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Sample records for antimony potassium tartrate

  1. A Black Phosphate Conversion Coating on Steel Surface Using Antimony(III)-Tartrate as an Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Guiping

    2016-05-01

    A novel black phosphate conversion coating was formed on steel surface through a Zn-Mn phosphating bath containing mainly ZnO, H3PO4, Mn(H2PO4)2, and Ca(NO3)2, where antimony(III)-tartrate was used as the blackening agent of phosphatization. The surface morphology and composition of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Corrosion resistance of the coating was studied by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The pH value of the solution had significant influence on the formation and corrosion resistance of the coating. The experimental results indicated that the Sb plays a vital role in the blackening of phosphate conversion coating. The optimal concentration of antimony(III)-tartrate in the phosphating bath used in this experiment was 1.0 g L-1, as higher values reduced the corrosion resistance of the coating. In addition, by saponification and oil seals, the corrosion duration of the black phosphate coating in a copper sulfate spot test can be as long as 20 min.

  2. Optical and electrical characteristics of pure and doped potassium hydrogen tartrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quasim, I; Khosa, S K; Kotru, P N [Crystal Growth and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006- India (India); Firdous, A, E-mail: pnkotru@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2009-08-07

    The optical and electrical characteristics of pure, sodium- and lithium-doped potassium hydrogen tartrate crystals grown by the gel technique are reported. An optical absorption study conducted in the UV-Vis range of 200-800 nm reveals the transparency of these crystals in the entire visible range but not in the ultraviolet range. The optical band gap of pure potassium hydrogen tartrate crystals is found to be dependent on doping by Na or Li ions. The non-linear optical behaviour of these crystals is reported and explained. The electrical properties of pure and doped potassium hydrogen tartrate crystals are studied by measuring electrical resistivity from 80 to 300 K. It is shown that while pure potassium hydrogen tartrate crystal is an insulator at room temperature (300 K), doping by Na or Li ions makes it a semiconductor. The results have been explained in terms of the variable range hopping model.

  3. Crystal structure and thermodynamic properties of potassium antimony tungsten oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, Aleksandr V., E-mail: knav@uic.nnov.ru [Nizhny Novgorod State University, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Tananaev, Ivan G. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 31 Leninsky prospect, Moscow GSP-1, 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsova, Nataliya Yu.; Smirnova, Nataliya N.; Letyanina, Irene A.; Ladenkov, Igor V. [Nizhny Novgorod State University, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-20

    In the present work potassium antimony tungsten oxide with pyrochlore structure is refined by the Rietveld method (space group Fd3m, Z = 8). The temperature dependences of heat capacity have been measured for the first time in the range from 7 to 370 K for this compound. The experimental data were used to calculate standard thermodynamic functions, namely the heat capacity C{sub p}{sup o}(T), enthalpy H{sup o}(T) - H{sup o}(0), entropy S{sup o}(T) - S{sup o}(0) and Gibbs function G{sup o}(T) - H{sup o}(0), for the range from T {yields} 0 to 370 K. The differential scanning calorimetry was applied to measure the incongruent melting temperature of compound under study. The high-temperature X-ray diffraction was used for the determining thermal expansion coefficients.

  4. Effects of plant food potassium salts (citrate, galacturonate or tartrate) on acid-base status and digestive fermentations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabboh, Houda; Coxam, Véronique; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Rémésy, Christian; Demigné, Christian

    2007-07-01

    Potassium (K) organic anion salts, such as potassium citrate or potassium malate in plant foods, may counteract low-grade metabolic acidosis induced by western diets, but little is known about the effect of other minor plant anions. Effects of K salts (chloride, citrate, galacturonate or tartrate) were thus studied on the mineral balance and digestive fermentations in groups of 6-week-old rats adapted to an acidogenic/5 % inulin diet. In all diet groups, substantial amounts of lactate and succinate were present in the caecum, besides SCFA. SCFA were poorly affected by K salts conditions. The KCl-supplemented diet elicited an accumulation of lactate in the caecum; whereas the lactate caecal pool was low in rats fed the potassium tartrate-supplemented (K TAR) diet. A fraction of tartrate (around 50 %) was recovered in urine of rats fed the K TAR diet. Potassium citrate and potassium galacturonate diets exerted a marked alkalinizing effect on urine pH and promoted a notable citraturia (around 0.5 micro mol/24 h). All the K organic anion salts counteracted Ca and Mg hyperexcretion in urine, especially potassium tartrate as to magnesuria. The present findings indicate that K salts of unabsorbed organic anions exert alkalinizing effects when metabolizable in the large intestine, even if K and finally available anions (likely SCFA) are not simultaneously bioavailable. Whether this observation is also relevant for a fraction of SCFA arising from dietary fibre breakdown (which represents the major organic anions absorbed in the digestive tract in man) deserves further investigation.

  5. Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2009-12-15

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite for use in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of iron based oxygen absorber systems comprising iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and...

  7. Effects of antimony on aquatic organisms (Larva and embryo of Oryzias latipes, Moina macrocopa, Simocephalus mixtus, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Yang, Chang-Yong; An, Youn-Joo

    2009-05-01

    Antimony is widespread in aquatic environment. Trivalent forms of antimony are known to be more toxic than other chemical species of antimony. In the present study, antimony potassium tartrate (APT), the trivalent inorganic forms of antimony, was selected as a test antimony compound due to its high water solubility. The effects of antimony on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), planktonic crustacea (Moina macrocopa and Simocephalus mixtus), and green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) were evaluated. Larval survival and the embryonic development were measured for fish assay. APT was less toxic to larval medaka (24-h LC50, 261; 48-h LC50, 238 mg L(-1)). Simocephalus mixtus was killed by very low concentrations of APT (24-h LC50, 4.92 mg L(-1)), and antimony was also toxic to Moina macrocopa (24-h LC50, 12.83 mg L(-1)). Toxicities of APT to S. mixtus and Moina macrocopa were about 50 and 20 times more toxic to Oryzias latipes larvae, respectively, in terms of 24-h LC50 value. Growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was observed in the presence of APT (72-h EC50, 206 mg L(-1)). This study demonstrated that APT is more toxic to planktonic crustacea than fish and green algae, and planktonic crustacea appears a better indicator of antimony pollution in aquatic environment. PMID:19264343

  8. Precipitation of antimony from the solution of sodium thioantimonite by air oxidation in the presence of catalytic agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天足; 赖琼琳; 唐建军; 楚广

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of antimony oxidation in the solution of sodium thioantimonite was studied in the presence of catalytic agents. The catalytic effects of the respective addition of cupric sulfate, sodium tartrate, potassium permanganate, phenol, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene and their combination on the oxidation of sodium thioantimonite were investigated. A pilot test was carried out. The results show that the respective use of sodium tartrate, cupric sulfate, potassium permanganate, phenol and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene have little catalytic effect on the oxidation of sodium thioantimonite. However there exists obvious catalytic oxidation by the combination of 0.25 g/L 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, 0.5 g/L potassium permanganate and 1.0 g/L phenol. Moreover, high blast intensity, the increase of temperature and NaOH concentration favor the oxidation of antimony. The oxidation process of antimony has such advantages as quick reaction and low operation costs. The results of the pilot test are consistent with those of laboratory experiments.

  9. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stimulation and in the contraction of muscles. Cellular enzymes need potassium to work properly. A potassium deficiency ... or prune juice, honeydew melons, prunes, molasses and potatoes. Some foods high in potassium are also high ...

  10. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  11. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blackberries Root vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruit Your kidneys help to keep the right amount of potassium in your body. If you have chronic kidney disease, your kidneys may not remove extra potassium from ...

  12. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take all forms of potassium with a full glass of water or fruit juice.Add the liquid ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  13. 酒石酸钾钠双水相体系分离纯化C-藻蓝蛋白%Separation and purification of C-phycocyanin using aqueous two-phase extraction technique of potassium sodium tartrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽; 彭一良; 康天; 蔡伟民

    2015-01-01

    采用廉价的聚乙二醇(PEG)/酒石酸钾钠建立双水相体系,从干螺旋藻中分离纯化藻蓝蛋白C-PC。以纯度(目的蛋白在620 nm处的特征吸光值和总蛋白在280 nm处吸光值的比值)为指标,优化体系参数。研究结果表明,体系pH 8.06,系线长为21.65%、体积比为0.22的PEG1000和酒石酸钾钠双水相体系分离纯化效果最好,纯度由0.42提高到1.27,高于食品级纯度0.7,纯化因子3.04,回收率85.11%。硫酸铵盐析提高粗提液纯度后,二次双水相纯度达到3.28,高于药品级3.0。得到的 C-PC具有较高的生物活性。%This paper used commercial aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to efficiently extract and purify C-PC from the dryspirulina platensis. The purity of C-PC was defined as the relation between of 620 and 280 nm ab-sorbance, which was as the target to optimize the system parameters. The optimal conditions were proved in poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) 1000 and potassium sodium tartrate, system pH of 8.06, the tie-line length (TLL) of 21.65% (w/w) and the volume ratio (Vr) of 0.22 to increase the purity from the initial purity of 0.42 to 1.27 after the first extraction. The purity was over the food grade 0.7 and the purification factor was 3.04. The recovery yield was 85.11%. The purity was achieved up 3.28 after the saturation of ammonium sulfate in the second ATPS extraction. It was more than the pharmaceutical grade 3.0.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of iron based oxygen absorber systems comprising iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite, incorporated in sachets, patches and cards. Iron, the main active ingredient reacts with oxygen to form iron hydroxide and iron oxide, thereby removing oxygen from the primary packaging. Only activated carbon has not been evaluated as such, but it meets the specifications for activated charcoal which is authorised as additive for plastic materials and articles in contact with foods. All other ingredients of the oxygen absorber formulations have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials and/or as food additives and/or food supplements or feed additives. The active system being based on solid ingredients and not intended for direct contact with liquid food or food with an external liquid surface, migration through the gas phase was screened for 9 representative active systems. No volatiles derived from the active mixtures were detected. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the substances do not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in sachets, patches or cards, placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with food, excluding liquid food or foods that have an external aqueous liquid phase on the surface such as sliced fruits and fresh meat.

  15. Investigation of the dielectric properties of antimony doped potassium sodium niobate single crystal (K0.5Na0.5) NbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium Sodium niobate (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 Single Crystal and co-doped (K0.5Na(1- x)0.5 Sbx) NbO3 (where x=.02,.04,06,.) single crystal were grown using a high temperature flux method. The effects of cationic substitution of Sb for Nb in the B sites of perovskite lattice on the structure, phase transition behavior and dielectric properties, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, SEM and EDAX, FTIR, UV-VIS, SPECTRUM, AFM were investigated. (author)

  16. Modulation of Tartrates with Various Counterions on the Phases of Calcium Oxalate in Gelatinous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ming OUYANG; Xiang Ping LI

    2005-01-01

    Effect of various counterions of tartrate on the crystallization of calcium oxalate in gel system was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various tartrates with hydrogen (H2tart), sodium (Na2tart), potassium (K2tart), ammonium ((NH4)2tart), and a mixture of sodium and potassium cations (NaKtart) were considered. For H2tart, Na2tart, and (NH4)2tart, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was induced. However, for K2tart and NaKtart,calcium oxalate trihydrate (COT) was obtained.

  17. Perspectives of antimony compounds in oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj SHARMA; Diego PEREZ; Armando CABRERA; Nee ROSAS; Jose Luis ARIAS

    2008-01-01

    Antimony, a natural element that has been used as a drug for over more than 100 years, has remarkable therapeutic efficacy in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. This review focuses on recent advances in developing antimony anti- cancer agents with an emphasis on antimony coordination complexes, Sb (Ⅲ) and Sb (V). These complexes, which include many organometallic complexes, may provide a broader spectrum of antitumoral activity. They were compared with classical platinum anticancer drugs. The review covers the literature data pub- lished up to 2007. A number of antimonials with different antitumoral activities are known and have diverse applications, even though little research has been done on their possibilities. It might be feasible to develop more specific and effective inhibitors for phosphatase-targeted, anticancer therapeutics through the screen- ing of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and potassium antimonyltartrate-related compounds, which are comprised of antimony conjugated to different organic moieties. For example, SSG appears to be a better inhibitor than suramin which is a compound known for its antineoplastic activity against several types of cancers.

  18. Improved Antileishmanial Activity of Dppz through Complexation with Antimony(III and Bismuth(III: Investigation of the Role of the Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Demicheli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two novel trivalent antimony(III and bismuth(III complexes with the nitrogen-donor heterocyclic ligand dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz were synthesized and characterized as [Sb(dppzCl3]∙H2O∙CH3OH and [Bi(dppzCl3]. The crystal structure of Sb(III complex was determined by X-ray crystallography. These complexes were evaluated for their activity against the promastigote form of Sb(III-sensitive and –resistant Leishmania infantum chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis strains. Both complexes were more effective than dppz alone in inhibiting the growth of Leishmania promastigotes and were at least 77 and 2,400 times more active than potassium antimonyl tartrate in Sb(III-sensitive and -resistant Leishmania, respectively. The cytotoxicity of dppz and its complexes against mouse peritoneal macrophages occurred at dppz concentrations at least 6-fold greater than those found to be active against Leishmania promastigotes.To investigate the role of the metal in the improved antileishmanial activity of dppz, the activity of the Sb(III complex was compared between the Sb-resistant mutants and their respective parental sensitive strains. The lack of cross-resistance to the Sb(III-dppz complex together with the much lower activity of antimonyl tartrate, SbCl3 and BiCl3 strongly support the model that the metal is not active by itself but improves the activity of dppz through complexation.

  19. Supramolecular structures of 1-phenylethylammonium tartrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, David E; MacLean, Elizabeth J; Lough, Alan J; Ferguson, George; Glidewell, Christopher

    2005-02-01

    The structures of six 1-phenylethylammonium tartrates have been determined and in each of them a distinctive hydrogen-bonded anion substructure can be identified. (S)-1-Phenylethylammonium (R,R)-hydrogen tartrate [(I), P21, Z'=1] contains anion sheets built from a single type of R4(4)(22) ring with cations pendent, via three N-H...O hydrogen bonds, from just one face of the sheet. (S)-1-Phenylethylammonium rac-hydrogen tartrate [(II), P21, Z'=2] and its enantiomorph (R)-1-phenylethylammonium rac-hydrogen tartrate [(III), P21, Z'=2] contain anion sheets built from four types of ring, R2(2)(10), R2(2)(12), R2(4)(14) and R4(4)(20), and there are cations pendent from both faces of the sheet. The anion substructure in bis[(S)-1-phenylethylammonium] (R,R)-tartrate [(IV), P2(1), Z'=1] consists of simple C(5) chains, which are linked into sheets by the cations, while in bis(rac-1-phenylethylammonium) (R,R)-tartrate [(V), P2(1), Z'=2] there are anion sheets containing two distinct types of R4(4)(22) ring, with equal numbers of (R) and (S) cations pendent from each face of the anion sheet. Bis[(R)-1-phenylethylammonium] rac-tartrate methanol hemisolvate [(VI), P1, Z'=4, with 14 independent components in the asymmetric unit] contains anion sheets built from two types of R2(2)(12) ring and two types of R6(6)(32) ring; half of the cations and half of the methanol molecules are pendent from each face of the sheet.

  20. Inhibition of 3003 aluminum alloy corrosion by propargyl alcohol and tartrate ion and their synergistic effects in 0.5% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdzad, A.R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrabi, T. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: tshahrabi34@modares.ac.ir; Hosseini, M.G. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Tabriz University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    The inhibition behaviours of propargyl alcohol (2-propyn-1-ol) and potassium sodium tartrate and their synergistic effects on corrosion of 3003 aluminum alloy in 0.5% NaCl solution have been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization methods. It was concluded that the inhibition efficiencies increased with increase in the concentrations of the inhibitors. For propargyl alcohol and tartrate ion the optimum in the inhibition efficiencies using EIS method was observed for inhibitors concentrations close to 10{sup -3} M. Both the inhibitors obeyed the Langmuir isotherm and the thermodynamic calculations revealed that the adsorption of inhibitors was of physical nature. The electrochemical results illustrated that tartrate ion and propargyl alcohol have significant synergistic effects on corrosion inhibition of 3003 aluminum alloy. The optimum ratio of concentration for tartrate to alcohol was 5:2.

  1. Cationic cobaltammine as anion receptor: Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray structure and packing analysis of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride ( R, R)-tartrate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Ritu; Sharma, Raj Pal; Venugopalan, Paloth; Harrison, William T. A.

    2007-03-01

    In an effort to utilize the [Co(NH 3) 6] 3+ cation as a new anion receptor (binding agent) for dihydroxy dicarboxylate anion i.e., tartrate, orange single crystals of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride ( R, R)-tartrate monohydrate, [Co(NH 3) 6]Cl(C 4H 4O 6)·H 2O, were obtained by reacting hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride with potassium-sodium tartrate tetrahydrate in a 1:1 molar ratio in hot water. The single crystal X-ray structure determination of [Co(NH 3) 6]Cl(C 4H 4O 6)·H 2O revealed that a distinctive network of hydrogen bonding interactions (N-H⋯O, N-H⋯Cl -, O-H⋯O) stabilize the crystal lattice. This is the first complex salt of hexaamminecobalt(III) with dihydroxy dicarboxylate anion i.e., tartrate.

  2. The MRP1-mediated effluxes of arsenic and antimony do not require arsenic-glutathione and antimony-glutathione complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Milena; Petroutsa, Maria; Garnier-Suillerot, Arlette

    2002-04-01

    Arsenic trioxide is an effective treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia, but resistance to metalloid salts is found in humans. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, we have measured the rate of uptake of arsenic trioxide and of antimony tartrate in GLC4 and GLC4/ADR cells overexpressing MRP1 and the rate of their MRP1-mediated effluxes as a function of the intracellular GSH concentration. In sensitive cells, after 1 h, a pseudosteady state is reached where intra- and extracellular concentrations of metalloid are the same. This precludes the formation, at short term, of complexes between arsenic or antimony with GSH. In resistant cells reduced intracellular accumulation of arsenic (or antimony), reflecting an increased rate of arsenic (or antimony) efflux from the cells, is observed. No efflux of the metalloid is observed in GSH depleted cells. The two metalloids and GSH are pumped out by MRP1 with the same efficiency. Moreover for the three compounds 50% of the efflux is inhibited by 2 microM MK571. This led us to suggest that As- and Sb-containing species could be cotransported with GSH. PMID:12018890

  3. Synthesis of Beta Pyridyl Carbinol Tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Shukla

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available A process for the synthesis of Beta pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester starting from quinoline has been developed. Beta-pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride gave Beta-pyridy1 carbinol which on treatment tartaric acid yielded Beta-pyridy1 carbinol tartrate, a vaso dilator known in trade as "Ronicoltartrate".

  4. Claristar™ : a new ingredient for tartrate stabilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Bouissou, Delphine; Samson, Alain; Saint-Pierre, Bernard; Bajard-Sparrow, Céline; Caussette, Mylène; Latham, Phil; Pellerin, Patrice; Lankhorst, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The preventative property of mannoproteins on tartrate crystallisation continues to raise considerable interest in the wine industry. However, at this time, little attention has been placed on the diversity of yeast mannoproteins and the quality of their effects in wine.Yeast mannoprotein is actually a large family of molecules and their specific composition and configuration confer their particular functionality and stability in wine. With more than a century of expertise in yeast technology...

  5. Inhibition Behaviour of 2-butine1, 4diol and Tartrate Salt, and Their Synergistic Effects on Corrosion of AA3003 Aluminium Alloy in 0.5% NaCl Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taghi Shahrabi; Alireza Yazdzad; Mirghasem Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    This work intends to investigate the inhibition behaviour of 2-butine 1, 4diol and potassium sodium tartrate and their synergistic effects on 3003 aluminium alloy corrosion in 0.5% NaCl solution. Experiments were carried out by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization method in a three-electrode cell. It was concluded that the inhibition efficiencies increased with an increase in the concentrations of inhibitors. For 2-butinel, 4diol and tartrate salt, the optimum in the inhibition efficiency, at room temperature and neutral pH, was observed for concentrations close to 10-3 mol/L and 1.5×10-3mol/L, respectively. The electrochemical results illustrated that 2-butine1, 4diol and tartrate salt, have significant synergistic inhibition effects on corrosion of 3003 aluminium alloy in 0.5% NaCl solution. The optimum ratio of concentrations for tartrate to alcohol was 2:1.

  6. Pentavalent Antimonials: New Perspectives for Old Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Raul R.; Cynthia Demicheli; Frédéric Frézard

    2009-01-01

    Pentavalent antimonials, including meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate, have been used for more than half a century in the therapy of the parasitic disease leishmaniasis. Even though antimonials are still the first-line drugs, they exhibit several limitations, including severe side effects, the need for daily parenteral administration and drug resistance. The molecular structure of antimonials, their metabolism and mechanism of action are still being investigated. Some recent stud...

  7. Disodium (2RS,3SR-tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Arbuckle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the anhydrous title compound, 2Na+·C4H4O62−, contains two sodium cations and one tartrate anion. Each sodium ion is six coordinate, with bonding to six O atoms from both the carboxylate and hydroxyl groups of the anion. A three-dimensional coordination network is formed with sodium ions stacking in layers along the c-axis direction. This network is supported by additional O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  8. Dielectric behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Arora; Vipul Patel; Brijesh Amin; Anjana Kothari

    2004-04-01

    Strontium tartrate trihydrate (STT) crystals have been grown in silica hydrogel. Various polarization mechanisms such as atomic polarization of lattice, orientational polarization of dipoles and space charge polarization in the grown crystals have been understood using results of the measurements of dielectric constant (') and dielectric loss (tan ) as functions of frequency and temperature. Ion core type polarization is seen in the temperature range 75–180°C, and above 180°C, there is interfacial polarization for relatively lower frequency range. One observes dielectric dispersion at lower frequency presumably due to domain wall relaxation.

  9. Pentavalent Antimonials: New Perspectives for Old Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul R. Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimonials, including meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate, have been used for more than half a century in the therapy of the parasitic disease leishmaniasis. Even though antimonials are still the first-line drugs, they exhibit several limitations, including severe side effects, the need for daily parenteral administration and drug resistance. The molecular structure of antimonials, their metabolism and mechanism of action are still being investigated. Some recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony acts as a prodrug that is converted to active and more toxic trivalent antimony. Other works support the direct involvement of pentavalent antimony. Recent data suggest that the biomolecules, thiols and ribonucleosides, may mediate the actions of these drugs. This review will summarize the progress to date on the chemistry and biochemistry of pentavalent antimony. It will also present the most recent works being done to improve antimonial chemotherapy. These works include the development of simple synthetic methods for pentavalent antimonials, liposome-based formulations for targeting the Leishmania parasites responsible for visceral leishmaniasis and cyclodextrin-based formulations to promote the oral delivery of antimony.

  10. Spherulitic crystallization of holmium tartrates in silica gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, Basharat [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India)

    2011-09-15

    Spherulites of holmium tartrate trihydrate and holmium nitro-tartrate monohydrate have been grown in silica gel medium by making holmium nitrate to react with tartaric acid at high supersaturations. The mechanism of spherulitic growth of holmium tartrates is discussed. The spherulitic crystallization is shown to be due to heterogeneous nucleation. In the early stages of growth an amorphous spherical mass gets nucleated inside the gel. Crystal fibers diverge radially from the surface of the spherical mass giving rise to a spherical polycrystalline holmium tartrate. Thermal stability of the two types of spherulites grown in the silica gel shows that the holmium tartrate trihydrate is more stable than holmium nitro-tartrate monohydrate. The surface morphology and internal structure of the spherulites of holmium tartrates have been studied by using scanning electron microscopy. The results on growth kinetics are given by studying the variation of radius of spherulites as a function of time. A non-linear time-size relations under several conditions of growth have been observed, which suggests a non-uniform solute concentration at the crystal surface. (orig.)

  11. Racemic calcium tartrate tetrahydrate [form (II)] in rat urinary stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, A; Bazin, D; Daudon, M; Brochot, A; Robbez-Masson, V; Maisonneuve, V

    2009-06-01

    The title compound, [Ca(C4H4O6)].4H2O, calcium tartrate tetrahydrate, is a new triclinic centrosymmetric form identified in rat kidney calculus. The crystal structure was determined from powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The four water molecules belong to one square face of the Ca-atom coordination (a square antiprism), the four O atoms of the second square face coming from two tartrate anions, building infinite chains alternating Ca atom polyhedra and tartrate anions along a, with the chains cross-linked by a network of hydrogen bonds.

  12. Dielectric characterization of gadolinium tartrate trihydrate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, Basharat [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, Jammu and Kashmir (India); Ahmad, Farooq [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, Jammu and Kashmir (India); Kotru, P.N. [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu 180006, Jammu and Kashmir (India)]. E-mail: pn_kotru@yahoo.com

    2007-01-15

    Single crystals of gadolinium tartrate trihydrate have been grown by gel diffusion technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the crystals belong to the tetragonal system with non-centrosymmetric space group. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity have been measured as a function of frequency in the range 1 kHz-5 MHz and temperature range 20-300 deg. C. The dielectric constant increases with temperature, attains a peak around 240 deg. C and then decreases as the temperature exceeds 240 deg. C. The dielectric anomaly at 240 deg. C is suggested to be due to phase transition brought about in the material, which is further supported by the thermal studies. The variation of ac conductivity with temperature has been measured and the material is suggested to show protonic conductivity.

  13. Potassium Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from taking in radioactive iodine that may be ... damage the thyroid gland. You should only take potassium iodide if there is a nuclear radiation emergency ...

  14. (R-Doxylaminium (R,R-tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Dayananda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: (R-dimethyl{2-[1-phenyl-1-(pyridin-2-ylethoxy]ethyl}azanium (R,R-3-carboxy-2,3-dihydroxypropanoate, C17H23N2O+·C4H5O6−, the doxylaminium cation is protonated at the N atom. The tartrate monoanions are linked by short, almost linear O—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains extended along [100]. These chains are interlinked by anion–pyridine O—H...N hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional grid structure. WeakC—H...O interactions also play a role in the crystal packing. An intramolecular hydroxy–carboxylate O—H...O hydrogen bond influences the conformation of the anion: the hydrogen-bonded fragment is almost planar, the maximum deviation from the mean plane being 0.059 (14 Å. In the cation, the aromatic rings are almost perpendicular [dihedral angle = 84.94 (8°] and the conformation of the O—C—C—N chain is gauche(−, the dihedral angle is −76.6 (2°. The absolute configuration was assigned on the basis of known chirality of the parent compound.

  15. Alkali oxide-tantalum, niobium and antimony oxide ionic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. S.; Brower, W. S.; Parker, H. S.; Minor, D. B.; Waring, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The phase equilibrium relations of four systems were investigated in detail. These consisted of sodium and potassium antimonates with antimony oxide and tantalum and niobium oxide with rubidium oxide as far as the ratio 4Rb2O:llB2O5 (B=Nb, Ta). The ternary system NaSbO3-Sb2O4-NaF was investigated extensively to determine the actual composition of the body centered cubic sodium antimonate. Various other binary and ternary oxide systems involving alkali oxides were examined in lesser detail. The phases synthesized were screened by ion exchange methods to determine mobility of the mobility of the alkali ion within the niobium, tantalum or antimony oxide (fluoride) structural framework. Five structure types warranted further investigation; these structure types are (1) hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB), (2) pyrochlore, (3) the hybrid HTB-pyrochlore hexagonal ordered phases, (4) body centered cubic antimonates and (5) 2K2O:3Nb2O5. Although all of these phases exhibit good ion exchange properties only the pyrochlore was prepared with Na(+) ions as an equilibrium phase and as a low porosity ceramic. Sb(+3) in the channel interferes with ionic conductivity in this case, although relatively good ionic conductivity was found for the metastable Na(+) ion exchanged analogs of RbTa2O5F and KTaWO6 pyrochlore phases.

  16. Growth and characterization of strontium tartrate pentahydrate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firdous, A.; Ahmad, M.M. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kashmir (India); Quasim, I.; Kotru, P.N. [Crystal Growth and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu (India)

    2008-10-15

    Silica gel impregnated with L-tartaric acid and using strontium nitrate as the second reactant leads to the growth of well faceted strontium tartrate pentahydrate single crystals.The morphological developmen and internal cell dimensions are observed to be different from the ones reported in the literature for strontium tartrate trihydrate crystals. The crystals are characterized using XRD, CH analysis, SEM, FTIR spectroscopy and thermoanalytical techniques. The crystals are observed to be thermally stable upto about 105 C but thereafter start decomposing and ejecting water of hydration at various stages, finally reducing to strontium oxide. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. On the growth of calcium tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X Sahaya Shajan; C Mahadevan

    2004-08-01

    Calcium tartrate single crystals were grown using silica gel as the growth medium. Calcium formate mixed with formic acid was taken as the supernatant solution. It was observed that the nucleation density was reduced and the size of the crystals was improved to a large extent compared to the conventional way of growing calcium tartrate crystals with calcium chloride. The role played by formate–formic acid on the growth of crystals is discussed. The grown crystals were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), microhardness measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results obtained are compared with the previous work.

  18. Potassium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also be done if your provider suspects metabolic acidosis (for example, caused by uncontrolled diabetes) or alkalosis ( ... Hypoaldosteronism (very rare) Kidney failure Metabolic or respiratory acidosis Red blood cell destruction Too much potassium in ...

  19. Validated kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of metoprolol tartrate in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nafisur; Rahman, Habibur; Azmi, Syed Najmul Hejaz

    2005-08-01

    A kinetic spectrophotometric method has been described for the determination of metoprolol tartrate in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on reaction of the drug with alkaline potassium permanganate at 25+/-1 degrees C. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the change in absorbance at 610 nm as a function of time. The initial rate and fixed time (at 15.0 min) methods are utilized for constructing the calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the drug. Both the calibration graphs are linear in the concentration range of 1.46 x 10(-6)-8.76 x 10(-6) M (10.0-60.0 microg per 10 ml). The calibration data resulted in the linear regression equations of log (rate)=3.634+0.999 log C and A=6.300 x 10(-4)+6.491 x 10(-2) C for initial-rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The limits of quantitation for initial rate and fixed time methods are 0.04 and 0.10 microg ml(-1), respectively. The activation parameters such as E(a), DeltaH(double dagger), DeltaS(double dagger) and DeltaG(double dagger) are also evaluated for the reaction and found to be 90.73 kJ mol(-1), 88.20 kJ mol(-1), 84.54 J K(-1) mol(-1) and 63.01 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The results are validated statistically and through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of metoprolol tartrate in pharmaceutical formulations. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference method shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision. PMID:16079525

  20. Growth features of ammonium hydrogen -tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Sajeevkumar; R Raveendran; B S Remadevi; Alexander Varghese Vaidyan

    2004-08-01

    Ammonium hydrogen -tartrate (-AHT) single crystals were grown in silica gel. The growth features of these crystals with variation of parameters like specific gravity of the gel, gel pH, acid concentrations, concentration of the feed solution and gel age were studied in detail.

  1. Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M H Rahimkutty; K Rajendra Babu; K Sreedharan Pillai; M R Sudarsana Kumar; C M K Nair

    2001-04-01

    Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate crystals grown with the aid of sodium metasilicate gel is investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Effect of magnetic field and dopant (Pb)2+ on the crystal stability is also studied using thermal analysis. This study reveals that water molecules are locked up in the lattice with different strengths in the grown crystals.

  2. Crystal structure of lead(II) tartrate: a redetermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of poly[μ4-tartrato-κ(6) O (1),O (3):O (1'):O (2),O (4):O (4')-lead], [Pb(C4H4O6)] n , were grown in a gel medium. In comparison with the previous structure determination of this compound from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data [De Ridder et al. (2002 ▶). Acta Cryst. C58, m596-m598], the redetermination on the basis of single-crystal data reveals the absolute structure, all atoms with anisotropic displacement parameters and a much higher accuracy in terms of bond lengths and angles. It could be shown that a different space group or incorporation of water as reported for similarly gel-grown lead tartrate crystals is incorrect. In the structure, each Pb(2+) cation is bonded to eight O atoms of five tartrate anions, while each tartrate anion links four Pb(2+) cations. The resulting three-dimensional framework is stabilized by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the OH groups of one tartrate anion and the carboxyl-ate O atoms of adjacent anions.

  3. Crystal structure of lead(II tartrate: a redetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of poly[μ4-tartrato-κ6O1,O3:O1′:O2,O4:O4′-lead], [Pb(C4H4O6]n, were grown in a gel medium. In comparison with the previous structure determination of this compound from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data [De Ridder et al. (2002. Acta Cryst. C58, m596–m598], the redetermination on the basis of single-crystal data reveals the absolute structure, all atoms with anisotropic displacement parameters and a much higher accuracy in terms of bond lengths and angles. It could be shown that a different space group or incorporation of water as reported for similarly gel-grown lead tartrate crystals is incorrect. In the structure, each Pb2+ cation is bonded to eight O atoms of five tartrate anions, while each tartrate anion links four Pb2+ cations. The resulting three-dimensional framework is stabilized by O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the OH groups of one tartrate anion and the carboxylate O atoms of adjacent anions.

  4. FIRST REPORT ON OTOTOXICITY OF MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pentavalent antimonials are the first drug of choice in the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Data on ototoxicity related with such drugs is scarcely available in literature, leading us to develop a study on cochleovestibular functions. Case Report: A case of a tegumentary leishmaniasis patient, a 78-year-old man who presented a substantial increase in auditory threshold with tinnitus and severe rotatory dizziness during the treatment with meglumine antimoniate, is reported. These symptoms worsened in two weeks after treatment was interrupted. Conclusion: Dizziness and tinnitus had already been related to meglumine antimoniate. However, this is the first well documented case of cochlear-vestibular toxicity related to meglumine antimoniate.

  5. Two forms of sarcosine sarcosinium hydrogen L-tartrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, M.; Ghazaryan, V. V.; Petrosyan, A. M.

    2013-08-01

    In the system sarcosine + L-tartaric acid + H2O we identified several new phases in addition to the previously known species sarcosinium hydrogen L-tartrate (I). Two of them (phases (II) and (III)) were obtained in the form of single crystals. Their crystal and molecular structures were determined. Both phases (II) and (III) have 2:1 composition and contain a zwitter-ionic sarcosine, a sarcosinium cation, and a hydrogen L-tartrate anion in the asymmetric unit and crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group P212121). In the structure of (II), the sarcosinium cation forms a strong Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond (O⋯O distance equals 2.4553(15) Å) with the carboxylate group of the hydrogen L-tartrate anion, while the carboxyl group of the hydrogen L-tartrate anion forms an Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond (O⋯O distance equals 2.5065(14) Å) with the carboxylate group of sarcosine zwitter-ion. In the structure of (III) there are dimeric sarcosine sarcosinium cations with an O⋯O distance equal to 2.512(3) Å, while the hydrogen L-tartrate anions form hydrogen bonded usual infinite chains with O⋯O distances equal to 2.510(2) Å between carboxyl and carboxylate groups. Vibrational spectra (infrared and Raman) of (I), (II), (III) are shown and discussed on the basis of their structures. In addition, one more phase (IV) was identified by its infrared spectrum without structure determination.

  6. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  7. 21 CFR 862.3110 - Antimony test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... antimony, a heavy metal, in urine, blood, vomitus, and stomach contents. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of antimony poisoning. (b) Classification. Class I....

  8. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact. PMID:26194244

  9. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  10. Infrared surface polaritons on antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Justin W; Medhi, Gautam; Shahzad, Monas; Rezadad, Imen; Maukonen, Doug; Peale, Robert E; Boreman, Glenn D; Wentzell, Sandy; Buchwald, Walter R

    2012-01-30

    The semimetal antimony, with a plasma frequency ~80 times less than that of gold, is potentially useful as a host for infrared surface polaritons (SPs). Relevant IR SP properties, including the frequency-dependent propagation length and penetration depths for fields into the media on either side of the interface, were determined from optical constants measured on optically-thick thermally-evaporated Sb films over the wavelength range 1 to 40 μm. Plasma and carrier relaxation frequencies were determined from Drude-model fits to these data. The real part of the permittivity is negative for wavelengths beyond 11 μm. Distinct resonant decreases in specular reflected intensity were observed for Sb lamellar gratings in the wavelength range of 6 to 11 μm, where the real part of the permittivity is positive. Both resonance angles and the angular reflectance spectral line shapes are in agreement with theory for excitation of bound surface electromagnetic waves (SPs). Finite element method (FEM) electrodynamic simulations indicate the existence of SP modes under conditions matching the experiments. FEM results also show that such waves depend on having a significant imaginary part of the permittivity, as has been noted earlier for the case of surface exciton polaritons.

  11. The Structure of Ammonium D,L-Tartrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The single crystals of the title compound NH4+C4H5O6- (C4H9NO6, Mr = 167.1) were obtained from a hot aqueous solution containing L-glutamine and D,L-tartaric acid in mole ratio1:1.5. The crystal belongs to monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 7.646(2), b = 7.804(2), c = 11.502(3)?, β = 102.26(2)o, V = 670.7(3)?3, Z = 4, F(000) = 352, Dc = 1.655 g.cm-3, ((MoK() = 0.16 mm-1, R = 0.035, wR = 0.094 for 1028 observed reflections (I>2((I)). The enatiomeric anions of the tartrate with both (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)-configuration co-exist in the unit cell. The carbon skeleton assumes a coplanar arrangement with a torsion angle of 181.5o. The three- dimensional H-bonding network exists in the crystal. While tartrate groups link each other by H-bonds between carboxyl and hydroxyl groups, the ammonium cations insert between the tartrate groups to form a sandwich-like crystal structure.

  12. Scalable synthesis and characterization of cobalt sodium tartrate nanowires with adjustable diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Hu, Kun; Meng, Xiangkang

    2011-11-01

    Cobalt sodium tartrate nanowires are synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method using ethanol-water mixed solvents. The smooth wires are on average 30 μm long. Their diameters are narrowly size distributed with a controllable average in the range from 80 to 250 nm. Interestingly, after the initial two hours, the diameter decreases with further reaction time. The tartrate anions act as coordination ligands with all six oxygen atoms participating in the coordination. The Co 2+ and Na + ions chelate with the O atoms from the carboxylate and hydroxyl groups in the tartrate ligands. The ethanol participates in the formation of pi bonds. The cobalt is divalent while the sodium is monovalent in their tartrates. The respective crystal structures of these metal tartrates are incompatible, and the wires are therefore amorphous. The influence of the reaction time, sodium tartrate concentration, pH value, and the ethanol water ratio are studied in detail.

  13. Potassium clavulanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Fujii

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, K+·C8H8NO5− [systematic name: potassium (2R,5R,Z-3-(2-hydroxyethylidene-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate], a widely used β-lactam antibiotic, is usually chemically unstable even in the solid state owing to its tendency to be hydrolysed. In the crystal structure, the potassium cations are arranged along the a axis, forming interactions to the carboxylate and hydroxy groups, resulting in one-dimensional ionic columns. These columns are arranged along the b axis, connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer in the ab plane.

  14. Tartrate/tripolyphosphate as co-crosslinker for water soluble chitosan used in protein antigens encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Gopal; Walke, Shilratna; Dhavale, Dilip; Gade, Wasudeo; Doshi, Jignesh; Kumar, Rakesh; Ravetkar, Satish; Doshi, Pooja

    2016-10-01

    In drug delivery research, several toxic chemical crosslinkers and non-toxic ionic crosslinkers have been exploited for the synthesis of microparticles from acetic acid soluble chitosan. This paper hypothesized the implementation of sodium potassium tartrate (SPT) as an alternative crosslinker for sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and SPT/TPP co-crosslinkers for synthesis of the microparticles using water soluble chitosan (WSC) for encapsulation of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, and Tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model vaccine. The crosslinking was confirmed by FT-IR, SEM with EDS. The XRD entailed molecular dispersion of proteins and thermal analysis confirmed the higher stability of STP/TPP co-crosslinked formulations. The resultant microparticles were exhibiting crosslinking degree (52-67%), entrapment efficiency (72-80%), particle size (0.3-1.7μm), zeta potential (+24 to 46mV) and mucoadhesion (41-68%). The superiority of SPT over TPP was confirmed by higher crosslinking degree and entrapment efficiency. However, co-crosslinking were advantageous in higher regression values for Langmuir adsorption isotherm, slower swelling tendency and extended 30days controlled in-vitro release study. TT release obeyed the Quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism for single and cocrosslinked formulations. Overall, in crosslinking of chitosan as biological macromolecules, STP/TPP may be alternative for single ionic crosslinked formulations for protein antigen delivery. PMID:27246374

  15. Conductivity Prediction of Sodium and Potassium Hydrogen Tartrates in Aqueous Solution at Low Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@1 INTRODUCTION Acid salt is one kind of important compound, and studies on its solution conductivity behavior are very necessary in chemical analysis and medicine, biology and food industry. However, in aqueous solution, theconductivity behavior of the acid salt is quite compli-cated due to the existence of dissociation and asso-ciationequilibria among the species, which makes itdiffcult to predict or correlate the molar conductivityof acid salt solution. Now though conductivity equa-tion such as Pitts[1,2], Onsager-Fuoss-Chen (1978)[3],Fuoss(1978)[4], Lee Wheaton[5], and Quint-Viallard[6]equations are able to predict the conductivity of elec-trolyte solution, the reliability and accuracy of predic-tio are difficult to ensure.

  16. Synthesis and application of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU You-nian; LI Hong-bing; SHU Wan-gen; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2005-01-01

    A new type of thermal stabilizer, antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate)(Sb(SCH2COOC8H17)5), was synthesized by using antimony trioxide, isooctanol and thioglycolic acid in 2 steps. Firstly, antimony trioxide was oxidized into colloidal antimony peroxide. Then antimony peroxide and isooctyl thioglycollate reacted stoichiometrically for 2 h with the yield of 87%. This compound was used as thermal stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride(PVC). The results show that the thermal stability time is 52 min at 200 ℃ by heat-ageing oven test when adding 2.5% thermal stabilizer to PVC resin. Compared with antimony tris(isooctyl thiolycollate), the initial thermal stability of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) is better than that of antimony tris(isooctyl thioglycollate), while the long-term thermal stability time is shorter than that of antimony tris(isooctyl thioglycollate). Meanwhile, the synergism of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) with calcium stearate was studied, indicating that when the mass ratio of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) to calcium stearate is 2:1, the thermal stability time of PVC is 58 min.

  17. Vacuum Evaporation Technology for Treating Antimony-Rich Anode Slime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Keqiang; Lin, Deqiang; Yang, Xuelin

    2012-11-01

    A vacuum evaporation technology for treating antimony-rich anode slime was developed in this work. Experiments were carried out at temperatures from 873 K to 1073 K and residual gas pressures from 50 Pa to 600 Pa. During vacuum evaporation, silver from the antimony-rich anode slime was left behind in the distilland in a silver alloy containing antimony and lead, and antimony trioxide was evaporated. The experimental results showed that 92% by weight of antimony can be removed, and the silver content in the alloy was up to 12.84%. The antimony trioxide content in the distillate was more than 99.7%, and the distillate can be used directly as zero-grade antimony trioxide (China standard).

  18. Microbial antimony biogeochemistry: Enzymes, regulation, and related metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Qian Wang,; Oremland, Ronald S.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago. This portends the possibility of future discoveries with regard to the ability of microorganisms to conserve energy for their growth from antimony redox reactions and the isolation of new species of “antimonotrophs.”

  19. Arsenic and antimony transporters in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.

  20. Ergotism related to a single dose of ergotamine tartrate in an AIDS patient treated with ritonavir

    OpenAIRE

    Blanche, P.; Rigolet, A; GOMBERT, B; Ginsburg, C.; Salmon, D.; Sicard, D

    1999-01-01

    We report a rare case of ergotism related to a single dose of ergotamine tartrate in a man with AIDS being treated with ritonavir. He was treated with a prostacyclin analogue and made a complete recovery.


Keywords: ergotism; ergotamine tartrate; AIDS; ritonavir; adverse drug reaction; HIV infection

  1. In vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: samanta@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo (IMT-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia]. E-mail:hfandrad@usp.br

    2005-10-15

    Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes {sup 122} Sb and {sup 124} Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology. (author)

  2. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema; Heitor Franco de Andrade Junior; João Alberto Osso Junior; Nanci do Nascimento

    2005-01-01

    Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® ) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® ), is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer...

  3. Study of ion chromatographic behavior of inorganic and organic antimony species by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, N. [University of Hannover, Department of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    An on-line method for the analysis of Sb(III), Sb(V) and trimethylstiboxide (TMSbO) is presented. The separation is performed using ion chromatography (IC) on a strong anion-exchange column with phthalic acid plus 2% acteone at pH 5 as mobile phase. The chromatographic system is coupled to an ICP-MS as detector. The influence of different complexing agents on the chromatographic behavior of the antimony species is studied. Rather stable complexes of Sb(III) seem to be formed with citrate and tartrate under the experimental conditions. TMSbO forms a dianionic species with citrate in contrast to the otherwise monoanionic complex. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs.

  4. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mails: samanta@usp.br; nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb{sup +5}) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony

  5. Effects of sodium tartrate anodizing on fatigue life of TA15 titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chunjuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anodizing is always used as an effective surface modification method to improve the corrosion resistance and wear resistance of titanium alloy. The sodium tartrate anodizing is a new kind of environmental anodizing method. In this work, the effects of sodium tartrate anodizing on mechanical property were studied. The oxide film was performed on the TA15 titanium alloy using sodium tartrate as the film former. The effects of this anodizing and the traditional acid anodizing on the fatigue life of TA15 alloy were compared. The results show that the sodium tartrate anodizing just caused a slight increase of hydrogen content in the alloy, and had a slight effect on the fatigue life. While, the traditional acid anodizing caused a significant increase of hydrogen content in the substrate and reduced the fatigue life of the alloy significantly.

