Linac4 3 MeV beam line, with the ion source in the back, the RFQ in the middle and the chopping line in the front. On 14 November, members of the Linac4 collaboration and the CERN Operations Group were brought together for their first “real day” in the Linac4 Control Room. Together, they successfully accelerated their first hydrogen ion beam to 3 MeV. It was an exciting moment for everyone involved and marked the start of one of the most critical commissioning phases for the new accelerator. At the start of the Linac4 beam line sits the CERN-made Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). This vital piece of machinery takes the beam from 45 keV to 3 MeV in ju...

  4. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  5. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi I.; Kuczewski A.; Altinbas, Z.; Beavis, D.; Belomestnykh,; Dai, J. et al

    2012-07-01

    The Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory is building a high-brightness 500 mA capable Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) as one of its main R&D thrusts towards eRHIC, the polarized electron - hadron collider as an upgrade of the operating RHIC facility. The ERL is in final assembly stages, with injection commisioning starting in October 2012. The objective of this ERL is to serve as a platform for R&D into high current ERL, in particular issues of halo generation and control, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) issues, coherent emissions for the beam and high-brightness, high-power beam generation and preservation. The R&D ERL features a superconducting laser-photocathode RF gun with a high quantum efficiency photoccathode served with a load-lock cathode delivery system, a highly damped 5-cell accelerating cavity, a highly flexible single-pass loop and a comprehensive system of beam instrumentation. In this ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter article we will describe the ERL in a degree of detail that is not usually found in regular publications. We will discuss the various systems of the ERL, following the electrons from the photocathode to the beam dump, cover the control system, machine protection etc and summarize with the status of the ERL systems.

  6. A better beam quality

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made on two fronts, providing physics data and preparing for higher intensities. Over the Whitsun weekend of May 22 to 24, 5 fills for physics provided almost 30 hours of stable colliding beams, all with bunch intensities around 2x1010 protons and at a β* of 2m. The first three of these fills were with 6 bunches per beam, giving 3 pairs of collisions in all experiments. For the other two fills, the number of bunches per beam was increased to 13, giving 8 pairs of colliding bunches, and for the first time luminosities were pushed above 1029 cm-2s-1, 2 orders of magnitude higher than first collisions in March. In between and after these physics fills, nominal bunches of 1011 protons were successfully ramped and brought into collision in ATLAS and CMS for the first time (not in stable beam conditions and without squeeze). Event rates seen by the experiments were in the expected range for these conditions. In the middle of this work, a short fill with beams of 7 nominal bunches was ...

  7. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic collection of a high resistivity aerosol using the Electron Beam Precipitator (EBP) collecting section was demonstrated during this reporting period (Quarter Five). Collection efficiency experiments were designed to confirm and extend some of the work performed under the previous contract. The reason for doing this was to attempt to improve upon the collection efficiency of the precipitator alone when testing with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high concentration dust load. From the collector shakedown runs, a set of suitable operational parameters were determined for the downstream electrostatic collecting sections of the Electron Beam Precipitator wind tunnel. These parameters, along with those for the MINACC electron beam, will generally be held constant while the numerous precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge. The electrostatic collector experiments were part of a larger, comprehensive investigation on electron beam precharging of high resistivity aerosol particles performed during the period covered by Quarters Five, Six, and Seven. This body of work used the same experimental apparatus and procedures and the experimental run period lasted nearly continuously for six months. A summary of the Quarter Five work is presented in the following paragraphs. Section II-A of TPR 5 contains a report on the continuing effort which was expended on the modification and upgrade of the pulsed power supply and the monitoring systems prior to the initiation of the electron beam precharging experimental work.

  8. Beam Time Accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Seitova, Diana

    2016-01-01

    ISOLDE is one of the leading research facilities in the field of nuclear physics. A proton beam with an energy 1.4 GeV coming from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) hits one of the targets at ISOLDE and produces Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs). Then, the RIBs of interest is selected and delivered to the different experimental stations. In order to deliver the beam to the certain experimental station, the positions of the devices along the beamline should satisfy certain conditions. The purpose of this project is to define the conditions for the beam to pass through the different beamlines and to store the data about device’s status for later analysis and statistics, so it would be possible to know when the beam was used for different experiments. The data with the settings of the different devices is saved in the Timber database and the first steps for making virtual devices to compile the status of the beamlines were completed.

  9. Light Beam Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a set of controllable light beams by provision of a system for synthesizing a set of light beams, comprising a spatially modulated light source for generation of electromagnetic radiation with a set of replicas of a predetermined......(x-xs, y-ys), a Fourier transforming lens for Fourier transforming the electromagnetic radiation, a first spatial light modulator for phase shifting the Fourier transformed electromagnetic radiation with the phase -F(u, v) of S*, S* is the complex conjugate of the Fourier transformed symbol s, a Fourier...... transforming lens for Inverse Fourier transforming the spatially modulated radiation, whereby a set of light beams are formed propagating through the inverse Fourier plane (x', y') at desired positions (x's, y's), and a controller for controlling the position of a replica of the symbol, s, for movement...

  10. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  11. Beam Synchronous Timing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, A

    2003-01-01

    For many beam diagnostics purposes beam synchronous timing systems are needed in addition to the timing systems supplied by the control systems of the different accelerators. The demands and techniques of different accelerator facilities will be discussed along the following aspects: Bunch and macro pulse synchronous timing systems Solutions for different time scales from ps to ms Coupling to the RF and control systems of the different accelerators Electronics for the beam synchronous timing systems: parameters, techniques, controlling Use of industrial products for bunch synchronous timing systems, e.g. function generators Distribution of the timing signals: electronically via cables, optically via fibres or wireless Coupling to and use of timing standards: IRIG-B, GPS, ? The participants should present and describe solutions from their facilities with some transparencies as a starting point for the discussion.

  12. Beam characteristics of energy-matched flattening filter free beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paynter, D.; Weston, S. J.; Cosgrove, V. P. [St James Institute of Oncology The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Medical Physics, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Evans, J. A. [LIGHT Institute University of Leeds Leeds LS2 9JT, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Thwaites, D. I. [LIGHT Institute University of Leeds Leeds LS2 9JT, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds, United Kingdom and Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerators can increase treatment efficiency and plan quality. There are multiple methods of defining a FFF beam. The Elekta control system supports tuning of the delivered FFF beam energy to enable matching of the percentage depth-dose (PDD) of the flattened beam at 10 cm depth. This is compared to FFF beams where the linac control parameters are identical to those for the flattened beam. All beams were delivered on an Elekta Synergy accelerator with an Agility multi-leaf collimator installed and compared to the standard, flattened beam. The aim of this study is to compare “matched” FFF beams to both “unmatched” FFF beams and flattened beams to determine the benefits of matching beams. Methods: For the three modes of operation 6 MV flattened, 6 MV matched FFF, 6 MV unmatched FFF, 10 MV flattened, 10 MV matched FFF, and 10 MV unmatched FFF beam profiles were obtained using a plotting tank and were measured in steps of 0.1 mm in the penumbral region. Beam penumbra was defined as the distance between the 80% and 20% of the normalized dose when the inflection points of the unflattened and flattened profiles were normalized with the central axis dose of the flattened field set as 100%. PDD data was obtained at field sizes ranging from 3 cm × 3 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. Radiation protection measurements were additionally performed to determine the head leakage and environmental monitoring through the maze and primary barriers. Results: No significant change is made to the beam penumbra for FFF beams with and without PDD matching, the maximum change in penumbra for a 10 cm × 10 cm field was within the experimental error of the study. The changes in the profile shape with increasing field size are most significant for the matched FFF beam, and both FFF beams showed less profile shape variation with increasing depth when compared to flattened beams, due to consistency in beam energy spectra across the radiation field

  13. Active Beam Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hellermann, M. G.; Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Biel, W.; Marchuk, O.; Summers, H. P.; Whiteford, A.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2008-03-01

    Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) plays a pivotal role in the diagnostics of hot fusion plasmas and is implemented currently in most of the operating devices. In the present report the main features of CXRS are summarized and supporting software packages encompassing "Spectral Analysis Code CXSFIT", "Charge Exchange Analysis Package CHEAP", and finally "Forward Prediction of Spectral Features" are described. Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) is proposed as indispensable cross-calibration tool for absolute local impurity density measurements and also for the continuous monitoring of the neutral beam power deposition profile. Finally, a full exploitation of the `Motional Stark Effect' pattern is proposed to deduce local pitch angles, total magnetic fields and possibly radial electric fields. For the proposed active beam spectroscopy diagnostic on ITER comprehensive performance studies have been carried out. Estimates of expected spectral signal-to-noise ratios are based on atomic modelling of neutral beam stopping and emissivities for CXRS, BES and background continuum radiation as well as extrapolations from present CXRS diagnostic systems on JET, Tore Supra, TEXTOR and ASDEX-UG. Supplementary to thermal features a further promising application of CXRS has been proposed recently for ITER, that is a study of slowing-down alpha particles in the energy range up to 2 MeV making use of the 100 keV/amu DNB (Diagnostic Neutral Beam) and the 500 keV/amu HNB (Heating Neutral Beam). Synthetic Fast Ion Slowing-Down spectra are evaluated in terms of source rates and slowing-down parameters

  14. Optimal beam focusing through turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnotskii, Mikhail

    2015-11-01

    Beam spread and beam wandering are the most perceptible effects of atmospheric turbulence on propagating laser beams. The width of the mean irradiance profile is typically used to characterize the beam spread. This so-called long-term (LT) statistic allows for a relatively simple theoretical description. However, the LT beam size is not a very practical measure of the beam spread because its measurements are sensitive to the movements of the source and detector, and to the large-scale variations of the refractive index that are not associated with turbulence. The short-term (ST) beam spread is measured relative to the instantaneous position of the beam center and is free of these drawbacks, but has not been studied as thoroughly as the LT spread. We present a theoretical model for the ST beam irradiance that is based on the parabolic equation for the beam wave propagation in random media, and the Markov approximation for calculation of the statistics of the optical field, and discuss an approximation that allows introduction of the isoplanatic ST point spread function (PSF). Unlike the LT PSF, the ST PSF depends on the overall beam geometry. This allows optimization of the initial beam field in terms of minimizing the ST beam size at the observation plane. Calculations supporting this conjecture are presented for the simple case of the coherent Gaussian beam, and Kolmogorov turbulence.

  15. Merged neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwalder, Andreas [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute for Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    A detailed description of a merged beam apparatus for the study of low energy molecular scattering is given. This review is intended to guide any scientist who plans to construct a similar experiment, and to provide some inspiration in describing the approach we chose to our goal. In our experiment a supersonic expansion of paramagnetic particles is merged with one of polar molecules. A magnetic and an electric multipole guide are used to bend the two beams onto the same axis. We here describe in detail how the apparatus is designed, characterised, and operated. (orig.)

