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Sample records for antineoplastic protocols

  1. A study protocol for the evaluation of occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic risks in subjects exposed to antineoplastic drugs: a multicentric project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelatti Umberto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some industrial hygiene studies have assessed occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs; other epidemiological investigations have detected various toxicological effects in exposure groups labeled with the job title. In no research has the same population been studied both environmentally and epidemiologically. The protocol of the epidemiological study presented here uses an integrated environmental and biological monitoring approach. The aim is to assess in hospital nurses preparing and/or administering therapy to cancer patients the current level of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, DNA and chromosome damage as cancer predictive effects, and the association between the two. Methods/Design About 80 healthy non-smoking female nurses, who job it is to prepare or handle antineoplastic drugs, and a reference group of about 80 healthy non-smoking female nurses not occupationally exposed to chemicals will be examined simultaneously in a cross-sectional study. All the workers will be recruited from five hospitals in northern and central Italy after their informed consent has been obtained. Evaluation of surface contamination and dermal exposure to antineoplastic drugs will be assessed by determining cyclophosphamide on selected surfaces (wipes and on the exposed nurses' clothes (pads. The concentration of unmetabolized cyclophosphamide as a biomarker of internal dose will be measured in end-shift urine samples from exposed nurses. Biomarkers of effect and susceptibility will be assessed in exposed and unexposed nurses: urinary concentration of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine; DNA damage detected using the single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet assay in peripheral white blood cells; micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Genetic polymorphisms for enzymes involved in metabolic detoxification (i.e. glutathione S-transferases will also be analysed. Using standardized questionnaires

  2. Antineoplastic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadée, Wolfgang; El Sayed, Yousry Mahmoud

    The limited scope of therapeutic drug-level monitoring in cancer chemotherapy results from the often complex biochemical mechanisms that contribute to antineoplastic activity and obscure the relationships among drug serum levels and therapeutic benefits. Moreover, new agents for cancer chemotherapy are being introduced at a more rapid rate than for the treatment of other diseases, although the successful application of therapeutic drug-level monitoring may require several years of intensive study of the significance of serum drug levels. However, drug level monitoring can be of considerable value during phase I clinical trials of new antineoplastic agents in order to assess drug metabolism, bioavailability, and intersubject variability; these are important parameters in the interpretation of clinical studies, but have no immediate benefit to the patient. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) probably represents the most versatile and easily adaptable analytical technique for drug metabolite screening (1). HPLC may therefore now be the method of choice during phase I clinical trials of antineoplastic drugs. For example, within a single week we developed an HPLC assay—using a C18 reverse-phase column, UV detection, and direct serum injection after protein precipitation—for the new radiosensitizer, misonidazole (2).

  3. Thyroid Dysfunction from Antineoplastic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, P. Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%–50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

  4. Antineoplastic treatment of patients with renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajec, J.; Mego, M.; Rajec, J.

    2011-01-01

    Kidneys are the main route of elimination for many antineoplastic drugs and their metabolites. The kidney dysfunction may lead to the drug cumulation in organism with the resulting increased systemic toxicity. A lot of used cytostatics requires a dose modification at different levels of renal insufficiency. Due to the lack of data from clinical trials, the limiting of systemic toxicity is difficult especially in patients with severe renal impairment or patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The following article is focused on the preventive strategies dealing with recommended dosing modification of various antineoplastic agents in patients with renal insufficiency. (author)

  5. Isolation and characterization of antineoplastic alkaloids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antineoplastic alkaloids; vinblastine and vincristine, were isolated by the use of vacuum liquid chromatographic column on silica gel : aluminium oxide (1:1) mixed bed vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC), Charcoal column, and finally purified by centrifugally accelerated radial chromatography (Chromatotrone).

  6. Non-Invasive Markers of Tumor Growth, Metastases, and Sensitivity to Anti-Neoplastic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    breast cancer (21), the detection of an antineoplastic agent Iproplatin in murine RIF-1 tumors (27), and for detecting early response to cyclophospha...conducted in com- pliance with protocols approved by the animal care pro- tocols in Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Phantom Preparation A two... manipulating the slice gradient profile, this binomial pulse acts as a spectral- spatial pulse, although higher-order binomial pulses are desirable for

  7. Serine deprivation enhances antineoplastic activity of biguanides.

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    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Hulea, Laura; Toban, Nader; Birman, Elena; Blouin, Marie-José; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Zhao, Yunhua; Topisirovic, Ivan; St-Pierre, Julie; Pollak, Michael

    2014-12-15

    Metformin, a biguanide widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes, clearly exhibits antineoplastic activity in experimental models and has been reported to reduce cancer incidence in diabetics. There are ongoing clinical trials to evaluate its antitumor properties, which may relate to its fundamental activity as an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. Here, we show that serine withdrawal increases the antineoplastic effects of phenformin (a potent biguanide structurally related to metformin). Serine synthesis was not inhibited by biguanides. Instead, metabolic studies indicated a requirement for serine to allow cells to compensate for biguanide-induced decrease in oxidative phosphorylation by upregulating glycolysis. Furthermore, serine deprivation modified the impact of metformin on the relative abundance of metabolites within the citric acid cycle. In mice, a serine-deficient diet reduced serine levels in tumors and significantly enhanced the tumor growth-inhibitory actions of biguanide treatment. Our results define a dietary manipulation that can enhance the efficacy of biguanides as antineoplastic agents that target cancer cell energy metabolism. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine

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    Carmen Aceves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In addition to being a component of thyroid hormone (TH, iodine can be an antioxidant as well as an antiproliferative and differentiation agent that helps to maintain the integrity of several organs with the ability to take up iodine.Methods and Results: Studies from our laboratory shown that in preclinical (cell culture, induced animal cancer and xenographs and clinical studies (mammary cancer protocol, molecular iodine (I2 supplementation exerts suppressive effects on implantation, development, and progression of cancer neoplasias. These effects can be mediated by a variety of mechanisms and pathways, including direct actions, in which the oxidized iodine modulates the immune/tumor response and through iodolipid formation and the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type gamma (PPARγ triggering apoptotic and/or differentiation pathways.Conclusion: The absence of side effects and the easy availability and handling of I2 have allowed the establishment of clinical protocols to utilize I2 supplementation as an adjuvant in therapies against cancers that take up iodine.-----------------------------------------Cite this article as:  Aceves C, Anguiano B. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:3401.[This abstract was presented at the BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress, which was held from May 15-17, 2015 in Beijing, China.

  9. Glycaemic adverse drug reactions from anti-neoplastics used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    235625 records ... Glycaemic adverse drug reactions from anti-neoplastics used in treating pancreatic cancer. ... Based on the emphasized nine antineoplastic drugs with high hyperglycemic ADR incidence, we found: fluorouracil, sorafenib and pemetrexed with high ADR record of metabolism and nutrition disorders; ...

  10. Nurses with dermal exposure to antineoplastic drugs: Reproductive outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Roeleveld, N.; Peelen, S.; Kort, W.de; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nurses and other hospital workers are exposed to antineoplastic drugs during daily activities. Previous studies suggest that antineoplastic drugs at occupational exposure levels may be toxic to reproduction, but these studies are not consistent or conclusive. METHODS: Self-administered

  11. Glycaemic Adverse Drug Reactions from Anti-Neoplastics Used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... in cancer treatment. The aim was to analyze the blood glucose‑related ADR of antineoplastics in treating pancreatic cancer. Materials and Methods: .... Figure 2: Record numbers on general adverse drug reactions (metabolism and nutrition disorder ratio = metabolism and nutrition disorder/total number.

  12. Glycaemic Adverse Drug Reactions from Anti-Neoplastics Used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... Hyperglycemia is one of the severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in cancer treatment. The aim was to analyze the blood glucose‑related ADR of ... can be suggested. Keywords: Adverse drug reaction, antineoplastic, hyperglycemia, pancreatic cancer, VigiBase. Glycaemic Adverse Drug Reactions from ...

  13. Inhalation and dermal exposure to eight antineoplastic drugs in an industrial laundry facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransman, Wouter; Huizer, Daan; Tuerk, Jochen; Kromhout, Hans

    2007-04-01

    The aims of the study were to quantify levels of dermal and inhalation exposure to antineoplastic drugs in an industrial laundry service in the Netherlands and to test the removal efficiency of the washing procedure for removal of antineoplastic drugs. During four workdays dermal and inhalation exposure to eight frequently used antineoplastic drugs (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, cytarabine, gemcitabine and chlorambucil) were measured for all job titles involved in handling unwashed laundry. To test the removal efficiency of the washing procedure, 10 x 10 cm sections were excised before and after the washing procedure. These sections were taken from 15 bed sheets that were collected in hospitals of patients who were treated with one of the selected antineoplastic drugs. During none of the four measurement days, detectable levels of any of the eight antineoplastic drugs (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, cytarabine, gemcitabine, or chlorambucil) were found on workers' skin of hands or in any of the air samples. Only four out of the 15 bed sheets from patients that were treated with antineoplastic drugs appeared to be contaminated with detectable levels of antineoplastic drugs before the washing procedure (range 13.0-3,060 ng/100 cm(2)). After the pre-washing and after the complete washing procedure, no detectable levels of any of the eight antineoplastic drugs were found anymore in the selected bed sheets. The implementation of guidelines for working with antineoplastic drugs seems to be successful in reducing exposure to antineoplastic drugs of workers in this laundry facility to an acceptable, non-detectable level and to remove antineoplastic drug contamination from bed linen.

  14. Antineoplastic effects of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatka, Peter; Kapinová, Andrea; Kružliak, Peter; Kello, Martin; Výbohová, Desanka; Kajo, Karol; Novák, Miroslav; Chripková, Martina; Adamkov, Marián; Péč, Martin; Mojžiš, Ján; Bojková, Bianka; Kassayová, Monika; Stollárová, Nadežda; Dobrota, Dušan

    2015-04-01

    There has been considerable interest in both clinical and preclinical research about the role of phytochemicals in the reduction of risk for cancer in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the antineoplastic effects of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in experimental breast cancer in vivo and in vitro. In this experiment, the antineoplastic effects of C. pyrenoidosa in the chemoprevention of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats were evaluated. Chlorella powder was administered through diet at concentrations of 0.3% and 3%. The experiment was terminated 14 wk after carcinogen administration. At autopsy, mammary tumors were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity assay, parameters of apoptosis, and proliferation after chlorella treatment in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells were carried out. Basic parameters of experimental carcinogenesis, mechanism of action (biomarkers of apoptosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis), chosen metabolic variables, and side effects after long-term chlorella treatment in animals were assessed. Chlorella at higher concentration suppressed tumor frequency by 61% (P chlorella treatment. In a parallel in vitro study, chlorella significantly decreased survival of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In chlorella-treated MCF-7 cells, a significant increase in cells having sub-G0/G1 DNA content and significant increase of early apoptotic and late apoptotic/necrotic cells after annexin V/PI staining assay were found. Decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential and increasing reactive oxygen species generation were observed in the chlorella-treated MCF-7 cells. This study is the first report on the antineoplastic effects of C. pyrenoidosa in experimental breast cancer in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 38297 - Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Preventing Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care Settings in... and provided a list of drugs that were considered hazardous and required special handling. In 2010... Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2012 AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational...

  16. Examining factors that influence the effectiveness of cleaning antineoplastic drugs from drug preparation surfaces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Chua, Prescillia Ps; Danyluk, Quinn; Astrakianakis, George

    2014-06-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs has been documented to result in various adverse health effects. Despite the implementation of control measures to minimize exposure, detectable levels of drug residual are still found on hospital work surfaces. Cleaning these surfaces is considered as one means to minimize the exposure potential. However, there are no consistent guiding principles related to cleaning of contaminated surfaces resulting in hospitals to adopt varying practices. As such, this pilot study sought to evaluate current cleaning protocols and identify those factors that were most effective in reducing contamination on drug preparation surfaces. Three cleaning variables were examined: (1) type of cleaning agent (CaviCide®, Phenokil II™, bleach and chlorhexidine), (2) application method of cleaning agent (directly onto surface or indirectly onto a wipe) and (3) use of isopropyl alcohol after cleaning agent application. Known concentrations of antineoplastic drugs (either methotrexate or cyclophosphamide) were placed on a stainless steel swatch and then, systematically, each of the three cleaning variables was tested. Surface wipes were collected and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine the percent residual of drug remaining (with 100% being complete elimination of the drug). No one single cleaning agent proved to be effective in completely eliminating all drug contamination. The method of application had minimal effect on the amount of drug residual. In general, application of isopropyl alcohol after the use of cleaning agent further reduced the level of drug contamination although measureable levels of drug were still found in some cases.

  17. Effect of solcoseryl on antitumour action and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danysz, A; Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo effect of Solcoseryl on the antitumour activity and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs was examined. It was found that Solcoseryl does not inhibit the antineoplastic effectiveness of the drugs against transplantable P 388 leukaemia in mice. Studies of the effect of Solcoseryl on acute toxicity of selected antineoplastic drugs in mice revealed that the biostimulator could exert a modifying influence. The prior administration of Solcoseryl significantly decreases the acute toxicity of methotrexate but has no effect on acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, increases the acute toxicity of bleomycin and vinblastine and has no effect on acute toxicity of methotrexate and mitoxantron. On the other hand, Solcoseryl administered simultaneously with the antineoplastic drugs increases acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and mitoxantron. The protective effect of the biostimulator noted exclusively against acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil was also observed after multiple administration of this anticancer drug.

  18. Health Care Workers' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors Regarding Antineoplastic Drugs: Survey From British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Teschke, Kay; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although nurses are knowledgeable regarding the risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs, they often do not adhere with safe work practices. However, the knowledge, perceptions, and behavior of other health care job categories at risk of exposure has yet to be determined. This study aimed to survey a range of health care workers from British Columbia, Canada about their knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding antineoplastic drugs. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to participants querying the degree of contact with antineoplastics, knowledge of risks associated with antineoplastics, perceptions of personal risk, previous training with respect to antineoplastics, and safe work practices. Subjects were recruited from health care facilities in and around Vancouver. Fisher's exact tests were performed to ascertain whether there were differences in responses between job categories. We received responses from 120 participants representing seven different job categories. Pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and nurses were more knowledgeable regarding risks than other job categories examined (statistically significant difference). Although 80% of respondents were not afraid of working with or near antineoplastics, there were concerns about the suitability of current control measures and practices employed by co-workers. Only half of respondents felt confident that they could handle all situations where there was a potential for exposure. Only one of the perception questions, self-perceived risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs, differed significantly between job categories. Not all respondents always wore gloves when directly handling antineoplastic drugs. Further, hand hygiene was not regularly practiced after glove usage or after being in an area where antineoplastic drugs are handled. The majority of responses to questions related to safe work practices differed significantly between job categories. Our results suggest that knowledge regarding risks

  19. Dental anomalies in children submitted to antineoplastic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Merida Carrillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the third most frequent cause of death in children in Brazil. Early diagnosis and medical advances have significantly improved treatment outcomes, which has resulted in higher survival rates and the management of late side effects has become increasingly important in caring for these patients. Dental abnormalities are commonly observed as late effects of antineoplastic therapy in the oral cavity. The incidence and severity of the dental abnormalities depend on the child's age at diagnosis and the type of chemotherapeutic agent used, as well as the irradiation dose and area. The treatment duration and aggressivity should also be considered. Disturbances in dental development are characterized by changes in shape, number and root development. Enamel anomalies, such as discoloration, opacities and hypoplasia are also observed in these patients. When severe, these abnormalities can cause functional and esthetic sequelae that have an impact on the children's and adolescents' quality of life. General dentists and pediatric dentists should understand these dental abnormalities and how to identify them aiming for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  20. Antineoplastic Effect of Decoy Oligonucleotide Derived from MGMT Enhancer

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    Refael, Miri; Zrihan, Daniel; Siegal, Tali; Lavon, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Silencing of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) in tumors, mainly through promoter methylation, correlates with a better therapeutic response and with increased survival. Therefore, it is conceivable to consider MGMT as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. Our previous results demonstrated the pivotal role of NF-kappaB in MGMT expression, mediated mainly through p65/NF-kappaB homodimers. Here we show that the non-canonical NF-KappaB motif (MGMT-kappaB1) within MGMT enhancer is probably the major inducer of MGMT expression following NF-kappaB activation. Thus, in an attempt to attenuate the transcription activity of MGMT in tumors we designed locked nucleic acids (LNA) modified decoy oligonucleotides corresponding to the specific sequence of MGMT-kappaB1 (MGMT-kB1-LODN). Following confirmation of the ability of MGMT-kB1-LODN to interfere with the binding of p65/NF-kappaB to the NF-KappaB motif within MGMT enhancer, the efficacy of the decoy was studied in-vitro and in-vivo. The results of these experiments show that the decoy MGMT-kB1-LODN have a substantial antineoplastic effect when used either in combination with temozolomide or as monotherapy. Our results suggest that MGMT-kB1-LODN may provide a novel strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:25460932

  1. Antineoplastic effect of decoy oligonucleotide derived from MGMT enhancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Canello

    Full Text Available Silencing of O(6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT in tumors, mainly through promoter methylation, correlates with a better therapeutic response and with increased survival. Therefore, it is conceivable to consider MGMT as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. Our previous results demonstrated the pivotal role of NF-kappaB in MGMT expression, mediated mainly through p65/NF-kappaB homodimers. Here we show that the non-canonical NF-KappaB motif (MGMT-kappaB1 within MGMT enhancer is probably the major inducer of MGMT expression following NF-kappaB activation. Thus, in an attempt to attenuate the transcription activity of MGMT in tumors we designed locked nucleic acids (LNA modified decoy oligonucleotides corresponding to the specific sequence of MGMT-kappaB1 (MGMT-kB1-LODN. Following confirmation of the ability of MGMT-kB1-LODN to interfere with the binding of p65/NF-kappaB to the NF-KappaB motif within MGMT enhancer, the efficacy of the decoy was studied in-vitro and in-vivo. The results of these experiments show that the decoy MGMT-kB1-LODN have a substantial antineoplastic effect when used either in combination with temozolomide or as monotherapy. Our results suggest that MGMT-kB1-LODN may provide a novel strategy for cancer therapy.

  2. A Novel Insight into the Cardiotoxicity of Antineoplastic Drug Doxorubicin

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    Zbynek Heger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of many types of cancer. Little is known about the interactions of doxorubicin with cardiac biomolecules. Serious cardiotoxicity including dilated cardiomyopathy often resulting in a fatal congestive heart failure may occur as a consequence of chemotherapy with doxorubicin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to doxorubicin on the changes in major amino acids in tissue of cardiac muscle (proline, taurine, glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid, leucine, glycine, valine, alanine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine and serine. An in vitro interaction study was performed as a comparison of amino acid profiles in heart tissue before and after application of doxorubicin. We found that doxorubicin directly influences myocardial amino acid representation even at low concentrations. In addition, we performed an interaction study that resulted in the determination of breaking points for each of analyzed amino acids. Lysine, arginine, β-alanine, valine and serine were determined as the most sensitive amino acids. Additionally we compared amino acid profiles of myocardium before and after exposure to doxorubicin. The amount of amino acids after interaction with doxorubicin was significantly reduced (p = 0.05. This fact points at an ability of doxorubicin to induce changes in quantitative composition of amino acids in myocardium. Moreover, this confirms that the interactions between doxorubicin and amino acids may act as another factor most likely responsible for adverse effects of doxorubicin on myocardium.

  3. Antineoplastic chemotherapy and congenital tooth abnormalities in children and adolescents

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    Ewa Krasuska-Sławińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : Chemotherapeutic treatment in children and adolescents carries a risk of congenital tooth disorders and dentinoma. Study objective is to assess the correlation between tooth abnormalities, early complications of multidrug chemotherapy, and chemotherapeutics used in different antineoplastic therapies in children and adolescents. Material and methods : Enamel defects (developmental defects of enamel index – DDE index and defects in tooth number, size, and structure were assessed clinically and radiologically in 60 patients who underwent chemotherapy on average 4.9 ±3.4 years earlier (PCH, and 60 generally healthy subjects (control group – CG, aged 6–18 years. Höltta’s defect index (DeI was calculated. Medical files provided information on neoplasm type, age at treatment start and chemotherapy duration, chemotherapeutic type and dose, vomiting, and mucositis (CTCAE v4.0. Statistical significance of differences between groups was assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the correlation between dental defects and chemotherapy with Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (significance p ≤ 0.05. Results: Enamel defects, tooth agenesis, microdontia, root resorption, taurodontism, and dentinoma occurred statistically significantly more often in the PCH group. A correlation was established between vincristine use and dose and all types of dental defects; cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and isophosphamide and hypodontia; microdontia, root resorption, and enamel defects; etoposide and cisplatin and microdontia, root resorption, and enamel defects; methotrexate root resorption and enamel defects; carboplatin and dentinoma and enamel defects. Mucositis and vomiting promoted root resorption, microdontia, and enamel defects. Conclusions : Dental defects are related to both the use of respective chemotherapeutics, especially vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and isophosphamide, and to early complications in multidrug

  4. [Blending powdered antineoplastic medicine in disposable ointment container].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Uchino, Tomonobu; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    On dispensing powdered antineoplastic medicines, it is important to prevent cross-contamination and environmental exposure. Recently, we developed a method for blending powdered medicine in a disposable ointment container using a planetary centrifugal mixer. The disposable container prevents cross-contamination. In addition, environmental exposure associated with washing the apparatus does not arise because no blending blade is used. In this study, we aimed to confirm the uniformity of the mixture and weight loss of medicine in the blending procedure. We blended colored lactose powder with Leukerin(®) or Mablin(®) powders using the new method and the ordinary pestle and mortar method. Then, the blending state was monitored using image analysis. Blending variables, such as the blending ratio (1:9-9:1), container size (35-125 mL), and charging rate (20-50%) in the container were also investigated under the operational conditions of 500 rpm and 50 s. At a 20% charging rate in a 35 mL container, the blending precision of the mixtures was not influenced by the blending ratio, and was less than 6.08%, indicating homogeneity. With an increase in the charging rate, however, the blending precision decreased. The possible amount of both mixtures rose to about 17 g with a 20% charging rate in a 125 mL container. Furthermore, weight loss of medicines with this method was smaller than that with the pestle and mortar method, suggesting that this method is safer for pharmacists. In conclusion, we have established a precise and safe method for blending powdered medicines in pharmacies.

  5. Multicenter evaluation of a new closed system drug-transfer device in reducing surface contamination by antineoplastic hazardous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Sylvia B; Tyler, Timothy G; Power, Luci A

    2018-02-15

    Results of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a recently introduced closed system drug-transfer device (CSTD) in reducing surface contamination during compounding and simulated administration of antineoplastic hazardous drugs (AHDs) are reported. Wipe samples were collected from 6 predetermined surfaces in compounding and infusion areas of 13 U.S. cancer centers to establish preexisting levels of surface contamination by 2 marker AHDs (cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil). Stainless steel templates were placed over the 6 previously sampled surfaces, and the marker drugs were compounded and infused per a specific protocol using all components of the CSTD. Wipe samples were collected from the templates after completion of tasks and analyzed for both marker AHDs. Aggregated results of wipe sampling to detect preexisting contamination at the 13 study sites showed that overall, 66.7% of samples (104 of 156) had detectable levels of at least 1 marker AHD; subsequent testing after CSTD use per protocol found a sample contamination rate of 5.8% (9 of 156 samples). In the administration areas alone, the rate of preexisting contamination was 78% (61 of 78 samples); with use of the CSTD protocol, the contamination rate was 2.6%. Twenty-six participants rated the CSTD for ease of use, with 100% indicating that they were satisfied or extremely satisfied. A study involving a rigorous protocol and 13 cancer centers across the United States demonstrated that the CSTD reduced surface contamination by cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil during compounding and simulated administration. Participants reported that the CSTD was easy to use. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anticancer activity of streptochlorin, a novel antineoplastic agent, in cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak TW

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tae Won Kwak,1,* Hee Jae Shin,2,* Young-Il Jeong,1 Myoung-Eun Han,3 Sae-Ock Oh,3 Hyun-Jung Kim,4 Do Hyung Kim,5 Dae Hwan Kang1 1Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, 2Marine Natural Products Chemistry Laboratory, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan, 3Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Gyeongnam, 4Genewel Co Ltd. Gyeonggi-do, 5School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the anticancer activity of streptochlorin, a novel antineoplastic agent, in cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: The anticancer activity of streptochlorin was evaluated in vitro in various cholangiocarcinoma cell lines for apoptosis, proliferation, invasiveness, and expression of various protein levels. A liver metastasis model was prepared by splenic injection of HuCC-T1 cholangiocarcinoma cells using a BALB/c nude mouse model to study the systemic antimetastatic efficacy of streptochlorin 5 mg/kg at 8 weeks. The antitumor efficacy of subcutaneously injected streptochlorin was also assessed using a solid tumor xenograft model of SNU478 cells for 22 days in the BALB/c nude mouse. Results: Streptochlorin inhibited growth and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor by cholangiocarcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in vitro. In addition, streptochlorin effectively inhibited invasion and migration of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cholangiocarcinoma cells were also suppressed by treatment with streptochlorin. Streptochlorin effectively regulated metastasis of HuCC-T1 cells in a mouse model of liver metastasis. In a tumor xenograft study using SNU478 cells, streptochlorin significantly inhibited tumor growth without changes in body weight

  7. A probabilistic assessment of the impact of interventions on oncology nurses' exposure to antineoplastic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Fransman, W.; Hemmen, J. van; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The main goal was to investigate the potential of a probabilistic approach for exposure assessment and use this information to evaluate the impact of a complex of policy actions/interventions on dermal exposure to antineoplastic agents among oncology nurses. The central theme of this

  8. [Application of the A.S.I.A. model to activities of manipulation of antineoplastic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placentino, R A; Cesarini, L; Sacco, A; Magnavita, N

    2003-01-01

    Risk management of occupational exposure in hospital personnel involved in the preparation and administration of antineoplastic drugs was performed using the A.S.I.A. model. The first step was auditing of compliance. Training of workers specifically addressed the areas of deviation from guidelines. Medical surveillance, and risk assessment, were oriented toward observed deviations.

  9. 78 FR 33097 - NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2014: Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Alert: Preventing Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care... Appendix A which was a list of drugs that were deemed to be hazardous and may require special handling... of these drugs had safe handling recommendations from the manufacturer and NIOSH is following the...

  10. 76 FR 46299 - NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2012: Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ...: Preventing Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care Settings was... which was a list of drugs that were deemed to be hazardous and may require special handling. This list... evaluated for reclassification, two drugs are radio- pharmaceuticals which are covered by specific handling...

  11. Comet assay as a human biomonitoring tool: application in occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-05-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs is associated with genotoxic effects, although comet assay analyzed parameters were higher in exposed comparing with controls, were not significant. Also the study of the susceptibility biomarkers did not show statistical significant differences, the small size of our sample hampered the finding of a possible association, let alone a causality relationship.

  12. Infiltrative Lung Diseases: Complications of Novel Antineoplastic Agents in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbak Vahid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative lung disease is a well-known complication of antineoplastic agents in patients with hematological malignancies. Novel agents are constantly being added to available treatments. The present review discusses different pulmonary syndromes, pathogenesis and management of these novel agents.

  13. 77 FR 41190 - Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2012, Correction AGENCY: National Institute for...

  14. Adherence to safe handling guidelines by health care workers who administer antineoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of antineoplastic drugs is well documented. Many are known or suspected human carcinogens where no safe exposure level exists. Authoritative guidelines developed by professional practice organizations and federal agencies for the safe handling of these hazardous drugs have been available for nearly three decades. As a means of evaluating the extent of use of primary prevention practices such as engineering, administrative and work practice controls, personal protective equipment (PPE), and barriers to using PPE, the National Institute for Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a web survey of health care workers in 2011. The study population primarily included members of professional practice organizations representing health care occupations which routinely use or come in contact with selected chemical agents. All respondents who indicated that they administered antineoplastic drugs in the past week were eligible to complete a hazard module addressing self-reported health and safety practices on this topic. Most (98%) of the 2069 respondents of this module were nurses. Working primarily in hospitals, outpatient care centers, and physician offices, respondents reported that they had collectively administered over 90 specific antineoplastic drugs in the past week, with carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel the most common. Examples of activities which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: failure to wear nonabsorbent gown with closed front and tight cuffs (42%); intravenous (I.V.) tubing primed with antineoplastic drug by respondent (6%) or by pharmacy (12%); potentially contaminated clothing taken home (12%); spill or leak of antineoplastic drug during administration (12%); failure to wear chemotherapy gloves (12%); and lack of hazard awareness training (4%). The most common reason for not wearing gloves or gowns was "skin exposure was minimal"; 4% of respondents, however, reported skin contact during handling and

  15. Does applying technology throughout the medication use process improve patient safety with antineoplastics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubalo, Joseph; Warden, Bruce A; Wiegel, Joshua J; Nishida, Tess; Handel, Evelyn; Svoboda, Leanne M; Nguyen, Lam; Edillo, P Neil

    2014-12-01

    Medical errors, in particular medication errors, continue to be a troublesome factor in the delivery of safe and effective patient care. Antineoplastic agents represent a group of medications highly susceptible to medication errors due to their complex regimens and narrow therapeutic indices. As the majority of these medication errors are frequently associated with breakdowns in poorly defined systems, developing technologies and evolving workflows seem to be a logical approach to provide added safeguards against medication errors. This article will review both the pros and cons of today's technologies and their ability to simplify the medication use process, reduce medication errors, improve documentation, improve healthcare costs and increase provider efficiency as relates to the use of antineoplastic therapy throughout the medication use process. Several technologies, mainly computerized provider order entry (CPOE), barcode medication administration (BCMA), smart pumps, electronic medication administration record (eMAR), and telepharmacy, have been well described and proven to reduce medication errors, improve adherence to quality metrics, and/or improve healthcare costs in a broad scope of patients. The utilization of these technologies during antineoplastic therapy is weak at best and lacking for most. Specific to the antineoplastic medication use system, the only technology with data to adequately support a claim of reduced medication errors is CPOE. In addition to the benefits these technologies can provide, it is also important to recognize their potential to induce new types of errors and inefficiencies which can negatively impact patient care. The utilization of technology reduces but does not eliminate the potential for error. The evidence base to support technology in preventing medication errors is limited in general but even more deficient in the realm of antineoplastic therapy. Though CPOE has the best evidence to support its use in the

  16. Dental root agenesis following radiation and antineoplastic therapy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Abdul; Mufeed, Abdulla; Bharadwaj, Punit; Rao, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    The survival rates of patients suffering from various childhood neoplasms have improved dramatically with the advent of chemo-radiation therapy. The harmful effects of chemo-radiation therapy in the oro-facial region such as root agenesis, short roots, impaired amelogenesis, dentinogenesis, radiation caries, and other soft tissue pathologies are well recognized. In spite of these documented risks, the antineoplastic treatment modalities continue to serve the patient for overall improvement in survival and quality of life. However, a thorough understanding of the growth and development process and its relation with the complex antineoplastic treatment is very important for all clinicians. Such awareness could significantly improve the status of patients in the posttreatment period with the implementation of proper preventive and interceptive measures. This article intends to document a case of root agenesis that developed secondary to chemo-radiation therapy in a 12-year-old girl.

  17. Dental root agenesis following radiation and antineoplastic therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hafiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival rates of patients suffering from various childhood neoplasms have improved dramatically with the advent of chemo-radiation therapy. The harmful effects of chemo-radiation therapy in the oro-facial region such as root agenesis, short roots, impaired amelogenesis, dentinogenesis, radiation caries, and other soft tissue pathologies are well recognized. In spite of these documented risks, the antineoplastic treatment modalities continue to serve the patient for overall improvement in survival and quality of life. However, a thorough understanding of the growth and development process and its relation with the complex antineoplastic treatment is very important for all clinicians. Such awareness could significantly improve the status of patients in the posttreatment period with the implementation of proper preventive and interceptive measures. This article intends to document a case of root agenesis that developed secondary to chemo-radiation therapy in a 12-year-old girl.

  18. Applying dose banding to the production of antineoplastic drugs: a narrative review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pérez Huertas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The dosage of antineoplastic drugs has historically been based on individualized prescription and preparation according to body surface area or patient´s weight. Lack of resources and increased assistance workload in the areas where chemotherapy is made, are leading to the development of new systems to optimize the processing without reducing safety. One of the strategies that has been proposed is the elaboration by dose banding. This new approach standardizes the antineoplastic agents doses by making ranges or bands accepting a percentage of maximum variation. It aims to reduce processing time with the consequent reduction in waiting time for patients; to reduce errors in the manufacturing process and to promote the rational drug use. In conclusion, dose banding is a suitable method for optimizing the development of anticancer drugs, obtaining reductions in oncologic patients waiting time but without actually causing a favorable impact on direct or indirect costs.

  19. [Applying dose banding to the production of antineoplastic drugs: a narrative review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Huertas, Pablo; Cueto Sola, Margarita; Escobar Cava, Paloma; Borrell García, Carmela; Albert Marí, Asunción; López Briz, Eduardo; Poveda Andrés, José Luis

    2015-07-01

    The dosage of antineoplastic drugs has historically been based on individualized prescription and preparation according to body surface area or patient´s weight. Lack of resources and increased assistance workload in the areas where chemotherapy is made, are leading to the development of new systems to optimize the processing without reducing safety. One of the strategies that has been proposed is the elaboration by dose banding. This new approach standardizes the antineoplastic agents doses by making ranges or bands accepting a percentage of maximum variation. It aims to reduce processing time with the consequent reduction in waiting time for patients; to reduce errors in the manufacturing process and to promote the rational drug use. In conclusion, dose banding is a suitable method for optimizing the development of anticancer drugs, obtaining reductions in oncologic patients waiting time but without actually causing a favorable impact on direct or indirect costs. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Chromosomal damage among medical staff occupationally exposed to volatile anesthetics, antineoplastic drugs, and formaldehyde

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mušák, L.; Šmerhovský, Z.; Halásová, E.; Osina, O.; Letková, L.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Poláková, Veronika; Buchancová, J.; Hemminki, K.; Vodička, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2013), s. 618-630 ISSN 0355-3140 Grant - others:MŠVV(SK) 26220220111; UK(SK) 1/0576/10 VEGA; MZd(SK) 2007/48-UK-13; GA MŠMT(CZ) Prvouk-P27/LF1/1 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : anesthesiologist * antineoplastic drug * chromosomal aberration Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.095, year: 2013

  1. Anti-inflammatory drugs and uterine cervical cancer cells: Antineoplastic effect of meclofenamic acid

    OpenAIRE

    SORIANO-HERNANDEZ, ALEJANDRO D.; MADRIGAL-PÉREZ, DANIELA; GALVAN-SALAZAR, HECTOR R.; MARTINEZ-FIERRO, MARGARITA L.; VALDEZ-VELAZQUEZ, LAURA L.; ESPINOZA-GÓMEZ, FRANCISCO; VAZQUEZ-VUELVAS, OSCAR F.; OLMEDO-BUENROSTRO, BERTHA A.; GUZMAN-ESQUIVEL, JOSE; RODRIGUEZ-SANCHEZ, IRAM P.; LARA-ESQUEDA, AGUSTIN; MONTES-GALINDO, DANIEL A.; DELGADO-ENCISO, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer (UCC) is one of the main causes of cancer-associated mortality in women. Inflammation has been identified as an important component of this neoplasia; in this context, anti-inflammatory drugs represent possible prophylactic and/or therapeutic alternatives that require further investigation. Anti-inflammatory drugs are common and each one may exhibit a different antineoplastic effect. As a result, the present study investigated different anti-inflammatory models of UCC ...

  2. The caries experience and dentistry following evaluation of children submitted to antineoplastic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Leila Maués Oliveira; de Araújo, Rodolfo José Gomes; Vilarino, Ewerson Fernando Almeida; Mayhew, Andressa Soraia Barros

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the caries experience and the dentistry following of children submitted to antineoplastic therapy of a reference Hospital to this type of treatment in Para state, Brazil.Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 46 children. It was included children in the ages of 2 to 12 years diagnosed with cancer that would be submitted to chemotherapy treatment. The evaluation was performed before the chemotherapy treatment and consisted of anamnesis and oral clinical examination. In ...

  3. Enhanced Topical and Transdermal Delivery of Antineoplastic and Antiviral Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonate cPr-PMEDAP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávrová, K.; Kovaříková, P.; Školová, B.; Líbalová, M.; Roh, J.; Čáp, R.; Holý, Antonín; Hrabálek, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 12 (2011), s. 3105-3115 ISSN 0724-8741 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * antiviral s * antineoplastics * permeation enhancer * topical skin application * transdermal delivery Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.093, year: 2011

  4. Toxicity classification and evaluation of four pharmaceuticals classes: antibiotics, antineoplastics, cardiovascular, and sex hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, Hans; Brain, Richard A.; Johnson, David J.; Wilson, Christian J.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2004-01-01

    Four different classes of environmental concern are quantitatively and qualitatively assessed for environmental hazards; antibiotics (n = 226), antineoplastics (n = 81), cardiovascular (n = 272), and sex hormones (n 92). These along with an ECOSAR scan of all pharmaceuticals (n = 2848) were then classified according to the OECD aquatic toxicity classification system. The predicted species susceptibility is: daphnid > fish > algae, and the predicted rank order of relative toxicity: sex hormones > cardiovascular antibiotics > antineoplastics (Table 1). Generally, a relatively large proportion (1/3) of all pharmaceuticals are potentially very toxic to aquatic organisms (Table 2). The qualitative risk assessment ranking relative to probability and potential severity for human and environmental health effects is: antibiotics > sex hormones > cardiovascular > antineoplastics. (Q)SARs and pharmacodynamic information should be used to prioritize and steer experimental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals, and potentially, also be used in new drug discovery optimizing efficacy and in minimising environmental hazards of new products. Nuclear receptors are relatively well conserved in evolution. Currently, antibacterial resistance represents the most significant human health hazard, and potentially the largest non-target organism hazard is sex hormones acting as endocrine modulators in wildlife. Data for the individual compounds are accessible via http://www.uoguelph.ca/~hsander/

  5. Extraction and Isolation of Antineoplastic Pristimerin from Mortonia greggii (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Manzano, Luis Alberto; Barba-Dávila, Bertha A; Gutierrez-Uribe, Janet A; Escalante-Vázquez, Edgardo J; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to identify, extract and isolate pristimerin in leaves, stems and roots of the Mexican plant Mortonia greggii (Celastraceae). The principal objective was to determine the best laboratory experimental conditions for the extraction and isolation of this powerful natural anticancer agent from the root tissue. Six experimental factors in solid-liquid pristimerin extraction were analyzed: solvent systems, number of extractions, ratio of plant weight (g)/solvent volume (mL) used, time of extraction, temperature and agitation. A mathematical model was generated for pristimerin purity and yield. Ethanol, first extraction, 0.5 ratio of plant weight/solvent volume (g/mL), 0.5 h, 200 rpm and 49.7°C were optimal conditions for the extraction of this phytochemical. The degree of purification of pristimerin root extract was studied by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) using Sephadex LH-20 reaching fractions with purification indexes (PI) greater than 2 and recoveries of 28.3%. When fractions with purification indices higher than 1 and less than 2 were accumulated, the recovery of pristimerin increased by about 73.6%. By combining the optimum extracts and SEC purification protocols, an enriched fraction containing 245.6 mg pristimerin was obtained from 100 g of root bark, representing about 14.4%, w/w, pristimerin from the total solids presented in the fraction.

  6. Antineoplastic effects of an Aurora B kinase inhibitor in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velazquez-Torres Guermarie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aurora B kinase is an important mitotic kinase involved in chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. It is overexpressed in many cancers and thus may be an important molecular target for chemotherapy. AZD1152 is the prodrug for AZD1152-HQPA, which is a selective inhibitor of Aurora B kinase activity. Preclinical antineoplastic activity of AZD1152 against acute myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma and colorectal cancer has been reported. However, this compound has not been evaluated in breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Results The antineoplastic activity of AZD1152-HQPA in six human breast cancer cell lines, three of which overexpress HER2, is demonstrated. AZD1152-HQPA specifically inhibited Aurora B kinase activity in breast cancer cells, thereby causing mitotic catastrophe, polyploidy and apoptosis, which in turn led to apoptotic death. AZD1152 administration efficiently suppressed the tumor growth in a breast cancer cell xenograft model. In addition, AZD1152 also inhibited pulmonary metastatic nodule formation in a metastatic breast cancer model. Notably, it was also found that the protein level of Aurora B kinase declined after inhibition of Aurora B kinase activity by AZD1152-HQPA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Investigation of the underlying mechanism suggested that AZD1152-HQPA accelerated protein turnover of Aurora B via enhancing its ubiquitination. Conclusions It was shown that AZD1152 is an effective antineoplastic agent for breast cancer, and our results define a novel mechanism for posttranscriptional regulation of Aurora B after AZD1152 treatment and provide insight into dosing regimen design for this kinase inhibitor in metastatic breast cancer treatment.