  6. Photocatalytic Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium Induced by Photolysis of Ferric/tartrate Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xianghua; Ding, Shimin; Zhang, Lixian [Yangtze Normal Univ., Fuling (China)

    2012-11-15

    Photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in ferric-tartrate system under irradiation of visible light was investigated. Effects of light resources, initial pH value and initial concentration of various reactants on Cr(VI) photocatalytic reduction were studied. Photoreaction kinetics was discussed and a possible photochemical pathway was proposed. The results indicate that Fe(III)-tartrate system is able to rapidly and effectively photocatalytically reduce Cr(VI) utilizing visible light. Initial pH variations results in the concentration changes of Fe(III)-tartrate complex in this system, and pH at 3.0 is optimal for Cr(VI) photocatalytic reduction. Efficiency of Cr(VI) photocatalytic reduction increases with increasing initial concentrations of Cr(VI), Fe(III) and tartrate. Kinetics analysis indicates that initial Fe(III) concentration affects Cr(VI) photoreduction most significantly.

  7. The discovery of novel tartrate-based TNF-[alpha] converting enzyme (TACE) inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, Kristin E.; Guo, Zhuyan; Orth, Peter; Shipps, Jr., Gerald W.; Belanger, David B.; Chan, Tin Yau; Curran, Patrick J.; Dai, Chaoyang; Deng, Yongqi; Girijavallabhan, Vinay M.; Hong, Liwu; Lavey, Brian J.; Lee, Joe F.; Li, Dansu; Liu, Zhidan; Popovici-Muller, Janeta; Ting, Pauline C.; Vaccaro, Henry; Wang, Li; Wang, Tong; Yu, W.; Zhou, G.; Niu, X.; Sun, J.; Kozlowski, J.A.; Lundell, D.J.; Madison, V.; McKittrick, B.; Piwinski, J.J.; Shih, N.Y.; Siddiqui, M. Arshad; Strickland, Corey O. (SPRI)

    2010-09-17

    A novel series of TNF-{alpha} convertase (TACE) inhibitors which are non-hydroxamate have been discovered. These compounds are bis-amides of L-tartaric acid (tartrate) and coordinate to the active site zinc in a tridentate manner. They are selective for TACE over other MMP's. We report the first X-ray crystal structure for a tartrate-based TACE inhibitor.

  8. Separation of traffic related antimony compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. It is known that most of the brake pads contain Sb2S3 as lubricant to achieve better friction stability. Due to braking the brake lining crumbles away and its Sb content gets into the air. As a result of the temperature increase accompanying the braking a part of the antimony may oxidize to oxides, as Sb2O3 or even to the more stable form, Sb2O4. Since Sb2O3 more readily soluble than the others, its absorption from the lung so its environmental impact effect is more harmful. After a systematic investigation involving solubilization of the solid compounds, citric and tartaric acid as well as 6 mol/dm3 HCl were tested for leaching of trace antimony compounds from natural matrix. To prepare reference material related to these species, soil and activated charcoal was spiked in 10 μg/g concentration with all the three material (Sb2S3, Sb2O3,Sb2O4). separately. Recovery of the different forms was checked by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric (GFAAS) analysis of the leachates. The soil was confirmed to oxidize the sulfide content while the activated charcoal was established to enrich antimony from HCl solution as ion association complex. It was concluded, that Sb2S3 is leached only in slight amount in 4 hours by 0.1-0.5 mol/dm3 citric acid, while leaching of Sb2O3 is quantitative. On the other side, it was proved that Sb2O3 as well as Sb2S3 traces are soluble in 6 HCl solution in 60 min, whilst Sb2O4 is not destroyed. So, the Sb2O3 and Sb2S3 content of a flying dust can be determined. The GFAAS temperature program had to be modified in order to be capable to analyze high organic matrix as citric or tartaric acid even in 0.5 mol/dm3 concentration. Concerning their decomposition temperature an additional step was inserted into the temperature program, pyrolysis on 300 and 400 deg C, respectively. The antimony concentration of the highly acidic leachates were determined by hydride generation GFAAS. The reproducibility of

  9. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  10. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  11. Dielectric and thermal behaviour of holmium tartrate trihydrate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, B.; Ahmad, F. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar (India); Kotru, P.N. [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu (India)

    2007-08-15

    Measurements on dielectric constant of holmium tartrate trihydrate crystals at frequencies of the applied a.c. in the range 1 kHz to 1 MHz and at temperature in the range 30 C to 330 C are reported. The dielectric constant {epsilon}' increases with temperature at all frequencies, attains a peak near 250 C, and then decreases as the temperature goes beyond 250 C. The anomalous dielectric behaviour at near about 250 C is attributed to be as a result of crystallographic/polymorphic phase transition brought about in the material. The results on the dielectric behaviour of the material are supplemented by results of thermal analysis viz., TG and DTA. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analytic techniques have been used to study thermal behaviour of the material. It is shown that the material is thermally stable up to 220 C beyond which it decomposes through three stages till the formation of holmium oxide at 1200 C. The non-isothermal kinetic parameters e.g., activation energy and the frequency factor have been evaluated for first two stages of thermal decomposition by using the integral method of Coats and Redfern. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Monomeric tartrate resistant acid phosphatase induces insulin sensitive obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Lång

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue, which may link adipose inflammation to insulin resistance. However, the impact of inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP is an enzyme expressed by subsets of macrophages and osteoclasts that exists either as an enzymatically inactive monomer or as an active, proteolytically processed dimer. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using mice over expressing TRAP, we show that over-expression of monomeric, but not the dimeric form in adipose tissue leads to early onset spontaneous hyperplastic obesity i.e. many small fat cells. In vitro, recombinant monomeric, but not proteolytically processed TRAP induced proliferation and differentiation of mouse and human adipocyte precursor cells. In humans, monomeric TRAP was highly expressed in the adipose tissue of obese individuals. In both the mouse model and in the obese humans the source of TRAP in adipose tissue was macrophages. In addition, the obese TRAP over expressing mice exhibited signs of a low-grade inflammatory reaction in adipose tissue without evidence of abnormal adipocyte lipolysis, lipogenesis or insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Monomeric TRAP, most likely secreted from adipose tissue macrophages, induces hyperplastic obesity with normal adipocyte lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

  13. Statistically optimised ethosomes for transdermal delivery of tolterodine tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, D; Lakshmi, P K

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current investigation is to optimize ethosomes statistically for enhancing transdermal potential of Tolterodine Tartrate (TT). Ethosomes bearing TT were prepared by cold method and characterized for various parameters like vesicle size, vesicle shape, surface morphology and % drug entrapment. Microscopic examinations suggest ethosomes as spherical unilamellar vesicles with a smooth surface. Optimized ethosomal vesicles were of 890±2.67nm size and showed 79.83±3.18% drug entrapment. Ex-vivo permeation studies across rat skin resulted in increased flux of 4.69±0.24μg/cm(2)/hr and decreased lag time of 0.13±0.05 hr when compared with drug solution (0.546±0.05μg/cm(2)/hr, 3±0.2 hr).This shows enhancement of transdermal delivery by 8.82 times. Anatomical changes in skin samples due to vesicle-skin interaction were observed on histological examination. Optimized formulation on storage at 4°C for 120 days showed insignificant growth in vesicular size revealing low aggregation of vesicles. The results collectively suggest ethosomes as carriers for accentuated transdermal delivery of TT. PMID:24191315

  14. Statistically optimised ethosomes for transdermal delivery of tolterodine tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, D; Lakshmi, P K

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current investigation is to optimize ethosomes statistically for enhancing transdermal potential of Tolterodine Tartrate (TT). Ethosomes bearing TT were prepared by cold method and characterized for various parameters like vesicle size, vesicle shape, surface morphology and % drug entrapment. Microscopic examinations suggest ethosomes as spherical unilamellar vesicles with a smooth surface. Optimized ethosomal vesicles were of 890±2.67nm size and showed 79.83±3.18% drug entrapment. Ex-vivo permeation studies across rat skin resulted in increased flux of 4.69±0.24μg/cm(2)/hr and decreased lag time of 0.13±0.05 hr when compared with drug solution (0.546±0.05μg/cm(2)/hr, 3±0.2 hr).This shows enhancement of transdermal delivery by 8.82 times. Anatomical changes in skin samples due to vesicle-skin interaction were observed on histological examination. Optimized formulation on storage at 4°C for 120 days showed insignificant growth in vesicular size revealing low aggregation of vesicles. The results collectively suggest ethosomes as carriers for accentuated transdermal delivery of TT.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of gel-grown cobalt tartrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V M Athivanan; M Haris; T Prasanyaa; M Amgalan

    2014-03-01

    Crystals of cobalt tartrate are grown from the gel using chemical reaction method. The functional groups are found from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The OH stretching mode owing to water, carbonyl group, CH stretching modes and metal–oxygen stretching are identified. The unit cell dimensions, interaxial angles and unit cell volume are found from powder X-ray diffraction studies (XRD) which show the orthorhombic nature of the crystal. The magnetic study is used to find the magnetic susceptibility and magnetic moment of the grown crystal. It reveals the magnetic nature of the crystal. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are done to find the thermal properties of the crystal which manifest the water of hydration in the crystal. The variation of dielectric constant with respect to the applied frequency shows the polarization property of the crystal. The AC conductivity is increased proportionally with increase in frequency. The reverse nature is found for the AC resistivity. The nature of the composition of the crystals affects the dielectric properties.

  16. Tolterodine Tartrate Proniosomal Gel Transdermal Delivery for Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabalaya, Rajan; Leen, Guok; Chellian, Jestin; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; David, Sheba R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to formulate and evaluate side effects of transdermal delivery of proniosomal gel compared to oral tolterodine tartrate (TT) for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). Proniosomal gels are surfactants, lipids and soy lecithin, prepared by coacervation phase separation. Formulations were analyzed for drug entrapment efficiency (EE), vesicle size, surface morphology, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, in vitro skin permeation, and in vivo effects. The EE was 44.87%–91.68% and vesicle size was 253–845 nm for Span formulations and morphology showed a loose structure. The stability and skin irritancy test were also carried out for the optimized formulations. Span formulations with cholesterol-containing formulation S1 and glyceryl distearate as well as lecithin containing S3 formulation showed higher cumulative percent of permeation such as 42% and 35%, respectively. In the in vivo salivary secretion model, S1 proniosomal gel had faster recovery, less cholinergic side effect on the salivary gland compared with that of oral TT. Histologically, bladder of rats treated with the proniosomal gel formulation S1 showed morphological improvements greater than those treated with S3. This study demonstrates the potential of proniosomal vesicles for transdermal delivery of TT to treat OAB. PMID:27589789

  17. Selective determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and dithizone by atomic-absorption spectrometry with a carbon-tube atomizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, T; Yamamoto, Y

    1977-05-01

    The extraction behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and dithizone in organic solvents has been investigated by means of frameless atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with a carbon-tube atomizer. The selective extraction of antimony(III) and differential determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) have been developed. With ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and methyl isobutyl ketone, when the aqueous phase/solvent volume ratio is 50 ml/10 ml and the injection volume in the carbon tube is 20 mul, the sensitivity for antimony is 0.2 ng/ml for 1% absorption. The relative standard deviations are ca. 2%. Interferences by many metal ions can be prevented by masking with EDTA. The proposed methods have been applied satisfactorily to determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in various types of water. PMID:18962096

  18. Structural and electrical characterization of zinc oxide doped with antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Juárez Díaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the results of structural and electrical characterization realized on zinc oxide single crystal samples with (001 orientation, which were doped with antimony. Doping was carried out by antimony thermal diffusion at 1000 °C for periods of 1 and 2 hours under nitrogen environment from a solid source formed by antimony oxide. Electrical characterization by I-V curves and Hall effect shown an increase in acceptor concentration which demonstrates that doping is effective and create holes in zinc oxide samples.

  19. Deposition of rod-shaped antimony sulfide thin films from single-source antimony thiosemicarbazone precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, Jasmine B.; Sawant, Narayan V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400 098 (India); Garje, Shivram S., E-mail: ssgarje@chem.mu.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400 098 (India)

    2010-04-02

    Antimony sulfide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition technique using single source precursors, namely, antimony(III) thiosemicarbazones, SbCl{sub 3}(L) (L = thiosemicarbazones of thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde (1) and cinnamaldehyde (2)). The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and UV-visible spectroscopy in order to identify their phases, morphologies, compositions and optical properties respectively. These characterizations revealed that the films were comprised of rod-shaped particles of orthorhombic stibnite (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) with a Sb:S stoichiometry of {approx} 1:1.3. The calculated optical band gap from UV-vis absorption spectrum is found to be 3.48 eV.

  20. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Riba Coelho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meglumine antimoniate (MA and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous. Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h and a slow (t1/2 >> 24 h elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain. The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies.

  1. How can we adapt to geological scarcity of antimony? Investigation of antimony's substitutability and of other measures to achieve a sustainable use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Antimony is an element that is applied in many useful applications for mankind. However, antimony resources are very scarce, when comparing the current extraction rates with the availability of antimony containing ores. From an inter-temporal sustainability perspective, current generations

  2. The role of brimonidine tartrate gel in the treatment of rosacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson JM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available J Mark Jackson,1 Melissa Knuckles,2 John Paul Minni,3 Sandra Marchese Johnson,4, Kevin Tate Belasco5 1Division of Dermatology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA; 2PSC, Dermatology, Corbin, KY, USA; 3Waters Edge Dermatology, Stuart, FL, USA; 4Johnson Dermatology, Fort Smith, AR, USA; 5Blue Harbor Dermatology, Newport Beach, CA, USA Abstract: Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous condition with a prevalence rate ranging from 9.6% to 22% in recent studies. Facial erythema (transient and permanent is considered a common denominator that is frequently observed in all subtypes of rosacea and is estimated to affect more than 40 million people worldwide. Brimonidine tartrate is a selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist and is the first topical treatment approved for facial erythema of rosacea. Clinical trials have demonstrated that brimonidine tartrate provided significantly greater efficacy, compared to vehicle, for the treatment of moderate to severe erythema of rosacea. In addition, brimonidine tartrate has demonstrated a rapid onset of effect, duration of action throughout the day, and good safety profile in studies of up to 1 year. This review critically discusses the role of brimonidine tartrate for the treatment of facial erythema of rosacea by examining both clinical study data and real-world dermatologist experiences across a wide spectrum of treated patients, and concludes that it is a significant therapeutic option in the management of an unmet need of this chronic condition. Keywords: rosacea, brimonidine tartrate, erythema, adverse event

  3. Tumor shrinkage by cyclopamine tartrate through inhibiting hedgehog signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qipeng Fan; Arash Garrossian; Massoud Garrossian; Dale Gardner; Jingwu Xie; Dongsheng Gu; Miao He; Hailan Liu; Tao Sheng; Guorui Xie; Ching-xin Li; Xiaoli Zhang; Brandon Wainwright

    2011-01-01

    The link of hedgehog (Hh) signaling activation to human cancer and synthesis of a variety of Hh signaling inhibitors raise great expectation that inhibiting Hh signaling may be effective in human cancer treatment. Cyclopamine (Cyc), an alkaloid from the Veratrum plant, is a specific natural product inhibitor of the Hh pathway that acts by targeting smoothened (SMO) protein. However, its poor solubility, acid sensitivity, and weak potency relative to other Hh antagonists prevent the clinical development of Cyc as a therapeutic agent. Here, we report properties of cyclopamine tartrate salt (CycT) and its activities in Hh signaling-mediated cancer in vitro and in vivo. Unlike Cyc, CycT is water soluble (5-10 mg/mL). The median lethal dose (LD) of CycT was 62.5 mg/kg body weight compared to 43.5 mg/kg for Cyc, and the plasma half-life (T) of CycT was not significantly different from that of Cyc. We showed that CycT had a higher inhibitory activity for Hh signaling-dependent motor neuron differentiation than did Cyc (IC = 50nmol/L for CycT vs. 300 nmol/L for Cyc). We also tested the antitumor effectiveness of these Hh inhibitors using two mouse models of basal cell carcinomas (K14cre:Ptch1and K14cre:SmoM2). After topical application of CycT or Cyc daily for 21 days, we found that all CycT-treated mice had tumor shrinkage and decreased expression of Hh target genes. Taken together, we found that CycT is an effective inhibitor of Hh signaling-mediated carcinogenesis.

  4. Characterization of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals grown in silica gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Mathivanan; M Haris

    2013-07-01

    Single crystal growth of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals bearing composition Cu Fe(1−) C4H4O6 · H2O, where = 0, 0.07, 0.06, 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, is achieved using gel technique. The elemental analysis has been done using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) spectrum. The characterization studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetic analysis and thermal analysis have been done for crystals with = 0 for pure iron tartrate and with = 0.05 for copper-mixed iron tartrate crystals. A detailed comparison has been made between pure and doped crystals.

  5. Growth and characterization of gel grown pure and mixed iron–manganese levo-tartrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Joshi; B B Parekh; K D Vohra; M J Joshi

    2006-06-01

    Several applications of iron tartrate and manganese tartrate compounds are reported in the literature. In the present investigation, we have grown pure and mixed iron (II)–manganese levo-tartrate crystals by single diffusion gel growth technique. Crystals with spherulitic morphology were harvested. The colouration of the crystals changed from black to pinkish brown upon increasing the content of manganese in the crystals. The crystals were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, powder XRD, TGA, VSM and dielectric study. Crystal structures of different mixed crystals were studied. From TGA it was observed that on heating the hydrated crystals became anhydrous and then converted into oxides. Paramagnetic nature of the crystals was revealed from VSM study. The variation of the dielectric constant with frequency was studied. The results are discussed.

  6. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1 M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by L-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3σ) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL-1 for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c = 1.0 ng mL-1, n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results.

  7. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiuming; Wen, Shengping; Xiang, Guoqiang

    2010-03-15

    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by l-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3 sigma) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL(-1) for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c=1.0 ng mL(-1), n=7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results. PMID:19853991

  8. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xiuming; Wen Shengping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, South Song Shan Road No. 140, Zhengzhou City 450001 (China); Xiang Guoqiang, E-mail: xianggq@haut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, South Song Shan Road No. 140, Zhengzhou City 450001 (China)

    2010-03-15

    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1 M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by L-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3{sigma}) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL{sup -1} for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c = 1.0 ng mL{sup -1}, n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results.

  9. Potassium and Health123

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Connie M.

    2013-01-01

    Potassium was identified as a shortfall nutrient by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Advisory Committee. The committee concluded that there was a moderate body of evidence of the association between potassium intake and blood pressure reduction in adults, which in turn influences the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Evidence is also accumulating of the protective effect of adequate dietary potassium on age-related bone loss and reduction of kidney stones. These benefits dep...

  10. Low bioavailability of ergotamine tartrate after oral and rectal administration in migraine sufferers.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibraheem, J J; Paalzow, L; Tfelt-Hansen, P

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen migraine patients were administered 2 mg ergotamine tartrate in a partial cross-over design as a single, oral tablet, rectal suppository and rectal solution. Eight of these patients were in a previous investigation given 0.5 mg ergotamine tartrate intravenously. The blood samples were taken up to 54 h after oral and suppository while it was followed for only 3 h after rectal solution. The chemical analysis was performed by applying h.p.l.c. method with a limit of sensitivity of 0.1 ng...

  11. Heat-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical method was developed for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples. The method is based on the selective retention of Sb(III) by modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of Sb(V). Heat, caustic and solvent pretreatments of the biomass were investigated to improve the kinetics and thermodynamics of Sb(III) uptake process at room temperature. Heating for 30 min at 80 deg. C was defined as the optimal treatment. Antimony accumulation by the cells was independent of pH (5-10) and ionic strength (0.01-0.1 mol L-1). 140 mg of yeast and 2 h of contact were necessary to ensure quantitative sequestration of Sb(III) up to 750 μg L-1. In these conditions, Sb(V) was not retained. Sb(V) was quantified in sorption supernatant by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Sb(III) was determined after elution with 40 mmol L-1 thioglycolic acid at pH 10. A preconcentration factor close to nine was achieved for Sb(III) when 100 mL of sample was processed. After preconcentration, the detection limits for Sb(III) and Sb(V) were 2 and 5 ng L-1, respectively, using ICP-MS, 7 and 0.9 μg L-1 using ICP-OES. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in spiked river and mineral water samples. The relative standard deviations (n = 3) were in the 2-5% range at the tenth μg L-1 level and less than 10% at the lowest Sb(III) and Sb(V) tested concentration (0.1 μg L-1). Corrected recoveries were in all cases close to 100%

  12. Noninferiority of Miltefosine Versus Meglumine Antimoniate for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiano, Luisa Consuelo; Miranda, María Consuelo; Muvdi Arenas, Sandra; Montero, Luz Mery; Rodríguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Garcerant, Daniel; Prager, Martín; Osorio, Lyda; Rojas, Maria Ximena; Pérez, Mauricio; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Gore Saravia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background. Children have a lower response rate to antimonial drugs and higher elimination rate of antimony (Sb) than adults. Oral miltefosine has not been evaluated for pediatric cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  13. The influence of pet containers on antimony concentration in bottled drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Perić-Grujić Aleksandra A.; Radmanovac Aleksandar R.; Stojanov Aleksander M.; Pocajt Viktor V.; Ristić Mirjana Đ.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) is the most frequently used catalyst in the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) manufacture. As a result, antimony is incorporated into PET bottles at concentration level of 100-300 mg/kg. PET containers are used for drinking water and beverages, as well as food packaging and in the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, it is important to understand the factors that may influence the release of antimony from the catalysts into water and other products, since antimony is potent...

  14. The influence of pet containers on antimony concentration in bottled drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić-Grujić Aleksandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 is the most frequently used catalyst in the polyethylene terephthalate (PET manufacture. As a result, antimony is incorporated into PET bottles at concentration level of 100-300 mg/kg. PET containers are used for drinking water and beverages, as well as food packaging and in the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, it is important to understand the factors that may influence the release of antimony from the catalysts into water and other products, since antimony is potentially toxic trace element. In this paper, the antimony content in nine brands of bottled mineral and spring water from Serbia, and seven brands of bottled mineral and spring water from EU countries was analyzed. The measurements were conducted using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. In the all examined samples the antimony concentration was bellow the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by the Serbian and EU regulations. Comparison of the content of antimony in PET bottled waters with the content of antimony in water bottled commercially in glass and the natural content of antimony in pristine groundwaters, provides explicit evidence of antimony leaching from PET containers. Since waters bottled in PET have much greater concentration ratio of Sb to Pb than corresponding pristine groundwaters, it can be assumed that bottled waters cannot be used as the relavant source for the study of the natural antimony content in groundwaters. There is a clear relation between the quality of water in bottles (composition, ion strength and antimony leaching rate. Moreover, while the rate of antimony leaching is slow at temperatures below 60 oC, at the temperature range of 60-80 oC antimony release occurs and reaches maximum contaminant level rapidly. As antimony can cause both acute and chronic health problems, factors that promote the increase of antimony concentration should be avoided.

  15. Potassium food supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1973-01-01

    Potassium gluconate is considered best supplementary source for potassium. Gluconate consistently received highest taste rating and was indistinguishable from nonsupplemented samples. No unfavorable side effects were found during use, and none are reported in literature. Gluconate is normal intermediary metabolite that is readily adsorbed and produces no evidence of gastrointestinal ulcerations.

  16. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, scarlet fever, and ear, ... Penicillin V potassium comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 hours (four ...

  17. Antimony Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films: Co Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 serves as an important base material in a variety of resistive type gas sensors. The widespread applicability of this semicoducting oxide is related both to its range of conductance variability and to the fact that it responds to both oxidising and reducing gases. The antimony doped tin-oxide films were prepared by spray pyrolysis method. The as-deposited films are blackish in colour. Addition of antimony impurity showed little increase in the thickness. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows characteristic tin oxide peaks with tetragonal structure. As the doping concentration of antimony was increased, new peak corresponding to Sb was observed. The intensity of this peak found to be increased when the Sb concentration was increased from 0.01 % to the 1 % which indicates the antimony was incorporated into the tin oxide. For gas sensing studies ohmic contacts were preferred to ensure the changes in resistance of sensor is due to only adsorption of gas molecule. The graph of I-V shows a straight line in nature which indicates the ohmic contact. The sensitivity of the sensor for CO gas was tested. The sensitivity of antimony doped tin oxide found to be increased with increasing Sb concentration. The maximum sensitivity was observed for Sb = 1 % at a working temperature of 250 °C.

  18. Behavior of arsenic impurity at antimony electric precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the arsenic impurity electrochemical behavior and it purification from antimony by electric precipitation out of fluoride solutions was studied. For this the arsenic sample with mass 0.003-0.006 g has been irradiated at the WWR-SM nuclear reactor during 3-5 hour in the thermal neutron flux 1013 n/cm2 s, after 24 h keeping the sample has being dissolved in the concentrated nitric acid, and then it has been evaporated several times with distillation water addition up to wet precipitation state. It is shown, that arsenic impurity behavior character in the antimony electric precipitation out to fluoride electrolyte depends on the electrolyte content, electrolysis conditions, arsenic valency state in arsenic impurity existence in the five-valency state its joint electric reduction with antimony is practically not observing. In the case the arsenic being in three-valency state, it joint electric reduction with antimony is taking place. In this time the electrolytic antimony contents arsenic impurities less in dozen time than initial material

  19. Martensite transformation in antimony implanted stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have used Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffraction to investigate austenitic stainless steel crystals implanted at room temperature with 80 keV Sb+ ions to a fluence of 5 x 1020 ions/m2, thus providing implantation with a heavy group V element. RBS channeling spectra from implanted crystals show a damage peak which approaches the height of the random level and therefore indicates a very high degree of disorder in the implanted layers. The distribution of the disorder extends to a depth 3-5 times the depth of the primary radiation damage. The Sb peaks under channeling as well as random conditions are indistinguishable, confirming that substitutionality during implantation is negligible. To establish the nature of the disorder which cannot be assessed from the RBS analysis alone, and in particular to assess whether an amorphous alloy is formed in the implanted layer as indicated from the RBS spectra, samples implanted under similar conditions were investigated in the TEM. Significant extra spots in the patterns can be ascribed to the presence of a radiation induced b.c.c. phase of martensitic origin. The result that a significant amount of martensite can be induced by antimony implantation seems to indicate that the main driving force for the transition is due to damage induced stress concentrations. (Auth.)

  20. The role of brimonidine tartrate gel in the treatment of rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J Mark; Knuckles, Melissa; Minni, John Paul; Johnson, Sandra Marchese; Belasco, Kevin Tate

    2015-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous condition with a prevalence rate ranging from 9.6% to 22% in recent studies. Facial erythema (transient and permanent) is considered a common denominator that is frequently observed in all subtypes of rosacea and is estimated to affect more than 40 million people worldwide. Brimonidine tartrate is a selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist and is the first topical treatment approved for facial erythema of rosacea. Clinical trials have demonstrated that brimonidine tartrate provided significantly greater efficacy, compared to vehicle, for the treatment of moderate to severe erythema of rosacea. In addition, brimonidine tartrate has demonstrated a rapid onset of effect, duration of action throughout the day, and good safety profile in studies of up to 1 year. This review critically discusses the role of brimonidine tartrate for the treatment of facial erythema of rosacea by examining both clinical study data and real-world dermatologist experiences across a wide spectrum of treated patients, and concludes that it is a significant therapeutic option in the management of an unmet need of this chronic condition. PMID:26566370

  1. Subchronic toxicity experiment with rats fed a diet containing ergotamine-tartrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers GJA; Wester PW; van Leeuwen FXR; de la Fonteyne-Blankestijn LJJ; Post W; van Egmond HP; Sizoo EA; Janssen GB

    1993-01-01

    In a subchronic toxicity study 4 groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats/group/sex received 0, 5, 20 and 80 mg ergotamine tartrate (EAT)/kg diet respectively during 13 weeks. Food intake and water intake were measured twice a week. Body weight gain was recorded weekly. After 7 weeks and 12 weeks urine a

  2. Prostatic acid phosphatase: structural aspects of inhibition by L-(+)-tartrate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, L; Lewiński, K; Jakob, C G; Kuciel, R; Ostrowski, W; Lebioda, L

    1997-01-01

    The crystal structure of the complex between rat-prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and L-(+)-tartrate (Lindqvist et al., J. Biol. Chem., 1993, 268, 20744-20746) contains the model of the ligand with incorrect chirality. We report here the correct model and discuss the relation between this model and the model of the inhibitory complexes between PAP and oxy-anions.

  3. [Biological profile of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a marker of bone resorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, H; Iritia, M; Arribas, I; Revilla, M

    1990-12-01

    Tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase was measured in 123 subjects, 80 of which were normal and the rest pathologic, in order to define the profile and value of this parameter as a biological marker of osteoclastic activity. Normal subjects were divided into age groups based on the period where skeletal growth ends (under 20 years), at the age of menopause in women (50 years, between 20 and 50 years) and those over 50 years. There was an increase in tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase coinciding with puberty and no sex differences were observed after the 50 year mark, when women showed higher values than men (p less than 0.001). Such tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase increase, is reflected as higher values in the 50 year group than in the 20 to 50 year group (p less than 0.001), the only age limit where a negative significant correlation between tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase values and age could be observed (p less than 0.05). Values were higher up to the age of 20 years (p less than 0.001) than in any other older age group. Levels increased significantly (p less than 0.001 for both groups) in post-menopausal osteoporosis (n = 20) and in Paget's disease of bone (n = 15), and decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in imperfect osteogenesis (n = 8), thus revealing its value as a biological marker of osteoclastic activity. PMID:2099535

  4. Phosphors for X-ray intensification screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved rare earth oxyhalide phosphor for x-ray intensification screens is described. The phosphors, of formula LnOX.T where Ln = La or Gd, X = Cl or Br and T = Tm or Tb, are mixed with a small amount of a trivalent antimony compound. The addition of antimony overcomes ageing due to attack by atmospheric moisture and renders the phosphor freeflowing so that dispersions can be readily made. Preferably the phosphor is washed with an aqueous solution of the antimony compound and the compound is the fluoride, chloride or butoxide, or potassium antimony tartrate. (U.K.)

  5. Antimony Resistance in Leishmania, Focusing on Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Jeddi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that spread in many countries with a prevalence of 12 million cases. There are few available treatments and antimonials are still of major importance in the therapeutic strategies used in most endemic regions. However, resistance toward these compounds has recently emerged in areas where the replacement of these drugs is mainly limited by the cost of alternative molecules. In this paper, we reviewed the studies carried out on antimonial resistance in Leishmania. Several common limitations of these works are presented before prevalent approaches to evidence antimonial resistance are related. Afterwards, phenotypic determination of resistance is described, then confronted to clinical outcome. Finally, we detail molecular mechanisms and targets involved in resistance and already identified in vitro within selected mutant strains or in clinical isolates.

  6. Spectral and Lensing Characteristics of Gel-Derived Strontium Tartrate Single Crystals Using Dual-Beam Thermal Lens Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeena, I; Thomas, V; Mathew, S; Lillibai, B; Nampoori, V P N; Radhakrishnan, P

    2016-09-01

    The Dual Beam mode-matched thermal lens spectrometry is a sensible technique for direct measurements of the thermal properties of tartrate crystalline materials. Here we report the measurement of thermal diffusivity of Strontium Tartrate single crystals incorporated with Rhodamine 6G using the thermal lens experiment. The respective crystals were prepared by solution-gel method at room temperature. The absorption characteristics of three different Strontium Tartrate crystals viz. pure, electric field applied and magnetic field applied were also carried out. PMID:27465706

  7. Lattice dynamics of femtosecond laser-excited antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mahmoud Hanafy; Bugayev, Aleksey; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2016-07-01

    Ultrafast electron diffraction is used to probe the lattice dynamics of femtosecond laser-excited antimony thin film. The temporal hierarchies of the intensity and position of diffraction orders are monitored. The femtosecond laser excitation of antimony film was found to lead to initial compression after the laser pulse, which gives way to tension vibrating at new equilibrium displacement. A damped harmonic oscillator model, in which the hot electron-blast force contributes to the driving force of oscillations in lattice spacing, is used to interpret the data. The electron-phonon energy-exchange rate and the electronic Grüneisen parameter were obtained.

  8. Heat-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcellino, Sebastien [Universite de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5180, bat CPE, 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Attar, Hossein [Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences Separatives, CNRS UMR 7178, ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France); Lievremont, Didier; Lett, Marie-Claire [Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Genetique et Microbiologie, CNRS UMR 7156, 28 rue Goethe, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Barbier, Frederique [CNRS USR 59, Service Central d' Analyse, 59 Chemin du Canal BP22 69390 Vernaison (France); Lagarde, Florence [Universite de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5180, bat CPE, 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences Separatives, CNRS UMR 7178, ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: florence.lagarde@univ-lyon1.fr

    2008-11-23

    An analytical method was developed for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples. The method is based on the selective retention of Sb(III) by modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of Sb(V). Heat, caustic and solvent pretreatments of the biomass were investigated to improve the kinetics and thermodynamics of Sb(III) uptake process at room temperature. Heating for 30 min at 80 deg. C was defined as the optimal treatment. Antimony accumulation by the cells was independent of pH (5-10) and ionic strength (0.01-0.1 mol L{sup -1}). 140 mg of yeast and 2 h of contact were necessary to ensure quantitative sequestration of Sb(III) up to 750 {mu}g L{sup -1}. In these conditions, Sb(V) was not retained. Sb(V) was quantified in sorption supernatant by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Sb(III) was determined after elution with 40 mmol L{sup -1} thioglycolic acid at pH 10. A preconcentration factor close to nine was achieved for Sb(III) when 100 mL of sample was processed. After preconcentration, the detection limits for Sb(III) and Sb(V) were 2 and 5 ng L{sup -1}, respectively, using ICP-MS, 7 and 0.9 {mu}g L{sup -1} using ICP-OES. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in spiked river and mineral water samples. The relative standard deviations (n = 3) were in the 2-5% range at the tenth {mu}g L{sup -1} level and less than 10% at the lowest Sb(III) and Sb(V) tested concentration (0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Corrected recoveries were in all cases close to 100%.

  9. Potassium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills) to treat high blood pressure or heart failure Take too many laxatives Have severe or prolonged vomiting and diarrhea Have certain kidney or adrenal gland disorders Too much potassium in the blood ...

  10. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Morizot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure.

  11. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure.

  12. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Kathawa, J.; Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  13. Development of ammonium tartrate as an ESR dosimeter material for clinical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystalline substance ammonium tartrate is investigated with respect to its suitability as a clinical dosimetry material. The properties investigated are: the radical stability for absorbed doses relevant for clinical use, the improvement in sensitivity when the crystals are deuterated and the linear electron transfer (LET)-dependence. After photon irradiation to an absorbed dose of 20 Gy, the signal increases rapidly during the first 6 h. After this period, the changes are more moderate and can be corrected for. The signal-to-noise ratio of irradiated ammonium tartrate is twice the corresponding value of alanine. By deuterating the crystals, the sensitivity can be further improved by a factor of 1.4. As expected, the signal decreases with increasing LET of the radiation, but no changes in the spectrum shape was observed

  14. Growth and Characterizations of Pure and Calcium Doped Cadmium Tartrate Crystals by Silica Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Patil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present course of investigation, pure and calcium doped cadmium tartrate crystals were grown in silica gel at room temperature. The optimum conditions were obtained by varying various parameters such as pH of gel, concentration of gel, gel setting time, concentration of reactants etc. Crystals having different morphologies were obtained such as whitish semitransparent, star shaped, needle shaped. Especially, effect of doping of calcium into cadmium tartrate has been studied with respect of size and transparency. It is found that doping enhances the size and transparency of the crystals. As-grown crystals were characterized using scanning electronic microscope (SEM, UV, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX.

  15. Size-selective chemical synthesis of tartrate stabilized cobalt ferrite ionic magnetic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, S; Bee, A; Robineau, M; Talbot, D

    2002-11-15

    Ionic magnetic fluid (ferrofluid) is a stable suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in water. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are interesting in view of high-density recording storage. The size of the magnetic particles strongly influences the physical properties of the ferrofluids. In this study, we describe the synthesis of ionic magnetic fluid in the presence of tartrate ions. By varying the amount of organic ligands, nanoparticles in a large range of size are obtained: the mean diameter varies from 3 to 10 nm. The effect of tartrate ions on the stability of the ionic magnetic fluid is also studied in relation with the size of the magnetic particles and the amount of adsorbed ligand. PMID:12505076

  16. Validated spectophotometric methods for the assay of cinitapride hydrogen tartrate in pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Satyanarayana K.V.V.; Nageswara Rao P.

    2013-01-01

    Three simple, selective and rapid spectrophotometric methods have been established for the determination of cinitapride hydrogen tartrate (CHT) in pharmaceutical tablets. The proposed methods are based on the diazotization of CHT with sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid, followed by coupling with resorcinol, 1-benzoylacetone and 8-hydroxyquinoline in alkaline medium for methods A, B and C respectively. The formed azo dyes are measured at 442, 465 and 552 nm for methods A, B and C respe...

  17. CLINICAL AND ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENTS OF METOPROLOL TARTRATE/SUCCINATE USAGE IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Soura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and clinicoeconomical studies review is presented as well as results of author’s comparative cost analysis on metoprolol tartrate (Betaloc and metoprolol succinate (Betaloc ZOK usage in patients with ischemic heart disease. Efficacy of metoprolol therapy is proven in randomized clinical studies in patients with angina and myocardial infarction (MI. In angina patients metoprolol prevents cardiac attacks, MI, reduces nitroglycerine consumption, increases exercise tolerability, prolongs the exercise time before ST segment depression (succinate better than tartrate, decrease of angina intensity. In MI patients metoprolol therapy reduces mortality, sudden death, recurring MI and the rate of early post MI angina attacks. Nowadays metoprolol is the only β-blocker having indication on secondary MI prevention. Besides for the present metoprolol succinate is the only β-blocker with proven direct antisclerosis effect. According to Swedish clinicoeconomical study in patients after MI secondary prevention with metoprolol therapy saves the costs in comparison with placebo. American clinicoeconomical model of metoprolol and atenolol usage in all patients with MI could result in significant reduction in mortality and recurring MI rate, prolong the life and improve its quality, save financial resources. The cost of monthly treatment of angina patient with metoprolol tartrate (Betaloc and metoprolol succinate (Betaloc ZOK is 135 and 354 rubles, respectively. The price range of comparative β-blockers in ascending order is the following: atenolol (Atenolol Nicomed → metoprolol tartrate (Betaloc → metoprolol succinate (Betaloc ZOK → bisoprolol (Concor → nebivolol (Nebilet. In conclusion, metoprolol therapy is the one of mostly economically reasonable approach.

  18. An unusual cause of chest pain: Acute coronary syndrome following administration of ergotamine tartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Okutucu, Sercan; Karakulak, Ugur Nadir; Kabakcı, Giray; Aytemir, Kudret

    2012-01-01

    For many years, ergotamine has been used for the acute treatment of migraine. Ergotamine may produce coronary vasospasm, which is often associated with ischemic electrocardiography changes and angina pectoris. A 62-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department because of chest pain is described. She had a history of severe migraine attacks and started to use ergotamine tartrate 0.75 mg daily the day before. Electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia with left anterior hemibl...

  19. The determination of the thermodynamic activity of antimony in alpha-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a method is suggested for determining the thermodynamic activity of antimony dissolved in alpha-iron, based on the study of antimony distribution between the two phases: liquid lead and solid iron. By this method, it was found that solid solutions of antimony in alpha-iron can be distinguished by positive divergences from the ideal state. Over a fairly wide range of concentrations, solutions of antimony in iron obey Henry's law. Special experiments on the distribution of antimony between lead and liquid iron showed that in the liquid state also the iron-antimony system is marked by positive divergences from the ideal state when small concentrations of antimony are present. The heat required for the solution of antimony in alpha-iron, and the excess partial molar entropy, were calculated from the activity temperature. The results were used for accurately locating the line showing the solubility limit of antimony in alpha-iron. Since alloys of antimony with iron were obtained by diffusion saturation and not by cooling from the liquid state, there was no liquefaction. Thus the lattice constant of the alloys and its relation to the alloy concentration could be reliably determined. The solubility limit established from X-ray data agrees with that obtained with Sb124. (author)

  20. In vitro evaluation of tissue adhesives composed of hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Matsuda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the hydrophobic group content in gelatin on the bonding strength of novel tissue–penetrating tissue adhesives was evaluated. The hydrophobic groups introduced into gelatin were the saturated hexanoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl groups, and the unsaturated oleoyl group. A collagen casing was employed as an adherend to model soft tissue for the in vitro determination of bonding strength of tissue adhesives composed of various hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate. The adhesive composed of stearoyl-modified gelatin (7.4% stearoyl; 10Ste and disuccinimidyl tartrate showed the highest bonding strength. The bonding strength of the adhesives decreased as the degree of substitution of the hydrophobic groups increased. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 10Ste was integrated onto the surface of smooth muscle cells and showed no cytotoxicity. These results suggest that 10Ste interacted with the hydrophobic domains of collagen casings, such as hydrophobic amino acid residues and cell membranes. Therefore, 10Ste–disuccinimidyl tartrate is a promising adhesive for use in aortic dissection.

  1. Permeation studies of atenolol and metoprolol tartrate from three different polymer matrices for transdermal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since oral bioavailability of atenolol and metoprolol tartrate is poor, different matrix -type transdermal patches incorporating atenolol and metoprolol tartrate were formulated with an objective to study the effect of polymers on transdermal release of the drugs. The polymers selected were polyvinylpyrrolidone, cellulose acetate phthalate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate and ethyl cellulose. The patches were formulated using combination of polymers and propylene glycol and 1,8-cineole as plasticizer and penetration enhancer, respectively. The physico-chemical evaluation of the polymer matrices was performed for suitability. The interaction among various components of the matrices was studied by performing Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Scanning Electron Micrography of the formulated patches. In vitro permeation studies were performed using rat abdominal skin as the permeating membrane in Keshary-Chien cell. The results indicated that maximum release was obtained at 48 h (85% and 44% of atenolol and metoprolol tartrate, respectively. The drug permeation studies across cadaver skin showed about 27% of reduction in the amount of drug release as that compared to rat abdominal skin was used.

  2. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® , is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology.Os antimoniais pentavalentes, como o antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® ou estibogluconato de sódio (Pentostam® , são o principal tratamento para a leishmaniose, um complexo de doenças causadas pelo protozoário parasita Leishmania, uma doença endêmica e negligenciada no Brasil. Apesar do seu uso clínico por mais de meio século, seu mecanismo de ação, toxicidade e dados de farmacocinética permanecem desconhecidos. Os métodos analíticos para determinação de antimônio em sistemas biológicos são complexos e apresentam baixa sensibilidade. Estudos utilizando radiotraçadores têm papel potencial no desenvolvimento farmacológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um radiotraçador de antimônio, com propriedades físicas e biológicas adequadas. O antimoniato de meglumina foi irradiado por nêutrons no reator nuclear IEA-R1, produzindo dois radioisótopos: 122

  3. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the western Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Cutter, Lynda S.; Featherstone, Alison M.; Lohrenz, Steven E.

    The subtropical to equatorial Atlantic Ocean provides a unique regime in which one can examine the biogeochemical cycles of antimony and arsenic. In particular, this region is strongly affected by inputs from the Amazon River and dust from North Africa at the surface, and horizontal transport at depth from high-latitude northern (e.g., North Atlantic Deep Water) and southern waters (e.g., Antarctic Bottom and Intermediate Waters). As a part of the 1996 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's Contaminant Baseline Survey, data for dissolved As(III+V), As(III), mono- and dimethyl arsenic, Sb(III+V), Sb(III), and monomethyl antimony were obtained at six vertical profile stations and 44 sites along the 11,000 km transect from Montevideo, Uruguay, to Bridgetown, Barbados. The arsenic results were similar to those in other oceans, with moderate surface depletion, deep-water enrichment, a predominance of arsenate (>85% As(V)), and methylated arsenic species and As(III) in surface waters that are likely a result of phytoplankton conversions to mitigate arsenate "stress" (toxicity). Perhaps the most significant discovery in the arsenic results was the extremely low concentrations in the Amazon Plume (as low as 9.8 nmol/l) that appear to extend for considerable distances offshore in the equatorial region. The very low concentration of inorganic arsenic in the Amazon River (2.8 nmol/l; about half those in most rivers) is probably the result of intense iron oxyhydroxide scavenging. Dissolved antimony was also primarily in the pentavalent state (>95% antimonate), but Sb(III) and monomethyl antimony were only detected in surface waters and displayed no correlations with biotic tracers such as nutrients and chlorophyll a. Unlike As(III+V)'s nutrient-type vertical profiles, Sb(III+V) displayed surface maxima and decreased into the deep waters, exhibiting the behavior of a scavenged element with a strong atmospheric input. While surface water Sb had a slight correlation with

  4. BioGeochemistry of antimony, Sources, Transfers, Impacts and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Gael; Pinelli, Eric; Hedde, Mickael; Guiresse, Maritxu; De Vleeschouwer, François; Silvestre, Jérôme; Enrico, Maxime; Gandois, Laure; Monna, Fabrice; Gers, Charles; Probst, Anne

    2013-04-01

    BioGeoSTIB is a project funded by ADEME (French Environmental Protection Agency). Its aim is to provide a better understanding of biogeochemical cycle disturbances of antimony by man. Specifically, it is focused on the atmosphere-soil-organism interfaces. Based on a multi-scale approach, the impact of antimony on organisms and organism communities and the factors of Sb dispersion in the environment aim to better characterized. This report gives the main results of 2 and 1 -2 years of research. Using peat bogs as environmental archives, we show that Sb contamination in soils date back to the beginning of the metallurgy. Atmospheric deposition of Sb largely increased by 100 times during the Industrial Revolution compared to natural levels (~0,001-0,01 mg m-2 an-1) estimated in the deepest peat layers. This disturbance in the antimony geochemical cycle modified its concentrations in soils. One main source of present Sb contamination is automotive traffic due to Sb in braking lines. This emerging contamination was characterized close to a roundabout. This additional source of Sb does not seem to impact soil fauna but Sb concentrations in soil solutions exceed 1 μg L-1. Genotoxicity tests have been performed on the model plant Vicia faba and show that antimony is genotoxic at its lowest concentrations and that there is a synergistic effect lead, a trace metal frequently found in association with antimony in the environment. It is a main issue to determine Sb critical loads in the environment but main identified lacks are thermodynamic data, which are not available yet, to model the behavior of Sb in soil solutions and the fact the antimony is always associated with other anthropogenic trace metals like lead. Critical thresholds of Sb have been determined for the first time based on genotoxicity experiment. Simulations show that these thresholds can be exceeded in the future, whereas present limits for invertebrates (US-EPA) are and will not be reached. However

  5. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...