  16. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  17. Molecular beam epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Pamplin, Brian R

    1980-01-01

    Molecular Beam Epitaxy introduces the reader to the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the generation of III-V and IV-VI compounds and alloys and describes the semiconductor and integrated optics reasons for using the technique. Topics covered include semiconductor superlattices by MBE; design considerations for MBE systems; periodic doping structure in gallium arsenide (GaAs); nonstoichiometry and carrier concentration control in MBE of compound semiconductors; and MBE techniques for IV-VI optoelectronic devices. The use of MBE to fabricate integrated optical devices and to study semicond

  18. Quantized beam shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Kort-Kamp, W J M; Dalvit, D A R

    2015-01-01

    We predict quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-H\\"anchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$, while the Goos- H\\"anchen ones in multiples of $\\alpha^2$. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  19. Dealing with megawatt beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The next generation of accelerators for MegaWatt proton, electron and heavy-ion beams puts unprecedented requirements on the accuracy of particle production predictions, the capability and reliability of the codes used in planning new accelerator facilities and experiments, the design of machine, target and collimation systems, detectors and radiation shielding and minimization of their impact on environment. Recent advances in code developments are described for the critical modules related to these challenges. Examples are given for the most demanding areas: targets, collimators, beam absorbers, radiation shielding, induced radioactivity and radiation damage.

  20. Beam Loss and Beam Shape at the LHC Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Burkart, Florian

    In this master thesis the beam loss and the beam shape at the LHC collimators was measured, analysed, presented and discussed. Beginning with a short introduction of the LHC, the experiments, the supercon- ducting magnet system, the basics on linear beam dynamics and a describtion of the LHC collimation system are given. This is followed by the presentation of the performance of the LHC collimation sys- tem during 2011. A method to convert the Beam Loss Monitor signal in Gy/s to a proton beam loss rate will be introduced. Also the beam lifetime during the proton physics runs in 2011 will be presented and discussed. Finally, the shape of the LHC beams is analysed by using data obtained by scraping the beam at the LHC primary collimators.

  1. Effects of Transverse Beam Size in Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, S S

    2001-01-01

    The fields produced by a long beam with a given transverse charge distribution in a homogeneous vacuum chamber are studied. Signals induced by a displaced finite-size beam on electrodes of a beam position monitor (BPM) are calculated and compared to those produced by a pencil beam. The non-linearities and corrections to BPM signals due to a finite transverse beam size are calculated for an arbitrary chamber cross section. Simple analytical expressions are given for a few particular transverse distributions of the beam current in a circular or rectangular chamber. Of particular interest is a general proof that in an arbitrary homogeneous chamber the beam-size corrections vanish for any axisymmetric beam current distribution.

  2. Effects of transverse beam size in beam position monitors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S. (Sergey)

    2001-01-01

    The fields produced by a long beam with a given transverse charge distribution in a homogeneous vacuum chamber are studied. Signals induced by the displaced finite-size beam on electrodes of a beam position monitor (BPM) are calculated and compared to those from a pencil beam. The non-linearities and corrections to BPM signals due to a finite transverse beam size are calculated for an arbitrary chamber cross section. Simple analytical expressions are given for a few particular transverse distributions of the beam current in a circular or rectangular chamber. Of particular interest is a general proof that in an arbitrary homogeneous chamber the beam-size corrections vanish for any axisymmetric beam current distribution.

  3. EFFECTS OF TRANSFERSE BEAM SIZE IN BEAM POSITIONS MONITORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. KURENNOY

    2001-06-01

    The fields produced by a long beam with a given transverse charge distribution in a homogeneous vacuum chamber are studied. Signals induced by the displaced finite-size beam on electrodes of a beam position monitor (BPM) are calculated and compared to those from a pencil beam. The non-linearities and corrections to BPM signals due to a finite transverse beam size are calculated for an arbitrary chamber cross section. Simple analytical expressions are given for a few particular transverse distributions of the beam current in a circular or rectangular chamber. Of particular interest is a general proof that in an arbitrary homogeneous chamber the beam-size corrections vanish for any axisymmetric beam current distribution.

  4. Observed Orbit Effects during Long Range Beam-Beam Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    Possible limitations due to long range beam-beam effects at the LHC have been studied and are presented in this note. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, the crossing angles were reduced to enhance long range beam-beam effects. The analysis of the effects on the dynamic aperture and losses are documented in [1]. This note concentrates on the bunch-by-bunch orbit effects observed during the experiment.

  5. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  6. Beam transport elements

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    Two of the beam transport elements for the slow ejection system. On the left, a quadrupole 1.2 m long with a 5 cm aperture, capable of producing a gradient of 5000 gauss. On the right, a 1 m bending magnet with a 4 cm gap; its field is 20 000 gauss.

  7. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  8. LHC Report: Beam on

    CERN Multimedia

    Rossano Giachino for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The powering tests described in the last edition of the Bulletin were successfully finished at the end of the first week of March opening the way for 4 TeV operations this year. The beam was back in the machine on Wednesday 14 March. The first collisions at 4 TeV are scheduled for the first week of April.   The first beam of 2012 is dumped after making a few rounds in the LHC. The magnet powering tests were followed by the machine checkout phase. Here the operations team in collaboration with the equipment groups performs a sequence of tests to ensure the readiness of the LHC for beam. The tests include driving all the LHC systems – beam dump, injection, collimation, RF, power converters, magnet circuits, vacuum, interlocks, controls, timing and synchronization – through the operational cycle. The “checkout phase” is really a massive de-bugging exercise, which is performed with the objective of ensuring the proper functioning of the whole machine and t...

  9. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    CERN Document Server

    Trofimov, M Yu; Kozitskiy, S B

    2015-01-01

    An adiabatic mode Helmholtz equation for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the crosswedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method.

  10. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    During the previous reporting period (Quarter Six), the charging and removal of a fine, high resistivity aerosol using the advanced technology of electron beam precipitation was successfully accomplished. Precharging a dust stream circulating through the EBP wind tunnel produced collection efficiency figures of up to 40 times greater than with corona charging and collection alone (Table 1). The increased system collection efficiency attributed to electron beam precharging was determined to be the result of increased particle charge. It was found that as precharger electric field was raised, collection efficiency became greater. In sequence, saturation particle charge varies with the precharger electric field strength, particle migration velocity varies with the precharger and collector electric field, and collection efficiency varies with the migration velocity. Maximizing the system collection efficiency requires both a high charging electric field (provided by the E-beam precharger), and a high collecting electric field (provided by the collector wires and plates). Because increased particle collection efficiency is directly attributable to higher particle charge, the focus of research during Quarter Seven was shifted to learning more about the actual charge magnitude on the aerosol particles. Charge determinations in precipitators have traditionally been made on bulk dust samples collected from the flue gas stream, which gives an overall charge vs. mass (Q/M) ratio measurement. More recently, techniques have been developed which allow the measurement of the charge on individual particles in a rapid and repeatable fashion. One such advanced technique has been developed at FSU for use in characterizing the electron beam precharger.

  11. Single Gradientless Light Beam Drags Particles as Tractor Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    is the strong nonparaxiality of the light beam, which contributes to the pulling force owing to momentum conservation. The nonparaxiality of the Bessel beam can be manipulated to possess a dragging force along both the radial longitudinal directions, i.e., a "tractor beam" with stable trajectories is achieved...

  12. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, F.; Ruf, B.; Barbisan, M.; Cristofaro, S.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Riedl, R.; Serianni, G.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the Hα light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of Hα spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  13. Splash events First Beams 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    Collaboration, CMS

    2008-01-01

    First beam through the detector: images showing the debris, or "splash", of particles picked up in the detector's calorimeters and muon chambers after the beam was steered into the collimator (tungsten blocks) at Point 5.

  14. Depth-controlled Bessel beams

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Angelina; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    We present a ring aperture with independently switchable segments for the three-dimensional control of quasi propagation invariant beams. We demonstrate that our liquid crystal design concept preserves coherence and generates the Bessel beam structure.

  15. Intense electron and ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Molokovsky, Sergey Ivanovich

    2005-01-01

    Intense Ion and Electron Beams treats intense charged-particle beams used in vacuum tubes, particle beam technology and experimental installations such as free electron lasers and accelerators. It addresses, among other things, the physics and basic theory of intense charged-particle beams; computation and design of charged-particle guns and focusing systems; multiple-beam charged-particle systems; and experimental methods for investigating intense particle beams. The coverage is carefully balanced between the physics of intense charged-particle beams and the design of optical systems for their formation and focusing. It can be recommended to all scientists studying or applying vacuum electronics and charged-particle beam technology, including students, engineers and researchers.

  16. Beam Injection in Recirculator SALO

    CERN Document Server

    Guk, Ivan S; Dovbnya, Anatoly N; Kononenko, Stanislav; Peev, Fedor; Tarasenko, Alexander; Van der Wiel, Marnix

    2005-01-01

    Possible antetypes of injectors for electron recirculator SALO,* intended for nuclear-physical research, are analyzed. The plan injection of beams in recirculator is offered. Expected parameters of beams are designed.

  17. Damping modeling in Timoshenko beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Wang, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical results of damping model studies for composite material beams using the Timoshenko theory is presented. Based on the damping models developed for Euler-Bernoulli beams, the authors develop damping methods for both bending and shear in investigation of Timoshenko beams. A computational method for the estimation of the damping parameters is given. Experimental data with high-frequency excitation were used to test Timoshenko beam equations with different types of damping models for bending and shear in various combinations.

  18. Resolving two beams in beam splitters with a beam position monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S. (Sergey)

    2002-01-01

    The beam transport system for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) anticipates multiple beam splitters. Monitoring two separated beams in a common beam pipe in the splitter sections imposes certain requirements on diagnostics for these sections. In this note we explore a two-beam system in a generic beam monitor and study the feasibility of resolving the positions of the two beams with a single diagnostic device. In the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), 20-ns beam pulses (bunches) are extracted from the 50-GeV main proton synchrotron and then are transported to the target by an elaborated transport system. The beam transport system splits the beam bunches into equal parts in its splitting sections so that up to 12 synchronous beam pulses can be delivered to the target for the multi-axis proton radiography. Information about the transverse positions of the beams in the splitters, and possibly the bunch longitudinal profile, should be delivered by some diagnostic devices. Possible candidates are the circular wall current monitors in the circular pipes connecting the splitter elements, or the conventional stripline BPMs. In any case, we need some estimates on how well the transverse positions of the two beams can be resolved by these monitors.

  19. Cherenkov light-based beam profiling for ultrarelativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adli, E., E-mail: Erik.Adli@fys.uio.no [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Gessner, S.J.; Corde, S.; Hogan, M.J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Bjerke, H.H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-05-21

    We describe a beam profile monitor design based on Cherenkov light emitted from a charged particle beam in an air gap. The main components of the profile monitor are silicon wafers used to reflect Cherenkov light onto a camera lens system. The design allows for measuring large beam sizes, with large photon yield per beam charge and excellent signal linearity with beam charge. The profile monitor signal is independent of the particle energy for ultrarelativistic particles. Different design and parameter considerations are discussed. A Cherenkov light-based profile monitor has been installed at the FACET User Facility at SLAC. We report on the measured performance of this profile monitor.