  7. Anti-neoplastic drugs increase caveolin-1-dependent migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Valdivia, Natalia I; Calderón, Claudia C; Díaz, Jorge E; Lobos-González, Lorena; Sepulveda, Hugo; Ortíz, Rina J; Martinez, Samuel; Silva, Veronica; Maldonado, Horacio J; Silva, Patricio; Wehinger, Sergio; Burzio, Verónica A; Torres, Vicente A; Montecino, Martín; Leyton, Lisette; Quest, Andrew F G

    2017-12-19

    Expression of the scaffolding protein Caveolin-1 (CAV1) enhances migration and invasion of metastatic cancer cells. Yet, CAV1 also functions as a tumor suppressor in early stages of cancer, where expression is suppressed by epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, we sought to identify stimuli/mechanisms that revert epigenetic CAV1 silencing in cancer cells and evaluate how this affects their metastatic potential. We reasoned that restricted tissue availability of anti-neoplastic drugs during chemotherapy might expose cancer cells to sub-therapeutic concentrations, which activate signaling pathways and the expression of CAV1 to favor the acquisition of more aggressive traits. Here, we used in vitro [2D, invasion] and in vivo (metastasis) assays, as well as genetic and biochemical approaches to address this question. Colon and breast cancer cells were identified where CAV1 levels were low due to epigenetic suppression and could be reverted by treatment with the methyltransferase inhibitor 5'-azacytidine. Exposure of these cells to anti-neoplastic drugs for short periods of time (24-48 h) increased CAV1 expression through ROS production and MEK/ERK activation. In colon cancer cells, increased CAV1 expression enhanced migration and invasion in vitro via pathways requiring Src-family kinases, as well as Rac-1 activity. Finally, elevated CAV1 expression in colon cancer cells following exposure in vitro to sub-cytotoxic drug concentrations increased their metastatic potential in vivo . Therefore exposure of cancer cells to anti-neoplastic drugs at non-lethal drug concentrations induces signaling events and changes in transcription that favor CAV1-dependent migration, invasion and metastasis. Importantly, this may occur in the absence of selection for drug-resistance.

  8. New approaches to wipe sampling methods for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas H.; Smith, Jerome P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose At the present time, the method of choice to determine surface contamination of the workplace with antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs is surface wipe sampling and subsequent sample analysis with a variety of analytical techniques. The purpose of this article is to review current methodology for determining the level of surface contamination with hazardous drugs in healthcare settings and to discuss recent advances in this area. In addition it will provide some guidance for conducting surface wipe sampling and sample analysis for these drugs in healthcare settings. Methods Published studies on the use of wipe sampling to measure hazardous drugs on surfaces in healthcare settings drugs were reviewed. These studies include the use of well-documented chromatographic techniques for sample analysis in addition to newly evolving technology that provides rapid analysis of specific antineoplastic Results Methodology for the analysis of surface wipe samples for hazardous drugs are reviewed, including the purposes, technical factors, sampling strategy, materials required, and limitations. The use of lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay (FCMIA) for surface wipe sample evaluation is also discussed. Conclusions Current recommendations are that all healthcare settings where antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs are handled include surface wipe sampling as part of a comprehensive hazardous drug-safe handling program. Surface wipe sampling may be used as a method to characterize potential occupational dermal exposure risk and to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented controls and the overall safety program. New technology, although currently limited in scope, may make wipe sampling for hazardous drugs more routine, less costly, and provide a shorter response time than classical analytical techniques now in use. PMID:28459100

  9. Implementation of a robot for the preparation of antineoplastic drugs in the Pharmacy Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Paz Pacheco Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the implementation of a robot for the preparation of antineoplastic drugs in the Pharmacy Service and to be able to analyze the added value to pharmacotherapy. Methods: The implementation was carried out in June 2012 at a tertiary level Hospital, taking place in two periods: 1- test period with the installation of the robot, with technical configuration of the equipment and validation of 29 active ingredients and the integration of electronic prescribing software with the robot application (9 months. 2- Usage period (22 months. On the other hand, training was given to pharmacists and nurses. The robot uses image recognition, barcode identification and gravimetric controls for proper operation. These checks provide information about the error ratio in the preparation, with a margin of ± 10%, which after a pilot study was restricted to a range of ±4%. The robot was programmed to recognize bags, infusion pumps, syringes and vials. The added value was assessed for 31 months by identifying preparation´s errors. Results: 11,865 preparations were made by the robot, which meant approximately 40% of all antineoplastic prepared from 29 different active ingredients. 1.12% (n=133 of the errors were identified by the robot and therefore didn´t reach the patient (negative desviation - 4%. These errors were corrected manually. Conclusion: The implementation of a robot in the preparation of antineoplastic drugs allows to identify errors therefore preventing them to arrive to the patient. This promotes safety and quality of the process, reducing the exposure to cytotoxic drugs from the manipulator

  10. Pharmaceutical validation as a process of improving the quality of antineoplastic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Fabiá, Amparo; Cavero Rodrigo, Elisa; Albert Marí, Asunción; Almenar Cubells, Daniel; Jiménez Torres, N Victor

    2005-06-01

    To quantify the improvement added by standardization of pharmaceutical validation (PV) of antineoplastic treatment to the processes of prescription and preparation of the pharmacotherapeutic sequence, in terms of prevention and reduction of medication errors (ME). Prospective cohort study during two years (from 2001-2002) for oncohaematologic patients (inpatients and outpatients) that compared the percentage of medication errors detected and resolved and the number of medication errors with potential clinical significance (severity value >or=4) intercepted during PV in both years. During the PV processes, 202 ME were identified and resolved, which is the equivalent of 16.88 ME/1,000 patient-days. In 2001 14.08 ME/1,000 patient-days were detected and 19.83 ME/1,000 patient-days in 2002. This means that the effectiveness of the identification method increased by 41%. The number of ME intercepted with clinical significance (severity value >or=4) increased in a statistically significant manner by 2.18 times in 2002. This study shows that the standardization of PV is an effective method of improving the quality of antineoplastic treatment use, by increasing the ability to intercept ME.

  11. Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Drugs: Identification of Job Categories Potentially Exposed throughout the Hospital Medication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Teschke, Kay; Chua, Prescillia; Venners, Scott; Nakashima, Lynne

    2011-09-01

    Studies examining healthcare workers' exposure to antineoplastic drugs have focused on the drug preparation or drug administration areas. However, such an approach has probably underestimated the overall exposure risk as the drugs need to be delivered to the facility, transported internally and then disposed. The objective of this study is to determine whether drug contamination occurs throughout a facility and, simultaneously, to identify those job categories that are potentially exposed. This was a multi-site study based in Vancouver, British Columbia. Interviews were conducted to determine the departments where the drugs travel. Subsequent site observations were performed to ascertain those surfaces which frequently came into contact with antineoplastic drugs and to determine the job categories which are likely to contact these surfaces. Wipe samples were collected to quantify surface contamination. Surface contamination was found in all six stages of the hospital medication system. Job categories consistently found to be at risk of exposure were nurses, pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and pharmacy receivers. Up to 11 job categories per site may be at risk of exposure at some point during the hospital medication system. We found drug contamination on select surfaces at every stage of the medication system, which indicates the existence of an exposure potential throughout the facility. Our results suggest that a broader range of workers are potentially exposed than has been previously examined. These results will allow us to develop a more inclusive exposure assessment encompassing all healthcare workers that are at risk throughout the hospital medication system.

  12. Applying ligands profiling using multiple extended electron distribution based field templates and feature trees similarity searching in the discovery of new generation of urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M Dokla

    Full Text Available This study provides a comprehensive computational procedure for the discovery of novel urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors while focusing on diversification of both chemotype and selectivity pattern. It presents a systematic structural analysis of the different binding motifs of urea-based kinase inhibitors and the corresponding configurations of the kinase enzymes. The computational model depends on simultaneous application of two protocols. The first protocol applies multiple consecutive validated virtual screening filters including SMARTS, support vector-machine model (ROC = 0.98, Bayesian model (ROC = 0.86 and structure-based pharmacophore filters based on urea-based kinase inhibitors complexes retrieved from literature. This is followed by hits profiling against different extended electron distribution (XED based field templates representing different kinase targets. The second protocol enables cancericidal activity verification by using the algorithm of feature trees (Ftrees similarity searching against NCI database. Being a proof-of-concept study, this combined procedure was experimentally validated by its utilization in developing a novel series of urea-based derivatives of strong anticancer activity. This new series is based on 3-benzylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H-one scaffold which has interesting chemical feasibility and wide diversification capability. Antineoplastic activity of this series was assayed in vitro against NCI 60 tumor-cell lines showing very strong inhibition of GI(50 as low as 0.9 uM. Additionally, its mechanism was unleashed using KINEX™ protein kinase microarray-based small molecule inhibitor profiling platform and cell cycle analysis showing a peculiar selectivity pattern against Zap70, c-src, Mink1, csk and MeKK2 kinases. Interestingly, it showed activity on syk kinase confirming the recent studies finding of the high activity of diphenyl urea containing compounds against this kinase. Allover, the new series

  13. Surface wipe sampling for antineoplastic (chemotherapy) and other hazardous drug residue in healthcare settings: Methodology and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas H; Zock, Matthew D; Snow, Amy H

    2016-09-01

    Surface wipe sampling for various hazardous agents has been employed in many occupational settings over the years for various reasons such as evaluation of potential dermal exposure and health risk, source determination, quality or cleanliness, compliance, and others. Wipe sampling for surface residue of antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings is currently the method of choice to determine surface contamination of the workplace with these drugs. The purpose of this article is to review published studies of wipe sampling for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs, to summarize the methods in use by various organizations and researchers, and to provide some basic guidance for conducting surface wipe sampling for these drugs in healthcare settings.  Recommendations on wipe sampling methodology from several government agencies and organizations were reviewed. Published reports on wipe sampling for hazardous drugs in numerous studies were also examined. The critical elements of a wipe sampling program and related limitations were reviewed and summarized.  Recommendations and guidance are presented concerning the purposes of wipe sampling for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in the healthcare setting, technical factors and variables, sampling strategy, materials required, and limitations. The reporting and interpretation of wipe sample results is also discussed.  It is recommended that all healthcare settings where antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs are handled consider wipe sampling as part of a comprehensive hazardous drug "safe handling" program. Although no standards exist for acceptable or allowable surface concentrations for these drugs in the healthcare setting, wipe sampling may be used as a method to characterize potential occupational dermal exposure risk and to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented controls and the overall safety program. A comprehensive safe-handling program for antineoplastic drugs may

  14. New solid state forms of antineoplastic 5-fluorouracil with anthelmintic piperazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisescu-Goia, C.; Muresan-Pop, M.; Simon, V.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to asses the formation of solid forms between the 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy drug and the anthelmintic piperazine. Two new solid forms of antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil with anthelmintic piperazine were obtained by liquid assisted ball milling and slurry crystallization methods. The Nsbnd H hydrogen bonding donors and C = O hydrogen bonding acceptors of 5-fluorouracil allow to form co-crystals with other drugs delivering improved properties for medical applications, as proved for other compounds of pharmaceutical interest. Both new solid forms were investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD results show that by both methods were successfully synthesized new solid forms of 5-fluorouracil with piperazine. According to FTIR results the form prepared by lichid assisted grinding process was obtained as co-crystal and the other one, prepared by slurry method, resulted as a salt.

  15. Recent Advances on Pathophysiology, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Insights in Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Antineoplastic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Molinaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the improvement of survival after cancer, cardiotoxicity due to antineoplastic treatments has emerged as a clinically relevant problem. Potential cardiovascular toxicities due to anticancer agents include QT prolongation and arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension and/or thromboembolism, left ventricular (LV dysfunction, and heart failure (HF. The latter is variable in severity, may be reversible or irreversible, and can occur soon after or as a delayed consequence of anticancer treatments. In the last decade recent advances have emerged in clinical and pathophysiological aspects of LV dysfunction induced by the most widely used anticancer drugs. In particular, early, sensitive markers of cardiac dysfunction that can predict this form of cardiomyopathy before ejection fraction (EF is reduced are becoming increasingly important, along with novel therapeutic and cardioprotective strategies, in the attempt of protecting cardiooncologic patients from the development of congestive heart failure.

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs as Potential Inducers of Antineoplastic Effects in CNS Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tatenhorst

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-inducible transcription factors which belong to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. In recent years it turned out that natural as well as synthetic PPAR agonists exhibit profound antineoplastic as well as redifferentiation effects in tumors of the central nervous system (CNS. The molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still emerging, with partially controverse findings reported by a number of studies dealing with the influence of PPARs on treatment of tumor cells in vitro. Remarkably, studies examining the effects of these drugs in vivo are just beginning to emerge. However, the agonists of PPARs, in particular the thiazolidinediones, seem to be promising candidates for new approaches in human CNS tumor therapy.

  17. Nursing diagnoses in adult/elderly patients undergoing outpatient antineoplastic chemotherapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomar, Rafael Tavares; Gomes, Rebeca Anselmo Furtado; Leite, Dayana Carvalho; Gomes, Helena Ferraz; Peres, Ellen Marcia; Junior, Eugenio Fuentes Perez

    2017-01-01

    To search in the scientific literature for nursing diagnoses identified in adult/elderly patients undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy in an outpatient setting. Review of studies published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish which were searched in five electronic databases in March 2016, using the descriptors nursing process, nursing diagnosis, neoplasms, drug therapy and hospital outpatient clinic. In the four studies selected for review, 40 nursing diagnoses were identified, namely unbalanced nutrition, less than body requirements, risk of deficient fluid volume, diarrhoea, fatigue, impaired home maintenance, deficient knowledge, disturbed body image, interrupted family processes, ineffective sexuality pattern, anxiety, powerlessness, fear, readiness for enhanced religiosity, risk of infection, impaired dentition, risk of impaired skin integrity, acute pain, and nausea. The nursing diagnoses identified can support the selection of interventions and the creation of nursing guidelines in outpatient oncology services.

  18. Robotic system for i.v. antineoplastic drug preparation: description and preliminary evaluation under simulated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, D D; Torchia, M G

    1989-11-01

    A robotic system for preparing doses of i.v. antineoplastic drugs is described, and measurements made with the system are compared for accuracy and reproducibility with those made by pharmacists and technicians. System hardware consists of a robotic arm, a 16-bit microcomputer, a bar-code reader, a voice synthesizer, and an electronic balance. The software includes a menu-driven main program, executable files for each robotic activity, and an interface to allow control to pass between the program and the files. The program has routines for matching the software to the hardware; for entering information about the patient, the name of the drug ordered, and the dose; for checking the dose; for selecting the number and size of the vials to be used; for specifying the manipulations of the robotic arm; for printing labels; and for maintaining records. The robot fills an order by getting and placing a vial, inserting a needle into it and withdrawing the drug, weighing the vial, agitating the container to dissolve its contents, reading a bar code, placing a syringe in a syringe manipulator, and getting an i.v. container and injecting the drug into it. Detection of any errors by a series of self-checks arrests execution of an order. No significant differences in accuracy and precision were found between the robotic system and humans performing the same tasks under simulated conditions. The robotic system required less time than humans and eliminated the possibility of direct human contact with the i.v. admixture. Under simulated conditions, a robotic system developed to assist in the preparation of i.v. antineoplastic drugs was as accurate as a manual system and was more time efficient.

  19. [Antineoplastic treatment impact on nutritional status in patients with breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy Cisneros, Karina; Astiazarán García, Humberto; Esparza Romero, Julián; Guevara Torres, Alfonso Genaro; Valencia Juillerat, Mauro E; Méndez Estrada, Rosa Olivia; Tortoledo Ortiz, Orlando; Pacheco Moreno, Bertha Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women in Mexico and also has the highest mortality. Although treatment has improved significantly, it can affect the nutritional status of the recipients. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the initial phase of antineoplastic therapy on the nutritional status in patients with breast cancer. Forty subjects with primary diagnosed of invasive breast cancer were studied in a before and after intervention (six month apart) using a quasi-experimental design. Basal and six month after intervention measurements included were anthropometry, body composition by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), diet by 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire, as well as serum -carotene and retinol. The therapy effect was analyzed using repeated measurements mixed linear regression. Lean tissue decreased after the studied period (p=0.032). Addicionally, there was an interaction between weight, BMI and body fat parameters with menopausal status, increasing in these variables due to therapy only premenopausal patients (p=0.005, 0.006 and 0.001, respectively). Decreased serum retinol (p=0.049) despite the improvement in -carotene status (p=0.03). In general there was an increase the consumption of vegetables food products whilst a decrease in animal foods. The breast cancer antineoplastic treatment had a negative effect on weight and body fat, especially in young women. Although there were some positive dietary changes, vegetables consumption remained insufficient, which was also reflected in serum biomarkers. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Review of the impact of antineoplastic therapies on the risk for cholelithiasis and acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, Thejus T; Groeschl, Ryan T; George, Ben; Thomas, James P; Clark Gamblin, T; Turaga, Kiran K

    2014-01-01

    Development of cholecystitis in patients with malignancies can potentially disrupt their treatment and alter prognosis. This review aims to identify antineoplastic interventions associated with increased risk of cholecystitis in cancer patients. A comprehensive search strategy was developed to identify articles pertaining to risk factors and complications of cholecystitis in cancer patients. FDA-issued labels of novel antineoplastic drugs released after 2010 were hand-searched to identify more therapies associated with cholecystitis in nonpublished studies. Of an initial 2,932 articles, 124 were reviewed in the study. Postgastrectomy patients have a high (5-30 %) incidence of gallstone disease, and 1-7 % develop symptomatic disease. One randomized trial addressing the role of cholecystectomy concurrent with gastrectomy is currently underway. Among other risk groups, patients with neuroendocrine tumors treated with somatostatin analogs have a 15 % risk of cholelithiasis, and most are symptomatic. Hepatic artery based therapies carry a risk of cholecystitis (0.02-24 %), although the risk is reduced with selective catheterization. Myelosuppression related to chemotherapeutic agents (0.4 %), bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with novel multikinase inhibitors are associated with high risk of cholecystitis. There are several risk factors for gallbladder-related surgical emergencies in patients with advanced malignancies. Incidental cholecystectomy at index operation should be considered in patients planned for gastrectomy, and candidates for regional therapies to the liver or somatostatin analogs. While prophylactic cholecystectomy is currently recommended for patients with cholelithiasis receiving myeloablative therapy, this strategy may have value in patients treated with multikinase inhibitors, immunotherapy, and oncolytic viral therapy based on evolving evidence.

  1. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  2. Novel meroterpenoids from Cystoseira mediterranea: use of the crown-gall bioassay as a primary screen for lipophilic antineoplastic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadli, M; Aracil, J M; Jeanty, G; Banaigs, B; Francisco, C

    1991-01-01

    Using a slight modification of the crown-gall potato disc bioassay, we were able to apply this test for two previously described antineoplastic lipophilic metabolites, didemnin B and mediterraneol A [1], and to use it as a guide for chromatographic separations of meroterpenoids from Cystoseira mediterranea. An active compound, mediterraneone [3], was isolated, and its structure was found to be a novel norsesquiterpenoid by chemical and spectral methods.

  3. Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents induces a high level of chromosome damage. Lack of an effect of GST polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, Antonella; Giachelia, Manuela; Palma, Selena; Appolloni, Massimo; Padua, Luca; Tranfo, Giovanna; Spagnoli, Mariangela; Tirindelli, Donatella; Cozzi, Renata

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AND) resulted in genetic damage, possibly indicative of adverse health effects in the long term. We performed a chromosomal aberrations (CA) analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a group of 76 trained nurses occupationally exposed to AND. Furthermore, we analysed whether genetic polymorphisms in four metabolic genes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family involved in antineoplastic drugs detoxification (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GSTA1) had any effect on the yield of chromosomal aberrations in nurses exposed to antineoplastic agents. The exposed group showed a very significant increase of genetic damage (p < 0.0001) potentially indicative of an increased risk of cancer. Unexpectedly, besides the elevated level of chromatid-type aberrations usually related to exposure to chemical agents, we found also severe chromosome damages such as chromosome deletions and dicentric chromosomes, usually related to radiation exposure. No significant association was detected between all GSTs genotypes and chromosome damage. In conclusion, our data show how the occupational exposure to AND is associated to a potential cancer risk, suggesting that current prevention methods do not completely eliminate opportunities for exposure and supporting the need to improve the actual safety practices

  4. Antineoplastic effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candelaria Myrna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the epigenetic alterations occurring in cancer, DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation are the focus of intense research because their pharmacological inhibition has shown to produce antineoplastic activity in a variety of experimental models. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined antineoplastic effect of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in a panel of cancer cell lines. Results Hydralazine showed no growth inhibitory effect on cervical, colon, breast, sarcoma, glioma, and head & neck cancer cell lines when used alone. On the contrary, valproic acid showed a strong growth inhibitory effect that is potentiated by hydralazine in some cell lines. Individually, hydralazine and valproic acid displayed distinctive effects upon global gene over-expression but the number of genes over-expressed increased when cells were treated with the combination. Treatment of HeLa cells with hydralazine and valproic acid lead to an increase in the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine, cisplatin and adriamycin. A higher antitumor effect of adriamycin was observed in mice xenografted with human fibrosarcoma cells when the animals were co-treated with hydralazine and valproic acid. Conclusion Hydralazine and valproic acid, two widely used drugs for cardiovascular and neurological conditions respectively have promising antineoplastic effects when used concurrently and may increase the antitumor efficacy of current cytotoxic agents.

  5. Antineoplastic effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Blanco, Alma; Perez-Plasencia, Carlos; Perez-Cardenas, Enrique; Carrasco-Legleu, Claudia; Rangel-Lopez, Edgar; Segura-Pacheco, Blanca; Taja-Chayeb, Lucia; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Gonzalez-Fierro, Aurora; Candelaria, Myrna; Cabrera, Gustavo; Duenas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Background Among the epigenetic alterations occurring in cancer, DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation are the focus of intense research because their pharmacological inhibition has shown to produce antineoplastic activity in a variety of experimental models. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined antineoplastic effect of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in a panel of cancer cell lines. Results Hydralazine showed no growth inhibitory effect on cervical, colon, breast, sarcoma, glioma, and head & neck cancer cell lines when used alone. On the contrary, valproic acid showed a strong growth inhibitory effect that is potentiated by hydralazine in some cell lines. Individually, hydralazine and valproic acid displayed distinctive effects upon global gene over-expression but the number of genes over-expressed increased when cells were treated with the combination. Treatment of HeLa cells with hydralazine and valproic acid lead to an increase in the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine, cisplatin and adriamycin. A higher antitumor effect of adriamycin was observed in mice xenografted with human fibrosarcoma cells when the animals were co-treated with hydralazine and valproic acid. Conclusion Hydralazine and valproic acid, two widely used drugs for cardiovascular and neurological conditions respectively have promising antineoplastic effects when used concurrently and may increase the antitumor efficacy of current cytotoxic agents. PMID:16448574

  6. Use of oral antineoplastic in special situations in a third level hospital: real life results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Ferrari-Piquero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the effectiveness and safety of oral antineoplastic drugs (ANEOs that are authorized in special situations in a third-level hospital and to compare the results obtained with the clinical evidence used for this authorization. Method: Descriptive observational and retrospective study. We included all adult patients who started treatment with ANEO in special situations during the year 2016. We collected demographic, treatment-related and clinical variables (overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS. Adverse reactions and detected interactions were collected. An unadjusted comparison was made between the results of the available evidence and those of the study patients. Results: 34 patients were treated, 50% were men, the median age was 58 years (38-80 and they presented ECOG 1 in 64.7%. Most of the treated patients were diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer, treated with trifluridine-tipiracil, followed by palbociclib in breast cancer, obtaining results similar to those of the evidence. The median PFS was 2.8 months (95% CI 0.8- 4.8 and the 8-month SG (95% CI 3.4-12.5 for all patients. 26% of patients required dose reduction because of treatment toxicity. We found 13 interactions, which affected 15 patients, only two of category X. Conclusions: The effectiveness of ANEO in special situations in our center is similar to that of available evidence. The impact on survival is low and adverse effects are common.

  7. New Trends on Antineoplastic Therapy Research: Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw Oil Nanostructured Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Amaral-Machado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bullfrog oil is a natural product extracted from the Rana catesbeiana Shaw adipose tissue and used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extraction process of bullfrog oil, to develop a suitable topical nanoemulsion and to evaluate its efficacy against melanoma cells. The oil samples were obtained by hot and organic solvent extraction processes and were characterized by titration techniques and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The required hydrophile-lipophile balance and the pseudo-ternary phase diagram (PTPD were assessed to determine the emulsification ability of the bullfrog oil. The anti-tumoral activity of the samples was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay for normal fibroblast (3T3 and melanoma (B16F10 cell lines. Both extraction methods produced yielded around 60% and the oil was mainly composed of unsaturated compounds (around 60%. The bullfrog oil nanoemulsion obtained from PTPD presented a droplet size of about 390 nm and polydispersity = 0.05 and a zeta potential of about −25 mV. Both the bullfrog oil itself and its topical nanoemulsion did not show cytotoxicity in 3T3 linage. However, these systems showed growth inhibition in B16F10 cells. Finally, the bullfrog oil presented itself as a candidate for the development of pharmaceutical products free from cytotoxicity and effective for antineoplastic therapy.

  8. New Trends on Antineoplastic Therapy Research: Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) Oil Nanostructured Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Machado, Lucas; Xavier-Júnior, Francisco H; Rutckeviski, Renata; Morais, Andreza R V; Alencar, Éverton N; Dantas, Teresa R F; Cruz, Ana K M; Genre, Julieta; da Silva-Junior, Arnóbio A; Pedrosa, Matheus F F; Rocha, Hugo A O; Egito, Eryvaldo S T

    2016-04-30

    Bullfrog oil is a natural product extracted from the Rana catesbeiana Shaw adipose tissue and used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extraction process of bullfrog oil, to develop a suitable topical nanoemulsion and to evaluate its efficacy against melanoma cells. The oil samples were obtained by hot and organic solvent extraction processes and were characterized by titration techniques and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The required hydrophile-lipophile balance and the pseudo-ternary phase diagram (PTPD) were assessed to determine the emulsification ability of the bullfrog oil. The anti-tumoral activity of the samples was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for normal fibroblast (3T3) and melanoma (B16F10) cell lines. Both extraction methods produced yielded around 60% and the oil was mainly composed of unsaturated compounds (around 60%). The bullfrog oil nanoemulsion obtained from PTPD presented a droplet size of about 390 nm and polydispersity = 0.05 and a zeta potential of about -25 mV. Both the bullfrog oil itself and its topical nanoemulsion did not show cytotoxicity in 3T3 linage. However, these systems showed growth inhibition in B16F10 cells. Finally, the bullfrog oil presented itself as a candidate for the development of pharmaceutical products free from cytotoxicity and effective for antineoplastic therapy.

  9. Study of antineoplastic action of novel isomeric derivatives of 4-thiazolidinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. R. Fil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrazole- and aryl-substituted derivatives of 4-thiazolidinone belong to a perspective group of compounds with potential antitumor action. Earlier, we have demonstrated high toxicity in vitro of several 4-thiazolidinones derivatives towards tumor cell lines. To further enhance the antitumor activity of novel 4-thiazolidinones, their chemical scaffold was optimized, and new pyrazole-thiazolidinones were synthesized. That allowed us to combine in one molecule the potential pharmacophore centres of previously tested compounds. As a result, “hybrid” 4-thiazolidinones exhibit higher toxicity in vitro toward tumor cells of various origin. The molecular mechanisms of antineoplastic activity of these compounds and intensity of induction of apoptosis strongly depended on the position of the substituent in the thiazolidinone cycle. In particular, Les-3661 compound, containing pyrazoline fragment in the 4th position of thiazolidinone core, exhibits 14 times higher cytotoxic activity towards tumor cells (LC50 = 3 µM in comparison to its 2-substituted isomer Les-3713 (LC50 = 42 µM. It is demonstrated that in terms of underlying molecular mechanisms for cytotoxic effect the Les-3661 compound induced caspase-8 and caspase-9 dependent mixed-type of apoptosis, while Les-3713 induced apoptosis mediated only by the caspase-8.

  10. BEL β-trefoil: a novel lectin with antineoplastic properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Cenci, Lucia; Perduca, Massimiliano; Capaldi, Stefano; Carrizo, Maria E; Civiero, Laura; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2013-05-01

    A novel lectin was purified from the fruiting bodies of king bolete mushrooms (Boletus edulis, also called porcino, cep or penny bun). The lectin was structurally characterized i.e its amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure were determined. The new protein is a homodimer and each protomer folds as β-trefoil domain and therefore we propose the name Boletus edulis lectin (BEL) β-trefoil to distinguish it from the other lectin that has been described in these mushrooms. The lectin has potent anti-proliferative effects on human cancer cells, which confers to it an interesting therapeutic potential as an antineoplastic agent. Several crystal forms of the apoprotein and of complexes with different carbohydrates were studied by X-ray diffraction. The structure of the apoprotein was solved at 1.12 Å resolution. The interaction of the lectin with lactose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc, was examined in detail. All the three potential binding sites present in the β-trefoil fold are occupied in at least one crystal form and are described in detail in this paper. No important conformational changes are observed in the lectin when comparing its co-crystals with carbohydrates with those of the ligand-free protein.

  11. [Evaluation of genotoxic effects in subjects occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Massimo; Villarini, Milena; Dominici, Luca; Fatigoni, Cristina; dell'Omo, Marco; Elisei, Emanuela; Muzi, Giacomo; Monarca, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    The present molecular epidemiology study was carried out to evaluate the genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ANP). The study was conducted in 52 hospital workers involved in the preparation, handling or administration of ANP in a hospital in Perugia (central Italy) and in 52 non-exposed control subjects matched for age, gender and smoking habits to the exposed subjects. Both comet assay and the micronucleus test were used to evaluate genome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes in study subjects. The extent of primary DNA damage, as evaluated by the comet assay, was significantly increased in exposed personnel with respect to matched controls. On the other hand, no significant differences in micronuclei frequency was observed between the two groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed an association between years of occupational exposure over 10 years and higher extent of primary DNA damage in the exposed group. The results of this study confirm that handling ANP without appropriate precautions carries a genotoxic risk for exposed healthcare workers. These results address the need for regular biological effect monitoring of staff occupationally-exposed to ANP.

  12. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Paul S.; Keenan, Russell E.; Swartout, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals

  13. Sesquiterpene lactones: Mechanism of antineoplastic activity; relationship of cellular glutathione to cytotoxicity; and disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippo, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Helenalin, a sesquiterpene lactone, inhibited the growth of P388 lymphocytic and L1210 lymphoid leukemia, and Ehrlich ascites and KB carcinoma cells. The L1210 leukemia cells were most sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of helenalin. Helenalin's antineoplastic effects were due to inhibition of DNA synthesis by suppressing the activities of enzymes involved in this biosynthetic pathway; i.e., IMP dehydrogenase, ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, thioredoxin complex, GSH disulfide oxidoreductase and DNA polymerase α activities. The relationship of reduced glutathione (GSH) to the cytotoxic effects of helanalin was evaluated. L1210 cells, which were more sensitive to helenalin's toxicity, contained lower basal concentrations of GSH. Helenalin decreased the concentration of reduced glutathione in both L1210 and P388 leukemia cells. Concurrent administration of helanalin with agents reported to raise GSH concentrations did not substantially effect GSH levels, nor were survival times of tumor-bearing mice enhanced. Following intraperitoneal administration of 3 H-plenolin, no radioactive drug and/or metabolite was sequestered in the organs of BDF 1 mice. Approximately 50% of 3 H-plenolin and/or its metabolites were eliminated via urine while lesser amounts of radioactive drug and/or metabolites were eliminated in the feces

  14. Relevance of the OCT1 transporter to the antineoplastic effect of biguanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, Eric D.; Yasmeen, Amber; Beauchamp, Marie-Claude; Rosenblatt, Joshua [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Pollak, Michael [Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gotlieb, Walter H., E-mail: walter.gotlieb@mcgill.ca [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer siRNA knockdown of OCT1 reduced sensitivity of EOC cells to metformin, but not to another biguanide, phenformin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of OCT1 also affects the activation of AMP kinase in response to metformin, but not to phenformin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct actions of metformin may be limited by low OCT1 expression in EOC tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenformin could be used as an alternative biguanide. -- Abstract: Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggesting that metformin has antineoplastic activity have led to ongoing clinical trials. However, pharmacokinetic issues that may influence metformin activity have not been studied in detail. The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is known to play an important role in cellular uptake of metformin in the liver. We show that siRNA knockdown of OCT1 reduced sensitivity of epithelial ovarian cancer cells to metformin, but interestingly not to another biguanide, phenformin, with respect to both activation of AMP kinase and inhibition of proliferation. We observed that there is heterogeneity between primary human tumors with respect to OCT1 expression. These results suggest that there may be settings where drug uptake limits direct action of metformin on neoplastic cells, raising the possibility that metformin may not be the optimal biguanide for clinical investigation.

  15. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    with a variant of the classic BGW protocol. The protocol is secure against a semi-honest adversary. In Chapter 4 we describe a new protocol for VIFF that is secure against malicious adversaries. The protocol guarantees termination if the adversary allows a preprocessing phase to terminate, in which...... systems hosted by an untrusted provider. It guarantees atomic read and write operations on the shared data when the service is correct and preserves fork-linearizability when the service is faulty. A prototype has been implemented on top of the Subversion revision control system; benchmarks show...

  16. Effects of organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on PPE usage, engineering controls, and adverse events involving liquid antineoplastic drugs among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M; Smith, Todd D; Woldu, Henok; Dyal, Mari-Amanda; Steege, Andrea L; Boiano, James M

    2017-07-01

    Antineoplastic drugs pose risks to the healthcare workers who handle them. This fact notwithstanding, adherence to safe handling guidelines remains inconsistent and often poor. This study examined the effects of pertinent organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on the use of personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and adverse events (spill/leak or skin contact) involving liquid antineoplastic drugs. Data for this study came from the 2011 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers which included a sample of approximately 1,800 nurses who had administered liquid antineoplastic drugs during the past seven days. Regression modeling was used to examine predictors of personal protective equipment use, engineering controls, and adverse events involving antineoplastic drugs. Approximately 14% of nurses reported experiencing an adverse event while administering antineoplastic drugs during the previous week. Usage of recommended engineering controls and personal protective equipment was quite variable. Usage of both was better in non-profit and government settings, when workers were more familiar with safe handling guidelines, and when perceived management commitment to safety was higher. Usage was poorer in the absence of specific safety handling procedures. The odds of adverse events increased with number of antineoplastic drugs treatments and when antineoplastic drugs were administered more days of the week. The odds of such events were significantly lower when the use of engineering controls and personal protective equipment was greater and when more precautionary measures were in place. Greater levels of management commitment to safety and perceived risk were also related to lower odds of adverse events. These results point to the value of implementing a comprehensive health and safety program that utilizes available hazard controls and effectively communicates

  17. Antineoplastic treatment effect on bone mineral density in Mexican breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Cisneros, Karina; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E; Guevara-Torres, Alfonso G; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Astiazarán-García, Humberto

    2016-11-08

    Breast cancer is the most deadly malignancy in Mexican women. Although treatment has improved, it may significantly affect bone mineral status in those who receive it. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cancer treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), in patients with breast cancer and explore the interaction of menopausal status and clinical stage with cancer treatment on such changes. A quasi-experimental design was applied with measurements before and after a chemotherapy treatment in 40 patients with primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. BMD and body composition measurements were taken by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and changes in these variables due to therapy were analyzed using mixed regression for repeated measurements. Significant loss was found in femoral neck and L2-L4 BMD (p osteoporosis received calcium + vitamin D supplementation (600 mg/200 IU day). It showed a protective effect in the decrease of femoral neck BMD and total BMC. BMD loss in both femoral neck and L2-L4 BMD was higher in premenopausal women: 0.023 g/cm 2 in femoral neck and 0.063 g/cm 2 in L2-L4 (p < 0.001), while in postmenopausal women BMD loss was 0.015 g/cm 2 in femoral neck and 0.035 g/cm 2 in L2-L4 (p = 0.021 and p = 0.001 respectively). Change in lumbar spine BMD was prominent in premenopausal women with advanced clinical stage (IIB, IIIA, IIIB): 0.066 g/cm 2 (p = 0.003). The antineoplastic breast cancer treatment with chemotherapy had a negative impact on BMD, in premenopausal women overall, although a differential effect was found according to clinical stage and calcium supplementation status.

  18. The ribosome inhibiting protein riproximin shows antineoplastic activity in experimental pancreatic cancer liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaja, Ahmed; Eyol, Ergül; Xiaoqi, Jiang; Berger, Martin R; Adwan, Hassan

    2018-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has one of the poorest prognoses of all malignancy types. To improve the survival of patients with PDAC, the development of novel anticancer agents is warranted. Riproximin (Rpx) is a newly identified plant lectin, which was isolated from Ximenia americana . The ribosome inactivating protein of type II exhibits potent anticancer activity as recently demonstrated. The rat PDAC cell line ASML was used for in vitro and in vivo studies. The antiproliferative effect of Rpx was assessed using an MTT assay. The modulation of proteins involved in apoptosis was evaluated using western blotting. Tumor-bearing nude rats were treated with Rpx, gemcitabine (GEM) or dinaline (DIN) as single agents, or a combination of Rpx with GEM, or DIN. Rpx was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 1.7-5.4 µg/kg, three times/week, GEM was administered intravenously (50 mg/kg/week) and DIN perorally (10 mg/kg, 5 times/week). Rpx inhibited ASML cell proliferation at IC 50 -values of 0.8-172 pM, caused apoptosis and reduced tumor growth significantly by 90% (P<0.05). The survival rate of rats was significantly increased (21.8 days for Rpx treated vs. 17.6 days for control rats; P=0.05). Higher doses of Rpx caused no further reduction in tumor size when compared with the low dose of Rpx or a combination of Rpx with GEM, or DIN. The standard drug GEM alone was less effective compared with Rpx. In addition, DIN was ineffective, and in combination, reduced the activity of Rpx. These results suggest that Rpx has an evident potential for use in pancreatic cancer treatment. Further experiments are required in order to elucidate its affinity for certain cancer cells and to optimize the combination therapy with other antineoplastic agents.

  19. Oral antineoplastic agent interactions with medicinal plants and food: an issue to take into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Borrell, Roberto; Escudero-Vilaplana, Vicente; Romero-Jiménez, Rosa; Iglesias-Peinado, Irene; Herranz-Alonso, Ana; Sanjurjo-Sáez, María

    2016-11-01

    To review interactions between oral antineoplastic agents (OAAs) for the treatment of solid and hematological tumors and common food and medicinal plants. All potential interactions between OAAs, medicinal plants and food were reviewed. OAAs were considered to be drugs for oral administration that have direct antitumor activity and were approved by the European Medicines Agency in April 2015. We performed the literature search in Pubmed(®) considering only medicinal plants and food. In addition, available data were analyzed from each OAA in secondary data sources taken from Thomson Micromedex(®) and Lexi-comp(®), as well as in the summary of product characteristics. Fifty-eight OAAs were analyzed. We found interactions in 60.3 % of OAAs. Those with most interactions described were: imatinib and procarbazine (4 interactions) and erlotinib, vemurafenib, pomalidomide, medroxyprogesterone and methotrexate (3 interactions). We found 39 interactions (74.4 % important). St. John's wort was the medicinal plant with most interactions (92.6 % were considered important). The rest were: important (ginseng-imatinib, methotrexate-cola and tobacco-erlotinib and tobacco-pomalidomide) and moderate (caffeine-vemurafenib/medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone-ruxolitinib/St. John's wort, garlic-anagrelide and ginseng-procarbazine). Twenty-six interactions (61.5 % important). Grapefruit had most interactions (82.4 % were considered important). The rest were: important (alcohol-procarbazine) and moderate (dairy-estramustine, methotrexate-ethanol, procarbazine-tyramine, vitamin A-tretinoin/bexarotene and grapefruit-bexarotene/etoposide/sunitinib). A review of interactions of medicinal plants and food should be taken into account in the management of OAAs, since more than half have interactions with MPs and food, of which 70.3 % are considered important. The most relevant are HSJ, grapefruit, ginseng and tobacco. This review is intended to serve as a support to all healthcare

  20. Psidium guajava L. anti-neoplastic effects: induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, P; Doto, A; Miceli, M; Mita, L; Benedetti, R; Nebbioso, A; Veglione, M; Rigano, D; Cioffi, M; Sica, V; Molinari, A M; Altucci, L

    2012-02-01

    Curative properties of medicinal plants such as Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) have often been indicated by epidemiological studies on populations in which these fruits are consumed daily. However, complete characterization of the active principles responsible for this ability has never been performed. Here, we have characterized P. guajava's anti-cancer potential and identified the parts of the fruit involved in its anti-neoplastic action. We studied morphology of our cells, cell cycle characteristics and apoptosis and performed immunostaining, differentiation and western blot analyses. We report that the P. guajava extract exerted anti-cancer control on both haematological and solid neoplasias. P. guajava extract's anti-tumour properties were found to be tightly bound to induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Use of ex vivo myeloid leukaemia blasts corroborated that P. guajava was able to induce cell death but did not exhibit anti-cancer effects on all malignant cells investigated, indicating selective activity against certain types of tumour. Analyses of P. guajava pulp, peel and seeds identified the pulp as being the most relevant component for causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, whereas peel was responsible for causing cell differentiation. P. guajava itself and its pulp-derived extract were found to induce apoptosis accompanied by caspase activation and p16, p21, Fas ligand (FASL TNF super-family, member 6), Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) and tumour necrosis factor receptor super-family, member 10b (DR5), overexpression. Our findings showed that P. guajava L. extract was able to exert anti-cancer activity on cultures in vitro and ex vivo, supporting the hypothesis of its anti malignant pro-apoptotic modulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) is a source of anti-neoplastic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschek, P R; Alviano, D S; Alviano, C S; Gattass, C R

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated the in vitro anti-tumoral activities of fractions from aqueous extracts of the husk fiber of the typical A and common varieties of Cocos nucifera (Palmae). Cytotoxicity against leukemia cells was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cells (2 x 10(4)/well) were incubated with 0, 5, 50 or 500 microg/mL high- or low-molecular weight fractions for 48 h, treated with MTT and absorbance was measured with an ELISA reader. The results showed that both varieties have almost similar antitumoral activity against the leukemia cell line K562 (60.1 +/- 8.5 and 47.5 +/- 11.9% for the typical A and common varieties, respectively). Separation of the crude extracts with Amicon membranes yielded fractions with molecular weights ranging in size from 1-3 kDa (fraction A) to 3-10 kDa (fraction B) and to more than 10 kDa (fraction C). Cells were treated with 500 microg/mL of these fractions and cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT. Fractions ranging in molecular weight from 1-10 kDa had higher cytotoxicity. Interestingly, C. nucifera extracts were also active against Lucena 1, a multidrug-resistant leukemia cell line. Their cytotoxicity against this cell line was about 50% (51.9 +/- 3.2 and 56.3 +/- 2.9 for varieties typical A and common, respectively). Since the common C. nucifera variety is extensively cultured in Brazil and the husk fiber is its industrial by-product, the results obtained in the present study suggest that it might be a very inexpensive source of new antineoplastic and anti-multidrug resistant drugs that warrants further investigation.

