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Sample records for antimycin a

  1. Two Antimycin A Analogues from Marine-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces lusitanus

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    Peiyuan Qian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new antimycin A analogues, antimycin B1 and B2 (1–2, were isolated from a spent broth of a marine-derived bacterium, Streptomyces lusitanus. The structures of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. The isolated compounds were tested for their anti-bacterial potency. Compound 1 was found to be inactive against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus, and Loktanella hongkongensis. Compound 2 showed antibacterial activities against S. aureus and L. hongkongensis with MIC values of 32.0 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively.

  2. Analysis of antimycin A by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/nuclear magnetic-resonance spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Steven T.K.; Wilkins, Charles L.; Abidi, Sharon L.

    1989-01-01

    A mixture of closely related streptomyces fermentation products, antimycin A, Is separated, and the components are identified by using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with directly linked 400-MHz proton nuclear magnetic resonance detection. Analyses of mixtures of three amino acids, alanine, glycine, and valine, are used to determine optimal measurement conditions. Sensitivity increases of as much as a factor of 3 are achieved, at the expense of some loss in chromatographic resolution, by use of an 80-μL NMR cell, Instead of a smaller 14-μL cell. Analysis of the antimycin A mixture, using the optimal analytical high performance liquid chromatography/nuclear magnetic resonance conditions, reveals it to consist of at least 10 closely related components.

  3. Celastrol Protects against Antimycin A-Induced Insulin Resistance in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar; Kian-Kai Cheng; Mohamad Roji Sarmidi; Harisun Yaakob; Hasniza Zaman Huri

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are widely accepted as key hallmarks of obesity-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional roles of an anti-inflammatory compound, celastrol, in mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance induced by antimycin A (AMA) in human skeletal muscle cells. We found that celastrol treatment improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity of AMA-treated cells, apparently via PI3K/Akt pathwa...

  4. Antimycin A treatment decreases respiratory internal rotenone-insensitive NADH oxidation capacity in potato leaves

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    Svensson Å Staffan

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plant respiratory chain contains several energy-dissipating enzymes, these being type II NAD(PH dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase, not present in mammals. The physiological functions of type II NAD(PH dehydrogenases are largely unclear and little is known about their responses to stress. In this investigation, potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Desiree were sprayed with antimycin A, an inhibitor of the cytochrome pathway. Enzyme capacities of NAD(PH dehydrogenases (EC 1.6.5.3 and the alternative oxidase were then analysed in isolated leaf mitochondria. Results We report a specific decrease in internal rotenone-insensitive NADH dehydrogenase capacity in mitochondria from antimycin A-treated leaves. External NADPH dehydrogenase and alternative oxidase capacities remained unaffected by the treatment. Western blotting revealed no change in protein abundance for two characterised NAD(PH dehydrogenase homologues, NDA1 and NDB1, nor for two subunits of complex I. The alternative oxidase was at most only slightly increased. Transcript levels of nda1, as well as an expressed sequence tag derived from a previously uninvestigated closely related potato homologue, remained unchanged by the treatment. As compared to the daily rhythm-regulated nda1, the novel homologue displayed steady transcript levels over the time investigated. Conclusions The internal rotenone-insensitive NADH oxidation decreases after antimycin A treatment of potato leaves. However, the decrease is not due to changes in expression of known nda genes. One consequence of the lower NADH dehydrogenase capacity may be a stabilisation of the respiratory chain reduction level, should the overall capacity of the cytochrome and the alternative pathway be restricted.

  5. The regulation and biosynthesis of antimycins

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    Ryan F. Seipke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimycins (>40 members were discovered nearly 65 years ago but the discovery of the gene cluster encoding antimycin biosynthesis in 2011 has facilitated rapid progress in understanding the unusual biosynthetic pathway. Antimycin A is widely used as a piscicide in the catfish farming industry and also has potent killing activity against insects, nematodes and fungi. The mode of action of antimycins is to inhibit cytochrome c reductase in the electron transport chain and halt respiration. However, more recently, antimycin A has attracted attention as a potent and selective inhibitor of the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Remarkably, this inhibition is independent of the main mode of action of antimycins such that an artificial derivative named 2-methoxyantimycin A inhibits Bcl-xL but does not inhibit respiration. The Bcl-2/Bcl-xL family of proteins are over-produced in cancer cells that are resistant to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy agents, so antimycins have great potential as anticancer drugs used in combination with existing chemotherapeutics. Here we review what is known about antimycins, the regulation of the ant gene cluster and the unusual biosynthetic pathway.

  6. A Preclinical Evaluation of Antimycin A as a Potential Antilung Cancer Stem Cell Agent

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    Chi-Tai Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance and tumor recurrence are major obstacles in treating lung cancer patients. Accumulating evidence considers lung cancer stem cells (CSCs as the major contributor to these clinical challenges. Agents that can target lung CSCs could potentially provide a more effective treatment than traditional chemotherapy. Here, we utilized the side-population (SP method to isolate lung CSCs from A549 and PC-9 cell lines. Subsequently, a high throughput platform, connectivity maps (CMAPs, was used to identify potential anti-CSC agents. An antibiotic, antimycin A (AMA, was identified as a top candidate. SP A549 cells exhibited an elevated stemness profile, including Nanog, β-catenin, Sox2, and CD133, and increased self-renewal ability. AMA treatment was found to suppress β-catenin signaling components and tumor sphere formation. Furthermore, AMA treatment decreased the proliferation of gefitinib-resistant PC-9/GR cells and percentage of SP population. AMA demonstrated synergistic suppression of PC-9/GR cell viability when combined with gefitinib. Finally, AMA treatment suppressed tumorigenesis in mice inoculated with A549 SP cells. Collectively, we have identified AMA using CMAP as a novel antilung CSC agent, which acts to downregulate β-catenin signaling. The combination of AMA and targeted therapeutic agents could be considered for overcoming drug resistance and relapse in lung cancer patients.

  7. Celastrol Protects against Antimycin A-Induced Insulin Resistance in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells

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    Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are widely accepted as key hallmarks of obesity-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional roles of an anti-inflammatory compound, celastrol, in mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance induced by antimycin A (AMA in human skeletal muscle cells. We found that celastrol treatment improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity of AMA-treated cells, apparently via PI3K/Akt pathways, with significant enhancement of mitochondrial activities. Furthermore, celastrol prevented increased levels of cellular oxidative damage where the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in cultures cells was greatly reduced. Celastrol significantly increased protein phosphorylation of insulin signaling cascades with amplified expression of AMPK protein and attenuated NF-κB and PKC θ activation in human skeletal muscle treated with AMA. The improvement of insulin signaling pathways by celastrol was also accompanied by augmented GLUT4 protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that celastrol may be advocated for use as a potential therapeutic molecule to protect against mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle cells.

  8. Antimycin-insensitive mutants of Candida utilis II. The effects of antimycin on Cytochrome b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Marres, C A; Slater, Conor

    1975-01-01

    reoxidation is observed in the wild type in the present of low concentrations of antimycin. 2. In contrast to the wild type, inhibition of electron transport in the mutant has a much higher antimycin titre than effects on cytochromes b (viz., aerobic steady-state reduction; reduction in the presence....... The difference between the effect of antimycin on electron transport and cytochromes b reduction is also found in intact cells of the mutant. 6. A model is suggested for the wild-type respiratory chain in which (i) the cytochromes b lie, in an uncoupled system, out of the main electron-transfer chain, (ii......) antimycin induces a conformation change in QH-2-cytochrome c reductase resulting in effects on cytochrome b and inhibition of electron transport, (iii) a second antimycin-binding site with low affinity to the antibiotic is present, capable of inhibiting electron transport....

  9. Binding of the Respiratory Chain Inhibitor Antimycin to theMitochondrial bc1 Complex: A New Crystal Structure Reveals an AlteredIntramolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.

    2005-05-10

    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28Angstrom resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cyt b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alpha-A helix.

  10. Bypasses of the antimycin a block of mitochondrial electron transport in relation to ubisemiquinone function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A; Lehninger, A L

    1984-10-26

    Two different bypasses around the antimycin block of electron transport from succinate to cytochrome c via the ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase of intact rat liver mitochondria were analyzed, one promoted by N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) and the other by 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP). Both bypasses are inhibited by myxothiazol, which blocks electron flow from ubiquinol to the Rieske iron-sulfur center, and by 2-hydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, which inhibits electron flow from the iron-sulfur center to cytochrome c1. In the bypass promoted by TMPD its oxidized form (Wurster's blue) acts as an electron acceptor from some reduced component prior to the antimycin block, which by exclusion of other possibilities is ubisemiquinone. In the DCIP bypass its reduced form acts as an electron donor, by reducing ubisemiquinone to ubiquinol; reduced DCIP is regenerated again at the expense of either succinate or ascorbate. The observations described are consistent with and support current models of the Q cycle. Bypasses promoted by artificial electron carriers provide an independent approach to analysis of electron flow through ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase. PMID:6091750

  11. Determination of Antimycin-A in water by liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometry: single-laboratory validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardy, Jeffry A.; Hubert, Terrance D.; Ogorek, Jacob M.; Schmidt, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    An LC/MS method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination and confirmation of antimycin-A (ANT-A) in water from lakes or streams. Three different water sample volumes (25, 50, and 250 mL) were evaluated. ANT-A was stabilized in the field by immediately extracting it from water into anhydrous acetone using SPE. The stabilized concentrated samples were then transported to a laboratory and analyzed by LC/MS using negative electrospray ionization. The method was determined to have adequate accuracy (78 to 113% recovery), precision (0.77 to 7.5% RSD with samples ≥500 ng/L and 4.8 to 17% RSD with samples ≤100 ng/L), linearity, and robustness over an LOQ range from 8 to 51 600 ng/L.

  12. U.S.D.A. Forest Service environmental analysis report on the use of antimycin to rehabilitate lakes and streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report identifies characteristics of use of antimycin to destroy stickleback, chub, suckers and other competitors to salmon and dolly varden.

  13. Mechanisms involved in the inhibition of glycolysis by cyanide and antimycin A in Candida albicans and its reversal by hydrogen peroxide. A common feature in Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Antonio; Sánchez, Norma Silvia; González-López, Omar; Calahorra, Martha

    2015-12-01

    In Candida albicans, cyanide and antimycin A inhibited K(+) transport, not only with ethanol-O2 as the substrate, but also with glucose. The reason for this was that they inhibited not only respiration, but also fermentation, decreasing ATP production. Measurements of oxygen levels in cell suspensions allowed identification of the electron pathways involved. NADH fluorescence levels increased in the presence of the inhibitors, indirectly indicating lower levels of NAD(+) and so pointing to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as the limiting step responsible for the inhibition of glycolysis, which was confirmed by the levels of glycolytic intermediaries. The cyanide effect could be reversed by hydrogen peroxide, mainly due to an activity by which H2O2 can be reduced by electrons flowing from NADH through a pathway that can be inhibited by antimycin A, and appears to be a cytochrome c peroxidase. Therefore, the inhibition of glycolysis by the respiratory inhibitors seems to be due to the decreased availability of NAD(+), resulting in a decreased activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Compartmentalization of pyridine nucleotides in favor of the mitochondria can contribute to explaining the low fermentation capacity of C. albicans. Similar results were obtained with three C. albicans strains, Candida dubliniensis and, to a lower degree, Candida parapsilosis.

  14. Effects of thyroid hormones on the bypasses of the antimycin A block in the bc1 complex of rat liver mitochondria.

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    Horrum, M A; Tobin, R B; Ecklund, R E

    1991-07-15

    The effect of thyroid hormones on the electron flow through the bc1 complex of rat liver mitochondria was studied using two dye bypasses of the Antimycin A block of the bc1 complex by the method of Alexandre and Lehninger (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 767:120; 1984). Bypass respiration rates with both DCIP (2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol) and TMPD (N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride) were elevated in the hyperthyroid rats and depressed in the hypothyroid groups compared to the euthyroid controls. T3 treatment of hypothyroid rats returned the bypass rates to control levels in 24 hours with the TMPD dye but not for the DCIP. This further demonstrates that different portions of the bc1 complex respond individually to the thyroid state. PMID:1648915

  15. Physiological Concentration of Exogenous Lactate Reduces Antimycin A Triggered Oxidative Stress in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2 In Vitro

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    Kahlert, Stefan; Junnikkala, Sami; Renner, Lydia; Hynönen, Ulla; Hartig, Roland; Nossol, Constanze; Barta-Böszörményi, Anikó; Dänicke, Sven; Souffrant, Wolfgang-Bernhard; Palva, Airi; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Kluess, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    Weaning triggers an adaptation of the gut function including luminal lactate generation by lactobacilli, depending on gastrointestinal site. We hypothesized that both lactobacilli and lactate influence porcine intestinal epithelial cells. In vivo experiments showed that concentration of lactate was significantly higher in gastric, duodenal and jejunal chyme of suckling piglets compared to their weaned counterparts. In an in vitro study we investigated the impact of physiological lactate concentration as derived from the in vivo study on the porcine intestinal epithelial cells IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2. We detected direct adherence of lactobacilli on the apical epithelial surface and a modulated F-actin structure. Application of lactobacilli culture supernatant alone or lactate (25 mM) at low pH (pH 4) changed the F-actin structure in a similar manner. Treatment of IPEC cultures with lactate at near neutral pH resulted in a significantly reduced superoxide-generation in Antimycin A-challenged cells. This protective effect was nearly completely reversed by inhibition of cellular lactate uptake via monocarboxylate transporter. Lactate treatment enhanced NADH autofluorescence ratio (Fcytosol/Fnucleus) in non-challenged cells, indicating an increased availability of reduced nucleotides, but did not change the overall ATP content of the cells. Lactobacilli-derived physiological lactate concentration in intestine is relevant for alleviation of redox stress in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:27054581

  16. Increased sensitivity of photosynthesis to antimycin A induced by inactivation of the chloroplast ndhB gene. Evidence for a participation of the NADH-dehydrogenase complex to cyclic electron flow around photosystem I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joët, T; Cournac, L; Horvath, E M; Medgyesy, P; Peltier, G

    2001-04-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var Petit Havana) ndhB-inactivated mutants (ndhB-) obtained by plastid transformation (E.M. Horvath, S.O. Peter, T. Joët, D. Rumeau, L. Cournac, G.V. Horvath, T.A. Kavanagh, C. Schäfer, G. Peltier, P. MedgyesyHorvath [2000] Plant Physiol 123: 1337-1350) were used to study the role of the NADH-dehydrogenase complex (NDH) during photosynthesis and particularly the involvement of this complex in cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (PSI). Photosynthetic activity was determined on leaf discs by measuring CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence quenchings during a dark-to-light transition. In the absence of treatment, both non-photochemical and photochemical fluorescence quenchings were similar in ndhB- and wild type (WT). When leaf discs were treated with 5 microM antimycin A, an inhibitor of cyclic electron flow around PSI, both quenchings were strongly affected. At steady state, maximum photosynthetic electron transport activity was inhibited by 20% in WT and by 50% in ndhB-. Under non-photorespiratory conditions (2% O2, 2,500 microL x L(-1) CO2), antimycin A had no effect on photosynthetic activity of WT, whereas a 30% inhibition was observed both on quantum yield of photosynthesis assayed by chlorophyll fluorescence and on CO2 assimilation in ndhB-. The effect of antimycin A on ndhB- could not be mimicked by myxothiazol, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex, therefore showing that it is not related to an inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain but rather to an inhibition of cyclic electron flow around PSI. We conclude to the existence of two different pathways of cyclic electron flow operating around PSI in higher plant chloroplasts. One of these pathways, sensitive to antimycin A, probably involves ferredoxin plastoquinone reductase, whereas the other involves the NDH complex. The absence of visible phenotype in ndhB- plants under normal conditions is explained by the complement of these two

  17. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces wadayamensis Strain A23, an Endophytic Actinobacterium from Citrus reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Luciana G; Tormet Gonzalez, Gabriela D.; Samborsky, Markyian; Marcon, Joelma; Araujo, Welington L.; de Azevedo, João Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The actinobacterium Streptomyces wadayamensis A23 is an endophyte of Citrus reticulata that produces the antimycin and mannopeptimycin antibiotics, among others. The strain has the capability to inhibit Xylella fastidiosa growth. The draft genome of S. wadayamensis A23 has ~7.0 Mb and 6,006 protein-coding sequences, with a 73.5% G+C content.

  18. Ex vivo hyperpolarized MR spectroscopy on isolated renal tubular cells: A novel technique for cell energy phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Troels; Palm, Fredrik; Nielsen, Per Mose;

    2016-01-01

    ) C MR is suitable for cells isolated from kidney tissue, without prior cell culture. METHODS: Isolation of tubular cells from freshly excised kidney tissue and treatment with either ouabain or antimycin A was investigated with hyperpolarized MR spectroscopy on a 9.4 Tesla preclinical imaging system...

  19. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Viegelmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8 isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1, 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2, and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3 that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont.

  20. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces wadayamensis Strain A23, an Endophytic Actinobacterium from Citrus reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana G; Tormet Gonzalez, Gabriela D; Samborsky, Markyian; Marcon, Joelma; Araujo, Welington L; de Azevedo, João Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The actinobacterium Streptomyces wadayamensis A23 is an endophyte of Citrus reticulata that produces the antimycin and mannopeptimycin antibiotics, among others. The strain has the capability to inhibit Xylella fastidiosa growth. The draft genome of S. wadayamensis A23 has ~7.0 Mb and 6,006 protein-coding sequences, with a 73.5% G+C content. PMID:24994795

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 355 - The List of Extremely Hazardous Substances and Their Threshold Planning Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pentafluoride 500 500 1397-94-0 Antimycin A b 1,000 1,000/10,000 86-88-4 ANTU 100 500/10,000 1303-28-2 Arsenic... 500 814-49-3 Diethyl Chlorophosphate d 500 500 71-63-6 Digitoxin b 100 100/10,000 2238-07-5 Diglycidyl... Acetate 500 500/10,000 80-63-7 Methyl 2-Chloroacrylate 500 500 74-83-9 Methyl Bromide f 1,000 1,000...

  2. ATP synthesis during exogenous NADH oxidation. A reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, P; Azzone, G F

    1982-01-20

    This paper reports a reinvestigation on the pathway for mitochondrial oxidation of exogenous NADH and on the related ATP synthesis, first reported 30 years ago (Lehninger, A.L. (1951) J. Biol. Chem. 190, 345-359). NADH oxidation, both in intact and in water-treated mitochondria, is 90% inhibited by mersalyl, an inhibitor of the outer membrane NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, and 10% inhibited by rotenone. The mersalyl-sensitive, but not the rotenone-sensitive, portion of NADH oxidation is stimulated by exogenous cytochrome c. Part of ATP synthesis is independent of exogenous NADH and cytochrome c, and is inhibited by rotenone and antimycin A, and is therefore due to oxidation of endogenous substrates. Another part of ATP synthesis is dependent on exogenous NADH and cytochrome c, is insensitive to rotenone and antimycin A, and is due to operation of cytochrome oxidase. It is concluded that (i) oxidation of exogenous NADH in the presence of cytochrome c proceeds mostly through NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5 on the outer membrane and then through cytochrome oxidase via the cytochrome c shuttle, and (ii) ATP synthesis during oxidation of exogenous NADH is partly due to oxidation of endogenous substrates and partly to operation of cytochrome oxidase receiving electrons from the outer membrane via cytochrome c. PMID:6275889

  3. Characterization of cereulide synthetase, a toxin-producing macromolecular machine.

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    Diego A Alonzo

    Full Text Available Cereulide synthetase is a two-protein nonribosomal peptide synthetase system that produces a potent emetic toxin in virulent strains of Bacillus cereus. The toxin cereulide is a depsipeptide, as it consists of alternating aminoacyl and hydroxyacyl residues. The hydroxyacyl residues are derived from keto acid substrates, which cereulide synthetase selects and stereospecifically reduces with imbedded ketoreductase domains before incorporating them into the growing depsipeptide chain. We present an in vitro biochemical characterization of cereulide synthetase. We investigate the kinetics and side chain specificity of α-keto acid selection, evaluate the requirement of an MbtH-like protein for adenylation domain activity, assay the effectiveness of vinylsulfonamide inhibitors on ester-adding modules, perform NADPH turnover experiments and evaluate in vitro depsipeptide biosynthesis. This work also provides biochemical insight into depsipeptide-synthesizing nonribosomal peptide synthetases responsible for other bioactive molecules such as valinomycin, antimycin and kutzneride.

  4. Ascorbic acid is a key participant during the interactions between chloroplasts and mitochondria to optimize photosynthesis and protect against photoinhibition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saikrishna Talla; Khateef Riazunnisa; Lolla Padmavathi; Pidakala Rajsheel; Agepati S Raghavendra

    2011-03-01

    The possible role of L-ascorbate (AsA) as a biochemical signal during the interactions between photosynthesis and respiration was examined in leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. AsA content was either decreased as in AsA-deficient vtc1 mutants or increased by treatment with L-galactono-1, 4-lactone (L-GalL, a precursor of AsA; EC 1.3.2.3). In mutants, photosynthesis was extremely sensitive to both antimycin A (inhibitor of the cytochrome oxidase pathway [COX pathway]) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, inhibitor of the alternative pathway [AOX pathway]), particularly at high light conditions. Mitochondrial inhibitors lowered the ratio of reduced AsA to total AsA, at high light, indicating oxidative stress in leaf discs. Elevation of AsA by L-GalL decreased the sensitivity of photosynthesis at high light to antimycin A or SHAM, sustained photosynthesis at supraoptimal light and relieved the extent of photoinhibition. High ratios of reduced AsA to total AsA in L-GalL-treated leaf discs suggests that L-GalL lowers oxidative stress. The protection by L-GalL of photosynthesis against the mitochondrial inhibitors and photoinhibition was quite pronounced in vtc1 mutants. Our results suggest that the levels and redox state of AsA modify the pattern of modulation of photosynthesis by mitochondrial metabolism. The extent of the AOX pathway as a percentage of the total respiration in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts was much higher in vtc1 than in wild type. We suggest that the role of AsA becomes pronounced at high light and/or when the AOX pathway is inhibited. While acknowledging the importance of the COX pathway, we hypothesize that AsA and the AOX pathway may complement each other to protect photosynthesis against photoinhibition.

  5. Mass spectrometric determination of O2 gas exchange during a dark-to-light transition in higher-plant cells : Evidence for two individual O2-uptake components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelange, M H; Rébeillé, F

    1991-01-01

    The exchange of O2 and CO2 by photoautotrophic cells of Euphorbia characias L. was measured using a mass-spectrometry technique. During a dark-tolight transition the O2 uptake rate was little affected whereas CO2 efflux was decreased by 40%. In order to differentiate eventual superimposed O2-uptake processes, the kinetics of O2 exchange resulting from brief illuminations were measured with a highly sensitive device. When the cells were exposed to a saturating light for short periods, the rate of O2 uptake passed through a series of transients: there was first a stimulation occurring 2-3 s after the appearance of O2 from water-splitting, followed 30 s later by an inhibition. These two transients were reduced 80% by 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)1, 1-dimethylurea (DCMU), indicating that they relied on the linear transport of electrons in the chloroplasts. The first transient (stimulation of an O2 uptake) was little affected by mitochondrial inhibitors such as antimycin A and oligomycin or the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) but was increased in presence of KCN. When spaced flashes (2 us duration; 100-ms intervals) were used instead of continuous light, this transient was almost suppressed indicating that it was dependent on the saturation of some component of the chloroplastic chain. The second transient (inhibition of O2 uptake) was present when spaced flashes were used instead of continuous light. It was markedly decreased by addition of CCCP and mitochondrial inhibitors (antimycin A, oligomycin, KCN) which strongly indicates that it relied on mitochondrial respiration. It is concluded from these experiments that illumination of the cells resulted in an inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, but the resulting inhibition of O2 uptake was hidden by the appearance of an O2-uptake process of extramitochondrial origin, presumably located in the chloroplast. PMID:24193615

  6. A broad distribution of the alternative oxidase in microsporidian parasites.

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    Bryony A P Williams

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular parasitic eukaryotes that were considered to be amitochondriate until the recent discovery of highly reduced mitochondrial organelles called mitosomes. Analysis of the complete genome of Encephalitozoon cuniculi revealed a highly reduced set of proteins in the organelle, mostly related to the assembly of iron-sulphur clusters. Oxidative phosphorylation and the Krebs cycle proteins were absent, in keeping with the notion that the microsporidia and their mitosomes are anaerobic, as is the case for other mitosome bearing eukaryotes, such as Giardia. Here we provide evidence opening the possibility that mitosomes in a number of microsporidian lineages are not completely anaerobic. Specifically, we have identified and characterized a gene encoding the alternative oxidase (AOX, a typically mitochondrial terminal oxidase in eukaryotes, in the genomes of several distantly related microsporidian species, even though this gene is absent from the complete genome of E. cuniculi. In order to confirm that these genes encode functional proteins, AOX genes from both A. locustae and T. hominis were over-expressed in E. coli and AOX activity measured spectrophotometrically using ubiquinol-1 (UQ-1 as substrate. Both A. locustae and T. hominis AOX proteins reduced UQ-1 in a cyanide and antimycin-resistant manner that was sensitive to ascofuranone, a potent inhibitor of the trypanosomal AOX. The physiological role of AOX microsporidia may be to reoxidise reducing equivalents produced by glycolysis, in a manner comparable to that observed in trypanosomes.

  7. The energy-conserving nitric-oxide-reductase system in Paracoccus denitrificans. Distinction from the nitrite reductase that catalyses synthesis of nitric oxide and evidence from trapping experiments for nitric oxide as a free intermediate during denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, G J; Page, M D; Ferguson, S J

    1989-02-15

    1. A Clark-type electrode that responds to nitric oxide has been used to show that cytoplasmic membrane vesicles of Paracoccus denitrificans have a nitric-oxide reductase activity. Nitrous oxide is the reaction product. NADH, succinate or isoascorbate plus 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene diamine can act as reductants. The NADH-dependent activity is resistant to freezing of the vesicles and thus the NADH:nitric-oxide oxidoreductase activity of stored frozen vesicles provides a method for calibrating the electrode by titration of dissolved nitric oxide with NADH. The periplasmic nitrite reductase and nitrous-oxide reductase enzymes are absent from the vesicles which indicates that nitric-oxide reductase is a discrete enzyme associated with the denitrification process. This conclusion was supported by the finding that nitric-oxide reductase activity was absent from both membranes prepared from aerobically grown P. denitrificans and bovine heart submitochondrial particles. 2. The NADH: nitric-oxide oxidoreductase activity was inhibited by concentrations of antimycin or myxothiazol that were just sufficient to inhibit the cytochrome bc1 complex of the ubiquinol--cytochrome-c oxidoreductase. The activity was deduced to be proton translocating by the observations of: (a) up to 3.5-fold stimulation upon addition of an uncoupler; and (b) ATP synthesis with a P:2e ratio of 0.75. 3. Nitrite reductase of cytochrome cd1 type was highly purified from P. denitrificans in a new, high-yield, rapid two- or three-step procedure. This enzyme catalysed stoichiometric synthesis of nitric oxide. This observation, taken together with the finding that the maximum rate of NADH:nitric-oxide oxidoreductase activity catalysed by the vesicles was comparable with that of NADH:nitrate-oxidoreductase, is consistent with a role for nitric-oxide reductase in the physiological conversion of nitrate or nitrite to dinitrogen gas. 4. Intact cells of P. denitrificans also reduced nitric oxide in an

  8. Storage of biogenic amines in intact blood platelets of man. Dependence on a proton gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actions of ionophores with different ion specificities and of thrombin on the release of 14C-labeled 5-hydroxytryptamine, [3H]noradrenaline, and endogenous ATP were measured in human platelets suspended in media with various K+ and Na+ concentrations. Besides thrombin, those ionophores [monensin, nigericin, and the combination of carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (FCCP) with nonactin and/or valinomycin] which cause a rapid collapse of H+ gradients induced a fast and virtually total release of 14C-labeled 5-hydroxytryptamine and [3H]noradrenaline into the various media. FCCP alone, which causes an inversion of the membrane potential to inside negative values, induced a considerably slower amine release. Changes in the K+ and Na+ gradients did not lead to amine release, nor did interference with energy transduction by antimycin A with or without glycolysis inhibitors. Monensin and FCCP did not release ATP, whereas thrombin, added before or after incubation of platelets with FCCP and monensin, caused a marked liberation of the nucleotide. It is concluded that in intact human platelets (a) the intragranular storage of 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline mainly depends on the proton gradient across the granular membrane, and (b) ionophores causing a collapse of H+ gradients induce non-exocytotic release of 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline from intracellular storage granules

  9. Existence of aa3-type ubiquinol oxidase as a terminal oxidase in sulfite oxidation of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugio, Tsuyoshi; Hisazumi, Tomohiro; Kanao, Tadayoshi; Kamimura, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Fumiaki; Negishi, Atsunori

    2006-07-01

    It was found that Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans has sulfite:ubiquinone oxidoreductase and ubiquinol oxidase activities in the cells. Ubiquinol oxidase was purified from plasma membranes of strain NB1-3 in a nearly homogeneous state. A purified enzyme showed absorption peaks at 419 and 595 nm in the oxidized form and at 442 and 605 nm in the reduced form. Pyridine ferrohaemochrome prepared from the enzyme showed an alpha-peak characteristic of haem a at 587 nm, indicating that the enzyme contains haem a as a component. The CO difference spectrum of ubiquinol oxidase showed two peaks at 428 nm and 595 nm, and a trough at 446 nm, suggesting the existence of an aa(3)-type cytochrome in the enzyme. Ubiquinol oxidase was composed of three subunits with apparent molecular masses of 57 kDa, 34 kDa, and 23 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for ubiquinol oxidation were pH 6.0 and 30 degrees C. The activity was completely inhibited by sodium cyanide at 1.0 mM. In contrast, the activity was inhibited weakly by antimycin A(1) and myxothiazol, which are inhibitors of mitochondrial bc(1) complex. Quinone analog 2-heptyl-4-hydoroxyquinoline N-oxide (HOQNO) strongly inhibited ubiquinol oxidase activity. Nickel and tungstate (0.1 mM), which are used as a bacteriostatic agent for A. thiooxidans-dependent concrete corrosion, inhibited ubiquinol oxidase activity 100 and 70% respectively.

  10. Lacidipine Attenuates Apoptosis via a Caspase-3 Dependent Pathway in Human Kidney Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqi Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI is common in hospitalised patients and has a poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are anticipated. Lacidipine, a novel third-generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, has been demonstrated effective for hypertension. However, its potential effect on renal injury remains unknown. In the present study, an in vitro model of renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury was used to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of lacidipine on human kidney cell (HKC apoptosis. Methods: HKCs were subjected to adenosine triphosphate (ATP depletion and recovery (0.01 µM AA, depletion for 2 h and recovery for 30 min, with or without lacidipine (1 µM and 10 µM, 24 h, then cell viability and apoptosis were determined using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay and Annexin V flow cytometry. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome c (cyt c was examined by western blot. Results: Antimycin A (AA was found to induce apoptosis of HKCs. The proportion of early apoptosis and activity of caspase-3 peaked at 30 min after ATP depletion and recovery and were attenuated by lacidipine. The expression of cyt c and Bax was decreased, while that of Bcl-2 was increased significantly in lacidipine treated group. Conclusion: We conclude that lacidipine protects HKCs against apoptosis induced by ATP depletion and recovery by regulating the caspase-3 pathway.

  11. Utilization of adenosine triphosphate in rat mast cells during histamine release induced by the ionophore A23187

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1979-01-01

    The role of endogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in histamine release from rat mast cells induced by the ionophore A23187 in vitro has been studied. 2 The amount of histamine released by calcium from rat mast cells primed with the ionophore A23187 was dependent on the ATP content of the mast c...... cells. 3 In aerobic experiments a drastic reduction in mast cell ATP content was found during the time when histamine release induced by A23187 takes place. 4 Anaerobic experiments were performed with metabolic inhibitors (antimycin A, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p......-trifluorometroxyphenylnydrazone), which are known to block the energy-dependent calcium uptake by isolated mitochondria. The mast cell ATP content was reduced during A23187-induced histamine release under anaerobic conditions in the presence of glucose. This indicates an increased utilization of ATP during the release process. 5...... The observations are consistent with the view that energy requiring processes are involved in ionophore-induced histamine release from rat mast cells although part of the ATP reduction in the aerobic experiments may be due to an uncoupling effect of calcium on the oxidative phosphorylation....

  12. Cells lacking Rieske iron-sulfur protein have a reactive oxygen species-associated decrease in respiratory complexes I and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Francisca; Enríquez, José Antonio; Moraes, Carlos T

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory complexes of the electron transport chain (CI, CIII, and CIV) can be assembled into larger structures forming supercomplexes. We analyzed the assembly/stability of respiratory complexes in mouse lung fibroblasts lacking the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP knockout [KO]cells), one of the catalytic subunits of CIII. In the absence of RISP, most of the remaining CIII subunits were able to assemble into a large precomplex that lacked enzymatic activity. CI, CIV, and supercomplexes were decreased in the RISP-deficient cells. Reintroduction of RISP into KO cells restored CIII activity and increased the levels of active CI, CIV, and supercomplexes. We found that hypoxia (1% O(2)) resulted in increased levels of CI, CIV, and supercomplex assembly in RISP KO cells. In addition, treatment of control cells with different oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) inhibitors showed that compounds known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) (e.g., antimycin A and oligomycin) had a negative impact on CI and supercomplex levels. Accordingly, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic compound and SOD2 overexpression provided a partial increase in supercomplex levels in the RISP KO cells. Our data suggest that the stability of CI, CIV, and supercomplexes is regulated by ROS in the context of defective oxidative phosphorylation.

  13. Utilizing Chemical Genomics to Identify Cytochrome b as a Novel Drug Target for Chagas Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Khare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unbiased phenotypic screens enable identification of small molecules that inhibit pathogen growth by unanticipated mechanisms. These small molecules can be used as starting points for drug discovery programs that target such mechanisms. A major challenge of the approach is the identification of the cellular targets. Here we report GNF7686, a small molecule inhibitor of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, and identification of cytochrome b as its target. Following discovery of GNF7686 in a parasite growth inhibition high throughput screen, we were able to evolve a GNF7686-resistant culture of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Clones from this culture bore a mutation coding for a substitution of leucine by phenylalanine at amino acid position 197 in cytochrome b. Cytochrome b is a component of complex III (cytochrome bc1 in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c by a mechanism that utilizes two distinct catalytic sites, QN and QP. The L197F mutation is located in the QN site and confers resistance to GNF7686 in both parasite cell growth and biochemical cytochrome b assays. Additionally, the mutant cytochrome b confers resistance to antimycin A, another QN site inhibitor, but not to strobilurin or myxothiazol, which target the QP site. GNF7686 represents a promising starting point for Chagas disease drug discovery as it potently inhibits growth of intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50 of 0.15 µM, and is highly specific for T. cruzi cytochrome b. No effect on the mammalian respiratory chain or mammalian cell proliferation was observed with up to 25 µM of GNF7686. Our approach, which combines T. cruzi chemical genetics with biochemical target validation, can be broadly applied to the discovery of additional novel drug targets and drug leads for Chagas disease.

  14. Energy metabolism in rat mast cells in relation to histamine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T

    1987-01-01

    of histamine was induced by the antigen-antibody reaction, the polymeric amine compound 48/80, and the divalent ionophore A23187. 2. In presence of low concentrations of metabolic inhibitors (oligomycin or antimycin A) a linear relation between the secretion of histamine induced by all three liberators...

  15. Ethacrynic acid inhibition of histamine release from rat mast cells: effect on cellular ATP levels and thiol groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1983-01-01

    The experiments concerned the effect of ethacrynic acid (0.5 mM) on the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of rat mast cells and the effect on histamine release induced by the ionophore A23187 (10 microM). Ethacrynic acid decreased the ATP level of the cells in presence of antimycin A and glucose...

  16. A novel high-throughput assay for islet respiration reveals uncoupling of rodent and human islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob D Wikstrom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pancreatic beta cell is unique in its response to nutrient by increased fuel oxidation. Recent studies have demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR may be a valuable predictor of islet quality and long term nutrient responsiveness. To date, high-throughput and user-friendly assays for islet respiration are lacking. The aim of this study was to develop such an assay and to examine bioenergetic efficiency of rodent and human islets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The XF24 respirometer platform was adapted to islets by the development of a 24-well plate specifically designed to confine islets. The islet plate generated data with low inter-well variability and enabled stable measurement of oxygen consumption for hours. The F1F0 ATP synthase blocker oligomycin was used to assess uncoupling while rotenone together with myxothiazol/antimycin was used to measure the level of non-mitochondrial respiration. The use of oligomycin in islets was validated by reversing its effect in the presence of the uncoupler FCCP. Respiratory leak averaged to 59% and 49% of basal OCR in islets from C57Bl6/J and FVB/N mice, respectively. In comparison, respiratory leak of INS-1 cells and C2C12 myotubes was measured to 38% and 23% respectively. Islets from a cohort of human donors showed a respiratory leak of 38%, significantly lower than mouse islets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The assay for islet respiration presented here provides a novel tool that can be used to study islet mitochondrial function in a relatively high-throughput manner. The data obtained in this study shows that rodent islets are less bioenergetically efficient than human islets as well as INS1 cells.

  17. Kinetics of Molybdenum Reduction to Molybdenum Blue by Bacillus sp. Strain A.rzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Othman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum is very toxic to agricultural animals. Mo-reducing bacterium can be used to immobilize soluble molybdenum to insoluble forms, reducing its toxicity in the process. In this work the isolation of a novel molybdate-reducing Gram positive bacterium tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. strain A.rzi from a metal-contaminated soil is reported. The cellular reduction of molybdate to molybdenum blue occurred optimally at 4 mM phosphate, using 1% (w/v glucose, 50 mM molybdate, between 28 and 30°C and at pH 7.3. The spectrum of the Mo-blue product showed a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. Inhibitors of bacterial electron transport system (ETS such as rotenone, sodium azide, antimycin A, and potassium cyanide could not inhibit the molybdenum-reducing activity. At 0.1 mM, mercury, copper, cadmium, arsenic, lead, chromium, cobalt, and zinc showed strong inhibition on molybdate reduction by crude enzyme. The best model that fitted the experimental data well was Luong followed by Haldane and Monod. The calculated value for Luong’s constants pmax, Ks, Sm, and n was 5.88 μmole Mo-blue hr−1, 70.36 mM, 108.22 mM, and 0.74, respectively. The characteristics of this bacterium make it an ideal tool for bioremediation of molybdenum pollution.

  18. Increased Na+/K(+)-pump activity and adenosine triphosphate utilization after compound 48/80-induced histamine secretion from rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Praetorius, Birger Hans

    1994-01-01

    -production were measured by the bioluminescence technique (firefly lantern) and by measurement of the lactate production under anaerobic conditions (antimycin A, oligomycin), respectively. There was an increased requirement for ATP after the secretory response associated with an increased activity of the Na...

  19. Estimation of the rate of energy production of rat mast cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1983-01-01

    Rat mast cells were treated with glycolytic and respiratory inhibitors. The rate of adenosine triphosphate depletion of cells incubated with both types of inhibitors and the rate of lactate produced in presence of antimycin A and glucose were used to estimate the rate of oxidative and glycolytic...

  20. Chemo-sensitization of fungal pathogens to antimicrobial agents using benzaldehyde analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activity of conventional antifungal agents, fludioxonil, strobilurin and antimycinA, which target the oxidative and osmotic stress response systems, was elevated by co-application of certain analogs of benzaldehyde. Fungal tolerance to 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid was foun...

  1. A functional BH3 domain in an aquaporin from Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genes, C M; de Lucio, H; González, V M; Sánchez-Murcia, P A; Rico, E; Gago, F; Fasel, N; Jiménez-Ruiz, A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the absence of sequences showing significant similarity to any of the members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins in protozoa, experiments carried out in yeast or trypanosomatids have demonstrated that ectopic expression of some of these members alters their response to different death stimuli. Because the BH3 domain is the smallest common signature in all the proteins of this family of apoptosis regulators and also because they are essential for molecular interactions between antagonistic members, we looked for sequences with significant similarity to the BH3 motif in the Leishmania infantum genome. Among the top scoring ones, we found the MYLALQNLGDEV amino-acid stretch at the C terminus of a previously described aquaporin, now renamed as Li-BH3AQP. This motif is highly conserved in homologous proteins from other species of the Leishmania genus. The association of Li-BH3AQP with human Bcl-XL was demonstrated by both co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid experiments. Ectopic expression of Li-BH3AQP reduced viability of HeLa cells and this deleterious effect was abrogated by the simultaneous overexpression of Bcl-XL. Although we were not able to demonstrate a reduction in parasite viability when the protein was overexpressed in Leishmania promastigotes, a prodeath effect could be observed when the parasites overexpressing Li-BH3AQP were treated with staurosporine or antimycin A. Surprisingly, these parasites were more resistant, compared with wild-type parasites, to hypotonic stress or nutrient deprivation. The prodeath activity was abolished upon replacement of two highly conserved amino acids in this BH3 domain. Taken together, these results point to Li-BH3AQP as the first non-enzymatic protein ever described in trypanosomatids that is involved in cell death. PMID:27551533

  2. Mitochondrial function is involved in regulation of cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein (apoA-I from murine RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Anne Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA damage, increased production of reactive oxygen species and progressive respiratory chain dysfunction, together with increased deposition of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters, are hallmarks of atherosclerosis. This study investigated the role of mitochondrial function in regulation of macrophage cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I, by the addition of established pharmacological modulators of mitochondrial function. Methods Murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with a range of concentrations of resveratrol, antimycin, dinitrophenol, nigericin and oligomycin, and changes in viability, cytotoxicity, membrane potential and ATP, compared with efflux of [3H]cholesterol to apolipoprotein (apo A-I. The effect of oligomycin treatment on expression of genes implicated in macrophage cholesterol homeostasis were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting, relative to the housekeeping enzyme, Gapdh, and combined with studies of this molecule on cholesterol esterification, de novo lipid biosynthesis, and induction of apoptosis. Significant differences were determined using analysis of variance, and Dunnett’s or Bonferroni post t-tests, as appropriate. Results The positive control, resveratrol (24 h, significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux to apoA-I at concentrations ≥30 μM. By contrast, cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was significantly inhibited by nigericin (45%; ppAbca1 mRNA. Oligomycin treatment did not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, but significantly inhibited cholesterol esterification following exposure to acetylated LDL, and induced apoptosis at ≥30 μM. Finally, oligomycin induced the expression of genes implicated in both cholesterol efflux (Abca1, Abcg4, Stard1 and cholesterol biosynthesis (Hmgr, Mvk, Scap, Srebf2, indicating profound dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Conclusions Acute loss of mitochondrial function, and in particular Δψm, reduces

  3. Decreased Pasteur effect in platelets of aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurelio, M; Merlo Pich, M; Catani, L; Sgarbi, G L; Bovina, C; Formiggini, G; Parenti Castelli, G; Baum, H; Tura, S; Lenaz, G

    2001-06-01

    We have investigated the mitochondrial energy state in human platelets of young (19-30 years old) and aged individuals (65-87 years old) exploiting the Pasteur effect, i.e. stimulation of lactate production by incubation of the purified platelets with the mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor, antimycin A. This assay allows the determination of mitochondrial function with respect to glycolysis, and the ratio of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to glycolytic ATP. A significant increase of basal, non-stimulated lactate production and decrease of the stimulation by antimycin A were observed in the older individuals, suggesting that the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation detectable in post-mitotic tissues of aged individuals can be observed also in easily collectable blood cells.

  4. Characterization of the respiratory chain of Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Andersen, L P; Zhai, L;

    1999-01-01

    The respiratory chain of Helicobacter pylori has been investigated. The total insensitivity of activities of NADH dehydrogenase to rotenone and of NADH-cytochrome c reductase to antimycin is indicative of the absence of the classical complex I of the electron transfer chain in this bacterium. NADPH......-dependent respiration was significantly stronger than NADH-dependent respiration, indicating that this is a major respiratory electron donor in H. pylori. Fumarate and malonate exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase. The activity of succinate-cytochrome c...... reductase was inhibited by antimycin, implying the presence of a classical pathway from complex II to complex III in this bacterium. The presence of NADH-fumarate reductase (FRD) was demonstrated in H. pylori and fumarate could reduce H2O2 production from NADH, indicating fumarate to be an endogenous...