  20. Focusing Electron Beams at SLAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a set of magnets that focus high-energy electron and positron beams causing them to collide, annihilate each other, and generate new particles. Explains how dipoles bend the beam, how quadrupoles focus the beam, how the focal length is calculated, and the superconducting final focus. (MDH)

  1. Evolved Models for Elementary Particles and Atoms Require Alternating Neutrino/Antineutrino Pairs Along Interlocked or Looped Strings. Traveling Waves, TW, and Standing Waves, SW, Alternate at Nodal Notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Roger David; McLeod, David Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Our hydrogen atom interacts with a neutron star. Its stringy TW/SW electron is cut by a neutrino scissor that instantly becomes its end anti-node. The string has one extra neutrino in 100,000. Antimatter remains concealed. Our Dumbo Proton of a TW state is similarly cut. Inside the star, electron string/spring compresses 100,000 and 1836 times more, to proton's linear mass density. Electrostatics encourages that caboose, stringy electron, to couple with a cut proton. Linear charge densities neutralize while composite length contracts 20%. The writhing string evicts an antineutrino at closure on Pauli's authority, becoming Mickey Neutron, with looped quarks. Unstable Mickey Neutron has his ear notch forced into an ear notch of stable Dumbo Proton, achieving immortality in this deuteron marriage. Tritium is in a m'enage a trois. Alpha Nucleus has a # grid. Meta state Ne-20 predicts alpha eviction to O-16. Schr"odinger finally prevails, so string theory and Wave Mechanics can prosper.

  2. Beam-beam simulation code BBSIM for particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient, fully parallelized, six-dimensional tracking model for simulating interactions of colliding hadron beams in high energy ring colliders and simulating schemes for mitigating their effects is described. The model uses the weak-strong approximation for calculating the head-on interactions when the test beam has lower intensity than the other beam, a look-up table for the efficient calculation of long-range beam-beam forces, and a self-consistent Poisson solver when both beams have comparable intensities. A performance test of the model in a parallel environment is presented. The code is used to calculate beam emittance and beam loss in the Tevatron at Fermilab and compared with measurements. They also present results from the studies of stwo schemes proposed to compensate the beam-beam interactions: (a) the compensation of long-range interactions in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN with a current carrying wire, (b) the use of a low energy electron beam to compensate the head-on interactions in RHIC.

  3. Definition of Beam Diameter for Electron Beam Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    It is useful to characterize the dimensions of the electron beam during process development for electron beam welding applications. Analysis of the behavior of electron beam welds is simplest when a single number can be assigned to the beam properties that describes the size of the beam spot; this value we generically call the “beam diameter”. This approach has worked well for most applications and electron beam welding machines with the weld dimensions (width and depth) correlating well with the beam diameter. However, in recent weld development for a refractory alloy, Ta-10W, welded with a low voltage electron beam machine (LVEB), it was found that the weld dimensions (weld penetration and weld width) did not correlate well with the beam diameter and especially with the experimentally determined sharp focus point. These data suggest that the presently used definition of beam diameter may not be optimal for all applications. The possible reasons for this discrepancy and a suggested possible alternative diameter definition is the subject of this paper.

  4. Metallic beam development for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machicoane, Guillaume, E-mail: machicoa@nscl.msu.edu; Cole, Dallas; Leitner, Daniela; Neben, Derek; Tobos, Larry [Facility for Rare Isotope Beam, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University (MSU) will accelerate a primary ion beam to energies beyond 200 MeV/u using a superconducting RF linac and will reach a maximum beam power of 400 kW on the fragmentation target. The beam intensity needed from the ECR ion source is expected to be between 0.4 and 0.5 emA for most medium mass to heavy mass elements. Adding to the challenge of reaching the required intensity, an expanded list of primary beams of interest has been established based on the production rate and the number of isotope beams that could be produced with FRIB. We report here on the development done for some of the beam in the list including mercury (natural), molybdenum ({sup 98}Mo), and selenium ({sup 82}Ser)

  5. Square shaped flat-top beam in refractive beam shapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2015-08-01

    Lossless transformation of round Gaussian to square shaped flat-top collimated beam is important in building highpower solid state laser systems to improve optical pumping or amplification. There are industrial micromachining applications like scribing, display repair, which performance is improved when a square shaped spot with uniform intensity is created. Proved beam shaping solutions to these techniques are refractive field mapping beam shapers having some important features: flatness of output phase front, small output divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, operation with TEM00 and multimode lasers. Usual approach to design refractive beam shapers implies that input and output beams have round cross-section, therefore the only way to create a square shaped output beam is using a square mask, which leads to essential losses. When an input laser beam is linearly polarized it is suggested to generate square shaped flat-top output by applying beam shaper lenses from birefringent materials or by using additional birefringent components. Due to birefringence there is introduced phase retardation in beam parts and is realized a square shaped interference pattern at the beam shaper output. Realization of this approach requires small phase retardation, therefore weak birefringence effect is enough and birefringent optical components, operating in convergent or divergent beams, can be made from refractive materials, which crystal optical axis is parallel to optical axis of entire beam shaper optical system. There will be considered design features of beam shapers creating square shaped flat-top beams. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  6. Slow light beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanhong; Klein, Mason; Hohensee, Michael; Jiang, Liang; Phillips, David F; Lukin, Mikhail D; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2008-07-25

    We demonstrate a slow light beam splitter using rapid coherence transport in a wall-coated atomic vapor cell. We show that particles undergoing random and undirected classical motion can mediate coherent interactions between two or more optical modes. Coherence, written into atoms via electromagnetically induced transparency using an input optical signal at one transverse position, spreads out via ballistic atomic motion, is preserved by an antirelaxation wall coating, and is then retrieved in outgoing slow light signals in both the input channel and a spatially-separated second channel. The splitting ratio between the two output channels can be tuned by adjusting the laser power. The slow light beam splitter may improve quantum repeater performance and be useful as an all-optical dynamically reconfigurable router.

  7. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  8. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishnu M Bannur

    2001-10-01

    We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dispersion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming instability. It contains new, nonelectromagnetic, neutrino-plasma (or electroweak) stable and unstable modes also. The growth of the instability is weak for the highly relativistic neutrino flux, but becomes stronger for weakly relativistic neutrino flux in the case of parameters appropriate to the early universe and supernova explosions. However, this mode is dominant only for the beam velocity greater than 0.25 and in the other limit electroweak unstable mode takes over.

  9. Oberst beam test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasana, Alessandro; Garibaldi, Luigi; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Ruzzene, Massimo

    1998-06-01

    The definition of the mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials, i.e. the elastic modulus and the loss factor, is carried out, according to many national and international standards, with many different techniques, both of the resonant and non-resonant type. In this paper we focus our attention on the pros and cons of the resonant technique based on the classical Oberst beam method. When the damping material to be tested is not self-supporting, its properties are determined taking start from the measured modal frequencies and loss factors of a laminated beam, constituted by one or two metallic strips, ideally undamped, and one or two viscoelastic layers. The formulae specified on the standards hold valid under the assumptions of the theory developed by Kerwin, Ungar and Ross and we try in this paper to quantify witch deviation of the results should be expected when moving away from their ideal hypotheses.

  10. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  11. Proton beam therapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. Bidirectional beam propagation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarski, P.; Lagasse, P. E.

    1988-05-01

    A bidirectional extension of the beam propagation method (BPM) to optical waveguides with a longitudinal discontinuity is presented. The algorithm is verified by computing a reflection of the TE(0) mode from a semiconductor laser facet. The bidirectional BPM is applicable to other configurations such as totally reflecting waveguide mirrors, an abruption transition in a waveguide, or a waveguide with many discontinuities generating multiple reflections. The method can also be adapted to TM polarization.

  13. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  14. Axion beams at HERA?

    OpenAIRE

    Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    If the recently observed anomaly in the PVLAS experiment is due to the axion, then the powerful beams of synchrotron photons, propagating through high magnetic field of the HERA beamline, become strong axion sources. This gives a unique opportunity of detection of the axion-photon interactions by installing a small detector in the HERA tunnel, and to corroborate the axion hypothesis within a few days of running. Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure

  15. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, M. Yu.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Kozitskiy, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    A mode parabolic equation in the ray centered coordinates for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the ASA wedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method in the case of cross-slope propagation. But in the cases of wave propagation at some angles to the cross-slope direction an account of mode interaction becomes necessary.

  16. Beam-Material Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Cerutti, F. [CERN

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high-intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target, and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and environment in challenging current and future applications.

  17. Beam-Material Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high- intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target , and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and envir onment in challenging current and future application

  18. Neutrino beam line optics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming-Jen

    1996-09-01

    A study was done to understand the beam line optics from the beginning of Switchyard all the way to the end of Neutrino beam line. All available SWIC data were taken to get the beam centroid and width to be used in the analysis. The beam emittance and lattice function at the beginning of beam line can also be inferred from the study. The result indicated that the normalized 95% emittance to be around 15 {pi}-mm-mr for the vertical plane and about 28 {pi}-mm-mr for the horizontal plane.

  19. RIA Fragmentation Line Beam Dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, W

    2003-08-08

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator project involves generating heavy-element ion beams for use in a fragmentation target line to produce beams for physics research. The main beam, after passing through the fragmentation target, may be dumped into a beam dump located in the vacuum cavity of the first dipole magnet. For a dump beam power of 100 kW, cooling is required to avoid excessive high temperatures. The proposed dump design involves rotating cylinders to spread out the energy deposition and turbulent subcooled water flow through internal water cooling passages to obtain high, nonboiling, cooling rates.

  20. Hyperon Beam Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The experiment WA89 uses the upgraded Omega facility together with a hyperon beam installed at the end of the H1 beamline. The beam can deliver 2~10$ ^{5} \\% Sigma ^- $ per machine burst at 330 GeV/c with a background of 5 10$ ^{5} \\% \\pi ^- $. \\\\ \\\\ The goals of the experiment are: observation of charmed particles, mainly the charmed-strange baryons and measurements of their production in the kinematical range x$ _{F} $~$>$~0.2, and their decay properties, a search for exotic states such as U(3100) observed in the previous CERN hyperon beam experiment WA62, measurements of hyperon polarization and production properties. \\\\ \\\\ A vertex detector consisting of 24 silicon microstrip planes with 25~$\\mu$m pitch and 6~planes with 50~$\\mu$m pitch provides track measurements of sufficient accuracy to identify the decays of short living charmed particles and measure their lifetimes. A RICH detector provides good $\\pi$/K separation for momenta up to 100~GeV/c and $\\pi$/p separation up to 150~GeV/c. Photons are detecte...

  1. Infrared Risley beam pointer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Steven T.; Gutierrez, Homero; Newman, Michael; Pierce, Robert; Quakenbush, Tim; Wallace, John; Bornstein, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC) has developed a Risley Beam Pointer (RBP) mechanism capable of agile slewing, accurate pointing and high bandwidth. The RBP is comprised of two wedged prisms that offer a wide Field of Regard (FOR) and may be manufactured and operated with diffraction limited optical quality. The tightly packaged mechanism is capable of steering a 4 inch beam over a 60° half angle cone with better than 60 μrad precision. Absolute accuracy of the beam steering is better than 1 mrad. The conformal nature of the RBP makes it an ideal mechanism for use on low altitude aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Unique aspects of the opto-mechanical design include i) thermal compliance to maintain bearing preload and optical figure over a wide temperature range; and ii) packaging of a remote infrared sensor that periodically reports the temperature of both prisms for accurate determination of the index of refraction. The pointing control system operates each prism independently and employs an inner rate loop nested within an outer position loop. Mathematics for the transformation between line-of-sight coordinates and prism rotation are hosted on a 200 MHz microcontroller with just 516 KB of RAM.

  2. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  3. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.;

    2011-01-01

    Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...