  2. Radiobiological studies on the importance of tumor oxygenation for anti-neoplastic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, C.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the twelve studies included in the present thesis was to determine the importance of hypoxia for various anti-neoplastic treatment modalities, and to evaluate possible ways of overcoming the hypoxia problem by combined modality therapy. The murine tumor systems were the C3H mammary carcinoma with 5-12% hypoxic cells, and the SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma with 2% hypoxic cells. The radiation response was significantly improved by the use of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers such as nimorazole or misonidazole, or by allowing the mice to breathe oxygen or carbogen during irradiation. In contrast, the radiation response was significantly impaired by carbon monoxide breathing at a level comparable to what has been observed in heavy smokers. The clamped TCD 50 assay was used to classify cancer chemotherapeutic drugs according to their preferential cytotoxicity towards the different tumor subpopulations. Methotrexate had no effect on hypoxic cells and was only borderline toxic towards aerobic cells. Three drugs had significant effect against oxic cells only (5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and cisplatin). Similarly, three drugs were toxic towards hypoxic cells only (etoposide, carmustine, and mitomycin c). Three drugs were effective towards both cell types (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide). Hypoxic cells in areas with insufficient blood supply, poor nutrition and increased acidity is known to be highly sensitive to hyperthermia. In a study where cisplatin, heat and x-rays were given together, the local tumor control was not improved when compared to radiation + heat, apparently due to a lack of enhancement in the killing of hypoxic cells. These studies have demonstrated the influence of tumor oxygenation on tumor response to treatment with drugs, hyperthermia and irradiation. New strategies targeted also against perfusion-limited hypoxia is needed. One of the most important conclusions from the present thesis can be implemented without expensive trials or

  3. Antineoplastic treatment effect on bone mineral density in Mexican breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy-Cisneros, Karina; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E.; Guevara-Torres, Alfonso G.; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O.; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Astiazarán-García, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most deadly malignancy in Mexican women. Although treatment has improved, it may significantly affect bone mineral status in those who receive it. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cancer treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), in patients with breast cancer and explore the interaction of menopausal status and clinical stage with cancer treatment on such changes. A quasi-experimental design was applied with measurements before and after a chemotherapy treatment in 40 patients with primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. BMD and body composition measurements were taken by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and changes in these variables due to therapy were analyzed using mixed regression for repeated measurements. Significant loss was found in femoral neck and L2-L4 BMD (p < 0.001). Patients diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis received calcium + vitamin D supplementation (600 mg/200 IU day). It showed a protective effect in the decrease of femoral neck BMD and total BMC. BMD loss in both femoral neck and L2-L4 BMD was higher in premenopausal women: 0.023 g/cm 2 in femoral neck and 0.063 g/cm 2 in L2-L4 (p < 0.001), while in postmenopausal women BMD loss was 0.015 g/cm 2 in femoral neck and 0.035 g/cm 2 in L2-L4 (p = 0.021 and p = 0.001 respectively). Change in lumbar spine BMD was prominent in premenopausal women with advanced clinical stage (IIB, IIIA, IIIB): 0.066 g/cm 2 (p = 0.003). The antineoplastic breast cancer treatment with chemotherapy had a negative impact on BMD, in premenopausal women overall, although a differential effect was found according to clinical stage and calcium supplementation status

  4. Efficacy of Two Cleaning Solutions for the Decontamination of 10 Antineoplastic Agents in the Biosafety Cabinets of a Hospital Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Marco; Rudaz, Serge; Queruau Lamerie, Thomas; Odou, Pascal; Bonnabry, Pascal; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate two cleaning solutions for the chemical decontamination of antineoplastic agents on the surfaces of two biosafety cabinets routinely used for chemotherapy preparation in a hospital pharmacy. For almost 1 year (49 weeks), two different solutions were used for the weekly cleaning of two biosafety cabinets in a hospital pharmacy's centralized cytotoxic preparation unit. The solutions evaluated were a commercial solution of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water (70:30, vol:vol), and a detergent solution constituted by 10(-2)M of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with 20% IPA. Seven areas in each biosafety cabinet were wiped 14 times throughout the year, before and after the weekly cleaning process, according to a validated procedure. Samples were analyzed using a validated method of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The decontamination efficacy of these two solutions was tested for 10 antineoplastic agents: cytarabine, gemcitabine, methotrexate, etoposide phosphate, irinotecan, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and vincristine. Overall decontamination efficacies observed were 82±6% and 49±11% for SDS solution and IPA, respectively. Higher contamination levels were distributed on areas frequently touched by the pharmacy technicians-such as sleeves and airlock handles-than on scale plates, gravimetric control hardware, and work benches. Detected contaminations of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, gemcitabine, and cytarabine were higher than those of the others agents. SDS solution was almost 20% more efficient than IPA on eight of the antineoplastic agents. Both cleaning solutions were able to reduce contamination levels in the biosafety cabinets. The efficacy of the solution containing an anionic detergent agent (SDS) was shown to be generally higher than that of IPA and, after the SDS cleaning procedure, biosafety cabinets demonstrated acceptable contamination levels. © The Author 2015

  5. Intravenous bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: Influence of coadjuvant antineoplastic treatment and study of buccodental condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagán, José; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether coadjuvant antineoplastic treatment can influence the number and size of bone exposures among patients with intravenous bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (iBRONJ), and to analyze the buccodental condition of these patients. Material and methods: The study sample comprised 67 patients with iBRONJ, 53 patients without iBRONJ receiving treatment with intravenous bisphosphonates, and 36 healthy subjects. In all three groups, measurements were made of the CAO index and of resting whole saliva and stimulated whole saliva. In the patients with iBRONJ, the size (cm) and number of bone exposures were recorded. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Mann-Whitney U-test, and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 57.6% of the patients presented single bone exposure, 25.4% presented two, and 17% more than two exposures. The mean exposure size was 2.3±1.9 cm. Neither the bivariate analysis nor the multivariate multiple regression analysis found coadjuvant antineoplastic treatment to exert a statistically significant effect upon the number and size of bone exposures. On the other hand, there were statistically significant differences among the three study groups in relation to the CAO index (p=0.02) and the number of missing teeth (p=0.00). The resting whole saliva and stimulated whole saliva levels were similar in the three groups, though the patients with osteonecrosis of the jaws showed comparatively lower SWS levels. Conclusions: Coadjuvant antineoplastic treatment alone appears to exert no influence upon the size and number of bone exposures in iBRONJ. The patients with this disease show a higher CAO index and a larger number of missing teeth. Key words:Osteonecrosis of the jaws, bisphosphonates, bone exposure, CAO index, resting whole saliva, stimulated whole saliva. PMID:23229272

  6. Aloin enhances cisplatin antineoplastic activity in B16-F10 melanoma cells by transglutaminase-induced differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabolacci, Claudio; Rossi, Stefania; Lentini, Alessandro; Provenzano, Bruno; Turcano, Lorenzo; Facchiano, Francesco; Beninati, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Aloin, a natural anthracycline from aloe plant, is a hydroxyanthraquinone derivative shown to have antitumor properties. This study demonstrated that aloin exerted inhibition of cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion abilities of B16-F10 melanoma cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Furthermore, aloin induced melanoma cell differentiation through the enhancement of melanogenesis and transglutaminase activity. To improve the growth-inhibiting effect of anticancer agents, we found that the combined treatment of cells with aloin and low doses of cisplatin increases the antiproliferative activity of aloin. The results suggest that aloin possesses antineoplastic and antimetastatic properties, exerted likely through the induction of melanoma cell differentiation.

  7. Geneva protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimminich, O.

    1990-01-01

    The First Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts contains provisions prohibiting indiscriminate attacks. Nuclear warfare as such is not mentioned in the Protocol. It has been asserted that the Protocol does not apply to nuclear weapons for several reasons. However, close analysis shows that the rules governing the application of means and methods of warfare cannot exempt the nuclear weapons. If nuclear weapons are applied in a manner not consistent with article 51 of Protocol I, their use is forbidden by this article even in situations in which general international law might grant an exception from the ban on nuclear weapons, as in the case of reprisal. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  9. Integrative review of factors related to the nursing diagnosis nausea during antineoplastic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés, Aline Maria Bonini; Durant, Lais Corsino; Almeida, Ana Maria de; Gozzo, Thais de Oliveira

    2016-10-10

    to identify factors related to the nursing diagnosis nausea among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. integrative review conducted in four electronic databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL and LILACS) using the key words: neoplasia, antineoplastic agents and nausea. only 30 out of 1,258 papers identified met the inclusion criteria. The most frequent related factors were: being younger than 50 years old, motion sickness, being a woman, emetogenic potential of the chemotherapy, anxiety, conditioned stimulus, and expecting nausea after treatment. this review's findings, coupled with the incidence of nausea among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, reveal an important difference between evidence found and that used by NANDA International, Inc. Even though it provides an appropriate definition of related factors, it does not mention chemotherapy, despite the various studies addressing the topic using different designs and presenting various objectives and outcomes. identificar os fatores relacionados ao diagnóstico de enfermagem náusea entre pacientes oncológicos durante o tratamento quimioterápico. revisão integrativa de quatro bases eletrônicas de dados (PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL e LILACS) com as palavras-chaves neoplasia, agentes antineoplásicos e náusea. dos 1258 artigos identificados, somente 30 atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Os fatores relacionados mais frequentes foram: idade abaixo de 50 anos, doença do movimento, sexo feminino, potencial emético do quimioterápico, ansiedade, estímulo condicionado e expectativa de náuseas depois do tratamento. diante dos resultados encontrados e da incidência de náusea entre os pacientes oncológicos em tratamento quimioterápico, observa-se diferença importante entre as evidências encontradas e as utilizadas pela NANDA International, Inc. Apesar da definição estar adequada entre os fatores relacionados, não há menção à quimioterapia mesmo com inúmeros estudos, com diferentes delineamentos

  10. The Hepatoprotection Provided by Taurine and Glycine against Antineoplastic Drugs Induced Liver Injury in an Ex Vivo Model of Normothermic Recirculating Isolated Perfused Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid is a non-protein amino acid found in high concentration in different tissues. Glycine (Amino acetic acid is the simplest amino acid incorporated in the structure of proteins. Several investigations indicate the hepatoprotective properties of these amino acids. On the other hand, antineoplastic agents-induced serum transaminase elevation and liver injury is a clinical complication. The current investigation was designed to screen the possible hepatoprotective properties of taurine and glycine against antineoplastic drugs-induced hepatic injury in an ex vivo model of isolated perfused rat liver. Rat liver was perfused with different concentration (10 μM, 100 μM and 1000 μM of antineoplastic drugs (Mitoxantrone, Cyclophosphamide, Cisplatin, 5 Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin and Dacarbazine via portal vein. Taurine and glycine were administered to drug-treated livers and liver perfusate samples were collected for biochemical measurements (ALT, LDH, AST, and K+. Markers of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity and glutathione were also assessed in liver tissue. Antineoplastic drugs caused significant pathological changes in perfusate biochemistry. Furthermore, markers of oxidative stress were significantly elevated in drug treated livers. It was found that taurine (5 and 10 mM and glycine (5 and 10 mM administration significantly mitigated the biomarkers of liver injury and attenuated drug induced oxidative stress. Our data indicate that taurine and glycine supplementation might help as potential therapeutic options to encounter anticancer drugs-induced liver injury.

  11. Postulating a dermal pathway for exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs among hospital workers. Applying a conceptual model to the results of three workplace surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.; Hoek, F.; Uitterhoeve, R.; Huijbers, R.; Overmars, R.F.; Anzion, R.; Vermeulen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dermal exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs has been suggested as a potentially important route of exposure of hospital workers. Three small-scale workplace surveys were carried out in several hospitals focusing on contamination by leakage from IV infusion systems; contamination by spilled urine of

  12. Bringing Radiotracing to Titanium-Based Antineoplastics: Solid Phase Radiosynthesis, PET and ex Vivo Evaluation of Antitumor Agent [45Ti](salan)Ti(dipic)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Nielsen, Carsten H.; Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel solid-phase based 45Ti radiolabeling methodology and the implementation of 45Ti-PET in titanium-based antineoplastics using the showcase compound [45Ti](salan)Ti(dipic). This development is intended to allow elucidation of the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of promising n...

  13. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the viability of EAC cells after direct treatment of the said compounds. In in vivo study, MT81 and its structural analogue were administered (i.p. at the two different doses (5, 7 mg MT81; 8.93, 11.48 mg Aa-MT81/kg body weight for 7 days after 24 hrs. of tumor inoculation. The activities were assessed using mean survival time (MST, increased life span (ILS, tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, peritoneal cell count, protein percentage and hematological parameters. Antioxidant status was determined by malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH content, and by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CA T. MT81 and its structural analogues increased the mean survival time, normal peritoneal cell count. They decreased the tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, hemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume. Differential counts of WBC, total counts of RBC & WBC that altered by EAC inoculation, were restored in a dose-dependent manner. Increased MDA and decreased GSH content and reduced activity of SOD, and catalase in EAC bearing mice were returned towards normal after the treatment of MT81 and its structural analogue. Being less toxic than parent toxin MT81, the structural analogue showed more prominent antineoplastic activities against EAC cells compared to MT81. At the same time, both compounds exhibit to some extent antioxidant potential for the EAC-bearing mice.

  14. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy with indocyanine green lactosome has antineoplastic effects for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Tsuda

    Full Text Available Anticancer agents and operating procedures have been developed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients, but their prognosis remains poor. It is necessary to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for HCC to improve its prognosis. Lactosome is a core-shell-type polymeric micelle, and enclosing labeling or anticancer agents into this micelle enables drug delivery. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic and therapeutic efficacies of indocyanine green (ICG-loaded lactosome for near-infrared fluorescence (NIF imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT for HCC.The human HCC cell line HuH-7 was treated with ICG or ICG-lactosome, followed by PDT, and the cell viabilities were measured (in vitro PDT efficiency. For NIF imaging, HuH-7 cells were subcutaneously transplanted into BALB/c nude mice, followed by intravenous administration of ICG or ICG-lactosome. The transplanted animals were treated with PDT, and the antineoplastic effects were analyzed (in vivo PDT efficiency.PDT had toxic effects on HuH-7 cells treated with ICG-lactosome, but not ICG alone. NIF imaging revealed that the fluorescence of tumor areas in ICG-lactosome-treated animals was higher than that of contralateral regions at 24 h after injection and thereafter. PDT exerted immediate and continuous phototoxic effects in the transplanted mice treated with ICG-lactosome.Our results demonstrate that ICG-lactosome accumulated in xenograft tumors, and that PDT had antineoplastic effects on these malignant implants. NIF imaging and PDT with ICG-lactosome could be useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic strategies for HCC.

  15. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impacts...... process can be applied to better capture opinions of different experts, thereby maximizing the evidential basis. Elaborating on manageability of invasive species is further needed to fully answer all risk analysis requirements. Tackling the issue of invasive species urges better handling of the acquired...

  16. studies on hair growth, hair density, hair diameter, hair shape, trichodynia and skin-specific quality of life on women with breast cancer under antineoplastic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of hair growth rates, hair density, hair diameter, hair shape, trichodynia and skin-specific quality of life under antineoplastic treatment. Participants in this prospective study were 34 women, suffering from breast cancer, receiving either chemotherapy (n = 17) or tamoxifen (n = 17). The following methods were used: TrichoScan for the evaluation of hair density, anagen and telogen hair rates, optical coherence tomography for the determina...

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  18. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and {sup 14}C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko, E-mail: tteiko@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the {sup 14}C concentration in {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) – AMS system. The calibration curves of {sup 14}C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a {sup 14}C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. {sup 14}C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean {sup 14}C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of {sup 14}C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, {sup 14}C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. {sup 14}C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; {sup 14}C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  19. Medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting antineoplastic drugs and invention of boron tracedrugs as innovative future-architectural drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hitoshi; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nakata, Eiji

    2010-09-01

    We describe herein for the first time our medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting antineoplastic drugs and boron tracedrugs as newly emerging drug classes. A new area of antineoplastic drugs and treatments has recently focused on neoplastic cells of the tumor environment/microenvironment involving accessory cells. This tumor hypoxic environment is now considered as a major factor that influences not only the response to antineoplastic therapies but also the potential for malignant progression and metastasis. We review our medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting drugs, antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, sugar-hybrid hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, and hypoxia-targeting 10B delivery agents, in which we design drug candidates based on their electronic structures obtained by molecular orbital calculations, not based solely on pharmacophore development. These drugs include an antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizer TX-2036, a sugar-hybrid hypoxic cell radiosensitizer TX-2244, new hypoxia-targeting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors, and a hypoxia-targeting BNCT agent, BSH (sodium borocaptate-10B)-hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine (TPZ) hybrid drug TX-2100. We then discuss the concept of boron tracedrugs as a new drug class having broad potential in many areas.

  20. Organotypic Culture of Breast Tumor Explants as a Multicellular System for the Screening of Natural Compounds with Antineoplastic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Edith Carranza-Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women worldwide. The search for novel compounds with antitumor activity, with less adverse effects and higher efficacy, and the development of methods to evaluate their toxicity is an area of ​​intense research. In this study we implemented the preparation and culture of breast tumor explants, which were obtained from precision-cut breast tumor slices. In order to validate the model we are proposing to screen antineoplastic effect of natural compounds, we selected caffeic acid, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. Using the Krumdieck tissue slicer, precision-cut tissue slices were prepared from breast cancer samples; from these slices, 4 mm explants were obtained and incubated with the selected compounds. Viability was assessed by Alamar Blue assay, LDH release, and histopathological criteria. Results showed that the viability of the explants cultured in the presence of paclitaxel (positive control decreased significantly (P<0.05; however, tumor samples responded differently to each compound. When the explants were coincubated with paclitaxel and compounds, a synergic effect was observed. This study shows that ex vivo culture of breast cancer explants offers a suitable alternative model for evaluating natural or synthetic compounds with antitumor properties within the complex microenvironment of the tumor.

  1. Concanavalin A: A potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis for cancer therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-wen; Yu, Jia-ying; Xu, Huai-long [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Bao, Jin-ku, E-mail: jinkubao@yahoo.com [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} ConA induces cancer cell death targeting apoptosis and autophagy. {yields} ConA inhibits cancer cell angiogenesis. {yields} ConA is utilized in pre-clinical and clinical trials. -- Abstract: Concanavalin A (ConA), a Ca{sup 2+}/Mn{sup 2+}-dependent and mannose/glucose-binding legume lectin, has drawn a rising attention for its remarkable anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities to a variety of cancer cells. ConA induces programmed cell death via mitochondria-mediated, P73-Foxo1a-Bim apoptosis and BNIP3-mediated mitochondrial autophagy. Through IKK-NF-{kappa}B-COX-2, SHP-2-MEK-1-ERK, and SHP-2-Ras-ERK anti-angiogenic pathways, ConA would inhibit cancer cell survival. In addition, ConA stimulates cell immunity and generates an immune memory, resisting to the same genotypic tumor. These biological findings shed light on new perspectives of ConA as a potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis in pre-clinical or clinical trials for cancer therapeutics.

  2. Identification and characterization of riproximin, a new type II ribosome-inactivating protein with antineoplastic activity from Ximenia americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Cristina; Eyol, Ergül; Frank, Martin; von der Lieth, Claus-W; Berger, Martin R

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the active component(s) of Ximenia americana plant material used to treat cancer in African traditional medicine. By a combination of preextraction, extraction, ion exchange and affinity chromatography, a mixture of two cytotoxic proteins was isolated. Using degenerated primers designed on the de novo sequence of two tryptic peptides from one of these proteins, a DNA fragment was amplified and the sequence obtained was used to determine the complete cDNA sequence by the RACE method. Sequence analysis and molecular modeling showed that the new protein, riproximin, belongs to the family of type II ribosome inactivating proteins. These results are in good agreement with the ability of riproximin to inhibit protein synthesis in a cell-free system, as well as with the cytotoxicity of riproximin, as demonstrated by its IC50 value of 0.5 pM in MCF7, 1.1 pM in HELA and 0.6 pM in CC531-lacZ cells. To assess the antineoplastic efficacy of the purified riproximin in vivo, the CC531-lacZ colorectal cancer rat metastasis model was used. Significant anticancer activity was found after administration of total dosages of 100 (perorally) and 10 (intraperitoneally) pmol riproximin/kg. These results suggest that riproximin has distinct potential for cancer treatment.

  3. Antioxidants Impair Anti-Tumoral Effects of Vorinostat, but Not Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Vorinostat and Caspase-8 Downregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition. PMID:24651472

  4. Evaluation of Oral Mucositis Occurrence in Oncologic Patients under Antineoplastic Therapy Submitted to the Low-Level Laser Coadjuvant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Cavalcanti, Alessandro; José de Macêdo, Dário; Suely Barros Dantas, Fernanda; Dos Santos Menezes, Karla; Filipe Bezerra Silva, Diego; Alves de Melo Junior, William; Fabia Cabral Cavalcanti, Alidianne

    2018-04-24

    Low-level laser therapy has been widely used in treating many conditions, including oral mucositis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oral mucositis in patients undergoing antineoplastic therapy submitted to preventive and therapeutic treatment with low-level laser therapy. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 51 children and adolescents of both sexes with malignant neoplasias who developed oral mucositis and underwent low-level laser therapy. Data were collected on sex, age, type and degree of neoplasia, region affected, and remission time. 64.7% of the patients were male and were between 3 and 6 years of age (39.2%). Acute lymphoid leukemia was the most frequent neoplasm (37.3%). Regarding the maximum oral mucositis, grade 2 (41.2%) was predominant, with jugal mucosa (29.9%) and tongue (17.7%) being the most affected regions. The majority of cases presented lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days (44.0%). Most patients were young, male, and diagnosed with acute lymphoid leukemia. Predominance of grade 2 oral mucositis was observed, with jugal mucosa and tongue being the most affected regions, with the majority of cases presenting lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days. Low-level laser therapy has been shown to be an essential therapy in the prevention and treatment of these lesions, since it is a non-invasive and low-cost method.

  5. Evaluation of Oral Mucositis Occurrence in Oncologic Patients under Antineoplastic Therapy Submitted to the Low-Level Laser Coadjuvant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy has been widely used in treating many conditions, including oral mucositis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oral mucositis in patients undergoing antineoplastic therapy submitted to preventive and therapeutic treatment with low-level laser therapy. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 51 children and adolescents of both sexes with malignant neoplasias who developed oral mucositis and underwent low-level laser therapy. Data were collected on sex, age, type and degree of neoplasia, region affected, and remission time. 64.7% of the patients were male and were between 3 and 6 years of age (39.2%. Acute lymphoid leukemia was the most frequent neoplasm (37.3%. Regarding the maximum oral mucositis, grade 2 (41.2% was predominant, with jugal mucosa (29.9% and tongue (17.7% being the most affected regions. The majority of cases presented lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days (44.0%. Most patients were young, male, and diagnosed with acute lymphoid leukemia. Predominance of grade 2 oral mucositis was observed, with jugal mucosa and tongue being the most affected regions, with the majority of cases presenting lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days. Low-level laser therapy has been shown to be an essential therapy in the prevention and treatment of these lesions, since it is a non-invasive and low-cost method.

  6. The antineoplastic drug flavopiridol reverses memory impairment induced by Amyloid-ß1-42 oligomers in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Gian Marco; Catania, Maria Vincenza; Puzzo, Daniela; Spatuzza, Michela; Pellitteri, Rosalia; Gulisano, Walter; Torrisi, Sebastiano Alfio; Giurdanella, Giovanni; Piazza, Cateno; Impellizzeri, Agata Rita; Gozzo, Lucia; Navarria, Andrea; Bucolo, Claudio; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Palmeri, Agostino; Salomone, Salvatore; Copani, Agata; Caraci, Filippo; Drago, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    The ectopic re-activation of cell cycle in neurons is an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which could lead to synaptic failure and ensuing cognitive deficits before frank neuronal death. Cytostatic drugs that act as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors have been poorly investigated in animal models of AD. In the present study, we examined the effects of flavopiridol, an inhibitor of CDKs currently used as antineoplastic drug, against cell cycle reactivation and memory loss induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aß1-42 oligomers in CD1 mice. Cycling neurons, scored as NeuN-positive cells expressing cyclin A, were found both in the frontal cortex and in the hippocampus of Aβ-injected mice, paralleling memory deficits. Starting from three days after Aβ injection, flavopiridol (0.5, 1 and 3mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected daily, for eleven days. Here we show that a treatment with flavopiridol (0.5 and 1mg/kg) was able to rescue the loss of memory induced by Aβ1-42, and to prevent the occurrence of ectopic cell-cycle events in the mouse frontal cortex and hippocampus. This is the first evidence that a cytostatic drug can prevent cognitive deficits in a non-transgenic animal model of AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative Stress Induced in Nurses by Exposure to Preparation and Handling of Antineoplastic Drugs in Mexican Hospitals: A Multicentric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of involuntary exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AD was studied in a group of nurses in diverse hospitals in Mexico. The results were compared with a group of unexposed nurses. Anthropometric characteristics and the biochemical analysis were analyzed in both groups. Also, lipid peroxidation level (LPX, protein carbonyl content (PCC, and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were evaluated in blood of study participants as oxidative stress (OS biomarkers. The group of occupationally exposed (OE nurses consisted of 30 individuals ranging in age from 25 to 35 years. The control group included 30 nurses who were not occupationally exposed to the preparation and handling of AD and whose anthropometric and biochemical characteristics were similar to those of the OE group. All biomarkers evaluated were significantly increased (P<0.5 in OE nurses compared to the control group. Results show that the assessment of OS biomarkers is advisable in order to evaluate exposure to AD in nurses.

  8. Antioxidants impair anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat, but not anti-neoplastic effects of Vorinostat and caspase-8 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition.

  9. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  10. HER Specific TKIs Exert Their Antineoplastic Effects on Breast Cancer Cell Lines through the Involvement of STAT5 and JNK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Gschwantler-Kaulich

    Full Text Available HER-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs have demonstrated pro-apoptotic and antiproliferative effects in vitro and in vivo. The exact pathways through which TKIs exert their antineoplastic effects are, however, still not completely understood.Using Milliplex assays, we have investigated the effects of the three panHER-TKIs lapatinib, canertinib and afatinib on signal transduction cascade activation in SKBR3, T47D and Jurkat neoplastic cell lines. The growth-inhibitory effect of blockade of HER and of JNK and STAT5 signaling was measured by proliferation- and apoptosis-assays using formazan dye labeling of viable cells, Western blotting for cleaved PARP-1 and immunolabeling for active caspase 3, respectively.All three HER-TKIs clearly inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis in HER2 overexpressing SKBR3 cells, while their effect was less pronounced on HER2 moderately expressing T47D cells where they exerted only a weak antiproliferative and essentially no pro-apoptotic effect. Remarkably, phosphorylation/activation of JNK and STAT5A/B were inhibited by HER-TKIs only in the sensitive, but not in the resistant cells. In contrast, phosphorylation/activation of ERK/MAPK, STAT3, CREB, p70 S6 kinase, IkBa, and p38 were equally affected by HER-TKIs in both cell lines. Moreover, we demonstrated that direct pharmacological blockade of JNK and STAT5 abrogates cell growth in both HER-TKI-sensitive as well as -resistant breast cancer cells, respectively.We have shown that HER-TKIs exert a HER2 expression-dependent anti-cancer effect in breast cancer cell lines. This involves blockade of JNK and STAT5A/B signaling, which have been found to be required for in vitro growth of these cell lines.

  11. Influence of pain severity on the quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer before antineoplastic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the severity of pain and its impact on the quality of life (QoL) in untreated patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods A study group of 127 patients with HNSCC were interviewed before antineoplastic treatment. The severity of pain was measured using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) questionnaire, and the QoL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the head and neck module (QLQ-H&N35). Results The mean age of the patients was 57.9 years, and there was a predominance of men (87.4%). The most frequent site of the primary tumor was the oral cavity (70.6%), and the majority of the patients had advanced cancers (stages III and IV). QoL in early stage of cancer obtained better scores. Conversely, the patients with advanced stage cancer scored significantly higher on the symptom scales regarding fatigue, pain, appetite loss and financial difficulties, indicating greater difficulties. Regard to the severity of pain, patients with moderate-severe pain revealed a significantly worse score than patients without pain. Conclusions The severity of pain is statistically related to the advanced stages of cancer and directly affects the QoL. An assessment of the quality of life and symptoms before therapy can direct attention to the most important symptoms, and appropriate interventions can then be directed toward improving QoL outcomes and the response to treatment. PMID:24460780

  12. Parallel screening of FDA-approved antineoplastic drugs for identifying sensitizers of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, David J; Parsons, Christine E; Han, Haiyong; Jayaraman, Arul; Rege, Kaushal

    2011-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) and agonistic antibodies to death receptor 4 and 5 are promising candidates for cancer therapy due to their ability to induce apoptosis selectively in a variety of human cancer cells, while demonstrating little cytotoxicity in normal cells. Although TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 and DR5 are considered safe and promising candidates in cancer therapy, many malignant cells are resistant to DR-mediated, TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In the current work, we screened a small library of fifty-five FDA and foreign-approved anti-neoplastic drugs in order to identify candidates that sensitized resistant prostate and pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. FDA-approved drugs were screened for their ability to sensitize TRAIL resistant prostate cancer cells to TRAIL using an MTT assay for cell viability. Analysis of variance was used to identify drugs that exhibited synergy with TRAIL. Drugs demonstrating the highest synergy were selected as leads and tested in different prostate and pancreatic cancer cell lines, and one immortalized human pancreatic epithelial cell line. Sequential and simultaneous dosing modalities were investigated and the annexin V/propidium iodide assay, in concert with fluorescence microscopy, was employed to visualize cells undergoing apoptosis. Fourteen drugs were identified as having synergy with TRAIL, including those whose TRAIL sensitization activities were previously unknown in either prostate or pancreatic cancer cells or both. Five leads were tested in additional cancer cell lines of which, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, and mithramycin demonstrated synergy in all lines. In particular, mitoxantrone and mithramycin demonstrated significant synergy with TRAIL and led to reduction of cancer cell viability at concentrations lower than 1 μM. At these low concentrations, mitoxantrone demonstrated selectivity toward malignant cells over normal pancreatic epithelial cells

  13. Parallel screening of FDA-approved antineoplastic drugs for identifying sensitizers of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor David J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to death receptor 4 and 5 are promising candidates for cancer therapy due to their ability to induce apoptosis selectively in a variety of human cancer cells, while demonstrating little cytotoxicity in normal cells. Although TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 and DR5 are considered safe and promising candidates in cancer therapy, many malignant cells are resistant to DR-mediated, TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In the current work, we screened a small library of fifty-five FDA and foreign-approved anti-neoplastic drugs in order to identify candidates that sensitized resistant prostate and pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods FDA-approved drugs were screened for their ability to sensitize TRAIL resistant prostate cancer cells to TRAIL using an MTT assay for cell viability. Analysis of variance was used to identify drugs that exhibited synergy with TRAIL. Drugs demonstrating the highest synergy were selected as leads and tested in different prostate and pancreatic cancer cell lines, and one immortalized human pancreatic epithelial cell line. Sequential and simultaneous dosing modalities were investigated and the annexin V/propidium iodide assay, in concert with fluorescence microscopy, was employed to visualize cells undergoing apoptosis. Results Fourteen drugs were identified as having synergy with TRAIL, including those whose TRAIL sensitization activities were previously unknown in either prostate or pancreatic cancer cells or both. Five leads were tested in additional cancer cell lines of which, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, and mithramycin demonstrated synergy in all lines. In particular, mitoxantrone and mithramycin demonstrated significant synergy with TRAIL and led to reduction of cancer cell viability at concentrations lower than 1 μM. At these low concentrations, mitoxantrone demonstrated selectivity toward

  14. Cell-based laboratory evaluation of coagulation activation by antineoplastic drugs for the treatment of lymphoid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misae Tsunaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Combining vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin (Dox led to improved response rates in the treatment of lymphoid tumors. However, deep-vein thrombosis has been noted as one of the most serious side effects with these drugs, and how these regimens cause deep-vein thrombosis is unclear. Methods: We investigated the procoagulant effects of vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin in lymphoid tumors, focusing on tissue factor, phosphatidylserine, and antithrombin. The human vascular endothelial cell line EAhy926 as well as the lymphoid neoplastic cell lines HUT78 (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, Molt4 (acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia, and Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma were employed to investigate these procoagulant effects. Results: Vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin induced exposure of phosphatidylserine and procoagulant activity on the surface of lymphoid tumor cells. Vorinostat and doxorubicin also induced phosphatidylserine exposure and increased procoagulant activity on EAhy926 cells. Expression of tissue factor antigen was induced by doxorubicin on the surface of each type of cells, whereas expression of tissue factor mRNA was unchanged. Secretion of antithrombin from HepG2 cells was reduced only by L-asparaginase. Conclusion: These data suggest that vorinostat and doxorubicin may induce procoagulant activity in vessels through apoptosis of tumor cells and through phosphatidylserine exposure and/or tissue factor expression on vascular endothelial cells. L-asparaginase may induce a thrombophilic state by reducing the secretion of anticoagulant proteins such as antithrombin. The laboratory methods described here could be useful to evaluate the procoagulant effects of antineoplastic drugs.

  15. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...... of communication protocols. With it, partners can suggest a new protocol by sending its specification. After formally verifying the specification, each partner generates an implementation, which can then be used for establishing communication. We also present a practical realisation of the Protocol Implementation...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....

  16. ET-09DECOY OLIGONUCLEOTIDE DERIVED FROM MGMT ENHANCER HAS AN ANTINEOPLASTIC ACTIVITY IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canello, Tamar; Ovadia, Haim; Refael, Miri; Zrihan, Daniel; Siegal, Tali; Lavon, Iris

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Silencing of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) in tumors, correlates with a better therapeutic response and with increased survival. Our previous results demonstrated the pivotal role of NF-kappaB in MGMT expression, mediated mainly through binding of p65/NF-kappaB homodimers to the non-canonical NF-KappaB motif (MGMT-kappaB1) within MGMT enhancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an attempt to attenuate the transcription activity of MGMT in tumors we designed locked nucleic acids (LNA) modified decoy oligonucleotides corresponding to the specific sequence of MGMT-kappaB1 (MGMT-kB1-LODN). Following confirmation of the ability of MGMT-kB1-LODN to interfere with the binding of p65/NF-kappaB to MGMT enhancer, the potential of the MGMT-kB1-LODN to enhance cell killing was studied in vitro in two glioma cell lines (T98G and U87) and a melanoma cell line (A375P). All three cell lines manifested a significant enhanced cell killing effect following exposure to temozolomide (TMZ) when first transfected with MGMT-kb1-LODN, and also induced a significant cell killing when administered as monotherapy. These results were confirmed also in-vivo on A375P Melanoma xenografts. Intratumoral (Intralesional - IL) injection of MGMT-kB1-LODN with or without IP injection of TMZ induced significant tumor growth inhibition either as a monotherapy or in combination with TMZ. The long-term effect of MGMT-kB1-LODN monotherapy was evaluated using a repetitive IL injection every 4 to 5 days for 55 days with either MGMT-κB1 LODN or control ODN or vehicle. A significant difference (p < 0.01) in tumor volume was obtained by MGMT-κB1-LODN compared to both control groups. Moreover, two out of the seven mice treated with MGMT-κB1-LODN demonstrated tumor regression by day 55 and no tumor recurrence was observed five months later. CONCLUSION: The results of these experiments show that the MGMT-kB1-LODN has a substantial antineoplastic effect when used either in combination with

  17. Antineoplastic-related cardiotoxicity, morphofunctional aspects in a murine model: contribution of the new tool 2D-speckle tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppola C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carmela Coppola,1 Gennaro Riccio,1 Antonio Barbieri,2 Maria Gaia Monti,3 Giovanna Piscopo,1 Domenica Rea,2 Claudio Arra,2 Carlo Maurea,1 Claudia De Lorenzo,4,5 Nicola Maurea1 1Division of Cardiology, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, IRCCS, Naples, Italy; 2Animal Facility Unit, Department of Experimental Oncology, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, IRCCS, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University Federico II, Naples, Italy; 4Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University Federico II, Naples, Italy; 5CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, Naples, Italy Objective: Considering that global left ventricular systolic radial strain is a sensitive technique for the early detection of left ventricular dysfunction due to antineoplastics and the analysis of segmental myocardial contractility, we evaluated this technique for early detection of trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity by comparing it with cardiac structural damage.Methods: Groups of six mice were injected with trastuzumab or doxorubicin, used either as single agents or in combination. Cardiac function was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography measurements before and after treatment for 2 or 7 days, by using a Vevo 2100 high-resolution imaging system. After echocardiography, mice were euthanized, and hearts were processed for histological evaluations, such as cardiac fibrosis, apoptosis, capillary density, and inflammatory response.Results: Trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity was detected early by 2D strain imaging. Radial strain was reduced after 2 days in mice treated with trastuzumab alone (21.2%±8.0% vs 40.5%±4.8% sham; P<0.01. Similarly, trastuzumab was found to induce apoptosis, capillary density reduction, and inflammatory response in cardiac tissue after 2 days of treatment, in a fashion similar to doxorubicin. On the contrary, fractional

  18. Network Memory Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilcox, D

    1997-01-01

    This report presents initial research into the design of a new computer system local area network transport layer protocol, designated the network memory protocol, which provides clients with direct...

  19. Anti-Neoplastic Cytotoxicity of Gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu] in Combination with Griseofulvin against Chemotherapeutic-Resistant Mammary Adenocarcinoma (SKBr-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, CP; Jones, Toni; Bear, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gemcitabine is a pyrimidine nucleoside analog that becomes triphosphorylated and in this form it competitively inhibits cytidine incorporation into DNA strands. Diphosphorylated gemcitabine irreversibly inhibits ribonucleotide reductase thereby preventing deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. Functioning as a potent chemotherapeutic, gemcitabine decreases neoplastic cell proliferation and induces apoptosis which accounts for its effectiveness in the clinical treatment of several leukemia and carcinoma cell types. A brief plasma half-life due to rapid deamination, chemotherapeuticresistance and sequelae restricts gemcitabine utility in clinical oncology. Selective “targeted” gemcitabine delivery represents a molecular strategy for prolonging its plasma half-life and minimizing innocent tissue/organ exposure. Methods A previously described organic chemistry scheme was applied to synthesize a UV-photoactivated gemcitabine intermediate for production of gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu]. Immunodetection analysis (Western-blot) was applied to detect the presence of any degradative fragmentation or polymerization. Detection of retained binding-avidity for gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu] was determined by cell-ELISA using populations of chemotherapeutic-resistant mammary adenocarcinoma (SKBr-3) that highly over-express the HER2/neu trophic membrane receptor. Anti-neoplastic cytotoxicity of gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu] and the tubulin/microtubule inhibitor, griseofulvin was established against chemotherapeutic-resistant mammary adenocarcinoma (SKBr-3). Related investigations evaluated the potential for gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu] in dual combination with griseofulvin to evoke increased levels of anti-neoplastic cytotoxicity compared to gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu]. Results Covalent gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu] immunochemotherapeutic and griseofulvin exerted anti-neoplastic cytotoxicity against chemotherapeutic

  20. Vitamin E succinate is a potent novel antineoplastic agent with high selectivity and cooperativity with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2 ligand) in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weber, T.; Lu, M.; Anděra, Ladislav; Lahm, H.; Gellert, N.; Fariss, M. W.; Kořínek, Vladimír; Sattler, W.; Ucker, D. S.; Terman, A.; Schroder, A.; Erl, W.; Brunk, U. T.; Coffey, R. J.; Weber, C.; Neuzil, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2002), s. 863-869 ISSN 1078-0432 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA312/99/0348 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Vitamin E, Antineoplastic Agent, Tumor Necrosis Factor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.991, year: 2002

  1. The Antineoplastic Effect of Nitric Oxide-Donating Acetylsalicylic Acid (NO-ASA) in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Cells is Highly Dependent on its Positional Isomerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Iris; Razavi, Regina; Poll-Wolbeck, Simon Jonas; Berkessel, Albrecht; Hallek, Michael; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is not curable in patients that are not eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Therefore, new treatment options are highly desirable. Chemically modified nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as nitric-oxide-donating acetylsalicylic acid (NO-ASA), have been described to possess antineoplastic capacity. Recently, we could demonstrate a potent apoptosis induction in primary CLL cells in vitro and tumor growth inhibition by para-NO-ASA in a xenograft mouse model. However, little is known about the impact of positional isomerism of NO-ASA on its antineoplastic capacity in CLL. Methods: Primary CLL cells were treated with the meta-or para-isomer of NO-ASA at varying concentrations and durations. Viability was assessed flow cytometrically by annexin V-FITC/PI staining and by CellTiter-Glo luminescence cell viability assay. Caspase and PARP cleavage as well as involvement of β-catenin/Lef-1 signaling was determined by immunoblotting. For caspase inhibition, BD™ ApoBlock was used. Nude mice were xenografted with JVM3 cells and treated with meta-NO-ASA, para-NO-ASA or vehicle control. Results: The meta-isomer was entirely ineffective in inducing CLL cell apoptosis in concentrations up to 100 μM, while para-NO-ASA acted in the low micromolar range. meta-NO-ASA, in contrast to para-NO-ASA, did not alter caspase activity. While para-NO-ASA action involved inhibition of β-catenin/Lef-1 signaling, meta-NO-ASA did not show any impact on this signaling pathway. Further, meta-NO-ASA did not significantly reduce tumor growth in a CLL xenograft mouse model, while para-NO-ASA was highly potent. Conclusion: We conclude that positional isomerism is crucial for the antineoplastic effect of NO-ASA in CLL. It can be suggested that the para-isomer, but not the meta-isomer, generates a chemical structure which is essential for the neoplastic effect of NO-ASA. PMID:23556096

  2. Uncaria tomentosa exerts extensive anti-neoplastic effects against the Walker-256 tumour by modulating oxidative stress and not by alkaloid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Alejandro Dreifuss

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the anti-neoplastic effects of an Uncaria tomentosa (UT brute hydroethanolic (BHE extract with those of two fractions derived from it. These fractions are choroformic (CHCl3 and n-butanolic (BuOH, rich in pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA and antioxidant substances, respectively. The cancer model was the subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 tumour cells in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rat. Subsequently to the inoculation, gavage with BHE extract (50 mg.kg(-1 or its fractions (as per the yield of the fractioning process or vehicle (Control was performed during 14 days. Baseline values, corresponding to individuals without tumour or treatment with UT, were also included. After treatment, tumour volume and mass, plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress in liver and tumour, TNF-α level in liver and tumour homogenates, and survival rates were analysed. Both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction successfully reduced tumour weight and volume, and modulated anti-oxidant systems. The hepatic TNF-α level indicated a greater effect from the BHE extract as compared to its BuOH fraction. Importantly, both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction increased the survival time of the tumour-bearing animals. Inversely, the CHCl3 fraction was ineffective. These data represent an in vivo demonstration of the importance of the modulation of oxidative stress as part of the anti-neoplastic activity of UT, as well as constitute evidence of the lack of activity of isolated POAs in the primary tumour of this tumour lineage. These effects are possibly resulting from a synergic combination of substances, most of them with antioxidant properties.