  5. Insulin resistance and the mitochondrial link. Lessons from cultured human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2007-01-01

    lipid uptake. The metabolic phenotype during respiratory uncoupling resembled the above picture, except for an increase in glucose and palmitate oxidation. Antimycin A and oligomycin treatment induced insulin resistance at the level of glucose and palmitate uptake in all three study groups while......In order to better understand the impact of reduced mitochondrial function for the development of insulin resistance and cellular metabolism, human myotubes were established from lean, obese, and T2D subjects and exposed to mitochondrial inhibitors, either affecting the electron transport chain...... (Antimycin A), the ATP synthase (oligomycin) or respiratory uncoupling (2,4-dinitrophenol). Direct inhibition of the electron transport chain or the ATP synthase was followed by increased glucose uptake and lactate production, reduced glycogen synthesis, reduced lipid and glucose oxidation and unchanged...

  6. Regulation of cyclic photophosphorylation during ferredoxin-mediated electron transport. Effect of DCMU and the NADPH/NADP/sup +/ ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosler, J.P.; Yocum, C.F.

    1987-04-01

    Addition of ferredoxin to isolated thylakoid membranes reconstitutes electron transport from water to NADP and to O/sub 2/ (the Mehler reaction). This electron flow is coupled to ATP synthesis, and both cyclic and noncyclic electron transport drive photophosphorylation. Under conditions where the NADPH/NADP/sup +/ ratio is varied, as is the amount of ATP synthesis due to cyclic activity is also varied, as is the amount of cyclic activity which is sensitive to antimycin A. Partial inhibition of photosystem II activity with DCMU (which affects reduction of electron carriers of the interphotosystem chain) also affects the level of cyclic activity. The results of these experiments indicate that two modes of cyclic electron transfer activity, which differ in their antimycin A sensitivity, can operate in the thylakoid membrane. Regulation of these activities can occur at the level of ferredoxin and is governed by the NADPH/NADP ratio.

  7. Adhesion of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Spores to Phaseolus vulgaris Hypocotyls and to Polystyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Young, David H.; Kauss, Heinrich

    1984-01-01

    Adhesion of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum spores to Phaseolus vulgaris hypocotyls and to polystyrene was inhibited by the respiratory inhibitors sodium azide and antimycin A, indicating a requirement for metabolic activity in adhesion. Various commercial proteins and Tween 80 also reduced adhesion to both surfaces. Binding was enhanced by the presence of salts: sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chlorides were equally effective. The removal of surface wax from hypocotyls by chloroform ...

  8. The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hui-Seung; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Shin, Jeoung-A; Park, Joo-Hyun; Song, Kwan-Young; Kim, Doh-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results I...

  9. Pharmacological Modulation of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Paclitaxel-Induced Painful Peripheral Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Lisa A.; Flatters, Sarah J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel is an effective first-line chemotherapeutic with the major dose-limiting side effect of painful neuropathy. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in paclitaxel-induced painful neuropathy. Here we show the effects of pharmacological modulation of mitochondrial sites that produce reactive oxygen species using systemic rotenone (complex I inhibitor) or antimycin A (complex III inhibitor) on the maintenance and development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical ...

  10. Ubisemiquinone is the electron donor for superoxide formation by complex III of heart mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrens, J F; Alexandre, A; Lehninger, A L

    1985-03-01

    Much evidence indicates that superoxide is generated from O2 in a cyanide-sensitive reaction involving a reduced component of complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, particularly when antimycin A is present. Although it is generally believed that ubisemiquinone is the electron donor to O2, little experimental evidence supporting this view has been reported. Experiments with succinate as electron donor in the presence of antimycin A in intact rat heart mitochondria, which contain much superoxide dismutase but little catalase, showed that myxothiazol, which inhibits reduction of the Rieske iron-sulfur center, prevented formation of hydrogen peroxide, determined spectrophotometrically as the H2O2-peroxidase complex. Similarly, depletion of the mitochondria of their cytochrome c also inhibited formation of H2O2, which was restored by addition of cytochrome c. These observations indicate that factors preventing the formation of ubisemiquinone also prevent H2O2 formation. They also exclude ubiquinol, which remains reduced under these conditions, as the reductant of O2. Since cytochrome b also remains fully reduced when myxothiazol is added to succinate- and antimycin A-supplemented mitochondria, reduced cytochrome b may also be excluded as the reductant of O2. These observations, which are consistent with the Q-cycle reactions, by exclusion of other possibilities leave ubisemiquinone as the only reduced electron carrier in complex III capable of reducing O2 to O2-. PMID:2983613

  11. Strong Pasteur effect in rabbit corneal endothelium preserves fluid transport under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, M V; Winkler, B S

    1990-07-01

    1. The hydration and transparency of the mammalian cornea are maintained by a metabolically dependent fluid transport system located in the endothelial cell layer. The purpose of the study was to determine whether this pump activity is dependent upon aerobic or anaerobic metabolism. 2. The ability of the cornea, superfused in vitro with a bicarbonate-Ringer solution containing glucose and adenosine, to maintain normal hydration (thickness) when respiration is inhibited has been examined in intact and de-epithelialized preparations and correlated with glycolytic activity and cellular concentrations of ATP. 3. In respiring intact and de-epithelialized corneas thickness was maintained for periods up to 5 h during superfusion with the control Ringer solution. 4. KCN (10(-3) M) or antimycin A (10(-6) M) caused the intact cornea to swell at 15 +/- 3 microns h-1, whereas the de-epithelialized tissue maintained normal thickness under these conditions. This swelling of the intact tissue appears to be due to the osmotic effect of increased epithelial lactate production under anaerobic conditions. 5. Pre-swollen de-epithelialized corneas deturgesced fully to original thickness at a rate of 43 +/- 7 microns h-1 under aerobic conditions, but with KCN or antimycin they deturgesced at only 65% of that rate and generally failed to return to their original thickness. 6. Ouabain (10(-4) M) caused de-epithelialized corneas to swell in the presence of KCN or antimycin, as it did under aerobic conditions, showing that maintenance of hydration or deturgescence are pump-dependent processes under both conditions. 7. Lactate production was markedly stimulated by KCN or antimycin in intact and de-epithelialized preparations, but not in the stroma alone. The magnitude of the Pasteur effect was calculated to be 5-fold in the endothelium and 2.5-fold in the epithelium. Ouabain inhibited anaerobic lactate production in the endothelium by 50%. 8. ATP content of the epithelium following 5 h

  12. Oxygen, pHi and arrest of biosynthesis in brine shrimp embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, S C

    1997-12-01

    Embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are able to withstand bouts of environmental anoxia for several years by entering a quiescent state, during which time metabolism is greatly depressed. Within minutes of oxygen removal, intracellular pH (pHi) drops at least 1.0 unit. This acidification has been strongly implicated in the arrest of both catabolic and anabolic processes in the cytoplasm. A global arrest of cytoplasmic translation accompanies the transition into anoxia or into aerobic acidosis (artificial quiescence imposed by intracellular acidification with CO2 in the presence of oxygen). Similarly, protein synthesis in isolated mitochondria from these embryos is also reduced markedly in response to acidic pH (80% reduction) or anoxia (79% reduction). The constancy of mRNA levels during quiescence indicates that protein synthesis is likely to be controlled at the translational level. Mitochondrial matrix pH is 8.2 during protein synthesis assays performed at the extramitochondrial pH optimum of 7.5. When this proton gradient is abolished with the K+/H+ ionophore nigericin, the extramitochondrial pH optimum for protein synthesis displays an alkaline shift of approximately 0.7 pH unit. These data suggest the presence of proton-sensitive translational components within the mitochondrion. The oxygen dependency of mitochondrial protein synthesis is not explained simply by blockage of the electron transport chain or by the increased redox state. Whereas oxygen deprivation substantially depresses protein synthesis by 77% after 1 h, normoxic incubations with saturating concentrations of cyanide or antimycin A have only a modest effect (36% reduction, cyanide; 20%, antimycin A). This cyanide- and antimycin-insensitive, but hypoxia-sensitive, inhibitory signature for the arrest of protein synthesis suggests the presence of a molecular oxygen sensor within the mitochondrion. PMID:9429663

  13. Evaluation of cellular energetics by the pasteur effect in intact cardiomyoblasts and isolated perfused hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, Claudio; Gamberini, Chiara; Bonafe', Francesca; Giordano, Emanuele; Bianchi, Cristina; Lenaz, Giorgio; Caldarera, Claudio Marcello

    2004-03-01

    This work aims at exploring changes in cellular energetics by exploiting the Pasteur effect. We assumed that lactate overproduction arising from antimycin A-induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration (delta-lactate = stimulated [lactate] -basal [lactate]) is indicative of the energy provided aerobically by the cell. Rat embryonal cardiomyocytes (H9c2), incubated with 2 micromol/L antimycin A, increased about 6 fold their lactate production in a manner linear with time and cell number. Antimycin A was also delivered to Langendorff-perfused rat hearts under control aerobic conditions or after 20 min-ischemia and 30 min-reperfusion. The test started at the end of each perfusion and lactate was measured into perfusate collected for further 25 min. A cardioplegic solution was also delivered during the test to exclude that lactate production was influenced by cardiac contraction. Control delta-lactate was 20.9 +/- 2.31 (S.E.M.) microg/mL and markedly decreased after reperfusion (7.66 +/- 0.51, p < 0.001), showing that energy production was impaired of about 70%. The determination of oxygen consumption by mitochondria isolated from reperfused hearts also suggested that the damage to the respiratory chain was similar to that evaluated by lactate overproduction (Respiratory Control Index: 75% lower than control, p < 0.001). Moreover, when delta-lactate was referred to the estimated cells which remained viable at the end of reperfusion (49.9%), it was 25% lower than control (p < 0.05). Therefore, we proposed this test as a tool for quantifying both physiological and pathological energetic modifications in living intact cardiomyocytes and in isolated and perfused hearts.

  14. Terpenoid Metabolism in Plastids 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Bilal; Bardat, Françoise; Dogbo, Odette; Brangeon, Judy; Monéger, René

    1983-01-01

    A technique for the isolation and the purification of Capsicum annum L. var. Yolo Wonder chromoplasts is described. The degree of purity of the isolated chromoplasts is greatly improved by the absence of MgCl2 in the extraction medium and in the gradient purification system, as shown by electron micrographs and the near absence of antimycin-insensitive NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity and succinate:cytochrome c reductase activity. Furthermore, phosphatidylserine was absent and the phosphatidylethanolamine content was reduced by a factor of 5 in these preparations, which were active in the synthesis of galactolipids, prenylquinones, and carotenoids. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663194

  15. Roles for Nox4 in the contractile response of bovine pulmonary arteries to hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Kelly, Melissa R.; Zhao, Xiangmin; Kandhi, Sharath; Wolin, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia appears to promote contraction [hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV)] of bovine pulmonary arteries (BPA) through removal of a peroxide-mediated relaxation. This study examines the roles of BPA Nox oxidases and mitochondria in the HPV response. Inhibitors of Nox2 (0.1 mM apocynin and 50 μM gp91-dstat) and mitochondrial electron transport (10 μM antimycin and rotenone) decreased superoxide generation in BPA without affecting contraction to 25 mM KCl or the HPV response. Transfection...

  16. Cyanide-insensitive respiration in Acanthamoeba castellanii. Changes in sensitivity of whole cell respiration during exponential growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, S.W.; Lloyd, D.

    1977-01-01

    Respiration of Acanthamoeba castellanii shows varying sensitivity to cyanide during exponential growth in a medium containing proteose peptone, glucose and yeast extract. After 20 h growth, respiration was stimulated up to 40% by I mM-cyanide; sensitivity to cyanide then gradually increased until 90% inhibition of respiration was attained in late exponential phase cultures. Salicyl hydroxamic acid alone never stimulated or inhibited respiration by more than 20% but, when added together with cyanide, inhibition was always 70 to 100% from 3 h onward. Sensitivity to antimycin A was similar, but not identical to that shown to cyanide; when antimycin A was added together with salicyl hydroxamic acid, the inhibition was greater. Increased sensitivities to arsenite and malonate were also observed in late-exponential phase cultures. These changes in sensitivities were not associated with alterations in the growth medium since similar changes in sensitivity to inhibitors were observed during growth in conditioned medium. A rotenone-sensitive site is associated with cyanide-stimulated respiration and the results suggest that A. castellanii possesses a branched electron transport system.

  17. Electron transport chain inhibitors induce microglia activation through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Junli; Jiang, Zhongxin; Chen, Xuehong; Liu, Mengyang; Li, Jing; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be mediators of excessive microglial activation, yet the resources and mechanism are not fully understood. Here we stimulated murine microglial BV-2 cells and primary microglial cells with different inhibitors of electron transport chain (ETC), rotenone, thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), antimycin A, and NaN3 to induce mitochondrial ROS production and we observed the role of mitochondrial ROS in microglial activation. Our results showed that ETC inhibitors resulted in significant changes in cell viability, microglial morphology, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in both primary cultural microglia and BV-2 cell lines. Moreover, ETC inhibitors, especially rotenone and antimycin A stimulated secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) by microglia with marked activation of mitogen-activated proteinkinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which could be blocked by specific inhibitors of MAPK and NF-κB and mitochondrial antioxidants, Mito-TEMPO. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain in microglia led to production of mitochondrial ROS and therefore may activate MAPK/NF-кB dependent inflammatory cytokines release in microglia, which indicated that mitochondrial-derived ROS were contributed to microglial activation.

  18. Anti-Candida Properties of Urauchimycins from Actinobacteria Associated with Trachymyrmex Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais D. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After decades of intensive searching for antimicrobial compounds derived from actinobacteria, the frequency of isolation of new molecules has decreased. To cope with this concern, studies have focused on the exploitation of actinobacteria from unexplored environments and actinobacteria symbionts of plants and animals. In this study, twenty-four actinobacteria strains isolated from workers of Trachymyrmex ants were evaluated for antifungal activity towards a variety of Candida species. Results revealed that seven strains inhibited the tested Candida species. Streptomyces sp. TD025 presented potent and broad spectrum of inhibition of Candida and was selected for the isolation of bioactive molecules. From liquid shake culture of this bacterium, we isolated the rare antimycin urauchimycins A and B. For the first time, these molecules were evaluated for antifungal activity against medically important Candida species. Both antimycins showed antifungal activity, especially urauchimycin B. This compound inhibited the growth of all Candida species tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values equivalent to the antifungal nystatin. Our results concur with the predictions that the attine ant-microbe symbiosis may be a source of bioactive metabolites for biotechnology and medical applications.

  19. Inhibition and stimulation of root respiration in pisum and plantago by hydroxamate : its consequences for the assessment of alternative path activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, R; Blacquière, T

    1984-07-01

    The contribution of the alternative pathway in root respiration of Pisum sativum L. cv Rondo, Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. ssp major was determined by titration with salicylhydroxamate (SHAM) in the absence and presence of cyanide. SHAM completely inhibited the cyanide-resistant component of root respiration at 5 to 10 millimolar with an apparent K(i) of 600 micromolar. In contrast, SHAM enhanced pea root respiration by 30% at most, at concentrations below 15 millimolar. An unknown oxidase appeared to be responsible for this stimulation. Its maximum activity in the presence of low SHAM concentrations (1-5 millimolar) was 40% of control respiration rate in pea roots, since 25 millimolar SHAM resulted in 10% inhibition. In plantain roots, the maximum activity was found to be 15%. This hydroxamate-activated oxidase was distinct from the cytochrome path by its resistance to antimycin. The results of titrations with cyanide and antimycin indicated that high SHAM concentrations (up to 25 millimolar) block the hydroxamate-activated oxidase, but do not affect the cytochrome path and, therefore, are a reliable tool for estimating the activity of the alternative path in vivo. A considerable fraction of root respiration was mediated by the alternative path in plantain (45%) and pea (15%), in the latter because of the saturation of the cytochrome path.

  20. Differential effects of buffer pH on Ca2+-induced ROS emission with inhibited mitochondrial complex I and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Lindsay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS emission is a critical component in the etiolo-gy of ischemic injury. Complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain are considered the primary sources of ROS emission during cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (IR injury. Several factors modulate ischemic ROS emission, such as an increase in extra-matrix Ca2+, a decrease in extra-matrix pH, and a change in substrate utilization. Here we examined the combined effects of these factors on ROS emission from respiratory complex I and III under conditions of simulated IR injury. Guinea pig heart mitochondria were suspended in experimental buffer at a given pH and incubated with or without CaCl2. Mitochondria were then treated with either pyruvate, a complex I substrate, followed by rote-none, a complex I inhibitor, or succinate, a complex II substrate, followed by antimycin A, a complex III inhibitor. H2O2 release rate and matrix volume were compared with and without adding CaCl2 and at pH 7.15, 6.9, or 6.5 with pyruvate + rotenone or succinate + antimycin A to simulate conditions that may occur during in vivo cardiac IR injury. We found a large increase in H2O2 release with high [CaCl2] and pyruvate + rotenone at pH 6.9, but not at pHs 7.15 or 6.5. Large increases in H2O2 release rate also occurred at each pH with high [CaCl2] and succinate + antimycin A, with the highest levels observed at pH 7.15. The increases in H2O2 release were associated with significant mitochondrial swelling, and both H2O2 release and swelling were abolished by cyclosporine A, a desensitizer of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. These results indicate that ROS production by complex I and by III is differently affected by buffer pH and Ca2+ loading with mPTP opening. The study sug-gests that changes in the levels of cytosolic Ca2+ and pH during IR alter the relative amounts of ROS produced at mitochondrial respiratory complex I and complex III.

  1. Redox signaling in the growth and development of colonial hydroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Neil W

    2003-02-01

    Redox signaling provides a quick and efficient mechanism for clonal or colonial organisms to adapt their growth and development to aspects of the environment, e.g. the food supply. A 'signature' of mitochondrial redox signaling, particularly as mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), can be elucidated by experimental manipulation of the electron transport chain. The major sites of ROS formation are found at NADH dehydrogenase of complex I and at the interface between coenzyme Q and complex III. Inhibitors of complex III should thus upregulate ROS from both sites; inhibitors of complex I should upregulate ROS from the first but not the second site, while uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation should downregulate ROS from both sites. To investigate the possibility of such redox signaling, perturbations of colony growth and development were carried out using the hydroid Podocoryna carnea. Oxygen uptake of colonies was measured to determine comparable physiological doses of antimycin A(1) (an inhibitor of complex III), rotenone (an inhibitor of complex I) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation). Using these doses, clear effects on colony growth and development were obtained. Treatment with antimycin A(1) results in 'runner-like' colony growth, with widely spaced polyps and stolon branches, while treatment with CCCP results in 'sheet-like' growth, with closely spaced polyps and stolon branches. Parallel results have been obtained previously with azide, an inhibitor of complex IV, and dinitrophenol, another uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Perhaps surprisingly, rotenone produced effects on colony development similar to those of CCCP. Assays of peroxides using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and fluorescent microscopy suggest a moderate difference in ROS formation between the antimycin and rotenone treatments. The second site of ROS formation (the interface between coenzyme Q and complex III) may thus

  2. Anomalous cell wall synthesis in Mucor mucedo (L.) Fres. induced by some fungicides and other compounds related to the problem of dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyr, H; Casperson, G

    1982-01-01

    An anomalous cell wall thickening in Mucor mucedo is induced already within 60-120 min by some fungicides (etridiazol, chloroneb, pentachloronitrobenzene, dicloran, drazoxolon, biphenyl) as well as with a N2-atmosphere or high concentrations of glucose, but not with 2,4-dinitrophenol, chlorinated phenols, dichlofluanid and antimycin A. This effect seems to be identical to the change from the mycelial (M-) to the yeast (Y-) form in dimorphic fungi, which can be achieved by culture conditions as well as by addition of chemicals. The cause seems to be a specific, complex change in the metabolic state. A scheme of regulation is presented which explains most of the experimental results described till now.

  3. Hypoxia sensing in the fetal chicken femoral artery is mediated by the mitochondrial electron transport chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoer, Bea; Cogolludo, Angel L; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco;

    2010-01-01

    -induced relaxation was abolished or significantly reduced by the mETC inhibitors rotenone (complex I), myxothiazol and antimycin A (complex III), and NaN(3) (complex IV). The complex II inhibitor 3-nitroproprionic acid enhanced the hypoxic relaxation. In contrast, the relaxations mediated by acetylcholine, sodium...... nitroprusside, or forskolin were not affected by the mETC blockers. Hypoxia induced a slight increase in ROS production (as measured by 2,7-dichlorofluorescein-fluorescence), but hypoxia-induced relaxation was not affected by scavenging of superoxide (polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase) or H(2)O(2......) (polyethylene glycol-catalase) or by NADPH-oxidase inhibition (apocynin). Also, the K(+) channel inhibitors tetraethylammonium (nonselective), diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 (voltage-gated K(+) channel 1.5), glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel), iberiotoxin (large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel...

  4. Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verchot-Lubicz Jeanmarie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salicylic acid (SA regulates multiple anti-viral mechanisms, including mechanism(s that may be negatively regulated by the mitochondrial enzyme, alternative oxidase (AOX, the sole component of the alternative respiratory pathway. However, studies of this mechanism can be confounded by SA-mediated induction of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1, a component of the antiviral RNA silencing pathway. We made transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants in which alternative respiratory pathway capacity was either increased by constitutive expression of AOX, or decreased by expression of a dominant-negative mutant protein (AOX-E. N. benthamiana was used because it is a natural mutant that does not express a functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1. Results Antimycin A (an alternative respiratory pathway inducer and also an inducer of resistance to viruses and SA triggered resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV. Resistance to TMV induced by antimycin A, but not by SA, was inhibited in Aox transgenic plants while SA-induced resistance to this virus appeared to be stronger in Aox-E transgenic plants. These effects, which were limited to directly inoculated leaves, were not affected by the presence or absence of a transgene constitutively expressing a functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (MtRDR1. Unexpectedly, Aox-transgenic plants infected with potato virus X (PVX showed markedly increased susceptibility to systemic disease induction and virus accumulation in inoculated and systemically infected leaves. SA-induced resistance to PVX was compromised in Aox-transgenic plants but plants expressing AOX-E exhibited enhanced SA-induced resistance to this virus. Conclusions We conclude that AOX-regulated mechanisms not only play a role in SA-induced resistance but also make an important contribution to basal resistance against certain viruses such as PVX.

  5. Effect of simvastatin on vascular tone in porcine coronary artery: Potential role of the mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhtar, H; Garle, M J; Smith, P A; Roberts, R E

    2016-08-15

    Statins induce acute vasorelaxation which may contribute to the overall benefits of statins in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The mechanism underlying this relaxation is unknown. As statins have been shown to alter mitochondrial function, in this study we investigated the role of mitochondria in the relaxation to simvastatin. Relaxation of porcine coronary artery segments by statins was measured using isolated tissue baths. Mitochondrial activity was determined by measuring changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence. Changes in intracellular calcium levels were determined in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells with Fluo-4 using standard epifluorescent imaging techniques. Simvastatin, but not pravastatin, produced a slow relaxation of the coronary artery, which was independent of the endothelium. The relaxation was attenuated by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone (10μM) and the complex III inhibitor myxothiazol (10μM), or a combination of the two. The complex III inhibitor antimycin A (10μM) produced a similar time-dependent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery, which was attenuated by rotenone. Changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence showed that simvastatin (10μM) depolarized the membrane potential of mitochondria in both isolated mitochondria and intact blood vessels. Simvastatin and antimycin A both inhibited calcium-induced contractions in isolated blood vessels and calcium influx in smooth muscle cells and this inhibition was prevented by rotenone. In conclusion, simvastatin produces an endothelium-independent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery which is dependent, in part, upon effects on the mitochondria. The effects on the mitochondria may lead to a reduction in calcium influx and hence relaxation of the blood vessel. PMID:27343404

  6. Chemical basis of the synergism and antagonism in microbial communities in the nests of leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenian, Ilka; Spiteller, Michael; Ghaste, Manoj; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2011-02-01

    Leaf-cutting ants cultivate the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, which serves as a major food source. This symbiosis is threatened by microbial pathogens that can severely infect L. gongylophorus. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants, mainly Pseudonocardia and Streptomyces, support the ants in defending their fungus gardens against infections by supplying antimicrobial and antifungal compounds. The ecological role of microorganisms in the nests of leaf-cutting ants can only be addressed in detail if their secondary metabolites are known. Here, we use an approach for the rapid identification of established bioactive compounds from microorganisms in ecological contexts by combining phylogenetic data, database searches, and liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-HR-MS) screening. Antimycins A(1)-A(4), valinomycins, and actinomycins were identified in this manner from Streptomyces symbionts of leaf-cutting ants. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging revealed the distribution of valinomycin directly on the integument of Acromyrmex echinatior workers. Valinomycins and actinomycins were also directly identified in samples from the waste of A. echinatior and A. niger leaf-cutting ants, suggesting that the compounds exert their antimicrobial and antifungal potential in the nests of leaf-cutting ants. Strong synergistic effects of the secondary meta-bolites produced by ant-associated Streptomyces were observed in the agar diffusion assay against Escovopsis weberi. Actinomycins strongly inhibit soil bacteria as well as other Streptomyces and Pseudonocardia symbionts. The antifungal antimycins are not only active against pathogenic fungi but also the garden fungus L. gongylophorus itself. In conclusion, secondary metabolites of microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants contribute to shaping the microbial communities within the nests of leaf-cutting ants. PMID:21245311

  7. On the location of the H+-extruding steps in site 2 of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A; Galiazzo, F; Lehninger, A L

    1980-11-25

    The location of the H+-translocating reactions within energy-conserving Site 2 of the mitochondrial electron transport chain was evaluated from two sets of data. In the first, the H+/2e- ejection ratios and Ca2+/2e- uptake ratios were compared for electron flow from succinate dehydrogenase, whose active site is on the matrix side of the inner membrane and from glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, whose active site is on the cytosolic side. In intact rat liver mitochondria both substrates yielded H+/2e- ejection ratios close to 4.0 and Ca2+/2e- uptake ratios close to 1.0 during antimycin-sensitive reduction of ferricyanide. With rat liver mitoplasts and ferricytochrome c as electron acceptor, both substrates again gave the same stoichiometric ratios. The second approach involved determination of the sidedness of H+ formation during electron flow from succinate to ferricyanide via bypass of the antimycin block of the cytochrome b.c1 complex provided by N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), under conditions in which the TMPD-TMPD+ couple does not act as a membrane-penetrating protonophore. Electron flow in this system was inhibited by 2-then-oyltrifluoroacetone, indicating that TMPD probably accepts electrons from ubiquinol. The 2 H+ formed in this system were not delivered into the matrix but appeared directly in the medium in the absence of a protonophore. To accommodate the available evidence on Site 2 substrates, it is concluded that the substrate hydrogens are first transferred to ubiquinone, 2 H+ per 2e then appear in the medium by protolytic dehydrogenation of a species of ubiquinol or ubiquinol-protein having the appropriate sidedness (designated Site 2A), and the other 2 H+ are translocated from the matrix to the medium on passage of 2e- through the cytochrome b x c1 complex (designated Site 2B).

  8. On the location of the H+-extruding steps in site 2 of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A; Galiazzo, F; Lehninger, A L

    1980-11-25

    The location of the H+-translocating reactions within energy-conserving Site 2 of the mitochondrial electron transport chain was evaluated from two sets of data. In the first, the H+/2e- ejection ratios and Ca2+/2e- uptake ratios were compared for electron flow from succinate dehydrogenase, whose active site is on the matrix side of the inner membrane and from glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, whose active site is on the cytosolic side. In intact rat liver mitochondria both substrates yielded H+/2e- ejection ratios close to 4.0 and Ca2+/2e- uptake ratios close to 1.0 during antimycin-sensitive reduction of ferricyanide. With rat liver mitoplasts and ferricytochrome c as electron acceptor, both substrates again gave the same stoichiometric ratios. The second approach involved determination of the sidedness of H+ formation during electron flow from succinate to ferricyanide via bypass of the antimycin block of the cytochrome b.c1 complex provided by N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), under conditions in which the TMPD-TMPD+ couple does not act as a membrane-penetrating protonophore. Electron flow in this system was inhibited by 2-then-oyltrifluoroacetone, indicating that TMPD probably accepts electrons from ubiquinol. The 2 H+ formed in this system were not delivered into the matrix but appeared directly in the medium in the absence of a protonophore. To accommodate the available evidence on Site 2 substrates, it is concluded that the substrate hydrogens are first transferred to ubiquinone, 2 H+ per 2e then appear in the medium by protolytic dehydrogenation of a species of ubiquinol or ubiquinol-protein having the appropriate sidedness (designated Site 2A), and the other 2 H+ are translocated from the matrix to the medium on passage of 2e- through the cytochrome b x c1 complex (designated Site 2B). PMID:7430148

  9. Low level laser therapy activates NF-kB via generation of reactive oxygen species in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aaron Chih-Hao; Arany, Praveen R.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Tomkinson, Elizabeth M.; Saleem, Taimur; Yull, Fiona E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    Despite over forty years of investigation on low-level light therapy (LLLT), the fundamental mechanisms underlying photobiomodulation remain unclear. In this study, we isolated murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from transgenic NF-kB luciferase reporter mice and studied their response to 810-nm laser radiation. Significant activation of NFkB was observed for fluences higher than 0.003 J/cm2. NF-kB activation by laser was detectable at 1-hour time point. Moreover, we demonstrated that laser phosphorylated both IKK α/β and NF-kB 15 minutes after irradiation, which implied that laser activates NF-kB via phosphorylation of IKK α/β. Suspecting mitochondria as the source of NF-kB activation signaling pathway, we demonstrated that laser increased both intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fluorescence microscopy with dichlorodihydrofluorescein and ATP synthesis by luciferase assay. Mitochondrial inhibitors, such as antimycin A, rotenone and paraquat increased ROS and NF-kB activation but had no effect on ATP. The ROS quenchers N-acetyl-L-cysteine and ascorbic acid abrogated laser-induced NF-kB and ROS but not ATP. These results suggested that ROS might play an important role in the signaling pathway of laser induced NF-kB activation. However, the western blot showed that antimycin A, a mitochondrial inhibitor, did not activate NF-kB via serine phosphorylation of IKK α/β as the laser did. On the other hand, LLLT, unlike mitochondrial inhibitors, induced increased cellular ATP levels, which indicates that light also upregulates mitochondrial respiration. ATP upregulation reached a maximum at 0.3 J/cm2 or higher. We conclude that LLLT not only enhances mitochondrial respiration, but also activates the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-kB by generating ROS as signaling molecules.

  10. Sites and mechanisms responsible for the low rate of free radical production of heart mitochondria in the long-lived pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A; Barja, G

    1997-11-01

    Basal (substrate alone) and maximum rates of H2O2 production, oxygen consumption and free radical leak in the respiratory chain were higher in heart mitochondria of the short-lived rat (4 years) than in the long-lived pigeon (35 years). This suggests that the low free radical production of pigeon heart mitochondria is due in part to both a low electron flow and a low percent leak of electrons out of sequence in the respiratory chain. Thenoyltrifluoroacetone did not increase H2O2 production with succinate either in rats or pigeons. Mitochondrial H2O2 production was higher with pyruvate/malate than with succinate in both animal species. Rotenone and antimycin A increased H2O2 production with pyruvate/malate to the maximum levels observed in each species. Addition of myxothiazol to antimycin A-treated mitochondria supplemented with pyruvate/malate decreased H2O2 production in both species. All the combinations of inhibitors added with pyruvate/malate resulted in higher rates of H2O2 production in rats than in pigeons. When succinate instead of pyruvate/malate was used as substrate, rotenone and thenoyltrifluoroacetone decreased mitochondrial H2O2 production in the rat and did not change it in the pigeon. The results indicate that Complexes I and III are the main H2O2 generators of heart mitochondria in rats and pigeons and that both Complexes are responsible for the low H2O2 production of the bird. p-Chloromercuribenzoate and ethoxyformic anhydride strongly inhibited the H2O2 production induced by rotenone with pyruvate/malate in both species. This suggests that the free radical generator of Complex I is located after the ferricyanide reduction site, between the ethoxyformic and the rotenone-sensitive sites.

  11. Correlation between photosynthesis and the transthylakoid proton gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovacek, R.E.; Hind, G.

    1981-01-01

    In isolated intact chloroplasts, maximal rates of photosynthetic O/sub 2/ evolution (in saturating HCO/sup -//sub 3/) are associated with a critical transthylakoid proton gradient as a result of the stoichiometric consumption of 2 mol NADPH and 3 mol ATP/mol CO/sub 2/ fixed. Studies with the fluorescent probe 9-aminoacridine reveal that in the illuminated steady state the critical ..delta..pH is 3.9. CO/sub 2/-dependent O/sub 2/ evolution is inhibited by increases of 0.1 to 0.2 in ..delta..pH that occur when catalase is omitted from the medium, NO/sup -//sub 2/ is included as an electron acceptor, or when chloroplasts are illuminated under low partial pressures of O/sub 2/. Low concentrations of antimycin (0.33 ..mu..M) or NH/sub 4/Cl (0.33 mM) decrease ..delta..pH and relieve this inhibition of electron flow. The energy transfer inhibitor quercetin lowers the high ATP/ADP ratio associated with these conditions, but does not lower ..delta..pH or relieve the inhibition. A decrease of ..delta..pH below 3.9 by weaker illumination, millimolar levels of NH/sub 4/Cl or micromolar levels of antimycin, results in lower rates of photosynthesis owing to limitation by the phosphorylation rate. These findings show that in absence of rate limitation by the carbon cycle, the extent of thylakoid energization is related to the ratio of ATP to NADPH production and in turn, the rate of CO/sub 2/ assimilation.

  12. Mitochondrial Malfunctioning, Proteasome Arrest and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells by Focused Intracellular Generation of Oxygen Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Postiglione

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Photofrin/photodynamic therapy (PDT at sub-lethal doses induced a transient stall in proteasome activity in surviving A549 (p53+/+ and H1299 (p53−/− cells as indicated by the time-dependent decline/recovery of chymotrypsin-like activity. Indeed, within 3 h of incubation, Photofrin invaded the cytoplasm and localized preferentially within the mitochondria. Its light activation determined a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and a reversible arrest in proteasomal activity. A similar result is obtained by treating cells with Antimycin and Rotenone, indicating, as a common denominator of this effect, the ATP decrease. Both inhibitors, however, were more toxic to cells as the recovery of proteasomal activity was incomplete. We evaluated whether combining PDT (which is a treatment for killing tumor cells, per se, and inducing proteasome arrest in the surviving ones with Bortezomib doses capable of sustaining the stall would protract the arrest with sufficient time to induce apoptosis in remaining cells. The evaluation of the mitochondrial membrane depolarization, residual proteasome and mitochondrial enzymatic activities, colony-forming capabilities, and changes in protein expression profiles in A549 and H1299 cells under a combined therapeutic regimen gave results consistent with our hypothesis.

  13. Simultaneous Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Karolina; Buschmann, Volker; Hille, Carsten

    2015-09-22

    In living cells, there are always a plethora of processes taking place at the same time. Their precise regulation is the basis of cellular functions, since small failures can lead to severe dysfunctions. For a comprehensive understanding of intracellular homeostasis, simultaneous multiparameter detection is a versatile tool for revealing the spatial and temporal interactions of intracellular parameters. Here, a recently developed time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) board was evaluated for simultaneous fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM/PLIM). Therefore, the metabolic activity in insect salivary glands was investigated by recording ns-decaying intrinsic cellular fluorescence, mainly related to oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and the μs-decaying phosphorescence of the oxygen-sensitive ruthenium-complex Kr341. Due to dopamine stimulation, the metabolic activity of salivary glands increased, causing a higher pericellular oxygen consumption and a resulting increase in Kr341 phosphorescence decay time. Furthermore, FAD fluorescence decay time decreased, presumably due to protein binding, thus inducing a quenching of FAD fluorescence decay time. Through application of the metabolic drugs antimycin and FCCP, the recorded signals could be assigned to a mitochondrial origin. The dopamine-induced changes could be observed in sequential FLIM and PLIM recordings, as well as in simultaneous FLIM/PLIM recordings using an intermediate TCSPC timing resolution.

  14. Mitochondrial respiration and genomic analysis provide insight into the influence of the symbiotic bacterium on host trypanosomatid oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Martins, A C; Machado, A C L; Klein, C C; Ciapina, L; Gonzaga, L; Vasconcelos, A T R; Sagot, M F; DE Souza, W; Einicker-Lamas, M; Galina, A; Motta, M C M

    2015-02-01

    Certain trypanosomatids co-evolve with an endosymbiotic bacterium in a mutualistic relationship that is characterized by intense metabolic exchanges. Symbionts were able to respire for up to 4 h after isolation from Angomonas deanei. FCCP (carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone) similarly increased respiration in wild-type and aposymbiotic protozoa, though a higher maximal O2 consumption capacity was observed in the symbiont-containing cells. Rotenone, a complex I inhibitor, did not affect A. deanei respiration, whereas TTFA (thenoyltrifluoroacetone), a complex II activity inhibitor, completely blocked respiration in both strains. Antimycin A and cyanide, inhibitors of complexes III and IV, respectively, abolished O2 consumption, but the aposymbiotic protozoa were more sensitive to both compounds. Oligomycin did not affect cell respiration, whereas carboxyatractyloside (CAT), an inhibitor of the ADP-ATP translocator, slightly reduced O2 consumption. In the A. deanei genome, sequences encoding most proteins of the respiratory chain are present. The symbiont genome lost part of the electron transport system (ETS), but complex I, a cytochrome d oxidase, and FoF1-ATP synthase remain. In conclusion, this work suggests that the symbiont influences the mitochondrial respiration of the host protozoan. PMID:25160925

  15. Different molecular mechanisms involved in spontaneous and oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP-1)-deficient fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beersel, Guillaume; Tihon, Eliane; Demine, Stéphane; Hamer, Isabelle; Jadot, Michel; Arnould, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    NCLs (neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses) form a group of eight inherited autosomal recessive diseases characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of autofluorescent pigments, called ceroids. Recent data suggest that the pathogenesis of NCL is associated with the appearance of fragmented mitochondria with altered functions. However, even if an impairement in the autophagic pathway has often been evoked, the molecular mechanisms leading to mitochondrial fragmentation in response to a lysosomal dysfunction are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that fibroblasts that are deficient for the TPP-1 (tripeptidyl peptidase-1), a lysosomal hydrolase encoded by the gene mutated in the LINCL (late infantile NCL, CLN2 form) also exhibit a fragmented mitochondrial network. This morphological alteration is accompanied by an increase in the expression of the protein BNIP3 (Bcl2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa interacting protein 3) as well as a decrease in the abundance of mitofusins 1 and 2, two proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion. Using RNAi (RNA interference) and quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial morphology, we show that the inhibition of BNIP3 expression does not result in an increase in the reticulation of the mitochondrial population in LINCL cells. However, this protein seems to play a key role in cell response to mitochondrial oxidative stress as it sensitizes mitochondria to antimycin A-induced fragmentation. To our knowledge, our results bring the first evidence of a mechanism that links TPP-1 deficiency and oxidative stress-induced changes in mitochondrial morphology. PMID:23249249

  16. [Characteristics of the respiratory chain and the oxidative phosphorylation system of mitochondria in the flavinogenic Eremothecium ashbyii strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagil'skaia, R A; Korosteleva, N L; Mironov, V A

    1976-01-01

    Tightly coupled mitochondria were isolated from cells of the flavinogenic strain of Eremothecium ashbyii collected during the logarithmic and stationary growth phases. The composition of the respiratory chain and characteristics of the energy coupling system are described. The mitochondria show a wide spectrum of metabolic activity and oxidize Krebs cycle compenents and exogenous NADH. The terminal segment of the respiratory chain is represented by a typical cytochrome system. The mitochondria of the ascomycete collected during the logarithmic growth phase are characterized by a relatively high content of cytochromes b and c, a high rate of oxidation of NAD-dependent substrates, the presence of lower homologues of ubiquinone, UQ6 and UQ7, and extremely high sensitivity of respiration to the action of antimycin A, low content of a component sensitive to rotenone, contrasting with the operation of all three sites of phosphorylation. Transition to the stationary growth phase is accompanied with a decrease in the rate of oxidation of all substrates studied and a declined effectiveness of oxidative phosphorylation. The data obtained are discussed in relation to the ability of the cells for "overproduction" of flavins. PMID:187903

  17. Synergism of Antifungal Activity between Mitochondrial Respiration Inhibitors and Kojic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald P. Haff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-application of certain types of compounds to conventional antimicrobial drugs can enhance the efficacy of the drugs through a process termed chemosensitization. We show that kojic acid (KA, a natural pyrone, is a potent chemosensitizing agent of complex III inhibitors disrupting the mitochondrial respiratory chain in fungi. Addition of KA greatly lowered the minimum inhibitory concentrations of complex III inhibitors tested against certain filamentous fungi. Efficacy of KA synergism in decreasing order was pyraclostrobin > kresoxim-methyl > antimycin A. KA was also found to be a chemosensitizer of cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, tested as a mimic of reactive oxygen species involved in host defense during infection, against several human fungal pathogens and Penicillium strains infecting crops. In comparison, KA-mediated chemosensitization to complex III inhibitors/H2O2 was undetectable in other types of fungi, including Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and P. griseofulvum, among others. Of note, KA was found to function as an antioxidant, but not as an antifungal chemosensitizer in yeasts. In summary, KA could serve as an antifungal chemosensitizer to complex III inhibitors or H2O2 against selected human pathogens or Penicillium species. KA-mediated chemosensitization to H2O2 seemed specific for filamentous fungi. Thus, results indicate strain- and/or drug-specificity exist during KA chemosensitization.

  18. Brief exposure to carbon monoxide preconditions cardiomyogenic cells against apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo-Nakamura, Mihoko [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shintani-Ishida, Kaori, E-mail: kaori@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Uemura, Koichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    We examined whether and how pretreatment with carbon monoxide (CO) prevents apoptosis of cardioblastic H9c2 cells in ischemia-reperfusion. Reperfusion (6 h) following brief ischemia (10 min) induced cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and apoptotic nuclear condensation. Brief CO pretreatment (10 min) or a caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) attenuated these apoptotic changes. Ischemia-reperfusion increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser472/473/474, and this was enhanced by CO pretreatment. A specific Akt inhibitor (API-2) blunted the anti-apoptotic effects of CO in reperfusion. In normoxic cells, CO enhanced O{sub 2}{sup -} generation, which was inhibited by a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A) but not by a NADH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin). The CO-enhanced Akt phosphorylation was suppressed by an O{sub 2}{sup -} scavenger (Tiron), catalase or a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor (DETC). These results suggest that CO pretreatment induces mitochondrial generation of O{sub 2}{sup -}, which is then converted by SOD to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and subsequent Akt activation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} attenuates apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion.