  6. States of antimony and tin atoms in lead chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown by Mössbauer spectroscopy of the 119Sb(119mSn) isotope that impurity antimony atoms in PbS, PbSe, and PbTe lattices are distributed between cation and anion sublattices. In n-type samples, the greatest part of antimony is located in the anion sublattice; in hole ones, in the cation sublattice. The tin atoms formed as a result of radioactive decay of 119Sb (antisite state) are electrically inactive in the anion sub-lattice of PbS and PbSe, while, in the cation sublattice, they form donor U− centers. Electron exchange between the neutral and doubly ionized tin U− centers via the allowed band states is observed. The tin atoms formed after radioactive decay of 119Sb are electrically inactive in the anion and cation sublattices of PbTe.

  7. 无机锑系阻燃剂%Inorganic Antimony Series Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亨

    2012-01-01

    无机锑系阻燃剂主要包括三氧化二锑、五氧化二锑溶胶和锑酸钠等。介绍了它们的性质、生产工艺、产品标准、阻燃用途和研发方向等。%Inorganic antimony series fire retardants include antimony trioxide, antimony pentoxide sol and sodium antimonate, etc. The properties, production process, production standard and uses of several inorganic antimony series fire retardants are introduced.

  8. Correlation of CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A., E-mail: mmamu001@odu.edu; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  9. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Hernandez-Garcia, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA

    2015-06-01

    CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  10. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mamun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  11. Neural synchronization via potassium signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry E; Ryazanova, Ludmila S; Mosekilde, Erik;

    2006-01-01

    Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature...... junctional coupling, potassium signaling gives rise to considerable changes of the cellular response to external stimuli....

  12. Resistance to Arsenic- and Antimony-Based Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Salerno; Arlette Garnier-Suillerot

    2003-01-01

    Organic arsenicals were the first antimicrobial agents specifically synthesized for the treatment of infectious diseases such as syphilis and sleeping sickness. For the treatment of diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites, organic derivatives of arsenic and the related metalloid antimony are still the drugs of choice. Arsenic trioxide, As203, has been used for a long time in traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of various diseases, and it has recently been shown to be clinically ac...

  13. Crystallization of antimony orthotantalate and its physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicochemical conditions of monophase synthesis of antimony orthoniobate monocrystals in the system SbO3-Ta2O5-KHF2-H2O2-H2O were investigated. In the area of monophase synthesis of SbTaO4 monocrystals kinetic studies of its growth conditions for inoculation, depending on solvent concentration, temperature, pyroelectric properties of the monocrystal grown were studied and conclusion was made on their practical use

  14. Use of cloud-point preconcentration for spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of antimony in biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharjawy, Abdel-Azeem M; Amin, Alaa S

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a cloud-point extraction process using the micelle-mediated extraction method for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species in biological and environmental samples as a prior preconcentration step to their spectrophotometric determination. The analytical system is based on the selective reaction between Sb(III) and 3-dichloro-6-(3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)quinoxaline (DCHNAQ) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and potassium iodide at pH 4.5. Total Sb concentration was determined after reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in the presence of potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The optimal reaction conditions and extraction were studied, and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limits of detection and quantification, linear range, preconcentration, improvement factors) were obtained. Linearity for Sb(III) was obeyed in the range of 0.2-20 ng ml(-1). The detection and quantification limits for the determination of Sb(III) were 0.055 and 0.185 ng ml(-1), respectively. The method has a lower detection limit and wider linear range, inexpensive instrument, and low cost, and is more sensitive compared with most other methods. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also studied. The method was applied to the determination of Sb(III) in the presence of Sb(V) and total antimony in blood plasma, urine, biological, and water samples.

  15. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  16. Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate on Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Dong, Ying; Chen, Caidong; Zhu, Shimin; Ma, Xiangjuan

    2015-12-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are being used in various industries during the last few decades, while the good solubility and high stability of ILs may pose a potential threat to the aquatic environment. Effect of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate (RMIM T) on Scenedesmus obliquus (S.obliquus) was studied. The growth rate inhibition and cell membrane permeability increased with increasing RMIM T concentration and increasing alkyl chain lengths. The IC50 values of D-(-)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (D-(-)-HMIM T) were 28.30, 12.23,10.15 and 14.41 mg/L, respectively, at 24, 48, 72 and 96h. While that of L-(+)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (L-(+)-HMIM T) were 15.97, 7.91, 9.43 and 12.04 mg/L respectively. The concentration of chl a, chl b and chl (a+b) decreased with increasing RMIM T concentration. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Y(II), ETR and NPQ) were affected by RMIM T, indicating that the RMIM T will damage the PSII, inhibit the transmission of excitation energy, decrease the efficiency of photosynthesis. The results showed that there were enantioselective toxicity of RMIM T to algae, and the toxicity of L-(+)-RMIM T was greater than that of D-(-)-RMIM T, but the enantioselective difference becomes smaller with increasing exposure time, and with the increasing carbon chain length of cation, indicating that cation properties may have a larger effect on toxicity than anion properties.

  17. Recent advances on antimony(III/V) compounds with potential activity against tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikakou, S K; Ozturk, I I; Banti, C N; Kourkoumelis, N; Hadjiliadis, N

    2015-12-01

    Antimony one of the heavier pnictogens, has been in medical use against microbes and parasites as well. Antimony-based drugs have been prescribed against leishmaniasis since the parasitic transmission of the tropical disease was understood in the beginning of the 20th century. The activity of arsenic against visceral leishmaniasis led to the synthesis of an array of arsenic-containing parasitic agents, among them the less toxic pentavalent antimonials: Stibosan, Neostibosan, and Ureastibamine. Other antimony drugs followed: sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and melglumine antimoniate (Glucantim or Glucantime); both continue to be in use today despite their toxic side effects and increasing loss in potency due to the growing resistance of the parasite against antimony. Antimony compounds and their therapeutic potentials are under consideration from many research groups, while a number of early reviews recording advances of antimony biomedical applications are also available. However, there are only few reports on the screening for antitumor potential of antimony compounds. This review focuses upon results obtained on the anti-proliferative activity of antimony compounds in the past years. This survey shows that antimony(III/V) complexes containing various types of ligands such as thiones, thiosemicarbazones, dithiocarbamates, carboxylic acids, or ketones, nitrogen donor ligands, exhibit selectivity against a variety of cancer cells. The role of the ligand type of the complex is elucidated within this review. The complexes and their biological activity are already reported elsewhere. However quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling studies have been carried out and they are reported for the first time here. PMID:26092367

  18. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela

    2009-05-01

    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  19. Clinical potential of eliglustat tartrate in the treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Paige KaplanLysosomal Disorders Center, Section of Metabolic Diseases, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Nonneuropathic type 1 Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive inherited disease caused by the deficiency or absence of beta glucocerebrosidase (beta glucosidase. The highest prevalence of type 1 is in Ashkenazi Jews, but it affects all ethnic groups. It manifests at any age but is seen predominantly in the first two decades. The phenotype is characterized by painless splenomegaly and secondary hypersplenism (low hemoglobin concentration and low platelet and white blood cell counts. Symptoms and signs include splenomegaly; chronic fatigue, frequent nose bleeds, prolonged bleeding, and/or bruising; hepatomegaly; bone pain, bone destruction and low bone density; and poor growth in childhood and delayed pubertal development. Current treatment with intravenous enzyme replacement has been generally successful. However, oral treatments have been developed because enzyme replacement is time-consuming and invasive, and intravenous infusions are not universally available for patients who live far from medical centers or home infusion nurses. Furthermore, it may become difficult to access veins after repeated infusions. Orally administered substrate reduction is a newer treatment approach. The aim is to limit the synthesis of the substrate, glucosylceramide. The residual intrinsic enzyme, acting alone or with recombinant enzyme, can then completely catabolize the smaller amounts of glucosylceramide that are transported into lysosomes. Eliglustat tartrate is a new specific inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase. Phase III trials in humans have been completed. Eliglustat tartrate has been shown to be efficacious and safe in adult humans. The results are as good or better compared with intravenous replacement with regard to reductions in spleen and liver enlargement and improvements in hemoglobin concentrations, platelet

  20. Subchronic toxicity experiment with rats fed a diet containing ergotamine-tartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Speijers GJA; Wester PW; van Leeuwen FXR; de la Fonteyne-Blankestijn LJJ; Post W; Egmond HP van; Sizoo EA; Janssen GB

    1993-01-01

    In a subchronic toxicity study 4 groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats/group/sex received 0, 5, 20 and 80 mg ergotamine tartrate (EAT)/kg diet respectively during 13 weeks. Food intake and water intake were measured twice a week. Body weight gain was recorded weekly. After 7 weeks and 12 weeks urine and serum were sampled to measure the kidney function. After 10 weeks blood was sampled for haematological examination. At the end of the experiment blood and a small proportion of the liver were sampl...

  1. Molecular Descriptors in Modelling the Tumour Necrosis Factor-α Converting Enzyme Inhibition Activity of Novel Tartrate-Based Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumour necrosis factor-α converting enzyme inhibition activity of a series comprising of novel tartrate-based analogues has been quantitatively analysed in terms of molecular descriptors. The statistically validated quantitative structure-activity relationship models provided rationales to explain the inhibition activity of these congeners. The descriptors identified through combinatorial protocol in multiple linear regression analysis have highlighted the role of Moran autocorrelation of lag 7, weighted by atomic van der Waals volume, presence of both prime and nonprime amide carbonyl oxygen in the tartrate moiety and occurrence of five membered ring bearing substituents at varying sites. A few potential novel tartrate-based analogues have been suggested for further investigation.

  2. Production of tartrates by cyanide-mediated dimerization of glyoxylate: a potential abiotic pathway to the citric acid cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butch, Christopher; Cope, Elizabeth D; Pollet, Pamela; Gelbaum, Leslie; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Liotta, Charles L

    2013-09-11

    An abiotic formation of meso- and DL-tartrates in 80% yield via the cyanide-catalyzed dimerization of glyoxylate under alkaline conditions is demonstrated. A detailed mechanism for this conversion is proposed, supported by NMR evidence and (13)C-labeled reactions. Simple dehydration of tartrates to oxaloacetate and an ensuing decarboxylation to form pyruvate are known processes that provide a ready feedstock for entry into the citric acid cycle. While glyoxylate and high hydroxide concentration are atypical in the prebiotic literature, there is evidence for natural, abiotic availability of each. It is proposed that this availability, coupled with the remarkable efficiency of tartrate production from glyoxylate, merits consideration of an alternative prebiotic pathway for providing constituents of the citric acid cycle.

  3. Development and Validation of a Simultaneous HPLC Method for Quantification of Amlodipine Besylate and Metoprolol Tartrate in Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Hussain1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A reverse phase method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of amlodipine besylate and metoprolol tartrate in tablet. The quantification was carried out using RP stainless steel column ODS C18 250 x 4.6 x 5 µ L1 packing in isocratic mode with mobile phase containing 0.03 M phosphate buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 32: 68 (pH 3.5. Flow rate of 1.2 ml/min and the detection wavelength were set at 230 nm and the linearity was found to be in the range of 8-12µg/ml for amlodipine besylate and metoprolol tartrate. The proposed method was found to be simple, precise, accurate, and reproducible for the estimation of amlodipine besylate and metoprolol tartrate.

  4. ESR response to {sup 60}Co-rays of ammonium tartrate pellets using Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brai, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy) and Unita CNISM, Palermo and Gruppo V Sezione INFN, Catania (Italy)]. E-mail: mbrai@unipa.it; Gennaro, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Marrale, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Unita CNISM, Palermo and Gruppo V Sezione INFN, Catania (Italy); Tranchina, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Bartolotta, A. [Dipartimento Farmacochimico Tossicologico e Biologico, Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Unita CNISM, Palermo and Gruppo V Sezione INFN, Catania (Italy); D' Oca, M.C. [Dipartimento Farmacochimico Tossicologico e Biologico, Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, 90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    This work presents experimental results regarding a new ammonium tartrate blend for ESR dosimetry, with a higher sensitivity and a lower lowest detectable dose (LDD) to Co60{gamma}-rays than the recently used pure ammonium tartrate. The blend composed by ammonium tartrate and gadolinium-oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) shows a greater sensitivity ({approx}2 times) and a smaller LDD than ammonium tartrate. The increased sensitivity was mainly attributed to the great atomic number (Z=64) of gadolinium, that increases the effective atomic number of the blend; the interaction probability with photons and consequently the radical yield is therefore enhanced. Moreover ammonium tartrate with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a linear dose response in the investigated dose range (1-50Gy). We find this blend suitable for use in ESR dosimetry.

  5. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived films doped with platinum and antimony deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savaniu, C.; Arnautu, A.; Cobianu, C.; Craciun, G.; Flueraru, C.; Zaharescu, M.; Parlog, C.; Paszti, F.; Berg, van den A.

    1999-01-01

    SnO2 sol-gel derived thin films doped simultaneously with Pt and Sb are obtained and reported for the first time. The Sn sources were tin(IV) ethoxide or tin(II) ethylhexanoate, while hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and antimony chloride (SbCl3) were used as platinum and antimony sources, respecti

  6. Oxidation and mobilization of metallic antimony in aqueous systems with simulated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, A. G.; Majs, F.; Barker, A. J.; Douglas, T. A.; Trainor, T. P.

    2014-05-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a contaminant of concern that can be present in elevated concentrations in shooting range soils due to mobilization from spent lead/antimony bullets. Antimony in shooting range soils has been observed as either metallic Sb(0) or as Sb(V) immobilized by iron (hydr)oxides. The absence of Sb(III) in soils is indicative of rapid Sb(III) oxidation to Sb(V) under surface soil conditions. However, the major controls on antimony oxidation and mobility are poorly understood. To better understand these controls we performed multiple batch experiments under oxic conditions to quantify the oxidation and dissolution of antimony in systems where Sb(0) is oxidized to Sb(III) and further to Sb(V). We also tested how variations in the aqueous matrix composition and the presence of metallic lead (Pb) affect the dissolution, solid phase speciation, and oxidation of antimony. We monitored changes in the aqueous antimony speciation using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). To test which solid phases form as a result of Sb(0) oxidation, and therefore potentially limit the mobility of antimony in our studied systems, we characterized the partially oxidized Sb(0) powders by means of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  7. Leishmania donovani: an in vitro study of antimony-resistant amphotericin B-sensitive isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharief, Abdalla Hassan; Gasim Khalil, Eltahir Awad; Theander, Thor G;

    2006-01-01

    Drug sensitivity of clinically antimony-unresponsive Leishmania donovani isolates from Eastern Sudan was evaluated in an in vitro culture system against sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and Amphotericin B. Eight isolates, six from antimony-resistant and two from clinically responsive patients were...

  8. Potassium Channelopathies and Gastrointestinal Ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaeyong; Lee, Seung Hun; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels and transporters maintain potassium homeostasis and play significant roles in several different biological actions via potassium ion regulation. In previous decades, the key revelations that potassium channels and transporters are involved in the production of gastric acid and the regulation of secretion in the stomach have been recognized. Drugs used to treat peptic ulceration are often potassium transporter inhibitors. It has also been reported that potassium channels are involved in ulcerative colitis. Direct toxicity to the intestines from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated with altered potassium channel activities. Several reports have indicated that the long-term use of the antianginal drug Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, increases the chances of ulceration and perforation from the oral to anal regions throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Several of these drug features provide further insights into the role of potassium channels in the occurrence of ulceration in the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to investigate whether potassium channelopathies are involved in the mechanisms responsible for ulceration that occurs throughout the GI tract. PMID:27784845

  9. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. PMID:25456880

  10. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement.

  11. Research on Percolation Network and Physical Properties of Graphite/Antimony Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ya-fei; HE Min; WANG Qi-li

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure, friction and wear behaviour of graphite preform and graphite/antimony composites are analysed based on the percolation theory of hydrodynamics to investigate the relationship between the percolation network and physical properties of graphite/antimony composites. The result shows that there are two important factors to enhance friction and wear behaviour of graphite/antimony composites at high temperature: 1) the formation of the pore network in the preform, which is called the first percolation and 2) the optimization of infiltration method in the process of infiltrating antimony, which is called the second percolation. By adding some pyrolysate and controlling the roasting process, perfect net pores and sub-micron percolation microstructure may be formed in the graphite preform. By controlling the infiltration process, the saturation of molten antimony infiltrating into perfect pores can be optimized.

  12. Analytical method for the simultaneous estimation of hydrochlorothiazide and metoprolol tartrate using RP HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N D Rawool

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the estimation by RP-HPLC of two different drug components hydrochlorothiazide and metoprolol tartrate present in a tablet formulation. It is a simple, fast, precise and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic method. It is performed using phosphate buffer along with methanol as mobile phase, in the proportion of 60:40. The separation is done on a C 18 column and it is estimated at a λmax of 226 nm with a flow of 1 ml/min. The detection limits range from a 0.013 to 0.075 mg/ml for hydrochlorothiazide and 0.10 to 0.60 mg/ml for metoprolol tartrate, respectively. The specificity for interference of any peak with main peak of interest is checked. A scan of the individual drug was taken for assuring the λmax . The system suitability by precision is also checked to ensure the analytical method. The method was found to be accurate and precise for estimation of the two drugs simultaneously.

  13. Synchronous delivery of felodipine and metoprolol tartrate using monolithic osmotic pump technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shiqing; Yu, Fanglin; Liu, Nan; Di, Zhong; Yan, Kun; Liu, Yan; Li, Ying; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Yang; Yang, Zhenbo; Li, Zhiping; Mei, Xingguo

    2016-11-01

    The synchronous sustained-release of two drugs was desired urgently for patients needing combination therapy in long term. However, sophisticated technologies were used generally to realize the simultaneous delivery of two drugs especially those with different physico-chemical properties. The purpose of this study was to obtain the concurrent release of felodipine and metoprolol tartrate, two drugs with completely different solubilities, in a simple monolithic osmotic pump system (FMOP). Two types of blocking agents were used in monolithic osmotic pump tablets and the synchronous sustained-release of FMOP was acquired in vitro. The tablets were also administered to beagle dogs and the plasma levels of FMOP were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Cmax of both felodipine and metoprolol from the osmotic pump tablets were lower, tmax and mean residence time of both felodipine and metoprolol from the osmotic pump tablets were longer significantly than those from immediate release tablets. These results verified prolonged release of felodipine and metoprolol tartrate from osmotic pump formulations. The similar absorption rate between felodipine and metoprolol in beagles was also obtained by this osmotic pump formulation. Therefore, it could be supposed that the accordant release of two drugs with completely different solubilities may be realized just by using monolithic osmotic pump technology. PMID:27074758

  14. Characterisation of quaternary polymethacrylate films containing tartaric acid, metoprolol free base or metoprolol tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessl, B; Siepmann, F; Tucker, I; Siepmann, J; Rades, T

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the interactions between metoprolol tartrate and quaternary polymethacrylate (Eudragit RL and Eudragit RS) films. For reasons of comparison, polymeric films containing the free base metoprolol or free tartaric acid were also prepared. Systems containing various amounts of the free base, free acid and the salt were characterised using polarising light microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical analysis (puncture test). The free base is the most efficient plasticiser of the three species for Eudragit RL and Eudragit RS, but with limited solubility in the polymers. Due to its hydrophobicity, it can interact with the hydrophobic polymer backbones. In contrast, in salt containing films, ionic interactions between the positively charged quaternary ammonium groups and the negatively charged tartrate anions apparently occur, this being suggested by the different effects on Eudragit RL versus RS, which have different contents of quaternary ammonium groups. Importantly, the combination of acid and base as a salt avoids drug precipitation at higher metoprolol contents. The obtained new insight into the occurring drug-polymer interactions can help to facilitate the development/optimisation of this type of dosage forms.

  15. 1,10-Phenanthrolin-1-ium hydrogen (S,S-tartrate trihydrate and a correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Derikvand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The title structure, C12H9N2+·C4H5O6−·3H2O, shows that one of the protons of d-tartaric acid has been transferred to 1,10-phenanthroline. The d-hydrogen tartrate anions are joined together in a head-to-tail fashion via a short hydrogen bond with donor–acceptor distance of 2.4554 (12 Å, unsymmetrical O—H distances of 1.01 (4 Å and 1.45 (4 Å, and a 174 (4° O—H—O bond angle. The phenanthrolinium rings are π-stacked with an average separation of 3.58 (11 Å. The structural report corrects a previous report in the literature [Wang et al. (2006. Acta Cryst. E62, o2508–o2509] of the isostructural l-hydrogen tartrate enantiomer in which the proton transfer and short hydrogen bond were missed.

  16. Eliglustat tartrate for the treatment of adults with type 1 Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett LL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lunawati L Bennett, Kelsey TurcotteSchool of Pharmacy, Union University, Jackson, TN, USA Abstract: The purpose of this article is to review eliglustat tartrate, a substrate reduction therapy, for the treatment of Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1. GD is an rare inborn error of metabolism caused by accumulation of lipid substrates such as glucosylceramide within the monocyte-macrophage system that affects the body by causing enlargement of the spleen and liver, destruction of bone, and abnormalities of the lungs and blood, such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. GD is classified into three types: GD1, a chronic and non-neuronopathic disease accounting for 95% of GD cases; and types 2 and 3 (GD2 GD3 which are more progressive diseases with no approved drugs available at this time. Treatment options for GD1 include enzyme replacement therapy and substrate reduction therapy. Eliglustat works by inhibiting UDP-glucosylceramide synthase, the first enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, thus reducing the load of glucosylceramide influx into the lysosome. Eliglustat was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration after three Phase I, two Phase II, and two Phase III clinical trials. The dose of eliglustat is 84 mg twice a day or once daily depending on the cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype of the patient. Keywords: Gaucher disease, glucocerebrosidase, glucosylceramide synthase, eliglustat tartrate, substrate reduction therapy

  17. Bis(tetra-ethyl-ammonium) bis-(hydrogen l-tartrate) l-tartaric acid monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, M; Indirajith, R; Gopalakrishnan, R; Ramamurthi, K; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2011-06-01

    In the title compound, 2C(8)H(20)N(+)·2C(4)H(5)O(6) (-)·C(4)H(6)O(6)·H(2)O, the presence of the two tetra-ethyl-ammonium cations is balanced by two hydrogen l-tartrate anions. Also present in the asymmetric unit are a mol-ecule of l-tartaric acid and a water mol-ecule. The various components are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, two-dimensional networks are formed via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯O inter-actions involving the water mol-ecule, the hydrogen l-tartrate anions and the l-tartaric acid mol-ecules. These layers, which stack along [001], are separated by tetra-ethyl-ammonium cations. The latter are also involved in C-H⋯O inter-actions with the anions and the l-tartaric acid and water mol-ecules participating in the two-dimensional network.

  18. Coating Efficiency in Preventing Photolytic Degradation of Two Randomly Selected Brands of Metoprolol Tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anisur Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out to determine whether the film coating is effective to prevent the photolytic degradation of Metoprolol tartrate which is known to have photosensitivity. For this purpose, two randomly selected brands of two different pharmaceutical companies were chosen i.e. Brand A and Brand B. These two brands were exposed to different lighting conditions (normal light, direct sunlight as well as two incandescent lights i.e. 25 watt bulb, 40 watt bulb. Potency tests were performed using UV spectroscopy which showed gradual decline in potency of the tablets under aforesaid lighting conditions and the potency degradations were found 11.48%, 12.92%, 22.62%, 16.87% for Brand A and 14.74%, 14.24%, 10.88%, 18.10% for Brand B under 25 watt bulb, 40 watt bulb, direct sunlight and normal room light respectively. So this study reveals that the both brands containing metoprolol tartrate showed significant light sensitivity even though they are coated and protective opaque packaging is highly recommended for their protection.

  19. Testing of antimony selective media for treatment of liquid radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants have sought radiation source term reduction and reduced discharge of radioactive constituents for many years. In the case of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the latter efforts have been directed toward capture and immobilization of recalcitrant (ubiquitous radionuclides with long half-lives) species such as Cs-134 and Cs-137 and Co-58 and Co-60. As these plants resolved, or at least mitigated, the problems with radiocesium and radio-cobalt, antimony radionuclides (Sb-122, Sb-124, and Sb-125) have become a primary concern in liquid liquid radwaste systems Graver Technologies developed a granular composite metal oxide media with good selectivity for radio-antimony. Initial laboratory data were collected using non-radioactive salts of antimony, cesium, and cobalt to judge efficacy of selective removal of antimony. Based on success of those trials, the media, designated Gravex GX187, was tested in partnership with Energy Solutions (nee Duratek) using actual liquid liquid radwaste in two PWR plants. One of these plants performed extensive slip-stream trials comparing the GX187 with strong base anion resins. With more than 2500 bed volumes of throughput, the GX187 outperformed the other competitors by reducing both Sb-124 and Sb-125 radionuclides below minimum detectable activity (MDA) with average decontamination factors (DF's) of 170, even when subjected to high levels of borate. Based on these favorable results, Energy Solutions installed the GX187 in a layered bed in their ALPS liquid radwaste processing system at this plant in August 2005. After one year of intermittent, batchwise operation including an outage, the GX187 processed more than 2.25 million liters (>600,000 gallons) of liquid liquid radwaste while reducing the Sb-125 activity to 2.9 E-08 Bq/L (DF=111) on average. This evaluation is ongoing and will continue at least until the fall 2006 outage at this plant. Concurrently, Graver developed a second generation antimony selective

  20. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony during simulated HLLW vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of ruthenium, cesium, and antimony during the vitrification of simulated high-level radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) in a liquid fed melter was studied on a laboratory scale and on a semi-pilot scale. In the laboratory melter of a 2.5 kg capacity, a series of tests with the simulate traced with 103Ru, 134Cs and 124Sb, has shown that the Ru and Cs losses to the melter effluent are generally higher than 10% whereas the antimony losses remain lower than 0.4%. A wet purification system comprising in series, a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column retains most of the activity present in the off-gas so that the release fractions for Ru at the absolute filter inlet ranges between 5.10-3 to 5.10-5% of the Ru fed, for Cs the corresponding release fraction ranges between 3.10-3 to 10-4% and for Sb the release fraction ranges between 1.7 10-4 to 1.7 10-5%. The same experiments were performed at a throughput of 1 to 2 1 h-1 of simulated solution in the semi-pilot scale unit RUFUS. The RUFUS unit comprises a glass melter with a 50 kg molten glass capacity and the wet purification train comprises in series a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column. The tracer tests were restricted to 103Ru and 134Cs since the laboratory tests had shown that the antimony losses were very low. The results of the tests are presented

  1. The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessinger, Brad; Apps, John A.

    2003-03-23

    A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were used to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur

  2. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  3. Antimony implanted strained Si for nMOSFET applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Atieh

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of implanted antimony (Sb) in strained-silicon (s-Si) formed on relaxed-SiGe virtual substrates (10 and 30% Ge) has been studied. The implantation doses were 5×1013- 5×1014 cm-2 with an energy of 20 keV. The activation of dopant was performed by an rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment at 700 and 800 °C for 30 sec. Projected range of this implantation is about 20 nm which was also confirmed by different techniques. The layers were analyzed in terms of strain relaxation, sheet ...

  4. Potassium oxalurate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, poly[aqua-μ3-oxalurato-potassium(I], [K(C3H3N2O4(H2O]n, which was obtained from a water solution of oxaluric acid and KOH at room temperature, crystallizes as potassium and oxalurate ions along with a water molecule. The K+ cation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis (site symmetry 2, Wyckoff position f, and the water and oxalurate molecules are located within different mirror planes (site symmetry m, Wyckoff position g. The K+ cation is eight-coordinated by six O atoms of six oxalurate ligands and two O atoms from two water molecules in a distorted square-antiprismatic geometry. All of the eight coordinated O atoms are in a monodentate bridging mode, with alternate bridged K...K distances of 3.5575 (12 and 3.3738 (12 Å. The oxalurate ligand shows a μ3-bridging coordination mode, which links the K+ cation into a three-dimensional network. The oxalurate ligands and the water molecules are involved in inter- and intramolecular N—H...O, and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which stabilize the network.

  5. A formulation approach for development of HPMC-based sustained release tablets for tolterodine tartrate with a low release variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Choi, Jae-Seung; Liu, Yan;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)-based sustained release (SR) tablets for tolterodine tartrate with a low drug release variation. Methods: The SR tablets were prepared by formulating a combination of different grades of HPMC as the gelling...

  6. Flupentixol tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna, Thammarse S; Kaur, Manpreet; Anderson, Brian J; Jasinski, Jerry P; Yathirajan, H S

    2014-02-01

    In the title salt, C23H26F3N2OS(+)·C4H5O6 (-) [systematic name: 1-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)-4-[3-(2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)thioxanthen-9-yl-idene)prop-yl]piperazin-1-ium 3-carb-oxy-2,3-di-hydroxy-pro-pion-ate], the monoprotonated piperazine ring in the cation adopts a chair conformation, while the thio-pyran ring of the thioxanthene group has a boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two outer aromatic rings of the thioxanthene groups is 31.6 (2)°. In the crystal, the cations and anions are linked via O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [100]. In addition, R (2) 2(7), R (2) 2(11), R (2) 2(10) and R (2) 2(12) graph-set ring motifs involving the anions, and R (2) 2(9) graph-set ring motifs involving both the cations and anions are observed. The three F atoms of the tri-fluoro-methyl group are disordered over two sets of sites and the individual atoms were refined with occupancy ratios of 0.54 (6):0.46 (6), 0.72 (2):0.28 (2) and 0.67 (3):0.33 (3).

  7. Solubility behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) solids in basic aqueous solutions at 300{sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemire, R.J.; Tosello, N.B.; Halliday, J.D

    1999-12-01

    The major contributions of the isotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb to activity transport in a CANDU reactor primary heat transport system (HTS), have been associated with oxygen ingress during reactor shutdown. As part of a program to minimize the release and redeposition of these isotopes, the solubilities of antimony(III) and (V) oxides and salts have been measured in basic solutions at temperatures from 25 to 300{sup o}C. The results provide information on the charge and the stability as a function of temperature of antimony solution species and, hence, a guide to the trends in the temperature dependence of the solubilities of antimony solids. In solutions in which oxidation of antimony(III) to antimony(V) is minimized, the solubility of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases by about two orders of magnitude between 25 and 200{sup o}C, and then levels out or decreases slightly. At 250{sup o}C, in oxidizing solutions, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O and simple sodium antimonate(V) were found to be unstable in sodium hydroxide solutions with respect to the solid, Na{sub 2{alpha}}[H(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2-2{alpha}}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which has a pyrochlore structure. The solubility of this partially protonated sodium antimonate increases from 25 to 200{sup o}C and decreases at temperatures above 250{sup o}C. These solubility changes for the antimony (V) solids reflect changes in the stability of the anionic antimony solution species (SbO{sub 3}{sup -} or Sb(OH){sub 6}{sup -}), even though the compositions of antimony-containing solids in basic oxidizing solutions are strongly dependent on the cations and their aqueous phase concentrations. All solids used in the present experiments would be expected to generate total solution antimony concentrations {>=} 0.00005 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} in any neutral or basic aqueous solutions (assuming no added sodium salts). Therefore, under HTS conditions, precipitation of any antimony oxides or mixed oxides is unlikely. It cannot be

  8. Antimony removal from the polyethylene terephthalate manufacture wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Vengris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antimony removal by coagulation from polyethylene terephthalate resin production wastewater of „Orion Global PET“ factory in Klaipėda city was investigated, with regard to the dependence of coagulant type and dosage, pH and presence of organics. FeCl3 ∙6H2O, FeSO4 ∙7H2O, AlCl3∙6H2O and TiCl4 salts were used as coagulants. Ti(IV and Fe(III revealed oneself to be the most effective coagulants. Antimony removal effectiveness is moderate and low using FeSO4 ∙7H2O and AlCl3∙6H2O coagulants, respectively. The addition of 10 mg dm-3 Ti(IV and 30 mg dm-3 Fe(III reduces by ~98% of the Sb, when the initial amount of Sb in wastewater is about 1200 mkg/l. The action of Fe(III is practically independent in the pH range 4-9, and that of Ti(IV slightly decreases in the same pH interval. The Sb amount in wastewater can be reduced to 13-20 mkg dm-3, while the initial Sb concentration is 1200 mkg dm-3. The presence of organic compounds in wastewater determines the reduction of Sb removal by coagulation.

  9. Antimony contamination and its effect on Trifolium plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan; Bech, Jaume; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Antimony is not an essential element and soil Sb contents usually are low.However, soil contamination by Sb has increased in the last years due to the human activities (combustion of fossil fuels, mining, waste incineration, smelting, shooting and road traffic). The main objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of antimony (KSb(OH)6) in order to evaluate the effect on growth and Sb uptake on Trifolium pratense cv. Milvus and Trifolium repens. Our results show that Sb accumulated both in roots and shoots of clover without any negative effect on root growth, cellular viability and lipid peroxidation. This absence of toxicity sympthoms in clover plants could be very dangerous because Sb can be inadvertedly incorporated into the trophic chain causing toxic effects both in animals and humans. The absence of toxic effects on plants does not seem to be due to detoxification by phytochelatins because the use of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine (BSO) did not enhance Sb toxicity to plants. (Supported by the Spanish MICINN project BFU2010-14873)

  10. Thermal decomposition kinetics of antimony oxychloride in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳卫军; 唐谟堂; 金胜明

    2002-01-01

    The DTA and XRD techniques were employed to study thermal decomposition mechanism of antimony oxychloride SbOCl in the air. The thermal decomposition reaction occurs in four steps, and the former three steps as: SbOCl(s)→Sb4O5Cl2(s)+SbCl3(g)→Sb8O11Cl2(s)+SbCl3(g)→Sb2O3(s)+SbCl3(g). The forth step is the oxidation of Sb2O3 by air, Sb2O3(s)+O2→Sb2O4(s). The activation energy and the order of the thermal decomposition reaction of antimony oxychloride in three steps presented in DTA curves were calculated according to Kinssinger methods from DTA curves. The values of activation energy and the order are respectively 91.97kJ/mol, 0.73 in the first step, 131.14kJ/mol, 0.63 in the second step and 146.94kJ/mol, 1.58 in the third step.

  11. BSA activated CdTe quantum dot nanosensor for antimony ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shenguang; Zhang, Congcong; Zhu, Yuanna; Yu, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuangshuang

    2010-01-01

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor for Sb(3+) determination was reported based on thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles. It was the first antimony ion sensor using QD nanoparticles in a receptor-fluorophore system. The water-soluable TGA-capped CdTe QDs were prepared through a hydrothermal route, NaHTe was used as the Te precursor for CdTe QDs synthesis. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated to TGA-capped CdTe via an amide link interacting with carboxyl of the TGA-capped CdTe. When antimony ion enters the BSA, the lone pair electrons of the nitrogen and oxygen atom become involved in the coordination, switching off the QD emission and a dramatic quenching of the fluorescence intensity results, allowing the detection of low concentrations of antimony ions. Using the operating principle, the antimony ion sensor based on QD nanoparticles showed a very good linearity in the range 0.10-22.0 microg L(-1), with the detection limit lower than 2.94 x 10(-8) g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) 2.54% (n = 6). In a study of interferences, the antimony-sensitive TGA-QD-BSA sensor showed good selectivity. Therefore, a simple, fast, sensitive, and highly selective assay for antimony has been built. The presented method has been applied successfully to the determination of antimony in real water samples (n = 6) with satisfactory results.

  12. Removal of cobalt from zinc sulphate solution using rude antimony trioxide as additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴军; 王德全; 姜澜; 金曼

    2002-01-01

    The process of cobalt removal from zinc sulphate solution using rude antimony trioxide as an additive was investigated. The rude antimony trioxide was produced in treatment of copper and lead anode mud and its main components are antimony trioxide, antimony arsenate and lead antimonate. Using the rude antimony trioxide as the additive of cobalt removal can not only decrease operation cost of purification but also find out a new way for utilization of the rude antimony trioxide. The effects of temperature, dosage of zinc dust, the rude antimony trioxide, copper ion and solution pH on removal of cobalt were studied. And experimental data using the rude Sb2O3 as additive were compared with those using Sb2O3. The results indicate that using rude Sb2O3 as additive, cobalt concentration in solution could be decreased from 24mg/L to below 1mg/L under about the same conditions as using Sb2O3.

  13. Leaching Mechanism of Complicated Antimony-Lead Concentrate and Sulfur Formation in Slurry Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangChengyan; QiuDingfan; JiangPeihai

    2004-01-01

    Anodic reaction mechanism of complicated antimony-lead concentrate in slurry electrolysis was investigated by the anodic polarization curves determined under various conditions. The main reactions on the anode are the oxidations of FeCln(2-n) . Though the oxidation of jamesonite particle on the anode can occur during the whole process, it is less. With the help of mineralogy studies and relevant tests, the leaching reaction mechanism of jameson[to and gudmundite during slurry electrolysis was ascertained. Because of the oxidation reaction of FeCl3 produced by antimony-lead concentrate itself, the non-oxidation complex acid dissolution of jameson[re, the oxidation complex acid dissolution of gudmundite, and the oxidation of air carried by stirring, the leaching ratio of antimony reaches about 35% when HCl-NH4Cl solution is used to leach antimony-lead concentrate directly. So when the theoretical electric quantity is given to oxidation of antimony in slurry electrolysis, all of antimony, lead and iron containing in antimony-lead concentrate, are leached. The formation of sulfur is through the directly redox reaction of Fe3+ and jameson[re. The S2- in jamesonite is oxidized into S0 , and forms the crystals of sulfur again on the spot. The redox reaction of Fe3+ and H2S formed by non-oxidative acid dissolution of jamesonite is less.

  14. In Vitro Antiparasitic and Apoptotic Effects of Antimony Sulfide Nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Soflaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important sever diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. In the present study the effects of antimony sulfide nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum in vitro were evaluated. Antimony sulfide NPs (Sb2S5 were synthesized by biological method from Serratia marcescens bacteria. Then the cytotoxicity effects of different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of this nanoparticle were assessed on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. infantum. MTT method was used for verification results of promastigote assay. Finally, the percentages of apoptotic, necrotic, and viable cells were determined by flow cytometry. The results indicated the positive effectiveness of antimony sulfide NPs on proliferation of promastigote form. The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration of antimony sulfide NPs on promastigotes was calculated 50 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity effect was dose-dependent means by increasing the concentration of antimony sulfide NPs, the cytotoxicity curve was raised and the viability curve of the parasite dropped simultaneously. Moreover, the IC50 of antimony sulfide NPs on amastigote stage was calculated 25 μg/mL. On the other hand, however, antimony sulfide NPs have a low cytotoxicity effect on uninfected macrophages but it can induce apoptosis in promastigote stage at 3 of 4 concentrations.

  15. Segregation of antimony in InP in MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeke, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    In this work the segregation of antimony in indium phosphide in metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)was systematically investigated. Therefore phosphine stabilized InP surfaces were treated with tri-methyl-antimony (TMSb) in MOVPE. An antimony rich Sb/InP surface was established, showing a typical spectra for the antimonides observed in reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS).Adsorption and desorption of antimony are investigated, as well as the incorporation of Sb during overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface with InP. Therefore the growth parameters temperature, TMSb partial pressure and treatment time are varied and their influence investigated. The experiments are monitored in-situ with RAS, the achieved data is correlated with ex-situ characterisation such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It is shown that under treatment with TMSb a stable Sb/InP surface is formed within seconds, which does not change under further TMSb treatment. This process is rarely influenced by the TMSb partial pressure. On the contrary, the desorption of Sb is a very slow process. Two main processes can be distinguished: The desorption of excess Sb from the surface and the formation of the MOVPE prepared InP (2 x 1) surface. The reaction velocity of adsorption and desorption increases with temperature. Above a critical value the increase of TMSb partial pressure has no influence on the time for desorption. During overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface the opposite temperature dependence is observed: with increasing growth temperature the typical spectra for antimonides is observed longer. An analysis of the grown samples with XRD and SIMS showed the formation of an InPSb double quantum well. One layer is formed at the interface, the second one 50 nm-120 nm deep in the InP. The location of the 2nd InPSb layer can be correlated with the vanishing of the Sb signature in RAS. The distance between the quantum wells increases with growth temperature, until it

  16. 1,10-Phenanthrolin-1-ium hydrogen d,l-tartrate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit Foon Cheng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated molecular salt, C12H9N2+·C4H5O6−·2H2O, the cation is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.014 Å; the carbon skeleton of the anion assumes a trans conformation [C—C—C—C torsion angle = −179.86 (14°]. The carboxyl end of one hydrogen tartrate anion forms a short hydrogen bond to the carboxylate end of another anion [O...O = 2.508 (2 Å] in a head-to-tail manner, forming a chain; the chains and water molecules interact, generating an O—H...O hydrogen-bonded layer. The cation binds to the layer by an N—H...O hydrogen bond.

  17. Removal of Pb{sup 2+} from the aqueous solution by tartrate intercalated layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yanming; Zhao, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xi; Li, Shifeng; Liu, Dongbin; Fan, Lihui [Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang (China)

    2016-01-15

    Adsorption of Pb{sup 2+} ion by a tartrate intercalated MgAl layered double hydroxides (MgAl-TA LDHs) was studied. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated as a function of various experimental parameters using batch adsorption experiments. The results indicated that the adsorption isotherm was well described by Sips model. The kinetic adsorption data were fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption of Pb{sup 2+} was controlled mainly by the chemical process combined with intraparticle diffusion. Parameters of adsorption thermodynamic suggested that the interaction of Pb{sup 2+} adsorbed by MgAl-TA LDHs adsorbents was thermodynamically spontaneous and endothermic.

  18. An unusual cause of chest pain: Acute coronary syndrome following administration of ergotamine tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutucu, Sercan; Karakulak, Ugur Nadir; Kabakcı, Giray; Aytemir, Kudret

    2012-01-01

    For many years, ergotamine has been used for the acute treatment of migraine. Ergotamine may produce coronary vasospasm, which is often associated with ischemic electrocardiography changes and angina pectoris. A 62-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department because of chest pain is described. She had a history of severe migraine attacks and started to use ergotamine tartrate 0.75 mg daily the day before. Electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia with left anterior hemiblock and T wave inversion in the precordial leads. Cardiac biomarker levels were elevated. After discontinuation of the drug and initiation of vasodilator treatment, her chest pain resolved. Patients with migraine may have an underlying vasospastic disorder predisposing them to coronary artery spasm. Physicians should be alerted to potential cardiac vasospastic effects of low-dose ergotamine in the treatment of migraine. PMID:23204901

  19. Varicella zoster virus reactivation during or immediately following treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis with antimony compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barbieri Barros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimony compounds are the cornerstone treatments for tegumentary leishmaniasis. The reactivation of herpes virus is a side effect described in few reports. We conducted an observational study to describe the incidence of herpes zoster reactivation during treatment with antimony compounds. The global incidence of herpes zoster is approximately 2.5 cases per 1,000 persons per month (or 30 cases per 1,000 persons per year. The estimated incidence of herpes zoster in patients undergoing antimony therapy is higher than previously reported.

  20. Structural and optical characterization of thermally evaporated bismuth and antimony films for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimathy, N.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this present study, the thin film of bismuth and antimony is coated by thermal evaporation system equipped with the inbuilt ultra high vacuum system. XRD analysis confirmed the rhombohedral structure of Bismuth and Antimony on the prepared film. The surface roughness and physical appearance is analyzed by Atomic force microscopy. The results of Raman Spectroscopy show the wave functions and the spectrum of electrons. The preparation technique and conditions strongly influence the crystalline structure and the phase composition of bismuth and antimony thin films. The electrical and optical properties for the prepared film are analyzed. The results show a great interest and promising applications in Photovoltaic devices.

  1. Sublingual fast dissolving niosomal films for enhanced bioavailability and prolonged effect of metoprolol tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ayat Allam, Gihan Fetih Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Abstract: The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate sublingual fast dissolving films containing metoprolol tartrate-loaded niosomes. Niosomes were utilized to allow for prolonged release of the drug, whereas the films were used to increase the drug’s bioavailability via the sublingual route. Niosomes were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol at different drug to surfactant ratios. The niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, and entrapment efficiency. The selected niosomal formulation was incorporated into polymeric films using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E15 and methyl cellulose as film-forming polymers and Avicel as superdisintegrant. The physical characteristics (appearance, texture, pH, uniformity of weight and thickness, disintegration time, and palatability of the prepared films were studied, in addition to evaluating the in vitro drug release, stability, and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbits. The release of the drug from the medicated film was fast (99.9% of the drug was released within 30 minutes, while the drug loaded into the niosomes, either incorporated into the film or not, showed only 22.85% drug release within the same time. The selected sublingual film showed significantly higher rate of drug absorption and higher drug plasma levels compared with that of commercial oral tablet. The plasma levels remained detectable for 24 hours following sublingual administration, compared with only 12 hours after administration of the oral tablet. In addition, the absolute bioavailability of the drug (ie, relative to intravenous administration following sublingual administration was found to be significantly higher (91.06%±13.28%, as compared with that after oral tablet administration (39.37%±11.4%. These results indicate that the fast dissolving niosomal film could be a promising delivery system to

  2. Structural and degradation studies of a biocompatible Zn-L-tartrate metal–organic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palǒić, Ana; Puškarić, Andreas [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Mazaj, Matjaž, E-mail: matjaz.mazaj@ki.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Žunkoviǒ, Emanuela; Logar, Nataša Zabukovec [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bronić, Josip [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-05-15

    New anhydrous Zn-L-tratrate was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Crystal structure which was solved by powder X-ray diffraction data from monoclinic unit cell (I{sub 2}, a=11.7557(1), b=9.0319(1), c=5.0750(1), β=91.920(1)) consists of the three-dimensional framework where each Zn atom coordinates four tartrate ligands in distorted octahedral geometry. Due to its biocompatible components, the degradation of material was studied in aqueous media under different pH values (pH=1–7) and in the simulated body fluid (pH=7.4) performed by the measurement of the released Zn{sup 2+} concentrations at thermostatic conditions (37 °C). The results showed that under acidic conditions approximately 60% of Zn{sup 2+} is released from the investigated material after 6 h of degradation process. With the increase of the solution’s pH, the rate of degradation gradually decreases. XRD and SEM analyses indicate that in aqueous media the compound slowly disintegrates and does not undergo hydrolysis process regardless of pH. Biocompatibility of the compound and its controllable rate of degradation even in acid conditions open its potential use in the fields of bio-applications. - Graphical abstract: The degradation kinetics of Zn-L-tar MOF material in aqueous media at different pH conditions. - Highlights: • Anhydrous chiral Zn-L-tratrate was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. • 3-D framework consists of Zn atoms, each chelating four tartrate ligands. • Degradation of material was studied in aqueous media at different pH values. • The compound disintegrates in controllable manner in aqueous solutions. • The rate compound degradation is increasing with increased acidity of solution.