  4. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Füllekrug

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds are detected by radio remote sensing with low frequency radio signals from 40–400 kHz. The electron beams occur 2–9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between 22–72 km above thunderclouds. The positive lightning discharges also cause sprites which occur either above or before the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite occurrence which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently. Numerical simulations show that the beamed electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of 7 MeV to transport a total charge of 10 mC upwards. The impulsive current associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds is directed downwards and needs to be considered as a novel element of the global atmospheric electric circuit.

  5. Operational beams for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Papaphilippou, Y; Rumolo, G; Manglunki, D

    2014-01-01

    The variety of beams, needed to set-up in the injectors as requested in the LHC, are reviewed, in terms of priority but also performance expectations and reach during 2015. This includes the single bunch beams for machine commissioning and measurements (probe, Indiv) but also the standard physics beams with 50 ns and 25 ns bunch spacing and their high brightness variants using the Bunch Compression Merging and Splitting (BCMS) scheme. The required parameters and target performance of special beams like the doublet for electron cloud enhancement and the more exotic 8b$\\oplus$4e beam, compatible with some post-scrubbing scenarios are also described. The progress and plans for the LHC ion production beams during 2014-2015 are detailed. Highlights on the current progress of the setting up of the various beams are finally presented with special emphasis on potential performance issues across the proton and ion injector chain.

  6. Special Technologies Related to Electron Beam Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Haiyan; Cai; Zhipeng; Wang; Xichang

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the manufacturing quality of electron beam welding,some technologies are developed by using the special features of electron beam.Comparing with the conventional electron beam welding,the usage of multi-beam technology and micro-beam technology are introduced.In addition.the development of beam diagnostic system is also presented.

  7. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonomo, F., E-mail: federica.bonomo@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Istituto Gas Ionizzati - CNR, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Riedl, R.; Wünderlich, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Barbisan, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cristofaro, S. [Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2015-04-08

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (< 0.4 °) together with a low source pressure (≤ 0.3 Pa) would permit to reduce the ion losses along the beamline, keeping the stripping particle losses below 30%. However, the attainment of such beam properties is not straightforward. At IPP, the negative ion source testbed BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the H{sub α} light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of H{sub α} spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  8. Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, M; Cavenago, M; Comunian, M; Chirulotto, F; Galatà, A; De Lazzari, M; Porcellato, A M; Roncolato, C; Stark, S; Caruso, A; Longhitano, A; Cavaliere, F; Maero, G; Paroli, B; Pozzoli, R; Romé, M

    2014-02-01

    Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented.

  9. Beam line design using G4BeamLine

    CERN Document Server

    Dogan, Arda

    2014-01-01

    In Turkey in Ankara TAEK SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility (PAF), there is a cyclotron which produces a focused intense 30 MeV proton beam and sends this beam to four different arms, three of which uses this beam to produce pharmaceutical medicine. The remaining one is spared for R&D purposes and the idea was to use these protons coming out from the fourth arm to use space radiation tests, which cannot be done in Turkey at the moment. However, according to SCC 25100 standards which is for 30 MeV protons, the beam coming out of cyclotron is too intense and focused to use for space radiation tests. Therefore, the main aim of my project is to design a beam line which will defocus the beam and reduce the flux so that the space radiation tests can be done according to the standards of SCC 25100.

  10. Beam-Beam Effect with an External Noise in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmi, K; Höfle, Wolfgang; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    In absence of synchrotron radiation, proton beams do not have any damping mechanism for incoherent betatron motion. A noise, which kicks beam particles in the transverse plane, gives a coherent betatron amplitude. If the system is linear, the coherent motion is maintained in amplitude. Nonlinear force, beam-beam and beam-electron cloud interactions, cause a decoherence of the betatron motion keeping the amplitude of each beam particle, with the result that an emittance growth arises. We focus only on fast noise with a correlation time of 1-100 turns. Slower noise is less serious, because it is regarded as an adiabatic change like a closed orbit change. As sources of the noise, we consider the bunch by bunch feedback system and phase jitter of cavities which turns to transverse noise via a crab cavity.

  11. LHC Beam Instrumentation: Beam Profile Measurements (2/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a full suite of sophisticated beam instrumentation which has been essential for rapid commissioning, the safe increase in total stored beam power and the understanding of machine optics and accelerator physics phenomena. These lectures will introduce these systems and comment on their contributions to the various stages of beam operation. They will include details on: the beam position system and its use for real-time global orbit feedback; the beam loss system and its role in machine protection; total and bunch by bunch intensity measurements; tune measurement and feedback; diagnostics for transverse beam size measurements, abort gap monitoring and longitudinal density measurements. Issues and problems encountered along the way will also be discussed together with the prospect for future upgrades.

  12. Micro-beam XRF localization by a laser beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A new method for micro-beam XRF localization is presented. A laserbeam along with an incident X-ray hits on the surface of a sample. The micro region onthe sample that reached by X-ray beam can be localized by means of thevisible spot of the laser beam. This method is suitable for X-ray microprobesusing anX-ray tube or synchrotron radiation as excitation sources.

  13. Laser cooling of a stored ion beam: A first step towards crystalline beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangst, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses: a brief introduction to storage rings; crystalline beams; laser cooling of ion beams; description of astrid-the experimental setup; first experiments with lithium 7 ion beam; experiments with erbium 166 ion beams; further experiments with lithium 7 ion beams; beam dynamics, laser cooling,and crystalline beams in astrid; possibilities for further study in astrid.

  14. Injection Beam Loss and Beam Quality Checks for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, Verena; Bartmann, Wolfgang; Bracco, Chiara; Drosdal, Lene; Holzer, Eva; Khasbulatov, Denis; Magnin, Nicolas; Meddahi, Malika; Nordt, Annika; Sapinski, Mariusz; Vogt, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the injection into the LHC is monitored by a dedicated software system which acquires and analyses the pulse waveforms from the injection kickers, and measures key beam parameters and compares them with the nominal ones. The beam losses at injection are monitored on many critical devices in the injection regions, together with the longitudinal filling pattern and maximum trajectory offset on the first 100 turns. The paper describes the injection quality check system and the results from LHC beam commissioning, in particular the beam losses measured during injection at the various aperture limits. The results are extrapolated to full intensity and the consequences are discussed

  15. Beam Instrument Development System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-08

    Beam Instrumentation Development System (BIDS) is a collection of common support libraries and modules developed during a series of Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control and timing/synchronization projects. BIDS includes a collection of Hardware Description Language (HDL) libraries and software libraries. The BIDS can be used for the development of any FPGA-based system, such as LLRF controllers. HDL code in this library is generic and supports common Digital Signal Processing (DSP) functions, FPGA-specific drivers (high-speed serial link wrappers, clock generation, etc.), ADC/DAC drivers, Ethernet MAC implementation, etc.

  16. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...... at the limit state of serviceability is in some simple cases determined by setting up the statical and the compatibility conditions.With these moment distributions, the maximum deflection and the reinforcement stresses at the span middle and at a support are calculated.The results are compared with results...

  17. Self accelerating electron Airy beams

    CERN Document Server

    Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Lilach, Yigal; Gover, Avraham; Arie, Ady

    2013-01-01

    We report the first experimental generation and observation of Airy beams of free electrons. The electron Airy beams are generated by diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram, that imprints a cubic phase modulation on the beams' transverse plane. We observed the spatial evolution dynamics of an arc-shaped, self accelerating and shape preserving electron Airy beams. We directly observed the ability of electrons to self-heal, restoring their original shape after passing an obstacle. This electromagnetic method opens up new avenues for steering electrons, like their photonic counterparts, since their wave packets can be imprinted with arbitrary shapes or trajectories. Furthermore, these beams can be easily manipulated using magnetic or electric potentials. It is also possible to efficiently self mix narrow beams having opposite signs of acceleration, hence obtaining a new type of electron interferometer.

  18. Edge effect in beam monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Cuperus, J H

    1977-01-01

    Quite often, particle-beam monitors have not the same cross-section as the beam pipe or vacuum chamber in which they are mounted. In that case, the electromagnetic field of the beam is distorted in the vicinity of the edges of the monitor. This field, at the junction of two rectangular beam pipes of different dimensions, is computed for a beam with constant charge along its length. Solutions which are less accurate but easier to apply are obtained with a first order approximation. The results are extended to intensity-modulated beams and circular or elliptical cross-sections. The errors, due to the edge effect, for the electrostatic pickup and the wall-current monitor are computed. The final formulas are simple and easy to apply to practical cases. (6 refs).

  19. Beam Position Monitoring at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Prochnow, J

    2003-01-01

    At the European Organisation for Nuclear Research CERN in Geneva, Switzerland the design of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) for high energy physics is studied. To achieve the envisaged high luminosity the quadrupole magnets and radio-frequency accelerating structures have to be actively aligned with micron precision and submicron resolution. This will be done using beam-based algorithms which rely on beam position information inside of quadrupoles and accelerating structures. After a general introduction to the CLIC study and the alignment algorithms, the concept of the interaction between beams and radio-frequency structures is given. In the next chapter beam measurements and simulations are described which were done to study the performance of cavity beam position monitors (BPM). A BPM design is presented which is compatible with the multi-bunch operation at CLIC and could be used to align the quadrupoles. The beam position inside the accelerating structures will be measured by using the structures thems...

  20. Controlling Beam Halo-Chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方锦清; 罗晓曙; 陈关荣; 翁甲强

    2001-01-01

    Beam halo-chaos is essentially a complex spatiotemporal chaotic motion in a periodic-focusing channel of a highpower linear proton accelerator. The controllability condition for beam halo-chaos is analysed qualitatively. A special nonlinear control method, i.e. the wavelet-based function feedback, is proposed for controlling beam halochaos. Particle-in-cell simulations are used to explore the nature of halo-chaos formation, which has shown that the beam hMo-chaos is suppressed effectively after using nonlinear control for the proton beam with an initial full Gaussian distribution. The halo intensity factor Hav is reduced from 14%o to zero, and the other statistical physical quantities of beam halo-chaos are more than doubly reduced. The potential applications of such nonlinear control in experiments are briefly pointed out.

  1. Beam simulation studies of ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haitao; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Lund, Steven M; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wu, Xiaoyu; Morgan, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    To meet the beam power requirements of 400 kW at the fragmentation target for facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states should be used for heavier ions. These intense multi-charged ion beams will be produced by a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at a high voltage of 35 kV. After extraction, the ion beam will be pre-accelerated to 12 keV/u with a 50 kV platform, transported down to an achromatic charge state selection (CSS) system followed by a vertical transport line, and then injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The TRACK code developed at ANL is used to perform the simulations of the ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB. In this study, we include the magnetic field of ECR ion source into simulations. Different initial beam conditions as well as different space charge neutralization levels are tested for the ECR beamline. The beam loss in CSS system and the corresponding protective measures are discussed. The detailed results about the beam dynamic simulation and beam loss in CSS system will be presented in this paper.

  2. Simulation of beam-induced plasma for the mitigation of beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Yu, K.; Litvinenko, V.