  3. Uncaria tomentosa exerts extensive anti-neoplastic effects against the Walker-256 tumour by modulating oxidative stress and not by alkaloid activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreifuss, Arturo Alejandro; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda Leite; Fabossi, Isabella Aviles; Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida Dos Reis; Stolf, Aline Maria; Alves de Souza, Carlos Eduardo; Gomes, Liana de Oliveira; Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; Furman, Aline Emmer Ferreira; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Teixeira, Simone; Zampronio, Aleksander Roberto; Muscará, Marcelo Nicolás; Stefanello, Maria Elida Alves; Acco, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the anti-neoplastic effects of an Uncaria tomentosa (UT) brute hydroethanolic (BHE) extract with those of two fractions derived from it. These fractions are choroformic (CHCl3) and n-butanolic (BuOH), rich in pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA) and antioxidant substances, respectively. The cancer model was the subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 tumour cells in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rat. Subsequently to the inoculation, gavage with BHE extract (50 mg.kg(-1)) or its fractions (as per the yield of the fractioning process) or vehicle (Control) was performed during 14 days. Baseline values, corresponding to individuals without tumour or treatment with UT, were also included. After treatment, tumour volume and mass, plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress in liver and tumour, TNF-α level in liver and tumour homogenates, and survival rates were analysed. Both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction successfully reduced tumour weight and volume, and modulated anti-oxidant systems. The hepatic TNF-α level indicated a greater effect from the BHE extract as compared to its BuOH fraction. Importantly, both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction increased the survival time of the tumour-bearing animals. Inversely, the CHCl3 fraction was ineffective. These data represent an in vivo demonstration of the importance of the modulation of oxidative stress as part of the anti-neoplastic activity of UT, as well as constitute evidence of the lack of activity of isolated POAs in the primary tumour of this tumour lineage. These effects are possibly resulting from a synergic combination of substances, most of them with antioxidant properties.

  4. Network Authentication Protocol Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This is called the “Decision Diffie-Hellman Problem” ( DDH ) [68]. For the protocols discussed in this paper, the cryptographic strength of the generated...group key is solely dependent upon the strength of the underlying two-party protocols. That said, we will not address the DDH problem further in this

  5. Recombinant gene expression protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuan, Rocky S

    1997-01-01

    .... A fundamental requirement for successful recombinant gene expression is the design of the cloning vector and the choice of the host organism for expression. Recombinant Gene Expression Protocols grows out of the need for a laboratory manual that provides the reader the background and rationale, as well as the practical protocols for the preparation of...

  6. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise...

  7. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  8. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  9. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  10. Histological vis-a-vis biochemical assessment on the toxic level and antineoplastic efficacy of a synthetic drug Pt-ATP on experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shipra; Sadhu, Arpita Sengupta; Patra, Swarup; Mukherjea, Kalyan K

    2008-11-12

    Cisplatin, a platinum based anticancer drug has played a vital role in the treatment of cancers by chemical agents, but in view of the serious toxicity including nephrotoxicity of cisplatin, various other platinum based drugs have been synthesized and screened to overcome its toxicity. A Pt-ATP compound was prepared in our laboratory hoping to have reduced or no toxicity along with the potentiality of reducing neoplasm growth. A Pt-ATP compound was prepared. It was first screened for its antineoplastic efficacy. Confirming that, subsequent experiments were carried on to test its toxicity on animals, viz. Albino Swiss mice. The animals were randomly divided into four sets--Set I: Erhlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) challenged mice; Set II: Normal mice; Set III: Drug treated mice, Set IVA Cisplatin (CDDP) treated mice, Set IV B EAC challenged Cisplatin treated mice. Set I was used to test antineoplasticity of the drug, Set II and Set III for studying drug toxicity and Set IV was treated with CDDP. Set II was used as a control. Animals were sacrificed after 5 days, 10 days 15 days and 20 days of drug administration on the 6th, 11th, 16th and 21st days respectively for Set I, II and III. Set IVA was sacrificed only on the 16th day and Set IV B on 6th and 11th days. For Set I only tumor cell count and packed cell volume (PCV) of tumor cells were recorded. For Set II and III, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) assays were done using serum while blood creatinine and creatine were assayed from blood filtrate. For cytotoxicity assessment liver, spleen and kidney tissues were collected and subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after extensive treatment. Set IV A was only studied for the biochemical parameters viz. aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) assays were done using serum while blood creatinine and creatine were assayed from blood filtrate. Set IV B was studied for tumor cell count after treatment with

  11. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  12. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  13. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one......, primarily based on descriptions of the protocols in the notation of CSP (Communicating Sequential Processes)....

  14. Active vitamin D potentiates the anti-neoplastic effects of calcium in the colon: A cross talk through the calcium-sensing receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Abhishek; Höbaus, Julia; Tennakoon, Samawansha; Prinz-Wohlgenannt, Maximilian; Graça, João; Price, Sally A; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Kállay, Enikö

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse correlation between dietary calcium (Ca(2+)) and vitamin D intake and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). It has been shown in vitro that the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) can upregulate expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). In the colon, CaSR has been suggested to regulate proliferation of colonocytes. However, during tumorigenesis colonic CaSR expression is downregulated and we hypothesized that the loss of CaSR could influence the anti-tumorigenic effects of Ca(2+) and vitamin D. Our aim was to assess the impact of CaSR expression and function on the anti-neoplastic effects of 1,25-D3 in colon cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that in the healthy colon of mice, high vitamin D diet (2500 IU/kg diet) increased expression of differentiation and apoptosis markers, decreased expression of proliferation markers and significantly upregulated CaSR mRNA expression, compared with low vitamin D diet (100 IU/kg diet). To determine the role of CaSR in this process, we transfected Caco2-15 and HT29 CRC cells with wild type CaSR (CaSR-WT) or a dominant negative CaSR mutant (CaSR-DN) and treated them with 1,25-D3 alone, or in combination with CaSR activators (Ca(2+) and NPS R-568). 1,25-D3 enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of Ca(2+) and induced differentiation and apoptosis only in cells with a functional CaSR, which were further enhanced in the presence of NPS R-568, a positive allosteric modulator of CaSR. The mutant CaSR inhibited the anti-tumorigenic effects of 1,25-D3 suggesting that the anti-neoplastic effects of 1,25-D3 are, at least in part, mediated by the CaSR. Taken together, our data provides molecular evidence to support the epidemiological observation that both, vitamin D and calcium are needed for protection against malignant transformation of the colon and that their effect is modulated by the presence of a functional CaSR. This article is part of a Special Issue

  15. Dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency against pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Cody P; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids are effective in the management of a variety of disease states, such as several forms of neoplasia (leukemia and lymphoma), autoimmune conditions, and severe inflammatory responses. Molecular strategies that selectively "target" delivery of corticosteroids minimize or prevents large amounts of the pharmaceutical moiety from passively diffusing into normal healthy cell populations residing within tissues and organ systems. The covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was synthesized by reacting dexamethasone-21-monophosphate with a carbodiimide reagent to form a dexamethasone phosphate carbodiimide ester that was subsequently reacted with imidazole to create an amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate. Monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin was combined with the amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate, resulting in the synthesis of the covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]. Following spectrophotometric analysis and validation of retained epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (EGFR)-binding avidity by cell-ELISA, the selective anti-neoplasic cytotoxic potency of dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was established by MTT-based vitality stain methodology using adherent monolayer populations of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) known to overexpress the tropic membrane receptors EGFR and insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1. The dexamethasone:IgG molar-incorporation-index for dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was 6.95:1 following exhaustive serial microfiltration. Cytotoxicity analysis: covalent bonding of dexamethasone to monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin did not significantly modify the ex vivo antineoplastic cytotoxicity of dexamethasone against pulmonary adenocarcinoma at and between the standardized dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10(-9) M and 10(-5) M. Rapid increases in

  16. ESMO International Consortium Study on the availability, out-of-pocket costs and accessibility of antineoplastic medicines in countries outside of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherny, N I; Sullivan, R; Torode, J; Saar, M; Eniu, A

    2017-11-01

    The availability and affordability of safe, effective, high-quality, affordable anticancer therapies are a core requirement for effective national cancer control plans. Online survey based on a previously validated approach. The aims of the study were to evaluate (i) the availability on national formulary of licensed antineoplastic medicines across the globe, (ii) patient out-of-pocket costs for the medications, (iii) the actual availability of the medication for a patient with a valid prescription, (iv) information relating to possible factors adversely impacting the availability of antineoplastic agents and (v) the impact of the country's level of economic development on these parameters. A total of 304 field reporters from 97 countries were invited to participate. The preliminary set of data was posted on the ESMO website for open peer review and amendments have been incorporated into the final report. Surveys were submitted by 135 reporters from 63 countries and additional peer-review data were submitted by 54 reporters from 19 countries. There are substantial differences in the formulary availability, out-of-pocket costs and actual availability for many anticancer medicines. The most substantial issues are in lower-middle- and low-income countries. Even among medications on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) the discrepancies are profound and these relate to high out-of-pocket costs (in low-middle-income countries 32.0% of EML medicines are available only at full cost and 5.2% are not available at all, and for low-income countries, the corresponding figures are even worse at 57.7% and 8.3%, respectively). There is wide global variation in formulary availability, out-of-pocket expenditures and actual availability for most licensed anticancer medicines. Low- and low-middle-income countries have significant lack of availability and high out-of-pocket expenditures for cancer medicines on the WHO EML, with much less availability of new, more expensive

  17. Toxicities of four anti-neoplastic drugs and their binary mixtures tested on the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezovšek, Polona; Eleršek, Tina; Filipič, Metka

    2014-04-01

    The residues of anti-neoplastic drugs are new and emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. This is not only because of their increasing use, but also because due to their mechanisms of action, they belong to a group of particularly dangerous compounds. However, information on their ecotoxicological properties is very limited. We tested the toxicities of four anti-neoplastic drugs with different mechanisms of action (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], cisplatin [CDDP], etoposide [ET], and imatinib mesylate [IM]), and some of their binary mixtures, against two phytoplankton species: the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis. These four drugs showed different toxic potential, and the two species examined also showed differences in their susceptibilities towards the tested drugs and their mixtures. With P. subcapitata, the most toxic of these drugs was 5-FU (EC50, 0.13 mg/L), followed by CDDP (EC50, 1.52 mg/L), IM (EC50, 2.29 mg/L), and the least toxic, ET (EC50, 30.43 mg/L). With S. leopoliensis, the most toxic was CDDP (EC50, 0.67 mg/L), followed by 5-FU (EC50, 1.20 mg/L) and IM (EC50, 5.36 mg/L), while ET was not toxic up to 351 mg/L. The toxicities of the binary mixtures tested (5-FU + CDDP, 5-FU + IM, CDDP + ET) were predicted by the concepts of 'concentration addition' and 'independent action', and are compared to the experimentally determined toxicities. The measured toxicity of 5-FU + CDDP with P. subcapitata and S. leopoliensis was higher than that predicted, while the measured toxicity of CDDP + ET with both species was lower than that predicted. The measured toxicity of 5-FU + IM with P. subcapitata was higher, and with S. leopoliensis was lower, than that predicted. These data show that these mixtures can have compound-specific and species-specific synergistic or antagonistic effects, and they suggest that single compound toxicity data are not sufficient for the prediction of the aquatic

  18. Cellular uptake mechanism and comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects of paclitaxel–cholesterol lipid emulsion on triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jun Ye,1,2 Xuejun Xia,1,2 Wujun Dong,1,2 Huazhen Hao,1,2 Luhua Meng,1,2 Yanfang Yang,1,2 Renyun Wang,1,2 Yuanfeng Lyu,3 Yuling Liu1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Delivery Technology and Novel Formulation, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 3School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: There is no effective clinical therapy for triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs, which have high low-density lipoprotein (LDL requirements and express relatively high levels of LDL receptors (LDLRs on their membranes. In our previous study, a novel lipid emulsion based on a paclitaxel–cholesterol complex (PTX-CH Emul was developed, which exhibited improved safety and efficacy for the treatment of TNBC. To date, however, the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul have not been investigated. In order to offer powerful proof for the therapeutic effects of PTX-CH Emul, we systematically studied the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul and made a comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects on TNBC (MDA-MB-231 and non-TNBC (MCF7 cell lines through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro antineoplastic effects and in vivo tumor-targeting efficiency of PTX-CH Emul were significantly more enhanced in MDA-MB-231-based models than those in MCF7-based models, which was associated with the more abundant expression profile of LDLR in MDA-MB-231 cells. The results of the cellular uptake mechanism indicated that PTX-CH Emul was internalized into breast cancer cells through the LDLR-mediated internalization pathway via clathrin-coated pits, localized in lysosomes, and then released into the cytoplasm, which was consistent with the internalization pathway and intracellular trafficking of native

  19. A 25-Year Experience of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors and Somatostatin (Congeners) Analogs: From Symptom Control to Antineoplastic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Anthony, Lowell B

    2015-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay technology was utilized in the discovery of somatostatin and was quickly brought into therapeutics; however, it took the development of somatostatin congeners to solve its limitations of a short half-life. Therapeutic medical control of hyperhormonal states such as acromegaly, carcinoid syndrome and VIPoma significantly advanced from a nonspecific approach to one that specifically and effectively targeted the underlying pathophysiology. Clinical care was transformed from nonspecific symptom control to one of a significant improvement in not only quality of life, but also quantity of life. These data submitted to US and European regulatory authorities for approval included many investigative sites with no uniform protocol and multiple investigational new drugs, and have not been previously published. This review includes the original data demonstrating the transformational impact this class of agents had on specific disease subsets resulting in regulatory approval 25 years ago. Autoradiography techniques using somatostatin resulted in identifying, localizing and characterizing its receptor subtypes. Translating in vitro data to in vivo resulted in scintigraphic whole body and SPECT scans with (111)In-pentetreotide and was incorporated into standard clinical care 20 years ago. (68)Ga-octreotide congeners using PET scanning offers a major imaging advance. Peptide receptor radiotherapy has evolved over the last 2 decades and utilizes several therapeutic isotopes, including (90)Y and (177)Lu. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A literature update elucidating production of Panax ginsenosides with a special focus on strategies enriching the anti-neoplastic minor ginsenosides in ginseng preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tanya; Mathur, A K; Mathur, Archana

    2017-05-01

    Ginseng, an oriental gift to the world of healthcare and preventive medicine, is among the top ten medicinal herbs globally. The constitutive triterpene saponins, ginsenosides, or panaxosides are attributed to ginseng's miraculous efficacy towards anti-aging, rejuvenating, and immune-potentiating benefits. The major ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd., Re, and Rg1, formed after extensive glycosylations of the aglycone "dammaranediol," dominate the chemical profile of this genus in vivo and in vitro. Elicitations have successfully led to appreciable enhancements in the production of these major ginsenosides. However, current research on ginseng biotechnology has been focusing on the enrichment or production of the minor ginsenosides (the less glycosylated precursors of the major ginsenosides) in ginseng preparations, which are either absent or are produced in very low amounts in nature or via cell cultures. The minor ginsenosides under current scientific scrutiny include diol ginsenosides such as Rg3, Rh2, compound K, and triol ginsenosides Rg2 and Rh1, which are being touted as the next "anti-neoplastic pharmacophores," with better bioavailability and potency as compared to the major ginsenosides. This review aims at describing the strategies for ginsenoside production with special attention towards production of the minor ginsenosides from the major ginsenosides via microbial biotransformation, elicitations, and from heterologous expression systems.

  1. Prevention of disease progression in a patient with a gastric cancer-re-recurrence. Outcome after intravenous treatment with the novel antineoplastic agent taurolidine. Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menenakos Charalambos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurolidine (TRD is a novel agent with multimodal antineoplastic effects. We present the case of a tumor remission after intravenous administration of taurolidine in a patient with gastric cancer re-recurrence. Case presentation A 58 years old male patient suffering from a gastric adenocarcinoma was submitted to partial gastrectomy and partial liver resection (pT2, pN1, pM1L (liver segment 2, N0, V0. 24 months later a local recurrence was diagnosed and the patient was reoperated. Postoperatively the patient underwent a palliative chemotherapy with eloxatin, FU, and leucovorin. A subsequent CT-revealed a liver metastasis and a recurrence adjacent to the hepatic artery. After successful radiofrequency ablation of the liver metastasis the patient was intravenously treated with 2% taurolidine. The patient endured the therapy well and no toxicity was observed. CT-scans revealed a stable disease without a tumor progression or metastatic spread. After 39 cycles the patient was submitted to left nephrectomy due to primary urothelial carcinoma and died 2 days later due to myocardial infarction. Postmortem histology of the esophageal-jejunal anastomosis and liver revealed complete remission of the known metastasized gastric adenocarcinoma. Conclusion The intravenous treatment with 2% taurolidine led to a histological remission of the tumor growth without any toxicity for the patient.

  2. Effect of alpha-interferon alone and combined with other antineoplastic agents on renal cell carcinoma determined by the tetrazolium microculture assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Y; Aso, Y

    1994-01-01

    The antiproliferative effect of various alpha-interferons (alpha-IFNs), alone or combined with other agents, on a renal cell carcinoma cell line was evaluated by the tetrazolium microculture assay to examine the rationale for combination therapies. Cells incubated in 96-week microculture plates at 5 x 10(3)/well were exposed to various agents for 3 days. There were no obvious differences in the growth inhibition caused by the 5 kinds of alpha-IFN examined as single agents. The combination of alpha-IFN with the following agents was also assessed: 5-fluorouracil (5FU), methotrexate (MTX), mitomycin C, bleomycin, cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (CDDP), vinblastine, etoposide (ETOP), alpha-IFN, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and alpha-difluoromethylornithine. Synergism was observed for the combination of alpha-IFN+TNF, while the other combinations had additive or subadditive effects. No interference or antagonism was found. Trimodal combinations of alpha-IFN+MTX with either 5FU, ETOP, or CDDP all showed subadditive effects. These results indicated that an increased antiproliferative effect, although not necessarily synergistic, was obtained by the combination of alpha-IFN with a variety of antineoplastic agents, providing a rationale to seek for combination therapies including alpha-IFN for treating renal cell carcinoma.

  3. Necroptosis mediates the antineoplastic effects of the soluble fraction of polysaccharide from red wine in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, Maria Carolina; Bezerra, Iglesias de Lacerda; Corso, Claudia Rita; Dos Reis Livero, Francislaine A; Lomba, Luiz Alexandre; Caillot, Adriana Rute Cordeiro; Zampronio, Aleksander Roberto; Queiroz-Telles, José Ederaldo; Klassen, Giseli; Ramos, Edneia A S; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Acco, Alexandra

    2017-03-15

    Polysaccharides are substances that modify the biological response to several stressors. The present study investigated the antitumor activity of the soluble fraction of polysaccharides (SFP), extracted from cabernet franc red wine, in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. The monosaccharide composition had a complex mixture, suggesting the presence of arabinoglactans, mannans, and pectins. Treatment with SFP (30 and 60mg/kg, oral) for 14days significantly reduced the tumor weight and volume compared with controls. Treatment with 60mg/kg SFP reduced blood monocytes and neutrophils, reduced the tumor activity of N-acetylglucosaminidase, myeloperoxidase, and nitric oxide, increased blood lymphocytes, and increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in tumor tissue. Treatment with SFP also induced the expression of the cell necroptosis-related genes Rip1 and Rip3. The antineoplastic effect of SFP appears to be attributable to its action on the immune system by controlling the tumor microenvironment and stimulating TNF-α production, which may trigger the necroptosis pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Oxidative Stress in the Induction of Metallothionein-2A and Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Expression by the Antineoplastic Agent Gallium Nitrate in Human Lymphoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meiying; Chitambar, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of action of gallium nitrate, an antineoplastic drug, are only partly understood. Using a DNA microarray to examine genes induced by gallium nitrate in CCRF-CEM cells, we found that gallium increased metallothionein-2A (MT2A) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression and altered the levels of other stress-related genes. MT2A and HO-1 were increased after 6 and 16 h of incubation with gallium nitrate. An increase in oxidative stress, evidenced by a decrease in cellular GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, and an increase in dichlorodihydrofluoroscein (DCF) fluorescence, was seen after 1 – 4 h incubation of cells with gallium nitrate. DCF fluorescence was blocked by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone. N-acetyl-L-cysteine blocked gallium-induced MT2A and HO-1 expression and increased gallium’s cytotoxicity. Studies with a zinc-specific fluoroprobe suggested that gallium produced an expansion of an intracellular labile zinc pool, suggesting an action of gallium on zinc homeostasis. Gallium nitrate increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and activated Nrf-2, a regulator of HO-1 gene transcription. Gallium-induced Nrf-2 activation and HO-1 expression were diminished by a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor. We conclude that gallium nitrate induces cellular oxidative stress as an early event which then triggers the expression of HO-1 and MT2A through different pathways. PMID:18586083

  5. Quantitative assessment of the relative antineoplastic potential of the n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata Linn. in normal and immortalized human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Rajkumar, V; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have been the target for cancer therapy for several years but there is still a dearth of information on potent compounds that may protect normal cells and selectively destroy cancerous cells. The present study was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata L. on WRL-68 (normal human hepatic cells), MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) and HaCaT (human immortalized keratinocyte cells) lines by XTT assay. Prior to cytotoxicity testing, the extract was subjected to phytochemical screening for detecting the presence of compounds with therapeutic potential. Their relative antioxidant properties were evaluated using the reducing power and DPPH* radical scavenging assay. Since most of the observed chemo-preventive potential invariably correlated with the amount of total phenolics present in the extract, their levels were quantified and identified by HPLC analysis. Correlation studies indicated a strong and significant (Pcancerous cells (IC50 values of 29.2 μg for MDA-MB-435S and 30.1 μg for HaCaT respectively). The study confirms the presence of therapeutically active antineoplastic compounds in the n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata. Isolation of the active metabolites from the extract is in prospect.

  6. Omega-3 PUFA Loaded in Resveratrol-Based Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Physicochemical Properties and Antineoplastic Activities in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Serini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available New strategies are being investigated to ameliorate the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of the drugs currently used in colorectal cancer (CRC, one of the most common malignancies in the Western world. Data have been accumulated demonstrating that the antineoplastic therapies with either conventional or single-targeted drugs could take advantage from a combined treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA. These nutrients, shown to be safe at the dosage generally used in human trials, are able to modulate molecules involved in colon cancer cell growth and survival. They have also the potential to act against inflammation, which plays a critical role in CRC development, and to increase the anti-cancer immune response. In the present study, omega-3 PUFA were encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN having a lipid matrix containing resveratrol esterified to stearic acid. Our aim was to increase the efficiency of the incorporation of these fatty acids into the cells and prevent their peroxidation and degradation. The Resveratrol-based SLN were characterized and investigated for their antioxidant activity. It was observed that the encapsulation of omega-3 PUFA into the SLN enhanced significantly their incorporation in human HT-29 CRC cells in vitro, and their growth inhibitory effects in these cancer cells, mainly by reducing cell proliferation.

  7. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Protocols for quantum binary voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Kishore; Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Pathak, Anirban

    Two new protocols for quantum binary voting are proposed. One of the proposed protocols is designed using a standard scheme for controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC), and the other one is designed using the idea of quantum cryptographic switch, which uses a technique known as permutation of particles. A few possible alternative approaches to accomplish the same task (quantum binary voting) have also been discussed. Security of the proposed protocols is analyzed. Further, the efficiencies of the proposed protocols are computed, and are compared with that of the existing protocols. The comparison has established that the proposed protocols are more efficient than the existing protocols.

  9. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  10. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  11. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  12. Frameworks for Protocol Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, Ciro; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a catalogue of frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be re-used in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. By using frameworks we aim

  13. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  14. Updating protocols prodigy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Kate

    2005-04-01

    If you are updating protocols, why not try the Prodigy website, at www.prodigy.nhs.uk ? It is a source of clinical knowledge on a range oftopics that is based on best evidence and organised to support clinical decision making.

  15. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  16. Dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide-[anti-EGFR]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency against pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyne CP

    2016-08-01

    did not significantly modify the ex vivo antineoplastic cytotoxicity of dexamethasone against pulmonary adenocarcinoma at and between the standardized dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10-9 M and 10-5 M. Rapid increases in antineoplastic cytotoxicity were observed at and between the dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10-9 M and 10-7 M where cancer cell death increased from 7.7% to a maximum of 64.9% (92.3%–35.1% residual survival, respectively, which closely paralleled values for “free” noncovalently bound dexamethasone. Discussion: Organic chemistry reaction regimens were optimized to develop a multiphase synthesis regimen for dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide-[anti-EGFR]. Attributes of dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide-[anti-EGFR] include a high dexamethasone molar incorporation-index, lack of extraneous chemical group introduction, retained EGFR-binding avidity (“targeted” delivery properties, and potential to enhance long-term pharmaceutical moiety effectiveness. Keywords: dexamethasone, anti-EGFR, organic chemistry reactions, synthesis, selective “targeted” delivery, covalent immunopharmaceuticals, EGFR 

  17. Gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency in populations of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Cody P; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2017-03-01

    One molecular-based approach that increases potency and reduces dose-limited sequela is the implementation of selective 'targeted' delivery strategies for conventional small molecular weight chemotherapeutic agents. Descriptions of the molecular design and organic chemistry reactions that are applicable for synthesis of covalent gemcitabine-monophosphate immunochemotherapeutics have to date not been reported. The covalent immunopharmaceutical, gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R] was synthesized by reacting gemcitabine with a carbodiimide reagent to form a gemcitabine carbodiimide phosphate ester intermediate which was subsequently reacted with imidazole to create amine-reactive gemcitabine-(5'-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate. Monoclonal anti-IGF-1R immunoglobulin was combined with gemcitabine-(5'-phosphorylimidazolide) resulting in the synthetic formation of gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R]. The gemcitabine molar incorporation index for gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-R1] was 2.67:1. Cytotoxicity Analysis - dramatic increases in antineoplastic cytotoxicity were observed at and between the gemcitabine-equivalent concentrations of 10 -9  M and 10 -7  M where lethal cancer cell death increased from 0.0% to a 93.1% maximum (100.% to 6.93% residual survival), respectively. Advantages of the organic chemistry reactions in the multistage synthesis scheme for gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R] include their capacity to achieve high chemotherapeutic molar incorporation ratios; option of producing an amine-reactive chemotherapeutic intermediate that can be preserved for future synthesis applications; and non-dedicated organic chemistry reaction scheme that allows substitutions of either or both therapeutic moieties, and molecular delivery platforms. © 2016 The Authors Chemical Biology & Drug Design Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prediction of drug distribution in subcutaneous xenografts of human tumor cell lines and healthy tissues in mouse: application of the tissue composition-based model to antineoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Patrick; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Ding, Xiao; Gould, Stephen E; Hop, Cornelis Eca; Messick, Kirsten; Oeh, Jason; Liederer, Bianca M

    2015-04-01

    Advanced tissue composition-based models can predict the tissue-plasma partition coefficient (Kp ) values of drugs under in vivo conditions on the basis of in vitro and physiological input data. These models, however, focus on healthy tissues and do not incorporate data from tumors. The objective of this study was to apply a tissue composition-based model to six marketed antineoplastic drugs (docetaxel, DOC; doxorubicin, DOX; gemcitabine, GEM; methotrexate, MTX; topotecan, TOP; and fluorouracil, 5-FU) to predict their Kp values in three human tumor xenografts (HCT-116, H2122, and PC3) as well as in healthy tissues (brain, muscle, lung, and liver) under steady-state in vivo conditions in female NCR nude mice. The mechanisms considered in the tissue/tumor composition-based model are the binding to lipids and to plasma proteins, but the transporter effect was also investigated. The method consisted of analyzing tissue composition, performing the pharmacokinetics studies in mice, and calculating the corresponding in vivo Kp values. Analyses of tumor composition indicated that the tumor xenografts contained no or low amounts of common transporters by contrast to lipids. The predicted Kp values were within twofold and threefold of the measured values in 77% and 93% of cases, respectively. However, predictions for brain for each drug, for liver for MTX, and for each tumor xenograft for GEM were disparate from the observed values, and, therefore, not well served by the model. Overall, this study is the first step toward the mechanism-based prediction of Kp values of small molecules in healthy and tumor tissues in mouse when no transporter and permeation limitation effect is evident. This approach will be useful in selecting compounds based on their abilities to penetrate human cancer xenografts with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, thereby increasing therapeutic index for chemotherapy in oncology study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American

  19. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  20. Phototherapy Modalities and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Ferahbaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the development of irradiation devices with new emission spectra has led to an expanded role for phototherapy in the treatment of skin diseases. This development is best illustrated by the increasing frequency with which 311 nm UVB phototherapy is used for the treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo, especially. Another example is UVA1 340-400 nm. UVA1 was first used to treat patients with atopic dermatitis, but it has been found to be efficacious in several other skin diseases. This is overview of the protocols for phototherapy with UV in the treatment of skin diseases as currently used according to recent literature review. There are, of course, other protocols in use that are effective.

  1. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  2. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  3. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  4. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  5. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  6. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 74683-79494

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  7. Neuro MR: protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulis, David J; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2007-10-01

    Clinical MRI depends on a symbiosis between MR physics and clinical requirements. The imaging solutions are based on a balance between the "palette" of available image contrasts derived from nuclear spin physics and tissue biophysics, and clinical determinants such as the anticipated pathology and efficient use of imaging time. Imaging is therefore optimized to maximize diagnostic sensitivity and specificity through the development of protocols organized along the lines of major disease categories. In the other part of this two-part review, the primary determinants of image contrast, including T1, T2, and T2*, were highlighted. The development of pulse sequences designed to optimize each of these image contrasts was discussed and the impact of technological innovation (parallel imaging and high-field systems) on the manner in which these sequences could be modified to improve clinical efficacy was further emphasized. The scope of that discussion was broadened to include the application of: 1) water diffusion imaging used primarily for detection of pathologies that restrict the free movement of water in the tissues and for defining fiber tracts in the brain; 2) the intravenous administration of exogenous contrast agents (gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid [GdDTPA]) for assessment of blood-brain-barrier (BBB) defects and brain blood flow; and 3) MR spectroscopy (MRS) for assessment of brain metabolites. The goal of this part is to discuss how these acquisitions are combined into specific protocols that can effectively detect and characterize, or in keeping with our artistic analogy, "paint" each of the major diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS). This work concludes with a discussion of image artifacts and pitfalls in image interpretation, which, in spite our best efforts to minimize or eliminate them, continue to occur. Much of the ensuing discussion is based on our own institutional experience. Protocols, therefore, do not necessarily

  8. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  9. The Evolution of Web Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, B

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines the evolution of World Wide Web protocols. The paper reviews the original protocols developed for the web, in addressing, transport and data formats. A review of developments of the protocols is given, including developments of web data formats (HTML 4.0, cascading stylesheets and XML), transport (HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/NG) and addressing (URLs). The paper describes how the web initially lacked a metadata architecture and outlines the emergence of a metadata architecture for th...

  10. A protected password change protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ren-Chiun; Yang, Chou-Chen; Mo, Kun-Ru

    2005-01-01

    Some protected password change protocols were proposed. However, the previous protocols were easily vulnerable to several attacks such as denial of service, password guessing, stolen-verifier and impersonation atacks etc. Recently, Chang et al. proposed a simple authenticated key agreement and protected password change protocol for enhancing the security and efficiency. In this paper, authors shall show that password guessing, denial of service and known-key attacks can work in their password...

  11. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  12. Host Identity Protocol Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Patrik; Melén, Jan

    The Host Identity Protocol (HIP) is one of the more recent designs that challenge the current Internet architecture. The main features of HIP are security and the identifier-locator split, which solves the problem of overloading the IP address with two separate tasks. This paper studies the possibility of providing HIP services to legacy hosts via a HIP proxy. Making a host HIP enabled requires that the IP-stack of the host is updated to support HIP. From a network administrator's perspective this can be a large obstacle. However, by providing HIP from a centralized point, a HIP proxy, the transition to begin using HIP can be made smoother. This and other arguments for a HIP proxy will be presented in this paper along with an analysis of a prototype HIP proxy and its performance.

  13. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how....... We construct an oblivious RAM that hides the client's access pattern with information theoretic security with an amortized $\\log^3 N$ query overhead. And how to employ a second server that is guaranteed not to conspire with the first to improve the overhead to $\\log^2 N$, while also avoiding...... they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern...

  14. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  15. Resource Usage Protocols for Iterators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Haack, C.; Müller, P.; Hurlin, C.

    We discuss usage protocols for iterator objects that prevent concurrent modifications of the underlying collection while iterators are in progress. We formalize these protocols in Java-like object interfaces, enriched with separation logic contracts. We present examples of iterator clients and

  16. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  17. Developing frameworks for protocol implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, C.; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be reused in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. The use of frameworks support a protocol

  18. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results.

  19. Attempts at the production of more selective antitumourals. Part I. The antineoplastic activity of cyclophosphazenes linked to the polyamines 1,3-diaminopropane and 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarre, Jean-François; Guerch, Guy; Sournies, François; Spreafico, Federico; Filippeschi, Stefania

    1984-06-01

    In an attempt to design antitumour cyclophosphazenes of improved specificity by linking them to some natural tumour finders, we studied the binding of gem-N 3P 3Az 4Cl 2 to 1,3-diaminopropane and 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine). Synthesis, mass spectrum and NMR as well as X-ray crystal structures of the two spirocyclic N 3P 3Az 4 [HN(CH 2) 3,4NH] derivatives (in which the N 3P 3Az 4 active principle is linked to the diamine in a spiro configuration) are described. Results obtained with these compounds in 3 murine tumour systems (L1210 and P388 leukaemias and P815 mastocytoma), showing their potent antineoplastic activity in vivo obtainable at well-tolerated doses, are also described.

  20. Análisis de las dosificaciones en los esquemas de citostáticos en el cáncer de mama Analysis of the dosages in the antineoplastic agents schemes in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Ramos Fernández

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo entre enero y junio de 2003, en el que se revisaron las órdenes médicas y las historias clínicas respectivas de 183 pacientes con cáncer de mama, atendidas en el Instituto de Oncología y Radiobiología, las cuales incluyeron en sus tratamientos esquemas de mezclas intravenosas de citostáticos. Para el análisis realizado se tuvieron en cuenta variables como edad, peso, talla, antecedentes patológicos, esquemas de tratamientos citostáticos prescritos y posología, lo cual permitió establecer la selección adecuada de los tratamientos y definir la dosificación correcta que debía recibir cada paciente. En la muestra objeto de estudio predominaron las pacientes comprendidas en edades entre 40-59 años; 67 pacientes presentaron antecedentes patológicos, y se observó la mayor frecuencia en edades superiores a los 50 años. Las mezclas de citostáticos más utilizadas correspondieron a los fármacos ciclofosfamida-metotrexate-5-fluourouracilo (CMF y ciclofosfamida-adriamicina-5-fluoracilo (CAF. Se detectaron 61 errores de medicación, que representó el 33,3 % del total de la muestra analizada; de ellos 40 pacientes (22 % por subdosificación, 20 pacientes (11 % por sobredosificación y 1 paciente que por sus antecedentes patológicos, tenía contraindicado el uso de adriamicina. Se demostró que es necesario la incorporación del profesional farmacéutico en el equipo multidisciplinario de quimioterapia oncológica, para brindar un servicio asistencial de mayor calidad y evitar riesgos potenciales o reales por el uso inadecuado de los agentes citostáticos.A retrospective study was conducted between January and June, 2003 to review the medical indications and the medical histories of 183 patients with breast cancer that received attention at the Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology, and that were administered intravenous mixtures of antineoplastic agents as part of their treatment. Variables such as

  1. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  2. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  3. Recommended protocols for sampling macrofungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory M. Mueller; John Paul Schmit; Sabine M. Hubndorf Leif Ryvarden; Thomas E. O' Dell; D. Jean Lodge; Patrick R. Leacock; Milagro Mata; Loengrin Umania; Qiuxin (Florence) Wu; Daniel L. Czederpiltz

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discusses several issues regarding reommended protocols for sampling macrofungi: Opportunistic sampling of macrofungi, sampling conspicuous macrofungi using fixed-size, sampling small Ascomycetes using microplots, and sampling a fixed number of downed logs.

  4. Automata-theoretic protocol programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, Sung-Shik Theodorus Quirinus

    2016-01-01

    Parallel programming has become essential for writing scalable programs on general hardware. Conceptually, every parallel program consists of workers, which implement primary units of sequential computation, and protocols, which implement the rules of interaction that workers must abide by. As

  5. Monoclonal antibodies technology. Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevado Castro, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Immunization. The first step in preparing useful monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is to immunize an animal (Balb/c for example) with an appropriate antigen. Methods (only for soluble antigen): Solubilize selected antigen in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2-7.4, ideally at a final concentration per animal between 10 to 50 μg/ml. It is recommended that the antigen under consideration be incorporated into the emulsion adjuvants in 1:1 volumetric relation. We commonly use Frend's adjuvant (FA) to prepared immunized solution. The first immunization should be prepared with complete FA, and the another could be prepared with incomplete FA. It is recommended to inject mice with 0.2 ml intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc). Our experience suggests the sc route is the preferred route. A minimum protocol for immunizing mice to generate cells for preparing hybridomas is s follows: immunize sc on day 0, boost sc on day 21, take a trial bleeding on day 26; if antibody titters are satisfactory, boost ip on day 35 with antigen only, and remove the spleen to obtain cells for fusion on day 38. Fusion protocol. The myeloma cell line we are using is X63 Ag8.653. At the moment of fusion myeloma cells need a good viability (at least a 95%). 1. Remove the spleen cells from immunized mice using sterile conditions. An immune spleen should yield between 7 a 10x10 7 nucleated cells. 2. Place the spleen in 20 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in a Petri dish. Using a needle and syringe, inject the spleen with medium to distend and disrupt the spleen stroma and free the nucleated cells. 3. Flush the cell suspension with a Pasteur pipet to disperse clumps of cells. 4. Centrifuge the spleen cell suspension at 250g for 10 min. Resuspend the pellet in serum-free RPMI 1640. Determine cell concentration using Neuhabuer chamber. 5. Mix the myeloma cells and spleen cells in a conical 50-ml tube in serum-free RPMI 1640, 1 x10 7 spleen cells to 1x10 6 myeloma cells (ratio 10:1). Centrifuge

  6. The mesh network protocol evaluation and development

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Ping; Petrenko, Y. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Mesh network protocol evaluation and development. It has a special protocol. We could easily to understand that how different protocols are used in mesh network. In addition to our comprehension, Multi – hop routing protocol could provide robustness and load balancing to communication in wireless mesh networks.

  7. The Simplest Protocol for Oblivious Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Tung; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Oblivious Transfer (OT) is the fundamental building block of cryptographic protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest and most efficient protocol for 1-out-of-n OT to date, which is obtained by tweaking the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. The protocol achieves UC-security against act...

  8. Secret Public Key Protocols Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoon Wei; Paterson, Kenneth G.

    Password-based protocols are important and popular means of providing human-to-machine authentication. The concept of secret public keys was proposed more than a decade ago as a means of securing password-based authentication protocols against off-line password guessing attacks, but was later found vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we revisit the concept and introduce the notion of identity-based secret public keys. Our new identity-based approach allows secret public keys to be constructed in a very natural way using arbitrary random strings, eliminating the structure found in, for example, RSA or ElGamal keys. We examine identity-based secret public key protocols and give informal security analyses, indicating that they are secure against off-line password guessing and other attacks.