  3. The effects of colloidal bismuth tartrate on colitis induced by immune-complex in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Shu Xian Wang; Zhen Qiang Gao

    2000-01-01

    AIM To observe the therapeutic effect of colloidal bismuth tartrate in an animal colitis model.METHODS Immune-complex colitis was induced in groups of rabbits by formalin, and two hours later0.85 mL heat-aggregated rabbit IgG was given intravenously through the ear cannula. Animals wereintracolonically treated with colloidal bismuth tartrate (BITNAL), and its effect was compared withsulfasalazine (SASP), indomethacin (IND) and bifidobiogen (BIFG). Animals were killed, the mucosalappearance was scored (0-4), and tissue saved for histological studies, the number of neutrophils present ininflamed colonic tissue was quantitated by the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay, the production oflipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase products was monitored and eicosanoid production were assayed byincubation colonic specimens and the media for prostaglandin E2(PGE2), leukotriene (LTB4), thromboxaneB2(TXPe) were examined by radiommunoassay.RESULTS Immune-complex colitis was induced by formalin and IgG, colonic damage persisted for at least1 wk by macrography. Histologically, the inflammatory response included mucosal and submucosalinfiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes and fibroblasts, the macroscopic,persent 2 wk after IgG, was correlated with greatly increased PGE2, LTB4 and TXB2 compared with levels incontrols. Treatment with BITNAL (500 mg/kg) resulted in a lowered inflammation index, lowered MPOactivity and inhibited the increased formation of PGF-2, LTB4 and TXB2 by the inflamed colon, and IND(500 mg/kg) markedly inhibited prostanoid formation in both inflamed and control colon but did not reducetissue damage, SASP (500 mg/kg) also inhibited the formation of PGE2, LTB4 and TXB2 but the effectswere less marked. BIFG (400 mg/kg) did not significantly reduce the colonic injury and the media sythesizedby the rabbit colon.CONCLUSION BITAL provides better therapeutic effects in experimental colitis than anti-inflammatorydrug IND or SASP.

  4. Coordination- and Redox-Noninnocent Behavior of Ambiphilic Ligands Containing Antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J Stuart; Gabbaï, François P

    2016-05-17

    Stimulated by applications in catalysis, the chemistry of ambiphilic ligands featuring both donor and acceptor functionalities has experienced substantial growth in the past several years. The unique opportunities in catalysis offered by ambiphilic ligands stem from the ability of their acceptor functionalities to play key roles via metal-ligand cooperation or modulation of the reactivity of the metal center. Ligands featuring group 13 centers, most notably boranes, as their acceptor functionalities have undoubtedly spearheaded these developments, with remarkable results having been achieved in catalytic hydrogenation and hydrosilylation. Motivated by these developments as well as by our fundamental interest in the chemistry of heavy group 15 elements, we became fascinated by the possibility of employing antimony centers as Lewis acids within ambiphilic ligands. The chemistry of antimony-based ligands, most often encountered as trivalent stibines, has historically been considered to mirror that of their lighter phosphorus-based congeners. There is growing evidence, however, that antimony-based ligands may display unique coordination behavior and reactivity. Additionally, despite the diverse Lewis acid and redox chemistry that antimony exhibits, there have been only limited efforts to explore this chemistry within the coordination sphere of a transition metal. By incorporation of antimony into the framework of polydentate ligands in order to enforce the main group metal-transition metal interaction, the effect of redox and coordination events at the antimony center on the structure, electronics, and reactivity of the metal complex may be investigated. This Account describes our group's continuing efforts to probe the coordination behavior, reactivity, and application of ambiphilic ligands incorporating antimony centers. Structural and theoretical studies have established that both Sb(III) and Sb(V) centers in polydentate ligands may act as Z-type ligands toward late

  5. Coordination- and Redox-Noninnocent Behavior of Ambiphilic Ligands Containing Antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J Stuart; Gabbaï, François P

    2016-05-17

    Stimulated by applications in catalysis, the chemistry of ambiphilic ligands featuring both donor and acceptor functionalities has experienced substantial growth in the past several years. The unique opportunities in catalysis offered by ambiphilic ligands stem from the ability of their acceptor functionalities to play key roles via metal-ligand cooperation or modulation of the reactivity of the metal center. Ligands featuring group 13 centers, most notably boranes, as their acceptor functionalities have undoubtedly spearheaded these developments, with remarkable results having been achieved in catalytic hydrogenation and hydrosilylation. Motivated by these developments as well as by our fundamental interest in the chemistry of heavy group 15 elements, we became fascinated by the possibility of employing antimony centers as Lewis acids within ambiphilic ligands. The chemistry of antimony-based ligands, most often encountered as trivalent stibines, has historically been considered to mirror that of their lighter phosphorus-based congeners. There is growing evidence, however, that antimony-based ligands may display unique coordination behavior and reactivity. Additionally, despite the diverse Lewis acid and redox chemistry that antimony exhibits, there have been only limited efforts to explore this chemistry within the coordination sphere of a transition metal. By incorporation of antimony into the framework of polydentate ligands in order to enforce the main group metal-transition metal interaction, the effect of redox and coordination events at the antimony center on the structure, electronics, and reactivity of the metal complex may be investigated. This Account describes our group's continuing efforts to probe the coordination behavior, reactivity, and application of ambiphilic ligands incorporating antimony centers. Structural and theoretical studies have established that both Sb(III) and Sb(V) centers in polydentate ligands may act as Z-type ligands toward late

  6. Synthesis and characterisation of nano-pore antimony imprinted polymer and its use in the extraction and determination of antimony in water and fruit juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerian, Farid; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Nili Ahmad Abadi, Maryam

    2014-02-15

    A solid phase extraction method using antimony ion imprinted polymer (IIP) sorbent combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for the extraction and speciation of antimony. The sorbent has been synthesised in the presence of Sb(III) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) using styrene as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross linker. The imprinted Sb(III) ions were removed by leaching with HCl (50%v/v) and the polymer was characterised by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of the IIP for Sb(III) ions was found to be 6.7 mg g(-1). With preconcentration of 60 mL of sample, an enhancement factor of 232 and detection limit of 3.9 ng L(-1) was obtained. Total antimony was determined after the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). The method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony species in water samples and total antimony in fruit juices.

  7. Anthropogenic impacts on the biogeochemistry and cycling of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael; Chen, Bin

    2005-01-01

    Antimony is a potentially toxic trace element with no known biological function. Antimony is commonly enriched in coals, and fossil fuel combustion appears to be the largest single source of anthropogenic Sb to the global atmosphere. Abundant in sulfide minerals, its emission to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities is linked to the mining and metallurgy of non-ferrous metals, especially Pb, Cu, and Zn. In particular, the geochemical and mineralogical association of Sb with Pb minerals implies that, like Pb, Sb has been emitted to the environment for thousands of years because of Pb mining, smelting, and refining. In the US alone, there are more than 400 former secondary lead smelting operations and worldwide there are 133 Pb-Zn smelters in operation today. Antimony is used in creating and improving dozens of industrial and commercial materials including various alloys, ceramics, glasses, plastics, and synthetic fabrics, making waste incineration another important source of Sb to the environment. Enrichments of Sb in atmospheric aerosols, plants, soils, sediments, as well as alpine and polar snow and ice suggest that Sb contamination is extensive, but there are very few quantitative studies of the geographic extent, intensity, and chronology of this contamination. There is an urgent need to quantify the extent of human impacts and how these have changed with time. The decreasing inventories of anthropogenic Sb with time in peat cores from Switzerland and Scotland suggest that the atmospheric Sb flux may be declining, but there have been too few studies to make any general conclusions. In fact, some studies of sediments and biomonitors in central Europe show little decline in Sb concentrations during the past decades. There is an obvious need for reliable data from well dated archives such as polar snow and ice, peat bogs, and sediments. The air concentrations, extent of enrichment, particle size distribution, and rate of deposition of Sb in urban areas is

  8. Biogeochemistry of Antimony(V) in Microcosms under Sulfidogenic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, E. J.; Johnson, C. R.; Antonopoulos, D. A.; Boyanov, M.; Flynn, T. M.; Koval, J. C.; Kemner, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the mining and use of antimony continues to increase, environmental concerns involving the element have grown. Antimony(V) and (III) are the two most environmentally-relevant oxidation states, but little is known about the redox transitions between the two in natural systems. To better understand the behavior of antimony in anoxic environments, we examined the transformations of Sb(V) under Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions in aqueous suspensions that contained 2 mM KSb(OH)6, 50 mM Fe(III) (as ferrihydrite), 10 mM sulfate, and 10 mM lactate, and were inoculated with sediment from a wetland on the campus of Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. Samples were collected over time to track changes in the concentrations of Sb, Fe(II), sulfate, and lactate, as well as the composition of the microbial community as determined by 16S rRNA gene inventories. We also examined the interaction of Sb(V) with pure Fe(II) mineral phases in aqueous suspensions containing 2 mM KSb(OH)6 and 50 mM Fe(II) as either magnetite, sideritre, vivianite, green rust, or mackinawite. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy was used to determine the valence state of Sb and its chemical speciation. Lactate was rapidly fermented to acetate and propionate concomittant with a bloom of Veillonellaceae. Utilization of propionate for dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) was accompanied by an increase in Desulfobulbaceae. Sb K-edge X-Ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) within 4 weeks, concurrent with DSR and the formation of FeS. We observed variable responses in the ability of specific Fe(II) minerals to reduce Sb(V). No reduction was observed with magnetite, siderite, vivianite, or green rust. In the presence of mackinawite (FeS), however, Sb(V) was reduced to Sb(III) sulfide. These results suggest that the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) is not likely under solely Fe(III)-reducing conditions, but is expected in sulfidogenic

  9. Geochemical Studies on Dachang Antimony Ore Deposit in Qinglong,Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启厚

    1999-01-01

    The Dachang antimony deposit in Qinglong,Guizhou Province,is strictly controlled by the “Dachang Layer” which is a complex altered rock occurring at unconformity between the Permian Emeishan basalt and the Maokou limestone.Based on the studies of the hanging-and foot-wall rocks,the trace elements and REE contents of the rocks and ores and heavy placer minerals in the basalt,this paper is focused on the relations between these data and the “Dachang Layer”and its hanging- and oot-wall rocks.The author pointed out that the “Dachang Layer” and basalt are the source-beds of antimony;ilmenite and magnetite are the major mineral carriers of antimony.In the processes of halmyrosis and burial metamorphism of the “Dachang Layer” an basalt,antimony was mobilized along with the mobilization of iron and was preliminarily concentrated in the“ Dachang Layer”.

  10. Effect of filler on the self-lubrication performance of graphite antimony composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-li; HU Ya-fei; HE Min

    2008-01-01

    Graphite antimony composites were prepared using a mechanical pressure infiltration method to force molten antimony into graphite preforms having a percolation micro-structure and a hop-pocket power filler. The micro-structural and macroscopic properties of the graphite antimony composites were analysed. Observations included metallographic analysis, physical properties and friction and wear behaviour. The results show that the wear loss is decreased by 12.24% and that the friction coefficient is re-duced by 32.61% after hop-pocket power was used. The research indicates that the hop-pocket power method gives a useful way to reduce friction coefficients and wear loss, and to increase service life and self-lubrication properties, of the graphite antimony seal-ing material as compared to carbon black.

  11. Geochemistries of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and related elements in sediments of puget sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecelius, E.A.; Bothner, Michael H.; Carpenter, R.

    1975-01-01

    The natural distributions of arsenic, antimony mercury, chromium, cobalt, iron, aluminum, and carbon in the surface sediments of Puget Sound are perturbed by two major anthropogenic sources of trace metals: a copper smelter near Tacoma, Wash., that discharges large amounts of arsenic and antimony, and a chlor-alkali plant in Bellingham, Wash., which, in the recent past, discharged significant amounts of mercury. Arsenic and antimony inputs from the smelter over the past 80 years are evident in sediment cores whose accumulation rates have been determined by the lead-210 technique. An arsenic budget for Puget Sound reveals the importance of atmospheric input resulting from smokestack emissions of the smelter. Chemical extraction studies of sediments showed that more than 82% of the mercury was associated with easily oxidizable organic matter, whereas about 50% of both arsenic and antimony was associated with extractable iron and aluminum compounds.

  12. NEW THIO S2- ADDUCTS WITH ANTIMONY (III AND V HALIDE: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ALLOUCH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new S2- adducts with SbIII and SbV halides have been synthesized and studied by infrared. Discrete structures have been suggested, the environment around the antimony being tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  13. Coherent and Incoherent Structural Dynamics in Laser-Excited Antimony

    CERN Document Server

    Waldecker, Lutz; Bertoni, Roman; Vasileiadis, Thomas; Garcia, Martin E; Zijlstra, Eeuwe S; Ernstorfer, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the excitation of phonons in photoexcited antimony and demonstrate that the entire electron-lattice interactions, in particular coherent and incoherent electron-phonon coupling, can be probed simultaneously. Using femtosecond electron diffraction (FED) with high temporal resolution, we observe the coherent excitation of the fully symmetric \\Ag\\ optical phonon mode via the shift of the minimum of the atomic potential energy surface. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to quantify the change in lattice potential and the associated real-space amplitude of the coherent atomic oscillations. In addition, our experimental configuration allows observing the energy transfer from electrons to phonons via incoherent electron-lattice scattering events. Applying a modified two-temperature model, the electron-phonon coupling is determined from the data as a function of electronic temperature.

  14. Atomistic mechanisms governing structural stability change of zinc antimony thermoelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaolong [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); Lin, Jianping, E-mail: jaredlin@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Qiao, Guanjun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Zhao, E-mail: zwangzhao@gmail.com [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-01-05

    The structural stability of thermoelectric materials is a subject of growing importance for their energy harvesting applications. Here, we study the microscopic mechanisms governing the structural stability change of zinc antimony at its working temperature, using molecular dynamics combined with experimental measurements of the electrical and thermal conductivity. Our results show that the temperature-dependence of the thermal and electrical transport coefficients is strongly correlated with a structural transition. This is found to be associated with a relaxation process, in which a group of Zn atoms migrates between interstitial sites. This atom migration gradually leads to a stabilizing structural transition of the entire crystal framework, and then results in a more stable crystal structure of β–Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} at high temperature.

  15. The Application of Response Surface Methodology for Lead Ion Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Intercalated Tartrate-Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    OpenAIRE

    Yamin Yasin; Maszlin Mohamad; Faujan B. H. Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide intercalated with tartrate (tartrate-Mg-Al) was used as an adsorbent to remove lead ions from aqueous solutions. The effects of various optimization parameters such as contact time, solution pH, lead ion concentrations, and adsorbent dosage were investigated by the use of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on a four-level four-variable Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was employed to evaluate the interactive effec...

  16. Development and validation of Ultra violet spectrophotometric and Reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography techniques for simultaneous estimation of Brinzolamide and Brimonidine tartrate in ophthalmic suspension formulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekar Manoharan; Mohammed Al Bratty

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive and fast UV spectrophotometric technique and feasible reverse phase liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of Brinzolamide and Brimonidine tartrate in ophthalmic formulation has been developed.Linearity ranges for both methods were 5 - 25 μg/ml and 1-5 μg/ml for brinzolamide and brimonidine tartrate respectively.The absorption maxima were observed at 232 and 257 nm for Brinzolamide and Brimonidine. The UV, ophthalmic formulation assay shows percentage purity ranging from 9...

  17. Antimonial drugs entrapped into phosphatidylserine liposomes: physicochemical evaluation and antileishmanial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema; João Alberto Osso Junior; Heitor Franco de Andrade Junior; Nanci do Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania that resides mainly in mononuclear phagocytic system tissues. Pentavalent antimonials are the main treatment option, although these drugs have toxic side effects and high resistance rates. A potentially alternative and more effective therapeutic strategy is to use liposomes as carriers of the antileishmanial agents. The aims of this study were to develop antimonial drugs entrapped into phosphatidylserine l...

  18. New low-antimony alloy for straps and cycling service in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prengaman, R. David

    Lead-antimony alloys used for the positive grids in lead-acid batteries for cycling service have generally used antimony contents of 4.5 wt.% and above. Tubular batteries for cycling service that impart high compression of the active material to the grid surface via gauntlet use alloys with antimony contents as low as 1.5 wt.%. These batteries are generally employed in less-severe cycling service. Value-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries can give good cycling service without lead-antimony in the positive grid, but require a high tin content and high compression. The change in automotive battery positive grid alloys to lead-calcium-tin and the tin contents of VRLA positive grids and straps have dramatically increased the tin content of the recycled grid and strap lead in the USA, Europe, and Australia. The higher tin contents can contaminate the lead used for lead-antimony battery grids and generally must be removed to low levels to meet the specifications. This study describes a low-antimony alloy that contains a substantial amount of tin. The high tin content reduces the rate of corrosion of low-antimony positive grid alloys, improves conductivity, increases the bond between the grid and the active material, and cycles as well as the traditional 5-6 wt.% antimony alloys employed in conventional flat-plate batteries. The alloy is also used as a corrosion-resistant cast-on strap alloy for automotive batteries for high temperature service, as well as for posts, bushings, and connectors for all wet batteries.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  1. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  2. Growth and characterization of pure and lithium doped strontium tartrate tetrahydrate crystals by solution–gel technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Suresh Kumar; M H Rahim Kutty; M R Sudarsana Kumar; K Rajendra Babu

    2007-08-01

    The effect of lithium ion as dopant on the size and transparency of strontium tartrate tetrahydrate (SrC4H4O6.4H2O) crystals are presented in this paper. Growth of single crystals of undoped and lithium doped strontium tartrate tetrahydrate by controlled diffusion of strontium nitrate into the gel charged with tartaric acid at room temperature are narrated. The lithium ion enhances the size and transparency of the doped crystals. The crystal structure of the compound was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry and dopant concentration with ICP–atomic emission spectrometer system. Thermal decomposition of the grown crystals is investigated by TGA and DTA studies. The FTIR spectra of pure and doped crystals are recorded and analysed. Kurtz powder technique has been used to test SHG efficiency of the crystals.

  3. Photochemical Degradation of Dimethyl Phthalate by Fe(III)/tartrate/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xianghua; Ding, Shimin; Xie, Faping [Yangtze Normal Univ., Fuling (China)

    2012-11-15

    Photochemical degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in Fe(III)/tartrate/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system was investigated utilizing fluorescent lamps as the primary light source. Effects of initial pH, light source, and initial concentration of each reactant on DMP photodegradation was examined. The results show that the system was able to effectively photodegrade DMP utilizing visible light. Fluorescent lamp, halide lamp, UV lamp and sunlight could all be used as the light sources. The optimal pH ranged among 3.0-4.0 for the system. Increases of the initial concentrations of Fe(III) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accelerated the photodegradation of DMP, whereas excessively high initial tartrate concentration resulted in the decrease of photodegradation efficiency and rate of DMP.

  4. Effect of Antimony, Phosphorous and Salinity on Growth, Root Membrane Permeability and Root Antimony, Iron and Zinc Concentration of Corn in Hydroponic Media

    OpenAIRE

    H. Barangizi; M. Afyuni; B. Rezaee

    2010-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has increased in recent years because of human activities and extensive usage of antimony compounds. To date, only a few researches have been conducted in this field in Iran. The purpose of this research is to determine fresh and dry weight, root permeability percentage and root concentration of Sb, Fe and Zn in the corn. This greenhouse research was performed in hydroponics. A factorial experiment (3 × 2 × 3) with three Sb concentrations (0, 6, 18 mgL-1), with and wit...

  5. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5a : a potential regulator of adipocyte cell number and differentiation in white adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Patlaka, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Tartrate- resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) exists in two isoforms, TRAP 5a which is monomeric and TRAP 5b which is a dimer generated by proteolytic cleavage of TRAP 5a, that exhibit different functions and localizations. TRAP 5a is expressed by adipose tissue macrophages and secreted into the extracellular environment and has been shown to lead to hyperplastic insulin- sensitive obesity when over-expressed in mice. In bone, TRAP is suggested to interact with the heparan sulfat...

  6. Improvement of Mechanical, Thermal and Optical Properties of Barium Mixed Cobalt Tartrate Hydrate Crystals Grown by Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vanaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this present work, CTH and BCTH crystals have been prepared by gel technique by using single diffusion method at room temperature. The as grown crystals were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR, UV, TG / DTA and Micro hardness studies. X-ray powder diffraction results analyzed by using suitable software suggest that a CTH and BCTH crystals belong to cubic crystal system. The unit cell volume is observed to increase with increase in the concentration of barium in cobalt tartrate due to the lattice distortion. The band gap and optical properties have analyzed by UV-Visible spectrum. The functional groups and compound formation of the crystals have been studied by FT-IR spectrum. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals were tested by using Vicker’s microhardness studies. The work hardening coefficient (n was determined to be 3.7 for CTH, 5.3 for BCTH (1 : 1 and 6.4 for BCTH (2 : 1 and the stiffness constants for different loads were calculated and reported. Thermal analysis suggests that pure cobalt tartrate starts decomposing at 73.2 °C whereas the barium mixed cobalt tartrate brings about better thermal stability which increases with an increase in barium concentration.

  7. Phase selection during the crystallization of metal-organic frameworks; thermodynamic and kinetic factors in the lithium tartrate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Hamish Hei-Man; Cheetham, Anthony Kevin

    2014-01-01

    We report the phase behaviour of chiral, racemic and meso-lithium tartrate frameworks, which was examined as a function of solvent system, temperature and ligand isomer. Through our comprehensive investigation of this system of 14 diverse phases, we have gained detailed insight into the effect of synthesis conditions on product structure, and elucidated the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in phase selection. Reactions in ethanol between lithium acetate and chiral, racemic and meso-tartaric acids give rise to anhydrous kinetic products; polymorphs with higher entropy tend to appear at high temperatures. Reactions at room temperature in water-ethanol mixtures give rise to hydrated kinetic products, including two new crystal structures, [Li2(D,L-tartrate)(H2O)2]n in P1 and [Li2(meso-tartrate)(H2O)(0.5)]n in C222(1), whose structures are contrasted with known anhydrous products. Reactions at elevated temperatures in water-ethanol mixtures result in the formation of low enthalpy, anhydrous products and, furthermore, the global minimum energy structure appears at high temperatures in all cases owing to in situ ligand isomerization.

  8. Novel material for second harmonic generation: 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazolinium(1+) hydrogen L-tartrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulková, Irena; Němec, Ivan; Císařová, Ivana; Němec, Petr; Mička, Zdeněk

    2007-05-01

    The X-ray structural analysis of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolinium(1+) hydrogen L-tartrate has been carried out. This organic salt crystallises in the monoclinic space group P2 1, a = 7.7130(2) Å, b = 6.7690(2) Å, c = 9.2170(3) Å, β = 95.726(2)°, V = 478.81(2) Å 3, Z = 2, R = 0.0255 for 5922 observed reflections. The crystal structure is formed by a 3D network of hydrogen L-tartrate anions (interconnected by O-H ⋯O hydrogen bonds) with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolinium(1+) cations located in the cavities of this network and connected with anions via N-H ⋯O and O-H ⋯N hydrogen bonds. The FTIR and FT Raman spectra were recorded, calculated and discussed. Quantitative measurements of second harmonic generation of powdered 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium hydrogen L-tartrate at 800 nm were performed and a relative efficiency of 50% (compared to KDP) was observed.

  9. The crystal structure, vibrational spectra, thermal behaviour and second harmonic generation of aminoguanidinium(1+) hydrogen L-tartrate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macháčková, Zorka; Němec, Ivan; Teubner, Karel; Němec, Petr; Vaněk, Přemysl; Mička, Zdeněk

    2007-04-01

    Aminoguanidinium(1+) hydrogen L-tartrate monohydrate was prepared by crystallisation from aqueous solution and X-ray structural analysis was carried out. The substance crystallises in the orthorhombic system in space group P2 12 12 1, a = 7.1380(2) Å, b = 9.9700(4) Å, c = 14.0790(6) Å, V = 1001.94(7) Å 3, Z = 4, R = 0.0271 for 2272 observed reflections. The crystal structure consists of a 3D framework formed by hydrogen tartrate anions and water molecules with incorporated aminoguanidinium(1+) cations connected by a system of hydrogen bonds. The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of natural and N,O-deuterated compounds were measured and discussed at laboratory temperature. DSC measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 95 to 380 K. A weak anomaly was observed at a temperature of 268 K. Quantitative measurements of second harmonic generation of powdered aminoguanidinium(1+) hydrogen tartrate monohydrate at 800 nm were performed relative to KDP and a relative efficiency of 14% was observed.

  10. 4-Carboxyanilinium (2R,3R)-tartrate and a redetermination of the alpha-polymorph of 4-aminobenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athimoolam, S; Natarajan, S

    2007-09-01

    In the title compounds, 4-carboxyanilinium (2R,3R)-tartrate, C(7)H(8)NO(2)+.C(4)H(5)O(6)-, (I), and 4-aminobenzoic acid, C(7)H(7)NO(2), (II), the carboxyl planes of the 4-carboxyanilinium cations/4-aminobenzoic acid are twisted from the aromatic plane. In (I), the characteristic head-to-tail interactions are observed through the tartrate anions, forming two C2(2)(7) chain motifs propagating parallel to the a and c axes of the unit cell. Also, the tartrate anions are connected through two primary C1(1)(6) and C1(1)(7) chain motifs, leading to a secondary R4(4)(22) ring motif. In (II), head-to-tail interaction is seen through a discrete D1(1)(2) motif and carboxyl group dimerization is observed through centrosymmetrically related R2(2)(8) motifs around the inversion centres of the unit cell. The crystal structures of both compounds are stabilized by intricate three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks. Alternate hydrophobic and hydrophilic layers are observed in (I) as a result of a column-like arrangement of the anions and the aromatic rings of the cations.

  11. Arsenic and Antimony Content in Soil and Plants from Baia Mare Area, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Oprea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to evaluate the degree of soil contamination with arsenic and antimony in Baia Mare, a nonferrous mining and metallurgical center located in the North West region of Romania. The soil in the area is affected by the emissions of powders containing metals from metallurgical factories. Previous studies indicated the soil contamination with copper, zinc, cadmium and lead, but there is few data about the actual level of soil pollution with arsenic and antimony. Approach: The soil samples were collected from 2 districts of Baia Mare: Ferneziu, which is located in the proximity of a lead smelter and Săsar district which is located along the Sasar River in the preferential direction of the wind over a metallurgical factory producing lead. As reference was considered Dura area located in a less polluted hilly area, in the west part of the town. Samples of soil and plants from the residential area of Ferneziu, Săsar and Dura districts were collected. The arsenic determination was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and the antimony determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: In Ferneziu area, the concentration of arsenic in soil ranged between 0.25 and 255 mg kg-1. In Săsar district the arsenic concentration in the soil ranged between 5.5 and 295 mg kg-1. Regarding antimony, in Ferneziu area the concentration ranged between 5.3 and 40.6 mg kg-1; while in Săsar, antimony soils concentrations vary in the range: 0.9-18.4. Arsenic and antimony concentrations in plants were low for almost of the samples, both in Ferneziu and Săsar area indicating a low mobility of these elements in the studied soils. Conclusion: This study indicated the soil pollution with arsenic both in Ferneziu district and in Săsar district. The soil pollution with antimony was found especially in Ferneziu district.

  12. Validated spectophotometric methods for the assay of cinitapride hydrogen tartrate in pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana K.V.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, selective and rapid spectrophotometric methods have been established for the determination of cinitapride hydrogen tartrate (CHT in pharmaceutical tablets. The proposed methods are based on the diazotization of CHT with sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid, followed by coupling with resorcinol, 1-benzoylacetone and 8-hydroxyquinoline in alkaline medium for methods A, B and C respectively. The formed azo dyes are measured at 442, 465 and 552 nm for methods A, B and C respectively. The parameters that affect the reaction were carefully optimized. Under optimum conditions, Beer’s law is obeyed over the ranges 2.0-32.0, 1.0-24.0 and 1.0-20.0 μg. mL-1 for methods A, B, and C, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity values are 1.2853 x104, 1.9624 x104 and 3.92 x104 L.mol-1.cm-1 for methods A, B and C, respectively. The results of the proposed procedures were validated statistically according to ICH guidelines. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of CHT in Cintapro tablets without interference from common excipients encountered.

  13. Dielectric and thermal studies on gel grown strontium tartrate pentahydrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Firdous; I Quasim; M M Ahmad; P N Kotru

    2010-08-01

    Results of dielectric and thermal studies on strontium tartrate pentahydrate crystals are described. The value of dielectric constant is shown to be independent of temperature till 360 K at all the frequencies (110–700 kHz) of the applied a.c. field. It increases abruptly achieving a peak value of 25.5 at 100 kHz; the peak value being strongly dependent on frequency. In the temperature range, 87 < < 117°C, the value of ' falls suggesting a transition at around 100°C or so. The dielectric constant, ', of the material is shown to be frequency dependent but temperature independent in the pre- or post-c range 87 < < 117°C, suggesting that the contribution towards polarization may be due to ionic or space charge polarization which gets eliminated at higher frequencies. The ferroelectric transition is supported by the results of thermoanalytical studies. It is explained that crystallographic change due to polymorphic phase transition may be occurring in the material, besides the change due to loss of water molecules, which leads to the dielectric anomaly at around 100°C. Coats–Redfern approximation method is applied for obtaining non-isothermal kinetic parameters leading to calculation of activation energies corresponding to three decomposition stages of material in the temperature ranging from 379–1113 K.

  14. Formulation development and comparative in vitro study of metoprolol tartrate (IR) tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Tazeen; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Maboos, Madiha; Khan, Madeeha; Bashir, Lubna; Naz, Shazia

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop Immediate Release (IR) tablets of Metoprolol Tartrate (MT) and to compare trial formulations to a reference product. Six formulations (F1-F6) were designed using central composite method and compared to a reference brand (A). Two marketed products (brands B and C) were also evaluated. F1-F6 were prepared with Avicel PH101 (filler), Crospovidone (disintegrant) and Magnesium Stearate (lubricant) by direct compression. Pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial methods were used to assess their quality. Furthermore, drug profiles were characterized using model dependent and independent (f(2)) approaches. Brands B and C and F5 and F6 did not qualify the tests for content uniformity. Moreover, brand B did not meet weight variation criteria and brand C did not satisfy requirements for single point dissolution test. Of the trial formulations, F2 failed the test for uniformity in thickness while F4 did not disintegrate within time limit. Only F1 and F3 met all quality parameters and were subjected to accelerated stability testing without significant alterations in their physicochemical characteristics. Based on AIC and r(2)(adjusted) values obtained by applying various kinetic models, drug release was determined to most closely follow Hixson-Crowell cube root law. F1 was determined to be the optimized formulation. PMID:27166530

  15. Determination of tartaric acid in wines by FIA with tubular tartrate-selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M G; Amaral, C E; Matos, C M

    2001-03-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system comprising a tartrate-(TAT) selective electrode has been developed for determination of tartaric acid in wines. Several electrodes constructed for this purpose had a PVC membrane with a complex of quaternary ammonium and TAT as anion exchanger, a phenol derivative as additive, and a more or less polar mediator solvent. Characterization of the electrodes showed behavior was best for membranes with o-nitrophenyl octyl ether as solvent. On injection of 500 microL into a phosphate buffer carrier (pH = 3.1; ionic strength 10(-2) mol/L) flowing at 3 mL/min, the slope was 58.06 +/- 0.6 with a lower limit of linear range of 5.0 x 10(-4) mol/L TAT and R2 = 0.9989. The interference of several species, e.g. chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, gallic acid, tannin, sucrose, glucose, fructose, acetate, and citrate, was evaluated in terms of potentiometric selectivity coefficients. The Hofmeister series was followed for inorganic species and the most interfering organic ion was citrate. When red and white wines were analyzed and the results compared with those from an independent method they were found to be accurate, with relative standard deviations below 5.0%.

  16. Vascular potassium channels in NVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K

    2016-01-01

    It has long been proposed that the external potassium ion ([K(+)]0) works as a potent vasodilator in the dynamic regulation of local cerebral blood flow. Astrocytes may play a central role for producing K(+) outflow possibly through calcium-activated potassium channels on the end feet, responding to a rise in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which might well reflect local neuronal activity. A mild elevation of [K(+)]0 in the end feet/vascular smooth muscle space could activate Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase concomitant with inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to a hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle and relaxation of smooth muscle actin-positive vessels. Also proposed notion is endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels and/or inwardly rectifying potassium channel-mediated hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle. A larger elevation of [K(+)]0, which may occur pathophysiologically in such as spreading depression or stroke, can trigger a depolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells and vasoconstriction instead. PMID:27130411

  17. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas

  18. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. Murciego [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Sanchez, A. Garcia [IRNA-CSIC, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Aptdo. 257, Salamanca (Spain); Gonzalez, M.A. Rodriguez [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gil, E. Pinilla [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: epinilla@unex.es; Gordillo, C. Toro [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Fernandez, J. Cabezas [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Triguero, T. Buyolo [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas.

  19. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure. PMID:25501644

  20. Predictors of an unsatisfactory response to pentavalent antimony in the treatment of American visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Mácia A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimony is usually successful, some patients require second-line drug therapy, most commonly with amphotericin B. To identify the clinical characteristics that predict an inadequate response to pentavalent antimony, a case-control study was undertaken in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. Over a two-year period, there were 19 cases of VL in which the staff physicians of a hospital prescribed second-line therapy with amphotericin B after determining that treatment with pentavalent antimony had failed. The control group consisted of 97 patients that were successfully treated with pentavalent antimony. A chart review using univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. The cure rate was 90% with amphotericin B. The odds ratio for the prescription of amphotericin B was 10.2 for children less than one year old, compared with individuals aged over 10 years. Patients who presented coinfection had an OR of 7.1 while those on antibiotics had an OR of 2.8. These data support either undertaking a longer course of therapy with pentavalent antimony for children or using amphotericin B as a first-line agent for children and individuals with coinfections. It also suggests that chemoprophylaxis directed toward bacterial coinfection in small children with VL may be indicated.

  1. Arsenic and antimony removal from drinking water by adsorption on granular ferric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazakli, Eleni; Zouvelou, Stavroula V; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Leotsinidis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony occur in drinking water due to natural weathering or anthropogenic activities. There has been growing concern about their impact on health. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of a granular ferric oxide adsorbent medium to remove arsenic and antimony from drinking water via rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs). Three different water matrices - deionized, raw water treated with a reverse osmosis domestic device and raw water - were spiked with arsenic and/or antimony to a concentration of 100 μg L⁻¹. Both elements were successfully adsorbed onto the medium. The loadings until the guideline value was exceeded in the effluent were found to be 0.35-1.63 mg g⁻¹ for arsenic and 0.12-2.11 mg g⁻¹ for antimony, depending on the water matrix. Adsorption of one element was not substantially affected by the presence of the other. Aeration did not affect significantly the adsorption capacity. Granular ferric oxide could be employed for the simultaneous removal of arsenic and antimony from drinking water, whereas full-scale systems should be assessed via laboratory tests before their implementation.

  2. Determination of traces of uranium and thorium in antimony(III) oxide by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traces of uranium and thorium in antimony(III) oxide were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A method of vaporization as the halide was applied to the separation of the analytes from the antimony matrix. Because the above separation method is so simple, reduced of external contamination was expected. In the case of vaporization using hydrochloric acid, however, it was found that antimony trichloride ions overlapped thorium ion of 232 (m/z). To find the most suitable conditions for matrix separation, vaporization behaviors were studied by using different acidic solutions such as HBr, HBr-HClO4 and HBr-H2SO4. Neither HBr+HClO4 nor HBr+H2SO4 was able to reduce the antimony matrix down to an unaffected level on ICP-MS measurement. On the other hand, in the case of the vaporization using hydrobromic acid, almost all the antimony matrix was removed. Determination limits obtained by this method were 0.02 and 0.03 ng g-1 for uranium and thorium, respectively. (author)

  3. Antimony bioavailability: knowledge and research perspectives for sustainable agricultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2015-05-30

    The increasing interest in urban agriculture highlights the crucial question of crop quality. The main objectives for environmental sustainability are a decrease in chemical inputs, a reduction in the level of pollutants, and an improvement in the soil's biological activity. Among inorganic pollutants emitted by vehicle traffic and some industrial processes in urban areas, antimony (Sb) is observed on a global scale. While this metalloid is known to be potentially toxic, it can transfer from the soil or the atmosphere to plants, and accumulate in their edible parts. Urban agriculture is developing worldwide, and could therefore increasingly expose populations to Sb. The objective of this review was in consequences to gather and interpret actual knowledge of Sb uptake and bioaccumulation by crops, to reveal investigative fields on which to focus. While there is still no legal maximal value for Sb in plants and soils, light has to be shed on its accumulation and the factors affecting it. A relative absence of data exists about the role of soil flora and fauna in the transfer, speciation and compartmentation of Sb in vegetables. Moreover, little information exists on Sb ecotoxicity for terrestrial ecosystems. A human risk assessment has finally been reviewed, with particular focus on Sb bioaccessibility.

  4. Cesium cation templated selective synthesis of a "cone-shaped" sugar macrotricyclic cryptand: A dual anion-cation molecular recognition of potassium tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porwanski, S; Moretti, F; Dumarcay-Charbonnier, F; Marsura, A

    2016-05-01

    Cesium templated Staudinger-aza-Wittig tandem reaction (S.A.W.) has been used in the synthesis of a bis-diazacrown-bis-cellobiosyl-tetra-ureido cryptand. A novel macrotricyclic compound having a "cone-shaped" configuration was selectively obtained. Additionally, first results on potential recognition properties of the cryptand are also given. PMID:26826794

  5. Cesium cation templated selective synthesis of a "cone-shaped" sugar macrotricyclic cryptand: A dual anion-cation molecular recognition of potassium tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porwanski, S; Moretti, F; Dumarcay-Charbonnier, F; Marsura, A

    2016-05-01

    Cesium templated Staudinger-aza-Wittig tandem reaction (S.A.W.) has been used in the synthesis of a bis-diazacrown-bis-cellobiosyl-tetra-ureido cryptand. A novel macrotricyclic compound having a "cone-shaped" configuration was selectively obtained. Additionally, first results on potential recognition properties of the cryptand are also given.

  6. SESPE-FRAZIER, DIABLO, MATILIJA, DRY LAKES, SAWMILL-BADLANDS, CUYAMA, ANTIMONY, AND QUATAL ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzell, Virgil A.; Hale, William N.

    1984-01-01

    The study area, consisting of the Sespe-Frazier, Diablo, Matilija, Dry Lakes, Sawmill-Badlands, Cuyama, Antimony, and Quatal Roadless Areas, occupies about 872 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. Studies indicate that the Sespe-Frazier Roadless Area contains demonstrated resources of gold, gypsum, phosphate and bentonite; deposits in the Cuyama Roadless Area have demonstrated resources of gypsum; mines in the Antimony Roadless Area have demonstrated resources of antimony, gold, silver, and marble; and the Quatal Roadless Area has demonstrated resources of bentonite. The Sespe-Frazier Roadless Area has substantiated potential for geothermal resources suitable for direct-heat purposes, probable and substantiated potential for oil and gas resources, and probable potential for gold resources. Small areas of probable resource potential for antimony and gold were identified in Antimony Roadless Area.

  7. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Potassium and High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 1,2016 A diet that includes ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  8. Status of potassium permanganate - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on catfish/HSB): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish (June 1999). A hazard charac...

  9. Mixed Antimony(V Complexes with Different Sugars to Modulate the Oral Bioavailability of Pentavalent Antimonial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weverson A. Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the association of the drug meglumine antimoniate (MA with β-cyclodextrin can improve its bioavailability by the oral route. In this work, ribose and maltose were investigated for their ability to form mixed or association complexes with MA, release MA and modulate the serum levels of Sb after oral administration in mice. Analysis of the MA/ribose composition by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF revealed the presence of mixed meglumine-Sb-ribose and Sb-ribose complexes. Analysis of the MA/maltose composition suggested the formation of MA-maltose association compounds. Circular dichroism characterization of these compositions following dilution in water at 37 °C suggested a partial and slow dissociation of the association compounds. When the MA/ribose composition was administered orally and compared to MA, the serum concentration of Sb was significantly lower after 1 h and greater after 3 h. On the other hand, the MA/maltose composition showed similar serum Sb concentration after 1 h and higher level of Sb after 3 h, when compared to MA. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated the formation of mixed or association complexes of MA with sugars, such as maltose and ribose, which promoted sustained serum level of Sb after oral administration.

  10. Comparison of metoprolol tartrate multiple-unit lipid matrix systems produced by different technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksovski, Aleksandar; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Roškar, Robert; Sovány, Tamás; Regdon, Géza; De Beer, Thomas; Vervaet, Chris; Dreu, Rok

    2016-06-10

    The aim of this study was to develop, evaluate and compare extended release mini-matrices based on metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and either glyceryl behenate (GB) or glyceryl palmitostearate (GPS). Mini-matrices were produced by three different techniques: hot melt extrusion, compression of melt granulates and prilling. Hot-melt extrusion and compression of granules obtained from melted material proved to be reliable, robust and reproducible techniques with aim of obtaining extended release matrices. Prilling tended to be susceptible to increased melt viscosity. Direct compression was not applicable for mini-matrix production due to poor powder flow. In general MPT release from all matrices was affected by its loading and the size of the units/particles. Processing of GB-MPT mixtures by different techniques did not lead to different drug release rates and patterns, while in case of GPS differently obtained matrices provided diverse MPT release outcomes. Matrices based on GB tended to have higher porosity compared to ones composed of GPS and thus most of the GB-based formulations showed faster drug delivery. FT-IR analysis revealed no interactions between primary components used for matrix production and Raman mapping outlined uniform MPT distribution throughout the units. DSC and X-ray studies revealed significant changes in the crystallinity of glycerides after storage under room conditions (GPS samples) and at increased temperature (GB and GPS samples), which was correlated to the changes seen in drug release rate and pattern after storage. Media composition in general tended to insignificantly affect GB matrices, while in case of GPS matrices increasing the pH and presence of biorelevant compounds induced faster drug release. PMID:26980237

  11. Investigation of hydrogel membranes containing a combination of timolol maleate and brimonidine tartrate for ocular delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakara Prabhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are comprised of a cross-linked network of polymers. Water penetrates these networks, resulting in swelling and giving the hydrogel a soft and rubbery consistency, thereby maintaining the integrity of the membrane. Because of the drawback of conventional therapy for ocular delivery, a hydrogel membrane containing a combination of timolol maleate and brimonidine tartrate were formulated for the treatment of glaucoma. In the present investigation, hydrogel membranes were prepared using polymers like gelatin, PVA and chitosan, which were cross-linked using physical and/or chemical methods. The cross-linking of the membranes was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC studies. From the scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the membranes, it appeared homogenous and showed no separation. The pH of the membranes ranged from 7.21-7.4. The hydrogels showed a considerably good swelling ratio ranging from 91.66-372.72%. The drug content ranged from 82.78-95.62%. The in vitro drug release study indicated that there was a slow and sustained release of the drug from the membranes that were sufficiently cross-linked and followed zero order release. The Intraocular pressure (IOP lowering activity of the prepared formulation was compared with the marketed formulation, and it was found that the IOP lowering action was sustained for a long period of time. Stability studies proved that the formulations could be stable when stored at room temperature. Results of the study indicate that it is possible to develop a safe and physiologically effective hydrogel that is patient compliant.

  12. Anodic stripping voltammetry of antimony using gold nanoparticle-modified carbon screen-printed electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon screen-printed electrodes (CSPE) modified with gold nanoparticles present an interesting alternative in the determination of antimony using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Metallic gold nanoparticles deposits have been obtained by direct electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy measurements show that the electrochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles are deposited in aggregated form. Any undue effects caused by the presence of foreign ions in the solution were also analyzed to ensure that common interferents in the determination of antimony by ASV. The detection limit for Sb(III) obtained was 9.44 x 10-10 M. In terms of reproducibility, the precision of the above mentioned method in %R.S.D. values was calculated at 2.69% (n = 10). The method was applied to determine levels of antimony in seawater samples and pharmaceutical preparations

  13. Synthesis of barium mercaptides and application of antimony/barium mercaptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿龙; 张露露; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Mercaptoacetic acid, isooctyl thioglycolate and barium hydroxide used as start materials, barium bis (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Ba(2EHTG)2), barium thioglycolate (Ba(TG)) and barium bisthioglycolate (Ba(TG)2) were synthesized. Their optimum synthetic techniques were discussed, and some physicochemical data were reported. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods were used to identify the structures. They were put into PVC plastic products together with antimony tris (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Sb(2EHTG)3) under the suitable compounding, and their heat stability to PVC was studied. It is shown that these barium mercaptides have remarkable synergisms with antimony mercaptides and the long-term stabilizing effect of organoantimony stabilizer can be effectively improved, reducing the amount of antimony compounds so as to avoid the decrease of its stabilizing effect.