  19. Involvement of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase in sulfur oxidation of an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans NASF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Satoshi; Kikumoto, Mei; Kanao, Tadayoshi; Kamimura, Kazuo

    2004-12-01

    The effects of cyanide, azide, and 2-n-Heptyl-4-hydroxy-quinoline-N-oxide (HQNO) on the oxidation of ferrous ion or elemental sulfur with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans NASF-1 cells grown in iron- or sulfur-medium were examined. The iron oxidation of both iron- and sulfur-grown cells was strongly inhibited by cyanide and azide, but not by HQNO. Sulfur oxidation was relatively resistant to cyanide and azide, and inhibited by HQNO. Higher sulfide oxidation, ubiquinol dehydrogenase activity, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) activity were observed in sulfur-grown cells more than in iron-grown cells. Sulfide oxidation in the presence of ubiquinone with the membrane fraction was inhibited by HQNO, but not by cyanide, azide, antimycin A, and myxothiazol. The transcription of three genes, encoding an aa(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase (coxB), a bd-type ubiquinol oxidase (cydA), and an sqr, were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The transcriptional levels of coxB and cydA genes were similar in sulfur- and iron-grown cells, but that of sqr was 3-fold higher in sulfur-grown cells than in iron-grown cells. A model is proposed for the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds in A. ferrooxidans NASF-1 cells. PMID:15618623

  20. Evidence of an alternative oxidase pathway for mitochondrial respiration in the scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús; Leiro, José Manuel

    2013-11-01

    The presence of an alternative oxidase (AOX) in the mitochondria of the scuticociliate P. dicentrarchi was investigated. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured in the presence of KCN, an inhibitor of cytochrome pathway (CP) respiration and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), a specific inhibitor of alternative pathway (AP) respiration. AOX expression was monitored by western blotting with an AOX polyclonal antibody. The results showed that P. dicentrarchi possesses a branched mitochondrial electron transport chain with both cyanide-sensitive and -insensitive oxygen consumption. Mitochondrial respiration was partially inhibited by cyanide and completely inhibited by the combination of cyanide and SHAM, which is direct evidence for the existence of an AP in this ciliate. SHAM significantly inhibited in vitro growth of trophozoites both under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. AOX is a 42kD monomeric protein inducible by hypoxic conditions in experimental infections and by CP inhibitors such as cyanide and antimycin A, or by AP inhibitors such as SHAM. CP respiration was greatly stimulated during the exponential growth phase, while AP respiration increased during the stationary phase, in which AOX expression is induced. As the host does not possess AOX, and because during infection P. dicentrarchi respires via AP, it may be possible to develop inhibitors targeting the AP as a novel anti-scuticociliate therapy. PMID:24211656

  1. Atmospheric Dispersal of Bioactive Streptomyces albidoflavus Strains Among Terrestrial and Marine Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Braña, Alfredo F; González, Verónica; Nava, Herminio; Molina, Axayacatl; Llera, Eva; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Rico, José M; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2016-02-01

    Members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus clade, identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, are widespread among predominant terrestrial lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata and Xanthoria parietina) and diverse intertidal and subtidal marine macroalgae, brown red and green (Phylum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta) from the Cantabrian Cornice. In addition to these terrestrial and coastal temperate habitats, similar strains were also found to colonize deep-sea ecosystems and were isolated mainly from gorgonian and solitary corals and other invertebrates (Phylum Cnidaria, Annelida, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Porifera) living up to 4700-m depth and at a temperature of 2-4 °C in the submarine Avilés Canyon. Similar strains have been also repeatedly isolated from atmospheric precipitations (rain drops, snow, and hailstone) collected in the same area throughout a year observation time. These ubiquitous strains were found to be halotolerant, psychrotolerant, and barotolerant. Bioactive compounds with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. These include antibacterials (paulomycins A and B), antifungals (maltophilins), antifungals displaying also cytotoxic activities (antimycins and 6-epialteramides), and the antitumor compound fredericamycin. A hypothetical dispersion model is here proposed to explain the biogeographical distribution of S. albidoflavus strains in terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments. PMID:26224165

  2. Expression of the alternative oxidase mitigates beta-amyloid production and toxicity in model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Riyad; Kaulio, Eveliina; Lassila, Katariina A; Crowther, Damian C; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, but there is no consensus on whether it is a cause or consequence of disease, nor on the precise mechanism(s). We addressed these issues by testing the effects of expressing the alternative oxidase AOX from Ciona intestinalis, in different models of AD pathology. AOX can restore respiratory electron flow when the cytochrome segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is inhibited, supporting ATP synthesis, maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and mitigating excess superoxide production at respiratory complexes I and III. In human HEK293-derived cells, AOX expression decreased the production of beta-amyloid peptide resulting from antimycin inhibition of respiratory complex III. Because hydrogen peroxide was neither a direct product nor substrate of AOX, the ability of AOX to mimic antioxidants in this assay must be indirect. In addition, AOX expression was able to partially alleviate the short lifespan of Drosophila models neuronally expressing human beta-amyloid peptides, whilst abrogating the induction of markers of oxidative stress. Our findings support the idea of respiratory chain dysfunction and excess ROS production as both an early step and as a pathologically meaningful target in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, supporting the concept of a mitochondrial vicious cycle underlying the disease.

  3. Expression of the alternative oxidase mitigates beta-amyloid production and toxicity in model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Riyad; Kaulio, Eveliina; Lassila, Katariina A; Crowther, Damian C; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, but there is no consensus on whether it is a cause or consequence of disease, nor on the precise mechanism(s). We addressed these issues by testing the effects of expressing the alternative oxidase AOX from Ciona intestinalis, in different models of AD pathology. AOX can restore respiratory electron flow when the cytochrome segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is inhibited, supporting ATP synthesis, maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and mitigating excess superoxide production at respiratory complexes I and III. In human HEK293-derived cells, AOX expression decreased the production of beta-amyloid peptide resulting from antimycin inhibition of respiratory complex III. Because hydrogen peroxide was neither a direct product nor substrate of AOX, the ability of AOX to mimic antioxidants in this assay must be indirect. In addition, AOX expression was able to partially alleviate the short lifespan of Drosophila models neuronally expressing human beta-amyloid peptides, whilst abrogating the induction of markers of oxidative stress. Our findings support the idea of respiratory chain dysfunction and excess ROS production as both an early step and as a pathologically meaningful target in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, supporting the concept of a mitochondrial vicious cycle underlying the disease. PMID:27094492

  4. Effect of long-term cyanide exposure on cyanide-sensitive respiration and phosphate metabolism in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanić Marina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of long-term exposure (5 h of Phycomyces blakesleeanus mycelium to 5 mM KCN on respiration and phosphate metabolites were tested. Exposure to cyanide, antimycin A and azide lead to a decrease in the activity of cyanide-sensitive respiration (CSR, and the ratio of core polyphosphates (PPc and inorganic phosphates (Pi, which is a good indicator of the metabolic state of a cell. After 5 h of incubation, the activity of CSR returned to control values. For this, the recovery of cytochrome c oxidase (COX was required. In addition, the PPc/Pi ratio started to recover shortly after initiation of COX recovery, but never reached control values. This led us to conclude that the regulation of polyphosphate (PPn levels in the cell is tightly coupled to respiratory chain functioning. In addition, acutely applied cyanide caused two different responses, observed by 31P NMR spectroscopy, that were probably mediated through the mechanism of glycolytic oscillations, triggered by the effect of cyanide on mitochondria. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173040

  5. Purification and some properties of ubiquinol oxidase from obligately chemolithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacterium, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans NASF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, K; Fujii, S; Sugio, T

    2001-01-01

    Ubiquinol-oxidizing activity was detected in an acidophilic chemolithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacterium, T. ferrooxidans. The ubiquinol oxidase was purified 79-fold from plasma membranes of T. ferrooxidans NASF-1 cells. The purified oxidase is composed of two polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 32,600 and 50,100 Da, as measured by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The absorption spectrum of the reduced enzyme at room temperature showed big peaks at 530 and 563, and a small broad peak at 635 nm, indicating the involvement of cytochromes b and d. Characteristic peaks of cytochromes a and c were not observed in the spectrum at around 600 and 550 nm, respectively. This enzyme combined with CO, and its CO-reduced minus reduced difference spectrum showed peaks at 409 nm and 563 nm and a trough at 431 nm. These results indicated that the oxidase contained cytochrome b, but the involvement of cytochrome d was not clear. The enzyme catalyzed the oxidations of ubiquinol-2 and reduced N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride. The ubiquinol oxidase activity was activated by the addition of albumin and lecithin to the reaction mixture and inhibited by the respiratory inhibitors KCN, HQNO, NaN3, and antimycin A1, although the enzyme was relatively resistant to KCN, and the divalent cation, Zn2+, compared with ubiquinol oxidases of E. coli. PMID:11272847

  6. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  7. Investigations on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent plant processes: ethylene biosynthesis and cyanide-resistant respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegink, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Two oxygen-dependent plant processes were investigated. A cell-free preparation from pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) was used to study ethylene biosynthesis from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was investigated in studies with /sup 14/C-butyl gallate and other respiratory effectors. Ethylene biosynthesis was not due to a specific enzyme, or oxygen radicals. Rather, hydrogen peroxide, generated at low levels, coupled with endogenous manganese produced ethylene. /sup 14/C-butyl gallate bound specifically to mitochondria from cyanide-sensitive and -resistant higher plants and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. The amount of gallate bound was similar for all higher plant mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria bound very little /sup 14/C-butyl gallate. Plant mitochondria in which cyanide-resistance was induced bound as much /sup 14/C-butyl gallate as before induction. However mitochondria from recently harvested white potato tubers did not bind the gallate. The observations suggest that an engaging factor couples with a gallate binding site in the mitochondrial membrane. With skunk cabbage spadix mitochondria the I/sub 5//sup 0/ for antimycin A inhibition of oxygen uptake was decreased by salicylhydroxamic acid pretreatment; this was also true for reverse order additions. No shift was observed with mung bean hypocotyl or Jerusalem artichoke tuber mitochondria.

  8. Protective effects of rilmenidine and AGN 192403 on oxidative cytotoxicity and mitochondrial inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Park, Yun-Gyu; Chun, Boe-Gwun; Choi, Sang-Hyun

    2002-11-15

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are important aspects of pathogenesis, particularly in the brain, which is highly dependent on oxygen, and the protection of astrocytes is essential for neuroprotection. In this context, imidazoline drugs have been reported to be neuroprotective. Our recent study showed that imidazoline drugs, including guanabenz, inhibit the naphthazarin-induced oxidative cytotoxicity associated with lysosomal destabilization. We now report on a study into the protective effects of rilmenidine and AGN 192403, which have affinity for imidazoline-1 receptors, on the cytotoxicity induced by naphthazarin and inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration in astrocytes. Cytotoxicity was measured grossly by LDH release and by measuring changes in lysosomal membrane stability and features of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Naphthazarin-induced cytotoxicity was evidenced by the ordered development of lysosomal acridine orange relocation, decrease in mitochondrial potential, cytochrome c release, and caspase-9 activation, and was inhibited by guanabenz, rilmenidine, and AGN 192403. Antimycin A and rotenone induced mitochondrial dysfunction primarily, and their cytotoxicities were inhibited only by AGN 192403. Rilmenidine and guanabenz may have a lysosomal stabilizing effect, which underlies their protective effects. AGN 192403 might affect the mitochondrial cell death cascades, and had a novel protective effect on the cytotoxicity associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

  9. Metabolic profiles show specific mitochondrial toxicities in vitro in myotube cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Qiuwei, E-mail: qiuwei_xu@merck.com; Vu, Heather; Liu Liping; Wang, Ting-Chuan; Schaefer, William H. [Merck Research Laboratories (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Mitochondrial toxicity has been a serious concern, not only in preclinical drug development but also in clinical trials. In mitochondria, there are several distinct metabolic processes including fatty acid {beta}-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and each process contains discrete but often intimately linked steps. Interruption in any one of those steps can cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Detection of inhibition to OXPHOS can be complicated in vivo because intermediate endogenous metabolites can be recycled in situ or circulated systemically for metabolism in other organs or tissues. Commonly used assays for evaluating mitochondrial function are often applied to ex vivo or in vitro samples; they include various enzymatic or protein assays, as well as functional assays such as measurement of oxygen consumption rate, membrane potential, or acidification rates. Metabolomics provides quantitative profiles of overall metabolic changes that can aid in the unraveling of explicit biochemical details of mitochondrial inhibition while providing a holistic view and heuristic understanding of cellular bioenergetics. In this paper, we showed the application of quantitative NMR metabolomics to in vitro myotube cells treated with mitochondrial toxicants, rotenone and antimycin A. The close coupling of the TCA cycle to the electron transfer chain (ETC) in OXPHOS enables specific diagnoses of inhibition to ETC complexes by discrete biochemical changes in the TCA cycle.

  10. Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BKCa Channel to the Respiratory Chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bednarczyk

    Full Text Available Potassium channels have been found in the inner mitochondrial membranes of various cells. These channels regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume and respiration. The activation of these channels is cytoprotective. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance Ca(2+-regulated potassium channel (mitoBKCa channel was measured by patch-clamping mitoplasts isolated from the human astrocytoma (glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line. A potassium-selective current was recorded with a mean conductance of 290 pS in symmetrical 150 mM KCl solution. The channel was activated by Ca(2+ at micromolar concentrations and by the potassium channel opener NS1619. The channel was inhibited by paxilline and iberiotoxin, known inhibitors of BKCa channels. Western blot analysis, immuno-gold electron microscopy, high-resolution immunofluorescence assays and polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of the BKCa channel β4 subunit in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the human astrocytoma cells. We showed that substrates of the respiratory chain, such as NADH, succinate, and glutamate/malate, decrease the activity of the channel at positive voltages. This effect was abolished by rotenone, antimycin and cyanide, inhibitors of the respiratory chain. The putative interaction of the β4 subunit of mitoBKCa with cytochrome c oxidase was demonstrated using blue native electrophoresis. Our findings indicate possible structural and functional coupling of the mitoBKCa channel with the mitochondrial respiratory chain in human astrocytoma U-87 MG cells.

  11. Assay of mitochondrial functions by resazurin in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xia ZHANG; Guan-hua DU; Jun-tian ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism of resazurin as indicator of mitochondrial function and to develop a rapid and sensitive assay for measuring metabolic activity of isolated mitochondria from rat liver in vitro. METHODS: The screening was carried out on 96-well microtitre plates by monitoring fluorescence intensity of resazurin reduced by mitochondria. Experimental conditions were optimized and influences of several inhibitors on mitochondrial function were observed. RESULTS: Fluorescence intensity increased in a linear manner when the mitochondrial protein concentration from 5 to 50 μg protein per well was incubated with resazurin (5 μmol/L) during 230 min period at 37 ℃. Edetic acid could promote the reduction of resazurin in mitochondria. The fluorescence intensity decreased greatly after pretreatment with NaN3, antimycin A, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP),and oligomycin compared with the control. However, the typical complex I inhibitor, rotenone enhanced the fluorescence intensity without mitochondria. CONCLUSION: Using resazurin to determine mitochondrial function is sensitive, inexpensive and could be easily automated for high throughput screening.

  12. Calmodulin stimulation of calcium transport in carrot microsomal vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake into microsomal vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers) was stimulated 2-3 fold by 5 ug/ml calmodulin (CaM). Microsomal vesicles separated with a linear sucrose gradient showed two peaks with CaM-stimulated Ca2+ uptake activities. One peak (at 1.12 g/cc) comigrated with the activity of the antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. This transport activity was enhanced 10-20 fold by 10 mM oxalate and appeared to be associates with vesicles derived primarily from the ER. The other peak of CaM-stimulated Ca2+ uptake (at 1.17 g/cc) was not affected by oxalate. These vesicles are probably derived from the plasma membrane. Preliminary experiments with the low-density vesicles (ER) vesicles, indicate that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate caused a transient reduction in intravesicular Ca2+. These results are consistent with the ER being an important site of intracellular Ca2+ regulation

  13. [Inhibition of respiratory enzymes in mitochondria of green leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhorn, G; Willenbrink, J

    1972-06-01

    1. Of the buffer substances introduced by Good, only N-2-hydroxy-ethylpiperazine-N-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) and N-tris(hydroxymethyl)-methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (TES) were found suitable for the isolation of mitochondria by means of density gradient centrifugation in a silica sol. Addition of 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone remarkably reduced the respiration rate and diminished the respiratory control, whereas 2% dextran improved the rates. 2. Fifty mM malonate inhibited succinate oxidation by 55-72% compared with the controls; in addition an uncoupling effect was observed. Similar results were obtained with 2.5 mM amytal. 3. Antimycin A, in contrast, did not affect the respiratory control, while the respiration rate was depressed to 55% of that in the control. 4. Azide (20 mM) had only a slight effect on the two parameters of leaf mitochondria. 5. It can be concluded that mitochondria of leaf cells are provided with the same respiratory enzymes as those of other plant materials. PMID:24481523

  14. Effects of chitosan and oligochitosan on development and mitochondrial function of Rhizopus stolonifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Martínez, Leobarda; Guerra-Sánchez, María Guadalupe; Hernández-Lauzardo, Ana Niurka; Pardo, Juan Pablo; Velázquez-del Valle, Miguel Gerardo

    2014-07-01

    The antifungal activities of chitosan and oligochitosan have been used to control postharvest decay of the fruits. The effect of chitosan and oligochitosan on mycelium growth, spore germination, and mitochondrial function of Rhizopus stolonifer was evaluated in order to establish a connection between fungus development and the main organelle in charge to provide energy to the cell. The mycelium growth of R. stolonifer was significantly reduced on minimum media amended with chitosan or oligochitosan. The highest antifungal indexes were obtained on media containing chitosan or oligochitosan at 2.0 mg ml(-1). Microscopic observation showed that chitosan and oligochitosan affected the spore germination and hyphae morphology. Both polymers increased oxygen consumption of R. stolonifer. Respiratory activity was restored with NADH in permeabilized treated and untreated cells, and was inhibited with rotenone and flavones. Complex III and IV were inhibited by antimycin A and cyanide, respectively, in treated and untreated cells. Chitosan and oligochitosan increased NADH dehydrogenase activity in isolated mitochondria. However, there were not changes in the cytochrome c oxidase and ATPase activities by effect of these polymers. These results suggest that both chitosan and oligochitosan affect the development of R. stolonifer and might be implicated in the mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24771597

  15. In vitro reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria from the rabbitfish Siganus fuscessens livers and the effects of Irgarol-1051.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Wang, Li; He, Tangtian; Liu, Wenhua; Li, Qi; Li, Mingfeng

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the mitochondria from the livers of Siganus fuscessens were exposed to the Irgarol-1051with or without respiratory chain inhibitors using succinate or malate as the substrate, and the effects on mitochondrial ROS production were tested. The mitochondrial ROS production was significantly enhanced by antimycin A with an increase of more than three folds but not by rotenone and NaN3, and this may suggest complex III is the major ROS-producing site. Irgarol-1051 treatments gave a somewhat contradictory result: this chemical can inhibit the mitochondrial ROS production but the inhibition decreased with the increase of doses. These contradictory data about Irgarol-1051 may be explained by the balance between the effects of inhibition through the opening of small-size pores and stimulation through blocking electron transfer, but the mechanism laid behind needs more evidence to support. As Irgarol-1051 was continuously used in antifouling and its bio-concentration factor is up to 160 in fish, the toxic effect of Irgarol-1051 on aquatic animals should be paid more attention to.

  16. Energy-dependent intracellular translocation of proparathormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L L; MacGregor, R R; Cohn, D V

    1977-01-01

    We previously suggested that after synthesis, proparathormone is transferred from rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi region where its conversion to parathormone occurs. We have attempted to define more closely this transfer process. In the first type of study, bovine parathyroid slices were incubated with [3H]leucine for 10 min and then radioisotope labeling was restricted by addition of a large excess of nonradioactive leucine. Under these conditions, more than 90% of the initially labeled proparathormone was converted to parathormone in 40 min. Lowered temperature in the chase period markedly inhibited the conversion. Several chemical agents were employed individually in the chase period to examine their effect on the conversion process. Antimycin A, dinitrophenol, oligomycin, and anaerobiosis (N2) inhibited the conversion, whereas sodium flouride and cycloheximide had no effect. In the second type of study, parathyroid slices were incubated with [3H]leucine for the entire incubation period. Lowered temperature and inhibitors of energy metabolism and microtubular function all lengthened the interval (lag) between the initial synthesis of [3H]parathormone. Cycloheximide, Tris, and chloroquine decreased the rates of protein synthesis and conversion, respectively, but none had any effect on the lag. We interpret the lag to represent the time of transit for proparathormone from rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi region. We conclude that this transfer process is independent of the synthesis of the prohormone and its conversion to the hormone. Moreover, this translocation requires metabolic energy and appears to be mediated by microtubules.

  17. Low-level laser therapy activates NF-kB via generation of reactive oxygen species in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

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    Aaron C-H Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite over forty years of investigation on low-level light therapy (LLLT, the fundamental mechanisms underlying photobiomodulation at a cellular level remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we isolated murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF from transgenic NF-kB luciferase reporter mice and studied their response to 810 nm laser radiation. Significant activation of NF-kB was observed at fluences higher than 0.003 J/cm(2 and was confirmed by Western blot analysis. NF-kB was activated earlier (1 hour by LLLT compared to conventional lipopolysaccharide treatment. We also observed that LLLT induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production similar to mitochondrial inhibitors, such as antimycin A, rotenone and paraquat. Furthermore, we observed similar NF-kB activation with these mitochondrial inhibitors. These results, together with inhibition of laser induced NF-kB activation by antioxidants, suggests that ROS play an important role in the laser induced NF-kB signaling pathways. However, LLLT, unlike mitochondrial inhibitors, induced increased cellular ATP levels, which indicates that LLLT also upregulates mitochondrial respiration. CONCLUSION: We conclude that LLLT not only enhances mitochondrial respiration, but also activates the redox-sensitive NFkB signaling via generation of ROS. Expression of anti-apoptosis and pro-survival genes responsive to NFkB could explain many clinical effects of LLLT.

  18. On the thyroid hormone-induced increase in respiratory capacity of isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, R B; Berry, M N

    1991-12-01

    The respiratory capacities of hepatocytes, derived from hypothyroid, euthyroid and hyperthyroid rats, have been compared by measuring rates of oxygen uptake and by titrating components of the respiratory chain with specific inhibitors. Thyroid hormone increased the maximal rate of substrate-stimulated respiration and also increased the degree of ionophore-stimulated oxygen uptake. In titration experiments, similar concentrations of oligomycin or antimycin were required for maximal inhibition of respiration regardless of thyroid state, suggesting that the changes in respiratory capacity were not the result of variation in the amounts of ATP synthase or cytochrome b. However, less rotenone was required for maximal inhibition of respiration in the hypothyroid state than in cells from euthyroid or hyperthyroid rats, implying that hepatocytes from hypothyroid animals contain less NADH dehydrogenase. The concentration of carboxyatractyloside necessary for maximal inhibition of respiration was 100 microM in hepatocytes from hypothyroid rats, but 200 microM and 300 microM in hepatocytes from euthyroid and hyperthyroid rats, respectively, indicating a possible correlation between levels of thyroid hormone and the amount or activity of adenine nucleotide translocase. The increased capacity for coupled respiration in response to thyroid hormone is not associated with an increase in the components of the electron transport chain or ATP synthase, but correlates with an increased activity of adenine nucleotide translocase. PMID:1751550

  19. Occurrence of the malate-aspartate shuttle in various tumor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, W V; Lehninger, A L

    1976-04-01

    The activity of the malate-aspartate shuttle for the reoxidation of cytoplasmic reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by mitochondria was assessed in six lines of rodent ascites tumor cells (two strains of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Krebs II carcinoma, Novikoff hepatoma, AS-30D hepatoma, and L1210 mouse leukemia). All the tumor cells examined showed mitochondrial reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH, as evidenced by the accumulation of pyruvate when the cells were incubated aerobically with L-lactate. Reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH thus generated was completely inhibited by the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate. The involvement of the respiratory chain in the reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH was demonstrated by the action of cyanide, rotenone, and antimycin A, which strongly inhibited the formation of pyruvate from added L-lactate. Compounds that inhibit the carrier-mediated entry of malate into mitochondria, such as butylmalonate, benzenetricarboxylate, and iodobenzylmalonate, also inhibited the accumulation of pyruvate from added L-lactate by the tumor cells. The maximal rate of the malate-aspartate shuttle was established by addtion of arsenite to inhibit the mitochondrial oxidation of the pyruvate formed from added lactate. The capacity of the various tumor lines for the reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH via the malate-aspartate shuttle approaches 20% of the total respiratory rate of the cells and thus appears to be sufficient to account for the mitochondrial reoxidation of that fraction of glycolytic NADH not reoxidized by pyruvate and lactate dehydrognenase in the cytoplasm. PMID:177206

  20. Effect of Hexavalent Chromium on Electron Leakage of Respiratory Chain in Mitochondria Isolated from Rat Liver

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    Ying Xie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the present study, we explored reactive axygen species (ROS production in mitochondria, the mechanism of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI hepatotoxicity, and the role of protection by GSH. Methods: Intact mitochondria were isolated from rat liver tissues and mitochondrial basal respiratory rates of NADH and FADH2 respiratory chains were determined. Mitochondria were treated with Cr(VI, GSH and several complex inhibitors. Mitochondria energized by glutamate/malate were separately or jointly treated with Rotenone (Rot, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI and antimycinA (Ant, while mitochondria energized by succinate were separately or jointly treated with Rot, DPI ‚ thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA and Ant. Results: Cr(VI concentration-dependently induced ROS production in the NADH and FADH2 respiratory chain in liver mitochondria. Basal respiratory rate of the mitochondrial FADH2 respiratory chain was significantly higher than that of NADH respiratory chain. Hepatic mitochondrial electron leakage induced by Cr(VI from NADH respiratory chain were mainly from ubiquinone binding sites of complex I and complex III. Conclusion: Treatment with 50µM Cr(VI enhances forward movement of electrons through FADH2 respiratory chain and leaking through the ubiquinone binding site of complex III. Moreover, the protective effect of GSH on liver mitochondria electron leakage is through removing excess H2O2 and reducing total ROS.

  1. Ceramide synthesis from free fatty acids in rat brain: function of NADPH and substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, I.

    1983-06-01

    At the subcellular level, the synthesis of ceramide from free lignoceric acid and sphingosine in brain required reconstituted enzyme system (particulate fraction, heat-stable and heat-labile factors) and pyridine nucleotide (NADPH). The mitochondrial electron transfer inhibitors (KCN and antimycin A), energy uncouplers (oligomycin and 2,4-dinitrophenol), and carboxyatractyloside, which prevents the transport of ATP and ADP through the mitochondrial wall, inhibit the synthesis of ceramide in the presence of NADPH but have very little effect in the presence of ATP. Similar to the synthesis of ceramide, the synthesis of ATP from NADPH and NADH by the particulate fraction also required cytoplasmic factors (heat-stable and heat-labile factors). Moreover, ATP, but not its analog (AMP-CH2-P-O-P), can replace NADPH, thus suggesting that the function of the pyridine nucleotide is to provide ATP for the synthesis of ceramide. The cytoplasmic factors were not required for the synthesis of ceramide in the presence of ATP. The maximum velocity for synthesis of ceramide from free fatty acids of different chain lengths (C16-C26) was bimodal, with maxima around stearic acid (C18) and behenic acid (C22). The relative rate of synthesis of ceramide parallels the relative distribution of these fatty acids in brain cerebrosides and sulfatides.

  2. Superoxide Enhances the Antitumor Combination of AdMnSOD Plus BCNU in Breast Cancer

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    Joseph J. Cullen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD can sensitize a variety of cancer cell lines to many anticancer drugs. Recent work has shown that cancer cells can be sensitized to cell killing by raising peroxide levels through increased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD when combined with inhibition of peroxide removal. Here we utilize the mechanistic property of one such anticancer drug, BCNU, which inhibits glutathione reductase (GR, compromising the glutathione peroxidase system thereby inhibiting peroxide removal. The purpose of this study was to determine if anticancer modalities known to produce superoxide radicals can increase the antitumor effect of MnSOD overexpression when combined with BCNU. To enhance MnSOD, an adenoviral construct containing the cDNA for MnSOD (AdMnSOD was introduced into human breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-1. AdMnSOD infection alone did not alter cell killing, however when GR was inhibited with either BCNU or siRNA, cytotoxicity increased. Futhermore, when the AdMnSOD + BCNU treatment was combined with agents that enhance steady-state levels of superoxide (TNF-α, antimycin, adriamycin, photosensitizers, and ionizing radiation, both cell cytotoxicity and intracellular peroxide levels increased. These results suggest that the anticancer effect of AdMnSOD combined with BCNU can be enhanced by agents that increase generation of superoxide.

  3. GENE TRANSFER IN TOBACCO MITOCHONDRIA IN VITRO AND IN VIVO

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    Katyshev A.I.

    2012-08-01

    -cob* genetic construct with integrative properties. It contains the selective gene and the gene of interest under control of the 5'-regulatory regions of Arabidopsis orf262 gene and the tobacco cob gene. We used modified variant of the tobacco apocytochrome b gene as a gene for selection with the nucleotide substitution G128T (G43V which results in antimycin A resistance. The maize sod3.1 gene was used as a gene of interest. The construct was delivered into tobacco callus cells and leaf disks by biolistic method. The callus lines demonstrating the high growth rates in the presence of antimycin A in comparison with the non-transformed control lines were selected. PCR analysis of transformed callus lines revealed the presence of heterologous maize sod3.1 sequence and the integration of the construct elements in tobacco mitochondrial genome.

  4. Oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial function in rat arterial chemoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Keith J; Turner, Philip J

    2013-07-15

    The mechanism of oxygen sensing in arterial chemoreceptors is unknown but has often been linked to mitochondrial function. A common criticism of this hypothesis is that mitochondrial function is insensitive to physiological levels of hypoxia. Here we investigate the effects of hypoxia (down to 0.5% O2) on mitochondrial function in neonatal rat type-1 cells. The oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial [NADH] was assessed by monitoring autofluorescence and increased in hypoxia with a P50 of 15 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 133.3 Pa) in normal Tyrode or 46 mm Hg in Ca(2+)-free Tyrode. Hypoxia also depolarised mitochondrial membrane potential (m, measured using rhodamine 123) with a P50 of 3.1, 3.3 and 2.8 mm Hg in normal Tyrode, Ca(2+)-free Tyrode and Tyrode containing the Ca(2+) channel antagonist Ni(2+), respectively. In the presence of oligomycin and low carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP; 75 nm) m is maintained by electron transport working against an artificial proton leak. Under these conditions hypoxia depolarised m/inhibited electron transport with a P50 of 5.4 mm Hg. The effects of hypoxia upon cytochrome oxidase activity were investigated using rotenone, myxothiazol, antimycin A, oligomycin, ascorbate and the electron donor tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Under these conditions m is maintained by complex IV activity alone. Hypoxia inhibited cytochrome oxidase activity (depolarised m) with a P50 of 2.6 mm Hg. In contrast hypoxia had little or no effect upon NADH (P50 = 0.3 mm Hg), electron transport or cytochrome oxidase activity in sympathetic neurons. In summary, type-1 cell mitochondria display extraordinary oxygen sensitivity commensurate with a role in oxygen sensing. The reasons for this highly unusual behaviour are as yet unexplained.

  5. Cytotoxic mechanisms of Zn2+ and Cd2+ involve Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activation by ROS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signaling mechanism induced by cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated. Both metals cause an increase in ·O2- production, with Cd to be more potent (216 ± 15%) than Zn (150 ± 9.5%), in relation to control value (100%). The metals effect was reversed after incubation with the amiloride analogue, EIPA, a selective Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) inhibitor as well as in the presence of calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. The heavy metals effect on ·O2- production was mediated via the interaction of metal ions with α1- and β-adrenergic receptors, as shown after incubation with their respective agonists and antagonists. In addition, both metals caused an increase in intracellular pH (pHi) of gill cells. EIPA together with either metal significantly reduced the effect of each metal treatment on pHi. Incubation of gill cells with the oxidants rotenone, antimycin A and pyruvate caused a significant increase in pHi (ΔpHi 0.830, 0.272 and 0.610, respectively), while in the presence of the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a decrease in pHi (ΔpHi -0.090) was measured, indicating that change in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by heavy metals affects NHE activity. When rosiglitazone was incubated together with either heavy metal a decrease in O2- production was observed. Our results show a key role of NHE in the signal transduction pathway induced by Zn and Cd in gill cells, with the involvement of ROS, PKC, adrenergic and PPAR-γ receptors. In addition, differences between the two metals concerning NHE activation, O2- production and interaction with adrenergic receptors were observed

  6. Cytotoxic mechanisms of Zn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} involve Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger (NHE) activation by ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsogiannaki, Sophia [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, School of Biology, Faculty of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Evangelinos, Nikolaos [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, School of Biology, Faculty of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koliakos, George [Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 17034, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kaloyianni, Martha [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, School of Biology, Faculty of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: kaloyian@bio.auth.gr

    2006-07-20

    The signaling mechanism induced by cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated. Both metals cause an increase in {center_dot}O{sub 2} {sup -} production, with Cd to be more potent (216 {+-} 15%) than Zn (150 {+-} 9.5%), in relation to control value (100%). The metals effect was reversed after incubation with the amiloride analogue, EIPA, a selective Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger (NHE) inhibitor as well as in the presence of calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. The heavy metals effect on {center_dot}O{sub 2} {sup -} production was mediated via the interaction of metal ions with {alpha}{sub 1}- and {beta}-adrenergic receptors, as shown after incubation with their respective agonists and antagonists. In addition, both metals caused an increase in intracellular pH (pHi) of gill cells. EIPA together with either metal significantly reduced the effect of each metal treatment on pHi. Incubation of gill cells with the oxidants rotenone, antimycin A and pyruvate caused a significant increase in pHi ({delta}pHi 0.830, 0.272 and 0.610, respectively), while in the presence of the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a decrease in pHi ({delta}pHi -0.090) was measured, indicating that change in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by heavy metals affects NHE activity. When rosiglitazone was incubated together with either heavy metal a decrease in O{sub 2} {sup -} production was observed. Our results show a key role of NHE in the signal transduction pathway induced by Zn and Cd in gill cells, with the involvement of ROS, PKC, adrenergic and PPAR-{gamma} receptors. In addition, differences between the two metals concerning NHE activation, O{sub 2} {sup -} production and interaction with adrenergic receptors were observed.

  7. The metabolism of malate by cultured rat brain astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since malate is known to play an important role in a variety of functions in the brain including energy metabolism, the transfer of reducing equivalents and possibly metabolic trafficking between different cell types; a series of biochemical determinations were initiated to evaluate the rate of 14CO2 production from L-[U-14C]malate in rat brain astrocytes. The 14CO2 production from labeled malate was almost totally suppressed by the metabolic inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A suggesting that most of malate metabolism was coupled to the electron transport system. A double reciprocal plot of the 14CO2 production from the metabolism of labeled malate revealed biphasic kinetics with two apparent Km and Vmax values suggesting the presence of more than one mechanism of malate metabolism in these cells. Subsequent experiments were carried out using 0.01 mM and 0.5 mM malate to determine whether the addition of effectors would differentially alter the metabolism of high and low concentrations of malate. Effectors studied included compounds which could be endogenous regulators of malate metabolism and metabolic inhibitors which would provide information regarding the mechanisms regulating malate metabolism. Both lactate and aspartate decreased 14CO2 production from malate equally. However, a number of effectors were identified which selectively altered the metabolism of 0.01 mM malate including aminooxyacetate, furosemide, N-acetylaspartate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate and glucose, but had little or no effect on the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate. In addition, alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate decreased 14CO2 production from 0.01 mM malate much more than from 0.5 mM malate. In contrast, a number of effectors altered the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate more than 0.01 mM. These included methionine sulfoximine, glutamate, malonate, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and ouabain

  8. Regulation of FOXOs and p53 by SIRT1 modulators under oxidative stress.

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    Yusuke S Hori

    Full Text Available Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS induce apoptosis and are associated with various diseases and with aging. SIRT1 (sirtuin-1, an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, decreases ROS levels and participates in cell survival under oxidative stress conditions. SIRT1 modulates the transcription factors p53, a tumor suppressor and inducer of apoptosis, and the forkhead O (FOXO family, both of which play roles for cell survival and cell death. In this study, we aimed to know which is working greatly among p53 and FOXOs transcription factors in SIRT1's cell protective functions under oxidative stress conditions. The antimycin A-induced increase in ROS levels and apoptosis was enhanced by SIRT1 inhibitors nicotinamide and splitomicin, whereas it was suppressed by a SIRT1 activator, resveratrol, and a SIRT1 cofactor, NAD+. SIRT1-siRNA abolished the effects of splitomicin and resveratrol. p53-knockdown experiment in C2C12 cells and experiment using p53-deficient HCT116 cells showed that splitomicin and resveratrol modulated apoptosis by p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. In p53-independent cell protective pathway, we found that FOXO1, FOXO3a, and FOXO4 were involved in SOD2's upregulation by resveratrol. The knockdown of these three FOXOs by siRNAs completely abolished the SOD2 induction, ROS reduction, and anti-apoptotic function of resveratrol. Our results indicate that FOXO1, FOXO3a and FOXO4, are indispensable for SIRT1-dependent cell survival against oxidative stress, although deacetylation of p53 has also some role for cell protective function of SIRT1.

  9. Binding of fluorescent lanthanides to rat liver mitochondrial membranes and calcium ion-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, R B; Wallach, D F

    1976-05-21

    (1) Tb3+ binding to mitochondrial membranes can be monitored by enhanced ion fluorescence at 545 nm with excitation at 285 nm. At low protein concentrations (less than 30 mug/ml) no inner filter effects are observed. (2) This binding is localized at the external surface of the inner membrane and is unaffected by inhibitors of respiration or oxidative phosphorylation. (3) A soluble Ca2+ binding protein isolated according to Lehninger, A.L. ((1971) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 42, 312-317) also binds Tb3+ with enhanced ion fluorescence upon excitation at 285 nm. The excitation spectrum of the isolated protein and of the intact mitochondria are indicative of an aromatic amino acid at the cation binding site. (4) Further characterization of the Tb3+-protein interaction revealed that there is more than one binding site per protein molecule and that these sites are clustered (less than 20 A). Neuraminidase treatment or organic solvent extraction of the protein did not affect fluorescent Tb3+ binding. (5) pH dependency studies of Tb3+ binding to the isolated protein or intact mitochondria demonstrated the importance of an ionizable group of pK greater than 6. At pH less than 7.5 the amount of Tb3+ bound to the isolated protein decreased with increase in pH as monitored by Tb3+ fluorescence. With intact mitochondria the opposite occurred with a large increase in Tb3+ fluorescence at higher pH. This increase was not observed when the mitochondria were preincubated with antimycin A and rotenone. PMID:6061

  10. The mitochondrial PPR protein LOVASTATIN INSENSITIVE 1 plays regulatory roles in cytosolic and plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis through RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianwei; Kobayashi, Keiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Matsumoto, Shogo; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2010-02-01

    Unlike animals, plants synthesize isoprenoids via two pathways, the cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway and the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Little information is known about the mechanisms that regulate these complex biosynthetic networks over multiple organelles. To understand such regulatory mechanisms of the biosynthesis of isoprenoids in plants, we previously characterized the Arabidopsis mutant, lovastatin insensitive 1 (loi1), which is resistant to lovastatin and clomazone, specific inhibitors of the MVA and MEP pathways, respectively. LOI1 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein localized in mitochondria that is thought to have RNA binding ability and function in post-transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial gene expression. LOI1 belongs to the DYW subclass of PPR proteins, which is hypothesized to be correlated with RNA editing. As a result of analysis of RNA editing of mitochondrial genes in loi1, a defect in RNA editing of three genes, nad4, ccb203 and cox3, was identified in loi1. These genes are related to the respiratory chain. Wild type (WT) treated with some respiration inhibitors mimicked the loi1 phenotype. Interestingly, HMG-CoA reductase activity of WT treated with lovastatin combined with antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III in the respiratory chain, was higher than that of WT treated with only lovastatin, despite the lack of alteration of transcript or protein levels of HMGR. These results suggest that HMGR enzyme activity is regulated through the respiratory cytochrome pathway. Although various mechanisms exist for isoprenoid biosynthesis, our studies demonstrate the novel possibility that mitochondrial respiration plays potentially regulatory roles in isoprenoid biosynthesis.

  11. The energy blockers 3-bromopyruvate and lonidamine: effects on bioenergetics of brain mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Lara; Davidescu, Magdalena; Roberti, Rita; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2014-10-01

    Tumor cells favor abnormal energy production via aerobic glycolysis and show resistance to apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction. The differences between normal and cancer cells in their energy metabolism provide a biochemical basis for developing new therapeutic strategies. The energy blocker 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) can eradicate liver cancer in animals without associated toxicity, and is a potent anticancer towards glioblastoma cells. Since mitochondria are 3BP targets, in this work the effects of 3BP on the bioenergetics of normal rat brain mitochondria were investigated in vitro, in comparison with the anticancer agent lonidamine (LND). Whereas LND impaired oxygen consumption dependent on any complex of the respiratory chain, 3BP was inhibitory to malate/pyruvate and succinate (Complexes I and II), but preserved respiration from glycerol-3-phosphate and ascorbate (Complex IV). Accordingly, although electron flow along the respiratory chain and ATP levels were decreased by 3BP in malate/pyruvate- and succinate-fed mitochondria, they were not significantly influenced from glycerol-3-phosphate- or ascorbate-fed mitochondria. LND produced a decrease in electron flow from all substrates tested. No ROS were produced from any substrate, with the exception of 3BP-induced H(2)O(2) release from succinate, which suggests an antimycin-like action of 3BP as an inhibitor of Complex III. We can conclude that 3BP does not abolish completely respiration and ATP synthesis in brain mitochondria, and has a limited effect on ROS production, confirming that this drug may have limited harmful effects on normal cells. PMID:25194986

  12. Ultrastructure and function of mitochondria in gametocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krungkrai J.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological properties of the mitochondrial organelles in the asexual and sexual gametocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum have been analyzed and found to be markedly different. From in vitro cultures of both stages in human erythrocytes, it has been demonstrated that the asexual stages contained a defined double-membrane organelle having a few tubular-like cristae. The numbers of mitochondria in the gametocytes were found to be ~ 6 organelles per parasite, and they showed a greater density of the cristae than that of the asexual stage parasite. The organelles of the gametocytes were successfully purified by differential centrifugation following Percoll density gradient separation with the results of ~ 7 % yields and ~ 5 folds. The gametocytic organelles contained much more activities of mitochondrial electron transporting enzymes (i.e., cytochrome c reductase, cytochrome c oxidase than the asexual stage organelles. Mitochondrial function as measured by oxygen consumption were found to be different between these two stages organelles. Their rates of oxygen consumption were relatively low, as compared to those of human leukocyte and mouse liver mitochondria. In contrast to the coupled mammalian mitochondria, the gametocytic organelles were in the uncoupling state between oxidation and phosphorylation reactions during their respiration. However, they were sensitive to inhibitors of the electron transport system, e.g., antimycin A, cyanide. Our results suggest that the mitochondria of the gametocytic stages are metabolically active and still underdeveloped, although their inner membranes are extensively folded. The biochemical significance of the unique structure of the mitochondria in these developing stages in host erythrocytes remains to be elucidated.

  13. The upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Stoichiometry of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, A D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-07-15

    Determination of the intrinsic or mechanistic P/O ratio of oxidative phosphorylation is difficult because of the unknown magnitude of leak fluxes. Applying a new approach developed to overcome this problem (see our preceding paper in this journal), the relationships between the rate of O2 uptake [( Jo)3], the net rate of phosphorylation (Jp), the P/O ratio, and the respiratory control ratio (RCR) have been determined in rat liver mitochondria when the rate of phosphorylation was systematically varied by three specific means. (a) When phosphorylation is titrated with carboxyatractyloside, linear relationships are observed between Jp and (Jo)3. These data indicate that the upper limit of the mechanistic P/O ratio is 1.80 for succinate and 2.90 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. (b) Titration with malonate or antimycin yields linear relationships between Jp and (Jo)3. These data give the lower limit of the mechanistic P/O ratio of 1.63 for succinate and 2.66 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. (c) Titration with a protonophore yields linear relationships between Jp, (Jo)3, and (Jo)4 and between P/O and 1/RCR. Extrapolation of the P/O ratio to 1/RCR = 0 yields P/O ratios of 1.75 for succinate and 2.73 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation which must be equal to or greater than the mechanistic stoichiometry. When published values for the H+/O and H+/ATP ejection ratios are taken into consideration, these measurements suggest that the mechanistic P/O ratio is 1.75 for succinate oxidation and 2.75 for NADH oxidation.

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Autophagy Provides Cytoprotection from Chemical Hypoxia and Oxidant Injury and Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

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    Bhavya B Chandrika

    Full Text Available We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced autophagy provides cytoprotection from renal tubular epithelial cell injury due to oxidants and chemical hypoxia in vitro, as well as from ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in vivo. We demonstrate that the ER stress inducer tunicamycin triggers an unfolded protein response, upregulates ER chaperone Grp78, and activates the autophagy pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. Inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy accelerated caspase-3 activation and cell death suggesting a pro-survival role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Compared to wild-type cells, autophagy-deficient MEFs subjected to ER stress had enhanced caspase-3 activation and cell death, a finding that further supports the cytoprotective role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Induction of autophagy by ER stress markedly afforded cytoprotection from oxidants H2O2 and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide and from chemical hypoxia induced by antimycin A. In contrast, inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy or autophagy-deficient cells markedly enhanced cell death in response to oxidant injury and chemical hypoxia. In mouse kidney, similarly to renal epithelial cells in culture, tunicamycin triggered ER stress, markedly upregulated Grp78, and activated autophagy without impairing the autophagic flux. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy markedly ameliorated renal IR injury as evident from significant improvement in renal function and histology. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine markedly increased renal IR injury. These studies highlight beneficial impact of ER stress-induced autophagy in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury both in vitro and in vivo.