  9. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  10. Anti-Neoplastic Cytotoxicity of Gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-EGFR] in Dual-combination with Epirubicin-(C3-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu] against Chemotherapeutic-Resistant Mammary Adenocarcinoma (SKBr-3) and the Complementary Effect of Mebendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, CP; Jones, Toni; Bear, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Aims Delineate the feasibility of simultaneous, dual selective “targeted” chemotherapeutic delivery and determine if this molecular strategy can promote higher levels anti-neoplastic cytotoxicity than if only one covalent immunochemotherapeutic is selectively “targeted” for delivery at a single membrane associated receptor over-expressed by chemotherapeutic-resistant mammary adenocarcinoma. Methodology Gemcitabine and epirubicin were covalently bond to anti-EGFR and anti-HER2/neu utilizing a rapid multi-phase synthetic organic chemistry reaction scheme. Determination that 96% or greater gemcitabine or epirubicin content was covalently bond to immunoglobulin fractions following size separation by micro-scale column chromatography was established by methanol precipitation analysis. Residual binding-avidity of gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-EG-FR] applied in dual-combination with epirubicin-(C3-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu] was determined by cell-ELIZA utilizing chemotherapeutic-resistant mammary adenocarcinoma (SKBr-3) populations. Lack of fragmentation or polymerization was validated by SDS-PAGE/immunodetection/chemiluminescent autoradiography. Anti-neoplastic cytotoxic potency was determined by vitality stain analysis of chemotherapeutic-resistant mammary adenocarcinoma (SKBr-3) monolayers known to uniquely over-express EGFR (2 × 105/cell) and HER2/neu (1 × 106/cell) receptor complexes. The covalent immunochemotherapeutics gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-EGFR] and epirubicin-(C3-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu] were applied simultaneously in dual-combination to determine their capacity to collectively evoke elevated levels of anti-neoplastic cytotoxicity. Lastly, the tubulin/microtubule inhibitor mebendazole evaluated to determine if it’s potential to complemented the anti-neoplastic cytotoxic properties of gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-EGFR] in dual-combination with epirubicin-(C3-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu]. Results Dual-combination of gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-EGFR] with

  11. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  12. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    string model. While our protocol is classical, it is sound against a cheating unbounded quantum prover and computational zero-knowledge even if the verifier is allowed a superposition attack. Finally, we consider multiparty computation and show that for the most general type of attack, simulation based...

  13. Recursive Ping-Pong Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a process calculus with recursion which allows us to express an unbounded number of runs of the ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. We study the decidability issues associated with two common approaches to checking security properties, namely reachability analysis...

  14. Affinity biosensors: techniques and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Kim R; Mulchandani, Ashok

    1998-01-01

    ..., and government to begin or expand their biosensors research. This volume, Methods in Biotechnology vol. 7: Affinity Biosensors: Techniques and Protocols, describes a variety of classical and emerging transduction technologies that have been interfaced to bioaffinity elements (e.g., antibodies and receptors). Some of the reas...

  15. Implementation of postoperative handoff protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite its importance, the practice of a structured postoperative ... the handoff protocol; limited nurse checklist to six items; added ... anticipatory guidance for the ICU team. Once the ICU team clarified any questions from the anaesthesiologist, the surgeon. (and then the theatre nursing staff) proceeded to report on the.

  16. Art. 1 Eerste Protocol EVRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmann, E.

    2014-01-01

    Het recht op bezit is niet in het Europees Verdrag ter bescherming van de rechten van de mens en de fundamentele vrijheden (hierna: EVRM) neergelegd, maar in het Eerste Protocol daarbij (hierna: EP), dat in 1954 in werking is getreden. Het is van belang voor ogen te houden dat de Tweede Wereldoorlog

  17. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use of...

  18. Group covariant protocols for quantum string commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2006-01-01

    We study the security of quantum string commitment (QSC) protocols with group covariant encoding scheme. First we consider a class of QSC protocol, which is general enough to incorporate all the QSC protocols given in the preceding literatures. Then among those protocols, we consider group covariant protocols and show that the exact upperbound on the binding condition can be calculated. Next using this result, we prove that for every irreducible representation of a finite group, there always exists a corresponding nontrivial QSC protocol which reaches a level of security impossible to achieve classically

  19. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  20. Using Ovsynch protocol versus Cosynch protocol in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Valeriu Caraba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a research on the reproductive physiology and endocrinology surrounding the estrous cycle in dairy cattle has been compiled, several estrous synchronization programs have been developed for use with dairy cows. These include several programs that facilitate the mass breeding of all animals at a predetermined time (timed-AI rather than the detection of estrus. We studied on 15 dary cows which were synchronized by Ovsynch and Cosynch programs. The estrus response for cows in Ovsynch protocol was of 63%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 25%. Estrus response for cow in Cosynch protocol was of 57%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 57%. Synchronization of ovulation using Ovsynch protocols can provide an effective way to manage reproduction in lactating dairy cows by eliminating the need for estrus detection. These are really efficient management programs for TAI of dairy cows that are able to reduce both the labour costs and the extra handling to daily estrus detection and AI.

  1. Secure Multi-Player Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Serge

    While classically cryptography is concerned with the problem of private communication among two entities, say players, in modern cryptography multi-player protocols play an important role. And among these, it is probably fair to say that secret sharing, and its stronger version verifiable secret......, MPC can be based on arbitrary finite rings. This is in sharp contrast to the literature where essentially all MPC protocols require a much stronger mathematical structure, namely a field. Apart from its theoretical value, this can lead to efficiency improvements since it allows a greater freedom...... of all known schemes follows as corollaries whose proofs are pure linear algebra arguments, in contrast to some hybrid arguments used in the literature. (4) We construct a new unconditionally secure VSS scheme with minimized reconstruction complexity in the setting of a dishonest minority. This improves...

  2. From protocol to published report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Louise; Callréus, Torbjörn; Petersen, Lene Grejs

    2016-01-01

    ), primary objective, primary endpoint, and--for confirmatory trials only--hypothesis and sample size calculation. We used logistic regression, χ(2), and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: A total of 282 applications of academic clinical drug trials were submitted to the Danish Health and Medicines Authority......BACKGROUND: Unacknowledged inconsistencies in the reporting of clinical trials undermine the validity of the results of the trials. Little is known about inconsistency in the reporting of academic clinical drug trials. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of consistency between protocols...... and published reports of academic clinical drug trials. METHODS: A comparison was made between study protocols and their corresponding published reports. We assessed the overall consistency, which was defined as the absence of discrepancy regarding study type (categorized as either exploratory or confirmatory...

  3. Enterprise Considerations for Ports and Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Internet and similar networks . The Internet model is commonly known as TCP/IP, because of its most important protocols, the Transmission Control...according to the scope of the networking involved. IETF documents RFC 1122 [25] and RFC 1123 [26] describe the Internet Protocol suite and model ...An alternative model , the Open Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) model [27], is often used to describe protocols. The OSI model defines protocols in

  4. Data Integrity Protocol for Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Durresi, Arjan; Paruchuri, Vamsi; Kannan, Rajgopal; Iyengar, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel lightweight protocol for data integrity in wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a leapfrog strategy in which each cluster head verifies if its previous node has preserved the integrity of the packet using the secret key it shares with two hop uptree nodes. The proposed protocol is simple. The analysis and simulation results show that the protocol needs very few header bits, as low as three bits, thus resulting in negligible bandwidth overhead; t...

  5. Bioinspired Security Analysis of Wireless Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo; Santi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    work, this paper investigates feasibility of adopting fraglets as model for specifying security protocols and analysing their properties. In particular, we give concrete sample analyses over a secure RFID protocol, showing evolution of the protocol run as chemical dynamics and simulating an adversary...... trying to circumvent the intended steps. The results of our analysis confirm the effectiveness of the cryptofraglets framework for the model and analysis of security properties and eventually show its potential to identify and uncover protocol flaws....

  6. Approaches to Formal Verification of Security Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Suvansh; Jain, Mohit; Chaplot, Vikrant

    2011-01-01

    In recent times, many protocols have been proposed to provide security for various information and communication systems. Such protocols must be tested for their functional correctness before they are used in practice. Application of formal methods for verification of security protocols would enhance their reliability thereby, increasing the usability of systems that employ them. Thus, formal verification of security protocols has become a key issue in computer and communications security. In...

  7. Quantum bit commitment protocol without quantum memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rubens Viana; Mendonca, Fabio Alencar

    2008-01-01

    Quantum protocols for bit commitment have been proposed and it is largely accepted that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment is not possible; however, it can be more secure than classical bit commitment. In despite of its usefulness, quantum bit commitment protocols have not been experimentally implemented. The main reason is the fact that all proposed quantum bit commitment protocols require quantum memory. In this work, we show a quantum bit commitment protocol that does not requir...

  8. Feasible quantum communication complexity protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Ernesto F.

    2002-01-01

    I show that a simple multiparty communication task can be performed more efficiently with quantum communication than with classical communication, even with low detection efficiency η. The task is a communication complexity problem in which distant parties need to compute a function of the distributed inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. A realistic quantum optical setup is suggested that can demonstrate a five-party quantum protocol with higher-than-classical performance, provided η>0.33

  9. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  10. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  11. Universal Energy Supply Protocol (UESP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, F.; Meyer, T.; Roth, W.; Benz, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Mueller, M. [Steca GmbH, Solar Electronics, Memmingen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The idea behind the Universal Energy Supply Protocol (UESP) is to equip all components (all kinds of generators, batteries and loads) with an identical and well-defined electrical DC connection as well as with intelligence and a communication interface, speaking a defined protocol (UESP). Power flow and information flow are separated, leading to more flexibility in system sizing and standardisation. A centralised control and energy management system administers the system as a whole. Its software is able to manage the energy generation and consumption and ensures the required level of reliability while reducing the operational cost to a minimum. In contrast to existing management concepts, the central idea behind UESP is to outsource the intelligence and the knowledge on the operational behaviour of the components out of the central management system into the components themselves. The components provide information about their current status of operation, current and future operation cost and constraints to the central management system. Here, using 'virtual stock exchange' algorithms, an optimised schedule for all components is determined and fed back to the components for implementation. The central management is thus very generic and can handle any component using the UESP protocol. It automatically adapts to new or changed system configurations, as these changes impact the optimisation only by additional 'players' on the virtual stock market. Eight German companies have teamed up with Fraunhofer ISE in a challenging project (funded by the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, BMU) to define the previously described protocol and interfaces and to elaborate the various implementations. The applications range form village power supply systems to telecommunication stations and signalling systems. It is foreseen to establish UESP as standardised interface in the future. (orig.)

  12. Heuristic Methods for Security Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurat ul Ain Nizamani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Model checking is an automatic verification technique to verify hardware and software systems. However it suffers from state-space explosion problem. In this paper we address this problem in the context of cryptographic protocols by proposing a security property-dependent heuristic. The heuristic weights the state space by exploiting the security formulae; the weights may then be used to explore the state space when searching for attacks.

  13. Cost estimation of Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giulio, Enzo

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a reflection on important aspects in the costs determination performance of Kyoto Protocol. The evaluation of the main models evidence possible impacts on the economies. A key role in the determination of the cost is represented by the relative hypothesis to emission trading and the projects CDM-JI and from the political capacity at the cost negative or equal to zero [it

  14. Behavior Protocols for Software Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, František; Višňovský, Stanislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 11 (2002), s. 1056-1076 ISSN 0098-5589 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030902; GA ČR GA201/99/0244 Grant - others:Eureka(XE) Pepita project no.2033 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : behavior protocols * component-based programming * software architecture Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2002

  15. Desensitization protocols and their outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfo, Kwaku; Lu, Amy; Ling, Min; Akalin, Enver

    2011-04-01

    In the last decade, transplantation across previously incompatible barriers has increasingly become popular because of organ donor shortage, availability of better methods of detecting and characterizing anti-HLA antibodies, ease of diagnosis, better understanding of antibody-mediated rejection, and the availability of effective regimens. This review summarizes all manuscripts published since the first publication in 2000 on desensitized patients and discusses clinical outcomes including acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection rate, the new agents available, kidney paired exchange programs, and the future directions in sensitized patients. There were 21 studies published between 2000 and 2010, involving 725 patients with donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) who underwent kidney transplantation with different desensitization protocols. All studies were single center and retrospective. The patient and graft survival were 95% and 86%, respectively, at a 2-year median follow-up. Despite acceptable short-term patient and graft survivals, acute rejection rate was 36% and acute antibody-mediated rejection rate was 28%, which is significantly higher than in nonsensitized patients. Recent studies with longer follow-up of those patients raised concerns about long-term success of desensitization protocols. The studies utilizing protocol biopsies in desensitized patients also reported higher subclinical and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. An association between the strength of DSAs determined by median fluorescence intensity values of Luminex single-antigen beads and risk of rejection was observed. Two new agents, bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, and eculizumab, an anti-complement C5 antibody, were recently introduced to desensitization protocols. An alternative intervention is kidney paired exchange, which should be considered first for sensitized patients. © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology

  16. Advanced dementia pain management protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro-Lorite, Mercedes; Canalias-Reverter, Montserrat

    2017-08-04

    Pain management in advanced dementia is complex because of neurological deficits present in these patients, and nurses are directly responsible for providing interventions for the evaluation, management and relief of pain for people suffering from this health problem. In order to facilitate and help decision-makers, pain experts recommend the use of standardized protocols to guide pain management, but in Spain, comprehensive pain management protocols have not yet been developed for advanced dementia. This article reflects the need for an integrated management of pain in advanced dementia. From the review and analysis of the most current and relevant studies in the literature, we performed an approximation of the scales for the determination of pain in these patients, with the observational scale PAINAD being the most recommended for the hospital setting. In addition, we provide an overview for comprehensive management of pain in advanced dementia through the conceptual framework «a hierarchy of pain assessment techniques by McCaffery and Pasero» for the development and implementation of standardized protocols, including a four-phase cyclical process (evaluation, planning/performance, revaluation and recording), which can facilitate the correct management of pain in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol is formali...

  18. PCR protocols: current methods and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Bruce Alan

    1993-01-01

    ..." between "small" and "big" labs, since its use makes certain projects, especially those related to molecular cloning, now far more feasible for the small lab with a modest budget. This new volume on PCR Protocols does not attempt the impossible task of representing all PCR-based protocols. Rather, it presents a range of protocols, both analytical ...

  19. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    internet. 2. New Features in IPv6. Harsha Srinath. IPv4, the workhorse protocol of the currently popular TePI. IP protocol suite, is fast becoming obsolete. The exponen- ... designers of this Internet Protocol (lPv4) never envisioned the scale of the ..... using multiple access providers across the same interface to have separate ...

  20. Timed Model Checking of Security Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.; Mader, Angelika H.

    We propose a method for engineering security protocols that are aware of timing aspects. We study a simplified version of the well-known Needham Schroeder protocol and the complete Yahalom protocol. Timing information allows the study of different attack scenarios. We illustrate the attacks by model

  1. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Research protocols. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol... have such submission approved by, the Food and Drug Administration as required in 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and...

  2. Crypto-Verifying Protocol Implementations in ML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhargavan, K.; Corin, R.J.; Fournet, C.

    2007-01-01

    We intend to narrow the gap between concrete implementations and verified models of cryptographic protocols. We consider protocols implemented in F#, a variant of ML, and verified using CryptoVerif, Blanchet's protocol verifier for computational cryptography. We experiment with compilers from F#

  3. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, Muhammad Torabi; Dimitrakos, Theo; Martinelli, Fabio

    We formally specify a payment protocol described by Vogt et al. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the mCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free mu-calculus. These properties are then

  4. Reactive broadcasting protocol for video on demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jehan-Francois; Carter, Steven W.; Long, Darrell D. E.

    1999-12-01

    We propose a reactive broadcasting protocol that addresses the problem of distributing moderately popular videos in a more efficient fashion. Like all efficient broadcasting protocols, reactive broadcasting assumes that the customer set-top box has enough local storage to store at least one half of each video being watched. Unlike other broadcasting protocols, reactive broadcasting only broadcasts the later portions of each video. the initial segment of each video is distributed on demand using a stream tapping protocol. Our simulations show that reactive broadcasting outperforms both conventional broadcasting protocols and pure stream tapping for a wide range of video request rates.

  5. Language, Semantics, and Methods for Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico

    Security protocols help in establishing secure channels between communicating systems. Great care needs therefore to be taken in developing and implementing robust protocols. The complexity of security-protocol interactions can hide, however, security weaknesses that only a formal analysis can...... to a transition semantics which can easily be implemented. (An existing SPL implementation bridges the gap that often exists between abstract protocol models on which verification of security properties is carried out and the implemented protocol.) SPL-nets are a particular kind of contextual Petri...... reveal. The last few years have seen the emergence of successful intensional, event-based, formal approaches to reasoning about security protocols. The methods are concerned with reasoning about the events that a security protocol can perform, and make use of a causal dependency that exists between...

  6. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  7. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Developing security protocols in χ-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Milicia, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    It is of paramount importance that a security protocol effectively enforces the desired security requirements. The apparent simplicity of informal protocol descriptions hides the inherent complexity of their interactions which, often, invalidate informal correctness arguments and justify the effort...... of formal protocol verification. Verification, however, is usually carried out on an abstract model not at all related with a protocol’s implementation. Experience shows that security breaches introduced in implementations of successfully verified models are rather common. The χ-Spaces framework...... is an implementation of SPL (Security Protocol Language), a formal model for studying security protocols. In this paper we discuss the use of χ-Spaces as a tool for developing robust security protocol implementations. To make the case, we take a family of key-translation protocols due to Woo and Lam and show how χ...

  9. Security Protocols: Specification, Verification, Implementation, and Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almousa, Omar

    An important aspect of Internet security is the security of cryptographic protocols that it deploys. We need to make sure that such protocols achieve their goals, whether in isolation or in composition, i.e., security protocols must not suffer from any aw that enables hostile intruders to break...... their security. Among others, tools like OFMC [MV09b] and Proverif [Bla01] are quite efficient for the automatic formal verification of a large class of protocols. These tools use different approaches such as symbolic model checking or static analysis. Either approach has its own pros and cons, and therefore, we...... called SPS (Security Protocol Specification) language, that enables users, without requiring deep expertise in formal models from them, to specify a wide range of real-world protocols in a simple and intuitive way. Thus, SPS allows users to verify their protocols using different tools, and generate...

  10. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  11. Publication trends of study protocols in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Tiago S; Colquhoun, Heather L

    2017-09-04

    Growing evidence points for the need to publish study protocols in the health field. To observe whether the growing interest in publishing study protocols in the broader health field has been translated into increased publications of rehabilitation study protocols. Observational study using publication data and its indexation in PubMed. Not applicable. Not applicable. PubMed was searched with appropriate combinations of Medical Subject Headings up to December 2014. The effective presence of study protocols was manually screened. Regression models analyzed the yearly growth of publications. Two-sample Z-tests analyzed whether the proportion of Systematic Reviews (SRs) and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) among study protocols differed from that of the same designs for the broader rehabilitation research. Up to December 2014, 746 publications of rehabilitation study protocols were identified, with an exponential growth since 2005 (r2=0.981; p<0.001). RCT protocols were the most common among rehabilitation study protocols (83%), while RCTs were significantly more prevalent among study protocols than among the broader rehabilitation research (83% vs. 35.8%; p<0.001). For SRs, the picture was reversed: significantly less common among study protocols (2.8% vs. 9.3%; p<0.001). Funding was more often reported by rehabilitation study protocols than the broader rehabilitation research (90% vs. 53.1%; p<0.001). Rehabilitation journals published a significantly lower share of rehabilitation study protocols than they did for the broader rehabilitation research (1.8% vs.16.7%; p<0.001). Identifying the reasons for these discrepancies and reverting unwarranted disparities (e.g. low rate of publication for rehabilitation SR protocols) are likely new avenues for rehabilitation research and its publication. SRs, particularly those aggregating RCT results, are considered the best standard of evidence to guide rehabilitation clinical practice; however, that standard can be improved

  12. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  13. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  14. Estimation of radiation exposure for brain perfusion CT: standard protocol compared with deviations in protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Jenny K; Wang, Chu; Frush, Donald P; Enterline, David S; Samei, Ehsan; Toncheva, Greta; Lowry, Carolyn; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the organ doses and estimate the effective dose for the standard brain perfusion CT protocol and erroneous protocols. An anthropomorphic phantom with metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors was scanned on a 64-MDCT scanner. Protocol 1 used a standard brain perfusion protocol with 80 kVp and fixed tube current of 200 mA. Protocol 2 used 120 kVp and fixed tube current of 200 mA. Protocol 3 used 120 kVp with automatic tube current modulation (noise index, 2.4; minimum, 100 mA; maximum, 520 mA). Compared with protocol 1, the effective dose was 2.8 times higher with protocol 2 and 7.8 times higher with protocol 3. For all protocols, the peak dose was highest in the skin, followed by the brain and calvarial marrow. Compared with protocol 1, the peak skin dose was 2.6 times higher with protocol 2 and 6.7 times higher with protocol 3. The peak skin dose for protocol 3 exceeded 3 Gy. The ocular lens received significant scatter radiation: 177 mGy for protocol 2 and 435 mGy for protocol 3, which were 4.6 and 11.3 times the dose for protocol 1, respectively. Compared with the standard protocol, erroneous protocols of increasing the tube potential from 80 kVp to 120 kVp will lead to a three- to fivefold increase in organ doses, and concurrent use of high peak kilovoltage with incorrectly programmed tube current modulation can increase dose to organs by 7- to 11-fold. Tube current modulation with a low noise index can lead to doses to the skin and ocular lens that are close to thresholds for tissue reactions.

  15. Latest approaches of Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, M.; Matei, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recently EURELECTRIC welcome the proposal of new EC Directive concerning the inclusion in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) of credits from the project mechanisms - Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The proposed Directive is an amendment to the EU Emissions Trading Directive adopted in June 2003. EURELECTRIC calls for unlimited use of credits in ETS. The draft Directive provides for the application of these mechanisms to begin as of 2008, on condition that the Kyoto Protocol does actually enter into force, an event which is still dependent on Russia's ratification. Such ratification has been subject to contradictory statements from the Russian Government, and the question of whether their signature to the Protocol is forthcoming is still fraught with uncertainty. Although it is not anticipated that significant quantities of JI or CDM certified credits will be available in the period 2005-2007, those that do become available would provide some additional liquidity in the emissions trading market. There is a direct relation between the coming ETS and electricity pricing: environmental policy is the driver, based on the need to switch to a low-carbon future and manage the necessary investments in a rational manner - and emissions trading is the best solution available. Romania has good opportunities to be involved in the greenhouse gases market, both in ETS and JI mechanisms. Some JI projects between Romanian and The Netherlands are already done or underway. (author)

  16. DAQ architecture and read-out protocole

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, F; Jost, B; Mato, P; Mato, Pere

    1998-01-01

    The proposed LHCb readout architecture is overviewed, followed by discussion and comparison of two candidate readout protocols, namely the 'Full Readout' and'Phased Readout' protocols.The philosophy of the Full Readout protocol is to send all of the event data to a processor before commencing the high level trigger algorithms.This results in simplicity in the protocol at the cost of the bandwidth requirement for the readout network. This is our preferred approach if the network costs are not prohibitive. Using the Phased Readout protocol the event data is sent in portions according to the demands of the trigger algorithms. This results in a more complex protocol, but in a reduction on the readout network bandwidth requirement.The effect of transmission errors on the behaviour of the system, and the implementation of system partitioning, are also discussed.1

  17. Merging Multiparty Protocols in Multiparty Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Montesi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Choreography-based programming is a powerful paradigm for defining communication-based systems from a global viewpoint. A choreography can be checked against multiparty protocol specifications, given as behavioural types, that may be instantiated indefinitely at runtime. Each protocol instance is started with a synchronisation among the involved peers. We analyse a simple transformation from a choreography with a possibly unbounded number of protocol instantiations to a choreography instantiating a single protocol, which is the merge of the original ones. This gives an effective methodology for obtaining new protocols by composing existing ones. Moreover, by removing all synchronisations required for starting protocol instances, our transformation reduces the number of communications and resources needed to execute a choreography.

  18. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  19. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  20. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  1. Merging Multiparty Protocols in Multiparty Choreographies

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Montesi; Marco Carbone

    2013-01-01

    Choreography-based programming is a powerful paradigm for defining communication-based systems from a global viewpoint. A choreography can be checked against multiparty protocol specifications, given as behavioural types, that may be instantiated indefinitely at runtime. Each protocol instance is started with a synchronisation among the involved peers. We analyse a simple transformation from a choreography with a possibly unbounded number of protocol instantiations to a choreography instantia...

  2. Composing security protocols: from confidentiality to privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Arapinis, Myrto; Cheval, Vincent; Delaune, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Security protocols are used in many of our daily-life applications, and our privacy largely depends on their design. Formal verification techniques have proved their usefulness to analyse these protocols, but they become so complex that modular techniques have to be developed. We propose several results to safely compose security protocols. We consider arbitrary primitives modeled using an equational theory, and a rich process algebra close to the applied pi calculus. Relying on these composi...

  3. Tool Supported Analysis of Web Services Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Abinoam P.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Srba, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    We describe an abstract protocol model suitable for modelling of web services and other protocols communicating via unreliable, asynchronous communication channels. The model is supported by a tool chain where the first step translates tables with state/transition protocol descriptions, often used...... e.g. in the design of web services protocols, into an intermediate XML format. We further translate this format into a network of communicating state machines directly suitable for verification in the model checking tool UPPAAL. We introduce two types of communication media abstractions in order...

  4. Efficient secure two-party protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hazay, Carmit

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive study of efficient protocols and techniques for secure two-party computation -- both general constructions that can be used to securely compute any functionality, and protocols for specific problems of interest. The book focuses on techniques for constructing efficient protocols and proving them secure. In addition, the authors study different definitional paradigms and compare the efficiency of protocols achieved under these different definitions.The book opens with a general introduction to secure computation and then presents definitions of security for a

  5. Search and nonsearch protocols for radiographic consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swensson, R.G.; Theodore, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Six radiologists, acting as film reviewers, used two different consultation protocols to differentiate among 292 ambiguous findings on chest films: 120 simulated nodules and 172 normal findings (previous readers' false-positive reports of nodules). The non-search protocol identified each finding (by location), and reviewers rated its likelihood as a nodule. The search protocol, which asked reviewers to report and rate all locations regarded as possible nodules on each film, assigned a default negative rating to any unreported finding (nodule or normal). Receiver operator characteristic analyses demonstrated a significantly higher accuracy for each reviewer's search- protocol discriminations between these nodules and confusing normal findings

  6. A new quantum private comparison protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Wang, Jing; Ahmed, Hafeez; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2017-10-01

    For two participants to compare the equality of their private information without revealing them, a new quantum private protocol with the help of semi-honest third party TP is proposed. Different from previous protocols, the four particle |Wf⟩ state and the |χ+⟩ state are utilized in this protocol as the carriers of quantum information and form the entanglement swapping as basic principle. The simple measurement of quantum states and exclusive-or operation are only required to conduct in this protocol. What's more, this protocol can compare two bits of two participants' private information in every comparison time. Meanwhile, it needs no unitary operation to fulfill this protocol. This protocol is feasible and efficient to execute through these aspects. In the end, the security of this protocol is analyzed at great length from two kinds of attacks including the outside attack and the participant attack. And the analysis result shows that this protocol can withstand various kinds of attacks and be secure to perform efficiently.

  7. Mac protocols for cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a literature review of various wireless MAC protocols and techniques for achieving real-time and reliable communications in the context of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The evaluation analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 for CPS therein will give insights into configuration and optimization of critical design parameters of MAC protocols. In addition, this book also presents the design and evaluation of an adaptive MAC protocol for medical CPS, which exemplifies how to facilitate real-time and reliable communications in CPS by exploiting IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocols. This book wil

  8. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  9. [Climate change and Kyoto protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergasti, G; Pippia, V; Murzilli, G; De Luca D'Alessandro, E

    2009-01-01

    Due to industrial revolution and the heavy use of fossil fuels, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dramatically during the last hundred years, and this has lead to an increase in mean global temperature. The environmental consequences of this are: the melting of the ice caps, an increase in mean sea-levels, catastrophic events such as floodings, hurricanes and earthquakes, changes to the animal and vegetable kingdoms, a growth in vectors and bacteria in water thus increasing the risk of infectious diseases and damage to agriculture. The toxic effects of the pollution on human health are both acute and chronic. The Kyoto Protocol is an important step in the campaign against climatic changes but it is not sufficient. A possible solution might be for the States which produce the most of pollution to adopt a better political stance for the environment and to use renewable resources for the production of energy.

  10. Natural disturbances and Kyoto protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teobaldelli M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent letter published in Nature (Kurz et al. 2008a reports an outbreak of mountain pine beetles in British Columbia, destroying millions of trees; according to the authors, by 2020, the beetles will have done so much damage that the forest is expected to release more carbon dioxide than it absorbs. All those natural disturbances could overwhelmed all the efforts made by Canada to influence the carbon balance through forest management. Considering that Canada decided not to elect forest management within the Kyoto Protocol, it is clear that future climate mitigation agreements, aimed to encourage changes in forest management, should account for and protect against the impacts of natural disturbances.

  11. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.; Bosselaar, L.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The contribution was 57 PJ in 1990 and also 57 PJ in 1995. The efficiency of passive solar energy systems increased from -31.5% to -28.1% in the period 1990-1995, mainly as a result of the use of extra insulating glazing. As a result of the reduction of energy consumption for heating in houses it is expected that the extra contribution of 2 PJ will not be realized in the year 2010. It is suggested that the method to determine the absolute contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand of dwellings is to be included in the protocol monitoring renewable energy. For the method to be included in the energy statistics of Statistics Netherlands (CBS) it can be considered only to take into account the difference compared to 1990. 11 refs

  12. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

  13. Wind power agreement protocol; Protocole d'accord eolien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this protocol of agreement is to propose to wind turbine fitters some models of contracts allowing the setting up of wind turbines on agricultural lots. These documents, which make an indissociable ensemble, apply to both phases of development of a wind power project: the feasibility study phase, for a duration comprised between 2 and 5 years (studies, administrative procedures, precise definition of the project), and the construction, exploitation and dismantling phase. These documents will serve as common guidelines for both the farmers and the wind turbine designers. Both parties agree to meet together in the future to propose some modifications of these texts if necessary. The four models of contracts are attached to the document: contract for the feasibility study phase, first contract between the landlord and the farmer for the cancellation of the rural lease, second contract between the landlord and the wind power exploitation company for the common right lease, and the third contract between the farmer and the wind power company for the indemnification convention. (J.S.)

  14. Model checking the HAVi leader election protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.T. Romijn (Judi)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe HAVi specification proposes an architecture for audio/video interoperability in home networks. Part of the HAVi specification is a distributed leader election protocol. We have modelled this leader election protocol in Promela and Lotos and have checked several properties with the

  15. Kyoto Protocol: trade versus the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, H.

    2001-01-01

    Could the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol find themselves up against the WTO? This paper examines how the climate change agreement could conflict with trade rules, and shows that there are potentially serious conflicts in the interface between the WTO and the Kyoto Protocol. It argues for dialogue and debate before it is too late. (author)

  16. Climate Change And The Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of global warming is addressed. Changes in earth surface temperature, emission of CO 2 and other four major green house gases are presented. Effect of global warming on weather, ocean, and ecosystem is discussed. A brief history of the Kyoto protocol starting from the 151 Earth Summit in 1972 is outlined. An overview of the protocol and a brief summary are given

  17. Welfare monitoring system : assessment protocol for horses

    OpenAIRE

    Livestock Research

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  18. Protocols | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each reagent on the Antibody Portal has been characterized by a combination of methods specific for that antibody. To view the customized antibody methods and protocols (Standard Operating Procedures) used to generate and characterize each reagent, select an antibody of interest and open the protocols associated with their respective characterization methods along with characterization data.

  19. Efficient Communication Protocols for Deciding Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jowhari, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present two communication protocols on computing edit distance. In our first result, we give a one-way protocol for the following Document Exchange problem. Namely given x ∈ Σn to Alice and y ∈ Σn to Bob and integer k to both, Alice sends a message to Bob so that he learns x...

  20. Taking an idea to a research protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... have been identified as an effective therapy as early as. 1977. Instead, multiple ... The fifth step entails writing a study one-page summary which provides a succinct summary of what is intended. The sixth step involves writing the protocol. The rigid process of protocol writing will ensure that a number of ...

  1. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain...

  2. Analysis of a security protocol in ?CRL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pang

    2002-01-01

    textabstractNeedham-Schroeder public-key protocol; With the growth and commercialization of the Internet, the security of communication between computers becomes a crucial point. A variety of security protocols based on cryptographic primitives are used to establish secure communication over

  3. Algebraic techniques for low communication secure protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Robbert de

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses new results in two areas within cryptography; securely transmitting a message between two parties and securely computing a function on the inputs of multiple parties. For both of these areas we mainly consider perfectly secure protocols, which are protocols that have a zero

  4. How to write a research protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MMed degree. Although occasional reference will be made to qualitative approaches, it is likely that the majority of these studies will be quantitative designs and these form the focus of this paper. Keywords: MMed, protocol, protocol design, research, research design. Introduction. The introduction of compulsory research for ...

  5. Nucleic acid protocols: Extraction and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed El-Ashram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield and quality are fundamental features for any researchers during nucleic acid extraction. Here, we describe a simplified, semi-unified, effective, and toxic material free protocol for extracting DNA and RNA from different prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources exploiting the physical and chemical properties of nucleic acids. Furthermore, this protocol showed that DNA and RNA are under triple protection (i.e. EDTA, SDS and NaCl during lysis step, and this environment is improper for RNase to have DNA liberated of RNA and even for DNase to degrade the DNA. Therefore, the complete removal of RNA under RNase influence is achieved when RNase is added after DNA extraction, which gives optimal quality with any protocols. Similarly, DNA contamination in an isolated RNA is degraded by DNase to obtain high-quality RNA. Our protocol is the protocol of choice in terms of simplicity, recovery time, environmental safety, amount, purity, PCR and RT-PCR applicability.

  6. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  7. Summary Report on Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Cachin, Christian

    level. In noisy-channel cryptography security proofs are based on the assumption that a given physical means of communication is at a sufficiently low level inherently noisy. In bounded-storage cryptography security proofs are based on the assumption that there exists streams of information, generated...... above mentioned research areas.   This report focuses on unconditionally secure cryptographic protocols. Such protocols are based on a limitation of the adversary's knowledge in an information-theoretic or quantum- theoretic sense. They provide a very strong form of security because they cannot even......This document describes the state of the art snd some of the main open problems in the area of unconditionally secure cryptographic protocols. The most essential part of a cryptographic protocol is not its being secure. Imagine a cryptographic protocol which is secure, but where we do not know...

  8. Accuracy of NHANES periodontal examination protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, P I; Thornton-Evans, G O; Wei, L; Borgnakke, W S; Dye, B A

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy of periodontitis prevalence determined by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) partial-mouth periodontal examination protocols. True periodontitis prevalence was determined in a new convenience sample of 454 adults ≥ 35 years old, by a full-mouth "gold standard" periodontal examination. This actual prevalence was compared with prevalence resulting from analysis of the data according to the protocols of NHANES III and NHANES 2001-2004, respectively. Both NHANES protocols substantially underestimated the prevalence of periodontitis by 50% or more, depending on the periodontitis case definition used, and thus performed below threshold levels for moderate-to-high levels of validity for surveillance. Adding measurements from lingual or interproximal sites to the NHANES 2001-2004 protocol did not improve the accuracy sufficiently to reach acceptable sensitivity thresholds. These findings suggest that NHANES protocols produce high levels of misclassification of periodontitis cases and thus have low validity for surveillance and research.

  9. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Fei; Qin Sujuan; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2011-08-15

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  10. Vitamina D y cáncer: acción antineoplásica de la 1α, 25(OH2 -vitamina D3 Vitamin D and cancer: antineoplastic effects of 1α,25(OH2-vitamin D3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica González Pardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La forma hormonalmente activa de la vitamina D, 1α,25(OH2-vitamina D3 (1α,25(OH2D3, además de desempeñar un rol crucial en el mantenimiento de la homeostasis de calcio en el cuerpo, también regula el crecimiento y la diferenciación de diferentes tipos celulares, incluyendo células cancerosas. Actualmente hay numerosos estudios que investigan los efectos de la hormona en estas células, debido al interés en el uso terapéutico del 1α,25(OH2D3 y de análogos con menor actividad calcémica para el tratamiento o prevención del cáncer. En este trabajo de revisión se describe el sistema endocrino de la vitamina D, su mecanismo de acción, su acción antineoplásica y se provee información sobre los últimos avances en el estudio de nuevos análogos de la hormona con menos actividad calcémica para el tratamiento del cáncer.The hormonal form of vitamin D, 1α,25(OH2-vitamin D3 (1α,25(OH2D3, in addition of playing a central role in the control of calcium homeostasis in the body, regulates the growth and differentiation of different cell types, including cancer cells. At present several epidemiologic and clinical studies investigate the effect of the hormone in these cells due to the interest in the therapeutic use of 1α,25(OH2D3 and analogues with less calcemic activity for prevention or treatment of cancer. This review describes vitamin D endocrine system, its mechanism of action, its antineoplastic activity and provides information about the latest advances in the study of new hormone analogues with less calcemic activity for cancer treatment.

  11. A dose-ranging study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the selective apoptotic antineoplastic drug (SAAND), OSI-461, in patients with advanced cancer, in the fasted and fed state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryant, C L; Lieu, C H; Leong, S; Boinpally, R; Basche, M; Gore, L; Leonardi, K; Schultz, M K; Hariharan, S; Chow, L; Diab, S; Gibbs, A; Eckhardt, S G

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics and determine the recommended dose of the selective apoptotic antineoplastic drug, OSI-461 administered on a twice-daily regimen to patients with advanced solid malignancies. In this phase I trial, 33 patients were treated with OSI-461 doses ranging from 400 to 1,200 mg given twice daily in 4-week cycles. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed to characterize the plasma disposition of OSI-461 and the effect of food intake on OSI-461 absorption. Secondary biomarker studies were performed to assess the biologic activity of OSI-461 including the measurement of pGSK-3beta, a PKG substrate, and pharmacogenetic studies to identify polymorphisms of CYP3A that influence drug metabolism and of ABCG2, involved in drug resistance. Thirty-three patients were treated with 86 courses of OSI-461. The dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3 abdominal pain, found in one patient at the 1,000 mg BID fed dose level and all patients at the 1,200 mg BID fed dose level. There was also one episode each of grade 3 fatigue and grade 3 constipation at the 1,000 and 1,200 mg BID fed dose levels, respectively. Other common toxicities included mild to moderate fatigue, nausea, anorexia and mild elevation in bilirubin. Pharmacokinetic studies of OSI-461 revealed approximately a twofold increase in AUC(0-24) when OSI-461 was administered with food. An increase in pGSK-3beta post-dose was seen in the majority of patients and was greater at higher dose levels. No patients exhibited CYP3A4 polymorphisms, while 100% of patients were found to have the CYP3A5*3/CYP3A5*3 polymorphism. Two known polymorphisms of the ABCG2 gene, G34 --> A34 and C421 --> A421, occurred at frequencies of 11.76 and 29%, respectively. Toxicity and pharmacodynamic data show that the recommended oral dose of OSI-461 is 800 mg twice daily administered with food. The drug appears to be well-tolerated, and overall bioavailability appears to be markedly increased when the drug is administered

  12. A Comparison Between Inter-Asterisk eXchange Protocol and Jingle Protocol: Session Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Haj Aliwi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many multimedia conferencing and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP applications have been developed due to the use of signaling protocols in providing video, audio and text chatting services between at least two participants. This paper compares between two widely common signaling protocols: InterAsterisk eXchange Protocol (IAX and the extension of the eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (Jingle in terms of delay time during call setup, call teardown, and media sessions.

  13. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Outlined is a protocol for the administration of emergency contraceptive pills. The indication for such treatment is unprotected intercourse within the past 72 hours. Absolute contraindications include the possibility of an existing pregnancy and a family history of stroke, heart attack, thrombophlebitis, breast or endometrial cancer, or liver tumor. Possibly excluded, depending on evaluation by a physician, are women with abnormal vaginal bleeding, active hepatitis, active gallbladder disease, high blood pressure, acute focal migraine, breastfeeding women, and those unable to understand instructions. The recommended regimen consists of six tablets of Ovral (two taken immediately, two more in 12 hours) or 12 tablets of Lo/Ovral, Nordette, or Levlen (four taken immediately, repeat dosage in 12 hours). The extra pills are to be used in cases of vomiting within three hours of pill ingestion. Women with a history of oral contraceptive-related nausea and vomiting should be provided with Compazine. Women should be informed that this method is effective in only about 92% of cases. All women who receive emergency contraception should be counseled that this is strictly a back-up method and helped to formulate a long-term birth control strategy.

  14. Protocol for a systematic review of N-of-1 trial protocol guidelines and protocol reporting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcino, Antony J; Punja, Salima; Chan, An-Wen; Kravitz, Richard; Orkin, Aaron; Ravaud, Philippe; Schmid, Christopher H; Vohra, Sunita

    2017-07-06

    N-of-1 trials are multiple cross-over trials done in individual participants, generating individual treatment effect information. While reporting guidelines for the CONSORT Extension for N-of-1 trials (CENT) and the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) already exist, there is no standardized recommendation for the reporting of N-of-1 trial protocols. The objective of this study is to evaluate current literature on N-of-1 design and reporting to identify key elements of rigorous N-of-1 protocol design. We will conduct a systematic search for all N-of-1 trial guidelines and protocol-reporting guidelines published in peer-reviewed literature. We will search Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, the Cochrane Methodology Register, CENTRAL, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database. Eligible articles will contain explicit guidance on N-of-1 protocol construction or reporting. Two reviewers will independently screen all titles and abstracts and then undertake full-text reviews of potential articles to determine eligibility. One reviewer will perform data extraction of selected articles, checked by the second reviewer. Data analysis will ascertain common features of N-of-1 trial protocols and compare them to the SPIRIT and CENT items. This systematic review assesses recommendations on the design and reporting of N-of-1 trial protocols. These findings will inform an international Delphi development process for an N-of-1 trial protocol reporting guideline. The development of this guideline is critical for improving the quality of N-of-1 protocols, leading to improvements in the quality of published N-of-1 trial research.