  14. Response of cutaneous leishmaniasis (chiclero's ulcer) to treatment with meglumine antimoniate in Southeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Gonzalez, A; Canto-Lara, S B; Damian-Centeno, A G; Andrade-Narvaez, F J

    1999-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis, known as chiclero's ulcer in southeastern Mexico, is characterized by a predominantly single, painless, ulcerated lesion, without lymphangitis or adenopathy. When located on the ear, it tends to become chronic, causing destruction of the pinna and disfigurement. It is caused predominantly by Leishmania (L.) mexicana. Although pentavalent antimonials (Sb5+) are the mainstay of leishmanial therapy and have been used for more than 50 years, dosage regimens have been repeatedly modified and the best one has not been fully identified. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the response of chiclero's ulcer to treatment with meglumine antimoniate. One hundred five patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate at a daily dose of 1 ampule per day (425 mg of Sb5+) until healing. The lesions healed after a mean of 25 days (range = 5-60 days). PMID:10674678

  15. Geothermal and fluid flowing simulation of ore-forming antimony deposits in Xikuangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ruiyan; MA Dongsheng; BAO Zhengyu; PAN Jiayong; CAO Shuanglin; XIA Fei

    2006-01-01

    The Xikuangshan Antimony Deposit located in the Mid-Hunan Basin, China, is the largest antimony deposit in the world. Based on the hydrogeological and geochemical data collected from four sections, Xikuangshan-Dajienao (AO), Xikuangshan-Dashengshan (BO), Xikuangshan-Longshan (CO) and Dafengshan (DO) in the Basin, an advanced metallogenic model related to deep-cyclic meteoric water of Xikuangshan Antimony Deposit is put forward in this paper using a model of heat-gravity-driving fluid flow transportation. The simulation results show that the ore-forming fluid of the deposit mainly comes from the Dashengshan and Longshan areas where BO and CO sections are located if the overall basin keeps a constant atmospheric precipitation and infiltration rate during mineralization, and that the average transportation speed of the ore-forming fluids is about 0.2-0.4 m/a.

  16. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  18. On-line lab-in-syringe cloud point extraction for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Most of the procedures for antimony determination require time-consuming sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents), which are harmful to the environment. Because of the high antimony toxicity, a rapid, sensitive and greener procedure for its determination becomes necessary. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical procedure exploiting for the first time the cloud point extraction on a lab-in-syringe flow system aiming at the spectrophotometric determination of antimony. The procedure was based on formation of an ion-pair between the antimony-iodide complex and H(+) followed by extraction with Triton X-114. The factorial design showed that the concentrations of ascorbic acid, H2SO4 and Triton X-114, as well as second and third order interactions were significant at the 95% confidence level. A Box-Behnken design was applied to obtain the response surfaces and to identify the critical values. System is robust at the 95% confidence level. A linear response was observed from 5 to 50 µg L(-1), described by the equation A=0.137+0.050C(Sb) (r=0.998). The detection limit (99.7% confidence level), the coefficient of variation (n=5; 15 µg L(-1)) and the sampling rate was estimated at 1.8 µg L(-1), 1.6% and 16 h(-1), respectively. The procedure allows quantification of antimony in the concentrations established by environmental legislation (6 µg L(-1)) and it was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in freshwater samples and antileishmanial drugs, yielding results in agreement with those obtained by HGFAAS at the 95% confidence level.

  19. Future trends of global atmospheric antimony emissions from anthropogenic activities until 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junrui; Tian, Hezhong; Zhu, Chuanyong; Hao, Jiming; Gao, Jiajia; Wang, Yong; Xue, Yifeng; Hua, Shenbin; Wang, Kun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the scenario forecast of global atmospheric antimony (Sb) emissions from anthropogenic activities till 2050. The projection scenarios are built based on the comprehensive global antimony emission inventory for the period 1995-2010 which is reported in our previous study. Three scenarios are set up to investigate the future changes of global antimony emissions as well as their source and region contribution characteristics. Trends of activity levels specified as 5 primary source categories are projected by combining the historical trend extrapolation with EIA International energy outlook 2013, while the source-specific dynamic emission factors are determined by applying transformed normal distribution functions. If no major changes in the efficiency of emission control are introduced and keep current air quality legislations (Current Legislation scenario), global antimony emissions will increase by a factor of 2 between 2010 and 2050. The largest increase in Sb emissions is projected from Asia due to large volume of nonferrous metals production and waste incineration. In case of enforcing the pollutant emission standards (Strengthened Control scenario), global antimony emissions in 2050 will stabilize with that of 2010. Moreover, we can anticipate further declines in Sb emissions for all continents with the best emission control performances (Maximum Feasible Technological Reduction scenario). Future antimony emissions from the top 10 largest emitting countries have also been calculated and source category contributions of increasing emissions of these countries present significant diversity. Furthermore, global emission projections in 2050 are distributed within a 1° × 1°latitude/longitude grid. East Asia, Western Europe and North America present remarkable differences in emission intensity under the three scenarios, which implies that source-and-country specific control measures are necessary to be implemented for abating Sb emissions from

  20. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  10. Bis(di-2-pyridylmethanediol-κ3N,O,N′copper(II dl-tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of di-2-pyridyl ketone with copper dichloride dihydrate and tartaric acid in water afforded the title compound, [Cu(C11H10N2O22]C4H4O6. The CuII atom lies on an inversion center N,O,N′-chelated by two di-2-pyridylmethanediol ligands in a tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry. The tartrate anion is also located on an inversion center and has disordered hydroxyl groups, each with an occupancy factor of 0.5. The hydroxyl groups of the complex cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxylate groups of the anion, thus connecting the two building units.

  11. Studies on Thin Films of Antimony Vacuum Evaporated from a Knudsen-Type Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Chaudhary

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A Knudsen-type evaporation source was used for the deposition of thin films of antimony to study their growth and microstructure under different rates of evaporation and substrate temperatures when vacuum evaporated onto air-cleaved KC1, mica, amorphous carbon and doped KCl substrates. The crystallisation of these films on exposure to an electron beam of moderate intensity inside the electron microscope was studied, and the orientations of the crystallised films wrt the substrate were established. It has been concluded that antimony films prepared by this source compare well with those prepared by other sources of vacuum evaporation.

  12. Co-doping with antimony to control phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-02-15

    In germanium, phosphorous and antimony diffuse quickly and as such their transport must be controlled in order to design efficient n-typed doped regions. Here, density functional theory based calculations are used to predict the influence of double donor co-doping on the migration activation energies of vacancy-mediated diffusion processes. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous and antimony were found to be increased significantly when larger clusters involving two donor atoms and a vacancy were formed. These clusters are energetically stable and can lead to the formation of even larger clusters involving a number of donor atoms around a vacancy, thereby affecting the properties of devices.

  13. Determination of arsenic in antimony ingot and antimony trioxide by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry%氢化物发生-原子荧光光谱法测定锑锭及三氧化二锑中的砷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱光敏; 赵国杏

    2012-01-01

    The antimony slab and antimonous oxide samples were dissolved by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The Sb3+ in solution was precipitated with sodium hydroxide to separate trace arsenic from matrix antimony. The thiourea-ascorbic acid was added to reduce As5+ to As3+. Then, the arsenic in antimony slab and antimonous oxide was determined by atomic fluorescence spec-trometry. The hydride generation conditions were investigated: the concentration of reducing agent potassium borohydride was 25 g/L, the determination medium was 20% (V/V) hydrochloric acid, and the dosage of thiourea - ascorbic acid solution was 5 mL. The interference test of coexisting elements showed that, the interference of residual antimony in solution after precipitation could be fully eliminated by adding 1 mL of tartaric acid solution. Other impurity elements in sample did not interfere with the determination of arsenic after adding thiourea-ascorbic acid solution. The detection limit of method was 0. 156 ng/mL. The antimony slab and antimonous oxide samples were analyzed by the proposed method, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0. 95%-1.2%. The determination results were consistent with those obtained by national standard methods.%采用硫酸溶解锑锭样品,盐酸溶解三氧化二锑样品,用氢氧化钠溶液使Sb3+沉淀从而使基体锑与微量砷分离,通过加入硫脲-抗坏血酸将As5+还原成As3+,然后在原子荧光仪上测定锑锭及三氧化二锑中的砷.对氢化物发生条件进行考察,确定还原剂硼氢化钾的浓度为25 g/L、测定介质为20%(V/V)盐酸、硫脲-抗坏血酸溶液用量为5 mL.共存元素干扰试验表明,沉淀后溶液中残留少量锑的干扰在加入1 mL酒石酸溶液后可以完全消除,而样品中其他杂质元素在加入硫脲-抗坏血酸溶液后不干扰砷的测定.方法的检出限为0.156 ng/mL.对锑锭及三氧化二锑样品进行分析,相对标准偏差为0.95%~1.2%,测定

  14. Influence of cooling rate and antimony addition content on graphite morphology and mechanical properties of a ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling rate and inoculation practice can greatly affect the graphite morphology of ductile irons. In the present research, the effects of the cooling rate and antimony addition on the graphite morphology and mechanical properties of ductile irons have been studied. Three ductile iron castings were prepared through solidification under cooling conditions S (slow, M (medium and F (fast. The cooling rates around the equilibrium eutectic temperature (1,150 ℃ for these cooling conditions (S, M and F were set at 0.21 ℃·min-1, 0.32 ℃·min-1 and 0.37 ℃·min-1, respectively. In addition, four ductile iron castings were prepared by adding 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04% (by weight antimony, respectively under the slow cooling condition. The results show that the nodularity index, tensile strength and hardness of the ductile iron castings without antimony addition are all improved with the increase of cooling rate, while the ductile iron casting solidified under the medium cooling rate possesses the largest number of graphite nodules. Furthermore, for the four antimony containing castings, the graphite morphology and tensile strength are also improved by the antimony additions, and the effect of antimony addition is intensified when the addition increases from 0.01% to 0.03%. Moreover, the rare earth elements (REE/antimony ratio of 2 appears to be the most effective for fine nodular graphite formation in ductile iron.

  15. Miniaturized membrane sensors for potentiometric determination of metoprolol tartrate and hydrochlorothiazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Nesrin K; Mohamed, Heba M; Mostafa, Azza A

    2012-06-01

    Four microsized graphite and platinum wire poly(vinyl chloride) matrix membrane electrodes responsive to some drugs affecting cardiovascular system, Metoprolol tartrate (MT) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HZ) were developed, described and characterized. These sensors were constructed by using (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (2HP β-CD) as an ionophore which has a significant influence on increasing both membrane sensitivity and selectivity. The four sensors were fabricated in a polymeric matrix of carboxylated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-COOH) and dioctylphthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer, based on the interaction between the drugs and the dissociated COOH groups in the PVC-COOH. Fast and stable Nernstian responses of 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-2 M for MT (sensors 1 and 2) and of 1.0 × 10-7-1.0 × 10-3 M for HZ (sensors 3 and 4) over pH range 3.0-9.0 and 3.0-7.0 for the MT and HZ sensors respectively were obtained. Nernstian slopes of 56.2, 54.6, 19.0 and 20.8 mV/decade for electrodes 1-4 respectively were observed. The proposed method displayed useful analytical characteristics for the determination of MT and HZ in their pure powder forms with average recoveries of 99.11 ± 0.357, 99.21 ± 0.389, 100.08 ± 0.459 and 100.28 ± 0.438% for sensors 1-4 respectively. The lower limit of detection (LOD) were 5.5 × 10-6, 4.5 × 10-6, 4.8 × 10-8 and 5.0 × 10-8 M for sensors 1-4 respectively indicated high sensitivity. The four sensors displayed a good stability over a period of 6 weeks. The selectivity coefficients of the developed sensors indicated excellent selectivity. Results obtained by the four electrodes revealed the performance characteristics of these electrodes which evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations. The method was successively applied for the determination of MT and HZ in presence of each other, in presence of Salamide (SA), the main degradation product of HZ, in their pharmaceutical formulations and in human plasma samples. Statistical comparison between the

  16. Optimization of the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase detection by histochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, M.J.; Santos, A. R.; Ribeiro, M.D.; Ferreira, A.; Nolasco, F.

    2011-01-01

    According to the new kidney disease improving global outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines, the term of renal osteodystrophy, should be used exclusively in reference to the invasive diagnosis of bone abnormalities. Due to the low sensitivity and specificity of biochemical serum markers of bone remodelling, the performance of bone biopsies is highly stimulated in dialysis patients and after kidney transplantation. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) is an iso-enzyme of the group of acid phosphatases, which is highly expressed by activated osteoclasts and macrophages. TRACP in osteoclasts is in intracytoplasmic vesicles that transport the products of bone matrix degradation. Being present in activated osteoclasts, the identification of this enzyme by histochemistry in undecalcified bone biopsies is an excellent method to quantify the resorption of bone. Since it is an enzymatic histochemical method for a thermolabile enzyme, the temperature at which it is performed is particularly relevant. This study aimed to determine the optimal temperature for identification of TRACP in activated osteoclasts in undecalcified bone biopsies embedded in methylmethacrylate. We selected 10 cases of undecalcified bone biopsies from hemodialysis patients with the diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Sections of 5 µm were stained to identify TRACP at different incubation temperatures (37°, 45°, 60°, 70° and 80°C) for 30 minutes. Activated osteoclasts stained red and trabecular bone (mineralized bone) was contrasted with toluidine blue. This approach also increased the visibility of the trabecular bone resorption areas (Howship lacunae). Unlike what is suggested in the literature and in several international protocols, we found that the best results were obtained with temperatures between 60°C and 70°C. For technical reasons and according to the results of the present study, we recommended that, for an incubation time of 30 min, the reaction should be carried out at 60

  17. Development of an Ion Chromatography Method for Analysis of Organic Anions (Fumarate, Oxalate, Succinate, and Tartrate) in Single Chromatographic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, Yarbagi; Srikanth, B; Moses Babu, J; Venkateswara Rao, B; Paul Douglas, S

    2015-01-01

    A single organic counterion analysis method was developed by using an ion chromatography separation technique and conductivity detector. This allows the rapid characterization of an API to support clinical studies and to fulfil the regulatory requirements for the quantitation of fumarate, oxalate, succinate, and tartrate counterions in active pharmaceutical ingredients (quetiapine fumarate, escitalopram oxalate, sumatriptan succinate, and tolterodine tartrate). The method was developed by using the Metrohm Metrosep A Supp 1 (250 × 4.0 mm, 5.0 µm particle size) column with a mobile phase containing an isocratic mixture of solution A: 7.5 mM sodium carbonate and 2.0 mM sodium bicarbonate in Milli-Q water and solution B: acetonitrile. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min and the run time was 25 minutes. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines, and the method parameters were chosen to ensure the spontaneous quantitation of all four anions. The method was validated for all four anions to demonstrate the applicability of this method to common anions present in various APIs.

  18. Commerce Ministry Announced the Export Quotas for Zinc,Antimony,Tungsten,Tin and Silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The Ministry of Commerce recently announcedits decision on the export quotas for zinc,anti-mony,tungsten,tin and silver in 2004.Accord-ing to the data released,all the export quotasare reduced except for silver.Relevant peoplesay that the raw materials shortage is a majorissue for the production of antimony and tin,

  19. Determination of barium and antimony in gun shot residues by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antimony contents on both hands of 7 persons before and after firing an automatic pistol were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The gun shot residues were removed from hands by a 4% solution of cellulose acetate in acetone. The average content of antimony on both hands before firing obtained from 70 measurements (35 from each hand) was 0.040 ± 0.010 micro gram, whereas the average contents on the right and the left hands after 1 firing were 0.385 ± 0.036 and 0.144 ± 0.029 micro gram respectively. The ration of the antimony contents after 1 firing to the normal level (before firing) was 9.9 for the right and 3.6 for the left. No significant difference was observed between male and female, smoker and non-smoker. The antimony content after several firings was not much different from that of 1 firing and it reduced to the normal level within 2 days after firing. The barium contents before and after firing were studied from one person. Barium was precipitated as Ba SO4 before counting. An average contents of 0.936 ± 0.551 micro gram for both hands before firing, 4.092 ± 2.687 micro gram for the right hand and 1.363 ± 0.879 micro gram for the left hand after 1 firing were found

  20. Investigation on the thermal radiation properties of antimony doped tin oxide particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Cheng-Wu; Zhang Shuan-Qin; Chen Ming-Qing

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of antimony doped tin oxide crystalline powders by chemical coprecipitation method. The influence of sintering temperature and the sintering retention time on the thermal infrared emissivity is analysed. The thermal infrared reflectivity is measured and the optimum doping concentration is proposed.

  1. Thermodynamics for arsenic and antimony in copper matte converting—computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubal, P. C.; Nagamori, M.

    1988-08-01

    Thermodynamic data for arsenic and antimony and their sulfide and oxide gases have been critically reviewed and compiled. The entropy values for AsS(g), SbS(g), and BiS(g) have been recalculated based on a statistical thermodynamic method. The standard heat of formation and entropy of As2O3(g) have been newly assessed to be △H{298/0} = -81,500 cal/mole and S{298/0} = 81.5 cal/deg/mole. Copper matte converting has been mathematically described using the stepwise equilibrium simulation technique together with quadratic approximations of oxygen and magnetite solubilities in molten mattes. A differential equation for the volatilization of arsenic and antimony has been derived and solved for successive reaction microsteps, whereby the volatilization, slagging, and alloying of the minor elements in copper matte converting have been examined as functions of reaction time and other process variables. Only the first (slag-making) stage of converting is responsible for the elimination of arsenic and antimony by volatilization. Arsenic volatilizes mainly as AsS(g) and AsO(g), with As2(g) also contributing when initial mattes are unusually rich in arsenic (above 0.5 pct arsenic). Antimony volatilizes chiefly as SbS(g), and the contributions of other gases such as SbO(g) and Sb(g) always remain negligibly low. The results of the stepwise equilibrium simulation compare favorably with the industrial operating data.

  2. Synthesis of antimony tris(mercaptoethyl carboxylates) as thermal stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒万艮; 刘又年; 陈启元

    2002-01-01

    A novel type of thermal stabilizers-antimony tris(mercaptoethyl carboxylates) (Sb(SCH2CH2OOCR) 3), was synthesized from carboxylic acid, antimony trioxide and 2-mercaptoethanol in two steps. The experimental results show that the molar ratio of carboxylic acid to antimony tris(2-hydroxyethyl mercaptide) is 1.2, when adding 0.6% tetra-n-butyl titanate as catalyst and xylene as isotropic solvent, heating and refluxing for about 2~4h. The thermal stability was measured by heat-aging oven test. The thermal stability time is about 8~40min(at 200℃) when adding 2% tetra-n-butyl titanate in polyvinyl chloride(PVC). Among these stabilizers, antimony tris(mercaptoethyl stearate) has best thermal stability. Its thermal stability is better than that of Ca-Zn complex and basic lead stabilizers, and equal to that of organotin. In addition, the stabilization mechanism of this kind of stabilizers for PVC was discussed briefly.

  3. Antimony production by carbothermic reduction of stibnite in the presence of lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental work on the carbothermic reduction of Sb2S3 in the presence of lime was carried out in the temperature range of 973 to 1123 K to produce antimony in an environmentally friendly manner. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of producing antimony by this method without producing SO2 gas. Complete conversion of Sb2S3 was obtained at 1023 K in about 1000 seconds and at 1123 K in less than 250 seconds using stibnite-carbon-lime mixtures with molar ratios Sb2S3:CaO:C = 1:3:3. It was found that the reduction proceeds through the formation of an intermediate oxide SbO2, which is subsequently reduced by CO(g to yield antimony metal and CaS. The kinetics of the Sb2S3 reduction was analyzed by using the equation ln(1-X = -kt. The activation energy was 233 kJ mol-1 in the temperature range of 973 to 1123 K. This value would correspond to an antimony catalyzed carbon oxidation by CO2.

  4. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. PMID:26773513

  5. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  6. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael S; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  7. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  8. Antimonial drugs entrapped into phosphatidylserine liposomes: physicochemical evaluation and antileishmanial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania that resides mainly in mononuclear phagocytic system tissues. Pentavalent antimonials are the main treatment option, although these drugs have toxic side effects and high resistance rates. A potentially alternative and more effective therapeutic strategy is to use liposomes as carriers of the antileishmanial agents. The aims of this study were to develop antimonial drugs entrapped into phosphatidylserine liposomes and to analyze their biological and physicochemical characteristics. METHODS: Liposomes containing meglumine antimoniate (MA or pentavalent antimony salt (Sb were obtained through filter extrusion (FEL and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Promastigotes of Leishmania infantum were incubated with the drugs and the viability was determined with a tetrazolium dye (MTT assay. The effects of these drugs against intracellular amastigotes were also evaluated by optical microscopy, and mammalian cytotoxicity was determined by an MTT assay. RESULTS: Liposomes had an average diameter of 162nm. MA-FEL showed inhibitory activity against intracellular L. infantum amastigotes, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 0.9μg/mL, whereas that of MA was 60μg/mL. Sb-FEL showed an IC50 value of 0.2μg/mL, whereas that of free Sb was 9μg/mL. MA-FEL and Sb-FEL had strong in vitro activity that was 63-fold and 39-fold more effective than their respective free drugs. MA-FEL tested at a ten-times higher concentration than Sb-FEL did not show cytotoxicity to mammalian cells, resulting in a higher selectivity index. CONCLUSIONS: Antimonial drug-containing liposomes are more effective against Leishmania-infected macrophages than the non-liposomal drugs.

  9. Synthesis of a Parkinson's Disease Treatment Drug, the "R,R"-Tartrate Salt "of R"-Rasagiline: A Three Week Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Noberto; Garcia, Billy; Cunningham, Mark; David, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    A synthesis of the "R,R"-tartrate salt of the popular anti-Parkinson's drug "R"-rasagiline (Azilect) was adapted to introduce the organic laboratory student to a medically relevant synthesis. It makes use of concepts found in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, appropriately fits into three approximately 4 h lab…

  10. The Application of Response Surface Methodology for Lead Ion Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Intercalated Tartrate-Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxide intercalated with tartrate (tartrate-Mg-Al was used as an adsorbent to remove lead ions from aqueous solutions. The effects of various optimization parameters such as contact time, solution pH, lead ion concentrations, and adsorbent dosage were investigated by the use of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on a four-level four-variable Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD was employed to evaluate the interactive effects of the various optimization parameters. The parameters were contact time (6–10 h, solution pH (1–3, adsorbent dosage (0.06–0.1 g, and lead ion concentrations (10–30 mg/L. The percentage of lead ions removal for each of the parameters studied was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer. Simultaneously by increasing contact time and amount of dosage of tartrate-Mg-Al used the percentage of lead ions removal from aqueous solution will increase; however, the percentage removal decreases with an increase in pH and concentrations of lead ions. The experimental percentage removal recorded under optimum conditions was compared well with the maximum predicted value from the RSM, which suggest that Central Composite Rotatable Design of RSM can be used to study the removal of lead from aqueous solution by the use of tartrate-Mg-Al as an adsorbent.

  11. Development and validation of Ultra violet spectrophotometric and Reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography techniques for simultaneous estimation of Brinzolamide and Brimonidine tartrate in ophthalmic suspension formulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekar Manoharan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and fast UV spectrophotometric technique and feasible reverse phase liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of Brinzolamide and Brimonidine tartrate in ophthalmic formulation has been developed.Linearity ranges for both methods were 5 - 25 μg/ml and 1-5 μg/ml for brinzolamide and brimonidine tartrate respectively.The absorption maxima were observed at 232 and 257 nm for Brinzolamide and Brimonidine. The UV, ophthalmic formulation assay shows percentage purity ranging from 98.90 to 101.01% for Brinzolamide and 98.20 to 100.80% for Brimonidine. The mean percentage purity is 99.82% and 99.80% for Brinzolamide and Brimonidine respectively. The chromatographic retention time forBrinzolamide and Brimonidine was found to be 5.9 and 8.4 minutes respectively. The tailing factor was 0.808 and 0.860 for Brinzolamide and Brimonidine tartrate respectively. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines and the method was found to be applicable for determination of Brinzolamide and Brimonidine tartrate from combined ophthalmic form.

  12. RADIOACTIVITY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF POTASSIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, R F

    1920-11-20

    1. The non-radioactive cesium ion can replace the potassium ion almost quantitatively in solutions required for the development of the egg of the sea urchin into swimming blastulae. 2. Thorium chloride and uranium acetate cannot replace the potassium chloride in the solutions required for the development of the egg. 3. Thorium chloride and uranium acetate do not antagonize the action of the potassium contained in sea water upon the development of eggs.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  14. Enantioseparation of Racemic Flurbiprofen by Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction With Binary Chiral Selectors of L-dioctyl Tartrate and L-tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liping; Fan, Huajun; Wan, Qiang; Wu, Xuehao; Tang, Xunyou; Tang, James Z

    2015-09-01

    A novel method for chiral separation of flurbiprofen enantiomers was developed using aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) coupled with biphasic recognition chiral extraction (BRCE). An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was used as an extracting solvent which was composed of ethanol (35.0% w/w) and ammonium sulfate (18.0% w/w). The chiral selectors in ATPS for BRCE consideration were L-dioctyl tartrate and L-tryptophan, which were screened from amino acids, β-cyclodextrin derivatives, and L-tartrate esters. Factors such as the amounts of L-dioctyl tartrate and L-tryptophan, pH, flurbiprofen concentration, and the operation temperature were investigated in terms of chiral separation of flurbiprofen enantiomers. The optimum conditions were as follows: L-dioctyl tartrate, 80 mg; L-tryptophan, 40 mg; pH, 4.0; flurbiprofen concentration, 0.10 mmol/L; and temperature, 25 °C. The maximum separation factor α for flurbiprofen enantiomers could reach 2.34. The mechanism of chiral separation of flurbiprofen enantiomers is discussed and studied. The results showed that synergistic extraction has been established by L-dioctyl tartrate and L-tryptophan, which enantioselectively recognized R- and S-enantiomers in top and bottom phases, respectively. Compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction, ATPE coupled with BRCE possessed higher separation efficiency and enantioselectivity without the use of any other organic solvents. The proposed method is a potential and powerful alternative to conventional extraction for separation of various enantiomers.

  15. Ultratrace potassium determination in plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method improving the detection limit for potassium in plutonium oxide samples in a high acid matrix was developed. Ultratrace detection limits (sub parts per million) for potassium in plutonium oxide digestate were achieved by optimizing several instrument parameters. Using the Horiba Jobin-Yvon Ultima 2 ICP-AES spectrometer different settings and conditions were examined to improve the detection limit for potassium. The optimized parameters of 0.875 L min-1 sheath gas flow, 20/80 µm entrance/exit slit, 8 s MAX mode signal integration, and blank subtraction were able to lower the potassium reporting limit to 10 ng mL-1. (author)

  16. Impaired homeostatic mechanism of potassium handling after acute oral potassium load in diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    H.J. Kim; Ahn, Y. H.; Park, C H; Kang, C M; Park, H C; Bae, H. Y.; Choi, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    Chronic stable diabetic patients (n = 6) were compared with healthy control subjects (n = 5) after acute oral intake of 50 mEq of potassium chloride (KCl) to investigate for possible derangements of homeostatic responses for acute term (3 hrs) to acute potassium load. Plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and transtubular potassium concentration gradient (TTKG) known as a useful semiquantative index of distal nephron potassium secretion were measured. All the baseline paramete...

  17. Electrodes modified with bismuth, antimony and tin precursor compounds for electrochemical stripping analysis of trace metals (a short review)

    OpenAIRE

    Lezi, Nikolitsa; Economou, Anastasios; Barek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, intensive research is being carried out towards the development of “green” electrochemical sensors. Bismuth, antimony and tin electrodes have been proposed as potential substitutes of mercury electrodes in electrochemical stripping analysis of trace metals. The main advantage of these metals as electrode materials is their lower toxicity compared to mercury. Among the different configuration of bismuth, antimony and tin electrodes, one of the most attractive inv...

  18. Investigation into properties of the mixture of perfluoro-2-methyl-bicyclo(4,4,0) decane with antimony fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State diagram was constructed for a binary system formed by antimony fluoride and perfluoro-2-methyl-bicyclo-(4,4,0)decane in the temperature range of -58 deg to +56 deg C. Temperature dependence of solubility and the differential molar heat of solubility of solid Sb F5 were determined. Above the melting point of antimony fluoride these components were found to form a system of two sparingly miscible liquids with upper critical dissolution temperature

  19. Electrodeposition of SnSbCu Alloy on Copper from an Electrolyte with Varied Content of Antimony Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, A. Kh.; Valeev, I. Sh.

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure and chemical composition of electrodeposited alloys of the SnSbCu system with varied concentration of antimony chloride in the electrolyte have been investigated. It is shown that during electrodeposition mechanical-mixture alloys are not formed, but rather intermetallic compounds. It is found that increasing the concentration of antimony chloride in the electrolyte leads to a decrease in the tin content and cracking of the coating.

  20. The Ministry of Land and Resources Continued to Impose Total Exploitation Control on Tungsten, Antimony and Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The General Office of the Ministry of Land and Resources distributed "Notice on Issuing Total Exploitation Control Quota of Tungsten Mine, Antimony Mine and Rare Earth Mine (First Batch) for 2013" (the "Notice") on January 5, it issued total exploitation control quota of tungsten mine, antimony mine and rare earth mine (first batch) for 2013. According to the Notice, the first batch of national

  1. A Novel Membrane Prepared from Sodium Alginate Cross-linked with Sodium Tartrate for CO2 Capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱娅群; 王志; 张晨昕; 王纪孝; 王世昌

    2013-01-01

    The membrane-based CO2 separation process has an advantage compared to traditional CO2 separation technologies. The membrane is the key of the membrane separation process. In this paper, preparation, characteriza-tion and laboratory testing of the membrane, which was prepared from sodium alginate, hydrogen bond cross-linked with sodium tartrate and used for CO2/N2 separation, were reported. The resistance to SO2 of the membrane was also investigated. The experimental results demonstrate that the membrane possesses a high resistance to SO2. Finally, based on experimental results, the economic feasibility of the membrane used for CO2/N2 separation was evaluated, indicating the two-stage membrane process can compete with the traditional chemical absorption method.

  2. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  3. Rare, severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Korsholm; Ebbehøj, Eva; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports a large variety of adverse reactions to potassium iodide. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide in a 51-year-old woman with Graves' thyrotoxicosis is described. Following administration the patient developed sialadenitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and acne...

  4. Status of potassium permanganate label claim - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Various aspects of these technical sections will be open for discussion. Potassium Permanganate Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on cat...

  5. [Physico-chemical characteristics of meglumine antimoniate in different storage conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G A; de Oliveira, M R; Correia, D; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    During the period October 1992 to July 1995 we measured the osmolarity and pH of ampoules of meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) from lot 9206L-004 (manufactured by Rhodia Farma Ltd, of São Paulo, SP, Brazil) maintained in three temperature conditions namely 4 degrees C, 37 degrees C and ambiental. Although we observed statistically significant differences in osmolarity between samples, the limited number of measurements and the variation of this property in ampoules maintained at the same temperature were obstacles to obtain definitive conclusions. Such a variation was not found with pH. Assuming these parameters could reflect structural changes in the pentavalent antimony molecule, clearly further better controlled experiments are indicated.

  6. Antimony segregation in stressed SiGe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the growth temperature, composition, and elastic strains in separate layers on the segregation of antimony are studied experimentally for stressed SiGe structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. It is established that the growth conditions and parameters of the structures exert an interrelated influence on the segregation of Sb: the degree of the influence of the composition and elastic stresses in the SiGe layers on Sb segregation depends on the growth temperature. It is shown that usage of a method previously proposed by us for the selective doping of silicon structures with consideration for the obtained dependences of Sb segregation on the growth conditions and parameters of the SiGe layers makes it possible to form SiGe structures selectively doped with antimony

  7. Deciphering lead and cadmium stripping peaks for porous antimony deposited electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Aqeel Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and lead are generally taken as model heavy metal ions in water to scale the detection limit of various electrode sensors, using electrochemical sensing techniques. These ions interact with the electrochemically deposited antimony electrodes depending on the diffusion limitations. The phenomenon acts differently for the in-situ and ex-situ deposition as well as for porous and non-porous electrodes. A method has been adopted in this study to discourage the stripping and deposition of the working ions (antimony to understand the principle of heavy metal ion detection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS technique was used to establish the interaction between the working and dissolved ions. In addition to the distinct peaks for each analyte, researchers also observed a shoulder peak. A possible reason for the presence of this peak was provided. Different electrochemical tests were performed to ascertain the theory on the basis of the experimental observations.

  8. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Herein, we report a safe, low cost and reproducible approach for the synthesis of antimony (Sb) nanostructures with most of them having prism like morphology and having well defined faces in the range of ∼70210 nm. The organics free approach is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free is economical, fast and free of pollution, which will make it suitable for large scale production. Furthermore, it is well expected that such a technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. The prospects of the process are bright and promising. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Potassium in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Hector; Raij, Leopoldo

    2013-05-01

    The increased prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in industrialized societies undoubtedly is associated with the modern high-sodium/low-potassium diet. Extensive experimental and clinical data strongly link potassium intake to cardiovascular outcome. Most studies suggest that the sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than either nutrient individually. A high-sodium/low-potassium environment results in significant abnormalities in central hemodynamics, leading to potential target organ damage. Altered renal sodium handling, impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and increased oxidative stress are important mediators of this effect. It remains of paramount importance to reinforce consumption of a low-sodium/high-potassium diet as a critical strategy for prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  10. Extracellular potassium inhibits Kv7.1 potassium channels by stabilizing an inactivated state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Steffensen, Annette Buur; Grunnet, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) channels are regulators of several physiological processes including vasodilatation, repolarization of cardiomyocytes, and control of secretory processes. A number of Kv7.1 pore mutants are sensitive to extracellular potassium. We hypothesized that extracellular potassium also...... modulates wild-type Kv7.1 channels. The Kv7.1 currents were measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes at different concentrations of extracellular potassium (1-50 mM). As extracellular potassium was elevated, Kv7.1 currents were reduced significantly more than expected from theoretical calculations based...... on the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz flux equation. Potassium inhibited the steady-state current with an IC(50) of 6.0 ± 0.2 mM. Analysis of tail-currents showed that potassium increased the fraction of channels in the inactivated state. Similarly, the recovery from inactivation was slowed by potassium, suggesting...

  11. Bi-antimony capped Keggin polyoxometalate modified with Cu-ligand fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jiao [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Han, Zhangang, E-mail: hanzg116@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Zhang, Heng; Yu, Haitao [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Zhai, Xueliang, E-mail: xlzhai253@mail.hebtu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Three polyoxometalates consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters: [Cu(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 2}[PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}]{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (1), [Cu(mbpy){sub 2}][PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}] (2) and {l_brace}Cu(mbpy)[Cu(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 2}{r_brace}[VMo{sub 8}V{sub 4}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (3) (mbpy=4,4 Prime -dimethyl-2,2 Prime - dipyridyl in 1 and 2; 5,5 Prime -dimethyl-2,2 Prime -dipyridyl in 3) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, X-ray powder diffraction, TG analysis and electrochemical property. Single-crystal analysis revealed that all of three compounds are built upon bi-antimony capped Keggin-type polyoxoanions and Cu-mbpy cations. In 1-3, two Sb{sup III} centers located at the two opposite of anionic surface adopt fundamentally tetragonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Both compounds 1 and 2 consist of P-centered Keggin structure, while compound 3 presents a V-centered Keggin anion. The Keggin-type anions present different structural features: isolated cluster in 1 and Cu-ligand-supported cluster in 2 and 3. - Graphical abstract: Three hybrid compounds consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters modified with Cu-ligand cations have been synthesized and characterized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three hybrid compounds consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters have been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two Sb{sup III} centers located at the two opposite of anionic surface adopt tetragonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anions present different structural features: isolated and Cu-ligand-supported cluster.

  12. Metal corrosion studies with the fluorosulphonic acid-antimony pentafluoride superacid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their rapid dissolution of many actinide metals and refractory oxides, superacids such as HSO3F/SbF5 have potential applications in actinide processing. However, material compatibility must first be addressed because of the highly corrosive nature of superacids. This paper describes the qualitative rates of attack of fluorosulphonic acid-antimony pentafluoride superacid on a variety of metal substrates relevant to nuclear processing

  13. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium

    OpenAIRE

    Rajmund Michalski; Sebastian Szopa; Magdalena Jabłońska; Aleksandra Łyko

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemi...

  14. Electrodeposition Mechanism of Trivalent Antimony%三价锑的电沉积机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艳; 谢刚; 杨大锦

    2011-01-01

    The reduction mechanism of Sb3+ in H2SO4-NH4F-SbF3 electrolyte system was studied by means of electrochemical methods, including chronopotentiometry and alternating current impedance.Analysis of potential-time transients clearly shows that antimony (Ⅲ) could be reduced to antimony metal via two-steps irreversible electron transfer process in H2SO4-NH4F-SbF3 system.The relationship between iτ1/2 and i calculated by chronopotentiometry indicates that the trivalent antimony complex undergoes chemical transformation reaction before its reduction in the cathode.The impedance results confirm the above conclusion and indicate that the adsorption states which are the middle product of trivalent antimony have different influences on two electron transfer steps.%采用恒电流阶跃法及交流阻抗法等电化学方法,研究了H2SO4-NH4F-SbF3体系中三价锑的阴极还原机理.电势~时间暂态曲线出现二步反应特征,表明Sb"还原分两步进行.由恒电流阶跃曲线中iτ1/2~i关系可知Sb3+阴极还原存在前置化学转化.Sb3+阴极还原的交流阻抗测定结果进一步验证Sb3+还原是存在化学前置转化步骤的二步反应,且电活性中间产物吸附在电极表面,吸附反应对两步电子转移步骤的影响不同.

  15. Adsorption of antimony(V) onto Mn(II)-enriched surfaces of manganese-oxide and FeMn binary oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiping; Xu, Wei; He, Zan; Lan, Huachun; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Prasai, Tista

    2015-11-01

    Manganese(IV) oxide [Mn(IV)] potentially oxidizes antimony(III) [Sb(III)] to antimony(V) [Sb(V)] and improves Sb removal by FeMn binary oxide (FMBO) through an oxidation-adsorption mechanism. This study focused on the effect of Mn(IV) reductive dissolution by potassium sulfite (K2SO3) on Sb(V) adsorption onto manganese oxide (Mn-oxide) and FMBO. The maximum Sb(V) adsorption (Qmax,Sb(V)) increased from 1.0 to 1.1 mmol g(-1) for FMBO and from 0.4 to 0.6 mmol g(-1) for Mn-oxide after pretreatment with 10 mmol L(-1) K2SO3. The addition of 2.5 mmol L(-1) Mn(2+) also significantly improved Sb(V) adsorption, and the observed Qmax,Sb(V) increased to 1.4 and 1.0 mmol g(-1) for FMBO and Mn-oxide, respectively, with pre-adsorbed Mn(2+). Neither K2SO3 nor Mn(2+) addition had any effect on Sb(V) adsorption onto iron oxide (Fe-oxide). Mn(2+) introduced by either Mn(IV) dissolution or addition tended to form outer-sphere surface complexes with hydroxyl groups on Mn-oxide surfaces (MnOOH). Mn(2+) at 2.5 mmol L(-1) shifted the isoelectric point (pHiep) from 7.5 to 10.2 for FMBO and from 4.8 to 9.2 for Mn-oxide and hence benefited Sb(V) adsorption. The adsorption of Sb(V) onto Mn(2+)-enriched surfaces contributed to the release of Mn(2+), and the X-ray photoelectron spectra also indicated increased binding energy of Mn 2p3/2 after the adsorption of Sb(V) onto K2SO3-pretreated FMBO and Mn-oxide. Sb(V) adsorption involved the formation of inner-sphere complexes and contributed to the release of Mn(2+). In the removal of Sb(III) by Mn-based oxides, the oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) by Mn(IV) oxides had an effect; however, Mn(IV) dissolution and Mn(2+)-enrichment also played an important role.

  16. Polycrystalline thin films of antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition and post deposition treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Lazcano, Y. [Department of Solar Energy Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos-62580 (Mexico); Pena, Yolanda [Department of Solar Energy Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos-62580 (Mexico); Nair, M.T.S. [Department of Solar Energy Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos-62580 (Mexico)]. E-mail: mtsn@cie.unam.mx; Nair, P.K. [Department of Solar Energy Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos-62580 (Mexico)

    2005-12-22

    We report a method for obtaining thin films of polycrystalline antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition followed by heating the thin films at 573 K in selenium vapor. The thin films deposited from chemical baths containing one or more soluble complexes of antimony, and selenosulfate initially did not show X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns corresponding to crystalline antimony selenide. Composition of the films, studied by energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated selenium deficiency. Heating these films in presence of selenium vapor at 573 K under nitrogen (2000 mTorr) resulted in an enrichment of Se in the films. XRD peaks of such films matched Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. Evaluation of band gap from optical spectra of such films shows absorption due to indirect transition occurring in the range of 1-1.2 eV. The films are photosensitive, with dark conductivity of about 2 x 10{sup -8} ({omega} cm){sup -1} and photoconductivity, about 10{sup -6} ({omega} cm){sup -1} under tungsten halogen lamp illumination with intensity of 700 W m{sup -2}. An estimate for the mobility life time product for the film is 4 x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1}.

  17. Studies in atomic-fluorescence spectroscopy-V The fluorescence characteristics and determination of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnall, R M; Thompson, K C; West, T S

    1967-10-01

    Atomic-fluorescence of antimony may be generated in an air-propane flame by nebulizing aqueous solutions of antimony salts whilst irradiating the flame by means of a microwave-excited electrode-less discharge tube operating at 30 W. The strongest fluorescence is exhibited by the (4)S(11 2 ) --> (4)P(1 3 ) 2311 A resonance line and weaker signals are observed at the 2068 and 2176 A resonance lines and at four intercombination lines, at 2598, 2671, 2770 and 2878 A. A process of thermally assisted direct-line fluorescence is postulated to account for the otherwise inexplicable intensity of the 2598 A line emission. Atomic-fluorescence spectroscopy at 2176 A permits the determination of antimony in the range 0.1-120 ppm with a detection limit of 0.05 ppm. With the same equipment and source, the range of measurement for atomic-absorption was 6-120 ppm and the detection limit was 1 ppm. No interferences were observed from 100-fold molar amounts of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, NH(4), Pb and Zn or from arsenate, chloride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate. PMID:18960212

  18. Morphology and antimony segregation of spangles on batch hot-dip galvanized coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangles produced by batch hot-dip galvanizing process have a rougher surface and a greater surface segregation of alloying element compared with those in continuous hot-dip galvanizing line (CGL), owing to the cooling rate of the former is much smaller than that of the later. Therefore, typical spangles on a batch hot-dipped Zn-0.05Al-0.2Sb alloy coating were investigated. The chemical, morphological characterization and identification of the phases on the spangles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging (BSE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the coating surface usually exhibited three kinds of spangles: shiny, feathery and dull spangle, of which extensively antimony surface segregation was detected. The nature of precipitate on the coating surface was identified as β-Sb3Zn4, The precipitated β-Sb3Zn4 particles distributed randomly on the shiny spangle surface, both β-Sb3Zn4 particles and dentritic segregation of antimony dispersed in the dendritic secondary arm spacings of the feathery spangle and on the whole dull spangle surface. The dentritic segregation of antimony and precipitation of Sb3Zn4 compound are discussed by a proposed model.

  19. Antimony in the Contaminated Site of El Triunfo, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez A. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimony has properties similar to arsenic with some of its compounds toxic to humans. Therefore it is necessary to control the wastes accumulated by anthropogenic activities, such as mining, where it is in tailings to be released to the environment. According to the Environment Protection Agency, the maximum value in sediments is 11.2 mg Sb kg–1 and the Earth’s crust average is 0.2 mg Sb kg–1. In this semiarid area, the drainage basin El Carrizal is impacted with wastes of an abandoned gold mine at the Mining District El Triunfo (MD – ET which have tailings with 17,600 mg kg–1 of antimony. In the main dry river (arroyo, the Sb content is between 0.6 and 122 mg kg–1. This element is transported from the source throughout the fluvial basin to discharge into the Pacific Ocean. In the arroyo mouth we collected one sedimentary core and the sediment from dunes (28.6 – 45.7 and 6.43 – 7.74 mg Sb kg–1. This research concluded the antimony is enriched in this semiarid system, with Normalized Enrichment Factors severely enriched mainly in arroyo sediments close to the MD-ET

  20. Parto prematuro após uso de antimonial pentavalente: relato de um caso Premature birth after the use of pentavalent antimonial: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Pinheiro Silveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma mulher de 19 anos, na 24ª semana de gravidez e com leishmaniose visceral. Tratada com antimonial pentavalente na posologia de 850mg/dia por 20 dias, ocorreu parto prematuro no quinto dia de tratamento e óbito da criança um dia após nascimento. Considerando a importância da protozoose no nosso meio e a raridade da associação com a gestação, julgamos de interesse a publicação do caso.A case is reported of a 19-year-old woman, at week 24 of gestation, with visceral leishmaniosis. She was treated with meglumine antimoniate at a dose of 850mg/day for 20 days. There occurred premature birth on day five of treatment and the neonate died one day after birth. Considering the importance of protozoiasis in our population and the rarity of the association with pregnancy, we resolved to publish the case.