    2015-05-03

    One of the main challenges in the increase of luminosity of circular colliders is the control of the beam-beam effect. In the process of exploring beam-beam mitigation methods using plasma, we evaluated the possibility of plasma generation via ionization of neutral gas by proton beams, and performed highly resolved simulations of the beam-plasma interaction using SPACE, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The process of plasma generation is modelled using experimentally measured cross-section coefficients and a plasma recombination model that takes into account the presence of neutral gas and beam-induced electromagnetic fields. Numerically simulated plasma oscillations are consistent with theoretical analysis. In the beam-plasma interaction process, high-density neutral gas reduces the mean free path of plasma electrons and their acceleration. A numerical model for the drift speed as a limit of plasma electron velocity was developed. Simulations demonstrate a significant reduction of the beam electric field in the presence of plasma. Preliminary simulations using fully-ionized plasma have also been performed and compared with the case of beam-induced plasma.

  3. Harmonic vibrations of multispan beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes

    1996-01-01

    Free and forced harmonic vibrations of multispan beams are determined by a method which implies 1 equation regardless of the configuration. The necessary formulas are given in the paper. For beams with simple supports and the same length of all (n) spans, there is a rather big difference between...... the n´th and the (n+1)´th eigenfrequency. The reason for this phenomenon is explained.Keywords: Vibrations, Eigenfrequencies, Beams....

  4. Atomic laser-beam finder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viering, Kirsten; Medellin, David; Mo, Jianyong; Raizen, Mark G

    2012-11-05

    We report on an experimental method to align a laser beam to a cloud of atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). We show how balanced lock-in detection leads to a very sensitive method to align the laser beam to the atoms in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction. This provides a very reliable and fast way of aligning laser beams to atoms trapped in a MOT.

  5. Beam emittance measurements at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Manfred; Eddy, Nathan; Hu, Martin; Scarpine, Victor; Syphers, Mike; Tassotto, Gianni; Thurman-Keup, Randy; Yang, Ming-Jen; Zagel, James; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    We give short overview of various beam emittance measurement methods, currently applied at different machine locations for the Run II collider physics program at Fermilab. All these methods are based on beam profile measurements, and we give some examples of the related instrumentation techniques. At the end we introduce a multi-megawatt proton source project, currently under investigation at Fermilab, with respect to the beam instrumentation challenges.

  6. First Beam Splash Events 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    Collaboration, CMS

    2008-01-01

    10th September 2008 at 10.00 a.m. CMS saw the beam pass through the experiment for the first time ever, in the clockwise direction. The beam was initially intentionally stopped by blocks around 154 metres before CMS at Point 5, producing these images of the debris or "splash" from the particles hitting the blocks. After removal of the blocks, the beam then passed through CMS successfully. At 14.30 beam then passed successfully in the anticlockwise direction through the experiment.

  7. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  8. Terahertz beam shaping with metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingwen; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Based on metasurface, two beam shapers are designed to modulate the wavefront of the terahertz beam. One of the beam shapers is THz ring-Airy beam generator and the other is THz four-focus lens. Each beam shaper is composed of a serious of C-shaped slot antennas, which can be used to modulate the phase and amplitude of the cross-polarized scattered wave. A THz holographic imaging system is utilized to measure the field of the generated beams. The ring- Airy beam shaper is designed by replacing both the phase and amplitude of its initial electric field with the corresponding antennas. In the experiment, an abrupt focus following a parabolic trajectory is subsequently observed. This method can be expanded to other wavebands, such as the visible band, in which the ring-Airy beam shaper can replace traditional computer-generated holography to avoid undesirable multiple diffraction orders. The phase distribution of the four-focus lens is obtained by using the Yang-Gu amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and then encoded to the antennas. Both the focusing and imaging properties are demonstrated. A clear image can be obtained with a bandwidth of 110 GHz. This type of transmissive metasurface beam shaper serves as an attractive alternative to conventional diffractive optical elements based on its small size, ease of fabrication, and low cost.

  9. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  10. Beam shifts and distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Aiello, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    When a beam of light is reflected by a smooth surface its behavior deviates from geometrical optics predictions. Such deviations are quantified by the so-called spatial and angular Goos-Haenchen (GH) and Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts of the reflected beam. These shifts depend upon the shape of the incident beam, its polarization and on the material composition of the reflecting surface. In this article we suggest a novel approach that allows one to unambiguously isolate the beam-shape dependent aspects of GH and IF shifts. We show that this separation is possible as a result of some universal features of shifted distribution functions which are presented and discussed.

  11. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  12. LHC beam-beam compensation using wires and electron lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U; Shiltsev, V; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    We present weak-strong simulation results for a possible application of current-carrying wires and electron lenses to compensate the LHC long-range and head-on beambeam interaction, respectively, for nominal and PACMAN bunches. We show that these measures have the potential to considerably increase the beam-beam limit, allowing for a corresponding increase in peak luminosity.

  13. New concepts in deployable beam structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The design of deployable structures involves a complicated tradeoff of packaging efficiency, the overall mechanism associated with deploying and latching beam joints, and the requirements and complexity of the beam deployer/repacker. Three longeron deployable beams, controllable geometry beams, and hybrid deployable/erectable beam concepts are evaluated.

  14. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, C.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  15. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Florida State University is investigating the concept of pulsed electron beams for fly ash precipitation. This report describes the results and data on three of the subtasks of this project and preliminary work only on the remaining five subtasks. Described are the modification of precharger for pulsed and DC energization of anode; installation of the Q/A measurement system; and modification and installation of pulsed power supply to provide both pulsed and DC energization of the anode. The other tasks include: measurement of the removal efficiency for monodisperse simulated fly ash particles; measurement of particle charge; optimization of pulse energization schedule for maximum removal efficiency; practical assessment of results; and measurement of the removal efficiency for polydisperse test particles. 15 figs., 1 tab. (CK)

  17. Molecular-beam scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M. F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HC1 (FEMALE) NAC1 + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2(2)P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3(2)P/sub 3/2) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  18. Molecular-beam scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  19. Measurements of aperture and beam lifetime using movable beam scrapers in Indus-2 electron storage ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Ghodke, A D; Karnewar, A K; Holikatti, A C; Yadav, S; Puntambekar, T A; Singh, G; Singh, P

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the measurements of vertical and horizontal aperture which are available for stable beam motion in Indus-2 at beam energy 2.5 GeV using movable beam scrapers are presented. These beam scrapers are installed in one of the long straight sections in the ring. With the movement of beam scrapers towards the beam centre, the beam lifetime is measured. The beam lifetime data obtained from the movement of vertical and horizontal beam scrapers are analyzed. The contribution of beam loss due to beam-gas scattering (vacuum lifetime) and electron-electron scattering within a beam bunch (Touschek lifetime) is separated from the measured beam lifetime at different positions of the beam scrapers. Vertical and horizontal beam sizes at scrapers location are estimated from the scraper movement towards the beam centre in quantum lifetime limit and their values closely agree with measured value obtained using X-ray diagnostic beamline.

  20. Measurements of aperture and beam lifetime using movable beam scrapers in Indus-2 electron storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Ghodke, A. D.; Karnewar, A. K.; Holikatti, A. C.; Yadav, S.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Singh, G.; Singh, P.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the measurements of vertical and horizontal aperture which are available for stable beam motion in Indus-2 at beam energy 2.5 GeV using movable beam scrapers are presented. These beam scrapers are installed in one of the long straight sections in the ring. With the movement of beam scrapers towards the beam centre, the beam lifetime is measured. The beam lifetime data obtained from the movement of vertical and horizontal beam scrapers are analyzed. The contribution of beam loss due to beam-gas scattering (vacuum lifetime) and electron-electron scattering within a beam bunch (Touschek lifetime) is separated from the measured beam lifetime at different positions of the beam scrapers. Vertical and horizontal beam sizes at scrapers location are estimated from the scraper movement towards the beam centre in quantum lifetime limit and their values closely agree with measured value obtained using X-ray diagnostic beamline.

  1. Hybrid beams in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The first proton-ion beams were successfully circulated in the LHC a couple of weeks ago. Everything went so smoothly that the LHC teams had planned the first p-Pb collisions for Wednesday, 16 November. Unfortunately, a last-minute problem with a component of the PS required for proton acceleration prevented the LHC teams from making these new collisions. However, the way is open for a possible physics run with proton-lead collisions in 2012.   Members of the LHC team photographed when the first hybrid beams got to full energy. The proton and lead beams are visible on the leftmost screen up on the wall (click to enlarge the photo). The technical challenge of making different beams circulate in the LHC is by no means trivial. Even if the machine is the same, there are a number of differences when it is operated with beams of protons, beams of lead or beams of proton and lead. Provided that the beams are equal, irrespective of whether they consist of protons or lead nuclei, they revolve at the...

  2. Portal dosimetry in wedged beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuw, H.; Rozendaal, R.; Camargo, P.; Mans, A.; Wendling, M.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Sonke, J.J.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Portal dosimetry using electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) is often applied to verify high-energy photon beam treatments. Due to the change in photon energy spectrum, the resulting dose values are, however, not very accurate in the case of wedged beams if the pixel-to-dose conversion for the s

  3. CLIC Drive Beam Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wegner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Travelling structures for accelerating the high-current (4.2 A) CLIC Drive Beam to an energy of 2.37 GeV are presented. The structures are optimised for efficiency (full beam loading operation) and a desired filling time. Higher order modes are studied and are reduced by detuning along the structure and by damping with silicon carbide loads.

  4. BOUNDARY STABILIZATION OF TIMOSHENKO BEAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qingxu

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the stabilization problem of Timoshenko beam by some nonlinear boundary feedback controls is considered. By virtue of nonlinear semigroup theory and energy-perturbed method, it is shown that the vibration of the beam under the proposed control action decays exponentially or in negative power of time t as t → ∞.

  5. An introduction to beam physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berz, Martin; Wan, Weishi

    2015-01-01

    The field of beam physics touches many areas of physics, engineering, and the sciences. In general terms, beams describe ensembles of particles with initial conditions similar enough to be treated together as a group so that the motion is a weakly nonlinear perturbation of a chosen reference particle. Particle beams are used in a variety of areas, ranging from electron microscopes, particle spectrometers, medical radiation facilities, powerful light sources, and astrophysics to large synchrotrons and storage rings such as the LHC at CERN. An Introduction to Beam Physics is based on lectures given at Michigan State University’s Department of Physics and Astronomy, the online VUBeam program, the U.S. Particle Accelerator School, the CERN Academic Training Programme, and various other venues. It is accessible to beginning graduate and upper-division undergraduate students in physics, mathematics, and engineering. The book begins with a historical overview of methods for generating and accelerating beams, high...

  6. Cold and Slow Molecular Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hsin-I; Wright, Matthew J; Patterson, Dave; Doyle, John M

    2011-01-01

    Employing a two-stage cryogenic buffer gas cell, we produce a cold, hydrodynamically extracted beam of calcium monohydride molecules with a near effusive velocity distribution. Beam dynamics, thermalization and slowing are studied using laser spectroscopy. The key to this hybrid, effusive-like beam source is a "slowing cell" placed immediately after a hydrodynamic, cryogenic source [Patterson et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2007, 126, 154307]. The resulting CaH beams are created in two regimes. One modestly boosted beam has a forward velocity of vf = 65 m/s, a narrow velocity spread, and a flux of 10^9 molecules per pulse. The other has the slowest forward velocity of vf = 40 m/s, a longitudinal temperature of 3.6 K, and a flux of 5x10^8 molecules per pulse.