  15. Universally composable protocols with relaxed set-up assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barak, Boaz; Canetti, Ran; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2004-01-01

    A desirable goal for cryptographic protocols is to guarantee security when the protocol is composed with other protocol instances. Universally composable (UC) protocols provide this guarantee in a strong sense: A protocol remains secure even when composed concurrently with an unbounded number...

  16. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many different projects from government, academia, and industry that provide services for delivering events in distributed environments. The problem with these event services is that they are not general enough to support all uses and they speak different protocols so that they cannot interoperate. We require such interoperability when we, for example, wish to analyze the performance of an application in a distributed environment. Such an analysis might require performance information from the application, computer systems, networks, and scientific instruments. In this work we propose and evaluate a standard XML-based protocol for the transmission of events in distributed systems. One recent trend in government and academic research is the development and deployment of computational grids. Computational grids are large-scale distributed systems that typically consist of high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources. Examples of such computational grids are the DOE Science Grid, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), and the NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computing Infrastructure (PACIs). The major effort to deploy these grids is in the area of developing the software services to allow users to execute applications on these large and diverse sets of resources. These services include security, execution of remote applications, managing remote data, access to information about resources and services, and so on. There are several toolkits for providing these services such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. As part of these efforts to develop computational grids, the Global Grid Forum is working to standardize the protocols and APIs used by various grid services. This standardization will allow interoperability between the client and server software of the toolkits that are providing the grid services. The goal of the Performance Working Group of the Grid Forum is to standardize protocols and representations related to the storage and distribution of

  17. New logistics protocols for distributed interactive simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Darrin; Morrison, John; Katz, Warren; Felton, Erik; Herman, Deborah A.

    1995-06-01

    In today's environment, the transportation and maintenance of military forces is nearly as important as combat operations. Rapid deployment to regions of low-intensity conflict will become a very common training scenario for the U.S. military. Thus it is desirable to apply distributed simulation technology to train logistics personnel in their combat support roles. Currently, distributed interactive simulation (DIS) only contains rudimentary logistics protocols. This paper introduces new protocols designed to handle the logistics problem. The Newtonian protocol takes a physics-based approach to modeling interactions on the simulation network. This protocol consists of a family of protocol data units (PDUs) which are used to communicate forces in different circumstances. The protocol implements a small set of physical relations. This represents a flexible and general mechanism to describe battlefield interactions between network entities. The migratory object protocol (MOP) family addresses the transfer of control. General mechanisms provide the means to simulate resupply, repair, and maintenance of entities at any level of abstraction (individual soldier to division). It can also increase the fidelity of mine laying, enable handover of weapons for terminal guidance, allow for the distribution of aggregate-level simulation entities, provide capabilities for the simulation of personnel, etc.

  18. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-04-28

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  19. Protocolized hyperventilation enhances electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba-Arnau, Aida; Dalmau, Antonia; Soria, Virginia; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Ribes, Carmina; Sánchez-Allueva, Ana; Menchón, José Manuel; Urretavizcaya, Mikel

    2017-08-01

    Hyperventilation is recommended in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to enhance seizures and to increase patients' safety. However, more evidence is needed regarding its effects and the optimum method of application. This prospective study involving 21 subjects compared two procedures, protocolized hyperventilation (PHV) and hyperventilation as usual (HVau), applied to the same patient in two consecutive sessions. Transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (TcPCO 2 ) was measured throughout all sessions. Ventilation parameters, hemodynamic measures, seizure characteristics, and side effects were also explored. PHV resulted in lower TcPCO 2 after hyperventilation (p=.008) and over the whole session (p=.035). The lowest TcPCO 2 was achieved after voluntary hyperventilation. Changes in TcPCO 2 from baseline showed differences between HVau and PHV at each session time-point (all p<.05). Between- and within-subjects factors were statistically significant in a general linear model. Seizure duration was greater in PHV sessions (p=.028), without differences in other seizure quality parameters or adverse effects. Correlations were found between hypocapnia induction and seizure quality indexes. Secondary outcomes could be underpowered. PHV produces hypocapnia before the stimulus, modifies patients' TcPCO 2 values throughout the ECT session and lengthens seizure duration. Voluntary hyperventilation is the most important part of the PHV procedure with respect to achieving hypocapnia. A specific ventilation approach, CO 2 quantification and monitoring may be advisable in ECT. PHV is easy to apply in daily clinical practice and does not imply added costs. Ventilation management has promising effects in terms of optimizing ECT technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...... capturing the characteristics of hierarchical networks and describe the behavior of protocols on such networks. We then develop a static analysis to automate the validation. Finally we demonstrate how the technique can benefit the protocol development and the design of network systems by presenting a series...

  1. Micromobility protocols performance in differentiated services networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz, Denio; Fernandes, Stenio F.; Santos, Klebson; Kelner, Judith; Sadok, Djamel

    2003-08-01

    This work analyses and compares the performance of the recently proposed micro-mobility protocols HAWAII and Hierarchical MIP when submitted to several levels of traffic load and scenarios that effectively degrade the low packet loss feature of these protocols. Furthermore, it is shown that the use of differentiated services within a given domain infrastructure results in a considerable increase of performance for mobile nodes. The preferential treatment offered to such mobile nodes protects micro-mobility protocols traffic from the fluctuations of background traffic with losses only occurring as a result of handoff events.

  2. A Logical Analysis of Quantum Voting Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Soroush Rafiee; Shirinkalam, Elahe; Smets, Sonja

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we provide a logical analysis of the Quantum Voting Protocol for Anonymous Surveying as developed by Horoshko and Kilin in (Phys. Lett. A 375, 1172-1175 2011). In particular we make use of the probabilistic logic of quantum programs as developed in (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53, 3628-3647 2014) to provide a formal specification of the protocol and to derive its correctness. Our analysis is part of a wider program on the application of quantum logics to the formal verification of protocols in quantum communication and quantum computation.

  3. Security Protocol Review Method Analyzer(SPRMAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Narayanan, H. Iyyappa; Vinoth, R.

    2013-01-01

    This Paper is designed using J2EE (JSP, SERVLET), HTML as front end and a Oracle 9i is back end. SPRMAN is been developed for the client British Telecom (BT) UK., Telecom company. Actually the requirement of BT is, they are providing Network Security Related Products to their IT customers like Virtusa,Wipro,HCL etc., This product is framed out by set of protocols and these protocols are been associated with set of components. By grouping all these protocols and components together, product is...

  4. Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oki, Eiji; Tatipamula, Mallikarjun; Vogt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Today, the internet and computer networking are essential parts of business, learning, and personal communications and entertainment. Virtually all messages or transactions sent over the internet are carried using internet infrastructure- based on advanced internet protocols. Advanced internet protocols ensure that both public and private networks operate with maximum performance, security, and flexibility. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive technical overview and survey of advanced internet protocols, first providing a solid introduction and going on to discu

  5. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    2006-01-01

    Technically the Vienna Convention was revised by the adoption of the protocol to amend the instrument. and according to Article 19 of the protocol 'A State which is Party to this Protocol but not to the 1963 Vienna Convention shall be bound by the provisions of that Convention as amended by this Protocol in relation to other States Parties hereto, and failing an expression of a different intention by that State at the time of deposit of an instrument referred to in Article 20 shall be bound by the provisions of the 1963 Vienna Convention in relation to States which are only Parties thereto'. This solution has created a special situation, because after the entry into force of the protocol there will be living together or operating in practice 'two' Vienna Conventions, notably the convention's original text of 1963 and its new version as amended by the protocol. After the protocol has come into force, a state may only accede to the amended version, but in the inter se relations of the States Party to the 'old' Vienna Convention the provisions of that convention will remain in force until such time as they have acceded to the new protocol. This rather complicated situation is nevertheless understandable and is fully in accord with Article 40 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, which provides for the amendment of multilateral treaties. In 1989 the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention had begun with the aim of strengthening the existing nuclear liability regime and of improving the situation of potential victims of nuclear accidents. The Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention serves those purposes; it also reflects a good compromise, since it is the outcome of a negotiation process in which experts from both nuclear and non-nuclear states, from Contacting Parties and non-Contracting Parties were very active. That affords some assurance that the compromise solution reached is acceptable to all States participating in the adoption of

  6. Antineoplastic therapy by radioactive cisplatin in experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikiy, N.P.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Lyashko, Yu.V.; Medvedeva, E.P.; Medvedev, D.V.; Uvarov, V.L.

    2007-01-01

    The method of 195m Pt production on linear electron accelerators and cyclotron of NSC KIPT are described. The method of 195m Pt separation from the irradiated samples are developed. The methods of cisplatin synthesis with use of a radioactive isotope of 195m Pt are realized. Results of biological tests of radioactive cisplatin on animals are described. Our preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of radioactive cisplatin for treatment of cancer diseases

  7. Antineoplastic And Antiviral Properties Of Merocyanine 540

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Fritz

    1989-03-01

    Simultaneous exposure to the lipophilic photosensitizer, merocyanine 540, and light in the presence of serum (or certain serum components) and oxygen kills leukemia cells, lymphoma cells, neuroblastoma cells, cell-free enveloped viruses, cell-associated enveloped viruses, and virus-infected cells. The same treatment spares pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, mature erythrocytes, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and probably other blood components. Merocyanine 540-mediated photosensitization is now being evaluated clinically as a means to eliminate residual tumor cells from autologous remission bone marrow grafts and preclinically as a means to inactivate pathogenic viruses in blood products.

  8. Event-by-event simulation of quantum cryptography protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, S.; Raedt, H. De

    We present a new approach to simulate quantum cryptography protocols using event-based processes. The method is validated by simulating the BB84 protocol and the Ekert protocol, both without and with the presence of an eavesdropper.

  9. A Hybrid Collision Resolution Protocol for Passive RFID Tag Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-qing, Yan; Zhou-ping, Yin; You-lun, Xiong

    2009-01-01

    Wireless communication channel collision of RFID system is a key issue that affects the pervasive application of the system, especially for passive RFID system due to the constrained communication ability and energy supply of tags. The collision resolution protocols suggested can be categorized into deterministic tree based protocols and probabilistic frame slot ALOHA based protocols. A hybrid protocol, which combines the query tree protocol and dynamic framed slotted ALOHA protocol, is prese...

  10. Evolution of a C2 protocol gateway

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Live, Virtual and Constructive (LVC) simulations can share tactical awareness data using command and control (C2) protocol gateways as bridges: Multiple training simulations can be linked to create large scale collaborative environments; simulations...

  11. Real-Time Fault Tolerant Networking Protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    We made significant progress in the areas of video streaming, wireless protocols, mobile ad-hoc and sensor networks, peer-to-peer systems, fault tolerant algorithms, dependability and timing analysis...

  12. UK Biobank's cardiovascular magnetic resonance protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Steffen E; Matthews, Paul M; Francis, Jane M; Robson, Matthew D; Zemrak, Filip; Boubertakh, Redha; Young, Alistair A; Hudson, Sarah; Weale, Peter; Garratt, Steve; Collins, Rory; Piechnik, Stefan; Neubauer, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    UK Biobank's ambitious aim is to perform cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in 100,000 people previously recruited into this prospective cohort study of half a million 40-69 year-olds. We describe the CMR protocol applied in UK Biobank's pilot phase, which will be extended into the main phase with three centres using the same equipment and protocols. The CMR protocol includes white blood CMR (sagittal anatomy, coronary and transverse anatomy), cine CMR (long axis cines, short axis cines of the ventricles, coronal LVOT cine), strain CMR (tagging), flow CMR (aortic valve flow) and parametric CMR (native T1 map). This report will serve as a reference to researchers intending to use the UK Biobank resource or to replicate the UK Biobank cardiovascular magnetic resonance protocol in different settings.

  13. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  14. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z D n associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z D n into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively

  15. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  16. ARC Code TI: Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP) is a library which serializes datatypes between XML and ANSI C data structures to support CFD applications. This library...

  17. Technical Analysis of SSP-21 Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberger, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-09

    As part of the California Energy Systems for the Twenty-First Century (CES-21) program, in December 2016 San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform an independent verification and validation (IV&V) of a white paper describing their Secure SCADA Protocol for the Twenty-First Century (SSP-21) in order to analyze the effectiveness and propriety of cryptographic protocol use within the SSP-21 specification. SSP-21 is designed to use cryptographic protocols to provide (optional) encryption, authentication, and nonrepudiation, among other capabilities. The cryptographic protocols to be used reflect current industry standards; future versions of SSP-21 will use other advanced technologies to provide a subset of security services.

  18. Routing protocols in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño; Abbas, Cláudia Jacy Barenco

    2009-01-01

    The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

  19. Protocol Coordinator | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Clinical Center (CC), National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Since its inception in 2001, CMRP’s ability to provide rapid responses, high-quality solutions, and to recruit and retain experts with a variety of backgrounds to meet the growing research portfolios of NCI, NIAID, CC, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCATS, NINDS, and NIMH has led to the consid erable expansion of the program and its repertoire of support services. CMRP’s support services are strategically aligned with the program’s mission to provide comprehensive, dedicated support to assist National Institutes of Health researchers in providing the highest quality of clinical research in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines, maintaining data integrity, and protecting human subjects. For the scientific advancement of clinical research, CMRP services include comprehensive clinical trials, regulatory, pharmacovigilance, protocol navigation and development, and programmatic and project management support for facilitating the conduct of 400+ Phase I, II, and III domestic and international trials on a yearly basis. These trials investigate the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of, and therapies for cancer, influenza, HIV, and other infectious diseases and viruses such as hepatitis C, tuberculosis, malaria, and Ebola virus; heart, lung, and

  20. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  1. SPION: Secure Protocols in OSI Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlgren, Bengt; Lindgren, Per; Sirotkin, Teet

    1989-01-01

    SPION: Secure Protocols in OSI Networks This report describes how security services can be realized in a computer network using the protocols of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model for communication. The report starts with defining security requirements for a "typical" local area network in a company, university or similar organization. It is assumed that the organization does not use the network for transfer of extremely sensitive information, such a...

  2. Topology Discovery Using Cisco Discovery Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Sergio R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of discovering network topology in proprietary networks. Namely, we investigate topology discovery in Cisco-based networks. Cisco devices run Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) which holds information about these devices. We first compare properties of topologies that can be obtained from networks deploying CDP versus Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Management Information Base (MIB) Forwarding Database (FDB). Then we describe a method of discovering topology ...

  3. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  4. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  5. Protocol for communications in potentially noisy environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Gerlad M.; Farrow, Jeffrey

    2016-02-09

    A communications protocol that is designed for transmission of data in networks that are subjected to harsh conditions is described herein. A network includes a plurality of devices, where the devices comprise respective nodes. The nodes are in communication with one another by way of a central network hub. The protocol causes the nodes to transmit data over a network bus at different data rates depending upon whether the nodes are operating normally or an arbitration procedure has been invoked.

  6. Robust Routing Protocol For Digital Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvit, Maclen

    1994-01-01

    Refinement of ditigal-message-routing protocol increases fault tolerance of polled networks. AbNET-3 is latest of generic AbNET protocols for transmission of messages among computing nodes. AbNET concept described in "Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network" (NPO-18133). Specifically aimed at increasing fault tolerance of network in broadcast mode, in which one node broadcasts message to and receives responses from all other nodes. Communication in network of computers maintained even when links fail.

  7. A Review of Fair Exchange Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah AlOtaibi; Hamza Aldabbas

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the Internet has become an essential business platform, aiding trading, distribution and sales between organisations, consumers and even between consumers themselves. This technology revolution has brought e-commerce to an entirely new level, which therefore has raised some new security issues. Security protocols in e-commerce are required to manage the transactions between buyers and sellers. In order to engage customers in e-commerce, these protocols should be well formulated and ...

  8. Network Coding Protocols for Smart Grid Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Phulpin, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    but then switches to a denser coding structure towards the end. Our systematic mechanism maintains the sparse structure during the recombination of packets at the intermediate nodes. The performance of our protocol is compared by means of simulations of IEEE reference grids against standard master-slave protocols...... used in real systems. Our results show that network coding achieves 100% reliability, even for hostile network conditions, while gathering data 10 times faster than standard master-slave schemes....

  9. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near......-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements....

  10. Network-topology-adaptive quantum conference protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    As an important application of the quantum network communication, quantum multiparty conference has made multiparty secret communication possible. Previous quantum multiparty conference schemes based on quantum data encryption are insensitive to network topology. However, the topology of the quantum network significantly affects the communication efficiency, e.g., parallel transmission in a channel with limited bandwidth. We have proposed two distinctive protocols, which work in two basic network topologies with efficiency higher than the existing ones. We first present a protocol which works in the reticulate network using Greeberger—Horne—Zeilinger states and entanglement swapping. Another protocol, based on quantum multicasting with quantum data compression, which can improve the efficiency of the network, works in the star-like network. The security of our protocols is guaranteed by quantum key distribution and one-time-pad encryption. In general, the two protocols can be applied to any quantum network where the topology can be equivalently transformed to one of the two structures we propose in our protocols. (general)

  11. Content evidence of a spectrographic analysis protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Wanderley Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to verify the content evidence of a spectrographic analysis protocol. Methods: a methodological study in which five speech therapists who assessed the clarity and the relevance of the protocol were selected. The Content Validity Index (CVI was used to investigate the level of agreement among judges regarding overall aspects, items and domains of the protocol. Results: most judges considered the overall aspects of the protocol as comprehensive. As for clarity, 17 items showed an excellent content validity (CVI ≥ 0.78, three showed a good content validity (0.60 ≤ CVI ≤ 0.77 and two items were judged as poor (CVI ≤ 0.59. As for relevance, 19 items obtained an excellent content validity (CVI ≥ 0.78 and three had a good content validity (0.60 ≤ CVI ≤ 0.77. The judges suggested adding items related to vocal signal normality in all domains. After the analysis, 18 items required no reformulation, five items were added, three were reformulated and one was excluded. Conclusion: the proposed protocol was regarded as a comprehensive one. The items presented a good to excellent content validity as for clarity and relevance. After this validation step, the protocol ended up presenting 25 items distributed into five domains.

  12. Simulation and Evaluation of CTP and Secure-CTP Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pecho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses characteristics and qualities of two routing protocols – Collection Tree Protocol and its secure modification. The original protocol, as well as other protocols for wireless sensors, solves only problems of ra- dio communication and limited resources. Our design of the secure protocol tries to solve also the essential security ob- jectives. For the evaluation of properties of our protocol in large networks, a TOSSIM simulator was used. Our effort was to show the influence of the modification of the routing protocol to its behavior and quality of routing trees. We have proved that adding security into protocol design does not necessarily mean higher demands for data transfer, power consumption or worse protocol efficiency. In the paper, we manifest that security in the protocol may be achieved with low cost and may offer similar performance as the original protocol.

  13. Epidemic Protocols for Pervasive Computing Systems - Moving Focus from Architecture to Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Pervasive computing systems are inherently running on unstable networks and devices, subject to constant topology changes, network failures, and high churn. For this reason, pervasive computing infrastructures need to handle these issues as part of their design. This is, however, not feasible...... epidemic protocols as distribution mechanism for pervasive systems. The nature of epidemic protocols make them easy to implement, easy to deploy, and resilient to failures. By using epidemic protocols, it is possible to mitigate a wide range of the potential issues on the protocol layer. The result...... is lower complexity of building pervasive systems and higher robustness....

  14. Exposição ocupacional a medicamentos antineoplásicos em clínicas veterinárias no município do Rio de Janeiro / Occupational risks in the manipulation of antineoplastic in clinical veterinarians in the of Rio de Janeiro city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Faria da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Médicos veterinários estão expostos constantemente a riscos químicos, físicos e biológicos durante a prática de sua profissão. Médicos veterinários, de 78 dos 88estabelecimentos registrados no Conselho Regional de Medicina Veterinária do Rio de Janeiro e com mais de cinco anos de funcionamento, foram entrevistados sobre o uso de medicamentos antineoplásicos, medidas de proteção individual e efeitos tóxicos associados. A vincristina (100% é o antineoplásico mais utilizado, seguido da ciclofosfamida (27,02%. Nenhuma das clínicas visitadas possuía capela de fluxo laminar; 58,10% dos profissionais não utilizavam máscaras, 16,20% não usavam luvas e 14,85% nenhum tipo de Equipamento de Proteção Individual (EPI; 30% relataram não conhecer os efeitos tóxicos decorrentes da exposição aos antineoplásicos. A maioria dos entrevistados relatou que, durante a graduação, não recebeu orientação adequada sobre riscos químicos ocupacionais. Ações de vigilância sanitária devem ser tomadas para diminuir os riscos decorrentes da manipulação de medicamentos antineoplásicos em clínicas veterinárias. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Veterinarians are constantly exposed to chemical physical and biological risks during professional practice. Veterinarians from 78 out of 88 fi ve-year functioning establishments in the city of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed about antineoplastics usage and individual protective measures and the associated toxic effects. As informed, vincristine (100% is the most widely used anticancer, followed by cyclophosphamide (27.02%. None of the clinics visited had any laminar fl ow chamber; 58.10% of professionals weren’t using masks to manipulate anticancers; 16.20% weren’t using gloves and 14.85% weren’t using any type of IEP; 30% reported not to be aware of antineoplastics toxicity. Most veterinarians related that during graduation course no proper

  15. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  16. Differential phase-time shifting protocol for QKD (DPTS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We explore the implementation of a novel protocol for fiber-based high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) which improves over the traditional DPS-QKD and COW protocols.......We explore the implementation of a novel protocol for fiber-based high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) which improves over the traditional DPS-QKD and COW protocols....

  17. The challenges of additional protocol implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renis, Therese

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements, INFCIRC/540, (referred to as the Additional Protocol) in May 1997. The Additional Protocol provides for new mechanisms that include expanded information on State's nuclear activities to be declared to the IAEA and increased physical access to locations for IAEA inspectors. The objective is to provide the basis for gaining assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in a State. Although the Agency conducted field trials of various aspects of implementation of the Additional Protocol, the first actual implementation experience began with the entry into force of Australia's additional protocol in December of 1997. As of late August 2001,21 states have entered into force an additional protocol and another 35 states have signed the additional protocol but not yet entered the agreement into force. Because implementation of the Additional Protocol requires new activities to be carried out by the IAEA, new procedures, guidelines and training have been developed to support these activities. As more experience is gained these documents are being refined and additional ones developed to meet unforeseen needs. In addition, evaluation and follow-up of the expanded information and the results of increased access has required the Safeguards Department to expand and adapt its procedures and mode of operation. The challenge has been in establishing sufficient measures and the necessary infrastructure for consistent application of the additional protocol in such a way that they can be adapted as needed based on Agency experience. Initial development focused on the logistical aspects of implementing these new activities. These activities include the processing, handling and review of additional protocol declarations; planning, conducting and reporting on complementary access activities; and follow-up activities arising from information review or

  18. Standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Courtney J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the population status of many marsh-dependent birds in North America but recent efforts have focused on collecting more reliable information and estimates of population trends. As part of that effort, a standardized survey protocol was developed in 1999 that provided guidance for conducting marsh bird surveys throughout North America such that data would be consistent among locations. The original survey protocol has been revised to provide greater clarification on many issues as the number of individuals using the protocol has grown. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol instructs surveyors to conduct an initial 5-minute passive point-count survey followed by a series of 1-minute segments during which marsh bird calls are broadcast into the marsh following a standardized approach. Surveyors are instructed to record each individual bird from the suite of 26 focal species that are present in their local area on separate lines of a datasheet and estimate the distance to each bird. Also, surveyors are required to record whether each individual bird was detected within each 1-minute subsegment of the survey. These data allow analysts to use several different approaches for estimating detection probability. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol provides detailed instructions that explain the field methods used to monitor marsh birds in North America.

  19. A Lightweight Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongdong Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The buyer-seller watermarking protocol enables a seller to successfully identify a traitor from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer. Based on finite field theory and the homomorphic property of public key cryptosystems such as RSA, several buyer-seller watermarking protocols (N. Memon and P. W. Wong (2001 and C.-L. Lei et al. (2004 have been proposed previously. However, those protocols require not only large computational power but also substantial network bandwidth. In this paper, we introduce a new buyer-seller protocol that overcomes those weaknesses by managing the watermarks. Compared with the earlier protocols, ours is n times faster in terms of computation, where n is the number of watermark elements, while incurring only O(1/lN times communication overhead given the finite field parameter lN. In addition, the quality of the watermarked image generated with our method is better, using the same watermark strength.

  20. Information Flow in Secret Sharing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Kashefi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The entangled graph states have emerged as an elegant and powerful quantum resource, indeed almost all multiparty protocols can be written in terms of graph states including measurement based quantum computation (MBQC, error correction and secret sharing amongst others. In addition they are at the forefront in terms of implementations. As such they represent an excellent opportunity to move towards integrated protocols involving many of these elements. In this paper we look at expressing and extending graph state secret sharing and MBQC in a common framework and graphical language related to flow. We do so with two main contributions. First we express in entirely graphical terms which set of players can access which information in graph state secret sharing protocols. These succinct graphical descriptions of access allow us to take known results from graph theory to make statements on the generalisation of the previous schemes to present new secret sharing protocols. Second, we give a set of necessary conditions as to when a graph with flow, i.e. capable of performing a class of unitary operations, can be extended to include vertices which can be ignored, pointless measurements, and hence considered as unauthorised players in terms of secret sharing, or error qubits in terms of fault tolerance. This offers a way to extend existing MBQC patterns to secret sharing protocols. Our characterisation of pointless measurements is believed also to be a useful tool for further integrated measurement based schemes, for example in constructing fault tolerant MBQC schemes.

  1. Decellularization of placentas: establishing a protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.P.C. Leonel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological biomaterials for tissue engineering purposes can be produced through tissue and/or organ decellularization. The remaining extracellular matrix (ECM must be acellular and preserve its proteins and physical features. Placentas are organs of great interest because they are discarded after birth and present large amounts of ECM. Protocols for decellularization are tissue-specific and have not been established for canine placentas yet. This study aimed at analyzing a favorable method for decellularization of maternal and fetal portions of canine placentas. Canine placentas were subjected to ten preliminary tests to analyze the efficacy of parameters such as the type of detergents, freezing temperatures and perfusion. Two protocols were chosen for further analyses using histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and DNA quantification. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was the most effective detergent for cell removal. Freezing placentas before decellularization required longer periods of incubation in different detergents. Both perfusion and immersion methods were capable of removing cells. Placentas decellularized using Protocol I (1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA, 50 mM TRIS, and 0.5% antibiotic preserved the ECM structure better, but Protocol I was less efficient to remove cells and DNA content from the ECM than Protocol II (1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA, 0.05% trypsin, and 0.5% antibiotic.

  2. Supporting Adaptation of Wireless Communication Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LACHHMAN DAS DHOMEJA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive devices such as mobile phones and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants come with different wireless communication capabilities, for example, WiFi (Wireless Fidelity, Bluetooth, IrDA (Infrared, etc. In order for pervasive devices to interact with each other, they need to have matching (alike communication capabilities, otherwise such heterogeneous devices would not be able to interact with each other. In this paper we address this issue and propose a system that makes devices with heterogeneous wireless communication capabilities communicate with each other. The proposed system supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols through a proxy, which sits between a client and a server, and supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols. Its functionality involves intercepting a request made by a client with a different wireless communication capability (e.g. Bluetooth from what the server has (e.g. WiFi, connecting to the server and then sending results back to the client. We have tested the system by implementing a messaging service application and running it on the system. The proxy supports all Bluetooth protocols, i.e. OBEX (Object Exchange, L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol, RFCOM (Radio Frequency Communication and WiFi protocol and can run on (J2MW (Java 2 Micro Edition enabled mobile phones which support both Bluetooth and WiFi capabilities

  3. Controlled Delegation Protocol in Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang MingHour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve off-line delegation for mobile readers, we propose a delegation protocol for mobile RFID allowing its readers access to specific tags through back-end server. That is to say, reader-tag mutual authentication can be performed without readers being connected to back-end server. Readers are also allowed off-line access to tags' data. Compared with other delegation protocols, our scheme uniquely enables back-end server to limit each reader's reading times during delegation. Even in a multireader situation, our protocol can limit reading times and reading time periods for each of them and therefore makes back-end server's delegation more flexible. Besides, our protocol can prevent authorized readers from transferring their authority to the unauthorized, declining invalid access to tags. Our scheme is proved viable and secure with GNY logic; it is against certain security threats, such as replay attacks, denial of service (DoS attacks, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, counterfeit tags, and breaches of location and data privacy. Also, the performance analysis of our protocol proves that current tags can afford the computation load required in this scheme.

  4. Supporting Adaptation of Wireless Communication Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhomeja, L.D.; Soomro, I.A.; Malkani, Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive devices such as mobile phones and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) come with different wireless communication capabilities, for example, WiFi (Wireless Fidelity), Bluetooth, IrDA (Infrared), etc. In order for pervasive devices to interact with each other, they need to have matching (alike) communication capabilities, otherwise such heterogeneous devices would not be able to interact with each other. In this paper we address this issue and propose a system that makes devices with heterogeneous wireless communication capabilities communicate with each other. The proposed system supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols through a proxy, which sits between a client and a server, and supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols. Its functionality involves intercepting a request made by a client with a different wireless communication capability (e.g. Bluetooth) from what the server has (e.g. WiFi), connecting to the server and then sending results back to the client. We have tested the system by implementing a messaging service application and running it on the system. The proxy supports all Bluetooth protocols, i.e. OBEX (Object Exchange), L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol), RFCOM (Radio Frequency Communication) and WiFi protocol and can run on (J2MW (Java 2 Micro Edition) enabled mobile phones which support both Bluetooth and WiFi capabilities. (author)

  5. Evaluation of counterfactuality in counterfactual communication protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson-Shukur, D. R. M.; Barnes, C. H. W.; Gottfries, A. N. O.

    2017-12-01

    We provide an in-depth investigation of parameter estimation in nested Mach-Zehnder interferometers (NMZIs) using two information measures: the Fisher information and the Shannon mutual information. Protocols for counterfactual communication have, so far, been based on two different definitions of counterfactuality. In particular, some schemes have been based on NMZI devices, and have recently been subject to criticism. We provide a methodology for evaluating the counterfactuality of these protocols, based on an information-theoretical framework. More specifically, we make the assumption that any realistic quantum channel in MZI structures will have some weak uncontrolled interaction. We then use the Fisher information of this interaction to measure counterfactual violations. The measure is used to evaluate the suggested counterfactual communication protocol of H. Salih et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170502 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.170502]. The protocol of D. R. M. Arvidsson-Shukur and C. H. W. Barnes [Phys. Rev. A 94, 062303 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.062303], based on a different definition, is evaluated with a probability measure. Our results show that the definition of Arvidsson-Shukur and Barnes is satisfied by their scheme, while that of Salih et al. is only satisfied by perfect quantum channels. For realistic devices the latter protocol does not achieve its objective.

  6. Two Cheers for the Trafficking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T Gallagher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Trafficking Protocol makes an easy target for attack. Its origins lie in an attempt to control a particularly exploitative form of migration that was challenging the ability of States to control their own borders. Its parent instrument is a framework agreement to address transnational organised crime. While paying fleeting attention to the rights of victims, the Protocol, with its emphasis on criminalisation and border protection is nowhere near being a human rights treaty. On top of all that it does not even have a credible enforcement mechanism, allowing states parties wide latitude in interpreting and applying their obligations. Strangely, these seemingly insurmountable flaws have not stopped the Protocol’s emergence as perhaps the single most important development in the fight against human trafficking. Without the Protocol, arguments around definitions would have continued to block the evolution of principles and rules. Without the Protocol it is likely that the human rights system would have continued its shameful tradition of sidelining issues such as forced labour, forced sex, forced marriage and the ritual exploitation of migrant workers through debt. Most critically, the Protocol provided the impetus and template for a series of legal and political developments that, over time, have served to ameliorate some of its greatest weaknesses, including the lack of human rights protections and of a credible oversight mechanism.

  7. A More Efficient Contextuality Distillation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui-xian; Cao, Huai-xin; Wang, Wen-hua; Fan, Ya-jing; Chen, Liang

    2017-12-01

    Based on the fact that both nonlocality and contextuality are resource theories, it is natural to ask how to amplify them more efficiently. In this paper, we present a contextuality distillation protocol which produces an n-cycle box B ∗ B ' from two given n-cycle boxes B and B '. It works efficiently for a class of contextual n-cycle (n ≥ 4) boxes which we termed as "the generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes". For any two generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes B and B ', B ∗ B ' is more contextual than both B and B '. Moreover, they can be distilled toward to the maximally contextual box C H n as the times of iteration goes to infinity. Among the known protocols, our protocol has the strongest approximate ability and is optimal in terms of its distillation rate. What is worth noting is that our protocol can witness a larger set of nonlocal boxes that make communication complexity trivial than the protocol in Brunner and Skrzypczyk (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 160403 2009), this might be helpful for exploring the problem that why quantum nonlocality is limited.

  8. Nursing Music Protocol and Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Michael J; Coto, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    Pain has always been a major concern for patients and nurses during the postoperative period. Therapies, medicines, and protocols have been developed to improve pain and anxiety but have undesirable risks to the patient. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies have been studied but have not been applied as regular protocols in the hospital setting. Music is one type of complementary and alternative medicine therapy that has been reported to have favorable results on reducing postoperative pain, anxiety, and opioid usage. However, music lacks a protocol that nurses can implement during the perioperative process. This paper is an in-depth literature review assessing a best practice recommendation and protocol that establishes a consensus in the use of music therapy. The results suggest that music therapy may consist of calming, soft tones of 60-80 beats per minute for at least 15-30 minutes at least twice daily during the pre- and postoperative periods. It is suggested that music only be used in conjunction with standards of care and not as the primary intervention of pain or anxiety. This evidence suggests that proper use of music therapy can significantly reduce surgical pain. Implementing these protocols and allowing the freedom of nursing staff to use them may lead to greater reductions in surgical pain and anxiety and a reduction in opioid use. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Semen cryopreservation protocols of Mangalarga Marchador stallions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Leite Candeias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the utilization of three semen protocols (Inra 82®, Merck Gema and Botu-crio® and two filling techniques (0.25 and 0.50 mL straws in Mangalarga Marchador stallions were studied in this experiment. Sperm parameters were assessed during processing and post-freezing. No interactions between the protocols and type of filling were observed, so they were assessed separately. Sperm parameters were not altered when the extender was added to the centrifugation; however, there was reduction of motility and strength when freezing extenders were added. The Botu-crio® protocol preserved the parameters of total and progressive sperm motility, smoothed path velocity (µm/s, straight line velocity (µm/s, track velocity (µm/s and the average and fast spermatozoa percentage better than the others. No difference between the extenders for the percentage of sperm integrity was observed. There was no difference in the responses studied on the filling techniques. The stallions presented better freezing with the use of the Botu-crio® protocol. The best post-freezing viability results were found for semen frozen using the Botu-crio® protocol and there were no differences concerning the sperm quality comparing 0.25 and 0.50 mL straws.

  10. Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Welfare Quality assessment protocol voor leghennen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Gunnink, H.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the development of the integration of welfare assessment as scores per criteria as well as simplification of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Results are given from assessment of 122 farms.

  11. Reflexions about imaging technique and examination protocol 2. MR-examination protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Adequate imaging protocol is crucial for any imaging technique. As MR is a time consuming examination, the physician serves the patient best, when he/she makes the best choice of sequences, which answer the question of the clinician and provide a definite diagnosis. Although any patient requires an individual protocol, some general rules should be known

  12. A Cryptographic Moving-Knife Cake-Cutting Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Manabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cake-cutting protocol using cryptography when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval on a real line. Although the Dubins-Spanier moving-knife protocol with one knife achieves simple fairness, all players must execute the protocol synchronously. Thus, the protocol cannot be executed on asynchronous networks such as the Internet. We show that the moving-knife protocol can be executed asynchronously by a discrete protocol using a secure auction protocol. The number of cuts is n-1 where n is the number of players, which is the minimum.

  13. A class-chest for deriving transport protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strayer, W.T.

    1996-10-01

    Development of new transport protocols or protocol algorithms suffers from the complexity of the environment in which they are intended to run. Modeling techniques attempt to avoid this by simulating the environment. Another approach to promoting rapid prototyping of protocols and protocol algorithms is to provide a pre-built infrastructure that is common to transport protocols, so that the focus is placed on the protocol-specific aspects. The Meta-Transport Library is a library of C++ base classes that implement or abstract out the mundane functions of a protocol, new protocol implementations are derived from base classes. The result is a fully viable user- level transport protocol implementation, with emphasis on modularity. The collection of base classes form a ``class-chest`` of tools .from which protocols can be developed and studied with as little change to a normal UNIX environment as possible.

  14. Energy Consumption in Location Sharing Protocols for Android Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prihodko, Mihails

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the Message Queue Telemetry Transport protocol (MQTT) as an application layer protocol in geographical location sharing applications using third generation cellular communication (3G). The MQTT protocol is compared in terms of energy efficiency and amount of data generated with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is currently used in typical location sharing applications. In order to compare the communication energy efficiency of both protocols a location sharing...

  15. Privacy-preserving audit mechanisms for multi-party protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Cuvelier, Édouard

    2015-01-01

    This thesis sets as goal the study and development of cryptographic multi-party protocols offering the properties of verifiability and privacy. The verifiability property guarantees the protocols participants and/or observers that the result of the execution of the protocol is exactly what is expected from a honest execution of the protocol. On the other hand, the privacy property ensures the participants that their private information is not leaked by executing the protocol. The thesis targe...

  16. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Fabien

    2008-02-29

    The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC), organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation). The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches). Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79-0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86-0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT Evaluation or variants of these protocols can fully substitute

  17. Network protocols for real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1987-01-01

    The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the SAE AE-9B High Speed Ring Bus (HSRB) are emerging standards for high-performance token ring local area networks. FDDI was designed to be a general-purpose high-performance network. HSRB was designed specifically for military real-time applications. A workshop was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in January, 1987 to compare and contrast these protocols with respect to their ability to support real-time applications. This report summarizes workshop presentations and includes an independent comparison of the two protocols. A conclusion reached at the workshop was that current protocols for the upper layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model are inadequate for real-time applications.

  18. Changeable HA to improve MIPv6 protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-gui

    2015-12-01

    For mobile IPv6, home agent (HA) plays an important role. Each mobile node (MN) has a home IP address, it will be not changeable. Also, the home agent (HA) of MN is not changeable. This rule provides the convenient for the ongoing communication without interruption. But it has some obvious drawbacks. Here, the new variable HA scheme is proposed. Every MN has a dynamic cache table, recording the information such as its home address, care-of address, and history address etc. If the accumulated time in one region exceeds that in the hometown, the foreign agent (FA) could become home agent (HA), the home agent could become history agent. Later, the performance of the new protocol is simulated with OPNET software, whose result shows the performance of the new protocol works better than that of the traditional protocol.

  19. Analysis of Security Protocols by Annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han

    The trend in Information Technology is that distributed systems and networks are becoming increasingly important, as most of the services and opportunities that characterise the modern society are based on these technologies. Communication among agents over networks has therefore acquired a great...... deal of research interest. In order to provide effective and reliable means of communication, more and more communication protocols are invented, and for most of them, security is a significant goal. It has long been a challenge to determine conclusively whether a given protocol is secure or not....... The development of formal techniques, e.g. control flow analyses, that can check various security properties, is an important tool to meet this challenge. This dissertation contributes to the development of such techniques. In this dissertation, security protocols are modelled in the process calculus LYSA...

  20. Will OPEC lose from the Kyoto Protocol?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Jon E-mail: jbarn@unimelb.edu.au; Dessai, Suraje E-mail: s.dessai@uea.ac.uk; Webber, Michael E-mail: mjwebber@unimelb.edu.au

    2004-12-01

    A range of energy-economy models forecast losses to members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) should the Kyoto Protocol come into force. These forecasts are a powerful influence in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations. They are used by OPEC to advance the agenda on the impacts of response measures, covertly arguing for compensation for lost oil revenues arising from implementation of the Protocol. This paper discusses this issue, and explores the key assumptions of these models and their uncertainties. Assumptions about carbon leakage, future availability of oil reserves, substitution, innovation, and capital turnover are considered. The paper suggests that losses will not affect OPEC countries equally, and that these losses are not likely to be as substantial as the models forecast. A range of policy measures are proposed to lessen any impact the Protocol may have on OPEC.

  1. A template for writing radiotherapy protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per; Ceberg, Crister; Kjellén, Elisabeth; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Blomgren, Klas; Nilsson, Sten; Johansson, Mikael; Glimelius, Bengt

    2015-02-01

    Well-specified and unambiguous treatment protocols are essential both for current practice and for the future development of radiation therapy. In order to provide assistance for writing good protocols, irrespective of treatment intention and complexity, up-to-date guidelines are highly desirable. We have analysed the radiotherapy work-flow, including clinical and physical aspects, such as preparatory imaging, treatment planning, delivery and evaluation, with the aim to outline a consistent framework covering the entire radiotherapy process. Based on the analysis, a recipe-style template for specifying the description of the radiotherapy process has been designed. The template is written in a general format, which allows for modified phrasing, and should be customised for the specific clinical situation and diagnosis, as well as facility resources. The template can be used as a tool to ensure a consistent and comprehensive description of the radiotherapy section of clinical guidelines, care programmes and clinical trial protocols.