  1. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  2. Comparison of oral itraconazole and intramuscular meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral itraconazole against intramuscular meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Two hundred eligible and consenting patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) were divided in two groups with 100 patients in each. The number and location of the lesions were documented and clinical types of cutaneous leishmaniasis were noted. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin slit smear and histopathology of the lesional skin. Culture on Nicolle Novy MacNeal (NNN) medium and Leishmanin test was done in all patients. All the patients in both groups were subjected to complete blood picture, urine examination, serum urea and creatinine levels and ECG examination. One group was given itraconazole 100 mg twice daily orally for a duration of 6-8 weeks. The other group was given meglumine antimoniate 10 cc in the form of deep intramuscular injections for 15-30 days. The efficacy of the treatment was judged by clinical and parasitological response. Side effects of the agents were also noted during treatment. Out of 200 patients studied, 185 were males and 15 were females. The mean age of presentation was 30 + 6.6 years. Single lesion was seen in 132 (66%) subjects whereas 68 (34%) subjects had multiple lesions. Slit skin smears were positive in 50 (25%) of the patients. Skin biopsy yielded the presence of LT bodies in 150 (75%) subjects. The culture was positive in 102 (51%) cases. Leishmanin test was positive in 94% subjects. Seventy-five (75%) patients on itraconazole therapy showed complete clinical and parasitological cure in 4-8 weeks duration. A rise in ALT was seen in 12% subjects. Five (5%) subjects did not show any improvement till the end of therapy. Sixty-five (65%) subjects on meglumine antimoniate showed complete healing in 15-30 days. In 35 (35%) of the patients, the treatment had to be stopped due to intolerable side-effects. Four cases of lupoid leishmaniasis and 4 cases of sporotrichoid leishmaniasis

  3. Brucine salts of L-alpha-hydroxy acids: brucinium hydrogen (S)-malate pentahydrate and anhydrous brucinium hydrogen (2R,3R)-tartrate at 130 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D; White, Jonathan M

    2006-06-01

    The structures of two brucinium (2,3-dimethoxy-10-oxostrychnidinium) salts of the alpha-hydroxy acids L-malic acid and L-tartaric acid, namely brucinium hydrogen (S)-malate pentahydrate, C23H27N2O4+.C4H5O5-.5H2O, (I), and anhydrous brucinium hydrogen (2R,3R)-tartrate, C23H27N2O4+.C4H5O6-,(II), have been determined at 130 K. Compound (I) has two brucinium cations, two hydrogen malate anions and ten water molecules of solvation in the asymmetric unit, and forms an extensively hydrogen-bonded three-dimensional framework structure. In compound (II), the brucinium cations form the common undulating brucine sheet substructures, which accommodate parallel chains of head-to-tail hydrogen-bonded tartrate anion species in the interstitial cavities.

  4. Brimonidine tartrate effect on retinal spreading depression depends on Müller cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Vanzan Pimentel de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Demonstrate the Brimonidine effect over Retinal Spreading Depression (SD. Brimonidine is an alpha-2–adrenergic receptor agonist, used in the management of glaucoma. Alpha2-agonists have been shown to be neuroprotective in various experimental models, however the molecular and cellular targets leading to these actions are still poorly defined. The SD of neuronal electric activity is a wave of cellular massive sustained depolarization that damages the nervous tissue. Local trauma, pressure, ischemic injuries and other chemical agents as high extracellular potassium concentration or glutamate, can trigger SD, leading to exaggerated focal electrical followed by an electrical silence. Methods: Using chicken retina as model, we performed alpha2-receptor detection by Western Blotting and Immunohistochemistry. After that we obtained electrical signals of SD by microelectrodes on retina in the absence or presence of Brimonidine. For in vivo visualization we observed retina with optical coherence tomography on normal state, with SD passing, and with SD + Brimonidine. Results: Our data demonstrated that: (1 alpha2-adrenergic receptors are present in Müller cells, (2 the treatment with Brimonidine decreases the SD‘s velocity as well as the voltage of SD waves and (3 OCT revealed that SD creates a hyper reflectance at inner plexiform layer, but on retinal treatment with brimonidine, SD was not visualized. Conclusions: Our study about brimonidine possible pathways of neuroprotection we observed it reduces SD (a neuronal damage wave, identified a new cellular target – the Müller cells, as well as, firstly demonstrated SD on OCT, showing that the inner plexiform layer is the main optically affected layer on SD.

  5. Intraocular pressure reduction using a fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5% and brimonidine tartrate 0.2% administered three times daily

    OpenAIRE

    Moisseiev E; Kurtz S; Lazar M.; Shemesh G

    2013-01-01

    Elad Moisseiev, Shimon Kurtz, Moshe Lazar, Gabi ShemeshDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, IsraelBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5% + brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Combigan®) for reduction for intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma when the dose frequency is increased from twice to three times daily.Methods: The patients included had either primary ...

  6. Crystal structure analysis and chiral recognition study of Delta-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2][(+)-O,O'-dibenzoylD-tartrate].12H2O and Lambda-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2][(-)-O,O'-dibenzoyl-L-tartrate].12H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolp, B; Viebrock, H; von Zelewsky, A; Abeln, D

    2001-03-12

    The molecular structure and crystal-packing mode of the enantiopure chiral building blocks Delta-[Ru(bpy)(2)(py)(2)][(+)-O,O'-dibenzoyl-D-tartrate].12H(2)O (I) and Lambda-[Ru(bpy)(2)(py)(2)][(-)-O,O'-dibenzoyl-L-tartrate].12H(2)O (II) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. This study proposes a model of how the L- and D-dibenzoyltartrate anions recognize the chirality of the hydrophobic [Ru(bpy)(2)(py)(2)](2+) complex. The monoclinic unit cell contains four complex cations, four tartrate anions, and 48 water molecules. Since there are no possibilities to form hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions, chiral recognition is due to crystal packing. Two benzoyl rings of two different tartrate anions are gripping the two bpy-planes of the Ru-complex. Further a third benzoyl ring from a tartrate anion is packed between the two pyridine rings, favoring one enantiomeric form to crystallize from aqueous solution. Crystal structure data for I at 153 K: a = 15.342(3) A, b = 19.200(4) A, c = 18.872(4) A, beta = 104.841(3) degrees, monoclinic space group C(2), R(1)= 0.0239 (I > 2sigma(I)), R(2) = 0.0606, Flack parameter = 0.0115 (with esd 0.0166). For II at 293 K: a = 15.376(4) A, b = 19.388(11) A, c = 19.085(7) A, beta = 105.11(2) degrees, monoclinic space group C121, R(1)= 0.0686 (I > 2sigma(I)), R(2) = 0.1819, Flack parameter = -0.0100 (with esd 0.0521).

  7. Development of an analytical method for antimony speciation in vegetables by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, David; Bravo, Manuel; Feldmann, Jorg; Raab, Andrea; Neaman, Alexander; Quiroz, Waldo

    2012-01-01

    A new method for antimony speciation in terrestrial edible vegetables (spinach, onions, and carrots) was developed using HPLC with hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Mechanical agitation and ultrasound were tested as extraction techniques. Different extraction reagents were evaluated and optimal conditions were determined using experimental design methodology, where EDTA (10 mmol/L, pH 2.5) was selected because this chelate solution produced the highest extraction yield and exhibited the best compatibility with the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that EDTA prevents oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) and maintains the stability of antimony species during the entire analytical process. The LOD and precision (RSD values obtained) for Sb(V), Sb(III), and trimethyl Sb(V) were 0.08, 0.07, and 0.9 microg/L and 5.0, 5.2, and 4.7%, respectively, for a 100 microL sample volume. The application of this method to real samples allowed extraction of 50% of total antimony content from spinach, while antimony extracted from carrots and onion samples ranged between 50 and 60 and 54 and 70%, respectively. Only Sb(V) was detected in three roots (onion and spinach) that represented 60-70% of the total antimony in the extracts. PMID:22970588

  8. Development of an analytical method for antimony speciation in vegetables by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, David; Bravo, Manuel; Feldmann, Jorg; Raab, Andrea; Neaman, Alexander; Quiroz, Waldo

    2012-01-01

    A new method for antimony speciation in terrestrial edible vegetables (spinach, onions, and carrots) was developed using HPLC with hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Mechanical agitation and ultrasound were tested as extraction techniques. Different extraction reagents were evaluated and optimal conditions were determined using experimental design methodology, where EDTA (10 mmol/L, pH 2.5) was selected because this chelate solution produced the highest extraction yield and exhibited the best compatibility with the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that EDTA prevents oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) and maintains the stability of antimony species during the entire analytical process. The LOD and precision (RSD values obtained) for Sb(V), Sb(III), and trimethyl Sb(V) were 0.08, 0.07, and 0.9 microg/L and 5.0, 5.2, and 4.7%, respectively, for a 100 microL sample volume. The application of this method to real samples allowed extraction of 50% of total antimony content from spinach, while antimony extracted from carrots and onion samples ranged between 50 and 60 and 54 and 70%, respectively. Only Sb(V) was detected in three roots (onion and spinach) that represented 60-70% of the total antimony in the extracts.

  9. Low Potassium Diet (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 120 mL/min) . A registered dietitian or nutritionist can help to create a low-potassium meal ... volumes. You agree to comply with all applicable laws, including all US export laws and regulations, in ...

  10. Crystal structure transformation in potassium acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai Verneker, V. R.; Vasanthakumari, R.

    1983-10-01

    Potassium acrylate undergoes a reversible phase transformation around 335°K with an activation energy of 133 kcal/mole. Differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction techniques have been used to probe this phenomenon.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: potassium-aggravated myotonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myotonia Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Muscular Dystrophy Association Resource list from the University of Kansas Medical Center Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Potassium aggravated myotonia ClinicalTrials. ...

  12. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  13. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  14. Independent effects of aldosterone and potassium on induction of potassium adaptation in rat kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, B.; Pan, L.; Deetjen, H; Guckian, V; Giebisch, G

    1987-01-01

    We examined the independent effects of a high potassium diet and increased aldosterone levels on the development of renal potassium adaptation. This condition is defined by the increased ability of the kidneys to excrete an acute infusion of potassium. Rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) and received aldosterone at basal levels (0.5 microgram/100 g X d) or at high levels (2.0 micrograms/100 g X d) for 10 d. In each experimental group, animals received either a control diet or a high potassium di...

  15. Connexin 43 impacts on mitochondrial potassium uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin eBoengler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In cardiomyocytes, connexin 43 (Cx43 forms gap junctions and unopposed hemichannels at the plasma membrane, but the protein is also present at the inner membrane of subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Both inhibition and genetic ablation of Cx43 reduce ADP-stimulated complex 1 respiration. Since mitochondrial potassium influx impacts on oxygen consumption, we investigated whether or not inhibition or ablation of mitochondrial Cx43 alters mitochondrial potassium uptake.Subsarcolemmal mitochondria were isolated from rat left ventricular (LV myocardium and loaded with the potassium-sensitive dye PBFI. Intramitochondrial potassium was replaced by TEA (tetraethylammonium. Mitochondria were incubated under control conditions or treated with 250 µM Gap19, a peptide that specifically inhibits Cx43-dependent hemichannels at plasma membranes. Subsequently, 140 mM KCl was added and the slope of the increase in PBFI fluorescence over time was calculated. The slope of the PBFI fluorescence of the control mitochondria was set to 100%. In the presence of Gap19, the mitochondrial potassium influx was reduced from 100±11.6 % in control mitochondria to 65.5±10.7 % (n=6, p<0.05. In addition to the pharmacological inhibition of Cx43, potassium influx was studied in mitochondria isolated from conditional Cx43 knockout mice. Here, the ablation of Cx43 was achieved by the injection of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (Cx43Cre-ER(T/fl + 4-OHT. The mitochondria of the Cx43Cre-ER(T/fl + 4-OHT mice contained 3±1% Cx43 (n=6 of that in control mitochondria (100±11%, n=8, p<0.05. The ablation of Cx43 (n=5 reduced the velocity of the potassium influx from 100±11.2 % in control mitochondria (n=9 to 66.6±5.5 % (p<0.05.Taken together, our data indicate that both pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation of Cx43 reduce mitochondrial potassium influx.

  16. POTASSIUM MEASUREMENT: CAUSES OF ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha; Omprakash

    2014-01-01

    It is not a easy task to recognize the errors in potassium measurement in the lab. Falsely elevated potassium levels if goes unrecognized by the lab and clinician, it is difficult to treat masked hypokalemic state, which is again a medical emergency. Such cases require proper monitoring by the clinician, so that cases with such history of pseudohyperkalemia which cannot be easily identified in the laboratory should not go unrecognized by clinician. The aim of this article is t...

  17. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    OpenAIRE

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk; Ozlem Guneysel; Onur Yesil; Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-01-01

    Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II) lesions on the esophagus and cardi...

  18. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Eteiwi, Suzan M.; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A.; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K.; Ahmad A. Al-Omari; Rania A. Al-Asaad; Haddad, Fares H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and m...

  19. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  20. Estimated potassium content in Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium content in male and female workers at the US Dept. of Energy Hanford Site was estimated based on measurements made in 2002 of 40K activity in the body. The 40K activity in females ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 kBq with an average of 3.1 ± 0.02 kBq. The total body potassium (TBK) content in females averaged 98 ± 0.6 g. The 40K activity in males ranged from 2.8 to 6.6 kBq with an average of 4.2 ± 0.01 kBq and the average TBK was 136 ± 0.3 g. The average TBK value for males aged 20-49 y was 140 g. The average TBK values for both genders decreased with age. The average potassium concentrations calculated for the different age ranges for males were 15-25% less than the value (1.9 gK per kg) obtained using the reported ICRP reference potassium and reference weight values. Potassium concentrations were inversely correlated with body-build index, body-mass index and body weight. These correlations could possibly be utilised to help assess the risk for disease. Future work is planned to evaluate whether monitoring of potassium concentrations could be used as a tool for the detection of diabetes and hypertension. (authors)

  1. Estimated Potassium Content in Hanford Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium content in male and female workers at the Department of Energy Hanford Site was estimated based on measurements made in 2002 of 40K activity in the body. A coaxial germanium detection system was used for the measurements. The activity in female workers ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 kBq with an average of 3.1 ± 0.02 kBq. Total body potassium (TBK) content in female workers averaged 96 ± 0.3 g. The activity in male workers ranged from 2.8 to 6.6 kBq with an average of 4.3 ± 0.01 kBq and the average TBK was 136 ± 0.3 g. The average potassium concentration decreased with age in both males and females. The average potassium content and potassium concentrations for both males and females were less than the corresponding reference values. Potassium concentrations were inversely correlated with body-build index, body-mass index, and body weight for both males and females

  2. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The

  3. Absolute quantification of swine brain glutamate compounds concentration using MR spectroscopy and LCModel after nasal spraying butorphanol tartrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the central nervous system (CNS) analgesics affect the metabolites of swine brain by nasal spraying. Methods: Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed on 9 swine. The data were post-processed using LCModel software. Results: Before nasal spraying butorphanol tartrate, the mean Glutamate compounds (Glxs) concentration was (9.276±0.542) mmol/kg. After nasal spraying, the mean Glx concentration was (7.283±0.540) mmol/kg. Using paired sample t-test we found that swine brain ax level was significantly decreased after using nasal spray analgesic (t=2.826, P=0.022). However, there were no significant differences in mean NAA and Choline (Cho) concentrations before and after nasal spraying [(6.094±0.384) mmol/kg vs. (5.530±0.346) mmol/kg (t=1.270, P=0.240) and (1.547±0.114) mmol/kg vs. (1.255±0.079) mmol/kg (t=1.800, P=0.110), respectively). Conclusion: Our results imply that Glxs are nociceptive neurotransmitters and play an important role in the analgesia. (authors)

  4. Crystal structure of 1H,1'H-[2,2'-biimid-azol]-3-ium hydrogen tartrate hemi-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Li; Bian, Li-Fang; Guo, Shao-Wei

    2014-11-01

    In the crystal of the title hydrated salt, C6H7N4 (+)·C4H5O6 (-)·0.5H2O, the bi-imidazole monocation, 1H,1'H-[2,2'-biimidazol]-3-ium, is hydrogen bonded, via N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, to the hydrogen tartrate anion and the water mol-ecule, which is located on a twofold rotation axis, forming sheets parallel to (001). The sheets are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. There are also C=O⋯π inter-actions present [O⋯π distances are 3.00 (9) and 3.21 (7) Å], involving the carbonyl O atoms and the imidazolium ring, which may help to consolidate the structure. In the cation, the dihedral angle between the rings is 11.6 (2)°.

  5. Crystal structure of 1H,1′H-[2,2′-biimidazol]-3-ium hydrogen tartrate hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal of the title hydrated salt, C6H7N4+·C4H5O6−·0.5H2O, the biimidazole monocation, 1H,1′H-[2,2′-biimidazol]-3-ium, is hydrogen bonded, via N—H...O, O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds, to the hydrogen tartrate anion and the water molecule, which is located on a twofold rotation axis, forming sheets parallel to (001. The sheets are linked via C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. There are also C=O...π interactions present [O...π distances are 3.00 (9 and 3.21 (7 Å], involving the carbonyl O atoms and the imidazolium ring, which may help to consolidate the structure. In the cation, the dihedral angle between the rings is 11.6 (2°.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of once-daily sustained-release coated tablets of tolterodine-L-tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Roshan; Kim, Yong-Il; Chang, Sun Woo; Kim, Jong Oh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, once-daily, sustained-release matrix tablets of tolterodine l-tartrate (TOL) for treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) were prepared by direct compression using various amounts of hydrophilic polymers such as HPMC 2910 and HPMC 2208 along with other tablet excipients; the tablets were then coated. In vitro dissolution studies were carried out under different pH conditions. The dissolution data were fitted into zero-order, first-order, Higuchi and Korsemeyer-Peppas models to identify the pharmacokinetics and mechanism of drug release. Among the four formulations (F1-F4), the dissolution profiles of formulation F2 were most similar to the marketed product with similarity and difference factors of 70.25 and 1.59 respectively. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic studies were carried out in healthy human volunteers after oral administration of the prepared TOL sustained-release matrix-coated tablet and the marketed product. The results revealed that the pharmacokinetic parameters of AUC, Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, Kel, and MRT of TOL for the developed formulation (F2) were not significantly different from that for the marketed product, suggesting that they were bioequivalent. Therefore, the developed sustained-release tablet formulation of TOL could be an alternative dosage form to the SR capsule for treatment of OAB. PMID:24184032

  7. Synthesis, characterization and single crystal X-ray analysis of chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.S. Chauhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III has been prepared in distilled acetonitrile and characterized by physicochemical [melting point and molecular weight determination, elemental analysis (C, H, N, S & Sb], spectral [FT–IR, far IR, NMR (1H & 13C] studies. The crystal and molecular structure was further confirmed using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which features a five-coordinate geometry for antimony(III within a ClS4 donor set. The distortion in the co-planarity of ClSbS3 evidences the stereochemical influence exerts by the lone pair of electrons on antimony(III. Two centrosymmetrically related molecule held together via C–H···Cl secondary interaction result in molecular aggregation of the compound.

  8. Selective liquid-liquid extraction of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media by N-n-octylaniline in xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ANUSE

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available N-n-Octylaniline in xylene was used for the extraction separation of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media. Antimony(III was extracted quantitatively with 10 mL 4 % N-n-octylaniline in xylene. It was stripped from the organic phase with 0.5 M ammonia and estimated photometrically by the iodide method. The effect of metal ion, acid, reagent concentration and various foreign ions was investigated. The method affords binary and ternary separation of antimony(III from tellurium(IV, selenium(IV, lead(II, bismuth(III, tin(IV, germanium(IV, copper(II, gold(III, iron(III and zinc(II. The method is applicable for the analysis of synthetic mixtures, alloys and semiconductor thin films. It is fast, accurate and precise.

  9. Development and pharmacokinetic of antimony encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine using radioisotopes in experimental leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishmaniasis are a complex of parasitic diseases caused by intra macrophage protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and is fatal if left untreated. Pentavalent antimonials, though toxic and their mechanism of action being unclear, remain the first-line drugs for treatment. Effective therapy could be achieved by delivering antileishmanial drugs to these sites of infection. Liposomes are phospholipid vesicles that promote improvement in the efficacy and action of drugs in target cell. Liposomes are taken up by the cells of mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). The purpose of this study was to develop a preparation of meglumine antimonate encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine and to study its pharmacokinetic in healthy mice to establish its metabolism and distribution. Quantitative analysis of antimony from liposomes demonstrated that Neutron Activation Analysis was the most sensitive technique with almost 100 % of accuracy. All liposome formulations presented a mean diameter size of 150 nm. The determination of IC50 in infected macrophage showed that liposome formulations were between 10 - 63 fold more effective than the free drug, indicating higher selectivity index. By fluorescence microscopy, an increased uptake of fluorescent-liposomes was seen in infected macrophages during short times of incubation compared with non-infected macrophages. Biodistribution studies showed that meglumine antimonate irradiated encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine promoted a targeting of antimony for MPS tissues and maintained high doses in organs for a prolonged period. In conclusion, these data suggest that meglumine antimonate encapsulated in liposomes showed higher effectiveness than the non-liposomal drug against Leishmania infection. The development of liposome formulations should be a new alternative for the chemotherapy of infection diseases, especially Leishmaniasis, as they are used to sustain and target pharmaceuticals to the local of infection. (author)

  10. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2014-10-01

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  11. The LABCG2 Transporter from the Protozoan Parasite Leishmania Is Involved in Antimony Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ana; Manzano, José Ignacio; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    Treatment for leishmaniasis, which is caused by Leishmania protozoan parasites, currently relies on a reduced arsenal of drugs. However, the significant increase in the incidence of drug therapeutic failure and the growing resistance to first-line drugs like antimonials in some areas of Northern India and Nepal limit the control of this parasitic disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of resistance in Leishmania is now a matter of urgency to optimize drugs used and to identify novel drug targets to block or reverse resistant mechanisms. Some members of the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in Leishmania have been associated with drug resistance. In this study, we have focused our interest to characterize LABCG2's involvement in drug resistance in Leishmania. Leishmania major parasites overexpressing the ABC protein transporter LABCG2 were generated in order to assess how LABCG2 is involved in drug resistance. Assays of susceptibility to different leishmanicidal agents were carried out. Analysis of the drug resistance profile revealed that Leishmania parasites overexpressing LABCG2 were resistant to antimony, as they demonstrated a reduced accumulation of Sb(III) due to an increase in drug efflux. Additionally, LABCG2 was able to transport thiols in the presence of Sb(III) Biotinylation assays using parasites expressing LABCG2 fused with an N-terminal green fluorescent protein tag revealed that LABCG2 is partially localized in the plasma membrane; this supports data from previous studies which suggested that LABCG2 is localized in intracellular vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane during exocytosis. In conclusion, Leishmania LABCG2 probably confers antimony resistance by sequestering metal-thiol conjugates within vesicles and through further exocytosis by means of the parasite's flagellar pocket. PMID:27021316

  12. Highly active and stable Pt electrocatalysts promoted by antimony-doped SnO2 supports for oxygen reduction reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Min; Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng;

    2014-01-01

    Alternative composite supports for platinum catalysts were synthesized from antimony doped tin dioxide (ATO) nanoparticles. In the range of the antimony content from 0 to 11mol%, the highest electrical conductivity of 1.1Scm-1 at 130°C was obtained for the 5mol% Sb ATO, from which composite...... supports composed of oxides and carbon and supported platinum catalysts were prepared. Using the pure oxide support, the Pt/ATO catalyst displayed superior specific activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs). Low surface area of ATO caused poor dispersion of Pt particles compared...

  13. Separation of antimony from synthetic cloth. Application in forensic science using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple ion-exchange separation procedure was developed for selective removal of antimony from synthetic cloth to facilitate determination of several trace elements frequently used to identify gunshot residues by neutron activation analysis. Radiotracers of Sb, Ba, Cu, Co, As, Zn, Hg and Ag were employed to optimize the developed procedure. The method involves the quantitative retention of the above elements, except of Sb, from 0.2M ammonium carbonate solution using Chelex 100 resin and subsequent quantitative elution of the elements of interest with 2M nitric acid for gamma-ray spectrometry. The procedure was tested by simulated gunshot residues. (author)

  14. Influence of arsenic,antimony and cobalt impurities on the cathodic process in zinc electrowinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By means of an electrochemical study,the influence of arsenic,antimony and cobalt on cathodic polarization in the zinc electrowinning process,the associated kinetic equations and parameters,and the polarization mechanism have been studied.The results show that the experimental values of the kinetic parameters are in accord with the theoretical values in the ZnSO4/H2SO4 solution with a single impurity is added.In contrast,the charge transfer coefficient α is smaller than the theoretical value in the ZnSO4/H2SO4 solution when the three impurities are added together.

  15. Polymorphism and properties of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} doped with pentavalent antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharitonova, E.P.; Belov, D.A. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gagor, A.B.; Pietraszko, A.P. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland); Alekseeva, O.A. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronkova, V.I., E-mail: voronk@polly.phys.msu.ru [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-05

    Highlights: • The limit of Bi{sub 2}W{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 6−y} solid solutions is at x = 0.05. • Bi{sub 2}W{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 6−y} does not fully transform into high-temperature monoclinic phase. • Sb{sup 5+} has a weak effect on the temperatures of the ferroelectric transitions. • γ→γ{sup ‴} transition near 650 °C was observed as strong permittivity peak at 0.01–8 Hz. • The conductivity of Bi{sub 2}W{sub 0.96}Sb{sub 0.04}O{sub 6−y} at 800 °C reaches 0.02 S/cm. -- Abstract: Antimony-containing solid solutions isostructural with bismuth tungstate, Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, have been prepared in air as polycrystalline samples by solid-state reactions and as single crystals by unseeded flux growth. The antimony in the solid solutions is in a pentavalent state and substitutes for tungsten in the structure of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The Bi{sub 2}W{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 6−y} solid solutions have been shown to exist in the composition range 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.05. We have examined the effect of Sb{sup 5+} doping on the polymorphism and properties of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. In contrast to undoped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, antimony-substituted bismuth tungstate does not completely transform into its high-temperature, monoclinic phase at 960 °C and remains two-phase up to temperatures approaching its melting point. Antimony substitution for tungsten has a weak effect on the temperatures of the ferroelectric phase transitions. Heterovalent substitution of Sb{sup 5+} for W{sup 6+} is accompanied by the formation of extra oxygen vacancies and an increase in the electrical conductivity of the solid solutions by one to two orders of magnitude relative to undoped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}.

  16. Electromagnetic absorption and shielding behavior of polyaniline-antimony oxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Muhammad; Khasim, Syed

    2013-02-01

    This work highlights the microwave absorption and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties of synthesized polyaniline (PAni)-antimony oxide (Sb2O3) composites in the 8-12 GHz (X-band) range. These composites showed absorption dominated EMI shielding effectiveness (EMI SEA) of -34 to -40 dB (> 99 % attenuation), indicating their shielding potential throughout the X-band. Our analyses reveal that the Sb2O3 particles in PAni matrix have key impact in determining the microwave absorption properties of the composites.

  17. Determination of arsenic, selenium and antimony by neutron activation analysis. Application to hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast rabbit system for instrumental activation analysis with reactor neutrons is described. Its use in the determination of selenium in hair is discussed. A survey is given of the correction factors which are inherent to the use of short-lived radionuclides. An alternative to INAA is NAA based on the separation of arsenic, selenium and antimony by hydride evaporation and adsorption to active carbon. Data for some Standard Reference Materials are given. This work was done under research contract 2440/RI/RB with the IAEA

  18. High levels of antimony in dust from e-waste recycling in southeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global issue. Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element used in semiconductor components and flame retardants for circuit board within electronic equipment. When e-waste is recycled, Sb is released and contaminates the surrounding environment; however, few studies have characterized the extent of this problem. In this study, we investigated Sb and arsenic (As) distributions in indoor dust from 13 e-waste recycling villages in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, southeastern China. Results revealed significantly elevated concentrations of Sb (6.1-232 mg/kg) in dust within all villages, which were 3.9-147 times higher than those from the non e-waste sites, indicating e-waste recycling was an important source of Sb pollution. On the contrary, As concentrations (5.4-17.7 mg/kg) in e-waste dusts were similar to reference values from the control sites. Therefore, dusts emitted from e-waste recycling may be characterized by high Sb/As ratios, which may help identify the contamination due to the e-waste recycling activities. - Highlights: → Antimony and arsenic concentrations in dust from e-waste recycling were investigated. → E-waste recycling is an important emerging source of Sb pollution. → Sb/As ratios may help identify the e-waste contamination.

  19. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: comparison of in vitro leishmanicidal activity of marbofloxacin, meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Rougier, Sandrine; Dugas, Bernard; Pino, Paco; Mazier, Dominique; Woehrlé, Frédérique

    2006-01-30

    The control of canine leishmaniasis largely depends on the success of treatment. Drugs currently available to treat this disease are toxic and partially effective. The curative effect of marbofloxacin, a third-generation fluoroquinolone developed for veterinarian individual treatment, was evaluated in vitro in the presence of Leishmania infantum promastigotes and dog-monocyte-derived macrophages; meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate were used as comparative treatments. We observed that the killing of Leishmania promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes by marbofloxacin was dose-dependent. We demonstrated that successful treatment of canine infected macrophages for 48 h was possible with 500 microg/ml of marbofloxacin. Leishmanicidal activity acted through a TNF-alpha and nitric oxide pathway and correlated with the generation of nitric oxide (NO(2)) production by monocytes derived macrophages from infected (23+/-5 microM) or healthy (21+/-6 microM) dogs, in comparison with NO(2) concentration in infected/non-treated macrophages (Marbofloxacin was shown to be non-toxic at 500 microg/ml in vitro and no cell apoptosis was observed. The molecule was able to induce a parasitic process after significant elimination of amastigotes in leishmania-infected dog macrophages. We propose that marbofloxacin, compared to standard chemotherapeutic agents (meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate), could be an effective and pragmatic oral route alternative to treat canine leishmaniasis.

  20. Evaluation of antimony microparticles supported on biochar for application in the voltammetric determination of paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaerd, Ava; de Oliveira, Paulo R; Mangrich, Antonio S; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the construction and application of carbon paste electrodes modified with biochar and antimony microparticles (SbBCPE) for voltammetric determination of paraquat using a simple and sensitive procedure based on voltammetric stripping analysis. Some parameters such as amount of biochar and antimony used in the composition of the carbon paste and instrumental parameters were examined in detail. Under optimized conditions, an analytical curve was obtained for paraquat determination employing SbBCPE, which showed a linear response ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 μmol L(-1), with limit of detection and quantification of 34 nmol L(-1) and 113 nmol L(-1), respectively, after paraquat pre-concentration of 120 s. The repeatability study presented a RSD=2.0% for 10 consecutive measurements using the same electrode surface and the reproducibility study showed a RSD=2.7% for measurements with 10 different electrode surfaces. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for paraquat determination in tap water and citric fruit juice spiked samples and good recoveries were obtained without any sample pre-treatment, showing its promising analytical performance.

  1. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockmann, Kerstin; Tandy, Susan; Lenz, Markus; Reiser, René; Conesa, Héctor M; Keller, Martin; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions using four large outdoor lysimeters. After monitoring the leachate samples taken at bi-weekly intervals for >1.5 years under drained conditions, two of the lysimeters were subjected to waterlogging with a water table fluctuating according to natural rainfall water infiltration. Antimony leachate concentrations under drained conditions showed a strong seasonal fluctuation between 110 μg L(-1) in summer and soil solution indicated that this decrease in Sb(V) concentrations was attributable to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the stronger sorption affinity of the latter to iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide phases. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering seasonal and waterlogging effects in the assessment of the risks from Sb-contaminated sites. PMID:25592464

  2. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmund Michalski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemical cycles of chemical compounds, determination of toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products, control of medicines and pharmaceutical products, technological process control, research on the impact of technological installation on the environment, examination of occupational exposure, and clinical analysis. Conventional methods are usually labor intensive, time consuming, and susceptible to interferences. The hyphenated techniques, in which separation method is coupled with multidimensional detectors, have become useful alternatives. The main advantages of those techniques consist in extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant interference, influence as well as high precision and repeatability of the determinations. In view of their importance, the present work overviews and discusses different hyphenated techniques used for arsenic, antimony, and thallium species analysis, in different clinical, environmental and food matrices.

  3. Determination of Trace Antimony (III by Adsorption Voltammetry at Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongyue He

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a sensitive method for the determination of trace antimonybased on the antimony-pyrogallol red (PGR adsorption at a carbon paste electrode (CPE.The optimal conditions were to use an electrode containing 25% paraffin oil and 75%high purity graphite powder as working electrode, a 0.10 mol/L HCl solution containing3.0×10-5 mol/L PGR as accumulation medium and a 0.20 mol/L HCl solution aselectrolyte with an accumulation time of 150 s and a reduction time of 60 s at -0.50 Vfollowed with a sweep from -0.50 V to 0.20 V. The mechanism of the electrode reactionwas discussed. Interferences of other metal ions were studied as well. The detection limitwas 1×10-9 mol/L. The linear range was from 2.0×10-9 mol/L to 5.0×10-7 mol/L.Application of the proposed method to the determination of antimony in water andhuman hair samples gave good results.

  4. Organically complexed iron enhances bioavailability of antimony to maize (Zea mays) seedlings in organic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Corey; McBride, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Chemical similarities between arsenic (As) and Sb produce concerns about potential health effects of Sb and enrichment in the environment. Antimony is found in oxic environments predominately as an oxyanionic species, antimonite (Sb[OH](6-)). As a result of its net negative charge, Sb[OH](6-) was not initially predicted to have strong interactions with natural organic matter. Oxyanionic species could bind the negatively charged organic matter via a ternary complexation mechanism, in which cationic metals mediate the strong association between organic matter functional groups and oxyanions. However, these interactions are poorly understood in how they influence the bioavailability of oxyanionic contaminants to plants. Iron (Fe) additions to organic soils have been found to increase the number of organically complexed Fe sites suitable for Sb exchange, resulting in a reduced bioavailable fraction of Sb. The bioavailability of Sb to maize seedlings as a function of organically complexed Fe was examined using a greenhouse study. A significant increase in plant tissue Sb was observed as organically complexed Fe increased, which was not predicted by methods commonly used to assess bioavailable Sb. Extraction of soils with organic acids common to the maize rhizosphere suggested that organic acid exudation can readily mobilize Sb bound by organic Fe complexes. PMID:26076768

  5. Morphology-controlled growth of crystalline antimony sulfide via a refluxing polyol process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Chen, Xiangying; Mo, Maosong; Wang, Zhenghua; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Xinyuan; Qian, Yitai

    2004-02-01

    By refluxing antimony trichloride (SbCl 3) and thiourea in various solvents at suitable reaction conditions, antimony sulfide (Sb 2S 3) crystallites with a diversity of well-defined morphologies were synthesized. Sb 2S 3 rods with the average diameter of 800 nm and the length of 7 μm, as well as microtubes with the average outer diameter of 1.2 μm, the average inner diameter of 800 nm and the length of 8 μm, were obtained in 1,2-propanediol at 180°C for 10 min. In contrast, a series of experiments under different conditions were carried out to investigate the influencing factors on the reaction. The as-synthesized products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectra. The results indicate Sb 2S 3 crystals with different morphologies, including rod-like, tube-like, bowknot-like, flower-like, straw-bundled-like, taken under different experimental conditions. It is found that the reaction temperature, time, solvent and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (as a polymer capping reagent) play important roles in the formation of the final Sb 2S 3 crystallites with different morphologies. Also, the possible growth mechanism is discussed.

  6. Organically complexed iron enhances bioavailability of antimony to maize (Zea mays) seedlings in organic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Corey; McBride, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Chemical similarities between arsenic (As) and Sb produce concerns about potential health effects of Sb and enrichment in the environment. Antimony is found in oxic environments predominately as an oxyanionic species, antimonite (Sb[OH](6-)). As a result of its net negative charge, Sb[OH](6-) was not initially predicted to have strong interactions with natural organic matter. Oxyanionic species could bind the negatively charged organic matter via a ternary complexation mechanism, in which cationic metals mediate the strong association between organic matter functional groups and oxyanions. However, these interactions are poorly understood in how they influence the bioavailability of oxyanionic contaminants to plants. Iron (Fe) additions to organic soils have been found to increase the number of organically complexed Fe sites suitable for Sb exchange, resulting in a reduced bioavailable fraction of Sb. The bioavailability of Sb to maize seedlings as a function of organically complexed Fe was examined using a greenhouse study. A significant increase in plant tissue Sb was observed as organically complexed Fe increased, which was not predicted by methods commonly used to assess bioavailable Sb. Extraction of soils with organic acids common to the maize rhizosphere suggested that organic acid exudation can readily mobilize Sb bound by organic Fe complexes.

  7. Effect of antimony incorporation on structural properties of CuInS{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rabeh, M., E-mail: mohamedbenrabeh@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaglabou, N., E-mail: nadia_chaglabou@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Kanzari, M., E-mail: Mounir.Kanzari@ipeit.rnu.t [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) single crystals doped with 1, 2, 3 and 4 atomic percent (at.%) of antimony (Sb) were grown by the horizontal Bridgman method. The effect of Sb doping on the structural properties of CIS crystal was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL measurements. X-ray diffraction data suggests that the doping of Sb in the CIS single crystals does not affect the tetragonal (chalcopyrite) crystal structure and exhibited a (1 1 2) preferred orientation. In addition, with increasing Sb concentration, the X-ray diffraction analysis show that Sb doped CIS crystals are more crystallized and the diffraction peaks of the CuInS{sub 2} phase were more pronounced in particular the (1 1 2) plane. EDAX study revealed that Sb atoms can occupy the indium site and/or occupying the sulfur site to make an acceptor. PL spectra of undoped and Sb doped CIS crystals show two emission peaks at 1.52 and 1.62 eV, respectively which decreased with increasing atomic percent antimony. Sb doped CIS crystals show p-type conductivity.

  8. Food crop accumulation and bioavailability assessment for antimony (Sb) compared with arsenic (As) in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Susan C; Tighe, Matthew; Paterson, Ewan; Ashley, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Field samples and a 9-week glasshouse growth trial were used to investigate the accumulation of mining derived arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in vegetable crops growing on the Macleay River Floodplain in Northern New South Wales, Australia. The soils were also extracted using EDTA to assess the potential for this extractant to be used as a predictor of As and Sb uptake in vegetables, and a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) to understand potential for uptake in the human gut with soil ingestion. Metalloids were not detected in any field vegetables sampled. Antimony was not detected in the growth trial vegetable crops over the 9-week greenhouse trial. Arsenic accumulation in edible vegetable parts was risk of exposure through short-term vegetable crops is low. The data also demonstrate that uptake pathways for Sb and As in the vegetables were different with uptake strongly impacted by soil properties. A fraction of soil-borne metalloid was soluble in the different soils resulting in Sb soil solution concentration (10.75 ± 0.52 μg L(-1)) that could present concern for contamination of water resources. EDTA proved a poor predictor of As and Sb phytoavailability. Oral bioaccessibility, as measured by SBET, was risk from soil borne As and Sb in the floodplain environment.

  9. Determination of antimony in nail and hair by thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of antimony in nail and hair was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis. Samples were collected from the workers of an antimony refinery, inhabitants near the refinery, and residents in control area. They were irradiated by Kyoto University 5000 kW Reactor for 1 h, and cooled for 30 to 100 days. After cooling, the concentration of Sb in nail and hair was estimated by measuring the intensity of γ-ray from 124Sb of the samples, then the samples were washed by 0.1 % aqueous solution of nonionic surface active agent in an ultrasonic cleaner. The γ-ray spectrometry was done again (after washing). The concentration of Sb in nail before washing was 730 ppm for the workers, 2.46 ppm for habitants near the refinery, and 0.19 ppm for the control; after washing, it became 230 ppm for the workers, 0.63 ppm for habitants, and 0.09 ppm for the control. The concentration of Sb in hair before and after washing was 222 ppm and 196 ppm for the workers, and 0.21 ppm and 0.15 ppm for the control, respectively. (author)

  10. One-step synthesis of antimony-doped tin dioxide nanocrystallites and their property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Min; WANG Bao

    2009-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin dioxide(ATO) nanoparticles with primary diameter in the range of 9-10 nm were rapidly synthesized via a novel combustion technique, starting with antimony trichloride and tin tetrachloride as metal sources and self-assembly compounds as fuels. The combustion phenomena and characteristics of products were controlled by assembling components in fuel compounds according to appropriate molar ratio. The as-synthesized products were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and XPS, respectively. The electrical conductivity was evaluated through measuring the antistatic property of polyester fiber treated by the as-synthesized products. The results show that a mild combustion phenomena without release of smoke can be taken on and perfect azury rutile ATO crystal with complete substitution can be formed rapidly under the appropriate synthetic conditions. The antistatic property of the polyester fiber treated by the as-synthesized ATO products is enhanced remarkably. The triboelectricity voltage below 1.0 kV, half life below 1.0 s and surface resistance below 1.0×106 Ω can be attained.

  11. Growth of antimony doped P-type zinc oxide nanowires for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Pradel, Ken

    2016-09-27

    In a method of growing p-type nanowires, a nanowire growth solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO.sub.3).sub.2), hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and polyethylenemine (800 M.sub.w PEI) is prepared. A dopant solution to the growth solution, the dopant solution including an equal molar ration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), glycolic acid (C.sub.2H.sub.4O.sub.3) and antimony acetate (Sb(CH.sub.3COO).sub.3) in water is prepared. The dopant solution and the growth solution combine to generate a resulting solution that includes antimony to zinc in a ratio of between 0.2% molar to 2.0% molar, the resulting solution having a top surface. An ammonia solution is added to the resulting solution. A ZnO seed layer is applied to a substrate and the substrate is placed into the top surface of the resulting solution with the ZnO seed layer facing downwardly for a predetermined time until Sb-doped ZnO nanowires having a length of at least 5 .mu.m have grown from the ZnO seed layer.

  12. Characteristics of Potassium-Enriched, Flue-Cured Tobacco Genotype in Potassium Absorption,Accumulation,and In-Ward Potassium Currents of Root Cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YNAG Tie-zhao; LU Li-ming; XIA Wei; FAN Jin-hua

    2007-01-01

    This study was to investigate the main traits of potassium-enriched,flue-cured tobacco genotypes related to potassium absorption,accumulation,and in-ward potassium currents of the root cortex.Hydroponic methods,K+-depletion methods,and patch-clamp,whole-cell recordings were conducted to study the accumulation of dry matter and potassium in different organs,and to measure potassium absorption and dynamic and in-ward potassium currents in potassium-enriched,fluecured tobacco genotypes.The average dry weights of leaves and whole plant of potassium-enriched,flue-cured tobacco genotype ND202 were 10.20,and 14.85g,respectively,higher than JYH(8.50 and 13.11g,respectively)and NC2326(8.39 and 12.72g,respectively),when potassium concentration in the solution ranged from 0.1 to 50mmol L-1.Potassium accumulation in the leaves of ND202 was 18.6% higher than JYH and 34% higher than NC2326 when potassium concentration in the solution was superior to 0.5mmol L-1.The Vmax(the maximum velocity)of ND202 was 118.11μmol FW g-1h-1,obviously higher than that of JYH(58.87 μmol FW g-1 h-1)and NC2326(64.40μmol FW g-1 h-1).In the in-ward potassium currents,the absolute value of current density(pA/pF)of ND202 was 60,higher than that of JYH(50)and NC2326(40).Potassium concentration in leaves,Vmax and in-ward potassium currents,could be used to screen potassium-enriched,flue-cured tobacco genotypes.

  13. Potassium channels in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherat, Olivier; Chabot, Sophie; Antigny, Fabrice; Perros, Frédéric; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating cardiopulmonary disorder with various origins. All forms of PAH share a common pulmonary arteriopathy characterised by vasoconstriction, remodelling of the pre-capillary pulmonary vessel wall, and in situ thrombosis. Although the pathogenesis of PAH is recognised as a complex and multifactorial process, there is growing evidence that potassium channels dysfunction in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells is a hallmark of PAH. Besides regulating many physiological functions, reduced potassium channels expression and/or activity have significant effects on PAH establishment and progression. This review describes the molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences of potassium channel modulation. Special emphasis is placed on KCNA5 (Kv1.5) and KCNK3 (TASK1), which are considered to play a central role in determining pulmonary vascular tone and may represent attractive therapeutic targets in the treatment of PAH. PMID:26341985

  14. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  15. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteiwi, Suzan M; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K; Al-Omari, Ahmad A; Al-Asaad, Rania A; Haddad, Fares H

    2015-07-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome. PMID:26366264

  16. Emission infrared spectra of molten potassium heptafluoroniobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agulyanskij, A.I.; Bessonova, V.A. (AN SSSR, Apatity. Kol' skij Filial)

    1984-01-01

    Emission infrared spectra of potassium heptafluoroniobate molten in the air, vacuum and inert gas atmosphere are obtained. The analysis of different sections of the in got as well as potassium heptafluoroniobate condensate obtained upon long remelting in the air has shown that the investigated phases have complex composition. Along with the heptafluoroniobate potassium oxyfluoroniobate, mainly K/sub 2/NbOF/sub 5/ is present in them, in case of condensate-KNbOF/sub 4/. The pyrohydrolysis process consists of two-mutually compensating each other stages, that is parallel to the oxyfluoroniobate production the process of their destruction and partial removal from the melting surface takes place. It is shown that hydrogen fluoride produced as a result of KNbF/sub 5/ pyrohydrolysis can affect to considerable extent the ion structure of the melt.

  17. Identification of a non-purple tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase: an evolutionary link to Ser/Thr protein phosphatases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hume David A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatases (TRAcPs, also known as purple acid phosphatases (PAPs, are a family of binuclear metallohydrolases that have been identified in plants, animals and fungi. The human enzyme is a major histochemical marker for the diagnosis of bone-related diseases. TRAcPs can occur as a small form possessing only the ~35 kDa catalytic domain, or a larger ~55 kDa form possessing both a catalytic domain and an additional N-terminal domain of unknown function. Due to its role in bone resorption the 35 kDa TRAcP has become a promising target for the development of anti-osteoporotic chemotherapeutics. Findings A new human gene product encoding a metallohydrolase distantly related to the ~55 kDa plant TRAcP was identified and characterised. The gene product is found in a number of animal species, and is present in all tissues sampled by the RIKEN mouse transcriptome project. Construction of a homology model illustrated that six of the seven metal-coordinating ligands in the active site are identical to that observed in the TRAcP family. However, the tyrosine ligand associated with the charge transfer transition and purple color of TRAcPs is replaced by a histidine. Conlusion The gene product identified here may represent an evolutionary link between TRAcPs and Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. Its biological function is currently unknown but is unlikely to be associated with bone metabolism.