  15. ATP generation in Leishmania donovani amastigote form

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    Anup Kumar Roy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania is the causative agent of various forms of leishmaniasis, a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The clinical manifestations of the disease range from selfhealing cutaneous and mucocutaneous skin ulcers to a fatal visceral form named visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar. The differentiation of Leishmania parasites from the insect stage, the promastigote, towards the pathogenic mammalian stage, the amastigote, is triggered primarily by the rise in ambient temperature encountered during the insect to mammal transmission. The survival of amastigote stage is dependent on that of the host. Regarding energy metabolism, which is an essential factor for the survival, parasites adapt to the environment under low oxygen tension in the host using metabolic systems which are very different from that of the host mammals. The amastigote form of L. donovani is independent on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production. Indeed, its cell growth was not inhibited by 20-fold excess oligomycin and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, which are the most specific inhibitors of the mitochondrial FoF1-ATP synthase. In contrast, mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone and complex III inhibitor antimycin A inhibited amastigote cell growth, suggesting the role of complex I and complex III in cell survival. Complex II appeared to have no role in cell survival. To further investigate the site of ATP production, we studied the substrate level phosphorylation, which was involved in the synthesis of ATP. Succinate-pyruvate couple showed the highest substrate level phosphorylation, whereas NADHfumarate and NADH-pyruvate couples failed to produce ATP. In contrast, NADPH-fumarate showed the highest rate of ATP formation in promastigotes. We conclude that substrate level phosphorylation is essential for the growth of L. donovani amastigotes.

  16. The upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Stoichiometry of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, A D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-07-15

    Determination of the intrinsic or mechanistic P/O ratio of oxidative phosphorylation is difficult because of the unknown magnitude of leak fluxes. Applying a new approach developed to overcome this problem (see our preceding paper in this journal), the relationships between the rate of O2 uptake [( Jo)3], the net rate of phosphorylation (Jp), the P/O ratio, and the respiratory control ratio (RCR) have been determined in rat liver mitochondria when the rate of phosphorylation was systematically varied by three specific means. (a) When phosphorylation is titrated with carboxyatractyloside, linear relationships are observed between Jp and (Jo)3. These data indicate that the upper limit of the mechanistic P/O ratio is 1.80 for succinate and 2.90 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. (b) Titration with malonate or antimycin yields linear relationships between Jp and (Jo)3. These data give the lower limit of the mechanistic P/O ratio of 1.63 for succinate and 2.66 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. (c) Titration with a protonophore yields linear relationships between Jp, (Jo)3, and (Jo)4 and between P/O and 1/RCR. Extrapolation of the P/O ratio to 1/RCR = 0 yields P/O ratios of 1.75 for succinate and 2.73 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation which must be equal to or greater than the mechanistic stoichiometry. When published values for the H+/O and H+/ATP ejection ratios are taken into consideration, these measurements suggest that the mechanistic P/O ratio is 1.75 for succinate oxidation and 2.75 for NADH oxidation. PMID:3015613

  17. Differential production of superoxide by neuronal mitochondria

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    Levin Leonard A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations, which are present in all mitochondria-containing cells, paradoxically cause tissue-specific disease. For example, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON results from one of three point mutations mtDNA coding for complex I components, but is only manifested in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, a central neuron contained within the retina. Given that RGCs use superoxide for intracellular signaling after axotomy, and that LHON mutations increase superoxide levels in non-RGC transmitochondrial cybrids, we hypothesized that RGCs regulate superoxide levels differently than other neuronal cells. To study this, we compared superoxide production and mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC components in isolated RGC mitochondria to mitochondria isolated from cerebral cortex and neuroblastoma SK-N-AS cells. Results In the presence of the complex I substrate glutamate/malate or the complex II substrate succinate, the rate of superoxide production in RGC-5 cells was significantly lower than cerebral or neuroblastoma cells. Cerebral but not RGC-5 or neuroblastoma cells increased superoxide production in response to the complex I inhibitor rotenone, while neuroblastoma but not cerebral or RGC-5 cells dramatically decreased superoxide production in response to the complex III inhibitor antimycin A. Immunoblotting and real-time quantitative PCR of METC components demonstrated different patterns of expression among the three different sources of neuronal mitochondria. Conclusion RGC-5 mitochondria produce superoxide at significantly lower rates than cerebral and neuroblastoma mitochondria, most likely as a result of differential expression of complex I components. Diversity in METC component expression and function could explain tissue specificity in diseases associated with inherited mtDNA abnormalities.

  18. Quiescence in Artemia franciscana embryos: reversible arrest of metabolism and gene expression at low oxygen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, S C

    1998-04-01

    evidence from experiments with nigericin indicates that mitochondrial protein synthesis is depressed directly by acidification of matrix pH. The oxygen dependency of organellar protein synthesis is not explained by blockage of the electron transport chain or by the increased redox state. Rather, this cyanide- and antimycin-insensitive, but hypoxia-sensitive, inhibitory signature for the arrest of protein synthesis suggests the presence of a molecular oxygen sensor within the mitochondrion. PMID:9510534

  19. Hypoxic vasoconstriction of partial muscular intra-acinar pulmonary arteries in murine precision cut lung slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg Anna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alveolar hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV which serves to match lung perfusion to ventilation. The underlying mechanisms are not fully resolved yet. The major vascular segment contributing to HPV, the intra-acinar artery, is mostly located in that part of the lung that cannot be selectively reached by the presently available techniques, e.g. hemodynamic studies of isolated perfused lungs, recordings from dissected proximal arterial segments or analysis of subpleural vessels. The aim of the present study was to establish a model which allows the investigation of HPV and its underlying mechanisms in small intra-acinar arteries. Methods Intra-acinar arteries of the mouse lung were studied in 200 μm thick precision-cut lung slices (PCLS. The organisation of the muscle coat of these vessels was characterized by α-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry. Basic features of intra-acinar HPV were characterized, and then the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers, inhibitors of the respiratory chain and Krebs cycle metabolites was analysed. Results Intra-acinar arteries are equipped with a discontinuous spiral of α-smooth muscle actin-immunoreactive cells. They exhibit a monophasic HPV (medium gassed with 1% O2 that started to fade after 40 min and was lost after 80 min. This HPV, but not vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane analogue U46619, was effectively blocked by nitro blue tetrazolium and diphenyleniodonium, indicating the involvement of ROS and flavoproteins. Inhibition of mitochondrial complexes II (3-nitropropionic acid, thenoyltrifluoroacetone and III (antimycin A specifically interfered with HPV, whereas blockade of complex IV (sodium azide unspecifically inhibited both HPV and U46619-induced constriction. Succinate blocked HPV whereas fumarate had minor effects on vasoconstriction. Conclusion This study establishes the first model for investigation of basic characteristics of HPV

  20. Cell bioenergetics in Leghorn male hepatoma cells and immortalized chicken liver cells in response to 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarski, A L; Kong, B-W; Lassiter, K; Hargis, B M; Bottje, W G

    2014-11-01

    The major objectives of this study were to compare cell bioenergetics in 2 avian liver cell lines under control conditions and in response to oxidative stress imposed by 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (4-HNE). Cells in this study were from a chemically immortalized Leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) cell line and a spontaneously immortalized chicken liver (CELi) cell line. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was monitored in specialized microtiter plates using an XF24 Flux Analyzer (Seahorse Bioscience, Billerica, MA). Cell bioenergetics was assessed by sequential additions of oligomycin, carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), and antimycin-A that enables the determination of a) OCR linked to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase activity, b) mitochondrial oxygen reserve capacity, c) proton leak, and d) nonmitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity. Under control (unchallenged) conditions, LMH cells exhibited higher basal OCR and higher OCR attributed to each of the bioenergetic components listed above compared with CELi cells. When expressed as a percentage of maximal OCR (following uncoupling with FCCP), LMH cells exhibited higher OCR due to ATP synthase and proton leak activity, but lower mitochondrial oxygen reserve capacity compared with CELi cells; there were no differences in OCR associated with nonmitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity. Whereas the LMH cells exhibited robust ATP synthase activity up to 50 μM 4-HNE, CELi cells exhibited a progressive decline in ATP synthase activity with 10, 20, and 30 μM 4-HNE. The CELi cells exhibited higher mitochondrial oxygen reserve capacity compared with LMH cells with 0 and 20 μM 4-HNE but not with 30 μM 4-HNE. Both cell lines exhibited inducible proton leak in response to increasing levels of 4-HNE that was evident with 30 μM 4-HNE for CELi cells and with 40 and 50 μM 4-HNE in LMH cells. The results of these studies demonstrate fundamental differences in cell bioenergetics in 2 avian liver-derived cell lines

  1. Hepatic calcium efflux during cytochrome P-450-dependent drug oxidations at the endoplasmic reticulum in intact liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sies, H; Graf, P; Estrela, J M

    1981-06-01

    During metabolism of (type I) drugs by cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase of the endoplasmic reticulum, the NADPH/NADP+ ratio in rat liver selectively decreases to approximately one-half of the control values, whereas the NADH/NAD+ ratio remains practically unaffected [Sies, H. & Brauser, B. (1970) Eur. J. Biochem. 15, 521-540]. In view of the observations with isolated mitochondria [Lehninger, A. L., Vercesi, A. & Bababunmi, E. A. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 1690-1694] of stimulated Ca2+ efflux upon nicotinamide nucleotide oxidation, the selective oxidation of NADPH in cytosol and mitochondria during drug oxidations was considered a useful experimental tool for the determination of whether the oxidation of NADPH or of NADH is responsible for Ca2+ efflux. With perfused livers from phenobarbital-treated rats, Ca2+ efflux was demonstrated, amounting to 8 nmol/min per gram of liver (wet weight), with aminopyrine, ethylmorphine, or hexobarbital as drug substrates. Drug-associated Ca2+ release was diminished when the inhibitor metyrapone was also present, or when drug oxidation was suppressed during N2 anoxia or in the presence of antimycin A in livers from fasted rats. Ca2+ efflux was elicited also by infusion of the thiol oxidant diamide, and by t-butyl hydroperoxide. However whereas Ca2+ efflux elicited by these compounds was restricted upon addition of the thiol dithioerythritol, there was little, if any, sensitivity of the drug-associated Ca2+ efflux to the thiol. Further mitochondrial oxidation of NADPH by addition of ammonium chloride had no effect on drug-associated Ca2+ efflux. Prior addition of the alpha-agonist phenylephrine suppressed the Ca2+ release by drug addition. While the molecular mechanism involved in Ca2+ efflux from liver mitochondria and from hepatocytes as well as the regulatory significance are not yet known, it is concluded from the present experiments that in case of nicotinamide nucleotide-linked Ca2+ efflux the oxidation of

  2. Regulation of glutamine synthetase, aspartokinase, and total protein turnover in Klebsiella aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, R M; Stadtman, E R

    1985-12-13

    When suspensions of Klebsiella aerogenes are incubated in a nitrogen-free medium there is a gradual decrease in the levels of acid-precipitable protein and of aspartokinase III (lysine-sensitive) and aspartokinase I (threonine-sensitive) activities. In contrast, the level of glutamine synthetase increases slightly and then remains constant. Under these conditions, the glutamine synthetase and other proteins continue to be synthesized as judged by the incorporation of [14C]leucine into the acid-precipitable protein fraction and into protein precipitated by anti-glutamine synthetase antibodies, by the fact that growth-inhibiting concentrations of chloramphenicol also inhibit the incorporation of [14C]leucine into protein and into protein precipitated by anti-glutamine synthetase antibody, and by the fact that chloramphenicol leads to acceleration in the loss of aspartokinases I and III and promotes a net decrease in the level of glutamine synthetase and its cross-reactive protein. The loss of aspartokinases I and III in cell suspensions is stimulated by glucose and is inhibited by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Glucose also stimulates the loss of aspartokinases and glutamine synthetase in the presence of chloramphenicol. Cell-free extracts of K. aerogenes catalyze rapid inactivation of endogenous glutamine synthetase as well as exogenously added pure glutamine synthetase. This loss of glutamine synthetase is not associated with a loss of protein that cross-reacts with anti-glutamine synthetase antibodies. The inactivation of glutamine synthetase in extracts is not due to adenylylation. It is partially prevented by sulfhydryl reagents, Mn2+, antimycin A, 2,4-dinitrophenol, EDTA, anaerobiosis and by dialysis. Following 18 h dialysis, the capacity of extracts to catalyze inactivation of glutamine synthetase is lost but can be restored by the addition of Fe2+ (or Ni2+) together with ATP (or other nucleoside di- and triphosphates. After 40-60 h dialysis Fe3+ together with NADH (but

  3. Kalispel Non-Native Fish Suppression Project 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingert, Michele; Andersen, Todd [Kalispel Natural Resource Department

    2008-11-18

    Non-native salmonids are impacting native salmonid populations throughout the Pend Oreille Subbasin. Competition, hybridization, and predation by non-native fish have been identified as primary factors in the decline of some native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) populations. In 2007, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) initiated the Kalispel Nonnative Fish Suppression Project. The goal of this project is to implement actions to suppress or eradicate non-native fish in areas where native populations are declining or have been extirpated. These projects have previously been identified as critical to recovering native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout (WCT). Lower Graham Creek was invaded by non-native rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) after a small dam failed in 1991. By 2003, no genetically pure WCT remained in the lower 700 m of Graham Creek. Further invasion upstream is currently precluded by a relatively short section of steep, cascade-pool stepped channel section that will likely be breached in the near future. In 2008, a fish management structure (barrier) was constructed at the mouth of Graham Creek to preclude further invasion of non-native fish into Graham Creek. The construction of the barrier was preceded by intensive electrofishing in the lower 700 m to remove and relocate all captured fish. Westslope cutthroat trout have recently been extirpated in Cee Cee Ah Creek due to displacement by brook trout. We propose treating Cee Cee Ah Creek with a piscicide to eradicate brook trout. Once eradication is complete, cutthroat trout will be translocated from nearby watersheds. In 2004, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) proposed an antimycin treatment within the subbasin; the project encountered significant public opposition and was eventually abandoned. However, over the course of planning this 2004 project, little public

  4. Changes of energy metabolic pathway of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes and effect of intervening with drugs%肥大心肌细胞能量代谢途径变化及药物干预效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯兵; 徐静; 刘伟; 杨旭; 何作云; 杨惠标

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨肥大心肌细胞能量代谢途径变化及药物干预的作用.方法应用血管紧张素Ⅱ (angiotensin Ⅱ, Ang Ⅱ, 0.1μmol/L)加去甲肾上腺素(norepinephrine, NE 1μmol/L)诱导培养大鼠心肌细胞肥大,以同位素液闪计数法测定丙酮酸脱氢酶(pyruvate dehydrogenase,PDH)、肉碱脂酰转移酶-1(carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT-1)活性,以及葡萄糖有氧氧化率、葡萄糖酵解率和脂肪酸有氧氧化率.结果 (1)与正常心肌细胞比较,肥大心肌细胞总的PDH活性没有明显改变,但活化型PDH活性和葡萄糖氧化代谢率(glucose oxidation rate, GOR)显著增强,CPT-1活性和脂肪酸有氧氧化代谢率(fatty acid oxidation rate, FOR)显著降低;(2)与对照肥大心肌细胞比较,二氯乙酸(dichloroacetate,DCA 1000~10000mmol/L)和曲美他嗪(Trimetazidine,TMZ 1~5mmol/L)呈剂量依赖性的升高PDH活性和GOR,抑制CPT-1活性、FOR和葡萄糖酵解率(glucolysis rate, GLR);(3)与对照肥大心肌细胞比较,抗霉素A(antimycin A,0.1~10mmol/L)呈剂量依赖性的抑制PDH活性和GOR和GLR,增强CPT-1活性和FOR;(4)二氯乙酸(1000mmol/L)加曲美他嗪(1mmol/L)可更有效刺激PDH活性和GOR,抑制CPT-1活性、FOR和GLR.结论肥大心肌细胞能量代谢向糖代谢转化,DCA和TMZ均可进一步增强糖有氧氧化代谢抑制脂肪酸代谢.

  5. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT Induces Specific Changes in Respiration and Electron Leakage in the Mitochondria of Different Rat Skeletal Muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionizio Ramos-Filho

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT is characterized by vigorous exercise with short rest intervals. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 plays a key role in muscle adaptation. This study aimed to evaluate whether HIIT promotes similar H2O2 formation via O2 consumption (electron leakage in three skeletal muscles with different twitch characteristics. Rats were assigned to two groups: sedentary (n=10 and HIIT (n=10, swimming training. We collected the tibialis anterior (TA-fast, gastrocnemius (GAST-fast/slow and soleus (SOL-slow muscles. The fibers were analyzed for mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 production and citrate synthase (CS activity. A multi-substrate (glycerol phosphate (G3P, pyruvate, malate, glutamate and succinate approach was used to analyze the mitochondria in permeabilized fibers. Compared to the control group, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis, complex I and complex II was higher in the TA of the HIIT group by 1.5-, 3.0- and 2.7-fold, respectively. In contrast, oxygen consumed by mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPdH was 30% lower. Surprisingly, the oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis was 42% lower after HIIT in the SOL. Moreover, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis and complex II was higher by 1.4- and 2.7-fold in the GAST of the HIIT group. After HIIT, CS activity increased 1.3-fold in the TA, and H2O2 production was 1.3-fold higher in the TA at sites containing mGPdH. No significant differences in H2O2 production were detected in the SOL. Surprisingly, HIIT increased H2O2 production in the GAST via complex II, phosphorylation, oligomycin and antimycin by 1.6-, 1.8-, 2.2-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Electron leakage was 3.3-fold higher in the TA with G3P and 1.8-fold higher in the GAST with multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, the HIIT protocol induced different respiration and electron leakage responses in different types of muscle.

  6. 电子传递链对白念珠菌菌丝形成的影响%Effect of electron transfer system on the hyphal formation of Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽虎; 吕雪莲; 李筱芳; 吕桂霞; 沈永年; 李岷; 刘维达

    2009-01-01

    to assess the viability of Candida albicans. Results The solvents (chloroform and dimethyl sulfoxide) had no significant effect on the growth of and filamentation in Candida albicans. After incubation with thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) or benzhydroxamic acid for 24 hours, yeast cells of Candida albicans predominated in the culture. The growth of Candida albicans was significantly inhibited in log phase by the incubation with classic respiratory chain inhibitors such as rotenone, antimycin A, oligomycin, sodium azide, TTFA and sodium malonate, compared with the controls (all P < 0.01). Benzhydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of alternative oxidative pathway, also significantly inhibited the growth of Candida albicans in log phase (t = 10.92, P < 0.01). After incubation with rotenone, antimycin A, oligomycin, sodium azide, TTFA, sodium malonate, benzhydroxamic acid and disodium gnanylate, the percentage of filamentation in Candida albicans at 12 hours was 87.49 ± 0.52, 48.75 ± 4.44, 50.33 ± 8.50, 99.00 ± 1.00, 1.60 ± 0.53, 94.01 ± 0.99, 0.00 ± 0.00 and 92.33 ± 2.08, respectively, and the growth of Candida albicans at 7 hours was inhibited by (1.34 ± 0.15)%, (70.61 ± 1.02)%, (50.63 ± 5.38)%, (17.80 ± 7.89)%, (45.17 ± 1.27)%, (10.75 ± 3.62)%, (72.46 ± 1.14)% and -(5.96 ± 4.07)%, respectively. Conclusions Hyphal formation of Candida albicans could be suppressed by inhibitors of classic respiratory chain or alternative oxidative pathway, and is mainly regulated by alternative oxidative pathway.

  7. JRRD a a Glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contains a plain language discription of articles published in this issue including Robot-assisted therapy, prosthetic knee joint maneuverability, community reintegration, and more

  8. Modulation of the Pasteur effect in retinal cells: implications for understanding compensatory metabolic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Barry S; Sauer, Michael W; Starnes, Catherine A

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the present experiments was to enhance understanding of the factors that are critical for the survival of retinal cells exposed to mitochondrial inhibition. Confluent cultures of Müller cells (rMC-1) and human retinal pigment epithelial cells (hRPE) were incubated in Dulbecco's minimal essential medium in the presence and absence of 1x10(-5)M Antimycin A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport. To modulate the rates of aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis, cells were incubated in media containing varying concentrations of glucose and 1-100 micro M of iodoacetic acid (IAA), an inhibitor of glyceraldehdye-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH). Measurements were made of G3PDH, lactic acid production, and cellular ATP levels, along with an examination of cellular morphology, the latter providing an index of cellular viability. Control rMC-1 and hRPE produced lactate aerobically, respectively, at 0.48 and 1.50 micro molhr(-1)/10(6) cells. Anaerobically, lactate production increased 2-fold in rMC-1 and 3-fold in hRPE. Anaerobic ATP levels in both types of cells were maintained at control levels over 8hr. Experimental conditions were sought that would modulate only the capacity of rMC-1 and hRPE to increase glycolysis following mitochondrial inhibition, i.e. alter their Pasteur effect. We used low concentrations of IAA to partially inhibit G3PDH. Incubation of rMC-1 with IAA for 6hr caused a graded inhibition of G3PDH: 70% inhibition with 1 micro M, 90% with 5 micro M, 97% with 10 micro M, and 100% with 100 micro M. While the aerobic and anaerobic rates of lactic acid production were not altered by 1 micro M IAA, both were suppressed completely by 100 micro M IAA. However, incubation of rMC-1 with 5 micro M IAA caused a decrease of 30% in the rate of anaerobic lactic acid production but no change in the rate of aerobic glycolysis. Moreover, with 5 micro M IAA, rMC-1 incubated aerobically maintained ATP levels, but anaerobic ATP content decreased to a low

  9. The pathway of inorganic-phosphate efflux from isolated liver mitochondria during adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, D D

    1980-12-15

    1. The distribution of P(i) between mitochondria and suspending medium during uncoupler-stimulated hydrolysis of ATP by rat liver mitochondria [Tyler (1969) Biochem. J.111, 665-678] has been reinvestigated, by using either mersalyl or N-ethylmaleimide as inhibitors of P(i) transport and either buffered sucrose/EDTA or LiCl/EGTA solutions as suspending medium. More than 75% of the total P(i) liberated was retained in mitochondria treated with either inhibitor at all ATP concentrations tested (0.2-2.5mm). With low ATP concentrations and mersalyl-treated mitochondria incubated in sucrose/EDTA, virtually all the P(i) liberated was retained in the mitochondria. 2. Larger amounts of P(i) appeared in the suspending medium during ATPase activity, despite the presence of N-ethylmaleimide, when LiCl/EGTA was used as suspending medium compared with sucrose/EDTA. Two sources of this P(i) were identified: (a) a slow efflux of P(i) from mitochondria to suspending medium despite the presence of N-ethylmaleimide; (b) a slow ATPase activity insensitive to carboxyatractyloside, which was stimulated by added Mg(2+), partially inhibited by oligomycin or efrapeptin and strongly inhibited by EDTA. 3. It is concluded that liver mitochondria preparations contain two distinct forms of ATPase activity. The major activity is associated with coupled mitochondria of controlled permeability to adenine nucleotides and P(i) and is stimulated strongly by uncoupling agents. The minor activity is associated with mitochondria freely permeable to adenine nucleotides and P(i), is unaffected by uncoupling agents and is activated by endogenous or added Mg(2+). 4. When mitochondria treated with mersalyl were incubated in buffered sucrose solution, almost all the P(i) liberated was recovered in the suspending medium, unless inhibitors of P(i)-induced large-amplitude swelling such as EDTA, EGTA, antimycin, rotenone, nupercaine or Mg(2+) were added. Thus the loss of the specific permeability properties of

  10. PHOSPHORYLATION/DEPHOSPHORYLATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL PROTEINS IN REDOX-SIGNALLING OF HIGHER PLANTS UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

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    Subota I.Yu.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied an impact of the widely spread intra-cellular signals Ca2+ and сAMP on activity of the protein phosphorylation in maize mitochondria. The use of the isolated mitochondria is a convenient model system for investigation of the different physiological processes, for example for simulation of the different stress conditions. The treatment of maize mitochondria with high concentration of calcium ions which mimics the initial stage of apoptosis led to an increase of the phosphorylation level of some proteins and to an additional phosphorylation of the 59 and 66 kDa proteins. The treatment of the mitoplasts, i.e., the mitochondria devoid of the outer membrane with calcium ions insignificantly induced the activity of protein phosphorylation. It is assumed that the outer membrane is essential for Ca2+ signal transduction to plant mitochondria. We also identified a 94 kDa protein involved in phosphorylation of the mitochondrial proteins. This protein might be a single-subunit protein kinase or one of the subunits of the protein kinase complex. Antimycin A and KCN which are the inhibitors of mitochondria respiration increased the phosphorylation activity of the mitochondrial polypeptides. The effect of this inhibitors was similar both in in organello system and at the level of the whole plant. It should be noticed that at the level of the whole plant the effect of KCN on activity of the mitochondrial protein phosphorylation was more essential. Some considerable differences were found both at the level of protein phosphorylation and in electrophoresis patterns representing the intact mitochondria, the mitoplasts and the outer membrane fraction. The activity of protein phosphorylation in mitoplasts and the outer membrane fraction was extremely high compared to the phosphorylation activity of the mitochondrial proteins. This could be explained by the higher level of “substrate phosphoprotein phosphatase” in the outer membrane of mitochondria

  11. Apparent Km of mitochondria for oxygen computed from Vmax measured in permeabilized muscle fibers is lower in water enriched in oxygen by electrolysis than injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoll J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joffrey Zoll,1 Jamal Bouitbir,1 Pascal Sirvent,2 Alexis Klein,3 Antoine Charton,1,4 Liliana Jimenez,3 François R Péronnet,5 Bernard Geny,1 Ruddy Richard61Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine and EA3072, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, 2Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, EA 3533, Laboratoire des Adaptations Métaboliques à l’Exercice en Conditions Physiologiques et Pathologiques, Clermont-Ferrand, 3Danone Research, Centre Daniel Carasso, Palaiseau, 4Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care and EA3072, Hôpital de Hautepierre, Université de Strasbourg, France; 5Kinesiology Department, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada; 6Department of Sport Medicine and Functional Explorations and INRA UMR 1019, Faculty of Medicine, Université d’Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceBackground: It has been suggested that oxygen (O2 diffusion could be favored in water enriched in O2 by a new electrolytic process because of O2 trapping in water superstructures (clathrates, which could reduce the local pressure/content relationships for O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along PO2 gradients.Materials and methods: Mitochondrial respiration was compared in situ in saponin-skinned fibers isolated from the soleus muscles of Wistar rats, in solution enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process 1 at an O2 concentration decreasing from 240 µmol/L to 10 µmol/L (132 mmHg to 5 mmHg, with glutamate–malate or N, N, N', N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (TMPD–ascorbate (with antimycin A as substrates; and 2 at increasing adenosine diphosphate (ADP concentration with glutamate–malate as substrate.Results: As expected, maximal respiration decreased with O2 concentration and, when compared to glutamate–malate, the apparent Km O2 of mitochondria for O2 was significantly lower with TMPD–ascorbate with both waters. However, when compared to the water enriched in O2 by injection, the Km O2 was

  12. Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Environmental Health, Chemistry, and Toxicology More Resources Bisphenol A (BPA) en español Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to make lightweight, hard plastics. What is bisphenol A? Bisphenol A, also called BPA, is a ...

  13. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and seali...

  14. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  15. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  16. From a = b to a = a

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar Olsson

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I compare and contrast the alternative treatments of the Other as they appear first in the radical geography of 1968, then in the political geography of 1998. While in the Hegelian sixties both the master and the slave recognized that they are defined in terms of each other (a = b), the politically correct of the nineties are claiming that the right to define who you are is yours and yours alone (a = a). But whoever argues that the only acceptable truth lies in the statement "I ...

  17. A movement, a spirit, a lifestyle change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlee, J

    1994-04-01

    The Philippines' Department of Health (DOH) has found that young children face the most risk of pneumonia and other respiratory infections. Those from areas not served by physicians face the greatest risk. During the 1980s, DOH set up a 5-year pilot project in 8 rural areas in the southern Philippines to see whether midwives could diagnose and treat acute respiratory infections (ARIs). The midwives used a simple diagnostic method (WHO/ARI algorithm) based on two ARI signs: a respiratory rate of at least 50 breaths/minute and an indrawn chest. An indrawn chest indicated a need to refer a child to the hospital. The midwives did well at diagnosing and treating ARIs. DOH has since introduced the algorithm nationwide. This research addressed an important problem and was well planned and implemented. IDRC and the Council on Health Research for Development in Geneva sponsors the Essential National Health Research (ENHR) initiative in the Philippines. The ENHR strategy aims to better people's health by establishing priorities among different health problems. After priority setting, a participatory process involving communities, researchers, and policy and decision makers determines the relevant research questions. ENHR should result in better, more effective, and more equitable health care and reduce the burden of illness. The first ENHR agenda includes the following research priorities: impact of indigenous beliefs and practices on health; baseline epidemiologic studies on mental health problems; infectious diseases (especially tuberculosis); evaluation of implementation of national health programs; and development of strategies to encourage rational use of drugs in hospitals. It took more than 2 years to agree on these priorities--a complicated and democratic process. The next step is to obtain funding for these projects. The ENHR project wants to attempt advocacy work--creating demand for research and preparing policy makers for the data. Its goal is to be a catalyst in

  18. A literatura e a teologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genilma Boehler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma reflexão sobre literatura e teologia, pontualmente sobre poesia e teologia. Como afirmou Edgar Morin “a literatura tem a vantagem de refletir sobre a complexidade do ser humano e sobre a quantidade incrível de seus sonhos” (MORIN, 2009:6. Já a teologia, como definida por Rubem Alves, é “um jeito de falar sobre tais coisas dando-lhes um nome e apenas distinguindo-se da poesia porque a teologia é sempre feita como prece...” (ALVES, 2005:21. O encontro das duas é a ocasião para que seja feita uma reflexão acerca de Deus, a partir do espaço da poesia, recorrendo a outra linguagem, outro conhecimento, outras bibliotecas, considerando o corpo, o desejo, a vida, o mundo na medida em que apresenta a pessoa, a sociedade e a cultura.

  19. Cygnus A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carilli, CL; Barthel, PD

    1996-01-01

    Cygnus A was the first hyper-active galaxy discovered, and it remains by far the closest of the ultra-luminous radio galaxies. As such, Cygnus A has played a fundamental role in the study of virtually all aspects of extreme activity in galaxies. We present a review of jet theory for powering the dou

  20. Algebra? A Gate! A Barrier! A Mystery!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics Educatio Dialogues, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue of Mathematics Education Dialogues focuses on the nature and the role of algebra in the K-14 curriculum. Articles on this theme include: (1) "Algebra For All? Why?" (Nel Noddings); (2) "Algebra For All: It's a Matter of Equity, Expectations, and Effectiveness" (Dorothy S. Strong and Nell B. Cobb); (3) "Don't Delay: Build and Talk about…

  1. Northrop A-17A Nomad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1940-01-01

    Northrop A-17A Nomad: In the spring of 1939 the NACA tested an experimental cowling and cooling system on Northrop's A-17A. Various types and combinations were tried, but the NACA cowl first used seemed to work best, as no modifications made their way onto 'line' aircraft.

  2. Hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor VIII deficiency; Classic hemophilia; Bleeding disorder - hemophilia A ... When you bleed, a series of reactions take place in the body that helps blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation ...

  3. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carotenoid is beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by substances called ... A can lead to hyperkeratosis or dry, scaly skin. If you get too much vitamin A, you ...

  4. A Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecile; Fries

    2013-01-01

    <正>The rising sun flames clouds. Through the airplane window I am enjoying the clouds with golden edges. In a few hours I will set foot on the soil of China, a country that has always been in my dreams. Thoughts thronged my mind. Perhaps, in my life I will never have a chance to travel to China, a faraway, strange and mysterious country;

  5. A Keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a keyboard with a plurality of keys with key switches that are covered by a flexible display for displaying individual labels of the keys whereby the label can be changed during operation of the keyboard by appropriate control of the keyboard. The flexible display...

  6. A prog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Anette; Hansen, Torben Bæk; Dalsgaard, Jesper;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic carpal tunnel release with a single portal technique has been shown to reduce sick leave compared to open carpal tunnel release, claiming to be a less invasive procedure and reducing scar tenderness leading to a more rapid return to work, and the purpose of this study...... was to identify prognostic factors for prolonged sick leave after endoscopic carpal tunnel release in a group of employed Danish patients. Methods: The design was a prospective study including 75 employed patients with carpal tunnel syndrome operated with ECTR at two hospitals. The mean age was 46 years (SD 10......, and a preoperative distal nerve conduction motor latency were prognostic factors for postoperative work absence of more than 21 days. Other factors may be important (clinical, demographic, economic, and workplace) in explaining the great variance in the results of sick leave after carpal tunnel release between...

  7. A laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, N.

    1984-06-19

    It is reported that an improved laser design employing pumping of the active gas medium has been developed. A diagram of the laser system is given and its principle of operation is described in detail. Gas pumping is achieved using a pump whose oil reservoir is sealed by a sealing element. When the sealing element fails, the oil from the reservoir pollutes the laser substance. It is proposed that an additional oil reservoir pumping loop be used to maintain a lower pressure. The reservoir pressure is recorded by a sensor. When the sealing element fails, the pressure in the reservoir increases. The sensor records the change in pressure and generates a signal which shuts down the laser system. Thus, the possibility for oil penetration into the gas system is totally eliminated.

  8. A "Network" and a "Dictum"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The spatial problems encountered in urban areas, for instance "sprawl", "the fragmented town" etc. However, the critic should concentrate more on a small "network" of a few architects and planners, including an inspector (C. D. Buchanan, UK) and a single policeman (H. Alker Tripp, UK) who were he...

  9. A terra, a tela e a letra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Busato Feitosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa elaborar uma leitura dos aspectos semióticos que organizam os espaços de significação no processo da formação cultural brasileira a partir dos processos tradutórios realizados por parte das expedições exploratórias que para os trópicos vieram. Investigam-se, assim, por meio de relações em nível paradigmático e sintagmático, as produções pictóricas dos artistas viajantes dos séculos XVII, Albert Eckhout e Frans Post, e as produções poéticas barrocas de Gregório de Matos, Manuel Botelho de Oliveira e Manuel de Santa Maria Itaparica.

  10. A Dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩选文

    2004-01-01

    A dog can't speak words, but it can "talk", It has feelings just as you do. At times it may feel angry or afraid. Watching a dog closely, you can find out what it feels. You can see what it is trying to tell you.

  11. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal government's Dietary Guidelines for Americans . Foods contain vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and other substances that benefit health. In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may provide nutrients that ... out more about vitamin A? For more information on vitamin A: Office ...

  12. A Proposal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正All the students in our school, A sudden 8.0 earthquake happened in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province at 2:28 on the afternoon of May 12, 2008. Many houses fell down and lots of people have become homeless. A large number of people were badly injured and so many people lost their lives. The people in

  13. A Joke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon; Lindley

    2005-01-01

    W orking at the post office,Im used to dealing with a m oody public.So w hen one irate custom er storm ed m y desk,I responded in m y calm estvoice,“W hats the trouble?”“I w ent out this m orning,”she began,“and when I cam e hom e Ifound a card saying the m ailm an tried to deliver a package but no onewas hom e.M y husband was in allm orning.H e never heard a thing!”A fter apologizing,I gother parcel.“O h,good,”she gushed.“W e ve been w aiting for this for ages.”“W hat is it?”I asked.“M y husband s new hear...

  14. A atmosfera

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Fórneas, Esther; Rodríguez Silva, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Despois de estudar os conceptos básicos da química, as propiedades dos gases, os líquidos, os sólidos, as disolucións, os enlaces químicos, as forzas intermoleculares e visto como a cinética química e os conceptos de equilibrio axudan a entender a natureza das reaccións químicas, neste tema imos aplicar estes coñecementos ao estudo do sistema atmosfera. No entanto que a composición da atmosfera da terra é bastante simple, a súa química é moi complexa e nunca se comprendeu por completo. Os pro...

  15. A Rejoinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Lichtenstein

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a pleasure and a challenge to engage these commentaries on my recent book, State of the Union: a Century of American Labor. The pleasure is there because this author, like almost every other, is deeply appreciative of the kind of critical attention, and sheer energy, to which his work is subject. The commentators assembled by Jean‑Christain Vinel understood with remarkable precision the main line of argument I was trying to advance, which has not always been the case on the American sid...

  16. Hall A

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The instrumentation in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility was designed to study electroand photo-induced reactions at very high luminosity...

  17. Hypervitaminosis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, US Panel on Micronutrients. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. National Academies Press. Washington, ...

  18. Q & A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.. Adam Micolich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Prof. Adam Micolich is a researcher based at the University of New South Wales, specializing in the study of semiconductor systems. Materials Today recently spoke to Adam for our podcast.

  19. A laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, N.

    1984-06-19

    The development of an improved gas laser system employing pumping of the active gaseous medium is reported. The layout of the design is given and its principle of operation is described in detail. The oil reservoir in the vacuum pump which pumps the gas through the laser system is separated by a sealing element; when this element fails, the oil may pollute the active medium. It is proposed that an additional oil reservoir pumping loop be used with the pump that operates continuously and maintains a lower pressure in the reservoir. The pressure in the reservoir is monitored by a special sensor. When the sealing element fails, the pressure sensor records the pressure drop in the oil reservoir. A signal is then generated and the laser system ceases operation, and eliminates the possibility for the oil penetrating into the pumping system.

  20. A laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, N.; Syundzo, Yo.

    1984-06-19

    It is reported that an improved gas laser design using pumping of the active medium has been developed. A diagram of the laser system is given in graph form and its principle of operation is briefly described. A special sealing element is used in such lasers to seal the reservoir containing the oil in the pump which pumps the gas active medium. When the sealing element fails, there is the danger of oil penetration into the active laser medium. It is proposed that an additional pump which continually evacuates the oil reservoir during laser system operation be used. Thus, a low pressure is maintained in the reservoir. If the sealing element fails, the secondary pump generates a gas flow from the pumping system to the reservoir and eliminates gas penetration into the laser medium.

  1. A110

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Malivanova

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: This study found out the opposite effect of polymorphisms at −238 and −308 positions in TNF promoter on the outcome of BC patients. Carriers of low expressed allele −238(A have poor outcome because of low response to standard hormone therapy which presumably connected with the activation of Her2 pathway. The obtained results allow supposing that a special approach to the treatment of this group of BC patients should be used.

  2. A JOKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Grandpa and granddaughter were sitting talking when she asked,“Did God make you,Grandpa?”“Yes,God made me,”the grandfather answered.A few minutes later,the little girl asked him,“Did God make me too?”“Yes,He did,”the older man answered.For a few minutes,the little girl seemed to be studying

  3. A Queda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO LASSANCE

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O mundo é outro, desde a queda do Muro
    de Berlim. Ela representa o fim do século XX, da
    geografia baseada na divisão entre Primeiro, Segundo
    e Terceiro Mundos e do modelo monolítico soviético.
    Após a queda, expandiu-se o processo de formação
    de blocos econômicos e o surgimento de um pólo
    dinâmico do capitalismo que muitos consideram
    como sinal de um novo ciclo hegemônico (asiático,
    capitaneado pela China. Mas os dilemas e riscos
    atuais não são menores do que os do passado. Que
    o digam a queda das torres gêmeas e o ataque ao
    Pentágono, no 11 de setembro de 2001, a proliferação
    de redes terroristas, a ameaça nuclear latente e as
    crises econômicas sistêmicas.

  4. A Blizzard of a Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    "Who has been to Dairy Queen® and purchased a Blizzard?®" Ms. Bosetti asked her students. During the summer, Bosetti had seen many of her former and future students at the local Dairy Queen enjoying Blizzard desserts and wondered, "Which Blizzard size is the best value?" She used this context for a ratios and proportions task…

  5. A Giant or a Dwarf?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Herman

    2005-01-01

    EU may appear to be a giant when it can act on behalf of a united Europe, but usually it is hampered by conflicting member state interests. The EU economic and administrative resources for foreign and trade policy are quite small (on level with one of its major member states) and the hopes in man...

  6. A Wolf and a Dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛刘阳; 方言(注); 陈恩枫(指导老师)

    2007-01-01

    A wolf and a dog live near the farm.One day,the wolf was very hungry.So he wanted to eat something.The wolf saw some chickens on the farm.He thought,"Oh,I'd like to eat them!"At night,the wolf ran into the chickens' home slyly.

  7. A School without a Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Demian; McKowen, Charlene; Bloom, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Teachers at a central California high school operate the school according to a strict, progressive set of principles. The Anzar communication guidelines specify teachers' commitment to communicating well, collective ownership of problems and problem solving, tolerance of differing ideas, individual accountability, dedication to helping and…

  8. A Marshmallow and a Song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Music exists in time. One cannot get to the end of the song before going through the song. Is this significant for helping children wait? And can the way we present a singing game activity intensify the delay of what might be a gratifying moment at the end of the song? In this article, the author reflects on whether music can teach delayed…

  9. Thailandepsin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Thailandepsin A [systematic name: (E-(1S,5S,6R,9S,20R-6-[(2S-butan-2-yl]-5-hydroxy-20-[2-(methylsulfanylethyl]-2-oxa-11,12-dithia-7,19,22-triazabicyclo[7.7.6]docosa-15-ene-3,8,18,21-tetraone], C23H37N3O6S3, is a newly reported [Wang et al. (2011. J. Nat. Prod. doi:10.1021/np200324x] bicyclic depsipeptide that has potent histone deacetylase inhibitory activity and broad-spectrum antiproliferative activity. The absolute configuration of thailandepsin A has been determined from the anomalous dispersion and the stereochemistry of all chiral C atoms. Intramolecular N—H...O and N—H...S hydrogen bonds occur. Intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed in the crystal structure.

  10. SUDOKU A STORY & A SOLVER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER, P.R.

    2006-04-01

    Sudoku, also known as Number Place, is a logic-based placement puzzle. The aim of the puzzle is to enter a numerical digit from 1 through 9 in each cell of a 9 x 9 grid made up of 3 x 3 subgrids (called ''regions''), starting with various digits given in some cells (the ''givens''). Each row, column, and region must contain only one instance of each numeral. Completing the puzzle requires patience and logical ability. Although first published in a U.S. puzzle magazine in 1979, Sudoku initially caught on in Japan in 1986 and attained international popularity in 2005. Last fall, after noticing Sudoku puzzles in some newspapers and magazines, I attempted a few just to see how hard they were. Of course, the difficulties varied considerably. ''Obviously'' one could use Trial and Error but all the advice was to ''Use Logic''. Thinking to flex, and strengthen, those powers, I began to tackle the puzzles systematically. That is, when I discovered a new tactical rule, I would write it down, eventually generating a list of ten or so, with some having overlap. They served pretty well except for the more difficult puzzles, but even then I managed to develop an additional three rules that covered all of them until I hit the Oregonian puzzle shown. With all of my rules, I could not seem to solve that puzzle. Initially putting my failure down to rapid mental fatigue (being unable to hold a sufficient quantity of information in my mind at one time), I decided to write a program to implement my rules and see what I had failed to notice earlier. The solver, too, failed. That is, my rules were insufficient to solve that particular puzzle. I happened across a book written by a fellow who constructs such puzzles and who claimed that, sometimes, the only tactic left was trial and error. With a trial and error routine implemented, my solver successfully completed the Oregonian puzzle, and has successfully

  11. A Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2011-01-01

    Similar to ISO Technical Committees,SAC Technical Committees undertake the management and coordination of standard's development and amendments in various sectors in industry,playing the role as a bridge among enterprises,research institutions and the governmental standardization administration.How to fully play the essential role is the vital issue SAC has been committing to resolve.Among hundreds of SAC TCs,one stands out in knitting together those isolated,scattered,but highly competitive enterprises in the same industry with the "Standards" thread,and achieving remarkable results in promoting industry development with standardization.It sets a role model for other TCs.

  12. A&A Planning System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is a set of approximately 140 spreadsheets used by OAA. Each operating unit within USAID has its own spreadsheet that tracks all planned actions over $ 150,000...

  13. A vet with a vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shlomo, Gil

    2016-09-10

    When he learned what being a veterinarian meant, Gil Ben-Shlomo felt that the career had been invented especially for him. He has since specialised, and is now professor of ophthalmology at Iowa State University. PMID:27609975

  14. A111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Buchynska

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Quantitative changes of some components of the tumor microenvironment such as CD4+-, CD8+-, FOXP3+-lymphocytes and content of FOXP3+-tumor cells correlate with the biological characteristics of EC and apparently have a significant role in the progression of this cancer.

  15. Appendix A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune; Heshe, Gert

    1999-01-01

    In this appendix a brief summary of experiments on reinforced concrete beams in three-point bending performed at Aalborg University is given. The aim of the investigation is to determine the full load-deflection curves for different beam sizes, different types of concrete and different amounts an...

  16. A75

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Korobkov

    2015-11-01

    It may be concluded that the cellular and molecular mechanisms of breast cancer are complex. Therefore, carcinogenesis has a “multistep” nature and at least two or more mutations in the cells of the same clone – parent and child are required to generate malignant tumors. Thus, the development of oncogenic transformation does not necessarily mean the process of tumor formation.