  2. Structured Transition Protocol for Children with Cystinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Raina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The transition from pediatric to adult medical services has a greater impact on the care of adolescents or young adults with chronic diseases such as cystinosis. This transition period is a time of psychosocial development and new responsibilities placing these patients at increased risk of non-adherence. This can lead to serious adverse effects such as graft loss and progression of the disease. Our transition protocol will provide patients, families, physicians, and all those involved a structured guide to transitioning cystinosis patients. This structured protocol depends on four areas of competency: Recognition, Insight, Self-reliance, and Establishment of healthy habits (RISE. This protocol has not been tested and therefore challenges not realized. With a focus on medical, social, and educational/vocational aspects, we aim to improve transition for cystinosis patients in all aspects of their lives.

  3. Breaking Megrelishvili protocol using matrix diagonalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzaki, Muhammad; Triantoro Murdiansyah, Danang; Adi Prabowo, Satrio

    2018-03-01

    In this article we conduct a theoretical security analysis of Megrelishvili protocol—a linear algebra-based key agreement between two participants. We study the computational complexity of Megrelishvili vector-matrix problem (MVMP) as a mathematical problem that strongly relates to the security of Megrelishvili protocol. In particular, we investigate the asymptotic upper bounds for the running time and memory requirement of the MVMP that involves diagonalizable public matrix. Specifically, we devise a diagonalization method for solving the MVMP that is asymptotically faster than all of the previously existing algorithms. We also found an important counterintuitive result: the utilization of primitive matrix in Megrelishvili protocol makes the protocol more vulnerable to attacks.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols for paediatric neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, Dawn E.; Thompson, Clare; Gunny, Roxanne; Jones, Rod; Cox, Tim; Chong, Wui Khean

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, radiologists are encouraged to have protocols for all imaging studies and to include imaging guidelines in care pathways set up by the referring clinicians. This is particularly advantageous in MRI where magnet time is limited and a radiologist's review of each patient's images often results in additional sequences and longer scanning times without the advantage of improvement in diagnostic ability. The difficulties of imaging small children and the challenges presented to the radiologist as the brain develops are discussed. We present our protocols for imaging the brain and spine of children based on 20 years experience of paediatric neurological MRI. The protocols are adapted to suit children under the age of 2 years, small body parts and paediatric clinical scenarios. (orig.)

  5. Demarcation of Security in Authentication Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    Security analysis of communication protocols is a slippery business; many “secure” protocols later turn out to be insecure. Among many, two complains are more frequent: inadequate definition of security and unstated assumptions in the security model. In our experience, one principal cause...... for such state of affairs is an apparent overlap of security and correctness, which may lead to many sloppy security definitions and security models. Although there is no inherent need to separate security and correctness requirements, practically, such separation is significant. It makes security analysis...... easier, and enables us to define security goals with a fine granularity. We present one such separation, by introducing the notion of binding sequence as a security primitive. A binding sequence, roughly speaking, is the only required security property of an authentication protocol. All other...

  6. Automatic Generation of Network Protocol Gateways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromberg, Yérom-David; Réveillère, Laurent; Lawall, Julia

    2009-01-01

    for describing protocol behaviors, message structures, and the gateway logic.  Z2z includes a compiler that checks essential correctness properties and produces efficient code. We have used z2z to develop a number of gateways, including SIP to RTSP, SLP to UPnP, and SMTP to SMTP via HTTP, involving a range......The emergence of networked devices in the home has made it possible to develop applications that control a variety of household functions. However, current devices communicate via a multitude of incompatible protocols, and thus gateways are needed to translate between them.  Gateway construction......, however, requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant protocols and a substantial understanding of low-level network programming, which can be a challenge for many application programmers. This paper presents a generative approach to gateway construction, z2z, based on a domain-specific language...

  7. Newborn hearing screening protocol in tuscany region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrettini, Stefano; Ghirri, Paolo; Lazzerini, Francesco; Lenzi, Giovanni; Forli, Francesca

    2017-09-20

    Newborn hearing screening has to be considered the first step of a program for the identification, diagnosis, treatment and habilitation/rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment. In Tuscany Region of Italy, the universal newborn hearing screening is mandatory since november 2007. The first guidelines for the execution of the screening have been released in June 2008; then many other Italian regions partially or totally adopted these guidelines. On the basis of the experience from 2008 and according to the recent evidences in the scientific literature, a new screening protocol was released in Tuscany region. The new protocol is an evolution of the previous one. Some issues reported in the previous protocol and in the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing statement published in 2007 were revised, such as the risk factors for auditory neuropathy and for late onset, progressive or acquired hearing loss. The new updated guidelines were submitted to the Sanitary Regional Council and then they have been approved in August 2016. The updated screening protocol is mainly aimed to identify newborns with a congenital moderate-to-profound hearing loss, but it also provides indications for the audiological follow-up of children with risk's factor for progressive or late onset hearing loss; further it provides indications for the audiological surveillance of children at risk for acquired hearing impairment. Then, in the new guidelines the role of the family paediatrician in the newborn hearing screening and audiological follow-up and surveillance is underscored. Finally the new guidelines provide indications for the treatment with hearing aids and cochlear implant, in accordance with the recent Italian Health Technology Assessment (HTA) guidelines. In the paper we report the modality of execution of the universal newborn hearing screening in the Tuscany Region, according to the recently updated protocol. The main features of the protocol and the critical issues are

  8. Vicissitudes of Nagoya Protocol in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Blanco, Diana Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources is not only one of the central objectives of the Nagoya Protocol, but also a challenge for communities of scientists, researchers, and indigenous ancestral generally for the educational community. It is therefore essential to know what the real and material implications for the population, the ratification of the Nagoya Protocol, which despite having sufficient justification and argued, highlights the need to develop legal tools, economic, technological and education for proper and fair implementation.

  9. Zero-Knowledge Protocols and Multiparty Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastro, Valerio

    This thesis presents results in two branches of cryptography. In the first part we construct two general multiparty computation protocols that can evaluate any arithmetic circuit over a finite field. Both are built in the preprocessing model and achieve active security in the setting of a dishonest....... In previous work this task was assumed to be performed by an ideal functionality. In the second part we shift our focus to a task that is related to multiparty computation in an indirect way: we propose a zero-knowledge protocol that allows a prover to show a verifier that he holds a tuple of three values...

  10. Turf Conversion Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M and V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings as a result of water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with converting turfgrass or other water-intensive plantings to water-wise and sustainable landscapes. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M and V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  11. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  12. A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Stamps

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.

  13. Cryptanalysis of the Quantum Group Signature Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke-Jia; Sun, Ying; Song, Ting-Ting; Zuo, Hui-Juan

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the researches of quantum group signature (QGS) have attracted a lot of attentions and some typical protocols have been designed for e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. In this paper, we analyze the security of the quantum group signature with the example of two novel protocols. It can be seen that both of them cannot be implemented securely since the arbitrator cannot solve the disputes fairly. In order to show that, some possible attack strategies, which can be used by the malicious participants, are proposed. Moreover, the further discussions of QGS are presented finally, including some insecurity factors and improved ideas.

  14. Sessions and Separability in Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any uncomprom......Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any...

  15. Quantum adiabatic protocols using emergent local Hamiltonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Ranjan; Vidmar, Lev; Rigol, Marcos

    2017-10-01

    We present two applications of emergent local Hamiltonians to speed up quantum adiabatic protocols for isolated noninteracting and weakly interacting fermionic systems in one-dimensional lattices. We demonstrate how to extract maximal work from initial band-insulating states, and how to adiabatically transfer systems from linear and harmonic traps into box traps. Our protocols consist of two stages. The first one involves a free expansion followed by a quench to an emergent local Hamiltonian. In the second stage, the emergent local Hamiltonian is "turned off" quasistatically. For the adiabatic transfer from a harmonic trap, we consider both zero- and nonzero-temperature initial states.

  16. A Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of hierarchical routing protocol, which combines proactive with reactive routing protocols and takes advantages of both. And as an essential technique of hierarchical routing protocol, clustering of nodes provides an efficient method of establishing a hierarchical structure in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we designed a novel clustering algorithm and a corresponding hierarchical routing protocol for large-scale mobile ad hoc networks. Each cluster is composed of a cluster head, several cluster gateway nodes, several cluster guest nodes, and other cluster members. The proposed routing protocol uses proactive protocol between nodes within individual clusters and reactive protocol between clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed clustering algorithm and hierarchical routing protocol provide superior performance with several advantages over existing clustering algorithm and routing protocol, respectively.

  17. Taking an idea to a research protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... We present a nine-step process to assist with developing an idea into a research protocol. This process ensures that ... research ideas with a potentially “weak” evidence base, rather than starting with a specific research question. The second ..... Cape Town: Juta and Company Ltd; 2011. 9. Kern S. Analytic ...

  18. The Kyoto protocol in a global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Redek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The global climate has changed notably since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses (GHG have increased dramatically followed by an increase in global average temperature. In order to avoid negative potential outcomes of global warming, countries have adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that has so far been ratified by 192 countries. In 1997 the Kyoto Protocol, a binding GHG reduction plan, was adopted and entered into force in 2005. But several countries, including the USA, have had doubts about the potential negative consequences of the planned 5% global joint reduction of GHG. However, studies generally show that on a macroeconomic level: (1 welfare loss in terms of GDP and lost growth in EU is low; (2 it differs among economies; and (3 permit trading and permit price (in either global or regional markets is highly correlated with the welfare loss. The main objective of the paper is to describe the attitudes and responses to the Kyoto Protocol from a global perspective. The paper has three objectives. First, to provide an overview of global greenhouse gas emissions and the big drivers behind these emissions. Second, to present where different countries, both developed and less developed countries, such as India, China and the countries of South-east Europe currently stand as regards their efforts to achieve the Kyoto Protocol requirements. Third, to analyse the responses and attitudes to the Kyoto Protocol from a country development perspective.

  19. Development of quantitative computed tomography lung protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, John D; Sieren, Jered; Hoffman, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this review article is to review the process of developing optimal computed tomography (CT) protocols for quantitative lung CT (QCT). In this review, we discuss the following important topics: QCT-derived metrics of lung disease; QCT scanning protocols; quality control; and QCT image processing software. We will briefly discuss several QCT-derived metrics of lung disease that have been developed for the assessment of emphysema, small airway disease, and large airway disease. The CT scanning protocol is one of the most important elements in a successful QCT. We will provide a detailed description of the current move toward optimizing the QCT protocol for the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and asthma. Quality control of CT images is also a very important part of the QCT process. We will discuss why it is necessary to use CT scanner test objects (phantoms) to provide frequent periodic checks on the CT scanner calibration to ensure precise and accurate CT numbers. We will discuss the use of QCT image processing software to segment the lung and extract the desired QCT metrics of lung disease. We will discuss the practical issues of using this software. The data obtained from the image processing software are then combined with those from other clinical examinations, health status questionnaires, pulmonary physiology, and genomics to increase our understanding of obstructive lung disease and improve our ability to design new therapies for these diseases.

  20. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Jansen, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally

  1. The Nagoya Protocol and Indigenous Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Yolanda Teran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about Indigenous peoples’ involvement in the Nagoya Protocol negotiations from 2006 to 2010, as well as in its implementation to stop biopiracy in order to protect Pachamama, Mother Earth, and to ensure our survival and the survival of coming generations. The Nagoya Protocol is an international instrument that was adopted in Nagoya, Japan in October 2010 by the Conference of Parties (COP 10 and ratified by 51 countries in Pyeongchang, South Korea in October 2014 at COP 12. This protocol governs access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization (access and benefit sharing [ABS]. It has several articles related to Indigenous peoples and traditional knowledge, as well as: The interrelation and inseparable nature between genetic resources and traditional knowledge; The diversity of circumstances surrounding traditional knowledge ownership, including by country; The identification of traditional knowledge owners; The declaration of Indigenous peoples' human rights; and The role of women in the biodiversity process. In addition, this protocol lays out obligations on access, specifically participation in equitable benefit sharing, the accomplishment of prior and informed consent, and the mutually agreed terms and elaboration of a national legal ABS framework with the participation of Indigenous peoples and local communities in order to have well-defined roles, responsibilities, and times of negotiations.

  2. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol. 1. IPv4 and its Shortcomings. Harsha Srinath is currently pursuing his MS degree in Computer. Science at the Center for. Advanced Computer. Studies (CACS) in. University of Louisiana at. Lafayette, USA. His research interests include networking with an.

  3. Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, M.D.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, fungi have adapted to occupy specific niches, from symbiotically inhabiting the flora of the intestinal tract of mammals to saprophytic growth on leaf litter resting on the forest floor. In Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field

  4. Research protocols in National Park Service wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Walters

    2000-01-01

    While the National Park Service encourages the use of its wilderness resource for research, management policies require that all research apply “minimum requirement” protocols to determine: 1) if the research is needed to support the purposes of wilderness and, 2) if it is appropriate, determine the minimum tool needed to accomplish the work.

  5. Sexual and Domestic Violence: Policy Protocols | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sexual and Domestic Violence: Policy Protocols. India is witnessing a rising rate of crime against women. According to recent National Crime Bureau data, a rape happens every 26 minutes, molestation every 14 minutes, dowry death every 63 minutes, and acts of cruelty by husband and relatives every 6 minutes.

  6. An evidence based blunt trauma protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, R. van; Kool, D.R.; Lubeek, S.F.K.; Dekker, H.M.; Brink, M.; Deunk, J.; Edwards, M.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently CT is rapidly implemented in the evaluation of trauma patients. In anticipation of a large international multicentre trial, this study's aim was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a new diagnostic protocol, used for the primary radiological evaluation in adult blunt

  7. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  8. Failure of Kak quantum key distribution protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the dis- tribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Conse- quently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, is unnecessary. In this comment, we will point out the ...

  9. Recursion vs. Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some recent techniques from process algebra to draw several conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbeek...

  10. Protocols for communication and governance of risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Lind, N.C.; Faber, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain the need to organize the development of standard protocols for communication about major public risks. Tragic events, such as inadequate earthquake preparedness or great unnecessary losses of life due to public misunderstandings underline the importance of such

  11. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 3. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol - IPv4 and its Shortcomings. Harsha Srinath. General Article Volume 8 Issue 3 March 2003 pp 33-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol - New Features in IPv6. Harsha Srinath. General Article Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. A commercial micropropagation protocol for virupakshi (AAB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A commercial micropropagation protocol for virupakshi (AAB) banana via apical meristem. P Karule, V Dalvi, A Kadu, R Chaudhari, VR Subramaniam, AB Patil ... which revealed the existence of genetic uniformity in micro- propagated plants. Keywords: Micropropagation, Virupakshi, hill banana, banana bunchy top virus ...

  14. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-09-23

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation).

  15. Quantifying Information Leakage of Randomized Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Wasowski, Andrzej; Legay, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of information leakage provides a quantitative evaluation of the security of a system. We propose the usage of Markovian processes to model and analyze the information leakage of deterministic and probabilistic systems. We show that this method generalizes the lattice of inform...... and non-timed attacks on the Onion Routing protocol....

  16. Quantifying information leakage of randomized protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Malacaria, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of information leakage provides a quantitative evaluation of the security of a system. We propose the usage of Markovian processes to model deterministic and probabilistic systems. By using a methodology generalizing the lattice of information approach we model refined attacker...... on the Onion Routing protocol....

  17. Regulatory protein modification: techniques and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hemmings, Hugh C

    1997-01-01

    ... important roles in cellular regulation. The techniques used to analyze various forms of posttranslational protein modification are described, along with current protocols, discussion of the methodological limitations, and relevant examples from recent publications. This collection should be of use to investigators of protein modification who work i...

  18. Failure of Kak quantum key distribution protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the distribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Consequently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, is unnecessary. In this comment, we will point out the failure of Kak's ...

  19. Protocol design and implementation using formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; Vissers, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of formal methods that support correct protocol design and implementation. These methods are placed in the framework of a design methodology for distributed systems that was studied and developed within the ESPRIT II Lotosphere project (2304). The paper focuses on

  20. Sessions and Separability in Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any uncomprom...

  1. Recursion Versus Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some very recent techniques from process algebra to draw interesting conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbee...

  2. Quantum protocols within Spekkens' toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disilvestro, Leonardo; Markham, Damian

    2017-05-01

    Quantum mechanics is known to provide significant improvements in information processing tasks when compared to classical models. These advantages range from computational speedups to security improvements. A key question is where these advantages come from. The toy model developed by Spekkens [R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032110 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.032110] mimics many of the features of quantum mechanics, such as entanglement and no cloning, regarded as being important in this regard, despite being a local hidden variable theory. In this work, we study several protocols within Spekkens' toy model where we see it can also mimic the advantages and limitations shown in the quantum case. We first provide explicit proofs for the impossibility of toy bit commitment and the existence of a toy error correction protocol and consequent k -threshold secret sharing. Then, defining a toy computational model based on the quantum one-way computer, we prove the existence of blind and verified protocols. Importantly, these two last quantum protocols are known to achieve a better-than-classical security. Our results suggest that such quantum improvements need not arise from any Bell-type nonlocality or contextuality, but rather as a consequence of steering correlations.

  3. The Nagoya Protocol: Fragmentation or Consolidation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Richerzhagen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In October, 2010, a protocol on access and benefit-sharing (ABS of genetic resources was adopted, the so-called Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Before the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol, the governance architecture of ABS was already characterized by a multifaceted institutional environment. The use of genetic resources is confronted with many issues (conservation, research and development, intellectual property rights, food security, health issues, climate change that are governed by different institutions and agreements. The Nagoya Protocol contributes to increased fragmentation. However, the question arises whether this new regulatory framework can help to advance the implementation of the ABS provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. This paper attempts to find an answer to that question by following three analytical steps. First, it analyzes the causes of change against the background of theories of institutional change. Second, it aims to assess the typology of the architecture in order to find out if this new set of rules will contribute to a more synergistic, cooperative or conflictive architecture of ABS governance. Third, the paper looks at the problem of “fit” and identifies criteria that can be used to assess the new ABS governance architecture with regard to its effectiveness.

  4. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Urquiza-Aguiar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation.

  5. Behaviour Protocols Verification: Fighting State Explosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mach, M.; Plášil, František; Kofroň, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2005), s. 22-30 ISSN 1525-9293 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/03/0672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : formal verification * software components * stateexplos ion * behavior protocols * parse trees Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  6. Formalization of Quantum Protocols using Coq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Boender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Information Processing, which is an exciting area of research at the intersection of physics and computer science, has great potential for influencing the future development of information processing systems. The building of practical, general purpose Quantum Computers may be some years into the future. However, Quantum Communication and Quantum Cryptography are well developed. Commercial Quantum Key Distribution systems are easily available and several QKD networks have been built in various parts of the world. The security of the protocols used in these implementations rely on information-theoretic proofs, which may or may not reflect actual system behaviour. Moreover, testing of implementations cannot guarantee the absence of bugs and errors. This paper presents a novel framework for modelling and verifying quantum protocols and their implementations using the proof assistant Coq. We provide a Coq library for quantum bits (qubits, quantum gates, and quantum measurement. As a step towards verifying practical quantum communication and security protocols such as Quantum Key Distribution, we support multiple qubits, communication and entanglement. We illustrate these concepts by modelling the Quantum Teleportation Protocol, which communicates the state of an unknown quantum bit using only a classical channel.

  7. CARTOONS THAT PORTRA IT SCIENTIFIC PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Burlamaque- Neto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of gene therapy protocols in our laboratory led us to detect the need for the  development of  more friendly and comprehensive approach esto theexperimental  techniquesinvolved. Two sequential cartoon stories were created to portrait plasmid purification, electrophoresis separation, gel band purification and cell culture transfection protocols.  This work aims the implementation of art-education materi als in scientific research. Scripts were created based onprotocols used  in our lab. Four studentsfrom  Centro de Terapia Gênicawere selected to participate  of each stories’  implementation . Participants received theoretical explanations about protocols ,  attended a demo nstration and performed the respective  techniques  individually.   Students were interviewed using a semi -structured script.  Interviews’ contentswerequalitatively analyzedin regard to Edgar Morin’s complexity theoretical reference. A  complementary activity was heldwith the participants.  Techniques mentioned above are  portraitin two comicsstories named  Freedom for  ß- Galleyand  Purification for Cell RealityTransformation. The association of cartoons to formal protocols is viable. Memory andcomplex thinking  stimuli were reported, as well as better comprehension of the inter- relationships between protocols’ steps. This work has produced art -education materials that provide better understanding of protocols and stimulate students’ reflections  on scientific method  and  science learning in a n academic biological research environment . A soundtrack for cartoons is being  recorded.

  8. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  9. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, Catherine; Hustinx, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  10. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Catherine [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Hustinx, Roland [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Oncologique, CHU de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  11. Adenosine stress protocols for myocardial perfusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baškot Branislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Treadmill test combined with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS is a commonly used technique in the assessment of coronary artery disease. There are many patients, however, who may not be able to undergo treadmill test. Such patients would benefit from pharmacological stress procedures combined with MPS. The most commonly used pharmacological agents for cardiac stress are coronary vasodilatators (adenosine, dipyridamol and catecholamines. Concomitant low-level treadmill exercise with adenosine pharmacologic stress (AdenoEX during MPS has become commonly used in recent years. A number of studies have demonstrated a beneficial impact of AdenoEX protocol. The aim of the study was, besides introducing into practice the two types of protocols of pharmatological stress test with adenosine, as a preparation for MPS, to compare and monitor the frequency of their side effects to quality, acquisition, as well as to standardize the onset time of acquisition (diagnostic imaging for both protocols. Methods. A total of 130 patients underwent pharmacological stress test with adenosine (vasodilatator. In 108 of the patients we performed concomitant exercise (AdenoEX of low level (50W by a bicycle ergometar. In 28 of the patients we performed Adenosine abbreviated protocol (AdenoSCAN. Side effects of adenosine were followed and compared between the two kinds of protocols AdenoEX and AdenoSCAN. Also compared were image quality and suggested time of acquisition after the stress test. Results. Numerous side effects were found, but being short-lived they did not require any active interventions. The benefit of AdenoEX versus AdenoSCAN included decreased side effects (62% vs 87%, improved safety and patients tolerance, improved target-to-background ratios because of less subdiaphragmatic activity, earlier acquisition, and improved sensitivity. Conclusion. The safety and efficacy of adenosine pharmacological stress is even better with concomitant

  12. Verification of authentication protocols for mobile satellite communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Abdellatif Abouhogail

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, many protocols have been proposed to provide security for mobile satellite communication systems. Such protocols must be tested for their functional correctness before they are used in practice. Many security protocols for the mobile satellite communication system have been presented. This paper analyzes three of the most famous authentication protocols for mobile satellite communication system from the security viewpoint of data desynchronization attack. Based on strand spaces testing model, data desynchronization attacks on these protocols were tested and analyzed. Furthermore, improvements to overcome the security vulnerabilities of two protocols are mentioned.

  13. Protocol - RPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us RPD Protocol Data detail Data name Protocol DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00191-006 Description of data contents Protoc...ols for various methods of proteomics. Data file File name: rpd_protocol_jp.zip (Japanes...e version) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpd/LATEST/rpd_protocol_jp.zip File size: 535 KB File name: rpd_protoc...p/archive/rpd/LATEST/rpd_protocol_en.zip File size: 329 KB Simple search URL - Data acquisition method - Dat

  14. An Evaluation of Protocol Enhancing Proxies and File Transport Protocols for Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Patrick Eugene; Sullivan, Donald; Ivancic, William D.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is utilizing Global Hawk aircraft in high-altitude, long-duration Earth science missions. Communications with the onboard research equipment and sensors (the science payload) is via Ku-Band radio utilizing satellites in geostationary orbits. All payload communications use standard Internet Protocols and routing, and much of the data to be transferred is comprised of very large files. The science community is interested in fully utilizing these communication links to retrieve data as quickly and reliably as possible. A test bed was developed at NASA Ames to evaluate modern transport protocols as well as Protocol Enhancing Proxies (PEPs) to determine what tools best fit the needs of the science community. This paper describes the test bed used, the protocols, the PEPs that were evaluated, the particular tests performed and the results and conclusions.

  15. Power Saving MAC Protocols for WSNs and Optimization of S-MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simarpreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Low power MAC protocols have received a lot of consideration in the last few years because of their influence on the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. Since, sensors typically operate on batteries, replacement of which is often difficult. A lot of work has been done to minimize the energy expenditure and prolong the sensor lifetime through energy efficient designs, across layers. Meanwhile, the sensor network should be able to maintain a certain throughput in order to fulfill the QoS requirements of the end user, and to ensure the constancy of the network. This paper introduces different types of MAC protocols used for WSNs and proposes S‐MAC, a Medium‐Access Control protocol designed for Wireless Sensor Networks. S‐MAC uses a few innovative techniques to reduce energy consumption and support selfconfiguration. A new protocol is suggested to improve the energy efficiency, latency and throughput of existing MAC protocol for WSNs. A modification of the protocol is then proposed to eliminate the need for some nodes to stay awake longer than the other nodes which improves the energy efficiency, latency and throughput and hence increases the life span of a wireless sensor network.

  16. Outpatient management protocol of skin tattoos with simple chemo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , secondly an operative surgical procedure of simple dermabrasion followed by a third stage of intensive postoperative skin care protocol with local application of anti-scar formation ointments. The therapeutic protocol was successful with a ...

  17. Protocol, Engineering Research Center, University of California, Santa Barbara

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melliar-Smith, P. M

    2005-01-01

    .... More specifically, the research has focused on: (1) the design and evaluation of protocols for real-time performance, fault tolerance and security, as well as protocols for mobile wireless environments; (2...

  18. Large family of quantum weak coin-flipping protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochon, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Each classical public-coin protocol for coin flipping is naturally associated with a quantum protocol for weak coin flipping. The quantum protocol is obtained by replacing classical randomness with quantum entanglement and by adding a cheat detection test in the last round that verifies the integrity of this entanglement. The set of such protocols defines a family which contains the protocol with bias 0.192 previously found by the author, as well as protocols with bias as low as 1/6 described herein. The family is analyzed by identifying a set of optimal protocols for every number of messages. In the end, tight lower bounds for the bias are obtained which prove that 1/6 is optimal for all protocols within the family

  19. Analytical protocols for characterisation of sulphur-free lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Abächerli, A.; Semke, H.; Malherbe, R.; Käuper, P.; Nadif, A.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Interlaboratory tests for chemical characterisation of sulphur-free lignins were performed by five laboratories to develop useful analytical protocols, which are lacking, and identify quality-related properties. Protocols have been established for reproducible determination of the chemical

  20. SPIRIT 2013 Statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Wen Chan

    Full Text Available The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials 2013, a guideline for the minimum content of a clinical trial protocol. The 33-item SPIRIT checklist applies to protocols for all clinical trials and focuses on content rather than format. The checklist recommends a full description of what is planned; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators, trial participants, patients, sponsors, funders, research ethics committees or institutional review boards, peer reviewers, journals, trial registries, policymakers, regulators, and other key stakeholders.

  1. Sufficient Conditions for Vertical Composition of Security Protocols (Extended Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Viganò, Luca

    Vertical composition of security protocols means that an application protocol (e.g., a banking service) runs over a channel established by another protocol (e.g., a secure channel provided by TLS). This naturally gives rise to a compositionality question: given a secure protocol P1 that provides...... a certain kind of channel as a goal and another secure protocol P2 that assumes this kind of channel, can we then derive that their vertical composition P2[P1] is secure? It is well known that protocol composition can lead to attacks even when the individual protocols are all secure in isolation....... In this paper, we formalize seven easy-to-check static conditions that support a large class of channels and applications and that we prove to be su_cient for vertical security protocol composition....

  2. Yoga-teaching protocol adapted for children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagyalaxmi Mohanty

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Specially designed protocol may pave the way to impart yoga in an exciting and comfortable way to children with VI. More studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of this new yoga protocol in similar settings.

  3. Radiotherapy QA of the DAHANCA 19 protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe, E.; Andersen, E.; Hansen, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    trials. RT-QA of large multicentre-trials, however, requires substantial effort and resources. Recently, we presented a digital QA platform, the CIRRO dose plan bank, which allows for central review of such trials. Here, we present our RT-QA results from the latest completed clinical protocol from......Purpose/Objective: It has been demonstrated that nonadherence to protocol-specified radiotherapy (RT) requirements is associated with reduced survival, local control and potentially increased toxicity [1]. Thus, quality assurance (QA) of RT is important when evaluating the results of clinical...... the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA). Materials and Methods: The clinical results of the DAHANCA 19 randomized phase III trial evaluated the effect of concurrent EGFR-inhibition during primary curative (chemo) radiotherapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A total...

  4. Automated Verification of Quantum Protocols using MCMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Belardinelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology for the automated verification of quantum protocols using MCMAS, a symbolic model checker for multi-agent systems The method is based on the logical framework developed by D'Hondt and Panangaden for investigating epistemic and temporal properties, built on the model for Distributed Measurement-based Quantum Computation (DMC, an extension of the Measurement Calculus to distributed quantum systems. We describe the translation map from DMC to interpreted systems, the typical formalism for reasoning about time and knowledge in multi-agent systems. Then, we introduce dmc2ispl, a compiler into the input language of the MCMAS model checker. We demonstrate the technique by verifying the Quantum Teleportation Protocol, and discuss the performance of the tool.

  5. Analysis of Security Protocols in Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Alessandro

    .e., protecting the system from the external world). With increased connectivity of these systems to external networks the attack surface has grown, and consequently there is a need for securing the system from external attacks. Introducing security protocols in safety critical systems requires careful......Embedded real-time systems have been adopted in a wide range of safety-critical applications—including automotive, avionics, and train control systems—where the focus has long been on safety (i.e., protecting the external world from the potential damage caused by the system) rather than security (i...... considerations on the available resources, especially in meeting real-time and resource constraints, as well as cost and reliability requirements. For this reason many proposed security protocols in this domain have peculiar features, not present in traditional security literature. In this thesis we tackle...

  6. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    CERN Document Server

    Furano, Fabrizio; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring infor...

  7. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  8. Ischemic postconditioning: experimental models and protocol algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyschally, Andreas; van Caster, Patrick; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Schulz, Rainer; Kremastinos, Dimitrios T; Heusch, Gerd

    2009-09-01

    Ischemic postconditioning, a simple mechanical maneuver at the onset of reperfusion, reduces infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion. After its first description in 2003 by Zhao et al. numerous experimental studies have investigated this protective phenomenon. Whereas the underlying mechanisms and signal transduction are not yet understood in detail, infarct size reduction by ischemic postconditioning was confirmed in all species tested so far, including man. We have now reviewed the literature with focus on experimental models and protocols to better understand the determinants of protection by ischemic postconditioning or lack of it. Only studies with infarct size as unequivocal endpoint were considered. In all species and models, the duration of index ischemia and the protective protocol algorithm impact on the outcome of ischemic postconditioning, and gender, age, and myocardial temperature contribute.

  9. An optimized transformation protocol for Lipomyces starkeyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvey, Christopher H; Willis, Laura B; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    We report the development of an efficient genetic transformation system for Lipomyces starkeyi based on a modified lithium acetate transformation protocol. L. starkeyi is a highly lipogenic yeast that grows on a wide range of substrates. The initial transformation rate for this species was extremely low, and required very high concentrations of DNA. A systematic approach for optimizing the protocol resulted in an increase in the transformation efficiency by four orders of magnitude. Important parameters included cell density, the duration of incubation and recovery periods, the heat shock temperature, and the concentration of lithium acetate and carrier DNA within the transformation mixture. We have achieved efficiencies in excess of 8,000 transformants/µg DNA, which now make it possible to screen libraries in the metabolic engineering of this yeast. Metabolic engineering based on this transformation system could improve lipogenesis and enable formation of higher value products.

  10. Internet Core Protocols Help for Network Administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Eric

    2000-01-01

    If you've ever been responsible for a network, you know that sinkingfeeling: your pager has gone off at 2 a.m., the network is broken, and you can't figure out why by using a dial-in connection from home. You drive into the office, dig out your protocol analyzer, and spend the next fourhours trying to put things back together before the staff shows up for work. When this happens, you often find yourself looking at the low-level guts of the Internet protocols: you're deciphering individual packets, trying to figure out what is (or isn't) happening. Until now, the only real guide to the protoc

  11. Validation of authentication protocols for mobile satellite systems

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Beheshtifard

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, a variety of protocols have been proposed so as to provide security for mobile satellite communication systems. These protocols should be tested to check their functional correctness before they are used practically. A variety of security protocols for the mobile satellite communication system have been proposed. The present study analyzes three most known authentication protocols for mobile satellite communication system from the security perspective regarding da...

  12. Verification of authentication protocols for mobile satellite communication systems

    OpenAIRE

    Reham Abdellatif Abouhogail

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, many protocols have been proposed to provide security for mobile satellite communication systems. Such protocols must be tested for their functional correctness before they are used in practice. Many security protocols for the mobile satellite communication system have been presented. This paper analyzes three of the most famous authentication protocols for mobile satellite communication system from the security viewpoint of data desynchronization attack. Based on strand spac...

  13. A Hybrid Analysis for Security Protocols with State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-16

    this paper describes an application of our method to the Envelope Protocol, a protocol that interacts with a Trusted Platform Module ( TPM ) to achieve an...important security goal. Section 1 describes the protocol Π. Section 2 describes our TPM model, Tstate( ). Section 3 presents the theory of bundles...version. The cryptographic version of this protocol uses a TPM to achieve the security goal. Here we restrict our attention to a subset of the TPM’s

  14. Performance Evaluation of the WSN Routing Protocols Scalability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alazzawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalability is an important factor in designing an efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. A good routing protocol has to be scalable and adaptive to the changes in the network topology. Thus scalable protocol should perform well as the network grows larger or as the workload increases. In this paper, routing protocols for wireless sensor networks are simulated and their performances are evaluated to determine their capability for supporting network scalability.

  15. A Model Based Security Testing Method for Protocol Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Long Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation.

  16. A protocol for people with hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, M

    The Patient's Charter states that people have the right to discuss and help to decide their care and treatment and that those with special needs are entitled to help when dealing with the NHS, including having someone to speak for them when necessary. This paper details the development of a protocol outlining the needs of people with hearing impairments with a view to ensuring staff have access to relevant specialist educational and communication skills.

  17. Building America House Simulation Protocols (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-10-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  18. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to qu...... the statistical principles for trial protocols in terms of design, analysis, and reporting of findings....

  19. Advanced routing protocols for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Campista , Miguel Elias Mitre

    2014-01-01

    This text introduces the principles of routing protocols and metrics as they affect wireless networking environments, specifically in urban areas. Timely because of the recent rise in small city life, this topic includes the consideration of ad hoc, mesh, vehicular, sensor, and delay tolerant networks. These approaches are each unique, and author Miguel Mitre Campista provides a thorough, but accessible, explanation of their individual characteristics for engineers, computer scientists, IT professionals, and curious Internet users.

  20. Protocol for Initial Purification of Bacteriocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 30-10-2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) February 2013 – August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PROTOCOL...microorganisms. 3 5. Test Organisms  Target bacteria – Bacillus anthracis Sterne, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 27217, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa...freezer. 6. Procedures 6.1. Prepare Target Bacteria:  Inoculate a single colony of a fresh culture of Bacillus anthracis Sterne, Staphylococcus

  1. Analysis of Security Protocols for Mobile Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazid, Mohammad; Zeadally, Sherali; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-11-01

    Mobile Healthcare (mHealth) continues to improve because of significant improvements and the decreasing costs of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). mHealth is a medical and public health practice, which is supported by mobile devices (for example, smartphones) and, patient monitoring devices (for example, various types of wearable sensors, etc.). An mHealth system enables healthcare experts and professionals to have ubiquitous access to a patient's health data along with providing any ongoing medical treatment at any time, any place, and from any device. It also helps the patient requiring continuous medical monitoring to stay in touch with the appropriate medical staff and healthcare experts remotely. Thus, mHealth has become a major driving force in improving the health of citizens today. First, we discuss the security requirements, issues and threats to the mHealth system. We then present a taxonomy of recently proposed security protocols for mHealth system based on features supported and possible attacks, computation cost and communication cost. Our detailed taxonomy demonstrates the strength and weaknesses of recently proposed security protocols for the mHealth system. Finally, we identify some of the challenges in the area of security protocols for mHealth systems that still need to be addressed in the future to enable cost-effective, secure and robust mHealth systems.

  2. Modeling and Verification of the Bitcoin Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaylash Chaudhary

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bitcoin is a popular digital currency for online payments, realized as a decentralized peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Bitcoin keeps a ledger of all transactions; the majority of the participants decides on the correct ledger. Since there is no trusted third party to guard against double spending, and inspired by its popularity, we would like to investigate the correctness of the Bitcoin protocol. Double spending is an important threat to electronic payment systems. Double spending would happen if one user could force a majority to believe that a ledger without his previous payment is the correct one. We are interested in the probability of success of such a double spending attack, which is linked to the computational power of the attacker. This paper examines the Bitcoin protocol and provides its formalization as an UPPAAL model. The model will be used to show how double spending can be done if the parties in the Bitcoin protocol behave maliciously, and with what probability double spending occurs.

  3. 'BREAKS' Protocol for Breaking Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-05-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.

  4. Biologic comparison of partial breast irradiation protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Lymberis, Stella C.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the dose/fractionation schedules currently used in ongoing clinical trials of partial breast irradiation (PBI) by comparing their biologically effective dose (BED) values to those of three standard whole breast protocols commonly used after segmental mastectomy in the treatment of breast cancer. Methods and materials: The BED equation derived from the linear-quadratic model for radiation-induced cell killing was used to calculate the BEDs for three commonly used whole breast radiotherapy regimens, in addition to a variety of external beam radiotherapy, as well as high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapy, PBI protocols. Results: The BED values of most PBI protocols resulted in tumor control BEDs roughly equivalent to a 50-Gy standard treatment, but consistently lower than the BEDs for regimens in which the tumor bed receives a total dose of either 60 Gy or 66 Gy. The BED values calculated for the acute radiation responses of erythema and desquamation were nearly all lower for the PBI schedules, and the late-response BEDs for most PBI regimens were in a similar range to the BEDs for the standard treatments. Conclusion: Biologically effective dose modeling raises the concern that inadequate doses might be delivered by PBI to ensure optimal in-field tumor control

  5. The Interlibrary Loan Protocol: An OSI Solution to ILL Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Fay

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the interlibrary loan (ILL) protocol, a standard based on the principles of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model. Benefits derived from protocol use are described, the status of the protocol as an international standard is reviewed, and steps taken by the National Library of Canada to facilitate migration to an ILL…

  6. 42 CFR 438.352 - External quality review protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External quality review protocols. 438.352 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE External Quality Review § 438.352 External quality review protocols. Each protocol must specify— (a) The data to be gathered; (b) The sources of the...

  7. Development of pediatric CT protocols for specific scanners: why bother?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, Dianna D. [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Imaging Physics, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-10-15

    When determining a strategy for pediatric CT scanning, clinical staff can either elect to adjust routine adult-protocol parameter settings on a case-by-case basis or rely on pre-set pediatric protocol parameters. The advantages of the latter approach are the topic of this manuscript. This paper outlines specific options to consider, including the need for regular protocol review. (orig.)

  8. Enhanced SWEET protocol for energy efficient wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available SWEET routing protocol is one of the many pro- tocols developed for cluster formation and routing in wireless sensor networks. The SWEET protocol is a decentralized clus- tering protocol, it uses timers and interim updated cluster head estimation...

  9. A correctness proof of the bakery protocol in $ mu $CRL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); H.P. Korver

    1994-01-01

    textabstractA specification of a bakery protocol is given in $mu$CRL. We provide a simple correctness criterion for the protocol. Then the protocol is proven correct using a proof system that has been developed for $mu$CRL. The proof primarily consists of algebraic manipulations based on

  10. Securing statically-verified communications protocols against timing attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Gilmore, Stephen; Hillston, Jane

    2004-01-01

    We present a federated analysis of communication protocols which considers both security properties and timing. These are not entirely independent observations of a protocol; by using timing observations of an executing protocol it is possible to deduce derived information about the nature of the...

  11. Evaluating the Stream Control Transmission Protocol Using Uppaal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saini, Shruti; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hermanns, Holger; Höfner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a Transport Layer protocol that has been proposed as an alternative to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for the Internet of Things (IoT). SCTP, with its four-way handshake mechanism, claims to protect the Server from a Denial-of-Service (DoS)

  12. An entanglement concentration protocol for cluster states using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/086/05/0973-0983 ... The purpose of this paper is a proposal on entanglement concentration protocol forcluster states. The protocol ... We also make a comparative numerical study of the residual entanglement left out after the execution of each step of the protocol.

  13. Feeling Is Believing: A Secure Template Exchange Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Lee, Seong-Whan; Li, Stan Z.

    We use grip pattern based biometrics as a secure side channel to achieve pre-authentication in a protocol that sets up a secure channel between two hand held devices. The protocol efficiently calculates a shared secret key from biometric data. The protocol is used in an application where grip

  14. Efficient multiparty protocols via log-depth threshold formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Gil; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Ishai, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    We put forward a new approach for the design of efficient multiparty protocols: Design a protocol π for a small number of parties (say, 3 or 4) which achieves security against a single corrupted party. Such protocols are typically easy to construct, as they may employ techniques that do not scale...

  15. An improved AODV routing protocol based on tower structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yong Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed a new routing protocol(IAODV based on tower structure in the Ad Hoc network for the problem which Location Routing Protocol need hardware and Complex algorithm. By the simulation, The complexity of the new routing protocol is reduced without reducing the performance of the network.