  7. Report of the group on beam-beam effects in circular colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    We present a summary of the discussions and conclusions of the working group on beam-beam effects for circular colliders. This group was part of the larger beam-beam dynamics group at the 7th ICFA Workshop on Beam Dynamics, on the subject Beam-Beam and Beam-Radiation Interactions,'' held at UCLA, May 13--16, 1991. 15 refs.

  8. Control And Transport Of Intense Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Li, H

    2004-01-01

    The transport of intense beams for advanced accelerator applications with high-intensity beams such as heavy-ion inertial fusion, spallation neutron sources, and intense light sources requires tight control of beam characteristics over long distances. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), which uses low energy, high current electron beams to model the transport physics of intense space-charge-dominated beams, employs real-time beam characterization and control in order to optimize beam quality throughout the strong focusing lattice. We describe in this dissertation the main beam control techniques used in UMER, which include optimal beam steering by quadrupole scans, beam rotation correction using a skew corrector, rms envelope matching and optimization, empirical envelope matching, beam injection, and phase space reconstruction using a tomographic method. Using these control techniques, we achieved the design goals for UMER. The procedure is not only indispensable for optimum beam transport over l...

  9. Testing CPT conservation using the NuMI neutrino beam with the MINOS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auty, David John [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-01

    The MINOS experiment was designed to measure neutrino oscillation parameters with muon neutrinos. It achieves this by measuring the neutrino energy spectrum and flavor composition of the man-made NuMI neutrino beam 1km after the beam is formed and again after 735 km. By comparing the two spectra it is possible to measure the oscillation parameters. The NuMI beam is made up of 7.0%$\\bar{v}$μ, which can be separated from the vμ because the MINOS detectors are magnetized. This makes it possible to study $\\bar{v}$μ oscillations separately from those of muon neutrinos, and thereby test CPT invariance in the neutrino sector by determining the $\\bar{v}$μ oscillation parameters and comparing them with those for vμ, although any unknown physics of the antineutrino would appear as a difference in oscillation parameters. Such a test has not been performed with beam $\\bar{v}$μ before. It is also possible to produce an almost pure $\\bar{v}$μ beam by reversing the current through the magnetic focusing horns of the NuMI beamline, thereby focusing negatively, instead of positively charged particles. This thesis describes the analysis of the 7% $\\bar{v}$μ component of the forward horn current NuMI beam. The $\\bar{v}$μ of a data sample of 3.2 x 10{sup 20} protons on target analysis found 42 events, compared to a CPT conserving prediction of 58.3-7.6+7.6(stat.)-3.6+3.6(syst.) events. This corresponds to a 1.9 σ deficit, and a best fit value of Δ$\\bar{m}$322 = 18 x 10-3 eV2 and sin2 2$\\bar{θ}$23 = 0.55. This thesis focuses particularly on the selection of $\\bar{v}$μ events, and investigates possible improvements of the selection algorithm. From this a different selector was chosen, which corroborated the findings of the original selector. The

  10. Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-03-21

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  11. Generation of electron Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Lereah, Yossi; Lilach, Yigal; Gover, Avraham; Arie, Ady

    2013-02-21

    Within the framework of quantum mechanics, a unique particle wave packet exists in the form of the Airy function. Its counterintuitive properties are revealed as it propagates in time or space: the quantum probability wave packet preserves its shape despite dispersion or diffraction and propagates along a parabolic caustic trajectory, even though no force is applied. This does not contradict Newton's laws of motion, because the wave packet centroid propagates along a straight line. Nearly 30 years later, this wave packet, known as an accelerating Airy beam, was realized in the optical domain; later it was generalized to an orthogonal and complete family of beams that propagate along parabolic trajectories, as well as to beams that propagate along arbitrary convex trajectories. Here we report the experimental generation and observation of the Airy beams of free electrons. These electron Airy beams were generated by diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram, which imprinted on the electrons' wavefunction a cubic phase modulation in the transverse plane. The highest-intensity lobes of the generated beams indeed followed parabolic trajectories. We directly observed a non-spreading electron wavefunction that self-heals, restoring its original shape after passing an obstacle. This holographic generation of electron Airy beams opens up new avenues for steering electronic wave packets like their photonic counterparts, because the wave packets can be imprinted with arbitrary shapes or trajectories.

  12. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Gorišek, A; Dolenc, I; Frais-Kölbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Kagan, H; Korpar, S; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Meyer, M; Mikuz, M; Pernegger, H; Smith, S; Trischuk, W; Weilhammer, P; Zavrtanik, M

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at . Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam–beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of area and thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test bea...

  13. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Füllekrug

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency ∼40–400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur ∼2–9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between ∼22–72 km above thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of ∼7 MeV to transport a total charge of ∼−10 mC upwards. The impulsive current ∼3 × 10−3 Am−2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds is directed downwards and needs to be considered as a novel element of the global atmospheric electric circuit.

  14. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  15. Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.; Li, R. X.; Guo, L. X.; Ding, C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections of optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are theoretically investigated for a dielectric sphere with particular emphasis on the beam topological charge (or order), half-cone angle and polarization. The angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) is used to derive the non-paraxial electromagnetic (EM) field components of the Bessel beams. The multipole expansion method using vector spherical harmonics is utilized and appropriate beam-shape coefficients are derived in order to compute the radiation force cross-sections. The analysis has no limitation to a particular range of frequencies such that the Rayleigh, Mie or geometrical optics regimes can all be considered effectively using the present rigorous formalism. The focus of this investigation is to identify some of the tractor beam conditions so as to achieve retrograde motion of a dielectric sphere located arbitrarily in space. Numerical computations for the axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections are presented for linear, right-circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane waves forming the Bessel beams of zeroth- and first-order (with positive or negative helicity), respectively. As the sphere shifts off the beam's axis, the axial pulling (tractor) force is weakened. Moreover, the transverse radiation force cross-section field changes with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on the choice of ka and the half-cone angle α0. These results are particularly important in the development of emergent technologies for the photophoretic assembly of optically-engineered (meta)materials with designed properties using optical tractor (vortex) beams, particle manipulation, levitation and positioning, and other applications.

  16. Simulating Transient Effects of Pulsed Beams on Beam Intercepting Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Herta; Noah Messomo, Etam

    2011-01-01

    The development in the physics community towards higher beam power through the possibilities of particle accelerators lead to challenges for the developers of elements which are exposed to effect of particle beams (beam intercepting devices = BIDs). For the design of BIDs, the increasing heat load onto these devices due to energetic and focused beams and - in most cases - their highly pulsed nature has to be taken into account. The physics requirements are sometimes opposed to the current state of the art. As one possibility of many in combining the different aspects for these ambitious demands, two highly developed computer programs, namely FLUKA and ANSYS AUTODYN, were joined for this dissertation. The former is a widely enhanced Monte-Carlo-code which specializes on the interaction of particles with static matter, while the latter is a versatile explicit code for the simulation of highly dynamic processes. Both computer programs were developed intensively over years and are still continuously enhanced in o...

  17. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: 1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and 2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1000 .mu.m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 .mu.m diameter of laser drilling.

  18. Beam Instrumentation for the Single Electron DAFNE Beam Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzitelli, G; Valente, P; Vescovi, M

    2003-01-01

    The DAΦNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) has been successfully commissioned in February 2002, and started operation in November of the same year. Although the BTF is a beam transfer line optimized for single particle production, mainly for high energy detectors calibration, it can provide electrons and positrons in a wide range of multiplicity: between 1-1010, with energies from a few tens of MeV up to 800 MeV. The large multiplicity range requires many different diagnostic devices, from high-energy calorimeters and ionization/fluorescence chambers in the few particles range, to standard beam diagnostics systems. The schemes of operation, the commissioning results, as well as the beam diagnostics are presented.

  19. Beam stability at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, T

    2012-01-01

    The two-beam acceleration tested at CTF3 imposes very tight tolerances on the drive beam stability. A description of the specialized monitoring tool developed to identify the drifts and jitter in the machine is presented. It compares all the relevant signals in an on-line manner to help the operator to identify drifts and to log data for off-line analysis. The main sources for the drifts of the drive beam have been identified and their causes are described. A feedback applied to the RF was implemented to reduce the effects. It works by changing the waveform for the pulse compression to compensate for the drifts.

  20. Beam Transfer and Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    Beam transfer, such as injection into or extraction from an accelerator, is one of the most critical moments in terms of machine protection in a high-intensity machine. Special equipment is used and machine protection aspects have to be taken into account in the design of the beam transfer concepts. A brief introduction of the principles of beam transfer and the equipment involved will be given in this lecture. The main concepts of machine protection for injection and extraction will be presented, with examples from the CERN SPS and LHC.

  1. Photoelectron photoion molecular beam spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevor, D.J.

    1980-12-01

    The use of supersonic molecular beams in photoionization mass spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy to assist in the understanding of photoexcitation in the vacuum ultraviolet is described. Rotational relaxation and condensation due to supersonic expansion were shown to offer new possibilities for molecular photoionization studies. Molecular beam photoionization mass spectroscopy has been extended above 21 eV photon energy by the use of Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) facilities. Design considerations are discussed that have advanced the state-of-the-art in high resolution vuv photoelectron spectroscopy. To extend gas-phase studies to 160 eV photon energy, a windowless vuv-xuv beam line design is proposed.

  2. Beam-Beam Simulations with GUINEA-PIG

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    While the bunches in a linear collider cross only once, due to their small size they experience a strong beam-beam effect. GUINEA-PIG is a code to simulate the impact of this effect on luminosity and back ground. A short overview of the program is given with examples of its application to the back ground strudies for TESLA, the top quark threshold scan and a possible luminosity monitor, as well as some results for CLIC.

  3. Observations and open questions in beam-beam interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The first of the hadron colliders, ISR, started operation in 1970. In the following years, the hadron colliders to follow were the SPS (started 1980), the Tevatron (started 1987 first as a fixed target machine), RHIC (started 2000) and most recently the LHC, which started in 2008. HERA was a hybrid that collided electrons and protons. All of these accelerators had or have their performance limited by the effects of the beam-beam interactions. That has also been true for the electron-positron colliders such as LEP, CESR, KEKB and PEPII. In this article I will discuss how the beam-beam limitations arose in some of these machines. The discussion will be focused on common themes that span the different colliders. I will mostly discuss the hadron colliders but sometimes discuss the lepton colliders where relevant. Only a handful of common accelerator physics topics are chosen here, the list is not meant to be exhaustive. A comparative review of beam-beam performance in the ISR, SPS and Tevatron (ca 1989) can be found in reference. Table 1 shows the relevant parameters of colliders (excluding the LHC), which have accelerated protons.

  4. Experimental observations and theoretical models for beam-beam phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheifets, S.

    1981-03-01

    The beam-beam interaction in storage rings exhibits all the characteristics of nonintegrable dynamical systems. Here one finds all kinds of resonances, closed orbits, stable and unstable fixed points, stochastic layers, chaotic behavior, diffusion, etc. The storage ring itself being an expensive device nevertheless while constructed and put into operation presents a good opportunity of experimentally studying the long-time behavior of both conservative (proton machines) and nonconservative (electron machines) dynamical systems - the number of bunch-bunch interactions routinely reaches values of 10/sup 10/-10/sup 11/ and could be increased by decreasing the beam current. At the same time the beam-beam interaction puts practical limits for the yield of the storage ring. This phenomenon not only determines the design value of main storage ring parameters (luminosity, space charge parameters, beam current), but also in fact prevents many of the existing storage rings from achieving design parameters. Hence, the problem has great practical importance along with its enormous theoretical interest. A brief overview of the problem is presented.