  17. A Beginning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Mary K.; Root, Phyllis

    Selected for their focus on man, acting to know, preserve and improve his environment, the items noted in this booklet furnish a resource base for developing an environmental ethic. Introductory statements enumerate values, understandings, and realizations to be developed and sample activities that may be conducted or adapted for grades K-12.…

  18. A Tribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2000-03-01

    Renowned astrophysicist Prof. Bhaskar Datta passed away in Bangalore on December 3rd, 1999 after a brave battle with cancer. He was 50. In his career spanning more than 25 years he worked extensively in the area of High-energy astrophysics, Astro-particle physics, General relativity and Cosmology. In particular, he specialized in the structure and properties of neutron stars. Prof. Datta was born and educated in Delhi. After obtaining his Master's degree in Physics from the Delhi University he worked in NORDITA, Copenhagen as a Guest Physicist. The following year he moved to the NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies, New York, where he worked with Prof. V. Canuto for his Ph.D. thesis. He obtained his Ph.D. from City University of New York in 1977 for his work on spin-2 interaction in a relativistic neutron gas. He derived an equation of state of matter at high density using this interaction and demonstrated its effect on the derived masses and moments of inertia of neutron stars. Many years later he and his colleagues were to derive yet another Equation of State for neutron star matter, based on the chiral sigma model that includes a dynamically generated isoscalar vector field. Prof. Datta returned to India in 1978 after brief stays at University of Florida and International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. From 1978 to 1982 he worked at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. In 1982 he moved to the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore where he worked until his death. He also held the position of an adjunct professorship at the Raman Research Institute, Bangalore. Prof. Datta's move to Bangalore coincided with the discovery of the fastest spinning neutron star known, namely the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+21. By then already a recognised expert on neutron star structure, he plunged headlong into computing the structure with fast rotation. He, with his colleague Alak Ray, showed that the millisecond pulsar could be spinning

  19. A128

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pronina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RCC is one of the main problems in oncourology. MiRNA expression profiles are highly specific for malignant tumors of different locations, and can be used to detect pathological molecular biomarkers and to develop the optimal treatment for each patient. Selection of miRNAs associated with the formation and development of malignant tumors in the kidney was performed using computer databases miRWalk (http://www.ma.uni-hei-delberg.de/apps/zmf/mirwalk/ and miRBase (http://www.mir-base.org/. Paired samples of tumor and histologically normal tissue from 46 patients with RCC were studied. RNA was isolated by phenol–chloroform extraction and treated with RNase-free DNase after isolation. MiRNA expression analysis was performed by RT-qPCR using Applied Biosystems (USA kits: TaqMan® MicroRNA Assays, TaqMan® MicroRNA Reverse Transcription Kit, TaqMan® Fast Universal PCR Master Mix (2x. RNU6B was used as reference miRNA. Quantity alterations of 20 microRNAs (hsa-miR-219, -203, -148a, -129, -9, -34a, -34b, -34c-3p, -127, -193a-5p, -191, -17, -24 -2*, -339 -3p, -212, -375, -125b, -124a, -132, -137 were determined in samples of tumor compared to normal tissue biopsy from the kidney of each patient. It was shown that the expression of studied miRNAs usually decreased in RCC tumors. The largest decrease of expression was observed for miR-129, which expression was10–350-fold reduced in 93% of the samples (P < 0.05 with no change of expression in the remaining 7% of cases. MiR-375 (80% of cases,10–270-fold decrease, miR-34b (79% of cases, 10–60-fold decrease, miR-124a (70% of cases, 10–200-fold decrease also frequently showed reduced expression in tumors. In addition to the aforementioned ones, it had been shown that expression in the tumor compared with histologically normal tissue from the same patient was significantly decreased in more than half of the cases for miR-125b, miR-127, miR-203, miR-34c-3p, miR-9. Despite the fact that in 50% of cases

  20. A Pulsar and a Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Recent, unusual X-ray observations from our galactic neighbor, the Small Magellanic Cloud, have led to an interesting model for SXP 214, a pulsar in a binary star system.Artists illustration of the magnetic field lines of a pulsar, a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star. [NASA]An Intriguing BinaryAn X-ray pulsar is a magnetized, rotating neutron star in a binary system with a stellar companion. Material is fed from the companion onto the neutron star, channeled by the objects magnetic fields onto a hotspot thats millions of degrees. This hotspot rotating past our line of sight is what produces the pulsations that we observe from X-ray pulsars.Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud, SXP 214 is a transient X-ray pulsar in a binary with a Be-type star. This star is spinning so quickly that material is thrown off of it to form a circumstellar disk.Recently, a team of authors led by JaeSub Hong (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) have presented new Chandra X-ray observations of SXP 214, tracking it for 50 ks (~14 hours) in January 2013. These observations reveal some very unexpected behavior for this pulsar.X-ray PuzzleThe energy distribution of the X-ray emission from SXP 214 over time. Dark shades or blue colors indicate high counts, and light shades or yellow colors indicate low counts. Lower-energy X-ray emission appeared only later, after about 20 ks. [Hong et al. 2016]Three interesting pieces of information came from the Chandra observations:SXP 214s rotation period was measured to be 211.5 s an increase in the spin rate since the discovery measurement of a 214-second period. Pulsars usually spin down as they lose angular momentum over time so what caused this one to spin up?Its overall X-ray luminosity steadily increased over the 50 ks of observations.Its spectrum became gradually softer (lower energy) over time; in the first 20 ks, the spectrum only consisted of hard X-ray photons above 3 keV, but after 20 ks, softer X-ray photons below 2 ke

  1. A mascarada e a feminilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Walkiria Helena

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Marcada por produções freudianas, a literatura analítica e, mais especificamente, aquela influenciada pelo ensino lacaniano, não pára de mostrar que as considerações anatômicas não são índices para falar da diferença de identidade sexual entre homens e mulheres. Diante do fato de que características masculinas continuavam presentes em mulheres adultas normais, Freud responde que ser mulher é ser mãe. A vacilação da verdade desta equação pode ser observada nas situações mais diversas nas quais podemos nos defrontar com mulheres, mães, desempenhando papéis de homens. Como pensar esta constatação? Este trabalho permitir-nos-á mostrar a imbricação do feminino e do masculino num caso de uma mulher com todas as características de uma feminilidade considerada normal, e também discutir a questão do gozo fálico e do Outro gozo - propostos por Lacan como índices de diferenciação da posição masculina e da feminina.

  2. A, a Brominated Flame Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Takeshita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, a brominated flame retardant, has been found to exacerbate pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus- (RSV- infected mice. We examined the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08 on the exacerbation of RSV infection by TBBPA exposure in mice. Mice were fed a powdered diet mixed with 1% TBBPA alone, 0.02% AF-08 alone, or 1% TBBPA and 0.02% AF-08 for four weeks and then intranasally infected with RSV. TBBPA exposure increased the pulmonary virus titer and level of IFN-γ, a representative marker of pneumonia due to RSV infection, in the lungs of infected mice without toxicity. AF-08 was significantly effective in reducing the virus titers and IFN-γ level increased by TBBPA exposure. Also, AF-08 significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the lungs of RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure, but Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10 levels were not evidently increased. Neither TBBPA exposure nor AF-08 treatment affected the anti-RSV antibody production in RSV-infected mice. In flow cytometry analysis, AF-08 seemed to be effective in reducing the ratio of pulmonary CD8a+ cells in RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure. TBBPA and AF-08 did not exhibit anti-RSV activity in vitro. Thus, AF-08 probably ameliorated pneumonia exacerbated by TBBPA exposure in RSV-infected mice by limiting excess cellular immune responses.

  3. A42

    OpenAIRE

    V. Yuzhakov; L. Sevankaeva; M. Konoplyannikov; N. Fomina; I. Ingel; Konoplyannikov, A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) action on malignant neoplasms attract much attention nowadays. Studies relating to the MSC effect on tumors are contradictory and indicate that MSC has both stimulating and suppressive actions on experimental neoplasms. We have shown previously that a single MSC administration to tumor-bearing animals has an oncomodulating effect on the growth of tumors. Short-term stimulation of the growth of tumor nodes initially after the MSC injection was usu...

  4. A99

    OpenAIRE

    M. Suvorova; A. Tsapieva; Suvorov, A.; Kiseleva, E

    2015-01-01

    Ability of Streptococcus pyogenes to fight cancer was discovered and clinically tested more than 100 years ago (Coley, 1897), but the mechanisms of these effects are unknown. Recently several murine models demonstrating the anti-cancer activity of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) M49 were established (Maletzki, 2008). The present study is devoted to investigation of anti-cancer activity of GAS M39 strains. Tumor cells were injected subcutaneously in concentration of 200,000 cells per animal. Tw...

  5. A Valedictory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-08-01

    "No man is an Iland, intire of it selfe.". These words were written by John Donne, the Dean of St. Paul's, and appear as his 17th Meditation in "Devotions upon emergent Occasions and several steps in my Sickness," published in 1624, a work in which he reflects upon his life in the midst of a serious illness (most likely typhus). Like many literary works, the words are timeless, and their meaning is not constrained to the occasion of their birth. Donne's meditation is easily transferred to the person who was, is, or will be, editor of this or any journal. No editor is an island. No editor can honestly claim to be "intire of it selfe." The Editor of the Journal rides on the tide generated by his staff, his reviewers, and his readers. I have been blessed with a marvelous staff, enormously energetic and dedicated. They have always been willing to go the last mile--and more if need be. Most--but not all--came to the Journal soon after it arrived in Austin. The bedrock on which the Journal has been built is its numerous reviewers, too many to thank individually on this page, but appreciated nonetheless for their individual contributions. Reviewers define the quality of a journal, and we have had a superb cohort working for us--voluntarily. I have to apologize publicly to some (you know who you are) who were abused by repeated requests on a short time base for their comments on manuscripts. This condition, which occurred more often than I would have liked, arose from the idiosyncratic confluence of manuscript flow, momentarily popular topics, and the need for certain kinds of expertise. I know that multiple requests for comments came too rapidly in some cases, but it was of paramount importance to get "good reviews" whom I could trust, and I knew where to turn. Thanks to all of you who stepped forward in such circumstances, with grace and good humor, to produce the quality reviews that were so valuable to me. No editor is an "Iland, intire of it selfe," especially when it

  6. A comme... (A as in...).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helouber, J. A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The four parts in this section present: (1) an advertisement based on the literary style of Emile Zola; (2) exercises designed to practice expressions of similarity and difference; (3) the transcript of a discussion on the problem of swamps; and (4) variations on the shopkeeper-customer dialogue. (AM)

  7. A quackery with a difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    The figure of the ‘miracle cure’-peddling quack pretending spectacular properties for worthless tonics is iconic. From their 19th century traveling wagon shows to their 21st century Internet spam scams, hucksters and cranks have been consistently targeted by health authorities as a danger to publ...

  8. A Question about a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya

    2016-01-01

    In fall 2013 the author taught a graduate course entitled Topics in Geometry for Middle and High School Teachers. The majority of the participants had extensive experience teaching mathematics in middle school or high school. The fact that participants were rather comfortable with the basic concepts of school geometry made it both possible and…

  9. A Leader, Not a Hero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Lynda

    2005-01-01

    The author writes her experience in leading. She points out that a good leader should know when and how to let go than trying to do all the work by herself. It changed her focus on looking at details, implementation, dealing with the contractors, to leading leading people.

  10. A Whale of a Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for A Whale of a Panorama (QTVR) More than 1.5 years into their exploration of Mars, both of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers continue to send a cornucopia of images to Earth. The results are so spectacular that Deputy Project Manager John Callas recently described them as 'an embarrassment of riches.' Spirit produced this image mosaic, nicknamed the 'Whale Panorama,' two-thirds of the way to the summit of 'Husband Hill,' where the rover investigated martian rocks. On the right side of the panorama is a tilted layer of rocks dubbed 'Larry's Outcrop,' one of several tilted outcrops that scientists examined in April, 2005. They used spatial information to create geologic maps showing the compass orientation and degree of tilting of rock formations in the vicinity. Such information is key to geologic fieldwork because it helps establish if rock layers have been warped since they formed. In this case, scientists have also been studying the mineral and chemical differences, which show that some rocks have been more highly altered than others. In the foreground, in the middle of the image mosaic, Spirit is shown with the scientific instruments at the end of its robotic arm positioned on a rock target known as 'Ahab.' The rover was busy collecting elemental chemistry and mineralogy data on the rock at the same time that it was taking 50 individual snapshots with its five panoramic camera filters to create this stunning view of the martian scenery. The twin tracks of the rover's all-terrain wheels are clearly visible on the left. This mosaic of images spans about 220 degrees from left to right and is an approximate true-color rendering of the Mars terrain acquired through the panoramic camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Spirit collected these images from its 497th martian day, or sol, through its 500th sol (May 27 through May 30, 2005).

  11. Bisphenol A: a scientific evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrin, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the production of high-volume polycarbonate and epoxy resin compounds found in a number of consumer products, including plastic bottles and the linings of canned goods. As a result of such applications, very small amounts of BPA can migrate into food and drink. In light of reports suggesting that low doses of BPA cause estrogenic effects in laboratory animals, concerns were raised about the safety of these consumer products, particularly plastic bottles used for feeding milk to babies. To evaluate the risk, if any, from BPA, investigations were undertaken to more precisely determine human exposure levels and more carefully study the validity of the low-dose effects reported. On the basis of the most realistic studies of BPA levels in food and drink, as well as in human urine, it has been estimated that human exposures, including those of children, are very low and range from about .001 to .1 mcg/kg body weight (bw)/day. The results of the additional toxicology studies indicated that the low-dose effects could not be consistently replicated. In light of this, a number of governments and agencies brought together independent expert panels to carefully evaluate the toxicologic studies and provide regulatory guidance. These panels came to a similar conclusion, namely, that low-dose effects have not been demonstrated. They also supported the acceptable daily intake levels previously calculated on the basis of high-dose effects shown in laboratory animals. Comparing these acceptable intakes with the best exposure estimates reveals that human doses of BPA from migration of the compound into food and drink are orders of magnitude lower than acceptable daily intakes. Thus, it is very unlikely that humans, including infants and young children, are at risk from the presence of BPA in consumer products. PMID:15520629

  12. A new

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Upadhyay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a population based evolutionary optimization methodology called firefly algorithm (FFA is applied for the optimization of system coefficients of the infinite impulse response (IIR system identification problem. FFA is inspired by the flash pattern and characteristics of fireflies. In FFA technique, behaviour of flashing firefly towards its competent mate is structured. In this algorithm attractiveness depends on brightness of light and a bright firefly feels more attraction for the brighter one. For this optimization problem, brightness varies inversely proportional to the error fitness value, so the position of the brightest firefly gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space. Incorporation of different control parameters in basic movement equation results in balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. The proposed FFA based system identification approach has alleviated from inherent drawbacks of premature convergence and stagnation, unlike genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO and differential evolution (DE. The simulation results obtained for some well known benchmark examples justify the efficacy of the proposed system identification approach using FFA over GA, PSO and DE in terms of convergence speed, identifying plant coefficients and mean square error (MSE fitness values produced for both same order and reduced order models of adaptive IIR filters.

  13. A Whale of A Controversy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite heavy international criticism,the Japanese refuse to end their national tradition of whale hunting When the Japanese whale-hunting fleet set sail for the Antarctic waters on November 18,the crew members must have known that their voyage would not be smooth sailing. Japan’s annual whaling program rou- tinely sets off a firestorm of protest from anti-whaling countries and organizations. In January 2006,Greenpeace’s icebreaker Arctic Sunrise collided with the Jaoanese

  14. A whale of a problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    While the Makah Indian tribe recently killed a gray whale off the coast of the U.S. state of Washington, and Japan and Norway have threatened to bolt from the International Whaling Commission (IWC) over disagreements about commercial catches, on May 26, the U.S. commissioner to the IWC told delegates about another, and far more widespread, threat affecting cetaceans.Global environmental changes could jeopardize whale stocks throughout the world, said Commissioner James Baker, who also serves as administrator for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

  15. A TYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Ratnaparkhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of underlying psychotic disorder and subsequent development of new antipsychotic drugs to treat these diseases have altered clinicians? pharmacological approach. It has also helped researcher to produce a new generation antipsychotic agents (NGA which could show better clinical results. However methodical approach as well as in-depth research in this area has provided several potent atypical antipsychotic agents. Now days all the atypical antipsychotics agents are FDA approved and being frequently used for pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia, acute mania, bipolar mania, psychotic agitation, bipolar maintenance, and other indications. Atypical antipsychotics are associated with the numbers of clinical benefits such as higher rate of responders, efficiency in patients with refractory disease, lower risk of suicides, better functional capacity and an improved quality of life and thus, have showed their efficacy against previous modes of treatment. The present review highlights the advantages, disadvantages as well as risk factors associated with novel antipsychotic agent with a view to outline their future scope.

  16. A Mosque in a Mosque

    OpenAIRE

    Cantone, Cleo

    2006-01-01

    Une mosquée dans une mosquée. Quelques observations sur la mosquée de la rue Blanchot à Dakar et ses relations avec les autres mosquées pendant la période coloniale. — L’impact du colonialisme sur l’architecture sénégalaise a produit un nouveau type de mosquée. Construite à partir de matériaux durables et alliant l’architecture des églises à des éléments nord-africains, ce style semble avoir été utilisé pour perpétuer la notion de supériorité de l’islam « blanc », ou arabe, sur l’islam « noir...

  17. A Volumetric Flask as a Projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsuwan, P.; Asanithi, P.; Thongpool, V.; Piriyawong, V.; Limsuwan, S.

    2012-01-01

    A lens based on liquid in the confined volume of a volumetric flask was presented as a potential projector to observe microscopic floating organisms or materials. In this experiment, a mosquito larva from a natural pond was selected as a demonstration sample. By shining a light beam from a laser pointer of any visible wavelength through the…

  18. The Northrop A-17A Nomad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1938-01-01

    The Northrop A-17A Nomad: Although another A-17 was used as a cowling testbed, this Northrop A-17A was only slightly modified during the course of its short NACA career at Langley. These modifications were done to determine the profile drag of a wing in flight.

  19. Being a Parent with a Learning Disability: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shewan, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This research portfolio aims to further explore the issues faced by parents with a learning disability. Firstly, a systematic review of qualitative research into the social support of parents with a learning disability is presented. This not only indicated that a range of social support is provided to parents with a learning disability and received with different perceptions, but also highlighted the need for further qualitative research in the area, to gain a better insight...

  20. Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Survivor’s Perspective Print to PDF Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor’s Perspective Andrea Zinn June 16, 2015 · ... did you decide to wear a breast form/prosthesis rather than have a reconstruction? Andrea: After weighing ...

  1. A method for making a hydrogen electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeyama, M.; Ivaki, T.; Yanagikhara, N.

    1983-09-08

    A metallic grid is pressed to the surface of a foam metallic plate which contains powders of a compound which adsorb H2. The electrode is processed at the powder caking temperature. The electrode has a long service life.

  2. A Stroke Mimic: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Martínez Rivas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diseases mimicking a stroke are a major health problem for a large number of hospitals. This paper aims at presenting a disease that has a stroke-like presentation. The case of a 46-year-old man admitted to the stroke unit with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral infarction is presented. The patient developed fever and a serious deterioration of consciousness. Changes on computed tomography consistent with a brain abscess were observed. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered and a follow-up tomography was performed. Once the treatment was completed, the clinical and radiological suspicion of a brain abscess was confirmed.

  3. A section of a spiral coal chute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.N.; Gorodilov, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    A section of a spiral coal chute includes a housing with support brackets. It differs in that to decrease the amount of work necessary for assembly, each support bracket is made with a guide slot and equipped with a pull-out cantilever in the shape of a fork which covers the slot from the lateral sides.

  4. Repurposing with a purpose: A story with a happy ending

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, Lyn; Roller, Sibel; Bradley, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The work reported here forms part of a UK Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) funded project (BL4ACE) (http://bl4ace.tvu.ac.uk/). This project built on previous work that evaluated the effectiveness of a learning design to underpin academic competence in a Business Studies degree. A significant concern of the blended learning design was to scaffold independent learning activities by incorporating and reusing interactive Reusable Learning Objects (RLOs) within a Virtual Learni...

  5. A Pilocytic Astrocytoma Mimicking a Clinoidal Meningioma

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Christopher S.; Lehman, Norman L.; Eric Sauvageau

    2014-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas and meningiomas are benign, primary brain tumors that may involve the optic tract. Classically, the presence of a dural “tail” sign may differentiate a meningioma from other intracranial lesions. In this report, we describe a mass with the typical appearance of a clinoidal meningioma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but postoperatively diagnosed as a pilocytic astrocytoma. This case illustrates the rare occurrence of a pilocytic astrocytoma mimicking a meningioma on ...

  6. A batuta da morte a orquestrar a vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altair Macedo Lahud Loureiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com colocações de outros estudiosos da morte, teço e apresento apontamentos rápidos sobre a morte a organizar a vida. Esposo a idéia da necessidade da morte para que a vida tenha sentido nesta busca humana da completude. Endereço o olhar para uma situação especial de relação com a morte: a reação dos que ficam ao presenciar e sentir a morte de um dos seus idosos; daquele familiar, ou não, que assume o seu cuidado e acompanha o seu fim iminente; que presencia, humanamente impotente, a hora da solitária partida. Solitária morte, pois que exclusiva, própria daquele idoso do qual cuidava, do seu fim natural, por ser humano.

  7. A House For A River Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, David Stansfield

    2014-01-01

    This is a house situated by a river. It is a retreat, or a cabin, and is not occupied on a full time basis. Its form is an interpretation of a cube, and retains its general appearance. It is lifted off the ground to prevent damage when the river floods, and has a deep foundation to achieve stability on the loose floodplain soil. It has three levels, the first containing the main living areas, the second, a lofted space containing the bed and bath, and the third, a roof terrace. It is for two ...

  8. A psychological profile of a serial killer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C

    2012-01-01

    Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer.

  9. A psychological profile of a serial killer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C

    2012-01-01

    Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer. PMID:23115894

  10. Having a Whale of a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Feu, Chris

    2009-01-01

    A classroom practical exercise exploring the reliability of a basic capture-mark-recapture method of population estimation is described using great whale conservation as a starting point. Various teaching resources are made available.

  11. Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160011.html Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...

  12. SIX SIGMA: A METRIC, A METHODOLOGY AND A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mureşan Ioana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical article regarding Six Sigma. Six Sigma has been interpreted over time within quality theory as a metric, methodology or a management system. We explain Six Sigma using a logistics context: Delivery-On-Time (DOT rate problem. It is a theoretical context useful both for academic users and practitioners. At the beginning of the paper the DOT problem is generally described, while Sigma is presented according to statisticians view in the second part of the paper. Six Sigma is then presented as a metric for process’ capability. The fourth part of this article contains details regarding Six Sigma usage as a methodology for improvement, while the fifth part of this article refers to Six Sigma as a management system which can be used at firms’ level. The last chapter is dedicated to conclusions regarding the possible use of Six Sigma in Romania.

  13. Vitamin A: a missing link in diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Trasino, Steven E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A has a critical role in embryonic development, immunity and the visual cycle. In recent years, evidence has demonstrated that vitamin A can also regulate metabolic pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. This has increased interest in the possible antiobesity and antidiabetic properties of natural and synthetic vitamin A derivatives. However, whether vitamin A deficiency or aberrations in vitamin A metabolism contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes is not ...

  14. A missed orthopaedic injury following a seizure: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor-Read Laurence

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous orthopaedic injuries can follow a seizure and are often diagnosed late. This is the first documented case of a missed bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following a seizure. The possible reasons for the greater incidence of posterior dislocations are examined and why bilateral anterior dislocations following a seizure are so rare. The article discusses the reasons for the delay and highlights potential pitfalls and learning points for junior emergency department doctors.

  15. A method for making a nickel electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, I.; Ikeyama, M.; Isikava, T.; Ivaki, T.; Yanashkhara, N.

    1983-07-14

    A powder of an active mass is applied to a foam metal plate and it is pressed into the pores of the base. The excess mass is removed from the surface, after which a grid structure is formed on this surface with heating of a powder of a thermally seating resin of the polyethylene type. Then, submerging the electrode plate into the resin suspension, the entire surface of the electrode is covered with a thin layer of powder of a fluorine bearing resin. The electrode has a long service life.

  16. A State-Run Enterprise: A Bane or a Boon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjune KIM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the less than 70 years since Korean liberation, Korea has grown to be one of the world's top five ship-owning countries in 2014. This can be attributed to a few factors such as government policy, Korea Shipping Corporation (KSC, hereafter and merchant marine officers. This paper will expound the true motivations of the establishment and the privatization of KSC in 1950 and in 1968, respectively. KSC, as Korea's national shipping company, sailed along a very unusual course of development. It was established in 1950 not to foster and develop Korea's shipping industry but to help alleviate the financial burdens of the fledgling Korean government. The main cause of privatizing KSC in 1968 was a purely political decision, not an economic one as it overlapped with the rapid growth period of the shipping industry in the world, as well as in Korea. In sum, KSC, a state-run enterprise, was a bane in the short run but a boon in the long run for both the Korean government and Korea's shipping industry. If we can believe KSC followed the ordinary sailing route as a state-run enterprise, we might develop a new opinion that the national shipping company might be a financial burden in a short period, but various benefits over a long period.

  17. Respiratory Contribution of the Alternate Path during Various Stages of Ripening in Avocado and Banana Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologis, A; Laties, G G

    1978-08-01

    The respiration of fresh slices of preclimacteric avocado (Persea americana Mill. var. Hass) and banana (Musa cavendishii var. Valery) fruits is stimulated by cyanide and antimycin. The respiration is sensitive to m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid in the presence of cyanide but much less so in the presence of antimycin. In the absence of cyanide the contribution of the cyanide-resistant pathway to the coupled preclimacteric respiration is zero. In uncoupled slices, by contrast, the alternate path is engaged and utilized fully in avocado, and extensively in banana. Midclimacteric and peak climacteric slices are also cyanide-resistant and, in the presence of cyanide, sensitive to m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid. In the absence of uncoupler there is no contribution by the alternate path in either tissue. In uncoupled midclimacteric avocado slices the alternate path is fully engaged. Midclimacteric banana slices, however, do not respond to uncouplers, and the alternate path is not engaged. Avocado and banana slices at the climacteric peak neither respond to uncouplers nor utilize the alternate path in the presence or absence of uncoupler.The maximal capacities of the cytochrome and alternate paths, V(cyt) and V(alt), respectively, have been estimated in slices from preclimacteric and climacteric avocado fruit and found to remain unchanged. The total respiratory capacity in preclimacteric and climacteric slices exceeds the respiratory rise which attends fruit ripening. In banana V(alt) decreases slightly with ripening.The aging of thin preclimacteric avocado slices in moist air results in ripening with an accompanying climacteric rise. In this case the alternate path is fully engaged at the climacteric peak, and the respiration represents the total potential respiratory capacity present in preclimacteric tissue. The respiratory climacteric in intact avocado and banana fruits is cytochrome path-mediated, whereas the respiratory climacteric of ripened thin avocado slices comprises

  18. [A woman with a rare vascular malformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, G.G.; Vries, M. de

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman with trisomy 8 syndrome and coagulopathy was diagnosed with a malformation of the vena cava superior. This is a rare anatomical variation, which originates from a non-development of Marshall's ligament during the 8th week of gestation (prevalence: 0.3%).

  19. Levitating a Magnet Using a Superconductive Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergens, Frederick H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presented are the materials and a procedure for demonstrating the levitation of a magnet above a superconducting material. The demonstration can be projected with an overhead projector for a large group of students. Kits to simplify the demonstration can be purchased from the Institute for Chemical Education of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.…

  20. A microfluidic device with a diffusion barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a microfiuidic device for macromoiecuie amplification by sequential addition of liquid reagents. The device of the invention comprises a chip forming a plurality of reaction chambers each extending between an inlet and an outlet, each inlet being in fluid communication...... with a common junction via micro channels. To enable amplification of DNA, e.g. by MDA, the device comprises a diffusion barrier at each inlet configured to increase the pressure threshold for a reagent to cross the resistor. The invention further provides a method of mixing liquid reagents by use of the device...

  1. A1-algebraic topology over a field

    CERN Document Server

    Morel, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    This text deals with A1-homotopy theory over a base field, i.e., with the natural homotopy theory associated to the category of smooth varieties over a field in which the affine line is imposed to be contractible. It is a natural sequel to the foundational paper on A1-homotopy theory written together with V. Voevodsky. Inspired by classical results in algebraic topology, we present new techniques, new results and applications related to the properties and computations of A1-homotopy sheaves, A1-homotogy sheaves, and sheaves with generalized transfers, as well as to algebraic vector bundles over affine smooth varieties.

  2. Remembering a Shape -- Assembling a Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeravcic, Zorana; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael; Leibler, Stanislas

    2014-03-01

    Recently we have been developing a new connection between self-assembly and neural networks, where a multi-component particle system with specified interaction rules between its components is mapped onto a multi-state Hopfield neural network model. Within this framework, a fixed interaction pattern of neurons representing a ``memory'' maps to particle interactions encoding a certain structure. Properties of neural networks motivate new types of questions: Can the interaction energies of particles code for multiple structures at the same time? Can stored structures be retrieved by throwing in a nucleation seed (i.e., a small assembly of particles) and have it complete into the desired stored structure? Can we define a capacity, i.e., a maximal number of structures that can be retrieved with limited error? We investigate these questions using numerical simulations of different types of building blocks with short-range interactions.

  3. Bisphenol A polycarbonate as a reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Williams, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Test methods require reference materials to standardize and maintain quality control. Various materials have been evaluated as possible reference materials, including a sample of bisphenol A polycarbonate without additives. Screening tests for relative toxicity under various experimental conditions were performed using male mice exposed to pyrolysis effluents over a 200-800 C temperature range. It was found that the bisphenol A polycarbonate served as a suitable reference material as it is available in large quantities, and does not significantly change with time.

  4. Niemann Pick type A, a case report

    OpenAIRE

    M. Qasemi; F. Mojtahedzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Niemann Pick type A is a very rare hereditary disease with an incidence 1 in 20000-40000 live birth, which is calassified as a shingolipidoses.The disease is marked by the abnormal accumulation of sphingomyelin in most tissues, secondary to sphingomylinase deficiency.The most clinical manifestations are:Splenohepatomegaly–cherry red maculae-neuropathologic findings .This is a case report of an infant with clinical manifestation of Niemann Pick disease type A.

  5. 13 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 113 A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 113 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... ADMINISTRATOR General Provisions Pt. 113, Subpart A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 113 Name of...

  6. 43 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 17 A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 17 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Race, Color, or National Origin Pt. 17, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 17...

  7. A search for a new gauge boson A'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Eric L. [William and Mary College

    2013-08-01

    In the Standard Model, gauge bosons mediate the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces. New forces could have escaped detection only if their mediators are either heavier than order(TeV) or weakly coupled to charged matter. New vector bosons with small coupling {alpha}' arise naturally from a small kinetic mixing with the photon and have received considerable attention as an explanation of various dark matter related anomalies. Such particles can be produced in electron-nucleus fixed-target scattering and then decay to e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs. New light vector bosons and their associated forces are a common feature of Standard Model extensions, but existing constraints are remarkably sparse. The APEX experiment will search for a new vector boson A' with coupling {alpha}'/{alpha}{sub fs} > 6 × 10{sup -8} to electrons in the mass range 65MeV < mass A' < 550MeV. The experiment will study e{sup +}e{sup -} production off an electron beam incident on a high-Z target in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The e{sup -} and e{sup +} will be detected in the High Resolution Spectrometers (HRSs). The invariant mass spectrum of the e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs will be scanned for a narrow resonance corresponding to the mass of the A'. A test run for the APEX experiment was held in the summer of 2010. Using the test run data, an A' search was performed in the mass range 175-250 MeV. The search found no evidence for an A' --> e{sup +}e{sup -} reaction, and set an upper limit of {alpha}'/{alpha}{sub fs} ~ 10{sup -6}.

  8. A search for a new gauge boson A'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Eric L. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In the Standard Model, gauge bosons mediate the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces. New forces could have escaped detection only if their mediators are either heavier than order(TeV) or weakly coupled to charged matter. New vector bosons with small coupling {alpha}' arise naturally from a small kinetic mixing with the photon and have received considerable attention as an explanation of various dark matter related anomalies. Such particles can be produced in electron-nucleus fixed-target scattering and then decay to e+e-+ pairs. New light vector bosons and their associated forces are a common feature of Standard Model extensions, but existing constraints are remarkably sparse. The APEX experiment will search for a new vector boson A' with coupling α'/αfs > 6 × 10-8 to electrons in the mass range 65MeV < mass A' < 550MeV. The experiment will study e+e- production off an electron beam incident on a high-Z target in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The e- and e+ will be detected in the High Resolution Spectrometers (HRSs). The invariant mass spectrum of the e+e- pairs will be scanned for a narrow resonance corresponding to the mass of the A'. A test run for the APEX experiment was held in the summer of 2010. Using the test run data, an A' search was performed in the mass range 175-250 MeV. The search found no evidence for an A' → e+e-reaction, and set an upper limit of {alpha}'/{alpha}{sub fs} ~ 10-6.

  9. A Project Team: A Team or Just a Group?

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Hrazdilova Bockova; Daniela Maťovcikova

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with issues related to work in either teams or groups. The theoretical part which discusses a team and a group with regards to its definition, classification and basic distinction brings in more on the typology of team roles, personality assessment and sociometric methods. The analytical part tests the project (work) team of a medical center represented in terms of personality and motivational types, team roles and interpersonal team relations concerning t...

  10. A Project Team: a Team or Just a Group?

    OpenAIRE

    Kateřina; Daniela,, Steila; Martina

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with issues related to work in either teams or groups. The theoretical part discusses a team and a group with regards to its definition, classification and basic distinction, brings in more on the typology of team roles, personality assessment and sociometric methods. The analytical part tests the project (work) team of a medical center represented in terms of personality and motivational types, team roles and interpersonal team relations concerning the willingness of coopera...

  11. A Proposal for a Mindset of a Project Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Joakim; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2008-01-01

    A company’s product strategy and its management of the product development process have been found to be key factors for a product’s success on the market [1]. Project managers of development projects need support to make process decisions and defining goals that are consistent with the business’s goals while bearing in mind the ability of the development team to deliver a product to the market that satisfies the customer’s expectations and needs [2]. Uncertainty is a part of the product deve...

  12. RelA: a tale of a stitch in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korc, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a deadly cancer in which NF-κB pathways promote biological aggressiveness. In this issue of the JCI, Lesina et al. investigated the role of RelA, the p65 partner of p50 that together form the most common NF-κB complex, in the early stages of pancreatic malignant transformation and in established PDAC. By deleting Rela in the context of an oncogenic Kras-driven autochthonous model of PDAC, the authors demonstrated that RelA is a mediator of oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that attenuates acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) formation, and PanIN progression to PDAC. Loss of the tumor-suppressor function of RelA in the early stages of Kras-driven pancreatic neoplastic transformation was associated with decreased OIS and SASP and a protumorigenic tumor microenvironment that harbored more M2 macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. The beneficial effects of RelA were mediated by increased expression of CXCL1 and its activation of CXCR2. By contrast, in advanced stages of Kras-driven murine PDAC, loss of p53 or p16 was associated with senescence bypass, and RelA deficiency in this context attenuated cancer cell proliferation and prolonged mouse survival, indicating that RelA enhances tumor progression in established PDAC. PMID:27454293

  13. A metaphysical journey in a comatose state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, R

    1992-01-01

    This paper is about the intense experience of being in the hospital in a comatose state resulting from an aneurysm with a massive brain hemorrhage and two subsequent surgeries. The event begins with a premonition of what will happen from a street name. The experience of brain surgeries, along with the fine care of the nurses, left me with a truly memorable impression. This paper describes the various feelings and strong emotions that I experienced while in a comatose state. It suggests that a patient in a comatose state can exist in a deep state of emotions close to ecstasy. The paper concludes with gratefulness to all the people who followed me step by step on this journey. PMID:1286457

  14. Teratogenia da vitamina A Vitamin A teratogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena de Castro Chagas; Hernando Flores; Florisbela de Arruda Camara e Siqueira Campos; Raquel Araújo de Santana; Erika Chagas Barreto Lins

    2003-01-01

    A vitamina A é essencial à preservação e ao funcionamento normal dos tecidos, assim como, ao crescimento e desenvolvimento. No humano há evidência indireta que a vitamina A em excesso, durante as primeiras semanas de gestação é teratogênica. Do contrário, não há dúvidas sobre os efeitos deletérios, de uma alimentação carente neste micronutriente e sobre a disponibilidade do conhecimento técnico para evitá-los. A preocupação com o fato de que a vitamina A conduziria a teratogenia em humanos, t...

  15. A toy model for a diatomic molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker Denschlag, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a toy model for a diatomic molecule which is based on coupling electronic and nuclear spins to a rigid rotor. Despite its simplicity, the model can be used scientifically to analyze and understand complex molecular hyperfine spectra. In addition, the model has educational value as a number of fundamental symmetries and conservation laws of the molecule can be studied. Because of its simple structure, the model can be readily implemented as a computer program with comparatively short computing times on the order of a few seconds.

  16. When a Family Requests a White Doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kimberly L; Cowden, John D; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Lantos, John D

    2015-08-01

    Parents sometimes request that a doctor of a particular race or ethnic group not care for their child. Such requests sometimes seem legitimate and other times seem offensive. The difference reflects a clash of fundamental values. Generally, we try to respect patient or parental preferences. Requests based on racist attitudes, however, do not seem worthy of respect. But where should we draw the line? In this ethics rounds, we present a situation in which parents requested a white doctor and analyze the ways in which doctors might think about and respond to such a request. PMID:26169433

  17. A NMR characterisation of a banded sandstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, A C; Packer, K J

    1998-01-01

    1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements have been carried out on a banded sandstone to investigate the effects of structural inhomogeneities on the fluid dynamics of the sample as a whole. The results obtained from average propagator measurements (the probability of a displacement z in a time delta or P delta (z)) using pulsed-field-gradient techniques have been compared to those obtained from a study of a homogeneous sandstone. Relaxation has been used to derive the pore sizes for the differing bands and have been found to correlate with flow velocities within the bands.

  18. A Condition for a Translation Quiver to Be a Coil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHU; Zong Yi HU

    2003-01-01

    We single out a class of translation quivers and prove combinatorially that the translationquivers in this class are coils. These coils form a class of special coils. They are easier to visualize, butstill show all the strange behaviour of general coils, and contain quasi-stable tubes as special examples.

  19. Generalizing a study of a rotating rod carrying a collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, I [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 21-939, Mexico 04000 D.F. (Mexico); Del Valle, G; Hernandez, M G [Area de Fisica, Division de Ciencias Basicas e IngenierIa, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Apartado Postal 21-939, Mexico 04000 D.F. (Mexico); Jimenez, J L, E-mail: jlj@xanum.uam.m [Departamento de Fisica, Division de Ciencias Basicas e IngenierIa, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 21-939, Mexico 04000 D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The present work is a generalization of the work of Ribberfors and Reitz (2000 Eur. J. Phys. 21 151-7). These authors study a system consisting of a collar that is restricted to move in a path defined by a rod of some prescribed form which passes through the collar. We generalize the analysis of this system by means of canonical treatment. We show in this way that this excellent example can also be used in advanced courses on mechanics to show the power of the methods of analytical mechanics. We have that the present treatment of this example will be useful for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as for the teachers of these courses on classical mechanics. (letters and comments)

  20. A Project Team: a Team or Just a Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues related to work in either teams or groups. The theoretical part discusses a team and a group with regards to its definition, classification and basic distinction, brings in more on the typology of team roles, personality assessment and sociometric methods. The analytical part tests the project (work team of a medical center represented in terms of personality and motivational types, team roles and interpersonal team relations concerning the willingness of cooperation and communication. The main objective of this work is to verify the validity of the assumptions that the analyzed team represents a very disparate group as for its composition from the perspective of personality types, types of motivation, team roles and interpersonal relations in terms of the willingness of cooperation and communication. A separate output shall focus on sociometric investigation of those team members where willingness to work together and communicate is based on the authors’ assumption of tight interdependence.

  1. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jeremy E.; Faraj, Ahmad A.

    2011-08-02

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together using a data communications network. The data communications network optimized for point to point data communications and is characterized by at least two dimensions. The compute nodes are organized into at least one operational group of compute nodes for collective parallel operations of the parallel computer. One compute node of the operational group assigned to be a logical root. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer includes: establishing a Hamiltonian path along all of the compute nodes in at least one plane of the data communications network and in the operational group; and broadcasting, by the logical root to the remaining compute nodes, the logical root's message along the established Hamiltonian path.

  2. [A simulation exercise in a flu clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, Juliette; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Lecapitaine, Anne-Lise; Lecompte, Françoise; Szwebel-Chikli, Céline

    2011-01-01

    A simulation exercise aimed at assessing the management and provision of ambulatory care in the context of a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic was conducted in a specifically dedicated consultation center (Centre de Consultation Dédié (CCD) à la grippe) based on official French guidelines. The exercise was carried out in a school in Paris equipped to simulate a "flu clinic". 3 practitioners provided treatment lasting 2 hours to nursing students acting as patients. The exercise highlighted a number of major organizational issues. Staff were found to be unable to manage the center and to perform patient transfers; face masks were not routinely and consistently worn by doctors and patients; and communication between professionals within the clinic was limited. The exercise showed that much remains to be done to ensure that "flu clinics" are effective and functional. The results suggest that the exercise will need to be repeated on a larger scale and over a longer period. PMID:22365047

  3. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  4. A microcontroller system of a biotelemetric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Sharpan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The system of a short-range biotelemetry is circumscribed which records and transmits biosignals to distance in tens meters. The system is intended for work in a composition of the pulse cardiologic analyzer.

  5. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  6. A. A. Laanessaare luule / Ruth Mirov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mirov, Ruth, 1928-

    1996-01-01

    Ilmunud ka kogumikus: Mirov, Ruth. Sõnast sõnasse : valik artikleid ja retsensioone. Tallinn ; Tartu : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2002, lk. 200-230. August Annisti luulest, avaldatud A. A. Laanessaare varjunime all

  7. Founding a Foundation: A Mini Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Dale B.

    1981-01-01

    Lists factors contributing to the need for increased fund raising in community colleges. Discusses advantages of a foundation as a means of obtaining private funds. Delineates specifics of establishing, organizing, and implementing the Kalamazoo Valley Community College Foundation. (DMM)

  8. A simple model of a swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, V. V.; Varaksina, E. I.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents a simple model of a swing meant for undergraduates’ educational experiments. The purpose of these experiments is the experimental study of physical principles of self-oscillations, free, forced and parametric oscillations. The model contains a pendulum. A coil with a movable steel core serves as its load. A neodymium magnet is placed at the lower end of the core. A magnetically operated sealed switch is stationed under the magnet at the equilibrium position of the pendulum. The switch is connected in series with the coil and a battery. If we displace the pendulum from the equilibrium position, the pendulum makes undamped oscillations. The system receives energy every time the core is drawn into the coil at the lower position of the pendulum.

  9. A method for making a storage cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanakhasi, K.; Ivaki, T.

    1983-03-17

    The electrode unit is placed in a tank and water is poured into it until the electrodes are completely submerged. A liquid is poured in from above which is a solution of a synthetic resin of the polyvinylchloride type in a solvent insoluble in water of the tetrahydrofurane type. The solvent spreads along the surface of the water. The resin is removed, hardening and forming a porous layer on the wave shaped coagulated flakes. Then the liquid is poured off, passing through the pores of the resin layer. The water is replaced by an electrolyte. The layer of resin prevent splashing and excess evaporation of the electrolyte. A plug with a catalyst for recombining the gases formed in the storage device may be installed additionally in the storage device.

  10. A method for making a dry element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isikhara, K.; Kimura, T.; Momose, K.; Sakata, Y.

    1983-08-11

    The agglomerate is coated along the lateral surface by a separator and is enclosed in a zinc cylinder which serves as the anode. A separating plate is installed in the upper part of the agglomerate between the agglomerate and the anode. A current outlead is attached to the anode. The element is inserted into a body, pressing the plate into the agglomerate with a punch which has a recess. A guide cylinder is used for precise installation of the element. The space between the plate and the body in the upper part of the element is filled with wax or another substance. Short circuiting (KZ) between the current outlead and the agglomerate is prevented in the element.

  11. Ankylosing Spondylitis: a Reflection and a Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Deysi Hernández Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial membrane, joint entheses and para-articular structures of the spine, including the sacroiliac joints and limbs. We present a case of ankylosing spondylitis that had evolved for 12 years despite the relatively early diagnosis and treatment, showing flexion deformity and limitation of spinal movements. On radiological examination an early evolution to ankylosis was observed, which motivated us to make a reflection and a question.