  18. Synergistic effect of iontophoresis and chemical enhancers on transdermal permeation of tolterodine tartrate for the treatment of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prasanthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective of the study was to evaluate the synergistic transdermal permeation effect of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis technique on tolterodine tartrate (TT transdermal gel and to evaluate its pharmacokinetic properties. Materials and Methods Taguchi robust design was used for optimization of formulations. Skin permeation rates were evaluated using the Keshary-chein type diffusion cells in order to optimize the gel formulation. In-vivo studies of the optimized formulation were performed in a rabbit model and histopathology studies of optimized formulation were performed on rats. Results Transdermal gels were formulated successfully using Taguchi robust design method. The type of penetration enhancer, concentration of penetration enhancer, current density and pulse on/off ratio were chosen as independent variables. Type of penetration enhancer was found to be the significant factor for all the responses. Permeation parameters were evaluated when maximum cumulative amount permeated in 24 hours (Q24 was 145.71 ± 2.00µg/cm2 by CIT4 formulation over control (91.89 ± 2.30µg/cm2. Permeation was enhanced by 1.75 fold by CIT4 formulation. Formulation CIT4 containing nerolidol (5% and iontophoretic variables applied (0.5mA/cm2 and pulse on/off ratio 3:1 was optimized. In vivo studies with optimized formulation CIT4 showed increase in AUC and T1/2 when compared to oral suspension in rabbits. The histological studies showed changes in dermis indicating the effect of penetration enhancers and as iontophoresis was continued only for two cycles in periodic fashion so it did not cause any skin damage observed in the slides. Conclusion Results indicated that iontophoresis in combination with chemical enhancers is an effective method for transdermal administration of TT in the treatment of overactive bladder.

  19. Increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP expression in malignant breast, ovarian and melanoma tissue: an investigational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eck M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP is a metalloprotein enzyme that belongs to the acid phosphatases and is known to be expressed by osteoclasts. It has already been investigated as a marker of bone metastases in cancer patients. In this study, which examined the value of serum TRAP concentrations as a marker of bone disease in breast cancer patients, we observed high concentrations of TRAP even in patients without bone metastases. To elucidate this phenomenon, we examined the expression of TRAP in breast cancer cells and the cells of several other malignancies. Methods TRAP concentrations in the serum of tumor patients were determined by ELISA. The expression of TRAP in breast, ovarian, and cervical cancer and malignant melanoma was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR and immunocytology were used to evaluate TRAP expression in cultured tumor cells. Results A marked increase in serum TRAP concentrations was observed in patients with breast and ovarian cancer, regardless of the presence or absence of bone disease. TRAP expression was found in breast and ovarian cancers and malignant melanoma, while cervical cancer showed only minimal expression of TRAP. Expression of TRAP was absent in benign tissue or was much less marked than in the corresponding malignant tissue. TRAP expression was also demonstrated in cultured primary cancer cells and in commercially available cell lines. Conclusion Overexpression of TRAP was detected in the cells of various different tumors. TRAP might be useful as a marker of progression of malignant disease. It could also be a potential target for future cancer therapies.

  20. The Role of Topical Brimonidine Tartrate Gel as a Novel Therapeutic Option for Persistent Facial Erythema Associated with Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew William; Johnson, Sandra Marchese

    2015-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that commonly presents with persistent facial erythema with or without the coincident presence of flushing, telangiectasias, inflammatory papules or pustules, phymatous changes, or ocular involvement. Patients often present with a constellation of various signs and symptoms of the disease, and an individualized treatment plan should be tailored to a patient's unique clinical presentation. Previously available medications for rosacea have all targeted the inflammatory erythematous papules and pustules frequently associated with the disease, leaving a therapeutic gap for the common manifestation of persistent facial erythema. Brimonidine tartrate 0.33% gel was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in August 2013 as the first medication available for the topical treatment of persistent facial erythema associated with rosacea. Brimonidine gel is a highly selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist with potent vasoconstrictive effects, which leads to significant reduction of persistent facial erythema in the majority of patients when applied once daily. Based on large-scale clinical trials and post-marketing reports, brimonidine gel has maintained a good safety profile with a minority of patients experiencing adverse effects from its use, most of which are cutaneous in nature, mild-to-moderate in degree, occur early after initiation of treatment, often resolve spontaneously with continued use, and generally resolve after discontinuation of use. Among the reported adverse effects, two distinct manifestations of worsened erythema have been described. Brimonidine gel can be integrated into a treatment regimen along with concomitant therapies for facial papules and pustules with no increased risk of adverse events with combination therapy. Education about optimal application methods, setting reasonable expectations for treatment, and minimizing inflammation are important factors for the successful use of brimonidine

  1. Studies of potassium-promoted nickel catalysts for methane steam reforming: Effect of surface potassium location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiecki, Tadeusz; Denis, Andrzej; Rawski, Michał; Gołębiowski, Andrzej; Stołecki, Kazimierz; Dmytrzyk, Jaromir; Kotarba, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The effect of potassium addition to the Ni/Al2O3 steam reforming catalyst has been investigated on several model systems, including K/Al2O3 with various amounts of alkali promoters (1-4 wt% of K2O), a model catalyst 90%NiO-10%Al2O3 promoted with potassium and a commercial catalyst. The potassium surface state and stability were investigated by means of the Species Resolved Thermal Alkali Desorption method (SR-TAD). The activity of the catalysts in the steam reforming of methane and their coking-resistance were also evaluated. The results reveal that the beneficial effect of potassium addition is strongly related to its location in the catalysts. The catalyst surface should be promoted with potassium in order to obtain high coking-resistant catalysts. Moreover, the catalyst preparation procedure should ensure a direct interaction of potassium with the Al2O3 support surface. Due to the low stability of potassium on θ-Al2O3 this phase is undesirable during the preparation of a stable steam reforming catalyst.

  2. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films and Their Applications in CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony telluride alloy thin films were deposited at room temperature by using the vacuum coevaporation method. The films were annealed at different temperatures in N2 ambient, and then the compositional, structural, and electrical properties of antimony telluride thin films were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Hall measurements. The results indicate that single phase antimony telluride existed when the annealing temperature was higher than 488 K. All thin films exhibited p-type conductivity with high carrier concentrations. Cell performance was greatly improved when the antimony telluride thin films were used as the back contact layer for CdTe thin film solar cells. The dark current voltage and capacitance voltage measurements were performed to investigate the formation of the back contacts for the cells with or without Sb2Te3 buffer layers. CdTe solar cells with the buffer layers can reduce the series resistance and eliminate the reverse junction between CdTe and metal electrodes.

  3. Progress of Antimony-containing Wastewater Treatment%含锑废水处理技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹鑫; 周广柱; 王翠珍; 王世豪; 彭刚; 何双

    2014-01-01

    在锑矿的开采及冶炼加工过程中,排出了大量含锑废水,这种重金属废水对环境和人体健康构成严重威胁。本文总结了重金属锑元素的物理化学性质、毒性特点,归纳了含锑废水的处理方法,分析了含锑废水处理技术的优势和缺点,提出了工艺联合应用等高效处理含锑废水的相关建议。%A large amount of wastewater containing antimony discharged in the process of antimony ore mining,smelting and processing,which pose a serious threat to the environment and human health. In this paper we summarized the characteristics of physical and chemical properties, toxicity of antimony, and the antimony wastewater treatment. Advantages and disadvantages of these treatment crafts were compared in a table,the recommendations given out for more efficiently processing via crafts combination.

  4. Electrochemical, structural and surface characterization of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes in coal gas containing antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Edwards, Danny J.

    The interactions of antimony with the nickel-zirconia anode in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 and 800 °C in synthetic coal gas containing 100 ppb to 9 ppm antimony. Minor performance loss was observed immediately after Sb introduction to coal gas resulting in ca. 5% power output drop. While no further degradation was observed during the following several hundred hours of testing, cells abruptly and irreversibly failed after 800-1600 h depending on Sb concentration and test temperature. Antimony was found to interact strongly with nickel resulting in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Nickel antimonide phases, NiSb and Ni 5Sb 2, were partially coalesced into large grains and eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Initial degradation was attributed to diffusion of antimony to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer, while the late stage degradation was due the Ni-Sb phase formation. Assuming an average Sb concentration in coal gas of 0.07 ppmv, a 500 μm thick Ni/zirconia anode-supported cell is not expected to fail within 7 years when operated at a power output of 0.5 W cm -2 and fuel utilization above 50%.

  5. Ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring : a comparison between antimony, ISFET, and glass pH electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmink, Gerrit J. M.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Oors, Jac; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Timmer, Robin; Smout, Andre J. P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aim Ambulatory oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring is a widely used test to evaluate patients with reflux symptoms. Several types of pH electrodes are available: antimony, ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET), and glass electrodes. These pH electrodes have not been compared d

  6. POLICY China’s Ministry of Commerce Set the Rules for Antimony and Tungsten Export in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> China’s ministry of commerce recently re-leased the rules and application procedures forthe export of antimony and tungsten productsin 2005 by the domestic producers.Based on the rules set by the ministry,China’santimony and tungsten producers providingtheir products for export must be those enter-prises authorized by the related State authori-ties.

  7. Comparative phytotoxicity of methylated and inorganic arsenic- and antimony species to Lemna minor, Wolffia arrhiza and Selenastrum capricornutum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Duester; H.G. van der Geest; S. Moelleken; A.V. Hirner; K. Kueppers

    2011-01-01

    The alkylation of metalloids through the transfer of methyl groups is an important factor in the biogeochemical cycling of elements like arsenic and antimony. In the environment, many different organic and inorganic forms of these elements can therefore be found in soils, sediments or organisms. Stu

  8. Kramers-Kronig transformation of experimental electronic circular dichroism: application to the analysis of optical rotatory dispersion in dimethyl-L-tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, Prasad L; Petrovic, Ana G; Zhang, Peng

    2006-09-01

    When a limited region of the experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum is subjected to Kramers-Kronig (KK) transformation, the resulting optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) may or may not reproduce the experimentally measured ORD in the long-wavelength nonresonant region. If the KK transform of experimentally measured ECD in a limited wavelength region reproduces the experimentally measured ORD in the long-wavelength nonresonant region, then that observation indicates that the ORD in the long-wavelength nonresonant region should be satisfactorily predicted from the correspondingly limited number of electronic transitions in a reliable quantum mechanical calculation. On the other hand, if the KK transform of experimentally measured ECD in a limited region does not reproduce the experimentally measured ORD in the long-wavelength nonresonant region, then it should be possible to identify the ECD bands in the shorter wavelength region that are responsible for the differences between experimentally observed ORD and KK-transformed ECD. This approach helps to identify the role of ECD associated with higher energy-excited states in the nature of ORD in the long-wavelength nonresonant region. These concepts are demonstrated here by measuring the experimental ECD and ORD for dimethyl-L-tartrate in different solvents. While ECD spectra of dimethyl-L-tartrate in different solvents show little variation, ORD spectra in the long-wavelength nonresonant region show marked solvent dependence. These observations are explained using the difference between experimental ORD and KK-transformed ECD. Quantum mechanical predictions of ECD and ORD are also presented for isolated (R, R)-dimethyl tartrate at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level.

  9. Comparison between 0.5% timolol maleate and 0.2% brimonidine tartrate in controlling increase in intraocular pressure after neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser capsulotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of prophylactically given 0.5% Timolol maleate and 0.2% Brimonidine tartrate in controlling increase in intraocular pressure after neodymium (Nd) : yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser capsulotomy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Ophthalmology Department, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from 15-05-2009 to 14-05-2010 for a duration of 12 months. Material and Methods: In this study, 90 consecutive patients were referred from outpatient department for Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy. Hospital ethical committee's approval for this research proposal and the informed consent was taken. These patients were equally divided into two groups A and B, comprising of 45 patients in each group. Group A was control group which received 0.5% Timolol maleate. Group B was experimental group which received 0.2% Brimonidine tartrate. Intraocular pressure was measured using Goldmann tonometer before instilling these topical medications. These medications were administered topically 1 hour before the laser procedure. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was recorded 1 and 3 hours after laser capsulotomy. Results: In patients belonging to group A, 42 (93.3%) patients had effective control of IOP (raise of less than or equal to 5 mmHg from the baseline) after 3 hours of Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy whereas 28 (62.2%) patients had effective control of IOP after the same period of time in group-B with significant difference (p<0.001). Conclusion: Use of prophylactic topical antiglaucoma medications before doing Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy is a effective way to reduce post laser spike of intraocular pressure. Present study showed that the use of 0.5% timolol maleate was safe and more effective than 0.2% brimonidine tartrate when given 1 hour before laser capsulotomy. (author)

  10. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed. PMID:21552747

  11. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety of the complexation product of sodium tartrate and iron(III chloride as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexation product of sodium tartrates and iron(III chloride (Fe mTA is proposed for use as an anti-caking agent, only in salt or its substitutes, with a maximum use level of 106 mg Fe mTA/kg salt. Fe mTA can be expected to dissociate into its constituent iron(III and tartrate components upon ingestion. Studies in rats demonstrated that up to 90 % of ingested DL-tartrate or tartaric acid were absorbed, studies in humans suggested that only 20 % of an ingested dose of tartaric acid were absorbed. There are no ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion data for meso-tartrate. From a 90-day rat study, the lowest calculated BMDLs (Benchmark Dose Level for Fe mTA were: 75 mg/kg body weight (bw per day for males (BMDL05 for serum bile acids and 267 mg/kg bw per day for females (BMDL10 for goblet cells hyperplasia. Several in vitro studies showed that there is no safety concern for genotoxicity. No reprotoxicity and developmental toxicity was reported, however no study was specifically designed for teratogenicity. No long-term or carcinogenicity studies were available. The Panel concluded that the toxicity database was insufficient to establish an ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake and calculated MoS (Margin of Safety by comparing the highest intake of Fe mTA of 0.092 mg/kg bw per day for children at the 97.5 percentile with the lowest BMDLs. The resulting MoS were 815 and 2 900 for males and females, respectively. Owing to the conservative assumptions included in the exposure assessment, the Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for the single condition of use and use level of Fe mTA proposed. The Panel noted that this evaluation was based on a limited toxicity database, for a single use resulting in a very low exposure, and therefore concluded that any extension of use and/or use level of Fe mTA, would require a new risk assessment.

  13. Spectrophotometric Determination of Losartan Potassium in Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Diane A. Aniñon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the quality control of pharmaceutical products, it is of utmost importance that validated analytical methods are used to ensure the credibility of the results generated. At the time of the study, official monographs from the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF for the quantification of Losartan potassium in tablets were unavailable, denoting the need for a validated analytical procedure for the analysis of the drug. The study adapted direct and first-derivative UV spectrophotometry methods proposed by Bonfilio and others (2010 for the assay of Losartan potassium in Losartan 50 mg. capsules, then modified and validated the said procedures for the assay of Losartan potassium in Losartan 100 mg. tablets following the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH guidelines on method validation for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. Results demonstrated that all the performance characteristics of both methods were highly satisfactory and confirmed the possible application of the methods in routine analysis of Losartan potassium tablets.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections and... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  15. Potassium - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Spanish (español) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Potassium Content of Common Foods (High) English 含高量钾质的食品(每份所含钾质多过200毫克) - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) PDF ...

  16. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... from China (49 FR 3897). Following first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective... permanganate from China (64 FR 66166). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission... potassium permanganate from China (70 FR 35630). The Commission is now conducting a third review...

  17. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K (2.50 g/kg, supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per egg dozen, estimating the requirements of 4.26, 4.41, 4.38, 4.43 and 4.48 (g/kg of K diet, respectively. There was no significant effect on the levels of K in the diet on egg weight, albumen weight, percentage of yolk or shell and yolk color. However, yolk and shell weights reduced and the albumen percentage increased linearly with increasing levels of K in the diet. Despite the reduction of shell weight, the increased levels of K did not influence the specific gravity and shell thickness. The use of 4.41 g/kg of potassium is recommended in the diet for laying Japanese quails.

  18. Hg0 absorption in potassium persulfate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qun-feng; WANG Cheng-yun; WANG Da-hui; SUN Guan; XU Xin-hua

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag+was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg0 concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg0 were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg0 was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO3. High Hg0 concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed.

  19. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  1. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  3. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Lansink, Annemieke Oude; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  4. Determination of natural isotopic variation in antimony using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for an uncertainty estimation of the standard atomic weight of antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic variation of industrially produced antimony was estimated using multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A reproducible 123Sb/121Sb ratio of ±0.004% (2 standard deviations) was routinely obtained using a Sn doping mass discrimination correction technique. Only a small isotopic variation of about 0.05% was observed among industrially important Sb materials (five commercially available reagents and two ore minerals). The degree of Sb isotopic variation to determine the uncertainty in Sb atomic weight can be reduced by this new analytical technique to 0.00025 compared to the currently accepted IUPAC isotopic variation determined by conventional mass spectrometry of ±0.001. Heavy isotope enrichment of Sb in a drainage water sample from a stibnite mining area was found. This heavy isotope enrichment tendency in an aqueous environment may be useful in detecting anthropogenic Sb input from industrial emission by the smelting process via air because Sb of anthropogenic origin will have lighter isotope enrichment features. (author)

  5. Spin dynamics of complex oxides, bismuth-antimony alloys, and bismuth chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cuneyt

    The emerging field of spintronics relies on the manipulation of electron spin in order to use it in spin-based electronics. Such a paradigm change has to tackle several challenges including finding materials with sufficiently long spin lifetimes and materials which are efficient in generating pure spin currents. This thesis predicts that two types of material families could be a solution to the aforementioned challenges: complex oxides and bismuth based materials. We derived a general approach for constructing an effective spin-orbit Hamiltonian which is applicable to all nonmagnetic materials. This formalism is useful for calculating spin-dependent properties near an arbitrary point in momentum space. We also verified this formalism through comparisons with other approaches for III-V semiconductors, and its general applicability is illustrated by deriving the spin-orbit interaction and predicting spin lifetimes for strained strontium titanate (STO) and a two-dimensional electron gas in STO (such as at the LAO/STO interface). Our results suggest robust spin coherence and spin transport properties in STO related materials even at room temperature. In the second part of the study we calculated intrinsic spin Hall conductivities for bismuth-antimony (BISb) semimetals with strong spin-orbit couplings, from the Kubo formula and using Berry curvatures evaluated throughout the Brillouin zone from a tight-binding Hamiltonian. Nearly crossing bands with strong spin-orbit interaction generate giant spin Hall conductivities in these materials, ranging from 474 ((h/e)O--1cm--1) for bismuth to 96((h/e)O--1cm --1) for antimony; the value for bismuth is more than twice that of platinum. The large spin Hall conductivities persist for alloy compositions corresponding to a three-dimensional topological insulator state, such as Bi0.83Sb0.17. The spin Hall conductivity could be changed by a factor of 5 for doped Bi, or for Bi0.83Sb0.17, by changing the chemical potential by 0.5 e

  6. Electrical properties of the potassium polytitanate compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffman, V.G.; Gorokhovsky, A.V. [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Kompan, M.M. [Physico-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tretyachenko, E.V.; Telegina, O.S.; Kovnev, A.V. [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Fedorov, F.S., E-mail: fedorov_fs@daad-alumni.de [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Quasi-static permittivity of potassium polytitanates compacts achieves 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}. • Observed Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributes to layered structure of polytitanates. • The conductivity varies from 5 × 10{sup −2} to 10{sup −6}–10{sup −7} Sm/m in a wide range of temperatures. - Abstract: Titanates of alkali metals are widely applied materials as they are relatively low in cost and might be easily synthesized. They are utilized as adsorbents, catalysts, solid state electrolytes, superconductors. Here we report our results on electrical properties of the compacted amorphous potassium polytitanates powders. The electrical properties of the compacts were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy in a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures using two-electrode configuration. The frequency dependences of conductivity for the investigated potassium polytitanates compacts varies in the range from 5 × 10{sup −2} Sm/m (high frequencies, ion conductivity) up to 10{sup −6}–10{sup −7} Sm/m (low frequencies, electron conductivity) for a wide range of temperatures (19–150 °C). According to the results, at low frequencies quasi-static permittivity of the stabilized PPT compacts achieves high values of 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}. This might be explained by Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributed to the layered structure of the potassium polytitanates particles containing potassium and hydronium ions together with crystallization water in the interlayer and is very promising for solid state electrolyte applications for moderate temperatures.

  7. New type of potassium deposit: Modal analysis and preparation of potassium carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Hongwen; FENG; Wuwei; MIAO; Shiding; WANG; Yingbin; TI

    2005-01-01

    A kind of dolomitic mudstone newly found in North China has high amounts of K2O up to 10wB% in average, and potassium reserve is at superior scale. Mineral assemblage of the potassium ore indicates a specific and complicated geological environment under which the potassium deposit formed. Modal analysis of the potassium host rock shows that the principal minerals in the ore include microcline, dolomite, and clay minerals such as illite, illite/smectite mixed layer, and kaolinite, attributable to a new type of insoluble potassium deposits in ore genesis. The experiments in this research demonstrated that with sodium carbonate as flux agent, the potassium ore could be decomposed with a proportion as high as 99.4% by calcinations at moderate temperature for no more than 1.5―2.0 h; more than 70% of K2O in the calcined materials were leached into the liquor, and by acidification reaction of the filter liquor, a large amount of impurities such as Fe3+, Ti4+, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were removed with precipitation of alumino-silicious colloid residue, which makes it possible to prepare potassium carbonate of electronic grade from the filter liquor, whereas the alumino-silicious residue could be utilized to make mineral polymer, a new type of inorganic construction structural materials. The current research shows that industrial exploitation and comprehensive utilization of this new type of insoluble potassium resource are feasible both in economic benefits and environmental kindness with the fairly clean production process as sketched in this paper.

  8. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors....

  9. First-Principles Study of Antimony Doping Effects on the Iron-Based Superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-01

    We study antimony doping effects on the iron-based superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2 by using the first-principles calculation. The calculations reveal that the substitution of a doped antimony atom into As of the chainlike As layers is more stable than that into FeAs layers. This prediction can be checked by experiments. Our results suggest that doping homologous elements into the chainlike As layers, which only exist in the novel 112 system, is responsible for rising up the critical temperature. We discuss antimony doping effects on the electronic structure. It is found that the calculated band structures with and without the antimony doping are similar to each other within our framework.

  10. Phytoavailability of antimony and heavy metals in arid regions: the case of the Wadley Sb district (San Luis, Potosí, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levresse, G; Lopez, G; Tritlla, J; López, E Cardellach; Chavez, A Carrillo; Salvador, E Mascuñano; Soler, A; Corbella, M; Sandoval, L G Hernández; Corona-Esquivel, R

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents original results on the Sb and heavy metals contents in sediments and waste tailings, plants and water from the giant Wadley antimony mine district (San Luis Potosí State, Mexico). The dominant antimony phases in mining wastes are stibiconite, montroydite and minor hermimorphite. The waste tailings contain high concentrations of metals and metalloids (antimony, iron, zinc, arsenic, copper, and mercury). Manganese, copper, zinc, and antimony contents exceed the quality guidelines values for groundwater, plants and for waste tailings. Results indicate that peak accumulation is seasonal due to the concentration by high metabolism plants as Solanaceae Nicotiana. The metal phytoavailability in waste tailings is highly dependant on the metal speciation, its capability to be transported in water and, more particularly, the plant metabolism efficiency.

  11. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b is a potential biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study in Han Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Tao; Wang Mingjun; Chen Zhiwei; Robert A Eisenberg; Zhang Yu; Zou Yaohong; Deng Yingsu

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone damage around the joints is one of the major pathophysiological mechanisms that leads to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) chronic disability.Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b) is secreted by osteoclasts,its activity can be used as a clinically relevant bone resorption marker.The aim of this study was to test whether the measurement of serum levels of TRACP-5b in patients with RA would correlate with measures of disease activity and with responses to therapy.Methods Fifty-six patients were randomly assigned to receive recombinant human cytotoxic tlymphocyte-associated antigen-4 immunoglobulin (RhCTLA4-lg),infliximab or methotrexate (MTX).The clinical and serologic indicators of RA activity were evaluated at baseline and at 24 weeks.Serum TRACP-5b was measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) at 0,12 and 24 weeks.Hand X-rays were obtained at baseline.Results At baseline,the levels of TRACP-5b correlated with the severity of X-ray damage,disease duration (r=0.332,P=0.012),and tender joint count (r=0.408,P=0.002).The 24 weeks values of TRACP-5b for RhCTLA4-lg group and infliximab group differed significantly from the baseline values in each group (P <0.05; P <0.05),whereas only the value for RhCTLA4-lg group differed significantly from the 24 weeks value for the MTX group (P <0.01).Considering the two biologics-treated groups together,the TRACP-5b levels at 24 weeks differed significantly from the baseline values only in those patients who reached an ACR70 level (P <0.05).Conclusions Measurement of serum TRACP-5b in RA patients reflects clinical and radiological measures of disease activity,treatment with certain biologics,and degree of response to therapy.TRACP-5b should be investigated further as a potential biomarker to predict response to therapy,including slowing of radiographic progression.

  12. Thermoelectric transport in surface- and antimony-doped bismuth telluride nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettes, Michael Thompson; Kim, Jaehyun; Wu, Wei; Bustillo, Karen C.; Shi, Li

    2016-10-01

    We report the in-plane thermoelectric properties of suspended (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 nanoplates with x ranging from 0.07 to 0.95 and thicknesses ranging from 9 to 42 nm. The results presented here reveal a trend of increasing p-type behavior with increasing antimony concentration, and a maximum Seebeck coefficient and thermoelectric figure of merit at x ˜ 0.5. We additionally tuned extrinsic doping of the surface using a tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) coating. The lattice thermal conductivity is found to be below that for undoped ultrathin Bi2Te3 nanoplates of comparable thickness and in the range of 0.2-0.7 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature.

  13. Nuclear quadrupole resonance of iodine pentafluoride and its complexes with antimony pentafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) have been obtained at 77 deg K for I127 and Sbsup(121,128) in the IF5, IF5xSbF5, IF5x2SbF5, CsIF6, and RbIF6 compounds. An agreement between quadrupole spectra and structural data have been observed. The results of studying IF5 by NQR, gamma resonance and microwave spectroscopy have been compared. It has been established that unshared electron pair of an iodine atom is stereochemically active which leads to a considerable distortion of octahedral symmetry of coordination polyhedron of the iodine atoms. The structure of complexes of iodine pentafluoride with antimony pentafluoride is given

  14. A novel composite material based on antimony(III) oxide and amorphous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemnukhova, Ludmila A. [Institute of Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 690022 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Panasenko, Alexander E., E-mail: panasenko@ich.dvo.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 690022 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-01

    The composite material nSb₂O₃·mSiO₂·xH₂O was prepared by hydrolysis of SbCl₃ and Na₂SiO₃ in an aqueous medium. It has been shown that the composition of the material is influenced by the ratio of the initial components and the acidity of the reaction medium. The morphology of the material particles and its specific surface area have been determined. The thermal and optic properties were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Novel composite material containing amorphous silica and crystal antimony(III) oxide has been synthesized by hydrolysis of SbCl₃ and Na₂SiO₃ in an aqueous medium. Highlights: • The composite material nSb₂O₃·mSiO₂·xH₂O was prepared in an aqueous medium. • The composition of the material is controllable by a synthesis conditions. • The morphology of the material and its optic properties have been determined.

  15. Preparation and characterization of conductive antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Feng; DUAN; Xue-chen; REN; Xian-jing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, conductive antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) composite particles is prepared by hydroxylation method of metal alcoxides. This method has many advantages such as little pollution, low cost, simple sheet and equipment. The synthesis processing and the ATO nanoparticles are characterized by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and BET. The results show that the ATO nanoparticles is tetragonal rutile crystal structure. TEM show that the particles are monodispersed with weak aggromation. The size of the particles calcinated at 700 is about 8nm. The specific areas are 153 m2 · g-1. In addition to, ATO nanop articles have good electric properties

  16. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Tin-Antimony Nanocomposites as Anode Materials for Advanced Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liwen; Zhou, Weidong; Chabot, Victor; Yu, Aiping; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-11-11

    Reduced graphene oxides loaded with tin-antimony alloy (RGO-SnSb) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent thermal reduction treatments. Transmission electron microscope images confirm that SnSb nanoparticles with an average size of about 20-30 nm are uniformly dispersed on the RGO surfaces. When they were used as anodes for rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries, these as-synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposite anodes delivered a high initial reversible capacity of 407 mAh g(-1), stable cyclic retention for more than 80 cycles and excellent cycle stability at ultra high charge/discharge rates up to 30C. The significantly improved performance of the synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposites as Na-ion battery anodes can be attributed to the synergetic effects of RGO-based flexible framework and the nanoscale dimension of the SnSb alloy particles (batteries.

  18. Novel antimony doped tin oxide/carbon aerogel as efficient electrocatalytic filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimeng Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile method was developed to prepare antimony doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO2/carbon aerogel (CA for use as an electrocatalytic filtration membrane. The preparation process included synthesis of a precursor sol, impregnation, and thermal decomposition. The Sb-SnO2, which was tetragonal in phase with an average crystallite size of 10.8 nm, was uniformly distributed on the CA surface and firmly attached via carbon-oxygen-tin chemical bonds. Preliminary filtration tests indicated that the Sb-SnO2/CA membrane had a high rate of total organic carbon removal for aqueous tetracycline owing to its high current efficiency and electrode stability.

  19. Novel fabrication of an electrochromic antimony-doped tin oxide film using a nanoparticle deposition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Yunchan; Choi, Dahyun; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2016-07-01

    Novel deposition method of Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films was introduced using a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS) to fabricate an electrochromic (EC) device. NPDS is a dry deposition method that simplifies the ATO deposition process by eliminating the need for solvents or binders. In this study, an ATO EC layer was deposited using NPDS. The surface morphology and electrochemical and optical transmittance properties were characterized. The optical transmittance change in the ATO EC device was ∼35% over the wavelength range of 350-800 nm, and the cyclic transmittance was stable. The ATO film deposited using NPDS, exhibited a coloration efficiency of 15.5 cm2 C-1. Therefore, our results suggest that ATO EC devices can be fabricated using a simple, cost-effective NPDS, which allows nanoparticles to be deposited directly without pre- or post-processing.

  20. Microbial diversity and community structure in an antimony-rich tailings dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Qingxiang; Sun, Weimin

    2016-09-01

    To assess the impact of antimony (Sb) on microbial community structure, 12 samples were taken from an Sb tailings pile in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. All 12 samples exhibited elevated Sb concentrations, but the mobile and bioaccessible fractions were small in comparison to total Sb concentrations. Besides the geochemical analyses, microbial communities inhabiting the tailing samples were characterized to investigate the interplay between the microorganisms and environmental factors in mine tailings. In all samples, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most dominant phyla. At the genus level, Thiobacillus, Limnobacter, Nocardioides, Lysobacter, Phormidium, and Kaistobacter demonstrated relatively high abundances. The two most abundant genera, Thiobacillus and Limnobacter, are characterized as sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, respectively, while the genus Lysobacter contains arsenic (As)-resistant bacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicates that TOC and the sulfate to sulfide ratio strongly shaped the microbial communities, suggesting the influence of the environmental factors in the indigenous microbial communities. PMID:27188777

  1. Properties of antimony doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadananda Kumar, N., E-mail: sadanthara@gmail.com; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics (India)

    2015-07-15

    Antimony (Sb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at 450°C using spray pyrolysis technique. Effect of Sb doping on surface morphology structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that both the undoped and doped ZnO thin films are polycrystalline in nature with (101) preferred orientation. SEM analysis showed a change in surface morphology of Sb doped ZnO thin films. Doping results in a marked increase in conductivity without affecting the transmittance of the films. ZnO films prepared with 3 at % Sb shows the lowest resistivity of 0.185 Ohm cm with a Hall mobility of 54.05 cm{sup 2} V{sup –1} s{sup –1}, and a hole concentration of 6.25 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup –3}.

  2. Renal function evaluation in patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after specific treatment with pentavalent antimonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Rodrigo A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal evaluation studies are rare in American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL. The aim of this study is to investigate whether specific treatment reverts ACL-associated renal dysfunction. Methods A prospective study was conducted with 37 patients with ACL. Urinary concentrating and acidification ability was assessed before and after treatment with pentavalent antimonial. Results The patients mean age was 35.6 ± 12 years and 19 were male. Before treatment, urinary concentrating defect (U/Posm Conclusion As previously described, urinary concentrating and acidification defects were found in an important number of patients with ACL. Present results demonstrate that only some patients recover urinary acidification capacity, while no one returned to normal urinary concentration capacity.

  3. Supermolecular template route to fabrication of well crystallized hollow antimony microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Li; CHEN Shu-da; WEI Xiao-yan

    2006-01-01

    Hollow spheres of elemental antimony (Sb) with good crystallinity, high contrast and thin wall were prepared in the solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and oleic acid(OA) associations at the refluxed temperature. The complexes of Sb3+ with tartaric acid were used as precursors, which can avoid the hydrolysis of SbCl3 and the resulting impurity of products. The average diameter and thickness of the as-prepared hollow sphere are about 300 nm and less than 20 nm, respectively. The formation of hollow spheres depends on the template function of PEG and OA associations, which can be confirmed through the theoretical analysis and results of control experiments. The specific surface area reaches 34.669 m2/g.

  4. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  5. 锑环境健康效应的研究进展%Environmental Health Effect of Antimony: a Review of Recent Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈兆凤; 韦朝阳

    2011-01-01

    随着锑的开采及含锑产品的广泛应用,锑所带来的污染问题已越来越严重,锑对环境与健康的危害也受到了更多的关注.该文总结了锑环境健康效应的研究进展,从医学、环境毒理学和生态毒理学的角度分别分析了锑对人、动物以及植物与土壤生物的健康效应.提示今后还需加强锑的致癌性及基因毒性研究,并需从微观与宏观尺度揭示锑的毒性效应,以期为锑的环境健康风险评估提供科学依据.%The antimony mining and widely use of antimony products have resulted in serious antimony contamination,causing hazards to both the environment and human health. The present paper summarized the research progresses on the environmental health effect of antimony. The health effects of antimony on human, animals, and plants as well as soil organisms are introduced and discussed in the view of medical science, environmental toxicology and ecological toxicology, respectively. It is suggested that more researches should be conducted on antimony earcinogenieity and genotoxicity, and the toxic effects of antimony should be explored from micro and macroscopic scales in order to provide the scientific basis for risk assessment of antimony.

  6. Successful treatment of feline leishmaniosis using a combination of allopurinol and N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Basso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This work describes the diagnosis and successful treatment of a 2-year-old domestic cat infected with Leishmania species and presenting fever, and ulcerative and nodular skin lesions after being treated for pyodermatitis for 1 year without clinical improvement. After anamnesis the cat was submitted to a complete clinical examination. Blood was collected for determination of haematological and biochemical parameters, detection of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, feline coronavirus (FCoV and Leishmania amastigotes. Fine-needle aspiration puncture from the skin nodules was also performed. After definitive diagnosis the animal was treated and followed up over a 2 year period. The animal tested negative for FIV-specific antibodies, FeLV antigen and feline coronavirus RNA. Leishmania amastigotes in the skin nodules were confirmed by cytology and molecular diagnosis. Treatment was initiated with allopurinol, resulting in a slight clinical improvement. Thus, N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate was added and administered for 30 days, with complete closure of the ulcerative lesions in the hindlimbs requiring a surgical approach. Close monitoring of the patient in the following 24 months indicated that combined therapy was safe and clinical cure was achieved without further relapses or side effects. Relevance and novel information Considering the increasing number of feline leishmaniosis cases and the inconsistent results of most therapeutic protocols described in the literature, the use of new approaches, especially in refractory cases, is essential. Although the use of allopurinol and N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate is off-label in cats, in this case the combination treatment was followed by an extensive analytical monitoring, supporting their safety and effectiveness.

  7. Infrared-to-red upconversion luminescence in samarium-doped antimony glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new antimony-based glass system (K2O-B2O3-Sb2O3) having low phonon energy (about 600 cm-1) doped with Sm3+ ions has been developed. Infrared reflection spectroscopic (IRRS) studies have been employed to establish its low phonon energy. Ultraviolet-Visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) absorption and photoluminescence upconversion properties with the spectrochemistry of the 15K2O-15B2O3-70Sb2O3 (mol%) glasses have been studied doping with different concentrations (0.1-1.0 wt%) of Sm2O3. UV-Vis-NIR absorption band positions have been justified with quantitative calculation of nephelauxetic parameter and covalent bonding characteristics of the host. NIR to visible upconversion has been investigated by exciting at 949 nm at room temperature. Three upconverted bands originating from the 4G5/2→6H5/2, 4G5/2→6H7/2 and 4G5/2→6H9/2 transitions are found to be centered at 566 (green, weak), 602 (orange, weak) and 636 (red, remarkably strong) nm, respectively. These bands have been explained from the evaluation of the absorption, normal (downconversion) fluorescence and excitation spectra. The upconversion processes have been explained by the excited state absorption (ESA), energy transfer (ET) and cross-relaxation (CR) mechanisms involving population of the metastable (storage) energy level (4G5/2) by multiphonon deexcitation effect. It is evident from the IRRS study that the upconversion phenomena are expedited by the low multiphonon relaxation rate in antimony glasses owing to their low phonon energy (602 cm-1, the main and highest intensity Sb-O-Sb stretching band) which is very close to that of fluoride glasses (500-600 cm-1)

  8. Optical properties of Eu3+-doped antimony-oxide-based low phonon disordered matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Tirtha; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2010-01-01

    A new series of monolithic Eu2O3-doped high antimony oxide (40-80 mol%) content disordered matrices (glasses) of low phonon energy (about 600 cm-1) in the K2O-B2O3-Sb2O3 (KBS) system was prepared by the melt-quench technique. Infrared reflection spectroscopy was used to establish the low phonon energy of the glasses. Amorphicity and devitrification of the glasses were confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis. UV-vis absorption spectra of Eu3+ have been measured and the band positions have been justified with quantitative calculation of the nephelauxetic parameter and covalent bonding characteristics of the host. These Eu2O3-doped glasses upon excitation at 393 nm radiation exhibit six emission bands in the range 500-750 nm due to their low phonon energy. Of these, the magnetic dipole ^{5}\\mathrm {D}_{0} \\to {}^{7} \\mathrm {F_{1}} transition shows small Stark splitting while the electric dipole ^{5}\\mathrm {D}_{0} \\to {}^{7}\\mathrm {F}_{2} transition undergoes remarkable Stark splitting into two components. They have been explained by the crystal field effect. The Judd-Ofelt parameters, Ωt = 2,4,6, were also evaluated and the change of Ωt with the glass composition was correlated with the asymmetric effect at Eu3+ ion sites and the fundamental properties like covalent character and optical basicity. We are the first to report the spectroscopic properties of the Eu3+ ion in KBS low phonon antimony glasses.

  9. Optical characterization of antimony-based bismuth-doped thin films with different annealing temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinmiao Lu; Yiqun Wu; Yang Wang; Jinsong Wei

    2011-01-01

    Antimony-b ased bismuth-doped thin film,a new kind of super-resolution mask layer,is prepared by magnetron sputtering.The structures and optical constants of the thin films before and after annealing are examined in detail.The as-deposited film is mainly in an amorphous state.After annealing at 170-370℃,it is converted to the rhombohedral-type of structure.The extent of crystallization increased with the annealing temperature.When the thin film is annealed,its refractive index decreased in the most visible region,whereas the extinction coefficient and reflectivity are markedly increased.The results indicate that the optical parameters of the film strongly depend on its microstructure and the bonding of the atoms.As demand for ultrahigh-density information storage continues to grow the recording mark size in optical memory is reduced to the nanometer scale [1- 4].Exceeding the optical diffraction limit with traditional optical storage technology has become a challenge[5-6].%Antimony-based bismuth-doped thin film, a new kind of super-resolution mask layer, is prepared by magnetron sputtering. The structures and optical constants of the thin films before and after annealing are examined in detail. The as-deposited film is mainly in an amorphous state. After annealing at 170-370℃, it is converted to the rhombohedral-type of structure. The extent of crystallization increased with the annealing temperature. When the thin film is annealed, its refractive index decreased in the most visible region, whereas the extinction coefficient and reflectivity are markedly increased. The results indicate that the optical parameters of the film strongly depend on its microstructure and the bonding of the atoms.

  10. Effects of cisplatin on potassium currents in CT26 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Potassium currents were detected in CT26 cells and the currents were reduced by the application of tetraethylammonium (TEA chloride, iberiotoxin, a big conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blocker and barium. The potassium currents were enhanced to 192< by the application of cisplatin (0.5 mM. Moreover, the increase of potassium currents by cisplatin was further inhibited by the application of TEA confirming the action of cisplatin on potassium channels. In addition, relative current induced by cisplatin in CT26 cells was bit larger than in normal IEC-6 cells.

  11. Decreased antimony uptake and overexpression of genes of thiol metabolism are associated with drug resistance in a canine isolate of Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Pérez, Verónica; García-Hernandez, Raquel; Corpas-López, Victoriano; Tomás, Ana M; Martín-Sanchez, Joaquina; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, is one of the most important zoonotic diseases affecting dogs and humans in the Mediterranean area. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of L. infantum is regarded as the most significant risk for potential human infection. We have studied the susceptibility profile to antimony and other anti-leishmania drugs (amphotericin B, miltefosine, paromomycin) in Leishmania infantum isolates extracted from a dog before and after two therapeutic interventions with meglumine antimoniate (subcutaneous Glucantime(®), 100 mg/kg/day for 28 days). After the therapeutic intervention, these parasites were significantly less susceptible to antimony than pretreatment isolate, presenting a resistance index of 6-fold to Sb(III) for promastigotes and >3-fold to Sb(III) and 3-fold to Sb(V) for intracellular amastigotes. The susceptibility profile of this resistant L. infantum line is related to a decreased antimony uptake due to lower aquaglyceroporin-1 expression levels. Additionally, other mechanisms including an increase in thiols and overexpression of enzymes involved in thiol metabolism, such as ornithine decarboxylase, trypanothione reductase, mitochondrial tryparedoxin and mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase, could contribute to the resistance as antimony detoxification mechanisms. A major contribution of this study in a canine L. infantum isolate is to find an antimony-resistant mechanism similar to that previously described in other human clinical isolates. PMID:27317865

  12. Potassium and Its Discontents: New Insight, New Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, David H; Terker, Andrew S; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Hyperkalemia is common in patients with impaired kidney function or who take drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis. During the past decade, substantial advances in understanding how the body controls potassium excretion have been made, which may lead to improved standard of care for these patients. Renal potassium disposition is primarily handled by a short segment of the nephron, comprising part of the distal convoluted tubule and the connecting tubule, and regulation results from the interplay between aldosterone and plasma potassium. When dietary potassium intake and plasma potassium are low, the electroneutral sodium chloride cotransporter is activated, leading to salt retention. This effect limits sodium delivery to potassium secretory segments, limiting potassium losses. In contrast, when dietary potassium intake is high, aldosterone is stimulated. Simultaneously, potassium inhibits the sodium chloride cotransporter. Because more sodium is then delivered to potassium secretory segments, primed by aldosterone, kaliuresis results. When these processes are disrupted, hyperkalemia results. Recently, new agents capable of removing potassium from the body and treating hyperkalemia have been tested in clinical trials. This development suggests that more effective and safer approaches to the prevention and treatment of hyperkalemia may be on the horizon.

  13. Body potassium measurement by 40K gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 150 normal Indian adult males were studied for their total body potassium using the whole body counter of the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi. The potassium values were found to vary between 1.69 to 1.89 with average of 1.73 g. of potassium per kilogram of body weight. There was poor correlation between total body potassium and body weight. The body build index was found to be anthropometric parameter which is better correlated with the estimated values of total body potassium. The study further pointed out the important role of variable body fat on the estimation of total body potassium by whole body counter. The effect of age and the nature of physical activity of the subject on total body potassium were also investigated. The importance of an independent method for fast estimation is indicated. (auth.)

  14. Thermal decomposition of potassium dioxodiaquaperoxyoxalatouranate(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailaja, B.B.V.; Kebede, Tesfahun; Prasada Rao, M.S

    2003-09-04

    Potassium dioxodiaquaperoxyoxalatouranate(VI) was obtained by reaction of uranyl nitrate with oxalic acid and then hydrogen peroxide in the presence of potassium ion. The complex was subjected to chemical analysis. The thermal decomposition behavior of the complex was studied using TG, DTA and DTG techniques. The solid complex salt and the intermediate product of its thermal decomposition were characterized using IR absorption and X-ray diffraction spectra. Based on the data from these physicochemical investigations, the structural formula of the complex was proposed as K{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2})C{sub 2}O{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].

  15. Sodium Antimony Gluconate Induces Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in Leishmania donovani-Infected Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Mookerjee Basu, Jayati; Mookerjee, Ananda; Sen, Prosenjit; Bhaumik, Suniti; Sen, Pradip; Banerjee, Subha; Naskar, Ksudiram; Choudhuri, Soumitra K.; Saha, Bhaskar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Roy, Syamal

    2006-01-01

    Pentavalent antimony complexes, such as sodium stibogluconate and sodium antimony gluconate (SAG), are still the first choice for chemotherapy against various forms of leishmaniasis, including visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar. Although the requirement of a somewhat functional immune system for the antileishmanial action of antimony was reported previously, the cellular and molecular mechanism of action of SAG was not clear. Herein, we show that SAG induces extracellular signal-regulated k...

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Losartan Potassium in Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Arianne Diane A. Aniñon; Richard Simon R. Binos; Karen Mae M. Brizuela; Willison John C. de Luna; Regine Philline S. del Rosario; Jesus John C. Dimalala; Timothy Joseph P. Dueñas; Isaac Ireneo B. Linatoc; Juan Paolo D. Recto; Melanie V. Salinas; West Kristian D. Paraiso

    2014-01-01

    In the quality control of pharmaceutical products, it is of utmost importance that validated analytical methods are used to ensure the credibility of the results generated. At the time of the study, official monographs from the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF) for the quantification of Losartan potassium in tablets were unavailable, denoting the need for a validated analytical procedure for the analysis of the drug. The study adapted direct and first-derivative UV sp...