  5. Test Beam Coordination: 2003 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Girolamo, B.

    The 2003 Test Beam Period The 2003 Test Beam period has been very fruitful for ATLAS. In spite of several days lost because of the accelerator problems, ATLAS has been able to achieve many results: FCAL has completed the calibration program in H6 Tilecal has completed the calibration program in H8 Pixel has performed extensive studies with normal and high intensity beams (up to 1.4*108 hadrons/spill) SCT has completed a variety of studies with quite a high number of modules operated concurrently TRT has performed several studies at high, low and very low energy (first use of the new H8 beam in the range 1 to 9 GeV) Muons (MDT,RPC and TGC) have been operating a large setup for about 5 months. The almost final MDT ROD (MROD) has been integrated in the readout and the final trigger electronics for TGC and RPC has been tested and certified with normal beam and during dedicated 40 MHz beam periods. The TDAQ has exploited a new generation prototype successfully and the new Event Filter infrastructure f...

  6. RIKEN RI Beam Factory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Yasushige; Goto, Akira; Katayama, Takeshi [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The RARF proposes `RIKEN RI Beam Factory` as a next facility-expanding project. The factory makes it the primary aim to provide RI (Radioactive Isotope) beams covering over the whole atomic-mass range with the world-highest intensity in a wide energy range up to several hundreds MeV/nucleon. These RI beams are generated by the fragmentation of high-intensity heavy-ion beams. For the efficient production heavy-ion energies will be boosted up to over 100 MeV/nucleon even for very heavy ions by a K2500-MeV superconducting ring cyclotron serving as a post accelerator of the existing K540-MeV ring cyclotron. A new type of experimental installation called `MUSES` (Multi-USe Experimental Storage rings) will be constructed as well. With MUSES, various types of unique colliding experiments will become possible. (author)

  7. Electrostatic beam-position monitor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    Electrostatic beam-position monitor installed in its final location (bake-out cover removed). The ISR will contain about 110 of these monitors. Their accuracy is better than 1 mm, their band width about 1 MHz.

  8. Center for Beam Physics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report contains the following information on the center for beam physics: Facilities; Organizational Chart; Roster; Profiles of Staff; Affiliates; Center Publications (1991--1993); and 1992 Summary of Activities.

  9. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.

  10. STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.

    2005-05-16

    Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

  11. LHC beam loss pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Marsili, A; Puzo, P

    2011-01-01

    One of the systems protecting CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the Beam Loss Monitoring system (BLM). More than 3600 monitors are installed around the ring. The beam losses are permanently integrated over 12 different time intervals (from 40 microseconds to 84 seconds). When any loss exceeds the thresholds defined for the integration window, the beam is removed from the machine. Understanding the origin of a beam loss is crucial for machine operation, as it can help to avoid a repetition of the same scenario. The signals read from given monitors can be considered as entries of a vector. This article presents how a loss map of unknown cause can be decomposed using vector based analysis derived from well-known loss scenarios. The algorithms achieving this decomposition are described, as well as the accuracy of the results.

  12. Libera Electron Beam Position Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Ursic, Rok

    2005-01-01

    Libera is a product family delivering unprecedented possibilities for either building powerful single station solutions or architecting complex feedback systems in the field of accelerator instrumentation and controls. This paper presents functionality and field performance of its first member, the electron beam position processor. It offers superior performance with multiple measurement channels delivering simultaneously position measurements in digital format with MHz kHz and Hz bandwidths. This all-in-one product, facilitating pulsed and CW measurements, is much more than simply a high performance beam position measuring device delivering micrometer level reproducibility with sub-micrometer resolution. Rich connectivity options and innate processing power make it a powerful feedback building block. By interconnecting multiple Libera electron beam position processors one can build a low-latency high throughput orbit feedback system without adding additional hardware. Libera electron beam position processor ...

  13. Squid based beam current meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1983-11-25

    A SQUID based beam current meter has the capability of measuring the current of a beam with as little as 30 x 155 antiprotons (with a signal to noise ratio of 2). If low noise dc current is used to cancel most of the beam or an up-down counter is used to count auto-resets this sensitivity will be available at any time in the acumulation process. This current meter will therefore be a unique diagnostic tool for optimizing the performance of several Tev I components. Besides requiring liquid helium it seems that its only drawback is not to follow with the above sensitivity a sudden beam change larger than 16 ..mu..A, something that could be done using a second one in a less sensitive configuration.

  14. Monitor of SC beam profiles

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution secondary emission grid for the measurement of SC beam profiles. Modern techniques of metal-ceramic bonding, developed for micro-electronics, have been used in its construction. (See Annual Report 1977 p. 105 Fig. 12.)

  15. Electrostatic ion beam scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, G.C.; Curtis, W.D.

    1978-04-01

    An electrostatic scanning system has been designed and built to uniformly implant a 1 cm/sup 2/ sample with a charged particle beam. The full angular scan capability for a 2 MeV beam is 0.5 degrees at 6 kV p-p. The design of the system is extremely simple so it is very compact, easy to operate, and has shown very good reliability.

  16. Ultraviolet Photodissociation of Molecular Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-15

    Continue on reerse side if neceesry and identify by block number) Photodissociation , excimer laser, nitrocompounds, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide ...4 ULTRAVIOLET PHOTODISSOCIATION OF MOLECULAR BEAMS. * TYPE OF REPORT (TECHNICAL, FINAL, ETC.) FINAL REPOT OR PERIOD 0/01/77 - 9/30/80 AUTHOR (S... Photodissociation of Final report for period 10/01/77 - 9/30/80 Molecular Beams 6. PERFORMIN, CRG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) R

  17. Parameter estimation in truss beams using Timoshenko beam model with damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C. T.; Juang, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    Truss beams with members having viscous damping are modeled with a Timoshenko beam. Procedures for deriving the equivalent bending rigidity, transverse shear rigidity, and damping are presented. Explicit expressions for these equivalent beam properties are obtained for a specific truss beam. The beam model thus established is then used to investigate the effect of damping in free vibration. Finally, the beam is employed in the estimation of structural parameters in a simply-supported truss beam using a random search algorithm.

  18. Airy beam optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Chaitanya, N Apurv; Jabir, M V; Vaity, Pravin; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2016-05-04

    Airy beam, a non-diffracting waveform, has peculiar properties of self-healing and self-acceleration. Due to such unique properties, the Airy beam finds many applications including curved plasma wave-guiding, micro-particle manipulation, optically mediated particle clearing, long distance communication, and nonlinear frequency conversion. However, many of these applications including laser machining of curved structures, generation of curved plasma channels, guiding of electric discharges in a curved path, study of nonlinear propagation dynamics, and nonlinear interaction demand Airy beam with high power, energy, and wavelength tunability. Till date, none of the Airy beam sources have all these features in a single device. Here, we report a new class of coherent sources based on cubic phase modulation of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing high-power, continuous-wave (cw), tunable radiation in 2-D Airy intensity profile existing over a length >2 m. Based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal pumped at 1064 nm, the Airy beam OPO produces output power more than 8 W, and wavelength tunability across 1.51-1.97 μm. This demonstration gives new direction for the development of sources of arbitrary structured beams at any wavelength, power, and energy in all time scales (cw to femtosecond).

  19. The ELENA Beam Diagnostics Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G

    2013-01-01

    The Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) to be built at CERN is aimed at substantially increasing the number of antiprotons to the low energy antiproton physics community. It will be a small machine which will decelerate low intensity beams (<4x107) from 5.3 MeV to 100 keV and will be equipped with an electron cooler to avoid beam losses during the deceleration and to significantly reduce beam phase space at extraction. To measure the beam parameters from the extraction point of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), through the ELENA ring and all the way to the experiments, many systems will be needed to ensure that the desired beam characteristics are obtained. Particular attention needs to be paid to the performance of the electron cooler which depends on reliable instrumentation in order to efficiently cool the antiprotons. This contribution will present the different monitors that have been proposed to measure the various beam parameters as well as some of the developments going on to further improve th...

  20. The logarithmic beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedko, Evgeny A.; Smith, Stephen R.

    2000-11-01

    Modern logarithmic amplifiers offer wide dynamic range, high bandwidth, good logarithmic conformance, and low cost making them attractive for beam position measurements. A log-ratio beam position monitor has been designed and built at SLAC for use at the PEP-II B-Factory. An integrated circuit logarithmic amplifier from Analog Devices, the AD8307, recovers the envelope of the 476 MHz harmonic of the beam signal. A log BPM board with two logarithmic and one differential amplifier performs the basic function of forming an output voltage proportional to the difference of the logarithms of the signal amplitudes on opposite electrodes. This voltage is approximately linear with beam position. For this application, we have limited the video bandwidth of the log amps to 50 kHz in order to remove fill pattern dependence. The log BPM board has an interface for testing and simulating beam offsets. The log BPMs were developed for a PEP-II ring protection chassis. Here the log BPMs function to identify dangerous orbit excursions. These excursions are signaled to a system, which can dump the beam. Two such chassis serve to protect the PEP-II rings.

  1. Beam-Beam Effects in the Ring-Ring Version of eRHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Jack; Wang, Dong; Wang, Fuhua

    2005-01-01

    The eRHIC is a proposed electron ring at the RHIC that will provide collisions between a polarized 5-10 GeV electron beam and an ion beam from one of the RHIC rings. In order to achieve proposed high luminosity, large bunch current and small beta-functions at the IP has to be employed. Such measures result in large beam-beam parameters, 0.029 and 0.08 for the electron beam and 0.0065 and 0.0033 for the proton beam in the horizontal and vertical plane, respectively, in the current ZDR design. The beam-beam effect especially the coherent beam-beam effect is therefore one of important issues to the eRHIC. Moreover, the proposed configuration of unequal circumferences of the electron and proton rings could further enhance the coherent beam-beam effect. The beam-beam effect of eRHIC has therefore been studied with a self-consistent beam-beam simulation by using the particle-in-cell method. Beam-beam limits of the electron and proton beam were examined as thresholds of the onset of coherent beam-beam instability. F...

  2. Damage Detection In Laboratory Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning;

    1995-01-01

    : a beam with a typical reinforcement ratio, and a beam with a small reinforcement ratio. The modal properties of the beams were found exciting the beams by a series of pulses and identifying the properties using ARMA and ARMAX models. It was found, that extremely small damages could be detected...

  3. Damage Detection in Laboratory Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning;

    : a beam with a typical reinforcement ratio, and a beam with a small reinforcement ratio. The modal properties of the beams were found exciting the beams by a series of pulses and identifying the properties using ARMA and ARMAX models. It was found, that extremely small damages could be detected...

  4. BEAM SCRUBBING FOR RHIC POLARIZED PROTON RUN.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,S.Y.FISCHER,W.HUANG,H.ROSER,T.

    2004-07-05

    One of the intensity limiting factor of RHIC polarized proton beam is the electron cloud induced pressure rise. A beam scrubbing study shows that with a reasonable period of time of running high intensity 112-bunch proton beam, the pressure rise can be reduced, allowing higher beam intensity.