  12. Transforming a foundation into a cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Manzano Malaxechevarría

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author charts a path between entities that meet needs in the general interest such as foundations and others which are neither entities of general interest nor have purely mercantile legal personality such as cooperatives. Transforming a foundation into a cooperative calls for a broad interpretation of the principle of free will that the legislation wishes to foster.Received: 12.02.2013Accepted: 20.04.2013

  13. A microcomputer for a packet switched network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bubble Chamber Research Group of the Rutherford and Appleton Laboratory has a large film analysis facility. This comprises 16 digitising tables used for the measurement of bubble chamber film. Each of these tables has an associated microcomputer. These microcomputers are linked by a star structured packet switched local area network (LAN) to a VAX 11/780. The LAN, and in particular a microcomputer of novel architecture designed to act as the central switch of the network, is described. (author)

  14. A Reinforced Blade for a Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine having elongated reinforcing members in the blade extending substantially in the plane of the profile chord in order to strengthen the blade against edgewise and flapwise forces.......The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine having elongated reinforcing members in the blade extending substantially in the plane of the profile chord in order to strengthen the blade against edgewise and flapwise forces....

  15. A masonic poem on a masonic opera?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Sainz, Inmaculada

    1998-01-01

    Estudio del poema Logic and "The Magic Flute", escrito por Marianne Moore (Kirkwood, Missouri. 1887-New York. 1972) y publicado en su libro de poemas Like a Bulwark (1956). Se analiza el poema tomando como punto de partida el libreto de la ópera de W.A. Mozart Die Zauberflotë, y se ofrece una interpretación del mismo a la luz de la simbología que aparece en este.

  16. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skills and coordination to ride a tricycle or chase a butterfly. Preschoolers also are discovering what it ... something to find, like a red door, a cat, a flag, and something square. Sing songs or ...

  17. A Custom——Leaving a Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗友

    2005-01-01

    Leaving a tip in a restaurant has become a custom in most countries. The word “tip” came from the Latin word “Gratis”, meaning free. Tips are defined as small gifts of money for service in addition to the payment due.

  18. A minimal model of a tidewater glacier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Nick, Faezeh Maghami

    2005-01-01

    We propose a simple, highly parameterized model of a tidewater glacier. The mean ice thickness and the ice thickness at the glacier front are parameterized in terms of glacier length and, when the glacier is calving, water depth. We use a linear relation between calving rate and water depth. The cha

  19. Sterilization: A Conference and a Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, Brint

    1978-01-01

    This article continues a series on Native American sterilization, based on a conference of the National Council of Churches' Interreligious Foundation for Community Organization (IFCO). Also included are an article and a report by the American Civil Liberties Union. (Author/RTS)

  20. A Model Technology Educator: Thomas A. Edison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzer, William S.; Rogers, George E.; Bush, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    Reflecting back over a century ago to the small village of Menlo Park, New Jersey provides insight into a remarkable visionary and an exceptional role model for today's problem-solving and design-focused technology educator: Thomas A. Edison, inventor, innovator, and model technology educator. Since Edison could not simply apply existing knowledge…

  1. A Bayesian Bootstrap for a Finite Population

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Albert Y.

    1988-01-01

    A Bayesian bootstrap for a finite population is introduced; its small-sample distributional properties are discussed and compared with those of the frequentist bootstrap for a finite population. It is also shown that the two are first-order asymptotically equivalent.

  2. A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Lions, tigers, and bears, oh my! Digital cameras, young inquisitive scientists, give it a try! In this project, students create an open-ended question for investigation, capture and record their observations--data--with digital cameras, and create a digital story to share their findings. The project follows a 5E learning cycle--Engage, Explore,…

  3. A new way of editing a flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van der W.J.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Akoègninou, A.; Yédomonhan, H.

    2010-01-01

    Modern electronic tools have become common tools of most scientists. Flora writers and other botanists producing large manuscripts with a certain fixed structure may go even further and use the so-called Mail Merge option in a word processor such as Microsoft Word™. This tool allows structuring a do

  4. "Score Choice": A Tempest in a Teapot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new option that allows students to choose which of their test scores to send to colleges has generated renewed criticism of the College Board. College Board officials tout the option, called Score Choice, as a way to ease test taker anxiety. Some prominent admissions officials have publicly described Score Choice as a sales tactic that will…

  5. A.A.D. engine noise evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A critique of the various characteristics of engine design influencing noise and attempts to indicator areas where attention is required to obtain noise acceptable engine for automobiles are discussed. It was concluded that the engine has a potential to be quiet beccause a ion rated speed is chosen. Problems with high gas pressure, the fuel injection pump, and the expander/compressor are discussed.

  6. A Method of Operating a Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of determining the net water drag coefficient (rd) in a fuel cell. By measuring the velocity of the fluid stream at the outlet of the anode, rd can be determined. Real time monitoring and adjustments of the water balance of a fuel cell may be therefore...

  7. A modified total synthesis of cystothiazole A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A modified total synthesis of cystothiazole A is described. In this synthetic strategy, a one-step transformation of acylated oxazolidinone to β-ketoester has been successfully applied, thus making the synthetic route more efficient. This method may also be potentially applied in synthesis of other related β-substituted-β-methoxyl acrylates (bb-MOAs).

  8. Are You a Man or a Mouse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2008-01-01

    Are you a man or a mouse? This expression is used to encourage someone to be brave when they are frightened of doing something. It is also an expression which bears associations to John Steinbeck's novella Of Mice and Men, the title of which is taken from Robert Burns' poem To a Mouse, which is o...

  9. A Giant Retroperitoneal Lymphangioma: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubli, Prabhu; Sachin, Basavaraju M

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioma is a congenital lesion of childhood. They usually present in head and neck region. Intra-abdominal lymphangioma in an adult is a rare lesion which poses diagnostic difficulty. Although asymptomatic, they may present with an acute abdomen. Here, we report a rare case of huge asymptomatic retro-peritoneal lymphangioma who underwent complete surgical excision with an uneventful postoperative period. PMID:27630902

  10. A Method for Measuring a Plane Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, George D.; Roberts, G. Gilbert

    1978-01-01

    Derivation of formulas and example problems for determining the size of a plane angle are given to help in drafting work. The authors state that a small hand calculator will provide greater accuracy in solving these problems than a protractor. (MF)

  11. What a Time to Be a Bunny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NATHAN; BEARDSLEY

    2011-01-01

    It is the dead of the night and the city is sleeping. A stray car cruises the street until its lonesome passenger responds in a zombie-like manner to a traffic light that turns red, stopping an invisible flow of traffic.

  12. A Generalization of a Coherence Multiplexing System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, A.; Heideman, G.H.L.M; Etten, van W.C.

    2000-01-01

    Coherence multiplexing is a relatively unknown form of a CDMA-system, especially used in access networks for optical communication systems. Usually a coherence multiplex system uses delay-filters at the transmitter and at the receiver to perform the code. In this paper, an extension to other filter

  13. Stabilizing a Bicycle: A Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Timothy J.; Williams, Blair R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is a project that takes students through the process of forming a mathematical model of bicycle dynamics. Beginning with basic ideas from Newtonian mechanics (forces and torques), students use techniques from calculus and differential equations to develop the equations of rotational motion for a bicycle-rider system as it tips from…

  14. A device for reforming a hydrocarbon fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendzi, T.; Ikuo, M.

    1984-03-15

    In order to utilize the heat from the reaction of reforming of a hydrocarbon fuel and the heat scattered from a heater, a design is proposed for a fuel reforming reactor in which the gases entering the reactor first pass inside the reactor along the external wall and are heated by the heat dispersed inside the reactor. Then they go in the opposite direction along a clearance between the interior shell of the reactor and the internal body of the reactor itself with a catalyst (Kt) and a heated electrical cylindrical heater. Then the gases, already heated, go directly into the cavity of the reactor filled with the catalyst where the reforming reaction occurs and then the gases and the vapors of the reformed fuel are discharged, passing through a system of heat exchangers. The layout of such a reactor, which contains a cylindrical shell inside, a cylindrical sleeve coaxial with it and the body of the reactor itself with the heater, is given. A system for attaching the internal sleeve and the body of the reactor to the catalyst is cited. The course of the gases inside the reactor is also given.

  15. A lattice for a lead storage battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, S.; Fukunaga, K.; Kumano, Y.

    1983-07-13

    Lattices for a lead storage cell are made of a lead alloy which contains (in percent by mass): 0.05 to 0.3 strontium; 0.02 to 0.1 aluminum; 0.05 to 3.0 tin and 0.01 to 3.0 cadmium. The storage cell has low autodischarge and a long service life.

  16. Teratogenia da vitamina A Vitamin A teratogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena de Castro Chagas

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A vitamina A é essencial à preservação e ao funcionamento normal dos tecidos, assim como, ao crescimento e desenvolvimento. No humano há evidência indireta que a vitamina A em excesso, durante as primeiras semanas de gestação é teratogênica. Do contrário, não há dúvidas sobre os efeitos deletérios, de uma alimentação carente neste micronutriente e sobre a disponibilidade do conhecimento técnico para evitá-los. A preocupação com o fato de que a vitamina A conduziria a teratogenia em humanos, tem retardado a implementação de programas de combate a carência de vitamina A, atingindo principalmente os programas de enriquecimento de alimentos. A literatura é controvertida e dispõe de poucas informações sobre as doses para suplementação de gestantes. Como o retinol circulante materno é controlado homeostaticamente após o consumo de alimentos fonte de vitamina A, espera-se a mesma resposta metabólica após o consumo de alimentos fortificados, indicando que não há risco de teratogenia. Consequentemente, parece altamente improvável que o consumo de alimentos enriquecidos ou de suplementos de vitamina A pré-formada, nas doses unitárias habituais, tenha efeito teratogênico no homem.The vitamin A is essential to the preservation and the normal functioning of tissues, as well as, to the growth and development. In the human being it has indirect evidence that the vitamin A in excess, during the first weeks of gestation is teratogenic. Of the opposite, it does not have doubts on the deleterious effect, of a devoid feeding in this micronutrient and on the availability of the knowledge technician to prevent them. The concern with the fact of that the vitamin A would lead it the teratogenicity in human beings, has delayed the implementation of combat programs the vitamin A lack, mainly reaching the programs of food enrichment. Literature is controverted and makes use of few information on the doses for supplementation of

  17. A reversible conversion between a skyrmion and a domain-wall pair in a junction geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Y.; Ezawa, M

    2014-01-01

    A skyrmion is a topological texture in the continuum field theory. Recent experimental observation of skyrmions in chiral magnet evokes a flourish of its extensive study. Skyrmion is expected to be a key component of the next generation spintronics device called skyrmionics. On the other hand, there is a well established memory device encoded by a sequence of domain walls. A skyrmion carries a topological number, whereas a domain wall does not. Nevertheless, we show a conversion is possible b...

  18. A PURCHASING DECISION: SELECTING A SUPPLIER FOR A CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozden BAYAZIT; Birsen KARPAK; Ayhan YAGCI

    2006-01-01

    Supplier selection is one of the most crucial activities performed by organizations because of its strategic importance. Supplier selection is a multi-objective problem involving both quantitative and qualitative criteria. Over the years a number of quantitative approaches have been tried. Although the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has previously been used in supplier selection problems, one major weakness of the application-oriented AHP literature is that it tends to focus on the mechanics of AHP instead of on the theoretical and practical implications associated with finding a solution. Though it is one of the most extensively used Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis methodologies, our literature search indicated that most studies found the best solution and stopped there, ignoring sensitivity analysis. Performing sensitivity analysis is very important for practical decision making, sometimes even as important as finding the best solution. In this paper for the first time a comprehensive application of AHP for a real-world case is presented along with sensitivity analysis in choosing the best suppliers for a Turkish construction company. As a result of this study the company decided to allocate the order quantities between the two top suppliers.

  19. A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Waxman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A work days vs. off days, B a 27 hour work week vs. 22 hour work week, and C in 5 different modalities including 1 Meeting with department head 2 Individual psychotherapy with patients 3 Group therapy with patients 4 Supervision of residents 5 Personal psychoanalysis. The results showed more than a 3-fold increase of arrhythmogenic activity during the 27-hour work week vs. 22 and a 5-fold increase in arrhythmogenic activity on work days compared to days off. Department Head meetings were found to be most arrhythmogenic and personal psychoanalysis was least. The data suggest that the psychiatrist’s lack of emotional expression in his clinical work has been demonstrated to markedly worsen his arrhythmia. The results also point to the potential ameliorating effects of the therapist’s own psychotherapy.

  20. Eurasian Union: A Utopia, a Dream or a Coming Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Varol SEVIM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years passed after the dissolution of the USSR and the re-birth of Russian Federation and Central Asian states in the world arena in such a unipolar world. Since the rise of Vladimir Putin to power Russia resists on unipolar system and sees that as a treat to its security. Hence, Kremlin perceives that the economic strength is the sine qua non for the future of Russia in order to sustain a Big Power status not only in its region but also in the world. In 2011, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan have achieved to form a Customs Union among them and invited all the states in the region to join the organization. There were thesis which mainly argued that Russia would no longer be a “power” in the Central Asia and could only be a regional power just in case of maintaining of its own unity. However, the circumstances have changed in the region accordingly Russian weight as a result of the new conjuncture. In 2012, Russia had a new presidential election and Putin returned to Kremlin as President himself. It has been understood from his words that Kremlin's new strategy to be focused on creating a Eurasian Union including Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan at the first stage. It is aimed to analyze in this study that whether this project could be successful and if so, what could be the impacts on world order in terms of competition between Russia, the United States and China also. And finally, what could be the result of such an organization for the Russia.

  1. Josephine Baker: A Chanteuse and a Fighter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konomi Ara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This excerpt is from her newly-published biography of Josephine Baker, “A Fighting Diva.” It tells the intriguing story of Baker’s travels to Japan, her close friendship with the Japanese humanitarian Miki Sawada, and her adoption of a pair of Japanese orphans. Even after she achieved celebrity in France, Baker’s experience as a Black American led her to develop an antiracist philosophy at a worldwide level, and she combined political militancy in the public sphere with a personal commitment through the formation of an international multiracial household of children, the “Rainbow Tribe.”

  2. A Wimba Way, A Wimba Way

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Katherine; Taylor, Sally; Beck, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Wimba Classroom, like other online teaching tools, gives us a way to connect to our learners at a distance. This software can be used to share desktops, PowerPoint presentations, polls and more. Come and see a demonstration of the software and hear how we’re using Wimba Classroom to teach health care practitioners in a distance education program, undergraduate students in a first-year biology course and participants in an online RefWorks workshop. We’ll also talk about our “Train the Trainer”...

  3. Homenagem a Ecléa Bosi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Chauí

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio, buscamos a principal contribuição de Ecléa Bosi para a Psicologia Social, qual seja, a relação entre teoria, método e técnicas de pesquisa e militância social, política e cultural, a partir da definição da psicologia como fenomenologia dos atos expressivos e da relação de amizade entre o pesquisador e o pesquisado como pessoa.

  4. Creating a website for a small business

    OpenAIRE

    Assefa, Bethelhem

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis is about creating a website for a small business. Santakehys Oy is the company who commissioned this thesis. Santakehys Oy used to have a website under the domain name ‘www.monalisa.fi’. This domain name is taken by another business and does not exist anymore under Santakehys. The current owner of the company wants to strength the business so that he decided to have a new website. This thesis focused on two main thing. The first one is creating (developing) a website f...

  5. Prospects for a group A streptococcal vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, David J; Chhatwal, Gursharan S

    2005-02-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections are associated with a number of human diseases, including pharyngitis, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and rheumatic heart disease. An increase in the incidence of severe GAS infections in Western countries, and the awareness of the burden of GAS-associated diseases in developing nations, which remains high in spite of the availability of antibiotics, has provided the impetus for development of a safe and efficacious GAS vaccine. This has focused on the M protein, a major GAS virulence factor, however, with the publication of several GAS genomes, a number of non-M vaccine candidates are now under investigation. PMID:15732524

  6. A Beautiful Blonde: a Nash coordination game

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Simon P.; Maxim Engers

    2002-01-01

    In a memorable scene from the …lm ”A Beautiful Mind,” John Nash explains to his friends how to direct their attentions to women in a bar. Game theorists who have seen the …lm point out that the proposed solution is not a Nash equilibrium. Here we determine the Nash equilibria to the attention game. The symmetric mixed strategy equilibrium has resembles a common property resource problem. It has perverse comparative static properties that are not borne out by experimental data. Finally, we dis...

  7. A Spectrum is Worth a Thousand Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Richard F.

    2006-12-01

    A wise astronomer once pointed out that if a picture is worth a thousand words, then a spectrum is worth a thousand pictures. Unfortunately, spectra are rarely emphasized in the introductory astronomy courses and few students exit such a course with any meaningful understanding or appreciation of spectroscopy. Part of the problem is lack of background knowledge; the typical introductory astronomy student has little experience with spectroscopy or atomic physics. Another issue is that spectra are not pretty pictures and are not intuitively understandable. We present and discuss a series of “minds-on” exercises and activities built into a college-level “stars, galaxies, and cosmology” intro astronomy course. The lessons are structured to help students improve their ability to recognize patterns and improve their ability to really see the details in front of them. Another goal is for students to realize there is “more than meets the eye” to learn how to discover “hidden” diagnostics, such as different sources of light their eyes see as white light. A curriculum that emphasizes spectroscopy also provides the opportunity to stress the story of the “Harvard Women,” a tale that bridges gender gaps and often humanizes scientists in the eyes of non-science majors. Finally, with a solid foundation in spectroscopy, students are better prepared to understand exciting topics such as Hubble’s Law and the importance of primordial nucleosynthesis.

  8. Redefining disability: a rejoinder to a critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Magnus Reindal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, scholars have argued that disability activists' redefinition of disability' as a social problem, rather than a medical problem, is maleficent, unjust, and inconsistent. It seems that the discussion on whether disability is a medical or a social category is not settled and that disability is an essentially contested concept. However, the question is: What is the social aspect in disability? It appears that there is some confusion as to what the social is in a social definition of disability. The article pursues possible reasons for this confusion by investigating the critique of the social model. This is followed by a discussion on what a possible space for the social might be in a social definition of disability. Such a space is illuminated by using the framework of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF. The article suggests that disability as a social category is not inconsistent if reframed within a social relational model of disability.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i1.1744

  9. SUPERNOVA 1987A: CELEBRATING A SILVER JUBILEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Panagia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The story of the SN 1987A explosion is briefly reviewed. Although this supernova was somewhat peculiar, the study of SN 1987A has clarified quite a number of important aspects of the nature and the properties of supernovae, such as the confirmation of the core collapse of a massive star as the cause of the explosion, as well the confirmation that the decays 56Ni–56Co–56Fe at early times and 44Ti–44Sc at late times, are the main sources of the energy radiated by the ejecta. Still we have not been able to ascertain whether the progenitor was a single star or a binary system, nor have we been able to detect the stellar remnant, a neutron star that should be produced in the core collapse process.

  10. A reductive coupling strategy towards ripostatin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Kristin D; Jamison, Timothy F

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic studies on the antibiotic natural product ripostatin A have been carried out with the aim to construct the C9-C10 bond by a nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of an enyne and an epoxide, followed by rearrangement of the resulting dienylcyclopropane intermediate to afford the skipped 1,4,7-triene. A cyclopropyl enyne fragment corresponding to C1-C9 has been synthesized in high yield and demonstrated to be a competent substrate for the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling with a model epoxide. Several synthetic approaches toward the C10-C26 epoxide have been pursued. The C13 stereocenter can be set by allylation and reductive decyanation of a cyanohydrin acetonide. A mild, fluoride-promoted decarboxylation enables construction of the C15-C16 bond by an aldol reaction. The product of this transformation is of the correct oxidation state and potentially three steps removed from the targeted epoxide fragment.

  11. A Random Laser as a Dynamical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Höfner, M; Henneberger, F

    2013-01-01

    The mode dynamics of a random laser is investigated in experiment and theory. The laser consists of a ZnCdO/ZnO multiple quantum well with air-holes that provide the necessary feedback. Time-resolved measurements reveal multimode spectra with individually developing features but no variation from shot to shot. These findings are qualitatively reproduced with a model that exploits the specifics of a dilute system of weak scatterers and can be interpreted in terms of a lasing network. Introducing the phase-sensitive node coherence reveals new aspects of the self-organization of the laser field. Lasing is carried by connected links between a subset of scatterers, the fields on which are oscillating coherently in phase. In addition, perturbing feedback with possibly unfitting phases from frustrated other scatterers is suppressed by destructive superposition. We believe that our findings are representative at least for weakly scattering random lasers. A generalization to random laser with dense and strong scattere...

  12. A marketing strategy for a nursing college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pryde

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore and describe a marketing strategy for a nursing college. An explorative and descriptive research design, within the context of a nursing college and affiliated hospitals, was followed. A literature study of marketing models was undertaken and the Delphi-method was utilised to determine the contribution of marketing staff and the possible content of a marketing strategy for a nursing college. The results were utilised to describe guidelines for such a strategy, consisting of marketers/marketing agents, target market, product, price, promotional activities, place and market research. Recommendations include the planning, implementation and evaluation of strategy, inservice training for potential marketing agents, inclusion of marketing as part of the formal education of tutors and nurse managers,as well as an impact study of the scholar as the main consumer.

  13. A merger shock in A2034

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owers, Matt S.; Couch, Warrick J.; Hopkins, Andrew M. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; David, Laurence P.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Van Weeren, Reinout J., E-mail: matthew.owers@aao.gov.au [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We present a 250 ks Chandra observation of the cluster merger A2034 with the aim of understanding the nature of a sharp edge previously characterized as a cold front. The new data reveal that the edge is coherent over a larger opening angle and is significantly more bow-shock-shaped than previously thought. Within ∼27° about the axis of symmetry of the edge, the density, temperature, and pressure drop abruptly by factors of 1.83{sub −0.08}{sup +0.09}, 1.85{sub −0.41}{sup +0.41}, and 3.4{sub −0.7}{sup +0.8}, respectively. This is inconsistent with the pressure equilibrium expected of a cold front and we conclude that the edge is a shock front. We measure a Mach number M=1.59{sub −0.07}{sup +0.06} and corresponding shock velocity v {sub shock} ≅ 2057 km s{sup –1}. Using spectra collected at the MMT with the Hectospec multi-object spectrograph, we identify 328 spectroscopically confirmed cluster members. Significantly, we find a local peak in the projected galaxy density associated with a bright cluster galaxy that is located just ahead of the nose of the shock. The data are consistent with a merger viewed within ∼23° of the plane of the sky. The merging subclusters are now moving apart along a north-south axis approximately 0.3 Gyr after a small impact parameter core passage. The gas core of the secondary subcluster, which was driving the shock, appears to have been disrupted by the merger. Without a driving 'piston,' we speculate that the shock is dying. Finally, we propose that the diffuse radio emission near the shock is due to the revival of pre-existing radio plasma that has been overrun by the shock.

  14. A coinsidence, a chance or a misfortune? Hangman's fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbayrak, Sedat; Yaman, Onur

    2014-01-01

    William R. Francis and Bassam El-Effendi shared a common ground: they were the first individuals to classify Hangman's Fractures. Interestingly, although they were unaware of each other, they classified and published their findings in the same year, published in the same edition of the same journal (but on different pages). This new classification system was a chance for notoriety for El-Effendi, yet it was a misfortune for Francis. Both physicians graduated in 1973 (from different universities). Also fellows at different universities in 1981, they were also both unaware they studied the same topic. Coincidentally, their paths crossed in the same edition of a journal where their studies were published in the same year, which was unprecedented in the literature. One classification scheme is well-known while the other is almost completely unheard of for no apparent reason other than chance for one and misfortune for the other.

  15. A Project Team: A Team or Just a Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Hrazdilova Bockova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues related to work in either teams or groups. The theoretical part which discusses a team and a group with regards to its definition, classification and basic distinction brings in more on the typology of team roles, personality assessment and sociometric methods. The analytical part tests the project (work team of a medical center represented in terms of personality and motivational types, team roles and interpersonal team relations concerning the willingness of cooperation and communication. The main objective of this work was to determine whether the existing team is not by its nature rather a working group that contributes to the generally perceived stagnation of that field.

  16. Haemorrhage in a scrotal lymphangioma in a child: A rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Kamal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a case of cystic lymphangioma of scrotum presenting as acute scrotum due to haemorrhage. The diagnosis was confirmed on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed successfully by surgical excision. There was past history of bilateral congenital cataract for which the patient had undergone surgery with complete visual recovery. Scrotal cystic lymphangioma complicated by haemorrhage is rare; hence, the case is being reported with a review of literature.

  17. Moving a hospital--a once in a lifetime experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kerry; Pearson, Adam; Waters, Mark

    2002-01-01

    It is a hugely complex task to move a 525-bed acute tertiary health facility to a new building whilst continuing to provide services to the public--a task that was undertaken at Brisbane's Princess Alexandra Hospital in March/April 2001. There were complex issues to manage, ranging from clinical unit interdependence across a split campus to the development of detailed plans for transferring telephone extensions/personal computers in a "live environment". The success of the Princess Alexandra exercise is shown by there having been no adverse effects on patients, the lack of negative media attention and the occurrence of only two staff injuries during the move. Meticulous planning and good communication with staff and stakeholders (other hospitals, general practitioners) supported this success. The decision to reduce clinical services where possible during the shift was helpful. Understanding the complexity and richness of the information technology, the work environment and the human elements on campus was also critical to success. One major error was the initial decision to schedule the move within weeks of receiving practical completion of the new building. It became all too clear in November 2000 that further time was required to commission the building. The Transition was therefore rescheduled from January to March 2001. This decision was critical to the success of the move.

  18. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that ...

  19. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  20. Tricolorin A as a Natural Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas Lotina-Hennsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricolorin A acts as pre- and post-emergence plant growth inhibitor. In pre-emergence it displays broad-spectrum weed control, inhibiting germination of both monocotyledonous (Lolium mutliflorum and Triticum vulgare and dicotyledonous (Physalis ixocarpa and Trifolium alexandrinum seeds, being the dicotyledonous seeds the most inhibited. Tricolorin A also inhibited seedling growth, and seed respiration, and since the concentrations required for inhibiting both germination and respiration were similar, we suggest that respiration is one of its targets. Tricolorin A at 60 µM acts as a post- emergence plant growth inhibitor by reducing dry plant biomass by 62%, 37%, 33%, and 22% for L. multiflorum, T. alexandrinum, T. vulgare, and P. ixocarpa, respectively, 18 days after its application. In order to determine the potency of tricolorin A as a plant growth inhibitor, paraquat was used as control; the results indicate that tricolorin A acts as a non-selective post-emergence plant growth inhibitor similar to paraquat, since both reduced the biomass production in P. ixocarpa and T. alexandrinum. Therefore, we suggest that tricolorin A will be a good biodegradable herbicide for weeds.

  1. A tunable DNA spring in a nanochannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehn, Robert; Staunton, Rory; Lim, Shuang Fang; Bruinsma, Robijn; Reisner, Walter; Austin, Robert

    2007-03-01

    dsDNA becomes linearized when it is confined to nanofluidic channels with a cross-section of (100 nm)^2 or less, which has made them interesting for genomic DNA analyses. DNA is typically manipulated by means of electric fields. We have found that DNA undergoes a phase transition to a condensed state if an a.c. electric field is applied along the channel direction. The molecule collapses to about 1/4 of it's initial contour length. We will discuss how the effect depends on parameters such as frequency, field strength, channel dimensions, and will discuss the origin of the effect. Interestingly, DNA behaves like an artifical muscle that can be triggered by an a.c. electric field. Since the interaction is expected to hold for any solubilized polyelectrolyte, we speculate that the mechanism may lead to a new class of polymer-based mechanical actuators. These would not suffer from depolarization like piezo transducers.

  2. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Daniel A

    2014-11-18

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer that includes: transmitting, by the logical root to all of the nodes directly connected to the logical root, a message; and for each node except the logical root: receiving the message; if that node is the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received; if that node received the message from a parent node and if that node is not a leaf node, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes; and if that node received the message from a child node and if that node is not the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received and transmitting the message to the parent node.

  3. A Small Deformation of a Simple Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Buican, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We study an interesting relevant deformation of the simplest interacting N=2 SCFT---the original Argyres-Douglas (AD) theory. We argue that, although this deformation is not strictly speaking Banks-Zaks like (certain operator dimensions change macroscopically), there are senses in which it constitutes a mild deformation of the parent AD theory: the exact change in the "a" anomaly is small and is essentially saturated at one loop. Moreover, contributions from IR operators that have a simple description in the UV theory reproduce a particular limit of the IR index to a remarkably high order. These results lead us to conclude that the IR theory is an N=1 SCFT with the smallest-known "a" and "c" central charges for an interacting SCFT in four dimensions.

  4. When is a bottleneck a bottleneck?

    CERN Document Server

    Schadschneider, Andreas; Popkov, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    Bottlenecks, i.e. local reductions of capacity, are one of the most relevant scenarios of traffic systems. The asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with a defect is a minimal model for such a bottleneck scenario. One crucial question is "What is the critical strength of the defect that is required to create global effects, i.e. traffic jams localized at the defect position". Intuitively one would expect that already an arbitrarily small bottleneck strength leads to global effects in the system, e.g. a reduction of the maximal current. Therefore it came as a surprise when, based on computer simulations, it was claimed that the reaction of the system depends in non-continuous way on the defect strength and weak defects do not have a global influence on the system. Here we reconcile intuition and simulations by showing that indeed the critical defect strength is zero. We discuss the implications for the analysis of empirical and numerical data.

  5. Scattering of a Baseball by a Bat

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, R; Cross, Rod; Nathan, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    A ball can be hit faster if it is projected without spin but it can be hit farther if it is projected with backspin. Measurements are presented in this paper of the tradeoff between speed and spin for a baseball impacting a baseball bat. The results are inconsistent with a collision model in which the ball rolls off the bat and instead imply tangential compliance in the ball, the bat, or both. If the results are extrapolated to the higher speeds that are typical of the game of baseball, they suggest that a curveball can be hit with greater backspin than a fastball, but by an amount that is less than would be the case in the absence of tangential compliance.

  6. Hoarding: From a Symptom to a Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheyla Dogan Bulut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hoarding is a psychological disorder characterized by excessive collecting, storage and inability to discard large quantities of the objects, usually accompanying a severe level of distress or dysfunctionality. Despite the concept has been known for more than a century, it used to be conceptualized as a component of obsessive compulsive disorder. However, hoarding disorder appears as a distinct psychiatric disorder in the last updated version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5. Accordingly, in this review we aimed to make a general framework in understanding of hoarding disorder which is an attention-grabbing diagnosis in these days. In this regard, we addressed the etiology, clinical features of, and treatment approaches to hoarding disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 319-332

  7. GRB 130427A: a Nearby Ordinary Monster

    CERN Document Server

    Maselli, A; Nava, L; Mundell, C G; Kawai, N; Campana, S; Covino, S; Cummings, J R; Cusumano, G; Evans, P A; Ghirlanda, G; Ghisellini, G; Guidorzi, C; Kobayashi, S; Kuin, P; La Parola, V; Mangano, V; Oates, S; Sakamoto, T; Serino, M; Virgili, F; Zhang, B -B; Barthelmy, S; Beardmore, A; Bernardini, M G; Bersier, D; Burrows, D; Calderone, G; Capalbi, M; Chiang, J; D'Avanzo, P; D'Elia, V; De Pasquale, M; Fugazza, D; Gehrels, N; Gomboc, A; Harrison, R; Hanayama, H; Japelj, J; Kennea, J; Kopac, D; Kouveliotou, C; Kuroda, D; Levan, A; Malesani, D; Marshall, F; Nousek, J; O'Brien, P; Osborne, J P; Pagani, C; Page, K L; Page, M; Perri, M; Pritchard, T; Romano, P; Saito, Y; Sbarufatti, B; Salvaterra, R; Steele, I; Tanvir, N; Vianello, G; Weigand, B; Wiersema, K; Yatsu, Y; Yoshii, T; Tagliaferri, G

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are an extremely rare outcome of the collapse of massive stars, and are typically found in the distant Universe. Because of its intrinsic luminosity ($L\\sim 3 \\times 10^{53}$ erg s$^{-1}$) and its relative proximity ($z=0.34$), GRB 130427A was a unique event that reached the highest fluence observed in the gamma-ray band. Here we present a comprehensive multiwavelength view of GRB 130427A with Swift, the 2-m Liverpool and Faulkes telescopes and by other ground-based facilities, highlighting the evolution of the burst emission from the prompt to the afterglow phase. The properties of GRB 130427A are similar to those of the most luminous, high-redshift GRBs, suggesting that a common central engine is responsible for producing GRBs in both the contemporary and the early Universe and over the full range of GRB isotropic energies.

  8. A Wonderful Adventure to a Rainforest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼雯雯

    2005-01-01

    I’d like to go to a rainforest—the place I’ve alw ays dream t of going to. D uring m y long holiday in M ay, it m ay take a w eek to be on m y adventure. A nd I think it’ll be a really fantastic journey as there m ust be a va- riety of creatures along m y w ay. W henever I get tired and bored,they’ll cheer m e up.D if- ferent creatures m ake m e excited. A nd the m ore dangerous m y journey is, the m ore curi- ous I w ill be. I m ay get to m y destination by air, but in order to enjoy m y journey to the ful...

  9. Electrophoresis of a polyelectrolyte through a nanopore

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosal, S

    2006-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model for determining the electrophoretic speed of a polyelectrolyte through a nanopore is presented. It is assumed that the speed is determined by a balance of electrical and viscous forces arising from within the pore and that classical continuum electrostatics and hydrodynamics may be considered applicable. An explicit formula for the translocation speed as a function of the pore geometry and other physical parameters is obtained and is shown to be consistent with experimental measurements on DNA translocation through nanopores in silicon membranes. Experiments also show a weak dependence of the translocation speed on polymer length that is not accounted for by the present model. It is hypothesized that this is due to secondary effects that are neglected here.

  10. A água e a vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ CARLOS BRUNI

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de exercício de interpretação da frase “tudo é água”, atribuída a Tales de Mileto. Depois da exposição dos pontos de vista do senso comum, da ciência e da filosofia sobre a utilidade da água para a vida, tenta-se recuperar, na dimensão simbólica, suas significações mais profundas como fonte, purificação e regeneração da vida humana. O artigo sugere que a poluição das águas pela moderna sociedade industrial agride brutalmente não só a vida biológica como também a vida psíquica.

  11. Telecom 2-A (TC2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, J.; Latour, J.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Telecom 2-A (TC2A) are summarized. The Telecom 2-A will provide high-speed data link applications, telephone, and television service between France and overseas territories. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  12. Opportunity of a Lifetime: A Student's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his journey of obstacles he has endured in his life. The author's journey begins in Tequila, a small town of Mexico, with his cherished and young mother giving birth at the age of 16. He is the oldest and only son, in a family of two younger sisters and two hard-working parents. Poverty has been a reality for his…

  13. Transforming a small business: A learning intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article reports on a learning intervention in a brokers company with fewer than 50 employees. A rich description of the participants’ experience is provided. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore the use of an experiential learning process during an organisation development (OD intervention in a small business by means of a case study.Motivation for the study: This study explored the important role of small businesses; the role of management; and, more specifically, organisation development models that were developed for large corporations; as these emphasise the need to study the purpose of organisation development interventions in small businesses.Research design, approach and method: The study reported on in this article was a qualitative case study in a small brokers company with 21 staff members. The data were analysed manually by means of qualitative content analysis.Main findings: The main finding of the research concerned how experiential learning intervention provided a space for participants to start exploring, and gradually changing the dynamics of their small business, by transforming their business into a more formal company.Practical/managerial implications: The primary implication is that experiential learning interventions that are operationalised, from a psychodynamic perspective, can be valuable when consulted by small businesses during their transformation towards becoming more formal companies.Contribution/value-add: This article contributes to the OD literature on small businesses, with fewer than 50 employees, by providing data on how the learning process, that commenced during an experiential learning intervention, assisted a small company to develop its identity towards that of a more formal company.

  14. A dynamical model of a GRID market

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Uli; Harrison, Peter; Paczuski, Maya; Shah, Tejas

    2004-01-01

    We discuss potential market mechanisms for the GRID. A complete dynamical model of a GRID market is defined with three types of agents. Providers, middlemen and users exchange universal GRID computing units (GCUs) at varying prices. Providers and middlemen have strategies aimed at maximizing profit while users are 'satisficing' agents, and only change their behavior if the service they receive is sufficiently poor or overpriced. Preliminary results from a multi-agent numerical simulation of t...

  15. Shame : a pastoral study / Craig A. Brannan

    OpenAIRE

    Brannan, Craig Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Shame may be considered one of the most painful emotions that an individual must endure. Recent research within the scientific discipline of theology has identified the fact that there has been little theological study on shame from a basis-theoretical perspective. This has resulted in a deficiency of theological-practical interventions to assist pastoral counsellors and believers in addressing shame from a Biblical-integrative perspective. Although many of the scientific disci...

  16. Cosmic strings - A problem or a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David P.; Bouchet, Francois R.

    1988-01-01

    The most fundamental issue in the theory of cosmic strings is addressed by means of Numerical Simulations: the existence of a scaling solution. The resolution of this question will determine whether cosmic strings can form the basis of an attractive theory of galaxy formation or prove to be a cosmological disaster like magnetic monopoles or domain walls. After a brief discussion of our numerical technique, results are presented which, though still preliminary, offer the best support to date of this scaling hypothesis.

  17. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    One sign of a good task is that it will work just as well with Year 7 as with Year 13. The author asks learners to use graph-drawing software to draw a picture with graphs. He uses his imagination to suggest what a particular curve might resemble and helps learners to adjust their drawings to achieve what they are trying to make. Sometimes, one…

  18. A numerical simulation of a contrail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L.; Boin, M.; Meinert, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The formation of a contrail from an aircraft flying near the tropopause is simulated using a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model including a very complex scheme of parameterized cloud microphysical processes. The model predicted ice concentrations are in very good agreement with data measured during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE), 1989. Sensitivity simulations were run to determine humidity forcing on the life time of contrails. (author) 4 refs.

  19. Dialog between a Lexicographer and a Translator

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Kit; Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-01-01

    Dialog between a Lexicographer and a TranslatorThe discussion between the authors of the paper concerns the most pressing issues encountered in natural language semantics, as well as in corpus linguistics and computational linguistics. A broad range of knowledge, allowing linguists and information scientists to work together, is required in these areas. The paper describes some primary problems of human and machine translation caused by gaps between different fields of knowledge. The authors ...

  20. [A gun silencer of a special kind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, C; Schyma, P; Milbradt, H

    2000-01-01

    The authors report about a small bore pistol with silencer. In addition, the silencer can be sealed up by a rubber plate. This leads to a false estimation of the shooting distance. Also at close range shots the shot with the silencer and the rubber seal leaves hardly gunshot residues. The bullet wipe persists but microradiography shows his changed morphological composition. The use of the rubber seal leads predominantly to atypical bullet holes. PMID:10829239

  1. A Brain Gain with a Brain Drain

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded; Prskawetz, Alexia; Helmenstein, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: We study human capital depletion and formation in an economy open to out-migration, as opposed to an economy which is closed. Under the natural assumption of asymmetric information, the enlarged opportunities and the associated different structure of incentives can give rise to a brain gain in conjunction with a brain drain. Migration by high-skill members of its workforce notwithstanding, the home country can end up with a higher average level of human capital per worker.;

  2. A conversation with Marvin A. Schneiderman

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Richard M.

    1997-01-01

    Marvin A. Schneiderman was born on December 25, 1918, in Brooklyn, New York. He received a B.S. degree in mathematics and statistics from the City College of New York in 1939, an M.S. degree in statistics from American University in 1953 and a Ph.D. in statistics from American University in 1961. Additional graduate training and research was done at Ohio State University, Harvard Graduate School of Business and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He is a Fell...

  3. A tandem repeat gene in a picornavirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Forss, S; Schaller, H

    1982-01-01

    Three closely related genes for the small genome-linked protein (VPg) of picornaviruses have been identified by sequence analysis as a tandem repeat in the genome of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), strain O1K. This unusual structure was also found in the genome of strain C1O, belonging to a different FMDV serotype. Predicted biochemical properties of the three VPg gene products are in excellent agreement with the data from protein analysis of a heterogeneous VPg population from a third F...

  4. Converting a Display Screen into a Touchscreen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Wang; Jun Cheng; San-Ming Shen; Yi-Jiang Shen; Jian-Xin Pang

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented to convert any display screen into a touchscreen by using a pair of cameras. Most state of art touchscreens make use of special touch-sensitive hardware or depend on infrared sensors in various configurations. We describe a novel computer-vision-based method that can robustly identify fingertips and detect touch with a precision of a few millimeters above the screen. In our system, the two cameras capture the display screen image simultaneously. Users can interact with a computer by the fingertip on the display screen. We have two important contributions:first, we develop a simple and robust hand detection method based on predicted images. Second, we determine whether a physical touch takes places by the homography of the two cameras. In this system, the appearance of the display screen in camera images is inherently predictable from the computer output images. Therefore, we can compute the predicted images and extract human hand precisely by simply subtracting the predicted images from captured images.

  5. A pipette dispenses a charged droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Horim; Im, Do Jin; Kang, In Seok; Kang, Kwan Hyoung

    2012-11-01

    Micropipettes are widely used in many scientific and engineering fields. However, it is hardly known that a droplet dispensed from a plastic pipette tip has a considerable amount of charges (order of 10-10 C). Here we report that the charged droplet is dispensed from a commercial and disposable plastic pipette tip and this charge is originated from the natural electrification between a solution and the inner surface of the pipette tip. The charge amount is dependent on not only the physicochemical properties of a solution (e.g., pH and a concentration) but also dispensing environments (e.g., atmospheric humidity and type of commercial pipette tip). To investigate the effects of the charge on the droplet dispensing, we calculate the electrical force between the droplet and the pipette tip though numerical simulation. The micropipette users especially, who are dealing with discrete droplets in their experiments, should consider this charge effect in their dispensing of a droplet. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant No. R0A-2007-000-20098-0 funded by the Korea government (MEST) and No. 20090083510 through Multiphenomena CFD Engineering Research Center.

  6. A City Is a Complex Network

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    A city is not a tree but a semi-lattice. To use a more fashionable term, a city is a complex network. The complex network constitutes a unique topological perspective on cities and enables us to better understand the kind of problem a city is. The topological perspective differentiates it from the perspectives of Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics that deal with essentially regular shapes and more or less similar things. Many urban theories, such as the Central Place Theory, Zipf's Law, the Image of the City, and the Theory of Centers can be interpreted from the point of view of complex networks. A livable city consists of far more small things than large ones, and their shapes tend to be irregular and rough. This chapter illustrates the complex network view and argues that we must abandon the kind of thinking guided by Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, and instead adopt fractal geometry, power-law statistics, and Alexander's living geometry to develop sustainable cities. Keywords: Scaling, ...

  7. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  8. Simulating a Guitar with a Conventional Sonometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Zily; Gower, Christina M.; Varieschi, Gabriele U.

    Musical acoustics is an interesting sub-field of physics which is usually able to engage students in a dual perspective, by combining science and art together. The physics principles involved in most musical instruments can be easily demonstrated with standard laboratory equipment and can become part of lecture or lab activities. In particular, we will show in this paper how to simulate a guitar using a conventional sonometer, in relation to the problem of the instrument intonation, i.e., how to obtain correctly tuned notes on a guitar or similar string instruments.

  9. Simulating a guitar with a conventional sonometer

    CERN Document Server

    Burstein, Zily; Varieschi, Gabriele U

    2011-01-01

    Musical acoustics is an interesting sub-field of physics which is usually able to engage students in a dual perspective, by combining science and art together. The physics principles involved in most musical instruments can be easily demonstrated with standard laboratory equipment and can become part of lecture or lab activities. In particular, we will show in this paper how to simulate a guitar using a conventional sonometer, in relation to the problem of the instrument intonation, i.e., how to obtain correctly tuned notes on a guitar or similar string instruments.

  10. Death ends a Life not a Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2015-01-01

    When parents are expecting, the child is usually awaited with hope and plans and reflections on how to share the life and future with this new child. As such the child opens the parents' perspective to a new future, a span of time or potentiality, a certain narrative—that is, being parents, raising...... and are not about “translating” the everyday experience into, for instance, a religious realm. Rather “the work of ritual … involves developing repertoires that operate in complex interplay with the world of everyday experience” and, eventually, through time and repetition, lead to re-experiencing life....

  11. A method for making a battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamadzaki, K.; Kumano, Y.; Nakanisi, M.; Yamane, T.

    1982-08-09

    A layer of electrolyte which is melted with heating is made by pressing at a pressure of 0.1 to 0.8 tons of force per square centimeter a powder form compound. The inorganic adsorbent is first impregnated with an electrolyte, hardened by cooling and ground. The obtained disk with an interior opening is pressed at high pressure of 0.5 to 3 tons of force per square centimeter with a layer of an agglomerate mass. Elements made from the two layered disk, the anode and the body, have high mechanical strength. The internal resistance in the element is reduced. The battery has high discharge characteristics.