  16. The MAC framework : Redefining MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, T.; Halkes, G.; Bezemer, M.; Langendoen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Most current WSN MAC protocol implementations have multiple tasks to perform—deciding on correct timing, sending of packets, sending of acknowledgements, etc. However, as much of this is common to all MAC protocols, there is duplication of functionality, which leads to larger MAC protocol code size

  17. Spacelab system analysis: The modified free access protocol: An access protocol for communication systems with periodic and Poisson traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Frank; Owens, John; Daniel, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The protocol definition and terminal hardware for the modified free access protocol, a communications protocol similar to Ethernet, are developed. A MFA protocol simulator and a CSMA/CD math model are also developed. The protocol is tailored to communication systems where the total traffic may be divided into scheduled traffic and Poisson traffic. The scheduled traffic should occur on a periodic basis but may occur after a given event such as a request for data from a large number of stations. The Poisson traffic will include alarms and other random traffic. The purpose of the protocol is to guarantee that scheduled packets will be delivered without collision. This is required in many control and data collection systems. The protocol uses standard Ethernet hardware and software requiring minimum modifications to an existing system. The modification to the protocol only affects the Ethernet transmission privileges and does not effect the Ethernet receiver.

  18. A Comparative Review Of Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, Olabenjo; Al-Debagy, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Many computers and devices are becoming more connected to the internet in recent years; the use of the Internet Protocol (IP) has made the connectivity and identification of these devices possible in large scale. In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), its features, issues and limitations and how Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) tends to solve some of these issues including the differences and transition between these two protocols.

  19. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Exploring the Implementation of Steganography Protocols on Quantum Audio Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kehan; Yan, Fei; Iliyasu, Abdullah M.; Zhao, Jianping

    2018-02-01

    Two quantum audio steganography (QAS) protocols are proposed, each of which manipulates or modifies the least significant qubit (LSQb) of the host quantum audio signal that is encoded as an FRQA (flexible representation of quantum audio) audio content. The first protocol (i.e. the conventional LSQb QAS protocol or simply the cLSQ stego protocol) is built on the exchanges between qubits encoding the quantum audio message and the LSQb of the amplitude information in the host quantum audio samples. In the second protocol, the embedding procedure to realize it implants information from a quantum audio message deep into the constraint-imposed most significant qubit (MSQb) of the host quantum audio samples, we refer to it as the pseudo MSQb QAS protocol or simply the pMSQ stego protocol. The cLSQ stego protocol is designed to guarantee high imperceptibility between the host quantum audio and its stego version, whereas the pMSQ stego protocol ensures that the resulting stego quantum audio signal is better immune to illicit tampering and copyright violations (a.k.a. robustness). Built on the circuit model of quantum computation, the circuit networks to execute the embedding and extraction algorithms of both QAS protocols are determined and simulation-based experiments are conducted to demonstrate their implementation. Outcomes attest that both protocols offer promising trade-offs in terms of imperceptibility and robustness.

  1. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Luan Da-Peng

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol

  2. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  3. A case for evaluating sensor network protocols concurrently

    KAUST Repository

    Gnawali, Omprakash

    2010-01-01

    Researchers typically evaluate and compare protocols on the testbeds by running them one at a time. This methodology ignores the variation in link qualities and wireless environment across these experiments. These variations can introduce significant noise in the results. Evaluating two protocols concurrently, however, suffers from inter-protocol interactions. These interactions can perturb performance even under very light load, especially timing and timing sensitive protocols. We argue that the benefits of running protocols concurrently greatly outweigh the disadvantages. Protocols rarely run in isolation in real networks, and so considering such interactions is valuable. Although the wireless environment is still uncontrolled, concurrent evaluations make comparisons fair and more statistically sound. Through experiments on two testbeds, we make the case for evaluating and comparing low data-rate sensor network protocols by running them concurrently. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  4. Climate change scenarios and Technology Transfer Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, Socrates; Turton, Hal

    2011-01-01

    We apply a specific version of MERGE-ETL, an integrated assessment model, to study global climate policies supported by Technology Transfer Protocols (TTPs). We model a specific formulation of such a TTP where donor countries finance via carbon tax revenues, the diffusion of carbon-free technologies in developing countries (DCs) and quantify its benefits. Industrialized countries profit from increased technology exports, global diffusion of advanced technology (leading to additional technology learning and cost reductions) and reduced climate damages through the likelihood of greater global participation in a new international agreement. DCs experience increased welfare from access to subsidized technology, and profit from the reduction of damages related to climate change and expected secondary benefits of carbon abatement (such as reduced local and regional air pollution). The analysis identifies potential candidate technologies that could be supported under a TTP, and the impact of a TTP on economic development (including the flow of transfer subsidies) and global emissions. Although a TTP may encourage additional participation, such a proposal is only likely to be successful if an increased willingness to pay to avoid climate damages is accepted, first by the present and future generations of the industrialized world and later on, when sufficient economic growth is accumulated, by today's developing countries. - Research Highlights: → Climate policy scenarios are assessed with differentiated commitments in carbon emission control supported by Technology Transfer Protocols. → Donor countries finance, via carbon-tax revenues, the exports of carbon-free technologies in developing countries helping to get a new international agreement. → Developing countries experience increased welfare from access to subsidized technology, and profit from the reduction of damages related to climate change and secondary benefits. → Under Technology Protocols alone and

  5. A Verifiable Language for Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde

    We develop a formal language for specifying cryptographic protocols in a structured and clear manner, which allows verification of many interesting properties; in particular confidentiality and integrity. The study sheds new light on the problem of creating intuitive and human readable languages......, that are analysable with respect to interesting properties. Furthermore it motivates and is an example of, a novel, more general methodology of language design by first verbosely describing the semantics in a mathematical language, e.g. a logic, then restricting the properties of interest to be computable......, and finally systematically transforming it into a more intuitive specification language, maintaining this tractability....

  6. Proposed protocols for peripheral and renal Doppler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Portuguez, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    A literature review was performed in order to prepare a summary of the important concepts of Doppler and applications in peripheral vascular evaluation and renal. The normal characteristics are summarized and explained in each vascular system and diagnostic criteria of the disorders frequently encountered in practice. Requested more studies have been identified and proposed protocols and report sheets have been developed to standardize the methodology of realization of several Doppler studies. The variability between operators has been treated to reduce as much as possible and follow-up studies have provided in patients who need. (author) [es

  7. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, C. Metzger [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    As Building America has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  8. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht-Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    As BA has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  9. Network protocols. Special issue; Netwerkprotocollen. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, G.A. [RTB Van Heugten, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rooijakkers, G.W.J. [GTI Building Automation, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Peterse, A. [Regel Partners, Hoevelaken (Netherlands); Smits, P. [Konnex Nederland, Valkenswaard (Netherlands); Hamers, E.P. [Van Dorp Installaties, Breda (Netherlands); Van der Velden, J.A.J. [Kropman, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Van Lingen, G.; Wijn, D.M. [Engineer Johnson Controls, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Deckere, W.J.M.A. [Deerns raadgevende ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Driessen, B. [Saia Burgess, Gouda (Netherlands); Van Olst, K. [K en R Consultants, Deventer (Netherlands); Mosterman, F. [Wago Building Technology, Harderwijk (Netherlands); Staub, R. [BUS-House, Zuerich (Switzerland); Meiring, O.B.; Hut, W.H. [Sauter Building Control Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tukker, A. [Webeasy Products, Sliedrecht (Netherlands); Bakker, L.G.; Soethout, L.L.; Elkhuizen, P.A. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Haeseler, U. [TAC GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kerdel, J.F. [Siemens Building Technologies, Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Lugt, G.L.; Draijer, G.W.

    2007-11-15

    In 20 articles attention is paid to several aspects of network protocols by means of which building automation systems can exchange data: building automation and management, history of technical installations management, the open communication standard BACnet (Building Automation and Control network), the so-called ISO/IEC domotics and communication standard KNX or Konnex, the integration of electrotechnical and engineering installations by the LonWorks technology, other standard protocols as Modbus, M-bus, OPC (OLE for Process Control), an outline of TCP/IP, smart design of networks, automation and networks and building owners, the use of BACnet and Ethernet in a renovated office building, the use of an open management network in buildings, wireless open integrated systems, terminology in network communication, the use of BACnet in combination with KNX, the impact of BACnet on building automation, the role of the installation sector in the ICT-environment, knowledge of building automation and management, regulations with respect to building automation, and BACnet MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol) [Dutch] In 20 artikelen wordt in dit themanummer aandacht besteed aan diverse aspecten m.b.t. netwerkprotocollen waarmee verschillende automatiseringssystemen gegevens met elkaar uitwisselen: gebouwautomatisering en beheer, geschiedenis van technisch installatie beheer, de open communicatie standaard BACnet (Building Automation and Control network), de zogenaamde ISO/IEC domotica en communicatie standaard KNX of Konnex, de integratie van electrotechnische en werktuigbouwkundige installaties met behulp van de LonWorks technologie, andere standaard protocollen zoals Modbus, M-bus, OPC (OLE for Process Control), uitleg over TCP/IP, slim ontwerpen van netwerken, gebouweigenaren over automatisering en netwerken, het gebruik van BACnet en Ethernet in een tot kantoorgebouw gerenoveerd monumentaal gebouw, het gebruik van een open management netwerk in gebouwen, draadloos met

  10. Rosetta Ligand docking with flexible XML protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmon, Gordon; Meiler, Jens

    2012-01-01

    RosettaLigand is premiere software for predicting how a protein and a small molecule interact. Benchmark studies demonstrate that 70% of the top scoring RosettaLigand predicted interfaces are within 2Å RMSD from the crystal structure [1]. The latest release of Rosetta ligand software includes many new features, such as (1) docking of multiple ligands simultaneously, (2) representing ligands as fragments for greater flexibility, (3) redesign of the interface during docking, and (4) an XML script based interface that gives the user full control of the ligand docking protocol.

  11. Observing documentary reading by verbal protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Mariangela Spotti Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Verifies the applicability to research on indexers' reading strategies of the process observing technique known as Verbal Protocol or Thinking Aloud. This interpretative-qualitative data collecting technique allows the observation of different kinds of process during the progress of different kinds of tasks. Presents a theoretical investigation into "reading" and into formal methodological procedures to observe reading processes. Describes details of the methodological procedures adopted in five case studies with analysis of samples of data. The project adopted three kinds of parameters for data analysis: theoretical, normative, empirical (derived from observations made in the first case study. The results are compared, and important conclusions regarding documentary reading are drawn.

  12. Right to Food and the Nagoya Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Ysabel Bazán Barba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the perspective of Environmental Law, the juridical-sociological aspect addresses the problem for the Right to Food, which has been intensified by the lack of equity, social justice and mainly by environmental degradation. Based on theoretical research, the Constitution and international treaties on the subject, the problem of hunger is studied, with emphasis on the Nagoya Protocol – a new international instrument for access and distribution of genetic resources. It aims to analyze the geopolitics behind the hunger issue; the indiscriminate use of agrochemicals; the monopoly of seeds; and the lives wasted in the process of maintenance/circulation in the food market.

  13. A Safe Protocol for Amalgam Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Dana G.

    2012-01-01

    Today's environment has different impacts on our body than previous generations. Heavy metals are a growing concern in medicine. Doctors and individuals request the removal of their amalgam (silver mercury) restorations due to the high mercury content. A safe protocol to replace the silver mercury filling will ensure that there is minimal if any absorption of materials while being removed. Strong alternative white composite and lab-processed materials are available today to create a healthy and functioning mouth. Preparation of the patient prior to the procedure and after treatment is vital to establish the excretion of the mercury from the body. PMID:22315627

  14. Impact of Communication Protocol on Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, P.H.

    1999-02-01

    We use the PSTSWM compact application benchmark code to characterize the performance behavior of interprocessor communication on the SGI/Cray Research Origin 2000 and T3E-900. We measure 1. single processor performance, 2. point-to-point communication performance, 3. performance variation as a function of communication protocols and transport layer for collective communication routines, and 4. performance sensitivity of full application code to choice of parallel implementation. We also compare and contrast these results with similar results for the previous generation of parallel platforms, evaluating how the relative importance of communication performance has changed.

  15. Delay tolerant networks protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Spyropoulos, Thrasyvoulos

    2011-01-01

    Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) - which include terrestrial mobile networks, exotic media networks, ad-hoc networks, and sensor networks - are becoming more important and may not be well served by the current end-to-end TCP/IP model. This book provides a self-contained, one-stop reference for researchers and practitioners who are looking toward the future of networking. The text presents a systematic exploration of DTN concepts, architectures, protocols, enabling technologies, and applications. It also discusses various challenges associated with DTN. The author includes a wealth of illustrative

  16. Analysis of protection spanning-tree protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б.Я. Корнієнко

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available  Extraordinary sweeping  of  IT – development  causes vulnerabilities and, thereafter, attacks that use these vulnerabilities. That is why one must post factum or even in advance speed up invention of new information  security systems as well as develop the old ones. The matter of article concerns Spanning-Tree Protocol  – the vivid example of the case, when the cure of the vulnerability creates dozen of new "weak spots".

  17. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim eSalih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

  18. A Safe Protocol for Amalgam Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana G. Colson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's environment has different impacts on our body than previous generations. Heavy metals are a growing concern in medicine. Doctors and individuals request the removal of their amalgam (silver mercury restorations due to the high mercury content. A safe protocol to replace the silver mercury filling will ensure that there is minimal if any absorption of materials while being removed. Strong alternative white composite and lab-processed materials are available today to create a healthy and functioning mouth. Preparation of the patient prior to the procedure and after treatment is vital to establish the excretion of the mercury from the body.

  19. Multiprofissional electronic protocol in ophtalmology with enfasis in strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIE GRAF RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to create and validate an electronic database in ophthalmology focused on strabismus, to computerize this database in the form of a systematic data collection software named Electronic Protocol, and to incorporate this protocol into the Integrated System of Electronic Protocols (SINPE(c. Methods: this is a descriptive study, with the methodology divided into three phases: (1 development of a theoretical ophthalmologic database with emphasis on strabismus; (2 computerization of this theoretical ophthalmologic database using SINPE(c and (3 interpretation of the information with demonstration of results to validate the protocol. We inputed data from the charts of fifty patients with known strabismus through the Electronic Protocol for testing and validation. Results: the new electronic protocol was able to store information regarding patient history, physical examination, laboratory exams, imaging results, diagnosis and treatment of patients with ophthalmologic diseases, with emphasis on strabismus. We included 2,141 items in this master protocol and created 20 new specific electronic protocols for strabismus, each with its own specifics. Validation was achieved through correlation and corroboration of the symptoms and confirmed diagnoses of the fifty included patients with the diagnostic criteria for the twenty new strabismus protocols. Conclusion: a new, validated electronic database focusing on ophthalmology, with emphasis on strabismus, was successfully created through the standardized collection of information, and computerization of the database using proprietary software. This protocol is ready for deployment to facilitate data collection, sorting and application for practitioners and researchers in numerous specialties.

  20. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  1. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-03-22

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  2. The Quantum Steganography Protocol via Quantum Noisy Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhan-Hong; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2015-08-01

    As a promising branch of quantum information hiding, Quantum steganography aims to transmit secret messages covertly in public quantum channels. But due to environment noise and decoherence, quantum states easily decay and change. Therefore, it is very meaningful to make a quantum information hiding protocol apply to quantum noisy channels. In this paper, we make the further research on a quantum steganography protocol for quantum noisy channels. The paper proved that the protocol can apply to transmit secret message covertly in quantum noisy channels, and explicity showed quantum steganography protocol. In the protocol, without publishing the cover data, legal receivers can extract the secret message with a certain probability, which make the protocol have a good secrecy. Moreover, our protocol owns the independent security, and can be used in general quantum communications. The communication, which happen in our protocol, do not need entangled states, so our protocol can be used without the limitation of entanglement resource. More importantly, the protocol apply to quantum noisy channels, and can be used widely in the future quantum communication.

  3. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  4. Research Protocol: Collections Related to Synthetic Turf ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds” (referred to subsequently as the Federal Research Action Plan or FRAP) was finalized in February 2016. The U.S. EPA and CDC/ATSDR, in collaboration with CPSC, have prepared this research protocol to implement portions of the research activities outlined under the FRAP. Specifically, this research protocol is designed to implement three of the research elements described in the Federal Research Action Plan: Conduct a literature review and data gaps analysis; Perform tire crumb rubber characterization research; Perform human exposure characterization research. Concerns have been raised by the public about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used in synthetic turf fields and playgrounds in the United States. Several studies have been identified that examine exposure to tire crumb rubber infill in these settings. While, in general, these studies have not provided evidence for these health concerns, the existing studies do not comprehensively evaluate all aspects of exposure associated with these use scenarios. Additional research is needed to help fill important data gaps that will lead to improved exposure assessment and risk evaluation for children and adults using synthetic turf fields and playgrounds with tire crumb rubber. In response, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Su

  5. Resilient packet ring media access protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepot, Frederic

    2001-07-01

    The discussion will cover the new initiative to create a new MAC layer standard for resilient packet rings: IEEE 802.17 RPR. The key aspects of the presentation will include a preliminary address of the Metro Area Network today and the current networking technologies such as SONET/SDH which are not optimized to carry IP traffic over Metro MAN. The next segment will cover the options which could change the traditional and expensive layered networking model, and address the real benefits of marrying several technologies like Ethernet, SONET/SDH and IP into one technology. The next part of the discussion will detail the technical advantages a new MAC will bring to the services providers. Lastly a summary of the view and strategy about the acceptance and deployment of this new technology in the next 12 months, specifically, now one defines and develops standards for a Resilient Packet Ring Access Protocol for use in Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks for transfer of data packets at rates scalable to multiple gigabits per second; specifically address the data transmission requirements of carriers that have present and planned fiber optic physical infrastructure in a ring topology; and, defining and developing detailed specifications for using existing and/or new physical layers at appropriate data rates that will support transmission of this access protocol.

  6. Fibred Coalgebraic Logic and Quantum Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marsden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by applications in modelling quantum systems using coalgebraic techniques, we introduce a fibred coalgebraic logic. Our approach extends the conventional predicate lifting semantics with additional modalities relating conditions on different fibres. As this fibred setting will typically involve multiple signature functors, the logic incorporates a calculus of modalities enabling the construction of new modalities using various composition operations. We extend the semantics of coalgebraic logic to this setting, and prove that this extension respects behavioural equivalence. We show how properties of the semantics of modalities are preserved under composition operations, and then apply the calculational aspect of our logic to produce an expressive set of modalities for reasoning about quantum systems, building these modalities up from simpler components. We then demonstrate how these modalities can describe some standard quantum protocols. The novel features of our logic are shown to allow for a uniform description of unitary evolution, and support local reasoning such as "Alice's qubit satisfies condition" as is common when discussing quantum protocols.

  7. The Montreal Protocol for Identification of Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuvan, D T; Paquette, S; Mignault Goulet, G; Royal, I; Felezeu, M; Peretz, I

    2018-04-01

    The Montreal Battery for the Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA; Peretz, Champod, & Hyde Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 58-75, 2003) is an empirically grounded quantitative tool that is widely used to identify individuals with congenital amusia. The use of such a standardized measure ensures that the individuals tested will conform to a specific neuropsychological profile, allowing for comparisons across studies and research groups. Recently, a number of researchers have published credible critiques of the usefulness of the MBEA as a diagnostic tool for amusia. Here we argue that the MBEA and its online counterpart, the AMUSIA tests (Peretz et al. Music Perception, 25, 331-343, 2008), should be considered steps in a screening process for amusia, rather than standalone diagnostic tools. The goal of this article is to present, in detailed and easily replicable format, the full protocol through which congenital amusics should be identified. In providing information that has often gone unreported in published articles, we aim to clarify the strengths and limitations of the MBEA and to make recommendations for its continued use by the research community as part of the Montreal Protocol for Identification of Amusia.

  8. Kyoto protocol: at last the agreement has been reached; Protocole de Kyoto: un accord enfin conclu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    After more than 3 years of negotiations, 180 countries agreed at Bonn on the application of the Kyoto protocol to fight the climatic warming. The main aspects of this agreement are discussed: the carbon wells, the tools of the pollution control for the developed countries and the financial help to the developing countries. (A.L.B.)

  9. Effective dose comparison between protocols stitched and usual protocols in dental cone beam CT for complete arcade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, M. R.; Maia, A. F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria Prof. Jose Aloisio de Campos, Marechal Rondon s/n, Jardim Rosa Elze, 49-100000 Sao Cristovao, Sergipe (Brazil); Batista, W. O. G. [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Rua Emidio dos Santos s/n, Barbalho, Salvador, 40301015 Bahia (Brazil); Lara, P. A., E-mail: wilsonottobatista@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    To visualization a complete dental radiology dental lives together with two separate proposals: [1] protocols diameter encompassing the entire arch (single) or [2] protocol with multiple fields of view (Fov) which together encompass the entire arch (stitched Fov s). The objective of this study is to evaluate effective dose values in examination protocols for all dental arcade available in different outfits with these two options. For this, a female anthropomorphic phantom manufactured by Radiology Support Devices twenty six thermoluminescent dosimeters inserted in relevant bodies and positions was used. Irradiate the simulator in the clinical conditions. The protocols were averaged and compared: [a] 14.0 cm x 8.5 cm and [b] 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm (Gendex Tomography GXCB 500), [c] protocol stitched for jaw combination of three volumes of 5.0 cm x 3.7 cm (Kodak 9000 3D scanner) [d] protocol stitched Fov s 5.0 cm x 8.0 cm (Planmeca Pro Max 3D) and [e] single technical Fov 14 cm x 8 cm (i-CAT Classical). Our results for the effective dose were: a range between 43.1 and 111.1 micro Sv for technical single Fov and 44.5 and 236.2 for technical stitched Fov s. The protocol presented the highest estimated effective dose was [d] and showed that lowest index was registered [a]. These results demonstrate that the protocol stitched Fov generated in Kodak 9000 3D machine applied the upper dental arch has practically equal value effective dose obtained by protocol extended diameter of, [a], which evaluates in a single image upper and lower arcade. It also demonstrates that the protocol [d] gives an estimate of five times higher than the protocol [a]. Thus, we conclude that in practical terms the protocol [c] stitched Fov s, not presents dosimetric advantages over other protocols. (Author)

  10. Effective dose comparison between protocols stitched and usual protocols in dental cone beam CT for complete arcade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, M. R.; Maia, A. F.; Batista, W. O. G.; Lara, P. A.

    2014-08-01

    To visualization a complete dental radiology dental lives together with two separate proposals: [1] protocols diameter encompassing the entire arch (single) or [2] protocol with multiple fields of view (Fov) which together encompass the entire arch (stitched Fov s). The objective of this study is to evaluate effective dose values in examination protocols for all dental arcade available in different outfits with these two options. For this, a female anthropomorphic phantom manufactured by Radiology Support Devices twenty six thermoluminescent dosimeters inserted in relevant bodies and positions was used. Irradiate the simulator in the clinical conditions. The protocols were averaged and compared: [a] 14.0 cm x 8.5 cm and [b] 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm (Gendex Tomography GXCB 500), [c] protocol stitched for jaw combination of three volumes of 5.0 cm x 3.7 cm (Kodak 9000 3D scanner) [d] protocol stitched Fov s 5.0 cm x 8.0 cm (Planmeca Pro Max 3D) and [e] single technical Fov 14 cm x 8 cm (i-CAT Classical). Our results for the effective dose were: a range between 43.1 and 111.1 micro Sv for technical single Fov and 44.5 and 236.2 for technical stitched Fov s. The protocol presented the highest estimated effective dose was [d] and showed that lowest index was registered [a]. These results demonstrate that the protocol stitched Fov generated in Kodak 9000 3D machine applied the upper dental arch has practically equal value effective dose obtained by protocol extended diameter of, [a], which evaluates in a single image upper and lower arcade. It also demonstrates that the protocol [d] gives an estimate of five times higher than the protocol [a]. Thus, we conclude that in practical terms the protocol [c] stitched Fov s, not presents dosimetric advantages over other protocols. (Author)

  11. Routing protocol extension for resilient GMPLS multi-domain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Romeral, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of multi-domain networks under the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching control framework in case of a single inter-domain link failure. We propose and evaluate a routing protocol extension for the Border Gateway Protocol, which allows domains to obtain...... as survivability mechanism in case of single link failure, and employing proper failure notification mechanisms for routing of future connection requests under routing protocol re-convergence. Via simulations we illustrate the benefits of utilizing the proposed routing protocol extension for networks employing...... two Autonomous System disjoint paths and use them efficiently under failure conditions. Three main applications for the protocol extension are illustrated: reducing traffic loss on existing connections by xploiting pre-selected backup paths derived with our proposal, applying multi-domain restoration...

  12. Probabilistic protocols in quantum information science: Use and abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, Carlton

    2014-03-01

    Protocols in quantum information science often succeed with less than unit probability, but nonetheless perform useful tasks because success occurs often enough to make tolerable the overhead from having to perform the protocol several times. Any probabilistic protocol must be analyzed from the perspective of the resources required to make the protocol succeed. I present results from analyses of two probabilistic protocols: (i) nondeterministic (or immaculate) linear amplification, in which an input coherent state is amplified some of the time to a larger-amplitude coherent state, and (ii) probabilistic quantum metrology, in which one attempts to improve estimation of a parameter (or parameters) by post-selecting on a particular outcome. The analysis indicates that there is little to be gained from probabilistic protocols in these two situations.

  13. A Secure RFID Authentication Protocol Adopting Error Correction Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RFID technology has become popular in many applications; however, most of the RFID products lack security related functionality due to the hardware limitation of the low-cost RFID tags. In this paper, we propose a lightweight mutual authentication protocol adopting error correction code for RFID. Besides, we also propose an advanced version of our protocol to provide key updating. Based on the secrecy of shared keys, the reader and the tag can establish a mutual authenticity relationship. Further analysis of the protocol showed that it also satisfies integrity, forward secrecy, anonymity, and untraceability. Compared with other lightweight protocols, the proposed protocol provides stronger resistance to tracing attacks, compromising attacks and replay attacks. We also compare our protocol with previous works in terms of performance.

  14. A secure RFID authentication protocol adopting error correction code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Ming; Chen, Shuai-Min; Zheng, Xinying; Chen, Pei-Yu; Sun, Hung-Min

    2014-01-01

    RFID technology has become popular in many applications; however, most of the RFID products lack security related functionality due to the hardware limitation of the low-cost RFID tags. In this paper, we propose a lightweight mutual authentication protocol adopting error correction code for RFID. Besides, we also propose an advanced version of our protocol to provide key updating. Based on the secrecy of shared keys, the reader and the tag can establish a mutual authenticity relationship. Further analysis of the protocol showed that it also satisfies integrity, forward secrecy, anonymity, and untraceability. Compared with other lightweight protocols, the proposed protocol provides stronger resistance to tracing attacks, compromising attacks and replay attacks. We also compare our protocol with previous works in terms of performance.

  15. A STRONG SECURITY PROTOCOL AGAINST FINGERPRINT DATABASE ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Latha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Biometric data is subject to on-going changes and create a crucial problem in fingerprint database. To deal with this, a security protocol is proposed to protect the finger prints information from the prohibited users. Here, a security protocol is proposed to protect the finger prints information. The proposed system comprised of three phases namely, fingerprint reconstruction, feature extraction and development of trigon based security protocol. In fingerprint reconstruction, the different crack variance level finger prints images are reconstructed by the M-band Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT. After that features are extracted by binarization. A set of finger print images are utilized to evaluate the performance of security protocol and the result from this process guarantees the healthiness of the proposed trigon based security protocol. The implementation results show the effectiveness of proposed trigon based security protocol in protecting the finger print information and the achieved improvement in image reconstruction and the security process.

  16. Authentication and common key generation cryptographic protocol for vehicle tachographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Gorbatov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a public key generation protocol. The key is used for subscriber authentication in tachographs installed on vehicles in order to provide traffic safety. The protocol is based on the well-known Russian cryptographic algorithms. It ensures integrity and authenticity of data transmitted through communication channel between the on-board devices and vehicle tachograph cards. The protocol was developed in accordance with the Rosstandart recommendations and complies with the development and modernization principles for data protection encryption (cryptographic means. The protocol was suggested as a national standard draft and is open for public discussion in accordance with the established procedure. The main results of our study is the formulation of certain security tasks identical to those used by potential infringers to compromise the protocol. This allows one to account for structural features that will ensure further protocol compliance to the target security characteristics, as well as to guarantee subsequent justification of feature set sufficiency.

  17. Multiprofissional electronic protocol in ophtalmology with enfasis in strabismus

    OpenAIRE

    RIBEIRO, CHRISTIE GRAF; MOREIRA, ANA TEREZA RAMOS; PINTO, JOSÉ SIMÃO DE PAULA; MALAFAIA, OSVALDO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to create and validate an electronic database in ophthalmology focused on strabismus, to computerize this database in the form of a systematic data collection software named Electronic Protocol, and to incorporate this protocol into the Integrated System of Electronic Protocols (SINPE(c)). Methods: this is a descriptive study, with the methodology divided into three phases: (1) development of a theoretical ophthalmologic database with emphasis on strabismus; (2) compute...

  18. Quantum protocol for cheat-sensitive weak coin flipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spekkens, R W; Rudolph, Terry

    2002-11-25

    We present a quantum protocol for the task of weak coin flipping. We find that, for one choice of parameters in the protocol, the maximum probability of a dishonest party winning the coin flip if the other party is honest is 1/sqrt[2]. We also show that if parties restrict themselves to strategies wherein they cannot be caught cheating, their maximum probability of winning can be even smaller. As such, the protocol offers additional security in the form of cheat sensitivity.

  19. Quantum secret sharing protocol using modulated doubly entangled photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan, Wang; Yong, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantum secret sharing protocol utilizing polarization modulated doubly entangled photon pairs. The measurement devices are constructed. By modulating the polarizations of entangled photons, the boss could encode secret information on the initial state and share the photons with different members to realize the secret sharing process. This protocol shows the security against intercept-resend attack and dishonest member cheating. The generalized quantum secret sharing protocol is also discussed. (general)

  20. The development of standard operating protocols for paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, J.; Mencik, C.; McLaren, C.; Young, C.; Scadden, S.; Mashford, P.; McHugh, K.; Beckett, M.; Calvert, M.; Marsden, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how the requirement for operating protocols for standard radiological practice was expanded to provide a comprehensive aide to the operator conducting a medical exposure. The protocols adopted now include justification criteria, patient preparation, radiographic technique, standard exposure charts, diagnostic reference levels and image quality criteria. In total, the protocols have been welcomed as a tool for ensuring that medical exposures are properly optimised. (author)

  1. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dave, Mayank

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper conclud...

  2. An economic and feasible Quantum Sealed-bid Auction protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Shi, Run-hua; Qin, Jia-qi; Peng, Zhen-wan

    2018-02-01

    We present an economic and feasible Quantum Sealed-bid Auction protocol using quantum secure direct communication based on single photons in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom, where each single photon can carry two bits of classical information. Compared with previous protocols, our protocol has higher efficiency. In addition, we propose a secure post-confirmation mechanism without quantum entanglement to guarantee the security and the fairness of the auction.

  3. Implementation of Siemens USS protocol into LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, P; Diblik, M

    2011-10-01

    This article gives basic overview of the USS protocol as a communication interface to drive Siemens frequency inverters. It presents our implementation of this protocol into LabVIEW, as there was permanent demand from the community of the users to have native LabVIEW implementation of the USS protocol. It also states encountered problems and their solutions. Copyright © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Bell Entangled States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wen; Wang Yongbin; Cui Wei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a quantum private comparison protocol is proposed based on bell entangled states. In our protocol, two parties can compare the equality of their information with the help of a semi-honest third party. The correctness and security of our protocol are discussed. One party cannot learn the other's private information and the third party also cannot learn any information about the private information. (general)

  5. Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Network Protocol with Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Bin; Chen Yulin; Huang Yugai; Fang Xia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) network protocol with the hyperentanglment in both the spatial-mode ad the polarization degrees of freedom of photon pairs which can in principle be produced with a beta barium borate crystal. The secret message can be encoded on the photon pairs with unitary operations in these two degrees of freedom independently. Compared with other QSDC network protocols, our QSDC network protocol has a higher capacity as each photon pair can carry 4 bits of information. Also, we discuss the security of our QSDC network protocol and its feasibility with current techniques. (general)

  6. Genomics protocols [Methods in molecular biology, v. 175

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Starkey, Michael P; Elaswarapu, Ramnath

    2001-01-01

    .... Drawing on emerging technologies in the fields of bioinformatics and proteomics, these protocols cover not only those traditionally recognized as genomics, but also early therapeutich approaches...

  7. The Protocol of Choice for Treatment of Snake Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Mohammad Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to compare three different methods of treatment of snake bite to determine the most efficient one. To unify the protocol of snake bite treatment in our center, we retrospectively reviewed files of the snake-bitten patients who had been referred to us between 2010 and 2014. They were contacted for follow-up using phone calls. Demographic and on-arrival characteristics, protocol used for treatment (WHO/Haddad/GF, and outcome/complications were evaluated. Patients were entered into one of the protocol groups and compared. Of a total of 63 patients, 56 (89% were males. Five, 19, and 28 patients were managed by Haddad, WHO, or GF protocols, respectively. Eleven patients had fallen into both GF and WHO protocols and were excluded. Serum sickness was significantly more common when WHO protocol was used while 100% of the compartment syndromes and 71% of deformities had been reported after GF protocol. The most important complications were considered to be deformity, compartment syndrome, and amputation and were more frequent after the use of WHO and GF protocols (23.1% versus 76.9%; none in Haddad; P = NS. Haddad protocol seems to be the best for treatment of snake-bitten patients in our region. However, this cannot be strictly concluded because of the limited sample size and nonsignificant P values.

  8. Protocol-driven costs in trial-based pharmacoeconomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2011-12-01

    Many authors and guidelines have proposed to exclude protocol-driven costs from cost-effectiveness analyses alongside clinical trials because they do not occur in clinical practice. This article, however, argues that only costs to improve patient adherence can be excluded, as the underlying protocol-driven activities have a clearly distinguishable cost and utility impact (most of the time). All other protocol-driven costs need to be included because the cost and utility impact of the underlying protocol-driven activities cannot be easily separated.

  9. A Weak Value Based QKD Protocol Robust Against Detector Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupe, James

    2015-03-01

    We propose a variation of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol that utilizes the properties of weak values to insure the validity of the quantum bit error rate estimates used to detect an eavesdropper. The protocol is shown theoretically to be secure against recently demonstrated attacks utilizing detector blinding and control and should also be robust against all detector based hacking. Importantly, the new protocol promises to achieve this additional security without negatively impacting the secure key generation rate as compared to that originally promised by the standard BB84 scheme. Implementation of the weak measurements needed by the protocol should be very feasible using standard quantum optical techniques.

  10. Protocol for a Delay-Tolerant Data-Communication Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Jordan; Hooke, Adrian; Burleigh, Scott; Fall, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    As its name partly indicates, the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol is a protocol for delay-tolerant transmission of data via communication networks. This protocol was conceived as a result of studies of how to adapt Internet protocols so that Internet-like services could be provided across interplanetary distances in support of deep-space exploration. The protocol, and software to implement the protocol, is being developed in collaboration among experts at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other institutions. No current Internet protocols can accommodate long transmission delay times or intermittent link connectivity. The DTN Bundle Protocol represents a departure from the standard Internet assumption that a continuous path is available from a host computer to a client computer: It provides for routing of data through networks that may be disjointed and may be characterized by long transmission delays. In addition to networks that include deepspace communication links, examples of such networks include terrestrial ones within which branches are temporarily disconnected. The protocol is based partly on the definition of a message-based overlay above the transport layers of the networks on which it is hosted.

  11. The case for a network protocol isolation layer

    KAUST Repository

    Il Choi, Jung

    2009-01-01

    Network protocols are typically designed and tested individually. In practice, however, applications use multiple protocols concurrently. This discrepancy can lead to failures from unanticipated interactions between protocols. In this paper, we argue that sensor network communication stacks should have an isolation layer, whose purpose is to make each protocol\\'s perception of the wireless channel independent of what other protocols are running. We identify two key mechanisms the isolation layer must provide: shared collision avoidance and fair channel allocation. We present an example design of an isolation layer that builds on the existing algorithms of grant-to-send and fair queueing. However, the complexities of wireless make these mechanisms insufficient by themselves. We therefore propose two new mechanisms that address these limitations: channel decay and fair cancellation. Incorporating these new mechanisms reduces the increase in end-to-end delivery cost associated with concurrently operating two protocols by more than 60%. The isolation layer improves median protocol fairness from 0.52 to 0.96 in Jain\\'s fairness index. Together, these results show that using an isolation layer makes protocols more efficient and robust. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  12. Radio protocols for LTE and LTE-advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, SeungJune; Lee, YoungDae; Park, SungJun; Jung, SungHoon

    2012-01-01

    Provides a unique focus on radio protocols for LTE and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) Giving readers a valuable understanding of LTE radio protocols, this book covers LTE (Long-Term Evolution) Layer 2/3 radio protocols as well as new features including LTE-Advanced. It is divided into two sections to differentiate between the two technologies' characteristics. The authors systematically explain the design principles and functions of LTE radio protocols during the development of mobile handsets. The book also provides essential knowledge on the interaction between mobile networks a

  13. Cryptanalysis of the secure quantum private comparison protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingtong; Zhao Jingjing; Wang Jian; Tang Chaojing

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Yang et al [2009 Phys. Scr. 80 065002] presented the first quantum private comparison protocol that involves single photons only. This protocol is very promising in practice. However, in this paper, we analyze the security of the protocol and point out a subtle loophole. It is shown that both Eve and Charlie could obtain Bob's secret by launching a special dense-coding attack. Moreover, details of this attack and its correctness are given, and also two solutions are demonstrated to improve the protocol in order to overcome the fatal flaw. (paper)

  14. Open Core Protocol (OCP) Clock Domain Crossing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlev, Mathias; Poulsen, Christian Keis; Sparsø, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The open core protocol (OCP) is an openly licensed configurable and scalable interface protocol for on-chip subsystem communications. The protocol defines read and write transactions from a master towards a slave across a point-to-point connection and the protocol assumes a single common clock....... This paper presents the design of two OCP clock domain crossing interface modules that can be used to construct systems with multiple clock domains. An OCP interface typically has control signals related to both the master issuing a read or write request and the slave producing a response. If all...

  15. Review of Immediate and Early Loading Protocols in Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rismanchian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The concept of treating edentulous patients by osseointegrated implants was first proposed in 1960s. To minimize the failure rate of implants, it has been recommended to keep the implants free of load during the healing period .Recent studies have been directed to achieve faster integration and shorter healing periods prior to implant restoration. Loading protocols (immediate loading , early loading can best be interpreted on the biologic basis of implant integration. Each of these protocols needs special prerequisites and there are special risk factors for different loading protocols. Objectives: In this review article, different loading protocols and their surgical and prosthetic considerations are discussed.

  16. The Kyoto Protocol Is Cost-effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Gatto

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances, there is a high degree of uncertainty concerning the climate change that would result from increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Also, opponents of the Kyoto Protocol raised the key objection that reducing emissions would impose an unacceptable economic burden on businesses and consumers. Based on an analysis of alternative scenarios for electricity generation in Italy, we show that if the costs in terms of damage to human health, material goods, agriculture, and the environment caused by greenhouse gas emissions are included in the balance, the economic argument against Kyoto is untenable. Most importantly, the argument holds true even if we exclude global external costs (those due to global warming, and account for local external costs only (such as those due to acidic precipitation and lung diseases resulting from air pollution.

  17. New dimensions in SNMP Protocol in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Nastovici

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this year 2009, after e-finance shock made in each banks who worked with Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP default community string and vulnerability:- If you do not absolutely require SNMP, disable it- If you must use SNMP, use the same policy for community names as used for passwords.Make sure that they are difficult to guess or crack and that they are chanced periodically- Validate and check community names using SNMPwalk. Additional information can be foundat http://www.2nd.com/functionSNMPwalk.php- Filter SNMP (port 161/udp at the border-router or firewall unless it is absolutely necessary topool or manage devices from outside of the local network, where possible read-only

  18. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  19. On Protocol Security in the Cryptographic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    the channels by which they communicate. A general solution to the secure multiparty computation problem is a compiler which given any feasible function describes an efficient protocol which allows the parties to compute the function securely on their local inputs over an open network. Over the past twenty...... previous approaches to the problem. Starting from an open point-to-point network there is a long way to general secure multiparty computation. The dissertation contains contributions at several points along the way. In particular we investigate how to realize secure channels. We also show how threshold...... you as possible. This is the general problem of secure multiparty computation. The usual way of formalizing the problem is to say that a number of parties who do not trust each other wish to compute some function of their local inputs, while keeping their inputs as secret as possible and guaranteeing...

  20. Neonatal euthanasia: lessons from the Groningen Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduard Verhagen, A A

    2014-10-01

    Decisions about neonatal end-of-life care have been studied intensely over the last 20 years in The Netherlands. Nationwide surveys were done to quantify these decisions, provide details and monitor the effect of guidelines, new regulations and other interventions. One of those interventions was the Groningen Protocol for newborn euthanasia in severely ill newborns, published in 2005. Before publication, an estimated 20 cases of euthanasia per year were performed. After publication, only two cases in five years were reported. Studies suggested that this might be partly caused by the lack of consensus about the dividing line between euthanasia and palliative care. New recommendations about paralytic medication use in dying newborns were issued to increase transparency and to improve reporting of euthanasia. New surveys will be needed to measure the effects of these interventions. This cycle of interventions and measurements seems useful for continuous improvement of end-of-life care in newborns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.