  5. KTeV beam systems design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocean, V.; Childress, S.; Coleman, R. [and others

    1997-09-01

    The primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E799-II and E832 are discussed. The specifications are presented and justified. The technical details of the implementation of the primary beam transport and stability are detailed. The target, beam dump, and radiation safety issues are discussed. The details of the collimation system for the pair of secondary beams are presented.

  6. Electron optics of microlenses with inclined beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Barth, J.E.; Kruit, P.

    2008-01-01

    For multielectron beam systems with a single electron source, the outside beams need to be collimated before entering the individual microcolumns. As an alternative of the traditional multibeam source design where the broad beam from the source is collimated by a single lens, the broad beam can be f

  7. Numerical Value Results OF Guassian Beam Focussing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.X. He; Alan Chow; Jiada Mo; Wang Zhuo

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1Lens is placed in beam waist We consider the case of a Gaussian beam that is incident at its waist on a thin lens of focal length f.To find the location of the waist of the output beam and the beam radius at that point,we start with the ABCD law.

  8. Luminosity Loss due to Beam Distortion and the Beam-Beam Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, Tor O; Seryi, Andrei; Sramek, Christopher K

    2005-01-01

    In a linear collider, sources of emittance dilution such as transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will couple the vertical phase space to the longitudinal position within the beam (the so-called ‘banana effect'). When the Intersection Point (IP) disruption parameter is large, these beam distortions will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. We study this phenomena both analytically using linear theory and via numerical simulation. In particular, we examine the dependence of the luminosity loss on the wavelength of the beam distortions and the disruption parameter. This analysis may prove useful when optimizing the vertical disruption parameter for luminosity operation with given beam distortions.

  9. Detection of Equipment Faults Before Beam Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Galambos, J

    2016-01-01

    High-power hadron accelerators have strict limits on fractional beam loss. In principle, once a high-quality beam is set up in an acceptable state, beam loss should remain steady. However, in practice, there are many trips in operational machines, owing to excessive beam loss. This paper deals with monitoring equipment health to identify precursor signals that indicate an issue with equipment that will lead to unacceptable beam loss. To this end, a variety of equipment and beam signal measurements are described. In particular, several operational examples from the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) of deteriorating equipment functionality leading to beam loss are reported.

  10. Induced focusing and conversion of a Gaussian beam into an elliptic Gaussian beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Mishra; Swapan Konar

    2005-09-01

    We have presented an investigation of the induced focusing in Kerr media of two laser beams, the pump beam and the probe beam, which could be either Gaussian or elliptic Gaussian or a combination of the two. We have used variational formalism to derive relevant beam-width equations. Among several important findings, the finding that a very week probe beam can be guided and focused when power of both beams are well below their individual threshold for self-focusing, is a noteworthy one. It has been found that induced focusing is not possible for laser beams of any wavelength and beam radius. In case both beams are elliptic Gaussian, we have shown that when power of both beams is above a certain threshold value then the effective radius of both beams collapses and collapse distance depends on power. Moreover, it has been found that induced focusing can be employed to convert a circular Gaussian beam into an elliptic Gaussian beam.

  11. Fractal zone plate beam based optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shubo; Zhang, Xinyu; Ma, Wenzhuo; Tao, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate optical manipulation with an optical beam generated by a fractral zone plate (FZP). The experimental results show that the FZP beam can simultaneously trap multiple particles positioned in different focal planes of the FZP beam, owing to the multiple foci and self-reconstruction property of the FZP beam. The FZP beam can also be used to construct three-dimensional optical tweezers for potential applications. PMID:27678305

  12. Non-paraxial Elliptical Gaussian Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhaoying; LIN Qiang; NI Jie

    2001-01-01

    By using the methods of Hertz vector and angular spectrum transormation, the exact solution of non-paraxial elliptical Gaussion beam with general astigmatism based on Maxwell′s equations is obtained. We discussed its propagation characteristics. The results show that the orientation of the elliptical beam spot changes continuously as the beam propagates through isotropic media. Splitting or coupling of beam spots may occur for different initial spot size. This is very different from that of paraxial elliptical Gaussian beam.

  13. MTN magnet for the SPS extracted beam.

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    This type of dipole magnet was used in the extracted beam lines of the North Area. It shows an opening for three different proton beam lines: a primary extracted proton beam, split by an upstream magnetic beam splitter (see photo 7612017) into three separated beams passes through different parts of its aperture: right, left up, left down. These magnets were designed to be concrete-insulated for radiation resistance. F. Streun stands on the right.

  14. Revised data taking schedule with ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, Marek; Aduszkiewicz, A; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brzychczyk, J; Bubak, A; Bunyatov, S A; Choi, K U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Cleymans, J; Derkach, D A; Diakonos, F; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Feofilov, G A; Fodor, Z; Ferrero, A; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Grzeszczuk, A; Guber, F; Hasegawa, T; Haungs, A; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kisiel, J; Kobayashi, T; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kolevatov, R S; Kondratiev, V P; Kowalski, S; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Laszlo, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Majka, Z; I Malakhov, A; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mijakowski, P; Mitrovski, M; Montaruli, T; Mrówczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nikolic, V; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Röhrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovskii, A; Sakashita, K; Schuster, T; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shibata, M; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Szuba, M; Tada, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Zipper, W; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the revised data taking schedule of NA61 with ion beams. The revision takes into account limitations due to the new LHC schedule as well as final results concerning the physics performance with secondary ion beams. It is proposed to take data with primary Ar and Xe beams in 2012 and 2014, respectively, and to test and use for physics a secondary B beam from primary Pb beam fragmentation in 2010, 2011 and 2013.

  15. Beam Impedance Studies of the PS Beam Gas Ionization Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Avgidis, Fotios

    2016-01-01

    The Beam Gas Ionization monitor (BGI) is a device for continuous beam size monitoring that is intended to be installed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) during the extended year-end technical stop from December 2016 to April 2017. With the objective of determining the impedance contribution of the BGI vacuum chamber to the overall beam impedance, we report on RF measurements on the device in a laboratory frame, measurement data analysis, and RF simulations of the structure under investigation. For the impedance contribution characterization of the BGI, the following approach has been followed: First, the EM fields inside a simplified BGI model that doesn’t include any of the internal components of the vacuum chamber have been simulated. RF measurements have been performed on the same empty structure showing great agreement between measurement and simulation and thus verifying the validity of the model. Second, simulations have been executed on a fully assembled BGI model that includes all the internal ele...

  16. Beam Measurements in Storage Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Albert

    1996-05-01

    Beam measurements in storage rings are made to diagnose performance limitations and to gain knowledge of the beam behavior in view of improvements and to the benefit for other machines. In beam optics the measurement of the orbit or the trajectory with beam position monitors distributed around the ring reveals deflection errors. The overall focusing is checked by measuring the betatron frequency (tune) using a pulse or continuous excitation of the oscillation. Observing this oscillation with all the beam position monitors around the ring the beta function and the betatron phase advance are obtained. This measurement done for different momenta, i.e. RF-frequencies, gives the local chromaticity and its correction. The tune dependence on quadrupole strength gives the value of the local beta function. Synchrotron radiation is a powerful diagnostics tool and can give the beam cross section. Beam instabilities are investigated with similar methods. The growth or damping rates and frequencies of betatron and synchrotron oscillations, observed as a function of intensity, give a convolution of the resistive and reactive part of the transverse and longitudinal impedance with the spectrum of the oscillation mode. Coupled bunch instabilities are caused by narrow band impedances at particular frequencies while single traversal effects, including energy loss and bunch lengthening, are due to a broad band impedance. A model of the impedance can be constructed from such measurements done with different bunch lengths, tunes and other parameters. In some cases the element causing an instability can be identified. The dependence of the orbit and phase advance around the ring on intensity can give the location of impedances. To probe the impedance at very high frequencies the effects on very short bunches or the energy loss of a continuous beam due to its Schottky noise are measured. The beam energy, usually known from magnetic measurements, can be obtained directly with high

  17. Electron beam pumped semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Electron-beam-pumped semiconductor ultra-violet optical sources (ESUVOSs) are disclosed that use ballistic electron pumped wide bandgap semiconductor materials. The sources may produce incoherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped light emitting triodes (ELETs). The sources may produce coherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped laser triodes (ELTs). The ELTs may take the form of electron-beam-pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (EVCSEL) or edge emitting electron-beam-pumped lasers (EEELs). The semiconductor medium may take the form of an aluminum gallium nitride alloy that has a mole fraction of aluminum selected to give a desired emission wavelength, diamond, or diamond-like carbon (DLC). The sources may be produced from discrete components that are assembled after their individual formation or they may be produced using batch MEMS-type or semiconductor-type processing techniques to build them up in a whole or partial monolithic manner, or combination thereof.

  18. The ATLAS beam conditions monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Mikuz, M; Dolenc, I; Kagan, H; Kramberger, G; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gorisek, A; Griesmayer, E; Mandic, I; Pernegger, H; Trischuk, W; Weilhammer, P; Zavrtanik, M

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS beam conditions monitor is being developed as a stand-alone device allowing to separate LHC collisions from background events induced either on beam gas or by beam accidents, for example scraping at the collimators upstream the spectrometer. This separation can be achieved by timing coincidences between two stations placed symmetric around the interaction point. The 25 ns repetition of collisions poses very stringent requirements on the timing resolution. The optimum separation between collision and background events is just 12.5 ns implying a distance of 3.8 m between the two stations. 3 ns wide pulses are required with 1 ns rise time and baseline restoration in 10 ns. Combined with the radiation field of 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ in 10 years of LHC operation only diamond detectors are considered suitable for this task. pCVD diamond pad detectors of 1 cm/sup 2/ and around 500 mum thickness were assembled with a two-stage RF current amplifier and tested in proton beam at MGH, Boston and SPS pion beam at...

  19. Active beam spectroscopy for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Hellermann, M.; Giroud, C.; Jaspers, R. [Association Euratom-Fom, FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Trilateral Euregio Cluster (Netherlands); Hawkes, N.C.; Mullane, M.O.; Zastrow, K.D. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Krasilnikov, A.; Tugarinov, S. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Lotte, P. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; McKee, G. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Malaquias, A. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Rachlew, E. [Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan (KTH), Stockholm(Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    The latest status of 'Active Beam' related spectroscopy aspects as part of the ITER diagnostic scenario is presented. A key issue of the proposed scheme is based on the concept that in order to achieve the ultimate goal of global data consistency, all particles involved, that is, intrinsic and seeded impurity ions as well as helium ash ions and bulk plasma ions and also the plasma background data (e.g. magnetic and electric fields, electron density and temperature profiles) need to be addressed. A further sensible step in this direction is the decision of exploiting both a dedicated low-energy, low-power diagnostic beam (DNB, 2.2 MW 100 keV/amu) as well as the high-power, high-energy heating beams (HNB, 17 MW 500 keV/amu) for maximum diagnostic information. The authors report some new aspects referring to the use of DNB for motional Stark effect (MSE) where the main idea is to treat both beams (HNB and DNB) as potential diagnostic tools with complementary roles. The equatorial ports for the DNB promise excellent spatial resolution, however, the angles are less favourable for a polarimetric MSE exploitation. HNB can be used as probe beam for diagnosing slowing-down fusion alpha with a birth energy of 3,5 MeV.

  20. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)