  12. Towards a personalized Internet: a case for a full decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermarrec, Anne-Marie

    2013-03-28

    The Web has become a user-centric platform where users post, share, annotate, comment and forward content be it text, videos, pictures, URLs, etc. This social dimension creates tremendous new opportunities for information exchange over the Internet, as exemplified by the surprising and exponential growth of social networks and collaborative platforms. Yet, niche content is sometimes difficult to retrieve using traditional search engines because they target the mass rather than the individual. Likewise, relieving users from useless notification is tricky in a world where there is so much information and so little of interest for each and every one of us. We argue that ultra-specific content could be retrieved and disseminated should search and notification be personalized to fit this new setting. We also argue that users' interests should be implicitly captured by the system rather than relying on explicit classifications simply because the world is by nature unstructured, dynamic and users do not want to be hampered in their actions by a tight and static framework. In this paper, we review some existing personalization approaches, most of which are centralized. We then advocate the need for fully decentralized systems because personalization raises two main issues. Firstly, personalization requires information to be stored and maintained at a user granularity which can significantly hurt the scalability of a centralized solution. Secondly, at a time when the 'big brother is watching you' attitude is prominent, users may be more and more reluctant to give away their personal data to the few large companies that can afford such personalization. We start by showing how to achieve personalization in decentralized systems and conclude with the research agenda ahead. PMID:23419849

  13. What Is a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a gastroenterologist for the last 25 years. And, we are about to do a colonoscopy, which is ... that will prevent colon cancer from forming. So, we have become a standard. We are in a ...

  14. A Proposal for a Mindset of a Project Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joakim; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2008-01-01

    -changing project environment. However, this research shows that there is unnecessary uncertainty in planning and controlling decisions when project changes occur. The uncertainty is manifested in not considering performance aspects of the project and the product in a wider organisational context. Visualization...... of this paper is to propose a mindset for clarification of decision situations when changes has occurred. The proposed mindset is supposed to aid project managers when handling project changes by reducing complexity in project planning and supporting the articulation of uncertainties....

  15. A Journey from a Corruption Port to a Tax Haven

    OpenAIRE

    Hebous, Shafik; Lipatov, Vilen

    2012-01-01

    We sketch a model according to which tax havens attract corporate income generated in corrupted countries. We consider the choice of optimal bribes by corrupt o¢ cials and the share of the proceeds of corruption that will be concealed in tax havens. In our framework, tax havens have two opposite e¤ects on welfare. First, tax havens?services have a positive e¤ect on welfare through encouraging investment by ?rms fearing expropriation and bribes in corrupt countries. Second, by supporting corru...

  16. Vampire as a metaphor

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Bojan G.

    2004-01-01

    A vampire, as a demonized deceased human, is used as a specific metaphor to explain unknown sources of various troubles in a community. A malicious deceased one is a mythical creature and as such is to blame for the existing troubles in a community; the creature, in turn, becomes a subject i.e., a victim in a ritual performed to avert the difficulties, so that the community in question could return to its daily life. A myth revival establishes diagnosis and appropriate therapy for the crisis ...

  17. Motion of a Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Wynn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to derive and solve the equation of motion for a pendulum swinging at small angles in one dimension. The pendulum may be either a simple pendulum like a ball hanging from a string or a physical pendulum like a pendulum on a clock. For simplicity, we only considered small rotational angles so that the equation of motion becomes a harmonic oscillator.

  18. Glomus jugulare (Type A: A case review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod T Kandakure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a glomus jugulare tumor in a 60 yrs old female; non diabetic, non hypertensive who presented with continuous pulsatile hissing tinnitus in right ear with progressive hearing impairment and fullness in the ear. Detailed history and examination with aid of investigations it turned out to be glomus jugulare, treated by surgical excision by post auricular hypotympanotomy approach.

  19. Locating a circle on a sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a spherical circle with respect to existing facilities on a sphere, such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the facilities is minimized, or such that the maximum weighted distance is minimized. The problem properties are analyzed, and we ...

  20. Death ends a life, not a relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In the final chapter, “Death Ends a Life, not a Relationship: objects as media on children’s graves”, Dorthe Refslund Christensen and Kjetil Sandvik investigate the relational affordances offered by objects as media in practices of death and commemoration on children’s graves. The authors argue t...

  1. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dental words mean. The Life of a Tooth games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | Newsroom | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | Reprints and Permissions | Privacy Statement | Terms and Conditions © 1996-2016 Academy of General Dentistry. All Rights Reserved.

  2. A Miracle over A Decadef Wuxi Sunmart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Miracle started A decade ago, Wuxi Sunmart was just no name.At that time, few people noticed Jiangsu Snow Leopard Atomi-zation Pot Industry Limited Company, which was established in early 1998, as it was a small workshop with the registered capital of only RMB 1.6 million.And that is where Wuxi Sunmart's miracle began.

  3. Matematicas: Nivel A (Mathematics: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual objectives, vocabulary, and structures are included. Activities are designed to teach either…

  4. A tribute to James A. Holcombe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    My first interaction with Jim Holcombe was by letter in late 1977 (well before our instant e-mail communications age we all enjoy and/or curse). Jim was enquiring via some subtle questions about a paper I had recently published in Analytical Chemistry on the mechanisms of atomization in the graphite furnace. This brief correspondence initiated a 35 year period of technical interaction and friendship which literally carried us throughout the world to many conferences and more than a few shared hotel rooms in the days when one would make sacrifices to reduce travel costs to enable conference attendance. At the SciX 2013 (FACSS) meeting in Milwaukee WI, a special symposium was organized by John Molloy in honor of Jim's achievements. This was the closest "public" venue to correspond with Jim's announced 2013 spring retirement and his "exit" from a working career at the Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin. It was a distinct honor for me to have Nicolo Omenetto ask if I would help coordinate this special issue of Spectrochim. Acta, Part B in honor of Jim's career/achievements. This gives me the opportunity to publicly comment on my personal association with this "Texas" gentleman from Colorado, a genuine "out of the box" thinker, a productive, highly acknowledged but humble character that I am grateful to have known, and with whom I have traveled the world and enjoyed so many good times.

  5. A Reverse Shock in GRB 160509A

    CERN Document Server

    Laskar, Tanmoy; Berger, Edo; Fong, Wen-fai; Margutti, Raffaella; Shivvers, Isaac; Williams, Peter K G; Kopac, Drejc; Kobayashi, Shiho; Mundell, Carole; Gomboc, Andreja; Zheng, WeiKang; Menten, Karl M; Graham, Melissa L; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2016-01-01

    We present the second multi-frequency radio detection of a reverse shock in a $\\gamma$-ray burst. By combining our extensive radio observations of the Fermi-LAT GRB 160509A at $z = 1.17$ up to $20$ days after the burst with Swift X-ray observations and ground-based optical and near-infrared data, we show that the afterglow emission comprises distinct reverse shock and forward shock contributions: the reverse shock emission dominates in the radio band at $\\lesssim10~$days, while the forward shock emission dominates in the X-ray, optical, and near-infrared bands. Through multi-wavelength modeling, we determine a circumburst density of $n_0\\approx10^{-3}~$cm$^{-3}$, supporting our previous suggestion that a low-density circumburst environment is conducive to the production of long-lasting reverse shock radiation in the radio band. We infer the presence of a large excess X-ray absorption column, $N_{\\rm H} \\approx 1.5\\times10^{22}~$cm$^{-2}$, and a high rest-frame optical extinction, $A_{\\rm V}\\approx3.4~$mag. We...

  6. From a magnet to a heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navickaité, Kristina; Neves Bez, Henrique; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is the thermal response of a magnetic material to an applied magnetic field. Magnetic cooling is a promising alternative to conventional vapor compression technology in near room temperature applications and has experienced significant developments over the last fi...

  7. Locating a circle on a sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a spherical circle with respect to existing facilities on a sphere, such that the sum of distances between the circle and the facilities is minimized or such that the maximum distance is minimized. The problem properties are analyzed, and we give solution proce...

  8. Danish - a Language with a Future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    1999-01-01

    A project on the use of English for academic purposes in Denmark has revealed that the academic article written in Danish may be a dying genre. Based on this finding and on observations on the use of English in Danish texts (or contexts), the future of the Danish language and of translation and i...

  9. "One Wears a Melon, Another a Cylinder"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe

    This paper analyses interviews with exchange students in four Scandinavian universities and conducts a longitudinal analysis of three picture descriptions spread over a twenty-week period. It briefly describes the opportunities available to exchange students for language learning, both English an...

  10. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede;

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined...

  11. A farmer becomes a social pedagogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellon, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Summary: In Denmark various non-traditional students are mature-age students who already have some kind of a vocational background. When applying to do a professional degree, most of them fall outside the traditional admission requirements, which is why individual assessment of applicants is nece...

  12. A smectic A polymorphism at low temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Sigaud, G.; Achard, M. F.; Hardouin, F.; Gasparoux, H.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence is given for the first time at low temperature of an example of a polymorphism of smectic A phases, in mixtures of cyanocyclohexylcyclohexane with aminopyrene. We briefly discuss the conditions required to stabilize bilayered fluid smectics in such new cyano-amino associated systems.

  13. A false explosion for a real intervention

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Together with their French and Swiss counterparts, the CERN Fire Brigade carried out a spectacular exercise in the LHCb cavern. It was designed to test the coordination of the fire and rescue services of the Organization's two Host States. Inside a temporary medical station set up above ground, the emergency teams deliver medical care to the injured before they are taken to hospital.An accident victim in the underground cavern about to be evacuated. 'I was taking a group of visitors on a tour of the LHCb cavern when there was a huge explosion and I suffered serious burns to the thorax. The rescue services arrived on the scene and I was taken to the medical station'. Fortunately, this is not an account of real events but a scenario given to one of 20 volunteer 'victims' who took part in a large-scale safety exercise in the LHCb cavern. On 26 September, the CERN Fire Brigade organised a spectacular exercise in collaboration with the CERN Medical Service, the Fire and Rescue Service (SDIS) of the Department of t...

  14. Urihi A: A Terra-Floresta Yanomami

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Review of Urihi A: A Terra-Floresta Yanomami. Bruce Albert and William Milliken with Gale Goodwin Gomez. São Paulo: Instituto Socioambiental, 2009. 207 pp., illustrations, tables, bibliography, appendices, index. Paperback ISBN: 978‐85 85994‐72‐3.

  15. A Proposal for a Civics Study Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Stuart Paul; Richman, Paul Jeffrey

    1978-01-01

    Two high school students recommend a civics study program which would include (1) a required course on governmental structure, responsibilities, and the U.S. Constitution, and (2) elective courses on crime, juvenile delinquency, state and local government, and history of constitutional law. (AV)

  16. Radioactivity a history of a mysterious science

    CERN Document Server

    Malley, Marjorie C

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with an obscure discovery in 1896, radioactivity led researchers on a quest for understanding that ultimately confronted the intersection of knowledge and mystery. This book tells the story of a new science that profoundly changed physics and chemistry, as well as areas such as medicine, geology, meteorology, archaeology, industry, politics, and popular culture.

  17. Just a routine operation: a critical discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, G; Smith, M B

    2016-05-01

    This article has summarised a critical discussion of the human factors that contributed to the death of a patient from a failure to respond appropriately to a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. The contributory factors included the clinical team's inability to communicate, prioritise tasks and demonstrate effective leadership and assertive followership. The film Just a routine operation has now been in circulation for several years. When a system is designed and introduced with the intention of making a change to clinical practice, it can quickly become just another component of an organisation's architecture and complacency around its use can develop. This article has been written specifically for perioperative practitioners to renew the debate around the human factors that contribute to patient harm. By critically discussing Just a routine operation and attempting to review why the incident occurred, this article has attempted to emphasise that some of the conditions and behaviours that contributed to the death of Elaine Bromiley may be latent within our organisations and teams, and may continue to contribute to failures that affect patient safety.

  18. [A cylinder aneurysm of a penile prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, J; Bartel, P; Göcking, K

    2011-07-01

    Herniation of a penile prosthesis (cylinder aneurysm) is an extremely rare complication of penile prosthesis surgery. We report the first case of such an aneurysm in a patient with spinal cord injury. The treatment of choice is surgical revision with replacement of the faulty device. Filling of the implanted system with contrast media facilitates preoperative diagnostic workup. PMID:21567276

  19. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisi, Stephen, Jr.; Yu, Kristina; Lambertson, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The old adage that a picture is worth a thousand words also holds true in cell biology. Much of the knowledge that we have of the structures and functions of cells has been acquired by biologists peering through the eyepieces of microscopes. The point of this lesson is to provide an opportunity for students to observe cell biological data while…

  20. A linguistic integration of a biological database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado-Vides, J. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelos (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    One of the major theoretical concerns associated with the Human Genome Project is that of the methodology to decipher ``raw`` sequences of DNA. This work is concerned with a subsequent problem, the one of how huge amounts of already deciphered information that will emerge in the near future can be integrated in order to enhance their biological understanding. The formal foundations for a linguistic theory of the regulation of gene expression will be discussed. The linguistic analysis presented here is restricted to sequences with known biological function since: (1) there is no way to obtain, from DNA sequences alone, a regulatory representation of transcription units, and (2) the elements of substitution -- methodologically equivalent to phonemes -- are complete sequences of the binding sites of proteins. The authors have recently collected and analyzed the regulatory regions of a large number of E. coli promoters. The number of sigma 70 promoters studied may well represent the largest homogeneous body of knowledge of gene regulation at present. This collection is a data set for the construction of a grammar of the sigma 70 system of transcription and regulation. This grammatical model generates all the arrays of the collection, as well as novel combinations predicted to be consistent with the principles of the data set. This Grammar is testable, as well as expandable if the analysis of emerging data requires it. The elaboration of a linguistic methodology capable of integrating prokaryotic data constitutes a preliminary step towards the analysis and integration of the more complex eukaryotic systems of regulation.

  1. A Small Essay About a Big Boulevard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the analogies of turning city borders and walls into boulevards and gardens through the examples of Moscow and Irkutsk. The main street of Irkutsk is viewed in a new light, as a boulevard. It is proposed to take into consideration the peculiarities of the four sense-parts of the street when working on design codes.

  2. Building a Digital Library on a Shoestring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Kate Foster; Creighton, Alma

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss ways one can create a digital library on a shoestring despite the current high technology costs. Here, they describe the University of South Carolina's digital library development. The cost associated with building and maintaining the digital collections seems to have been worth it based on the feedback that…

  3. Keeping a Marine Aquarium - A Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Christopher

    Presented is advice on how to set up and maintain a saltwater aquarium, and a discussion on everything from algae growth to constructing an underground filter to hatch brine shrimp. Information on which tropical and temperate animals are appropriate for marine aquaria and how to collect them is also included. (Author/SB)

  4. A toolkit for a generative lexicon

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe the conception of a software toolkit designed for the construction, maintenance and collaborative use of a Generative Lexicon. In order to ease its portability and spreading use, this tool was built with free and open source products. We eventually tested the toolkit and showed it filters the adequate form of anaphoric reference to the modifier in endocentric compounds.

  5. A step up for a few postdocs

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Dutch postdocs at the Netherlands Cancer Institute complained recently of their lack of research independance and poor career progress. As a result they are now getting a proper career structure. Other institutions should also tackle this problem before serious recruitment problems develop (1/2 p).

  6. Just a routine operation: a critical discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, G; Smith, M B

    2016-05-01

    This article has summarised a critical discussion of the human factors that contributed to the death of a patient from a failure to respond appropriately to a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. The contributory factors included the clinical team's inability to communicate, prioritise tasks and demonstrate effective leadership and assertive followership. The film Just a routine operation has now been in circulation for several years. When a system is designed and introduced with the intention of making a change to clinical practice, it can quickly become just another component of an organisation's architecture and complacency around its use can develop. This article has been written specifically for perioperative practitioners to renew the debate around the human factors that contribute to patient harm. By critically discussing Just a routine operation and attempting to review why the incident occurred, this article has attempted to emphasise that some of the conditions and behaviours that contributed to the death of Elaine Bromiley may be latent within our organisations and teams, and may continue to contribute to failures that affect patient safety. PMID:27400489

  7. A Super Computer For a Super City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANCISCO; LITTLE

    2011-01-01

    It’s a gigantic construction site that stretches beyond the horizon. Blue and red heavy-duty trucks in endless lines trundle about beneath a gaggle of cranes hoisting steel. And all the while enormous ultramodern buildings,bearing the names of the largest local and international companies,rise from the earth.

  8. A Report on A Christmas Carol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志聪

    2010-01-01

    @@ Charles Dickens is generally considered the greatest English novelist of the Victorian period,as well as a vigorous social campaigner.His works are characterized by attacks on social evils,injustice and hypocrisy,and among which there is one that Dickens called his "little Christmas Book",that is A Christmas Carol.

  9. A view to a (staged) kill?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    with a perception of deeper meaning. For ardent non-hunters it may be hard to understand the meaning of enjoying nature by shooting at other living beings. This lack of mutual understanding makes it difficult to create a dialogue. However, the issue is not just about whether or not to accept hunting but also...

  10. A Monopole Near a Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bunster, C; Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc

    2007-01-01

    We study an electric charge held at rest outside a magnetically charged black hole. We find that even if the electric charge is treated as a perturbation on a spherically symmetric magnetic Reissner-Nordstrom hole, the geometry at large distances is that of a magnetic Kerr-Newman black hole. When the charge approaches the horizon and crosses it, the exterior geometry becomes that of a Kerr-Newman hole with electric and magnetic charges and with total angular momentum given by the standard value for a charged monopole pair. Thus, in accordance with the "no-hair theorem", once the charge is captured by the black hole, the angular momentum associated with the charge monopole system, looses all traces of its exotic origin and it is perceived from the outside as common rotation. It is argued that a similar analysis performed on Taub-NUT space should give the same result, namely, if one holds an ordinary mass outside of the horizon of a Taub-NUT space with only magnetic mass, the system, as seen from large distance...

  11. [A strong man with a weak shoulder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henket, Marjolijn; Lycklama á Nijeholt, Geert J; van der Zwaal, Peer

    2013-01-01

    A 47-year-old former olympic athlete had pain and weakness of his left shoulder. There was no prior trauma. He had full range-of-motion and a scapular dyskinesia. There was atrophy of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus muscles. He was diagnosed with 'idiopathic neuritis of the accessorius nerve'. PMID:24326139

  12. A child with pica. A case presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Rosa Pérez González

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a 4 year old child who was brought to the provincial Pediatric Hospital because of faecal stones. Iron deficit and intestinal parasites were found . The patient received treatment for 6 months till the ingestion of stones disappeared with the control of the etiologic factors that caused it.

  13. Marketing Education on a Shoestring: A Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreeve, William; And Others

    Few educators envision themselves as marketing or public relations experts, yet economic reality is forcing many academicians into these roles. Over the past four years, the Eastern Washington University Department of Education has developed a successful marketing model for educators. The model begins with a successful reform of department…

  14. A case of ectrodactyly in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathia, Mitul B; Seta, Avani A; Parmar, Parin N

    2013-07-01

    Ectrodactyly also known as Split hand/foot malformation is a rare limb malformation with autosomal dominant in heritance with variable penetrance, commonly known as "lobster claw hand". Usually it involves midline clefts of the hands and feet with syndactyly. We report a neonate with ectrodactyly and brief review of literature of condition. PMID:24251264

  15. A Case of Ectrodactyly in a Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Kalathia, Mitul B.; Seta, Avani A.; Parmar, Parin N.

    2013-01-01

    Ectrodactyly also known as Split hand/foot malformation is a rare limb malformation with autosomal dominant in heritance with variable penetrance, commonly known as "lobster claw hand". Usually it involves midline clefts of the hands and feet with syndactyly. We report a neonate with ectrodactyly and brief review of literature of condition.

  16. Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

  17. A phylogenetic blueprint for a modern whale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesy, John; Geisler, Jonathan H; Chang, Joseph; Buell, Carl; Berta, Annalisa; Meredith, Robert W; Springer, Mark S; McGowen, Michael R

    2013-02-01

    The emergence of Cetacea in the Paleogene represents one of the most profound macroevolutionary transitions within Mammalia. The move from a terrestrial habitat to a committed aquatic lifestyle engendered wholesale changes in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. The results of this remarkable transformation are extant whales that include the largest, biggest brained, fastest swimming, loudest, deepest diving mammals, some of which can detect prey with a sophisticated echolocation system (Odontoceti - toothed whales), and others that batch feed using racks of baleen (Mysticeti - baleen whales). A broad-scale reconstruction of the evolutionary remodeling that culminated in extant cetaceans has not yet been based on integration of genomic and paleontological information. Here, we first place Cetacea relative to extant mammalian diversity, and assess the distribution of support among molecular datasets for relationships within Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates, including Cetacea). We then merge trees derived from three large concatenations of molecular and fossil data to yield a composite hypothesis that encompasses many critical events in the evolutionary history of Cetacea. By combining diverse evidence, we infer a phylogenetic blueprint that outlines the stepwise evolutionary development of modern whales. This hypothesis represents a starting point for more detailed, comprehensive phylogenetic reconstructions in the future, and also highlights the synergistic interaction between modern (genomic) and traditional (morphological+paleontological) approaches that ultimately must be exploited to provide a rich understanding of evolutionary history across the entire tree of Life.

  18. How Could a Beaver Start a War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Students gain a better understanding of war and economics when the variables come alive through stories, artifacts, and paintings. In this article, the author describes a short story about the fur trade which can generate lots of student questions about the fur economics, the Eastern Woodland Indians, trade artifacts, and war. The author also…

  19. What makes a child a 'competent' child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, Amanda; Water, Tineke; Rasmussen, Shayne; Diesfeld, Kate

    2015-12-01

    Competence is a vital component of the informed consent process. The perceived level of a child's competence may influence their degree of participation in health decisions that affect them. It is the responsibility of the health professional to gauge a child's level of competence. Child competence, however, is not a static attribute that is linked to age. Rather, it is dynamic, changing in nature and dependent on a child's previous experiences, personal attributes, network of relationships around them and cultural and environmental context. Consequently, there is no single verified assessment tool to assist in the recognition of competence for New Zealand children. Adding to this complexity are the unclear interpretations of New Zealand health legislation and policy regarding whether or not a child can legally consent or refuse healthcare advice and treatment without the consent of a legal guardian. Under the Care of Children Act 2004 and the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights 1996, the Health and Disability Commissioner states "a child may consent themselves [to health treatment] if and when the child achieves sufficient understanding and maturity to understand fully what is proposed". This paper poses the question: What is 'competency' and how is this decided? For the purpose of this article, 'child' pertains to those under the age of 16 years. PMID:26913912

  20. Could a zygote be a human being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, John

    2010-02-01

    This paper re-examines the question of whether quirks of early human foetal development tell against the view (conceptionism) that we are human beings at conception. A zygote is capable of splitting to give rise to identical twins. Since the zygote cannot be identical with either human being it will become, it cannot already be a human being. Parallel concerns can be raised about chimeras in which two embryos fuse. I argue first that there are just two ways of dealing with cases of fission and fusion and both seem to be available to the conceptionist. One is the Replacement View according to which objects cease to exist when they fission or fuse. The other is the Multiple Occupancy View - both twins may be present already in the zygote and both persist in a chimera. So, is the conceptionist position tenable after all? I argue that it is not. A zygote gives rise not only to a human being but also to a placenta - it cannot already be both a human being and a placenta. Neither approach to fission and fusion can help the conceptionist with this problem. But worse is in store. Both fission and fusion can occur before and after the development of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst - the entity which becomes the embryo proper. The idea that we become human beings with the arrival of the inner cell mass leads to bizarre results however we choose to accommodate fission and fusion.

  1. A military home with a heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowper, Andy

    2010-06-01

    A classically inspired and iconic building by the Thames in south west London, the Royal Hospital Chelsea is home to the equally iconic Chelsea pensioners--retired ex-military staff who have come to live in this unique retirement community. Now the nursing needs of this special group are being met in a new wing of the site, called the Margaret Thatcher Infirmary.

  2. A Fat Higgs with a Magnetic Personality

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Nathaniel; Thaler, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel composite Higgs theory based on confining supersymmetric QCD. Supersymmetric duality plays a key role in this construction, with a "fat" Higgs boson emerging as a dual magnetic degree of freedom charged under the dual magnetic gauge group. Due to spontaneous color-flavor locking in the infrared, the electroweak gauge symmetry is aligned with the dual magnetic gauge group, allowing large Yukawa couplings between elementary matter fields and the composite Higgs. At the same time, this theory exhibits metastable supersymmetry breaking, leading to low-scale gauge mediation via composite messengers. The Higgs boson is heavier than in minimal supersymmetric theories, due to non-decoupling D-terms and a large F-term quartic coupling. This theory predicts quasi-stable TeV-scale pseudo-modulini, some of which are charged under standard model color, possibly giving rise to long-lived R-hadrons at the LHC.

  3. When a body meets a body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelowski, Matthew John; Liu, Tao; Palacios, Victor;

    2014-01-01

    We consider the phenomenon of social interactions within the art museum, arguing that even the bare possibility of meeting others or intruding into their gaze can have a profoundly detrimental effect on art experience. This is done by tracing a finding from our previous studies in which we...... considered three museum galleries—each with the same artist’s paintings and basic layout; the only major difference being design elements within one space encouraging social interaction and in turn causing repressed enjoyment, negative emotional experience and negative art evaluation. We use this example...... as a frame for introducing a model of the psychological impact of social interaction on the behavioral and cognitive experience of art, considering its implications for education—which often focuses on the social—as well as implications for personal or introspective art engagement. We also consider a number...

  4. A new approach to a unified force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assumption is presented that the true structure of the world is a six dimensional (6D) Euclidian space in which our 4D world is embedded properly. Because of the local isomorphism of SO(6) and SU(4) physics developed for this space crystallizes as being very symmetric with only one force and no gravity. Analyzing how this 6D physics can be interpreted by a 4D observer it emerges that the transition seems to be something like a universal remedy. It shows that the result allows formulating our known physics. It gives reason why quantum physics is a probabilistic theory, can explain quarks as transformed 6D symmetry, can deduct our three forces from the one 6D force, can introduce particle mass in the Lagrange density and can implement gravity. The paper presents a structural description. To achieve quantitative results mathematical problems have to be overcome.

  5. Education:a discipline or a field?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongcai

    2007-01-01

    Historically,scholars have made unfailing efforts to position education as a standard science,but no solid success has been achieved regardless of the positivistic paradigm,quantitative approaches,or value-free neutral stances they adopted.In China,scholars have set up a so-called"three independency"standard for the scientific study of education,but it has been finally proved invalid in practice.As interdisciplines permeate the field of education,education experiences a crisis of being colonized.After serious rethinking,interdisciplines were widely believed to do more good than harm to education.Therefore,education is beginning to transform from a"colony"to an"empire".In this transformation,education finds it necessary to break the traditional disciplinary boundaries and make it a field in which interdisciplinary communication is contributory to the enrichment of scholarship.

  6. A broken heart in a broken car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossbauer, Susanne Anna; Ghadri, Jelena-Rima; Cammann, Victoria Lucia; Maier, Willibald; Lüscher, Thomas F; Templin, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is still a relatively understudied and often undetected disease. It is usually preceded by emotional or physical triggers. We here report a case of TTS following a car accident. Typical apical ballooning with moderate reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and increased level of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) as well as slightly increased creatine kinase and troponin T values were found in this 76-year-old female patient, 6 h after a car accident. At 10 weeks follow-up, we observed a normalization of regional wall motion, LVEF, electrocardiogram and pro-BNP. TTS is an acute heart failure syndrome and an important differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. PMID:27377800

  7. Workplace spirituality: A tool or a trend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J.W. Schutte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Workplace spirituality is a construct widely discussed over the past few decades and it is a much-disputed inquiry field which is gaining the interest of practitioners and scholars. Some clarifications regarding concepts and definitions are necessary in order to structure and direct the current debate. The aim of this conceptual article is to gain a better understanding regarding the direction in which this field of study is progressing and to put the question on the table namely, whether workplace spirituality is only a new tool to be used in leadership development or is it a trend to be taken seriously? The results showed that this field has potential to further development. This article can be used as foundation for future studies within the knowledge area of practical theology.

  8. GRB 130427A: A Nearby Ordinary Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, A.; Melandri, A.; Nava, L.; Mundell, C. G.; Kawai, N.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; Cummings, J. R.; Cusumano, G.; Evans, P. A.; Ghirlander, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Guidorzi, C.; Kobayashi, S.; Kuin, P.; La Parola, V.; Mangano, V.; Oates, S.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F.; Wiegand, B.

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are an extremely rare outcome of the collapse of massive stars and are typically found in the distant universe. Because of its intrinsic luminosity (L approx. 3 x 10(exp 53) ergs/s and its relative proximity (z = 0.34), GRB 130427A reached the highest fluence observed in the gamma-ray band. Here, we present a comprehensive multiwavelength view of GRB 130427A with Swift, the 2-meter Liverpool and Faulkes telescopes, and by other ground-based facilities, highlighting the evolution of the burst emission from the prompt to the afterglow phase. The properties of GRB 130427A are similar to those of the most luminous, high-redshift GRBs, suggesting that a common central engine is responsible for producing GRBs in both the contemporary and the early universe and over the full range of GRB isotropic energies.

  9. A fat Higgs with a magnetic personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Stolarski, Daniel; Thaler, Jesse

    2011-11-01

    We introduce a novel composite Higgs theory based on confining supersymmetric QCD. Supersymmetric duality plays a key role in this construction, with a "fat" Higgs boson emerging as a dual magnetic degree of freedom charged under the dual magnetic gauge group. Due to spontaneous color-flavor locking in the infrared, the electroweak gauge symmetry is aligned with the dual magnetic gauge group, allowing large Yukawa couplings between elementary matter fields and the composite Higgs. At the same time, this theory exhibits metastable supersymmetry breaking, leading to low-scale gauge mediation via composite messengers. The Higgs boson is heavier than in minimal supersymmetric theories, due to a large F -term quartic coupling as well as small non-decoupling D-terms. This theory predicts quasi-stable TeV-scale pseudo-modulini, some of which are charged under standard model color, possibly giving rise to long-lived R-hadrons at the LHC.

  10. A cabeça voraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Mindlin

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available o artigo focaliza um mito indígena sobre a cabeça voadora e voraz, registrado pela autora em vários grupos indígenas da Amazônia, como os Tupari, os Macurap, os Jabuti, os Aruá, os Sateré-Mawé. Cada versão do mito tem um enredo diferente, mas o tema intrigante é sempre o mesmo: a mutilação do corpo, a cabeça que se transforma ou cola-se num outro ser. Procura-se mergulhar no significado desse mito, ao qual Claude Lévi-Strauss dedicou boa parte de dois livros magistrais, A origem das maneiras da mesa e A oleira ciumenta, e que foi usado por Mário de Andrade no livro clássico sobre o herói brasileiro, Macunaína, uma das poucas obras de fição brasileira a se inspirar em temas e personagens míticos indígenas. O registro de campo desse mito é uma pequena ponta de um amplo trabalho de documentação da tradição e dos mitos indígenas brasileiros, que a autora vem realizando há alguns anos. A intenção, nesse texto, é compreender a riqueza do imaginário indígena brasileiro, insistir na necessidade de documentar culturas que são nossas contemporâneas e ainda bastante desconhecidas. A fição e a arte brasileiras poderiam ampliar muito o seu universo ao explorar e tentar compreender as raízes brasileiras que nos são dadas por mais de 200 povos indígenas do país. Também para os índios, escrever, contar, divulgar e usar nas próprias escolas os seus mitos é importante para reafirmar a identidade étnica e valorizar sua participação na sociedade brasileira.The article focuses an indian myth about a flying and voracious head, that was told to the author by several indian tribes from the Amazon, such as the Tupari, the Macurap, the Jabuti, the Aruá, the Sateré-Mawé. Each version has a different plot, but the intriguing theme is always the same: the mutilation of the body, a head that is transformed or attaches itself to another being. The essay delves into the meaning of this myth, to which Claude L

  11. A new approach to a unified force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaesser, Juergen

    2012-07-01

    The assumption is presented that the true structure of the world is a six dimensional (6D) Euclidian space in which our 4D world is embedded properly. Because of the local isomorphism of SO(6) and SU(4) physics developed for this space crystallizes as being very symmetric with only one force and no gravity. Analyzing how this 6D physics can be interpreted by a 4D observer it emerges that the transition seems to be something like a universal remedy. It shows that the result allows formulating our known physics. It gives reason why quantum physics is a probabilistic theory, can explain quarks as transformed 6D symmetry, can deduct our three forces from the one 6D force, can introduce particle mass in the Lagrange density and can implement gravity. The paper presents a structural description. To achieve quantitative results mathematical problems have to be overcome.

  12. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  13. A Method for Detecting a Distance, a Radar System and a Computer Program Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prevo, R.; Janssen, J.A.A.J.; Heijster, R.M.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for detecting a distance between a radar system and a reflecting surface. The method comprises the steps of transmitting a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar signal from the radar system and receiving a reflected FMCW radar signal being the transmitted

  14. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de ...

  15. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  16. Gingivectomía a bisel externo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Burgos Fuentes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl propósito de este reporte es describir el alargamiento coronario como tratamiento estético periodontal. La gingivectomía es un tratamiento quirúrgico antiguo. La indicación para la gingivectomía es la eliminación completa de la bolsa periodontal, hiperplasias. El diseño fisiológico del margen libre gingival por el medio quirúrgico debe ser tomado en consideración. Se reporta un caso clínico de un paciente masculino de 32 años de edad que exhibe gran cantidad de encía cuando sonríe. El logro de resultados estéticos excelentes en la terapia no es una cuestión de azar, es algo planificado antes de iniciar el tratamiento. (Duazary 2008; 125-128AbstractThe purpose of this report is to describe the external level gingivectomy as a periodontal esthetic treatment; the gingivectomy is the oldest surgical approach in periodontal therapy. Indication for performance of the gingivectomy is the complete elimination of the periodontal pocket and hyperplasia gingival. The physiologic design of the free gingival margin by surgical means, gingivoplasty, must be taken under consideration. A clinic case is been reported, a 32 years old with a big amount of gum tissue when she smiles. The achievement of excellent esthetics results on a therapy is not a matter of luck, must be into the treatment plan before starting this one.Key words: periodontal treatment; gingivectomy; gingival hyperplasia.

  17. A Variance Explanation Paradox: When a Little Is a Lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Robert P.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that percent variance explanation is a misleading index of the influence of systematic factors in cases where there are processes by which individually tiny influences cumulate to produce meaningful outcomes. An example is the computation of percentage of variance in batting performance among major league baseball players. (Author/CB)

  18. Determining a rotation of a tetrahedron from a projection

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Richard J; Theobald, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    The following problem, arising from medical imaging, is addressed: Suppose that $T$ is a known tetrahedron in $\\R^3$ with centroid at the origin. Also known is the orthogonal projection $U$ of the vertices of the image $\\phi T$ of $T$ under an unknown rotation $\\phi$ about the origin. Under what circumstances can $\\phi$ be determined from $T$ and $U$?

  19. Biodiesel: A fuel, a lubricant, and a solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is well-known as a biogenic alternative to conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It is produced from feedstocks such as plant oils consisting largely of triacylglycerols through transesterification with an alcohol such as methanol. The properties of biodiesel are largely compet...

  20. A Year To Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-01-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Animating Reactions: A Low-Cost Activity for Particle Conceptualization at the Secondary Level, by Robert W. Milne, p 50. * The Gravity of the Situation, by Damon Diemente, p 55. You must be the change you wish to see in the world. Mahatma Ghandi The beginning of a new year always brings with it a feeling of anticipation, a desire to achieve new goals, and a certain urgency to accomplish. Beginning the last year of the 1900s seems somehow to amplify these feelings. This week I was reminded twice of the challenge that lies in focusing on those things that we can change and not being fettered by those we cannot. The first example occurred in my office on a Monday afternoon. A young woman was considering the choice between entering graduate school or seeking a high school teaching position. After approximately 10 years in the workforce, she had entered college and was now within a semester of graduation. While pursuing her studies she had served as a substitute teacher in her home community, believing the experience would affirm her longstanding desire to teach. The behavioral characteristics of some students seemed to be at odds with her memories of high school only a dozen years earlier. Now she was questioning whether she could make a difference in young lives or if she should give up the idea of teaching in high school in favor of graduate degrees in her discipline, which would lead to a career in post-secondary education. Although I assured her that she could indeed have a great impact on high school students, I empathized with the concern she was feeling. The second example occurred the same day, in a class for chemistry majors who are preparing to teach high school chemistry. While considering the importance of performance assessment, with discussion centered on a JCE article ((a href="//1998/jan/abs64.html">Rasp, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 64-66), one class member asked why we only discussed and read about what teachers

  1. Orbit of a Giant and a Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The binary system Procyon, located a mere 11 light-years away, consists of a bright, subgiant star and a faint white dwarf presenting a distinct challenge for astronomers to observe. But careful analysis of two decades of precise measurements with the Hubble Space Telescope has now finally revealed some of its secrets.Challenging ObservationsPerturbations were detected as early as 1844 in the orbit of Procyon, originally thought to be a single star. Astronomers of the time suspected that this wobbling was due to the pull of a companion orbiting Procyon, but it wasnt until five decades later that the companion was first detected visually.Why? Because the subgiant Procyon A is the 8th brightest star in the sky. Its companion, on the other hand, is a white dwarf thats fainter (in visual wavelengths) by a factor of nearly 16,000! And the two stars are separated by an angular distance of less than 5.Due to the difficulty observing the system, the measurements of its motion and resulting estimates of the masses of the two stars have been a subject of debate for the better part of the last century.Led by Howard Bond (Pennsylvania State University and the Space Telescope Science Institute), a team of astronomers has now analyzed two decades of Hubble observations of the system, combined with historical, ground-based observations dating back to the 19th century. Bond and collaborators used these data to precisely measure the orbital elements of Procyon and obtain dynamical masses of the two stars.Surprising MixingRelative orbit of Procyon B around Procyon A. The red curve is the authors fit to the orbit, and the open blue circles are positions predicted by the orbital elements found. The black dots are the HST observations of Procyon B. The open green and turquoise circles are the (significantly less precise!) historical, ground-based observations. [Bond et al. 2015]The team reports that this system orbits once every 40.8 years. They find masses for the two stars of 1

  2. A geomechanical model of a sinkhole formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchiv, Alexandru; Zamfirescu, Florian; Mocuta, Marius; Popa, Iulian; Zlibut, Alexandru; Huggenberger, Peter; Zechner, Eric; Dresmann, Horst; Scheidler, Stefan; Wiesmeier, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    On December 2010 a sinkhole was suddenly formed close to the eastern flank of Ocna-Mures salt dome. Soon after the collapse the sinkhole was filled with brine forming a salt lake called Plus Lake. The total volume of sinkhole of about 100000 m3 remained constant since February 2011. The Ocna Mures salt dome is situated on the western border of the Transylvanian basin (Romania) and has been exploited for a long time. The ceilings of some shallow mine chambers are now collapsed and filled with brine. Along the eastern flank of the salt dome there is a disturbed zone due to diapirism. Its presence is suggested by the strong fragmentation of rock in the boreholes drilled along the salt-sterile contact, as it resulted from the low values of RQD index. The sinkhole is probably due to a pressure increase along the diapir flank. The causes of this sudden increase of pressure are not well known. Most probably it is due to the damage of the tubing of a flank borehole as mentioned in a technical report of the exploiting company. The injected fresh water expelled through the breaches of the damaged borehole and, due to the high pressure flushed up the crushed material of the disturbed zone. In order to better understand the setting up of the Plus Lake joint research efforts were performed by teams from Bucharest and Basel Universities since 2013. For the geomechanical approach a numerical model was performed using the Flac 7.0 code. In a first stage the creep behavior of salt was analyzed considering a Norton creep law. It resulted that after 100 years the salt reached equilibrium, the creep could be neglected and in a first approximation mechanical equilibrium could be analyzed considering only an elasto-plastic behavior of both the salt and the sterile. For both the salt and the surrounding sedimentary rocks the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was considered. The properties of sterile rocks were estimated following the GSI system. Due to poor rock quality the strength parameters have

  3. Birth of a theorem a mathematical adventure

    CERN Document Server

    Villani, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    This man could plainly do for mathematics what Brian Cox has done for physics" (Sunday Times). What goes on inside the mind of a rock-star mathematician? Where does inspiration come from? With a storyteller's gift, Cedric Villani takes us on a mesmerising journey as he wrestles with a new theorem that will win him the most coveted prize in mathematics. Along the way he encounters obstacles and setbacks, losses of faith and even brushes with madness. His story is one of courage and partnership, doubt and anxiety, elation and despair. We discover how it feels to be obsessed by a theorem during your child's cello practise and throughout your dreams, why appreciating maths is a bit like watching an episode of Columbo, and how sometimes inspiration only comes from locking yourself away in a dark room to think. Blending science with history, biography with myth, Villani conjures up an inimitable cast of characters including the omnipresent Einstein, mad genius Kurt Godel, and Villani's personal hero, John Nash. Bir...

  4. A reductive coupling strategy towards ripostatin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin D. Schleicher

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic studies on the antibiotic natural product ripostatin A have been carried out with the aim to construct the C9−C10 bond by a nickel(0-catalyzed coupling reaction of an enyne and an epoxide, followed by rearrangement of the resulting dienylcyclopropane intermediate to afford the skipped 1,4,7-triene. A cyclopropyl enyne fragment corresponding to C1−C9 has been synthesized in high yield and demonstrated to be a competent substrate for the nickel(0-catalyzed coupling with a model epoxide. Several synthetic approaches toward the C10−C26 epoxide have been pursued. The C13 stereocenter can be set by allylation and reductive decyanation of a cyanohydrin acetonide. A mild, fluoride-promoted decarboxylation enables construction of the C15−C16 bond by an aldol reaction. The product of this transformation is of the correct oxidation state and potentially three steps removed from the targeted epoxide fragment.

  5. Neurosurgery: A profession or a technical trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Watts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS, 11 years ago converted its Internal Revenue Code (IRC tax status from a 501 (c (3 to a 501 (c (6 entity. By doing so, the professional medical association, now a trade association, was able to more aggressively lobby, support political campaigns, and pursue business opportunities for its members. In the following decade, major changes were seen in the practice of neurosurgery, especially as it relates to spine surgery. With the majority of neurosurgeons limiting themselves to a spine practice, an increased number of spinal procedures, most noted in the Medicare population, was recorded. For example, a 15-fold increase in complex spinal fusions for spinal stenosis was seen between 2002 and 2007. While the basis for this increase was not readily apparent, it was associated with a reduction in reimbursement per case of about 50%, fueling the belief that the increase in complexity of surgery permitted recovery of fees in complex cases to off-set the loss of reimbursement for simpler cases. Considering the growth of spinal surgery within neurosurgery, and decrease funding for spine surgery, in the future there may be too many surgeons chasing too few dollars. There appears to be within neurosurgery a crisis developing where future manpower projections do not realistically match future anticipated specialty funding.

  6. [Utilities: a solution of a decision problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michael; Ohmann, Christian; Lorenz, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    Utility is a concept that originates from utilitarianism, a highly influential philosophical school in the Anglo-American world. The cornerstone of utilitarianism is the principle of maximum happiness or utility. In the medical sciences, this utility approach has been adopted and developed within the field of medical decision making. On an operational level, utility is the evaluation of a health state or an outcome on a one-dimensional scale ranging from 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health). By adding the concept of expectancy, the graphic representation of both concepts in a decision tree results in the specification of expected utilities and helps to resolve complex medical decision problems. Criticism of the utility approach relates to the rational perspective on humans (which is rejected by a considerable fraction of research in psychology) and to the artificial methods used in the evaluation of utility, such as Standard Gamble or Time Trade Off. These may well be the reason why the utility approach has never been accepted in Germany. Nevertheless, innovative concepts for defining goals in health care are urgently required, as the current debate in Germany on "Nutzen" (interestingly translated as 'benefit' instead of as 'utility') and integrated outcome models indicates. It remains to be seen whether this discussion will lead to a re-evaluation of the utility approach.

  7. A device, a system and a method of encoding a position of an object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for encoding a position of an object, comprising a first light source; a first collimating element adapted to form first collimated light from the first light source; a carrier adapted to guide light and comprising a first primary light redirecting...... structure and a second primary light redirecting structure; and a detector device for encoding the position of an object with respect to an active area of an encoding plane; wherein the first primary light redirecting structure is adapted to redirect at least a part of a first light beam through the active...

  8. To be a Barbie - a feasible dream

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Maria; Gama, Maria Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Publicado em "Proceedings CIMODE 2012 : 1º Congresso Internacional de Moda e Design". ISBN 978-972-8692-72-8 From friend to partner Barbie was winning a legion of fans, and there are many girls who idealize seem like a doll. The utopia of perfect body leads to questioning the immersion of technique in life, i.e., the junction of the bios with technè, the hybridity between the organic and the inorganic. The new technical possibilities provide a number of opportunities, and what was until th...

  9. A certain ambiguity a mathematical novel

    CERN Document Server

    Suri, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    While taking a class on infinity at Stanford in the late 1980s, Ravi Kapoor discovers that he is confronting the same mathematical and philosophical dilemmas that his mathematician grandfather had faced many decades earlier--and that had landed him in jail. Charged under an obscure blasphemy law in a small New Jersey town in 1919, Vijay Sahni is challenged by a skeptical judge to defend his belief that the certainty of mathematics can be extended to all human knowledge--including religion. Together, the two men discover the power--and the fallibility--of what has long been considered the pinn

  10. Dialog between a Lexicographer and a Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dialog between a Lexicographer and a TranslatorThe discussion between the authors of the paper concerns the most pressing issues encountered in natural language semantics, as well as in corpus linguistics and computational linguistics. A broad range of knowledge, allowing linguists and information scientists to work together, is required in these areas. The paper describes some primary problems of human and machine translation caused by gaps between different fields of knowledge. The authors suggest that interdisciplinary approach is required when it comes to contrastive studies in linguistics.

  11. A Conversation with Richard A. Olshen

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Richard Olshen was born in Portland, Oregon, on May 17, 1942. Richard spent his early years in Chevy Chase, Maryland, but has lived most of his life in California. He received an A.B. in Statistics at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1963, and a Ph.D. in Statistics from Yale University in 1966, writing his dissertation under the direction of Jimmie Savage and Frank Anscombe. He served as Research Staff Statistician and Lecturer at Yale in 1966–1967. ¶ Richard accepted a facult...

  12. A woman with a dangling digit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Alexander; Kinner, Bernd; Schaechinger, Ulrich; Obermann, Ellen C; Landthaler, Michael; Hohenleutner, Ulrich

    2007-11-01

    Ainhum (dactylolysis spontanea) is a distinct clinical and radiological disorder of dark-skinned people characterized by a progressive development of a constricting band encircling the toe which usually results in spontaneous amputation. Ainhum mainly occurs in African natives, but in times of global migration and tourism, Ainhum is likely to be more often encountered outside Africa. Even though the clinical presentation can mimic more common entities such as arthritis and trauma, the correct diagnosis and treatment is easy if one knows this unusual entity.

  13. A case study, Bagnoli: a difficult transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Selvaggio

    2015-01-01

    In this research work we intend to verify how a particular physical-spatial dimension has influenced the social relations and the same identities of the people and their “community”, how we can delineate the perception and the performance of a urban transformation largely failed, and which contribution the citizens of Bagnoli can give to the urban design through their own imaginary and meanings they ascribe to their environment (Lynch 1960. In this sense, the study aim at giving a contribution to the participative practice, that up to now is out of the transition dynamics.

  14. From a Fratricide to a Family Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Riina Haanpää

    2008-01-01

    When a research deals with researcher’s own family history, a significant challenge is presented: “What is the significance of the familiarity the researcher has for their object of research? What is the researcher’s role and how their own memories influence their work?” In this article I explore the possibilities my own family history offers by observing a fratricide that took place in my family, as well as the narrations it has created. My grandfather’s brother...

  15. Who has a child as a teenager?

    OpenAIRE

    Ermisch, John; Pevalin, David J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and the British 1970 Cohort Study (BCS70) to investigate the family background and childhood factors that are associated with having a child as a teenager. The advantage of combining results from these two sets of data is that the BHPS analyses are restricted to a few background factors while the BCS70 analyses have far more. However, the results obtained from the BHPS data are reasonably replicated with the BCS70 data in tha...

  16. A growth model in a random environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gravner, Janko; Tracy, Craig A.; Widom, Harold

    2002-01-01

    We consider a model of interface growth in two dimensions, given by a height function on the sites of the one--dimensional integer lattice. According to the discrete time update rule, the height above the site $x$ increases to the height above $x-1$, if the latter height is larger; otherwise the height above $x$ increases by 1 with probability $p_x$. We assume that $p_x$ are chosen independently at random with a common distribution $F$, and that the initial state is such that the origin is fa...

  17. Tesla - A Flash of a Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorani, M.

    2005-10-01

    This book, which is entirely dedicated to the inventions of scientist Nikola Tesla, is divided into three parts: a) all the most important innovative technological creations from the alternate current to the death ray, Tesla research in fundamental physics with a particular attention to the concept of "ether", ball lightning physics; b) the life and the bright mind of Nikola Tesla and the reasons why some of his most recent findings were not accepted by the establishment; c) a critical discussion of the most important work by Tesla followers.

  18. A School Day is a School Day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhardt, Robin

    2007-01-01

    : Compared with the French communities, where many children have to repeat a year if they fail the tests, the children in the Flemish communities get a lot of help if they risk failing. In the beginning of the first school year, the students can do their homework in the school together with their own classes......Life of Science, edited by Lykke Margot Ricard and Robin Engelhardt. Learning Lab Denmark, Copenhagen, pages 7-13. 2003 Short description: The school Sint-Jozef-Klein-Seminarie in the Flemish town of Sint-Niklaas reveals a school system characterised by hard work, solicitude and tradition. Abstract...

  19. A woman with a dangling digit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Alexander; Kinner, Bernd; Schaechinger, Ulrich; Obermann, Ellen C; Landthaler, Michael; Hohenleutner, Ulrich

    2007-11-01

    Ainhum (dactylolysis spontanea) is a distinct clinical and radiological disorder of dark-skinned people characterized by a progressive development of a constricting band encircling the toe which usually results in spontaneous amputation. Ainhum mainly occurs in African natives, but in times of global migration and tourism, Ainhum is likely to be more often encountered outside Africa. Even though the clinical presentation can mimic more common entities such as arthritis and trauma, the correct diagnosis and treatment is easy if one knows this unusual entity. PMID:17976142

  20. A mathematical model for a gaming community

    CERN Document Server

    Breban, Romulus

    2016-01-01

    We consider a large community of individuals who mix strongly and meet in pairs to bet on a coin toss. We investigate the asset distribution of the players involved in this zero-sum repeated game. Our main result is that the asset distribution converges to the exponential distribution, irrespective of the size of the bet, as long as players can never go bankrupt. Analytical results suggests that the exponential distribution is a stable fixed point for this zero-sum repreated game. This is confirmed in numerical experiments.

  1. Vampire as a metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Bojan G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A vampire, as a demonized deceased human, is used as a specific metaphor to explain unknown sources of various troubles in a community. A malicious deceased one is a mythical creature and as such is to blame for the existing troubles in a community; the creature, in turn, becomes a subject i.e., a victim in a ritual performed to avert the difficulties, so that the community in question could return to its daily life. A myth revival establishes diagnosis and appropriate therapy for the crisis solving. On the other hand, during the next crisis a vampire as a part of the mythical and ritual pattern becomes a troublemaker again.

  2. A theory of knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    In this dissertation I present a new solution to the renowned Gettier problem. My solution, which in a sense represents a defense of a rather traditional epistemological approach, is based upon a distinction between primary and secondary beliefs. I argue that primary beliefs are known if justified and true, whereas secondary beliefs are known iff they are believed on the basis of a known primary belief. Much emphasis is put upon defending this approach against potential objections, but I a...

  3. Managing a Voluntary Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dk. Hjh. Siti Fatimah - Pg. Hj. Petra

    2014-01-01

    This paper reveals the experience of a young member of a non-profitable organisation in managing a team of professionals in Brunei Darussalam. In a team, the experience of managing has not been as scary as expected; positions taken, however, must be firm and effective. Being a leader of the contingency approach type, actions and responses are based on circumstances. Marketing and managing changes need to be pursued as a new leader of a voluntary organization. Careful considerations and risks ...

  4. A Planck Vacuum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.

  5. Finding a Forest in a Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacci, Giorgio; Miculan, Marino; Rizzi, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    by instantiating variables in yi with terms using variables from xj, for a different j; etc. In order to apply a wide reaction rule, we have to find a matching of the rule redex within the global state. This problem can be restated as follows: how to match a given forest (the redex) inside an unordered tree (the...... system), possibly finding the subtrees to be grafted at the forest’s leaves (i.e., instantiating the variables)? We show that, although the problem is NP-complete in general, the exponential explosion depends only on the number n of roots of the forest (the width of the redex), and not on the size...

  6. A spacetime cloak, or a history editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new type of electromagnetic cloak, the spacetime cloak (STC), which conceals events rather than objects. Non-emitting events occurring during a restricted period are never suspected by a distant observer. The cloak works by locally manipulating the speed of light of an initially uniform light distribution, whilst the light rays themselves always follow straight paths. Any 'perfect' spacetime cloak would necessarily rely upon the technology of electromagnetic metamaterials, which has already been shown to be capable of deforming light in ways hitherto unforeseen—to produce, for example, an electromagnetic object cloak. Nevertheless, we show how it is possible to use intensity-dependent refractive indices to construct an approximate STC, an implementation that would enable the distinct signature of successful event cloaking to be observed. Potential demonstrations include systems that apparently violate quantum statistics, 'interrupt-without-interrupt' computation on convergent data channels and the illusion of a Star Trek transporter

  7. A thing finished is a thing dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The article gives a general overview of Asger Jorn´s position in architecture. Besides his theoretical stands, it exemplifies his position by showing the artist´s private house and garden in Albissola, Italy....

  8. Packing a cake into a box

    CERN Document Server

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Given a cake in form of a triangle and a box that fits the mirror image of the cake, how to cut the cake into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has an icing, so that we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V.G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to V.G. Boltyansky's question. Also we give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces.

  9. Schizandrol A: a lignan from Schisandra chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 1,2,3,10,11,12-hexamethoxy-6,7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,c]cycloocten-6-ol, C24H32O7, has a dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton. There are three molecules in the asymmetric unit, which are related by a pseudo-translation in the direction of the c axis. Nevertheless, the three molecules differ in the torsion angle of one of the methoxy groups. The dihedral angles between the two aromatic rings are 62.39 (10, 62.65 (10 and 61.84 (10° for the three molecules. The crystal packing is stabilized by a series of O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, as well as C—H...π interactions.

  10. When a regulation becomes a learning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho; Cespedes, Paula

    Adoption and effective use of information and communication technology (ICT) becomes a need for organizations of any size and type, however, ICT adoption is still a challenge for organizations, its implementation must be a strategic decision that involves design, delivery and use of software...... systems. It influences the business processes, and therefore a business practice should be redeveloped and redefined, furthermore the control over the ICT practice has become very important in the recent years. Some frameworks, methodologies and bodies of knowledge have been developed to support...... governance of IT and aligning between business and ICT strategies. COBIT is one of the frameworks used to governance and management of enterprise IT. It provides principles, practices, tools and models to help to increase the trust in, and value from, information systems. This paper describe how Monarch...

  11. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Dental care and oral health information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, August 28, 2016 About | ... More Than You Can Chew? How Do I Care for My Child's Baby Teeth? What is a ...

  12. When Is a Program Like a Function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Frederic S.

    1986-01-01

    Functional programming, in which the connection to mathematics is simple and direct, is described. A language such as Logo illustrates the relationship between functional programming and mathematics in more detail. (MNS)

  13. A Strange M\\`enage \\'A Trois

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Sidney van den

    2010-01-01

    The Magellanic Clouds may have joined our Milky Way system quite recently. The Large Magellanic Cloud turns out to be a remarkably luminous object that is close to the upper luminosity limit of the class of magellanic irregular galaxies.

  14. Harry Minti- a project for a book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    2011-08-01

    A short biography and an account of scientific research of the Associated Professor of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem (Israel), Dr. Harry Minti (b. 1938, Bucharest) is given. His activity as translator was also mentioned.

  15. A feasibility study of a thermosyphoning rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the work performed to generate a conceptual design of a thermosyphoning test facility. Scaling methods have been reviewed; and a two phase scaling technique has been applied to determine the geometry and specifications of the facility. The instrumentation and the data acquisition systems have been defined such as to provide the most needed information on two phase thermosyphoning phenomena. Particular attention has been paid to the scaling of the primary heat transport system which consists of a figure-of-eight loop with five channels per pass and seven half-length, full-diameter heater elements per channel. The facility can be defined as 'half-length, half-height facility' with decay power capabilities for the primary system and full power for the secondary system

  16. A certified private practice - a report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the requirements for internal quality assurance in our private practice a model for quality management was implemented. Using such a quality management system (QM-system) resulted in a systematic optimization and higher quality of operating procedures in all work areas. The realization of the new QM-system led to a higher transparency, improved economical efficiency, and an increase in personal motivation. Internal frictional losses could be effectively reduced saving time and money. The efforts in time, costs and personal resources during implementation of the QM-system, which had been considered as downsides in the beginning, are outweighed by the benefits by far according to our experience. In summary: ''We consider it worthwhile in all respects''. (orig.)

  17. Gingivectomía a bisel externo

    OpenAIRE

    Teresita Burgos Fuentes; Diana Marcela Palomino Romero; Antonio Díaz Caballero

    2014-01-01

    ResumenEl propósito de este reporte es describir el alargamiento coronario como tratamiento estético periodontal. La gingivectomía es un tratamiento quirúrgico antiguo. La indicación para la gingivectomía es la eliminación completa de la bolsa periodontal, hiperplasias. El diseño fisiológico del margen libre gingival por el medio quirúrgico debe ser tomado en consideración. Se reporta un caso clínico de un paciente masculino de 32 años de edad que exhibe gran cantidad de encía cuando sonríe. ...

  18. Triple A Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Atmaca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Triple A syndrome is a rarely seen autosomal recessive disease characterized by achalasia, adrenal failure and alacrima. The syndrome is frequently seen in childhood. The appearance of its components are usually ordered as alacrima, achalasia and adrenal failure. The majority of the patients diagnosed in the later stages predominantly present with neurological symptoms. In this study, a 21-year-old male who was referred to our clinic with clinical findings of chronic adrenal failure and was diagnosed WİTH triple A syndrome is presented. This patient had been operated three years ago due to achalasia. The diagnosis and treatment of adrenal failure in this syndrome is the most important determinant and indicator in the prognosis of the disease. Turk Jem 2014; 18: 97-99

  19. PNEUMOCONIOSIS IN A SPOONBILL - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Bhattacharya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumoconiosis has been identified in an adult dead spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia from a Zoo in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. An environmental automobile pollutants present around that ambient may be the cause of pneumoconiosis.

  20. A wave lab inside a coaxial cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, João M.; Brito, Miguel C.; Alves, J. Maia; Vallera, A. M.

    2004-09-01

    The study of electromagnetic wave propagation in a coaxial cable can be a powerful approach to the study of waves at an undergraduate level. This study can explore different experimental situations, going from those where the finite velocity of propagation must be considered (distributed or transmission line behaviour), to those where this velocity may be considered infinite (lumped behaviour). We believe that the student observation of the existence of these two regimes can be important for the understanding of wave phenomena in general. In this work we show that this can be achieved using low-cost equipment and a set of quite simple experiments, such as the measurement of wave propagation velocity or the study of standing waves and resonance. The results obtained in a coherent set of selected experiments are discussed.

  1. A Mainstreaming: Analysis of a Policy Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, Charlotte; Jacquot, Sophie; Le Galès, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In the world of public policy, waves of innovations and new policy developments are usually followed by movements of rationalisation. Most policy domains, in the EU as elsewhere, progressively become institutionalised, a sedimentation of institutions and policy instruments progressively creating a mille feuilles within which contradictions take place, hence the drive in due course either to add another layer, to change the institution or to create new instruments to rationalise existing on...

  2. Themed Volumes: A Blessing or a Curse?

    OpenAIRE

    Mary R Brooks; Stephen Ison

    2015-01-01

    Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM) was launched in 2009 with the first volume appearing in August 2011. The format of the journal is somewhat different to that of conventional journals in that each volume is themed focusing on a particular aspect of transportation from a business and management perspective. This paper focuses on the format of the journal and the decisions taken at the time of launch, eventually drawing conclusions about the chosen format and whether it ...

  3. Can a dike "feel" a free surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansino, S.; Taisne, B.

    2015-12-01

    This study uses analogue experiments to examine the various factors that could influence the dynamic or arrest of a dike prior to an eruption. Dike propagation has been well-studied from the perspective of analogue experiments and it has been shown how various competing forces interact (buoyancy, viscosity, elastic properties, fracture toughness,…). It has been observed that dikes experience acceleration as they approach a free surface, which theoretically is due to increasing stress intensity as distance to the free surface decreases. Other unrelated studies analysed the constant-volume propagation of low-surface-energy liquids (e.g. hydrophilic liquids) in a semi-infinite medium and found the propagation rate to decelerate, as liquid gradually transferred from the head region to the tail and buoyancy abated. In contrast, high-surface-energy fluids transfer negligible quantities of their volume into the tail region, essentially maintain their volume, and experience no such deceleration. This study focuses on the aforementioned factors influencing dike propagation, acceleration due to a free surface and deceleration due to head volume loss, to determine what their combined effect is on magma eruptability. As previous studies used hydrophobic liquids to investigate free-surface effects, and as magma is expected to have a low surface energy with the crust (they are both silicate), hydrophilic liquids (e.g. glucose syrup) are used in this study. Each experiment is arranged to have a free surface condition occupying half of the apparatus, and a no-slip condition occupying the other half, which allows for side-by-side comparison. The results are analysed to determine the minimum volume needed for a dike to erupt; failure to erupt implies that the dike would instead come to arrest in the crust.

  4. A Vision For A Land Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Disney, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we argue that the exploitation of EO land surface data for modelling and monitoring would be greatly facilitated by the routine generation of inter- operable low-level surface bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) products. We consider evidence from a range of ESA, NASA and other products and studies as well as underlying research to outline the features such a processing system might have, and to define initial research priorities.

  5. A museum, the city, and a nation

    OpenAIRE

    Lepawsky, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this article is to understand how a corporate museum in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia works to create proleptic myths of nationhood to under-gird a broader state-centric project of nationalist?capitalist modernization. The article examines how these myths are expressed in the museum's design plans and are manifested in the museum's displays and spatial layout. From this analysis it becomes apparent that, first, the museum's designers intend for Malaysian museum-goe...

  6. What a Difference a Bank Makes

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus, Alexander; Marie, Ségolène

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, the service industry, especially banks, faces increasing competition. In such environment, differentiation is necessary. The general purpose of this thesis is to understand how a bank can achieve differentiation based on a marketing approach. Two research questions will respectively examine the three additional P’s of the marketing mix (People, Presentation or Physical Evidence and Process) and the Customer Relationship Management as possible differentiators. To fulfill the purpose,...

  7. A toolkit for a generative lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Patrick; Bassac, Christian

    2008-01-01

    poster - 6 pages International audience In this paper we describe the conception of a software toolkit designed for the construction, maintenance and collaborative use of a Generative Lexicon. In order to ease its portability and spreading use, this tool was built with free and open source products. We eventually tested the toolkit and showed it filters the adequate form of anaphoric reference to the modifier in endocentric compounds.

  8. A proposal of a local modified QCD

    CERN Document Server

    de Oca, Alejandro Cabo Montes

    2012-01-01

    A local and renormalizable version of a modified PQCD introduced in previous works is presented. The construction indicates that it could be equivalent to massless QCD. The case in which only quark condensate effects are retained is discussed in more detail. Then, the appearing auxiliary fermion fields can be integrated leading to a theory with the action of massless QCD, to which one local and gauge invariant Lagrangian term for each quark flavour is added. These terms are defined by two gluon and two quark fields, in a form curiously not harming power counting renormalizability. The gluon self-energy is evaluated in second order in the gauge coupling and all orders in the new quark couplings, and the result became transversal as required by the gauge invariance. The vacuum energy was calculated in the two loop approximation and also became gauge parameter independent. The possibilities that higher loop contributions to the vacuum energy allow the generation of a quark mass hierarchy as a flavour symmetry br...

  9. Acute hypervitaminosis A in a young lady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasru, M R; Yasmin, R; Salek, A K; Khan, K H; Nath, S D; Selim, S

    2010-04-01

    Acute vitamin A toxicity from a large dose has been reported to cause pseudotumour cerebri. Usually it is common in children. Herein we present the case of a young lady of 18 years old with the complaints of headache, vomiting, back pain and diplopia after ingestion of high dose (about 10 million international units) vitamin A capsule intentionally at a time due to some family problems. She gave no history of fever, convulsion, unconsciousness, pain in eyes, difficulties in walking and jaundice or any urinary problem during this illness. On query she gave no history of taking any other drugs including oral contraceptive and tetracycline & steroids. She also gave no history of sleep disorder. There was bilateral papilloedema, pupils were a bit dilated symmetrically but reacting to light, visual acuity 6/60 on left eye and 6/18 on right eye and bilateral 6th cranial nerve palsy more marked on left side. MRI of brain and orbits showed normal study. Patient improved after giving acetazolamide. PMID:20395929

  10. A Cooperation Model Applied in a Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose I. Rodriguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for collaboration in a global world has become a key factor for success for many organizations and individuals. However in several regions and organizations in the world, it has not happened yet. One of the settings where major obstacles occur for collaboration is in the business arena, mainly because of competitive beliefs that cooperation could hurt profitability. We have found such behavior in a wide variety of countries, in advanced and developing economies. Such cultural behaviors or traits characterized entrepreneurs by working in isolation, avoiding the possibilities of building clusters to promote regional development. The needs to improve the essential abilities that conforms cooperation are evident. It is also very difficult to change such conduct with adults. So we decided to work with children to prepare future generations to live in a cooperative world, so badly hit by greed and individualism nowadays. We have validated that working with children at an early age improves such behavior. This paper develops a model to enhance the essential abilities in order to improve cooperation. The model has been validated by applying it at a kindergarten school.

  11. A leitura: um passaporte para a vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armindo Teixeira Mesquita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nas sociedades actuais, a capacidade para usar material escrito é indispensável ao acesso a todo tipo de informação, tornando o uso da leitura cada vez mais necessário à participação real do cidadão em actividades produtivas e colectivas, porque ajuda a formar seres pensantes. O contacto com os livros deve ser iniciado o mais cedo possível, não só pelo manuseio, como também pela história contada ou pelos jogos rítmicos. Com efeito, na idade da infância, toda a energia do indivíduo é dirigida para a construção da sua identidade. Logo, as primeiras leituras entram no período da formação e da fundação, isto é, consignamos à leitura uma grande força de desenvolvimento pessoal. Os livros, para além de auxiliares na aprendizagem do mundo, formam o leitor no gosto. Formar o gosto e possibilitar escolhas são realidades fundamentais na vida adulta.

  12. Worldviews: A blessing or a curse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Olivier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a worldview resonates with other concepts, such as those of ‘culture’, ‘civilisation’, and ‘way of life’. Arguably, it is a modern phenomenon, the possibility of which was actualised at the dawn of the modern epoch. Nevertheless, in principle, its ‘possibility’ goes back as far as Plato’s Republic. It is Heidegger, however, who is most informative for understanding what a worldview is, as well as why the modern epoch is its time of provenance. Consequently, an analysis of Heidegger’s essay, ‘The time of the world picture’ (or worldview provided the framework within which it was argued that worldviews are both blessings and curses in the current era: blessings, because, as Harries has argued, we have been disabused of the modern idea of one encompassing worldview or ideology, so that one can no longer believe in only a single ’correct’ view of the world; curses, because they bedevil any wellintended attempts at communicating with understanding on issues of common concern. It was the burden of this article to provide a way of addressing this state of affairs with some hope of transcending the causes of alienation and it is again Heidegger who is the source of such a way, through his notion of the ‘fourfold’.

  13. De Analogía a Digitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Xaime Fandiño Alonso

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La transformación hacia la tecnología numérica ha provocado en el último decenio cambios importantes en los entornos de creación, operación, transformación y distribución de productos audiovisuales.Los restos de la era analógica están dando sus últimos estertores de la mano de unos entornos digitales, desarrollados velozmente.Estos nuevos equipos son en la mayoría de los casos prototipos. La velocidad del mercado, la competencia, las joint-ventures..., no permiten ningún tipo de relajo a las empresas tecnológicas que participan en esta carrera desenfrenada de competitividad.Las maquinarias dedicadas a procesos puntuales, cada vez más, son historias para el recuerdo. Hoy todo es efímero y la tecnología de antaño basada en equipos mecánicos (magnetoscopios..., plataformas y soportes lineales (cintas... están abocados a la desaparición.Conceptos de solvencia empresarial tales como "los grandes y los pequeños", utilizados en otros ámbitos de la industria, son en el sector audiovisual cada vez más delicados. En los diarios económicos podemos leer cómo, con cierta asiduidad, empresas muy posicionadas en el sector se ven abocadas a establecer fusiones, compras y participaciones, con pequeñas células de creación y desarrollo que surgen de la creatividad de jóvenes emprendedores, hasta ayer desconocidos.La era digital está corriendo un enorme telón y deja atrás, por suerte, una etapa analógica en la que la posesión de los medios de producción, debido a sus costes, era motivo suficiente para negar la participación y el acceso, a equipos tecnológicos audiovisuales de carácter profesional, a los creadores.Hoy, lo digital proporciona nuevos sistemas con entornos productivos más amables a la vez que reduce considerablemente coste de los equipamientos. En este momento, despojados ya de los inconvenientes analógicos, el talento es el verdadero motor de la industria audiovisual, en un sector que aglutina tecnología

  14. A tribute to Peter A. Rona: A Russian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagalevich, Anatoly; Lutz, Richard A.

    2015-11-01

    In July 1985 Peter Rona led a cruise of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Researcher as part of the NOAA Vents Program and discovered, for the first time, black smokers, massive sulfide deposits and vent biota in the Atlantic Ocean. The site of the venting phenomena was the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) Hydrothermal Field on the east wall of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26°08‧N; 44°50‧W (Rona, 1985; Rona et al., 1986). In 1986, Peter and an international research team carried out multidisciplnary investigations of both active and inactive hydrothermal zones of the TAG field using the R/V Atlantis and DSV Alvin, discovering two new species of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata and Chorocaris chacei) (Williams and Rona, 1986) and a hexagonal-shaped form (Paleodictyon nodosum) thought to be extinct (Rona et al., 2009). In 1991 a Russian crew aboard the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh, with two deep-diving, human-occupied submersibles (Mir-1 and Mir-2) (Fig. 1), had the honor of having Peter Rona and a Canadian IMAX film crew from the Stephen Low Company on board to visit the TAG hydrothermal vent field. This was the first of many deep-sea interactions between Russian deep-sea scientists and their colleagues from both the U.S. and Canada. This expedition to the TAG site was part of a major Russian undersea program aimed at exploring extreme deep-sea environments; between 1988 and 2005, the Mir submersibles visited hydrothermal vents and cold seep areas in 20 deep-sea regions throughout the world's oceans (Sagalevich, 2002). Images of several of these areas (the TAG, Snake Pit, Lost City and 9°50‧N vent fields) were obtained using an IMAX camera system emplaced for the first time within the spheres of the Mir submersibles and DSV Alvin in conjunction with the filming of science documentaries (e.g., "Volcanoes of the Deep Sea") produced by the Stephen Low Company in conjunction with Emory Kristof of National Geographic and

  15. Shaping a Scientific Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    In this paper we illustrate how a truth circulates within social discourse. We examine a particular truth reproduced within science, that is: through the understanding of Euclid’s axioms and postulates a person will gain the access to all human knowledge. We deploy a discourse analysis that helps...... the importance of having students following the path of what schools perceive a real scientist is, no to become a scientist, but to become a logical thinker, a problem solver, a productive citizen who uses reason....

  16. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  17. Writing a Movie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Helen

    2003-01-01

    Explains a reading and writing assignment called "Writing a Movie" in which students view a short film segment and write a script in which they describe the scene. Notes that this assignment uses films to develop fluency and helps students understand the reading and writing connections. Concludes that students learn to summarize a scene from film,…

  18. Smile: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, W S; Sukumar, M R; Kishorekumar, S; Gnanashanmugam, K; Mahalakshmi, K

    2015-04-01

    "Beauty is in the mind of the beholder, each mind perceives a different beauty" famously said by writer Margeret Wolfe Hungerford. A beautiful smile is a gateway to the world. The aim of this article was to identify the criteria for designing the perfect smile. It was determined, smile design is a multifactorial process and various steps are involved in designing a radiant smile.

  19. A Causal Rhythm Grouping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a method to identify segment boundaries in music. The method is based on a multi-step model; first a features is measured from the audio, then a measure of rhythm is calculated from the feature, the diagonal of a self-similarity matrix is calculated, and finally the segment bo...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 750

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 750 A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... ACT Procedures for Rulemaking Under Section 6 of the Toxic Substances Control Act Pt. 750, Subpt....

  1. Code Generation = A* + BURS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nymeyer, A.; Katoen, J.P.; Westra, Y.; Alblas, H.; Gyimóthy, T.

    1996-01-01

    A system called BURS that is based on term rewrite systems and a search algorithm A* are combined to produce a code generator that generates optimal code. The theory underlying BURS is re-developed, formalised and explained in this work. The search algorithm uses a cost heuristic that is derived fro

  2. A Revamped Science Expo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    By changing the venue from festival to a required academic exposition, the traditional science fair was transformed into a "Science Expo" wherein students were guided away from cookbook experiments toward developing a question about their environment into a testable and measurable experiment. The revamped "Science Expo" became a night for students…

  3. What's a Funny Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

  4. Advice to a Rookie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, Thomas C.

    1976-01-01

    This article is a brief summary of the method of college advising used at St. Albans. It is in the form of a letter from an "old pro" to a neophyte. The author feels it is a useful checklist for college counselors, particularly those new to the business. It might also serve as a yardstick for experienced counselors who can measure their own…

  5. A Helical Stairway Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Tom

    2008-01-01

    We answer a geometric question that was raised by the carpenter in charge of erecting helical stairs in a 10-story hospital. The explanation involves the equations of lines, planes, and helices in three-dimensional space. A brief version of the question is this: If A and B are points on a cylinder and the line segment AB is projected radially onto…

  6. A Night's Sleep, Ultracheap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ You tote your own luggage, the bed's a bit stiff, and the decor in the spartan rooms and lobby is reminiscent of a college dorm. Oh-and you can't buy a beer. But for $22 a night,the indi One Hotel is one heck of a bargain.

  7. A Video Control Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of a simple microprogrammable processor with a fast response time to external events. This processor was designed as a controller for a testbench video system capable of performing a number of functions such as windowing and frame rate conversion.

  8. Chopping a Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaochen, Z.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces a super-dense chop modality into the Duration Calculi. The super-dense chop can be used to specify a super-dense computation, where a number of operations happens simultaneously, but in a specific order. With this modality, the paper defines a real-time semantics for an OCCAM...

  9. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  10. Epilepsy is a disease!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Oleschko Arruda

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition of disease, epilepsy shall not be considered neither a symptom nor a syndrome. Epilepsy is a generic term for a group of diseases characterized by seizures. It implies a state quite distinct from health. Therefore it seems worthy to keep epilepsy as such in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD.

  11. [A peripheral osteoma].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mizbah, K.; Soehardi, A.; Maal, T.J.J.; Weijs, W.L.J.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Barkhuysen, R.

    2012-01-01

    A 43-year-old man appeared with a painless, asymptomatic swelling on the left side of his neck, which had existed for years and had slowly been progressing. After surgical removal, it became clear that it had to do with a peripheral osteoma. This is a benign lesion with a low incidence. Generally, c

  12. Creating a Marketing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A guide to developing a college marketing plan defines key marketing terms, outlines the development of a plan (including institutional analysis, market research, strategy formation and execution, and program evaluation), and provides a list of important principles with which to operate a program. (MSE)

  13. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  14. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, M.

    2008-10-01

    The conference A Stellar Journey was held in Uppsala, Sweden, 23 27June 2008, in honour of Professor Bengt Gustafsson's 65th birthday. The choice of Uppsala as the location for this event was obvious given Bengt's long-standing association with the city stemming back to his school days. With the exception of a two-year postdoc stint in Copenhagen, five years as professor at Stockholm University and two years as director of the Sigtuna foundation, Bengt has forged his illustrious professional career at Uppsala University. The symposium venue was Museum Gustavianum, once the main building of the oldest university in Scandinavia. The title of the symposium is a paraphrasing of Bengt's popular astronomy book Kosmisk Resa (in English: Cosmic Journey) written in the early eighties. I think this aptly symbolizes his career that has been an astronomical voyage from near to far, from the distant past to the present. The original book title was modified slightly to reflect that most of his work to date has dealt with stars in one way or another. In addition it also gives credit to Bengt's important role as a guiding light for a very large number of students, colleagues and collaborators, indeed for several generations of astronomers. For me personally, the book Kosmisk Resa bears particular significance as it has shaped my life rather profoundly. Although I had already decided to become an astronomer, when I first read the book as a 14-year-old I made up my mind then and there that I would study under Bengt Gustafsson and work on stars. Indeed I have remained true to this somewhat audacious resolution. I suspect that a great number of us have similar stories how Bengt has had a major influence on our lives, whether on the professional or personal level. Perhaps Bengt's most outstanding characteristic is his enthralling enthusiasm. This is equally true whether he is pondering some scientific conundrum, supervising students or performing in front of an audience, be it an

  15. Eph receptor A10 has a potential as a target for a prostate cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Kazuya; Yamashita, Takuya; Inoue, Masaki; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Abe, Yasuhiro; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi

    2014-07-18

    We recently identified Eph receptor A10 (EphA10) as a novel breast cancer-specific protein. Moreover, we also showed that an in-house developed anti-EphA10 monoclonal antibody (mAb) significantly inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells, suggesting EphA10 as a promising target for breast cancer therapy. However, the only other known report for EphA10 was its expression in the testis at the mRNA level. Therefore, the potency of EphA10 as a drug target against cancers other than the breast is not known. The expression of EphA10 in a wide variety of cancer cells was studied and the potential of EphA10 as a drug target was evaluated. Screening of EphA10 mRNA expression showed that EphA10 was overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines as well as in prostate and colon cancer cell lines. Thus, we focused on prostate cancers in which EphA10 expression was equivalent to that in breast cancers. As a result, EphA10 expression was clearly shown in clinical prostate tumor tissues as well as in cell lines at the mRNA and protein levels. In order to evaluate the potential of EphA10 as a drug target, we analyzed complement-dependent cytotoxicity effects of anti-EphA10 mAb and found that significant cytotoxicity was mediated by the expression of EphA10. Therefore, the idea was conceived that the overexpression of EphA10 in prostate cancers might have a potential as a target for prostate cancer therapy, and formed the basis for the studies reported here. PMID:24924629

  16. Making a Difference: a Global Geoscience Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickless, E.

    2013-05-01

    Since 2009, an informal group, comprising four former board members of the International Year of Planet Earth, has been promoting the concept of a so-called Global Geoscientific Initiative. The GGI should: i.Be inclusive, involve a geoscience community, which is broad both in terms of discipline and nationality, and involve the social sciences; ii.Have a clear socio-economic context and global societal relevance; iii.Focus on a globally significant science theme and preferably involve global processes; iv.Attract the support of geoscientific communities, funding agencies, governments and other institutions in many countries, under the umbrella of UNESCO, ICSU and its geoscientific unions. A series of five town hall meetings have been held at which usually three invited, well-respected figures from the geoscientific community gave presentations. Those presentations were followed by discussion about the importance or otherwise of particular areas of science, and the need to engage better with legislators, policy makers, the media and the lay public. No one challenged the desirability of a large-scale programme that would attract researchers from many geoscientific disciplines and potentially involve the geo-unions. The discussions can be summarised under three broad themes: i.Mineral and hydrocarbon resources and their waste products; ii.Living with natural hazards; iii.Strategic Earth science in Africa through the Africa Alive corridors. During the course of development of the GGI, ICSU has issued a number of papers, most recently a strategic plan, covering the period 2012-2017, working parties have been undertaking foresight analysis and there have also been discussions concerning regional environmental change: human action and adaptation with the question "what does it take to meet the Belmont challenge?". The Belmont Forum brings together a number of funding agencies and could provide the resource to enable some initiative to go forward. More recently a programme

  17. A black hole in a globular cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarone, Thomas J; Kundu, Arunav; Zepf, Stephen E; Rhode, Katherine L

    2007-01-11

    Globular star clusters contain thousands to millions of old stars packed within a region only tens of light years across. Their high stellar densities make it very probable that their member stars will interact or collide. There has accordingly been considerable debate about whether black holes should exist in these star clusters. Some theoretical work suggests that dynamical processes in the densest inner regions of globular clusters may lead to the formation of black holes of approximately 1,000 solar masses. Other numerical simulations instead predict that stellar interactions will eject most or all of the black holes that form in globular clusters. Here we report the X-ray signature of an accreting black hole in a globular cluster associated with the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 (in the Virgo cluster). This object has an X-ray luminosity of about 4 x 10(39) erg s(-1), which rules out any object other than a black hole in such an old stellar population. The X-ray luminosity varies by a factor of seven in a few hours, which excludes the possibility that the object is several neutron stars superposed. PMID:17203062

  18. Use a defibrillator, save a life

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    With the work for Long Shutdown 1 looming on the horizon, the CERN Fire Brigade is anticipating a heavy workload: more people working at CERN means more call-outs. So the more trained first-aiders around to help out before the paramedics arrive, the better. Would you know what to do in a medical emergency?   It could happen at any time: two colleagues are having a coffee at work, when one suddenly clutches his or her chest and falls to the floor unconscious. What would you do? Run to find a first-aider? Call the ambulance and wait, finishing your coffee? Neither response is entirely correct. On Monday 11 June in Building 40 the CMS safety group, in collaboration with the Fire Brigade and the Medical Service, demonstrated the recommended, potentially life-saving response to cardiac arrest (see the video), including the correct use of a defibrillator, ten of which were recently installed in key CERN locations (the Bulletin reported).     “In countries where...

  19. A Review on Noma: A Recent Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Nipun; Tarakji, Bassel; Darwish, Shourouk; Rodrigues, Jean C; Altamimi, Mohammad A

    2015-07-30

    Noma is a gangrenous infection primarily affecting under developed countries. The aim of this paper was to review all recent articles on noma from January 2003 to August 2014 and briefly update the latest information related to the topic. A literature search was done on PUBMED using the keywords "noma/cancrum oris". Noma is commonly seen in malnourished children. There has been an increased incidence of noma in HIV patients. Apart from these, noma has also been reported in association with cyclic neutropenia, herpetic stomatitis, leukemia, Down's syndrome and Burkett's disease. Treatment of acute noma includes transfusion of blood and intravenous fluids, administration of antibiotics, putting the patient on a high protein diet and debridement of necrotic areas. Surgical phase is usually initiated 6 to 18 months after a period of quiescence. Although, the mortality rate associated with noma has reduced significantly with the advent of modern generation antibiotics, the functional, cosmetic and psychological challenges associated with the destruction of soft or hard tissues still remains a huge challenge. Adequate steps must be implemented by the government or medical professionals to prevent the disease and provide an early intervention.

  20. You are not a gadget a manifesto

    CERN Document Server

    Lanier, Jaron

    2011-01-01

    A programmer, musician, and father of virtual reality technology, Jaron Lanier was a pioneer in digital media, and among the first to predict the revolutionary changes it would bring to our commerce and culture. Now, with the Web influencing virtually every aspect of our lives, he offers this provocative critique of how digital design is shaping society, for better and for worse. Informed by Lanier’s experience and expertise as a computer scientist, You Are Not a Gadget discusses the technical and cultural problems that have unwittingly risen from programming choices—such as the nature of user identity—that were “locked-in” at the birth of digital media and considers what a future based on current design philosophies will bring. With the proliferation of social networks, cloud-based data storage systems, and Web 2.0 designs that elevate the “wisdom” of mobs and computer algorithms over the intelligence and wisdom of individuals, his message has never been more urgent.

  1. Mucopolysaccharidosis: A New Variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primrose, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Described is a possibly new variant of mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by progressive mental and motor deficiency, bone abnormalities, a generalized skin lesion, and abnormal mucopolysaccharides in the urine as seen in a 20-year-old female. (DB)

  2. Herbs at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Multimedia (Video, Images, and Audio) NCCIH Clinical Digest A monthly newsletter with evidence-based information on ... desktop. If you have a Kindle device or reader, you can add a new eBook to your ...

  3. Using a cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000343.htm Using a cane To use the sharing features on this page, ... a walker may be better options for you. Cane Basics The most common question about using a ...

  4. Building a Better Planet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Transitioning into a broader role as senior civil servant of the United Nations after 37 years as a Chinese diplomat,UN Under Secretary General Sha Zukang certainly has had a tough task to quickly understand UN culture

  5. What Is a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer from forming. So, we have become a standard. We are in a beautiful suite at Broward ... less than 1 mm. We have the high definition colonoscope by Olympus. This also has a filter ...

  6. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  7. Gardening from a Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Gardening from a wheelchair Gardening from a wheelchair ☷ ▾ Page contents Tips from community ... round handles) on gate latches, doors, and faucets. Gardening as therapy For Gene Rothert gardening is a ...

  8. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumalova, Hana

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon.

  9. Preventing hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  10. A Colorful Equatorial Wonderland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the least visited countries in the world... a last frontier for international travelers. PNG is a colorful equatorial wonderland as well as a living example of human's culture 1000 years ago.

  11. A dictionary is a tool, a good dictionary is a monofunctional tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bergenholtz, Inger

    2011-01-01

    A dictionary is a tool. Most dictionaries are constructed as polyfunctional tools: they are expected to be used by everyone in any kind of user situation with communicative and cognitive problems. Good tools are not polyfunctional. If you go to a shop and ask for a saw, you have to specify first...... of dictionary conceptions for monofunctional dictionaries. We will do this with examples from a lexicographical music data base which gives rise to two monofunctional dictionaries and a third polyfunctional dictionary of a special kind. The lexicographical music data base gives rise to a collection of music...... dictionaries on expressions from the world of classical music whereas it contains only little information on pop, rock or jazz terms. The first monofunctional dictionary is conceived for reception, e.g. reading a text on a musical topic or reading a music score. Not many people know what a mbira is or what...

  12. Checking a printed board

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    An 'Interactive Printed Circuit Board Design System' has been developed by a company in a Member-State. Printed circuits are now produced at the SB's surface treatment workshop using a digitized photo-plotter.

  13. A smattering of antimatter.

    CERN Multimedia

    Yam, P

    1996-01-01

    Physicists at CERN have succeeded in developing antihydrogen by directing a beam of antiprotons through a jet of xenon atoms. The antihydrogen results from the interaction of one antiproton with a xenon atom. However, it lasts for only 40 seconds.

  14. A Simple Calculator Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lyle; McWilliam, James

    1983-01-01

    The problem of finding cube roots when limited to a calculator with only square root capability is discussed. An algorithm is demonstrated and explained which should always produce a good approximation within a few iterations. (MP)

  15. TOXICODERMIA ASOCIADA A BENDAMUSTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdivia I

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bendamustine is a cytotoxic drug used in the treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia can cause various adverse skin reactions. We report the case of a woman who received Bendamustine and developed a skin rash

  16. A vircator amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cavity vircator has demonstrated that formation of a virtual cathode in a cavity can improve microwave production efficiency and narrow the radiation bandwidth. When the virtual cathode radiates the microwave fields grow from noise. For each cavity, there is only one or a limited number of allowable modes for a given frequency. In this paper, a novel device - a vircator amplifier is described. The device consists of a relativistic magnetron and a cavity vircator with both devices powered by a 1 MeV, 3 Ω, 65 ns FWHM pulser. The idea is to inject a signal from the magnetron before and during virtual cathode formation in a cavity. The injected signal should lock the frequency and enhance electron bunching and therefore improve efficiency further. Experiments underway to evaluate the amplifier operating characteristics are discussed. The applicability of vircator amplifiers to the next generation of high-power microwave devices are addressed

  17. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  18. What's a Halo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth What's a Halo? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's a Halo? Print ... confined to bed rest while they recover. What's a Halo? The halo gets its name from the ...

  19. A semiconductor laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoko, O.; Masaru, K.

    1984-04-20

    A semiconductor laser with enhanced characteristics is patented in which bleaching coatings are generated on the outcoupling mirrors by sputtering alternating coating layers made from A1203 and A10, with high and low indices of refraction.

  20. A catalytic cracking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degnan, T.F.; Helton, T.E.

    1995-07-20

    Heavy oils are subjected to catalytic cracking in the absence of added hydrogen using a catalyst containing a zeolite having the structure of ZSM-12 and a large-pore crystalline zeolite having a Constraint Index less than about 1. The process is able to effect a bulk conversion of the oil at the same time yielding a higher octane gasoline and increased light olefin content. (author)