  17. Potassium leakage and maize seed physiological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Mariane Victorio de Carvalho; Marcos Filho Julio

    2002-01-01

    Seed production usually requires fast decisions to improve the efficacy of seed handling during harvesting, processing and storage. Seed technologists have focused on the development or improvement of procedures which allow rapid and consistent identification of higher quality seed lots. This research verified the effectiveness of the potassium leachate test on the evaluation of the physiological potential of maize seeds in comparison to recommended seed vigor tests. Five seed lots of the hyb...

  18. Remediation of antimony-rich mine waters: Assessment of antimony removal and shifts in the microbial community of an onsite field-scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Kalin, Margarete; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Ning, Zengping; Liu, Tong; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Mao, Jianzhong; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-08-01

    An on-site field-scale bioreactor for passive treatment of antimony (Sb) contamination was installed downstream of an active Sb mine in Southwest China, and operated for one year (including a six month monitoring period). This bioreactor consisted of five treatment units, including one pre-aerobic cell, two aerobic cells, and two microaerobic cells. With the aerobic cells inoculated with indigenous mine water microflora, the bioreactor removed more than 90% of total soluble Sb and 80% of soluble antimonite (Sb(III)). An increase in pH and decrease of oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) was also observed along the flow direction. High-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene variable (V4) region revealed that taxonomically diverse microbial communities developed in the bioreactor. Metal (loid)-oxidizing bacteria including Ferrovum, Thiomonas, Gallionella, and Leptospirillum, were highly enriched in the bioreactor cells where the highest total Sb and Sb(III) removal occurred. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that a suite of in situ physicochemical parameters including pH and Eh were substantially correlated with the overall microbial communities. Based on an UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) tree and PCoA (Principal Coordinates Analysis), the microbial composition of each cell was distinct, indicating these in situ physicochemical parameters had an effect in shaping the indigenous microbial communities. Overall, this study was the first to employ a field-scale bioreactor to treat Sb-rich mine water onsite and, moreover, the findings suggest the feasibility of the bioreactor in removing elevated Sb from mine waters. PMID:27208755

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of a family of lanthanide tartrates: [Ln 2(C 4H 4O 6) 3(H 2O) 3]·1.5H 2O (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athar, Muhammad; Li, Guanghua; Shi, Zhan; Chen, Yan; Feng, Shouhua

    2008-12-01

    Coordination polymers containing lanthanides with tartaric acid [Ln 2(C 4H 4O 6) 3(H 2O) 3]·1.5H 2O (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and C 4H 4O 6 = D(-) or L(+) tartrate anion) have been synthesized using hydrothermal techniques and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds are all isotypic with a monoclinic crystal system in the P2 1/ n space group. The asymmetric units of coordination polymers contain two metal centers having different coordination environments. One metal is bonded to four tartrate groups having three D and one L isomers (or three L and one D isomers), whereas the other metal is bonded to five tartrate groups having two D and three L isomers (or two L and three D isomers). Each trivalent metal center is coordinated to nine oxygen atoms that originate from carboxylate and hydroxyl groups of the tartrate anions and water molecules. These new polymers have three-dimensional structures containing open channels that are occupied by non-coordinating water molecules. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses and adsorption of nitrogen have also been studied for these compounds.

  20. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Zanetti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the structure-function relationship of a small number of prokaryotic ion channels characterized so far greatly contributed to our knowledge on basic mechanisms of ion conduction. We identified a new potassium channel (SynK in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a photosynthetic model organism. SynK, when expressed in a K(+-uptake-system deficient E. coli strain, was able to recover growth of these organisms. The protein functions as a potassium selective ion channel when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The location of SynK in cyanobacteria in both thylakoid and plasmamembranes was revealed by immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions. SynK seems to be conserved during evolution, giving rise to a TPK (two-pore K(+ channel family member which is shown here to be located in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis. Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies.

  1. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Eteiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome.

  2. A double-suicide autopsy case of potassium poisoning by intravenous administration of potassium aspartate after intake of some psychopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Hasegawa, K; Suzuki, O

    2011-07-01

    We report a curious double-suicide autopsy case of both male and female who died of potassium poisoning by intravenous administration of concentrated potassium aspartate solution. The plasma concentrations of potassium of the male and female subjects were as high as 49.7 and 62.8 mEq/L, respectively. In addition to the high concentrations of potassium, toxic levels of phenobarbital, promethazine and chlorpromazine, and relatively low levels of etizolam and brotizolam were also detected from whole blood and urine specimens of both cadavers. Twenty empty plastic bottles (10-mL capacity) labeled 'ASPARA® Potassium Injection 10 mEq' were found at the suicide spot. To our knowledge, this is the first description for suicidal death by potassium aspartate; in all of the previous literature, they used potassium chloride intravenously or per os. PMID:20670988

  3. Cyanide and antimony thermodynamic database for the aqueous species and solids for the EPA-MINTEQ geochemical code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1989-05-01

    Thermodynamic data for aqueous species and solids that contain cyanide and antimony were tabulated from several commonly accepted, published sources of thermodynamic data and recent journal article. The review does not include gases or organic complexes of either antimony or cyanide, nor does the review include the sulfur compounds of cyanide. The basic thermodynamic data, ..delta..G/sub f,298//sup o/, ..delta..H/sub f,298//sup o/, and S/sub f//sup o/ values, were chosen to represent each solid phase and aqueous species for which data were available in the appropriate standard state. From these data the equilibrium constants (log K/sub r,298//sup o/) and enthalpies of reaction (..delta..H/sub r,298//sup o/) at 298 K (25/degree/C) were calculated for reactions involving the formation of these aqueous species and solids from the basic components. 34 refs., 14 tabs.

  4. Antimony incorporation in InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihani, J.; Sallet, V.; Christophe, H. J.; Oueslati, M.; Chtourou, R.

    2008-01-01

    We have grown InAs(Sb) quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using two different antimony exposures ( ΦSb). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were carried out to investigate the dot size evolution as function of the incorporated antimony content in InAs/GaAs QDs material. Anomalous asymmetric-band feature was observed in room temperature photoluminescence (RTPL) spectra of the investigated QD samples grown at relatively high temperature (490 °C). From the temperature-dependent PL measurements, it was found that the asymmetric-band feature is associated with the ground-states transitions from QDs with bimodal size distribution. The analysis of the pump power dependent PL spectra allows us to suggest a type II band lineup for the InAsSb/GaAs QDs materials system.

  5. Interest of lymphoscintigraphy with 99sup(m)Tc-labelled antimony sulfide in the arms after breast carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2 mCi of antimony sulfide colloid labelled with sup(99m)Tc were injected subcutaneously between the digits in 25 patients with postoperative lymphoedema of the arm for breast carcinoma. The two arms are examined successively, the normal one being used as control. The lymphoscintigraphy is realised with a gamma camera during an hour. The information obtained is threefoled; on the peripheral block's importance, the place where the lymphatic flow is stopped, and the presence in 40% of patients of axillary lymph nodes. The diminution of the lymphatic flow is not in correlation with the lymphoedema's importance. Lymphoscintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc antimony sulfide colloid is a simple examination but some side effects may occur. In 7 patients, post-injection lymphangitis was observed, with favorable evolution under antibiotic treatment. The lymphoscintigraphy can give some interesting information on the evolution of treated lymphoedema

  6. Co-administration of glycyrrhizic acid with the antileishmanial drug sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) cures SAG-resistant visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Amrita; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Suchandra Bhattacharyya; Choudhuri, Soumitra Kumar; Roy, Syamal; Majumdar, Subrata

    2015-03-01

    Since there are very few affordable antileishmanial drugs available, antimonial resistance has crippled antileishmanial therapy, thereby emphasising the need for development of novel therapeutic strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the antileishmanial role of combined therapy with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) and the triterpenoid glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against infection with SAG-resistant Leishmania (GE1F8R). Combination therapy with GA and SAG successfully limited infection with SAG-resistant Leishmania in a synergistic manner (fractional inhibitory concentration index resistant Leishmania and co-treated with GA and SAG exhibited a significant reduction in hepatic and splenic parasite burden. In probing the mechanism, it was observed that GA treatment suppressed the expression and efflux activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), two host ABC transporters responsible for antimony efflux from host cells infected with SAG-resistant parasites. This suppression correlated with greater intracellular antimony retention during SAG therapy both in vitro and in vivo, which was reflected in the reduced parasite load. Furthermore, co-administration of GA and SAG induced a shift in the cytokine balance towards a Th1 phenotype by augmenting pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-12, IFNγ and TNFα) and inducing nitric oxide generation in GE1F8R-infected macrophages as well as GE1F8R-infected mice. This study aims to provide an affordable leishmanicidal alternative to expensive antileishmanial drugs such as miltefosine and amphotericin B. Furthermore, this report explores the role of GA as a resistance modulator in MRP1- and P-gp-overexpressing conditions. PMID:25600891

  7. Exploring screen printing technology on thermoelectric energy harvesting with printing copper-nickel and bismuth-antimony thermocouples

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Zhuo; Koukharenko, Elena; Torah, R; Beeby, SP

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and testing of copper (Cu) - nickel (Ni) and bismuth (Bi) - antimony (Sb) based thermocouples fabricated using screen printing technology. The transport properties of the printed thermoelectric material were measured in room temperature while the Seebeck voltage and power output of the printed thermocouples were tested under a variety temperature gradient. Initial thermoelectric materials have been integrated in inks and then deposited on substrate by the si...

  8. The Potential Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on the Atomic and Physical Properties of Antimony Tin Oxide Nanopowder

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Antimony tin oxide (ATO) is known for its high thermal conductivity, optical transmittance, and wide energy band gap, which makes it a promising material for the display devices, solar cells, and chemical sensor industries. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the atomic and physical properties of ATO nanopowder. The ATO nanopowder was divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield ...

  9. The influence of remelting on the properties of AlSi6Cu4 alloy modified by antimony

    OpenAIRE

    D. Medlen; D. Bolibruchova

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of multiple remelting influence on AlSi6Cu4 alloy modified by antimony on chosen mechanical characteristics, microstructure and gas content. This foundry alloy is used mostly in automotive industry. Foundry Aluminum-Silicon alloys are also used in number of industrial weight sensitive applications because of their low weight and very good castability and good mechanical properties. Modifiers are usually added to molten aluminum-silicon alloys to refine the eut...

  10. EFFECT OF GRAIN BOUNDARY SEGREGATION OF ANTIMONY ON RELAXATION AT GRAIN BOUNDARIES IN SILICON-IRON ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Y.; Fujimoto, K

    1981-01-01

    A sharp grain boundary peak appears in both 2 and 3% silicon-iron alloys due to a substitutional solute of silicon. This peak is highly sensitive to the segregation of the third element of antimony and, contrary to orthodox solute peaks in binary and ternary alloys, largely decreases in magnitude on heating after a segregation treatment. The subsequent measurement on cooling returns the peak to the ordinary magnitude. As a function of annealing time at a temperature of segregation, the height...

  11. Isolation of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Paratyphi B dT+, or Salmonella Java, from Indonesia and alteration of the d-tartrate fermentation phenotype by disrupting the ORF STM 3356.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Ho; Choi, Seon Young; Lee, Je Hee; Lee, Hyejon; Shin, Eun Hee; Agtini, Magdarina D; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ochiai, R Leon; Clemens, John D; Wain, John; Hahn, Ji-Sook; Lee, Bok Kwon; Song, Manki; Chun, Jongsik; Kim, Dong Wook

    2006-12-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Paratyphi B [O1,4,(5),12 : Hb : 1,2] can cause either an enteric fever (paratyphoid fever) or self-limiting gastroenteritis in humans. The d-tartrate non-fermenting variant S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B dT- (S. Paratyphi B) is the causative agent of paratyphoid fever, and the d-tartrate fermenting variant S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B dT+ (S. Paratyphi B dT+; formerly called Salmonella Java) causes gastroenteritis. S. Java is currently recognized as an emerging problem worldwide. Twelve dT+ S. Java isolates were collected in Indonesia between 2000 and 2002. One-third of them contained Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), which gives the multidrug-resistant phenotype to the bacteria. In this study, a PCR-based method to detect a single nucleotide difference responsible for the inability to ferment d-tartrate, reported elsewhere, was validated. The d-tartrate fermenting phenotype of S. Java was converted to the non-fermenting phenotype by the disruption of the ORF STM 3356, and the d-tartrate non-fermenting phenotype of the ORF STM 3356-disrupted strain and the dT- reference strain was changed to the dT+ phenotype by complementing ORF STM 3356 in trans. The results show that the dT+ phenotype requires a functional product encoded by STM 3356, and support the use of the PCR-based discrimination method for S. Paratyphi B and S. Java as the standard differentiation method.

  12. Proapoptotic Role of Potassium Ions in Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglin Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively promote the infiltration of potassium ions. The significance of these channels for tumor biology has become obvious. However, the effects of potassium ions on the tumor or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, we studied the biological effects of L02 and HepG2 cells with ectogenous potassium ions. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Our results indicated that potassium ions inhibited proliferation of L02 and HepG2 cells and promoted their apoptosis. Potassium ions induced apoptosis through regulating Bcl-2 family members and depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, especially for HepG2 cell. These biological effects were associated with channel protein HERG. By facilitating expression of channel protein HERG, potassium ions may prevent it from being shunted to procancerous pathways by inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrated that potassium ions may be a key regulator of liver cell function. Thus, our findings suggest that potassium ions could inhibit tumorigenesis through inducing apoptosis of hepatoma cells by upregulating potassium ions transport channel proteins HERG and VDAC1.

  13. Proapoptotic Role of Potassium Ions in Liver Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenglin; Huang, Xusen; Chen, Kaiyun; Wang, Hanning; Xiao, Jinfeng; He, Ke; Huang, Rui; Duan, Xiaopeng; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Jinqian; Xiang, Guoan

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively promote the infiltration of potassium ions. The significance of these channels for tumor biology has become obvious. However, the effects of potassium ions on the tumor or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, we studied the biological effects of L02 and HepG2 cells with ectogenous potassium ions. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Our results indicated that potassium ions inhibited proliferation of L02 and HepG2 cells and promoted their apoptosis. Potassium ions induced apoptosis through regulating Bcl-2 family members and depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, especially for HepG2 cell. These biological effects were associated with channel protein HERG. By facilitating expression of channel protein HERG, potassium ions may prevent it from being shunted to procancerous pathways by inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrated that potassium ions may be a key regulator of liver cell function. Thus, our findings suggest that potassium ions could inhibit tumorigenesis through inducing apoptosis of hepatoma cells by upregulating potassium ions transport channel proteins HERG and VDAC1. PMID:27069917

  14. Evaluation of potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in some common Nigerian beverages: A look at antimony, tin and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Roberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently little information on the composition of heavy metals in beverages imported and locally produced in Nigeria. The study quantitatively determined the composition of antimony (Sb, tin (Sn and mercury (Hg in 50 different beverage samples and evaluated the extent of violation of guideline values. Analysis of the beverage samples for the presence of Sb, Sn, and Hg was carried out using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS 929. The mean values detected for mercury, tin and antimony (±SE in fruit juices and soft drinks were 2.39±0.25, 3.66±0.22 and 0.49±0.048 μg/l; 2.93±0.34, 3.60±0.46 and 0.49±0.10 μg/l in dairy drinks and 0.94±0.02, 4.34±0.48 and 0.48±0.05 μg/l in bottled water samples respectively. While antimony detected in all products was below guideline values, mercury and tin were above the acceptable levels established by the World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency and European Union in most samples tested.

  15. Separation of Lead from Crude Antimony by Pyro-Refining Process with NaPO3 Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Longgang; Hu, Yuejie; Xia, Zhimei; Chen, Yongming

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to separate lead from crude antimony through an oxidation pyro-refining process and by using sodium metaphosphate as a lead elimination reagent. The process parameters that will affect the refining results were optimized experimentally under controlled conditions, such as the sodium metaphosphate charging dosage, the refining temperature and duration, and the air flow rate, to determine their effect on the lead content in refined antimony and the lead removal rate. A minimum lead content of 0.0522 wt.% and a 98.6% lead removal rate were obtained under the following optimal conditions: W_{{{NaPO}_{{3}} }} = 15% W Sb (where W represents weight), a refining temperature of 800°C, a refining time of 30 min, and an air flow rate of 3 L/min. X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy showed that high-purity antimony was obtained. The smelting operation is free from smoke or ammonia pollution when using monobasic sodium phosphate or ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as the lead elimination reagent. However, this refining process can also remove a certain amount of sulfur, cobalt, and silicon simultaneously, and smelting results also suggest that sodium metaphosphate can be used as a potential lead elimination reagent for bismuth and copper refining.

  16. PANCREATIC TOXICITY AS AN ADVERSE EFFECT INDUCED BY MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE THERAPY IN A CLINICAL TRIAL FOR CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PASSOS, Sonia Regina Lambert; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; BEDOYA-PACHECO, Sandro Javier; VALETE-ROSALINO, Cláudia Maria; VASCONCELLOS, Erica Camargo Ferreira; ANTONIO, Liliane Fatima; SAHEKI, Mauricio Naoto; SALGUEIRO, Mariza Mattos; SANTOS, Ginelza Peres Lima; RIBEIRO, Madelon Noato; CONCEIÇÃO-SILVA, Fatima; MADEIRA, Maria Fatima; SILVA, Jorge Luiz Nunes; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando Oliveria

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although doses are controversial. In a clinical trial for CL we investigated the occurrence of pancreatic toxicity with different schedules of treatment with meglumine antimoniate (MA). Seventy-two patients were allocated in two different therapeutic groups: 20 or 5 mg of pentavalent antimony (Sb5+)/kg/day for 20 or 30 days, respectively. Looking for adverse effects, patients were asked about abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia in each medical visit. We performed physical examinations and collected blood to evaluate serum amylase and lipase in the pre-treatment period, and every 10 days during treatment and one month post-treatment. Hyperlipasemia occurred in 54.8% and hyperamylasemia in 19.4% patients. Patients treated with MA 20 mg Sb5+ presented a higher risk of hyperlipasemia (p = 0.023). Besides, higher MA doses were associated with a 2.05 higher risk ratio (p = 0.003) of developing more serious (moderate to severe) hyperlipasemia. The attributable fraction was 51% in this group. Thirty-six patients presented abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia but only 47.2% of those had hyperlipasemia and/ or hyperamylasemia. These findings suggest the importance of the search for less toxic therapeutic regimens for the treatment of CL. PMID:27680173

  17. Poisoning of vanadia based SCR catalysts by potassium:influence of catalyst composition and potassium mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard; Kügler, Frauke; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    The deactivation of V2O5–(WO3)/TiO2 catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx upon exposure to aerosols of KCl or K2SO4, at different temperatures, has been studied. All samples exposed for more than 240 hours lost a substantial fraction of their initial activity although lower...... the transport of potassium. Using a newly developed experimental protocol consisting of two-layer pellets of SCR catalysts, where one side is impregnated with KCl or K2SO4, the potassium transport in such systems, which is assumed to take place through reactionand diffusion over acid sites, was investigated...

  18. Stimulation of a Gs-like G protein in the osteoclast inhibits bone resorption but enhances tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonga, B S; Pazianas, M; Alam, A S; Shankar, V S; Huang, C L; Zaidi, M

    1993-01-29

    Previous studies have demonstrated that G-protein agonists induce quiescence (Q effect) or retraction (R effect) in isolated osteoclasts. We now report the functional effects of such agonists on osteoclastic bone resorption and enzyme release. Exposure of osteoclasts to tetrafluoro-aluminate anions (AlF4-), a universal G protein stimulator, resulted in a marked concentration-dependent inhibition of bone resorption. This was associated with a dramatic increase in the secretion of the osteoclast-specific enzyme, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Cholera toxin, a Gs stimulator and a selective Q effect agonist, similarly abolished bone resorption and enhanced TRAP secretion. In contrast, pertussis toxin, a Gi inhibitor and a selective R effect agonist, inhibited bone resorption significantly, but slightly reduced enzyme release. The results suggest an involvement of a Gs-like G protein in TRAP secretion from the osteoclast, possibly through a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism.

  19. Decolorization of dyes and textile wastewater by potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang-Rong; Li, Hua-Bin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2005-05-01

    Decolorization of 10 types of dye solutions by potassium permanganate was studied. Effects of reaction conditions on the decolorization efficiency were examined in batch experiments. The pH value had a significant effect on the decolorization efficiency. When pH value decolorization efficiency was very high. When pH value >4.0, the dye solutions were almost not decolorized. Concentration of potassium permanganate and temperature also showed significant effects on the decolorization efficiency. The decolorization rate of dye solutions by potassium permanganate was rapid, and most of dye solutions can be decolorized effectively. The results of total organic carbon indicated that dye solutions were degraded incompletely by potassium permanganate. The results of treatment of textile wastewater by potassium permanganate indicated that the oxidation with potassium permanganate might be used as a pre-treatment process before biological treatment.

  20. A novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulon in Anabaena torulosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anuradha Alahari; Shree Kumar Apte

    2004-06-01

    Potassium deficiency enhanced the synthesis of fifteen proteins in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa and of nine proteins in Escherichia coli. These were termed potassium deficiency-induced proteins or PDPs and constitute hitherto unknown potassium deficiency–induced stimulons. Potassium deficiency also enhanced the synthesis of certain osmotic stress-induced proteins. Addition of K+ repressed the synthesis of a majority of the osmotic stress-induced proteins and of PDPs in these bacteria. These proteins contrast with the dinitrogenase reductase of A. torulosa and the glycine betaine-binding protein of E. coli, both of which were osmo-induced to a higher level in potassium-supplemented conditions. The data demonstrate the occurrence of novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulons and a wider role of K+ in regulation of gene expression and stress responses in bacteria.

  1. A study on low cost-high conducting fluorine and antimony-doped tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of undoped, fluorine- and antimony-doped tin oxide on glass at 400 deg. C was prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Tin chloride (SnCl2), ammonium fluoride (NH4F), and antimony trichloride (SbCl3) were used as source for tin (Sn), fluorine (F), and antimony (Sb), respectively. To ensure the control of solution concentration on growth rate, fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2:F) thin films were first prepared with different amount of tin precursor, in the range of 5-12g, which has resulted in deposition of films with different thickness values. The optimum amount of tin precursor found from this study (11g) was fixed constant for preparing SnO2 films with different doping levels of F and Sb. From the X-ray diffraction analyses, it is understood that the preferred orientation of SnO2:F films is dependent on their thickness and the solution concentration. The variation in the solution concentration and orientation of the films was reflected in their morphology as examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM studies showed that the variation in the solution concentration lead to different grain shapes for different orientations. The AFM study showed that the RMS roughness of undoped films reduced considerably from 86 to 24nm due to fluorine doping (15wt.%), whereas the antimony doping (2wt.%) has no significance effect on RMS roughness (93nm). The electrical properties of the films were examined by a Hall measurements setup in van der Pauw configuration. A minimum sheet resistance of 1.75 and 2.17Ω/ were obtained for F and Sb doped films, respectively. From the optical studies, it is found that the transmittance of undoped films increased from 42% to a maximum 85% on 30wt.% fluorine doping, whereas that has been decreased to a minimum of 12% on 4wt.% antimony doping (800nm). A discussion on the effect of type of dopants and their concentration on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the SnO2 film have

  2. Preparation of antimony sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ren-De, E-mail: son003@sekisui.com [Research & Development Institute, High Performance Plastics Company, Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd. 2-1 Hyakuyama, Shimamoto-Cho, Mishima-Gun, Osaka, 618-0021 (Japan); Tsuji, Takeshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-Cho, Matsue, 690-8504 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed laser ablation in liquid (LAL) was applied to prepare antimony sulfide nanoparticles (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs). • Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs with a stoichiometric composition were successfully prepared by LAL in water without using any surfactants or capping agents. • Thus-prepared Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs showed low-temperature crystallization and melting at a temperature low as 200 °C. • The NPs-coated Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film showed comparable semiconductor properties (carrier mobility and carrier density) to the vacuum deposited one. • Byproducts such as CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO were detected by GC-MS analysis when LAL was performed in organic solvent. • The LAL-induced decomposition mechanism of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and organic solvents was discussed based on the GC-MS results. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the synthesis of antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) semiconductor nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid without using any surfactants or capping agents. Different results were obtained in water and organic solvents. In the case of water, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles with chemical compositions of stoichiometry were successfully prepared when laser irradiation was performed under the condition with the dissolved oxygen removed by argon gas bubbling. It was shown that thus-obtained Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibit features of not only low-temperature crystallization but also low-temperature melting at a temperature as low as 200 °C. Nanoparticle-coated Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were found to show good visible light absorption and satisfying semiconductor properties (i.e., carrier mobility and density), which are essential for photovoltaic application. On the other hand, in the case of organic solvents (e.g., acetone, ethanol), such unexpected byproducts as CS{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} were detected from the reaction system by GC-MS analysis, which suggests that both Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and organic

  3. Infrared-to-red upconversion luminescence in samarium-doped antimony glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, Tirtha [Glass Technology Laboratory, Glass Division, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Karmakar, Basudeb [Glass Technology Laboratory, Glass Division, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India)], E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in

    2008-12-15

    A new antimony-based glass system (K{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) having low phonon energy (about 600 cm{sup -1}) doped with Sm{sup 3+} ions has been developed. Infrared reflection spectroscopic (IRRS) studies have been employed to establish its low phonon energy. Ultraviolet-Visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) absorption and photoluminescence upconversion properties with the spectrochemistry of the 15K{sub 2}O-15B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-70Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol%) glasses have been studied doping with different concentrations (0.1-1.0 wt%) of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. UV-Vis-NIR absorption band positions have been justified with quantitative calculation of nephelauxetic parameter and covalent bonding characteristics of the host. NIR to visible upconversion has been investigated by exciting at 949 nm at room temperature. Three upconverted bands originating from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 5/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 9/2} transitions are found to be centered at 566 (green, weak), 602 (orange, weak) and 636 (red, remarkably strong) nm, respectively. These bands have been explained from the evaluation of the absorption, normal (downconversion) fluorescence and excitation spectra. The upconversion processes have been explained by the excited state absorption (ESA), energy transfer (ET) and cross-relaxation (CR) mechanisms involving population of the metastable (storage) energy level ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2}) by multiphonon deexcitation effect. It is evident from the IRRS study that the upconversion phenomena are expedited by the low multiphonon relaxation rate in antimony glasses owing to their low phonon energy (602 cm{sup -1}, the main and highest intensity Sb-O-Sb stretching band) which is very close to that of fluoride glasses (500-600 cm{sup -1})

  4. Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, L.E.

    1995-04-01

    The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

  5. Changes in potassium and sodium concentrations in stored blood

    OpenAIRE

    Opoku-Okrah, Clement; Acquah, Benjamin Kojo Safo; Dogbe, Elliot Eli

    2015-01-01

    Potassium is the principal intracellular cation with sodium being the principal extracellular cation. Maintenance of the distribution of potassium and sodium between the intracellular and the extracellular compartments relies on several homeostatic mechanisms. This study analysed the effect of blood storage on the concentrations of potassium and sodium in stored blood and also determine any variations that may exist in their concentrations. 50mls of blood was sampled each from 28 units of eve...

  6. Elastic Properties of Potassium Halides under Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Haddadi; L.Louail; D.Maouche

    2008-01-01

    The moderate-pressure elastic properties of potassium halides KX (X=F, CI, Br) was studied theoretically using the density functional theory (DFT) with normconserving pseudopotentials method. The phase transfor- mation from the B1 phase (NaCl-type structure) to the denser B2 phase (CsCl-type structure) occurred at 7.7, 3.46 and 2.96 GPa for KF, KCl and KBr, respectively. The elastic stiffness coefficients and bulk modulus of these materials were calculated as function of hydrostatic pressure and compared with both the experimental and theoretical values.

  7. Potassium accumulation and translocation among rice genotypes in relation to internal potassium use efficiency (IKUE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Abiotic stresses including potassium deficiency are limiting factors for increasing rice yield. Nine rice genotypes (Oryza Sativa L., indica) differing in sensitivity to low K stress selected from 200 volume-solution screening were used in this study to examine accumulation and translocation of K.

  8. Effect of operating conditions and potassium content on Fischer-Tropsch liquid products produced by potassium-promoted iron catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco E. M. Farias; Fernando G. Sales; Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    The dependencies of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis liquid hydrocarbon product distribution on operating pressure and temperature have been studied over three potassium-promoted iron catalysts with increasing potassium molar content. The study followed an experimental planning and the results were analyzed based on surface response methodology. The effects of different operating conditions and potassium contents on the liquid product distribution were compared based on number average carbon number and dispersion. Results showed that high pressures (25 to 30 atm) favored the production of waxes that could be converted into liquid fuels through hydrocracking, while greater direct selectivity towards diesel was favored by low pressure (20 atm) using catalysts with low potassium to iron molar ratios. The liquid product distribution produced using an iron catalyst with high potassium content presented higher number-average number of carbons when compared to the distribution obtained using an iron catalyst with low potassium content.

  9. Inhibition of Leishmania donovani promastigote DNA topoisomerase I and human monocyte DNA topoisomerases I and II by antimonial drugs and classical antitopoisomerase agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John; Saravia, Nancy G

    2004-10-01

    We have compared the inhibitor sensitivities of DNA topoisomerase I (TOPI) from Leishmania donovani promastigotes and TOPs I and II of human monocytes using pentavalent and trivalent antimonials (SbV, SbIII) and classical TOP inhibitors. Bis-benzimidazoles (Hoechst-33258 and -33342) were potent inhibitors of both parasite and human TOPI, but Hoechst-33342 was markedly less cytotoxic to promastigotes than to monocytes in vitro. Leishmania donovani was also considerably less sensitive than monocytes to camptothecin, both at enzyme and cellular levels. Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) was the only antimonial to inhibit TOPI, exhibiting a significant (P donovani enzyme but showed low cytotoxicities against intact promastigotes. The SbV meglumine antimoniate failed to inhibit TOPI and showed negligible cytotoxicities, whereas SbIII drugs were lethal to parasites and monocytes yet poor inhibitors of TOPI. Monocyte TOPII was inhibited by bis-benzimidazoles and insensitive to antimonials and camptothecin. The disparity between the high leishmanicidal activity and low anti-TOPI potency of SbIII indicates that in vivo targeting of L. donovani TOPI by the reductive pathway of antimonial activation is improbable. Nevertheless, the potent direct inhibition of TOPI by SSG and the differential interactions of camptothecin with L. donovani and human TOPI support the possibility of developing parasite-specific derivatives. PMID:15562618

  10. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Meghan R.; Wyllie, Susan; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Fairlamb, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg⋅mL−1 Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg⋅mL−1) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is. PMID:24167266

  11. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Meghan R; Wyllie, Susan; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2013-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg · mL(-1) Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg · mL(-1)) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is.

  12. Leaching of Antimony (Sb)from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Inga

    2004-07-01

    The mobility of antimony (Sb) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues often exceeds the limit values stipulated by the European Union. As an ash treatment by washing is conceivable, this work investigated the Sb release from Swedish bottom ash and fly ash when mixed with water. The leaching experiments revealed the factors significantly (a = 0.05) affecting Sb release from the ashes. The following factors were investigated: Liquid to solid ratio (L/S), time, pH, carbonation (treatment with CO{sub 2}), ultrasonics and temperature. The data were evaluated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The impact of the factors could be quantified. The maximum Sb release calculated was 13 mg/kg DM for bottom ash and 51 mg/kg DM for fly ash. The derived models explained the observed data well. Nevertheless, the calculated values were subject to a high uncertainty. For bottom ash, a lowering of the Sb total content of approximately 22% could be achieved. If this also involves a sufficient lowering of the Sb mobility to meet EU limit values could not yet be assessed. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to explain the empirical results. However, no solid phases controlling Sb release from the ashes could be identified.

  13. Synthesis of Copper-Antimony-Sulfide Nanocrystals for Solution-Processed Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Satoshi; Horita, Keisuke; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Tooru; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Ishiwata, Yoichi; Shimanoe, Kengo; Kida, Tetsuya

    2015-08-17

    The p-type nanocrystals (NCs) of copper-based chalcogenides, such as CuInSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have attracted increasing attention in photovoltaic applications due to their potential to produce cheap solution-processed solar cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of copper-antimony-sulfide (CAS) NCs with different crystal phases including CuSbS2, Cu3SbS4, and Cu12Sb4S13. In addition, their morphology, crystal phase, and optical properties were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy, and photoemission yield spectroscopy. The morphology, crystal phase, and electronic structure were significantly dependent on the chemical composition in the CAS system. Devices were fabricated using particulate films consisting of CAS NCs prepared by spin coating without a high-temperature treatment. The CAS NC-based devices exhibited a diode-like current-voltage characteristic when coupled with an n-type CdS layer. In particular, the CuSbS2 NC devices exhibited photovoltaic responses under simulated sunlight, demonstrating its applicability for use in solution-processed solar cells. PMID:26237216

  14. Direct Band Gap Gallium Antimony Phosphide (GaSbxP(1-x)) Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H B; Andriotis, A N; Menon, M; Jasinski, J B; Martinez-Garcia, A; Sunkara, M K

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report direct band gap transition for Gallium Phosphide (GaP) when alloyed with just 1-2 at% antimony (Sb) utilizing both density functional theory based computations and experiments. First principles density functional theory calculations of GaSbxP(1-x) alloys in a 216 atom supercell configuration indicate that an indirect to direct band gap transition occurs at x = 0.0092 or higher Sb incorporation into GaSbxP(1-x). Furthermore, these calculations indicate band edge straddling of the hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions for compositions ranging from x = 0.0092 Sb up to at least x = 0.065 Sb making it a candidate for use in a Schottky type photoelectrochemical water splitting device. GaSbxP(1-x) nanowires were synthesized by reactive transport utilizing a microwave plasma discharge with average compositions ranging from x = 0.06 to x = 0.12 Sb and direct band gaps between 2.21 eV and 1.33 eV. Photoelectrochemical experiments show that the material is photoactive with p-type conductivity. This study brings attention to a relatively uninvestigated, tunable band gap semiconductor system with tremendous potential in many fields. PMID:26860470

  15. Direct Band Gap Gallium Antimony Phosphide (GaSbxP1-x) Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H. B.; Andriotis, A. N.; Menon, M.; Jasinski, J. B.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Sunkara, M. K.

    2016-02-01

    Here, we report direct band gap transition for Gallium Phosphide (GaP) when alloyed with just 1-2 at% antimony (Sb) utilizing both density functional theory based computations and experiments. First principles density functional theory calculations of GaSbxP1-x alloys in a 216 atom supercell configuration indicate that an indirect to direct band gap transition occurs at x = 0.0092 or higher Sb incorporation into GaSbxP1-x. Furthermore, these calculations indicate band edge straddling of the hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions for compositions ranging from x = 0.0092 Sb up to at least x = 0.065 Sb making it a candidate for use in a Schottky type photoelectrochemical water splitting device. GaSbxP1-x nanowires were synthesized by reactive transport utilizing a microwave plasma discharge with average compositions ranging from x = 0.06 to x = 0.12 Sb and direct band gaps between 2.21 eV and 1.33 eV. Photoelectrochemical experiments show that the material is photoactive with p-type conductivity. This study brings attention to a relatively uninvestigated, tunable band gap semiconductor system with tremendous potential in many fields.

  16. Adsorption behavior of antimony(III) oxyanions on magnetite surface in aqueous organic acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vinit K.; Bera, Santanu; Narasimhan, S. V.; Velmurugan, S.

    2013-02-01

    Antimony(III) adsorption is observed on magnetite (Fe3O4) surface under acidic and reducing condition through surface hydroxyl (SOH) groups bonding on Fe3O4 surface. Desorption of adsorbed Sb(III) is observed from Fe3O4 surface along with iron release in organic acid at 85 °C after 5 h of experiment. Tartaric acid (TA) shows minimum Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4 among the organic acid studied. The reason is TA having two sets of adjacent functional groups viz. Odbnd Csbnd OH and Csbnd OH which are responsible for the formation of five-membered bidendate chelate with Sb(III). Other oxyanions, cations or complexing agents along with TA influences the Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4. The surface of magnetite is modified by the addition of fatty acids viz. Lauric acid, benzoic acid to bind the Ssbnd OH groups present on the surface. This results in delaying the process of adsorption without changing the quantity of saturation adsorption of Sb(III) on Fe3O4 surface.

  17. Large anharmonic effect and thermal expansion anisotropy of metal chalcogenides: The case of antimony sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Chee Kwan; Soh, Jian Rui; Liu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    We derive a compact matrix expression for the linear thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) for a general orthorhombic system which relates elastic properties and integrated quantities based on deformation and mode dependent Grüneisen parameters and mode dependent heat capacities. The density of Grüneisen parameters Γ (ν ) as a function of frequency ν , weighted by the number of phonon modes, is introduced and found to be illuminating in interpreting the TEC results. Using density functional perturbation theory and Grüneisen formalism for thermal expansion, we illustrate the general usefulness of this method by calculating the linear and volumetric TECs of a low-symmetry orthorhombic compound antimony sulfide (Sb2S3 ), which belongs to a large class of technologically and fundamentally important materials. Even though negative Grüneisen parameters are found for deformations in all three crystal directions, the Γ (ν ) data rule out the occurrences of negative TECs at all temperatures. Sb2S3 exhibits a large thermal expansion anisotropy where the TEC in the b direction can reach as high as 13 ×10-6 K-1 at high temperatures, about two and seven times larger than the TECs in the c and a direction, respectively. Our work suggests a general and practical first-principles approach to calculate the thermal properties of other complicated low-symmetry systems.

  18. Controlled n-doping in chemical vapour deposition grown graphene by antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the effects of antimony (Sb) doping on graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition without any significant change in its electrical properties. By increasing the metal thickness from 1 to 5 nm, we found a shift in the wave numbers of Raman G and two-dimensional (2D) peaks consistent with n-doping and a change in the Fermi level of the graphene into the conduction band. The relative intensity of the D peak to the G peak did not show a significant change and that of the 2D peak to the G peak remained at a large enough number as a function of metal thickness, implying little degradation by the metal dopants. Transport measurements also confirm the n-doping of graphene through a shift of Dirac point in the transfer characteristics and the quality preservation with little changes in mobility. We also report on the formation of a p–n junction by metal doping on selected areas of the graphene and their electrical properties with transfer characteristics and Hall measurements. (paper)

  19. Evaluation of atmospheric inputs as possible sources of antimony in pregnant women from urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O; Querol, Xavier; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-02-15

    Antimony and copper are common components of brake linings. The occurrence of these two metals in urban atmospheric aerosols has been related to vehicular use. Urine samples (n=466) taken during the 32nd week of pregnancy were analyzed for Sb and Cu in pregnant women from an urban area (Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain). The geometric mean levels were 0.28 and 13 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Positive significant associations between urine concentrations of Sb and seasonality, intensity of physical exercise, working activities and traffic intensity at their home streets were observed. Cu showed the same trends but without statistical significance. In both cases, the estimated dietary ingestion of these two metals was larger than the inhalation inputs but the difference was much higher for Cu than for Sb. While Sb has no dietary role, Cu is an essential element which is also incorporated into humans through diet. The results suggest that inhalation of atmospheric particles may also constitute a source of Sb in pregnant women and general population of urban areas. PMID:26657384

  20. Partitioning geochemistry of arsenic and antimony, El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, J.T. [Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Bennett, P.C., E-mail: pbennett@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Engel, A.S. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Alsina, M.A.; Pasten, P.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Milliken, K. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The abundance of As and Sb in aqueous, mineral and biological reservoirs was examined at El Tatio Geyser Field, a unique hydrothermal basin located in the Atacama Desert region of Chile. Here the concentration of total As and Sb in hydrothermal springs and discharge streams are the highest reported for a natural surface water, and the geyser basin represents a significant source of toxic elements for downstream users across Region II, Chile. The geyser waters are near neutral Na:Cl type with {approx}0.45 and 0.021 mmol L{sup -1} total As and Sb, respectively, primarily in the reduced (III) redox state at the discharge with progressive oxidation downstream. The ferric oxyhydroxides associated with the microbial mats and some mineral precipitates accumulate substantial As that was identified as arsenate by XAS analysis (>10 wt% in the mats). This As is easily mobilized by anion exchange or mild dissolution of the HFO, and the ubiquitous microbial mats represent a significant reservoir of As in this system. Antimony, in contrast, is not associated with the mineral ferric oxides or the biomats, but is substantially enriched in the silica matrix of the geyserite precipitates, up to 2 wt% as Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Understanding the mobility and partitioning behavior of these metalloids is critical for understanding their eventual impact on regional water management.

  1. Spark Plasma Sintering and Densification Mechanisms of Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Nanoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Densification of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO ceramics without sintering aids is very difficult, due to the volatilization of SnO2, formation of deleterious phases above 1000°C, and poor sintering ability of ATO particles. In this paper, monodispersed ATO nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel method, and then ATO nanoceramics with high density were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS technology using the as-synthesized ATO nanoparticles without the addition of sintering aids. The effect of Sb doping content on the densification was investigated, and the densification mechanisms were explored. The results suggest that ATO nanoparticles derived from sol-gel method show good crystallinity with a crystal size of 5–20 nm and Sb is incorporated into the SnO2 crystal structure. When the SPS sintering temperature is 1000°C and the Sb doping content is 5 at.%, the density of ATO nanoceramics reaches a maximum value of 99.2%. Densification mechanisms are explored in detail.

  2. A new method for antimony speciation in plant biomass and nutrient media using anion exchange cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisarum, Rujira; Ren, Jing-Hua; Dong, Xiaoling; Chen, Hao; Lessl, Jason T; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-11-01

    A selective separation method based on anion exchange cartridge was developed to determine antimony (Sb) speciation in biological matrices by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). The selectivity of the cartridge towards antimonite [Sb(III)] and antimonate [Sb(V)] reversed in the presence of deionized (DI) water and 2mM citric acid. While Sb(V) was retained by the cartridge in DI water, Sb(III) was retained in citric acid media. At pH 6, Sb(III) and Sb(V) formed Sb(III)- and Sb(V)-citrate complexes, but the cartridge had higher affinity towards the Sb(III)-citrate complex. Separation of Sb(III) was tested at various concentrations in fresh and spent growth media and plant tissues. Our results showed that cartridge-based Sb speciation was successful in plant tissues, which was confirmed by HPLC-ICP-MS. The cartridge retained Sb(III) and showed 92-104% Sb(V) recovery from arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata roots treated with Sb(III) and Sb(V). The cartridge procedure is an effective alternative for Sb speciation, offering low cost, reproducible results, and simple Sb analysis using GFAAS.

  3. Antimony release from contaminated mine soils and its migration in four typical soils using lysimeter experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Yu-Xian; Zhao, Long; Qin, Yusheng; Hou, Hong; Zhang, Naiming

    2016-11-01

    Antimony (Sb) can pose great risks to the environment in mining and smelting areas. The migration of Sb in contaminated mine soil was studied using lysimeter experiments. The exchangeable concentration of soil Sb decreased with artificial leaching. The concentrations of Sb retained in the subsoil layers (5-25cm deep) were the highest for Isohumosol and Ferrosol and the lowest for Sandy soil. The Sb concentrations in soil solutions decreased with soil depth, and were adequately simulated using a logarithmic function. The Sb migration pattern in Sandy soil was markedly different from the patterns in the other soils which suggested that Sb may be transported in soil colloids. Environmental factors such as water content, soil temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential of the soil had different effects on Sb migration in Sandy soil and Primosol. The high Fe and Mn contents in Ferrosol and Isohumosol significantly decreased the mobility of Sb in these soils. The Na and Sb concentrations in soils used in the experiments positively correlated with each other (Psoil solutions, the Sb chemical fraction patterns, and the Sb/Na ratios decreased in the order Sandy soil>Primosol>Isohumosol>Ferrosol, and we concluded that the Sb mobility in the soils also decreased in that order. PMID:27395817

  4. Synthesis of Copper-Antimony-Sulfide Nanocrystals for Solution-Processed Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Satoshi; Horita, Keisuke; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Tooru; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Ishiwata, Yoichi; Shimanoe, Kengo; Kida, Tetsuya

    2015-08-17

    The p-type nanocrystals (NCs) of copper-based chalcogenides, such as CuInSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have attracted increasing attention in photovoltaic applications due to their potential to produce cheap solution-processed solar cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of copper-antimony-sulfide (CAS) NCs with different crystal phases including CuSbS2, Cu3SbS4, and Cu12Sb4S13. In addition, their morphology, crystal phase, and optical properties were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy, and photoemission yield spectroscopy. The morphology, crystal phase, and electronic structure were significantly dependent on the chemical composition in the CAS system. Devices were fabricated using particulate films consisting of CAS NCs prepared by spin coating without a high-temperature treatment. The CAS NC-based devices exhibited a diode-like current-voltage characteristic when coupled with an n-type CdS layer. In particular, the CuSbS2 NC devices exhibited photovoltaic responses under simulated sunlight, demonstrating its applicability for use in solution-processed solar cells.

  5. Semiconductor nanocrystals functionalized with antimony telluride zintl ions for nanostructured thermoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Maksym V; Spokoyny, Boris; Lee, Jong-Soo; Scheele, Marcus; Weber, Andrew; Perera, Susanthri; Landry, Daniel; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2010-05-19

    The energy efficiency of heat engines could be improved by the partial recovery of waste heat using thermoelectric (TE) generators. We show the possibility of designing nanostructured TE materials using colloidal inorganic nanocrystals functionalized with molecular antimony telluride complexes belonging to the family of Zintl ions. The unique advantage of using Zintl ions as the nanocrystal surface ligands is the possibility to convert them into crystalline metal chalcogenides, thus linking individual nanobuilding blocks into a macroscopic assembly of electronically coupled functional modules. This approach allows preserving the benefits of nanostructuring and quantum confinement while enabling facile charge transport through the interparticle boundaries. A developed methodology was applied for solution-based fabrication of nanostructured n- and p-type Bi(2-x)Sb(x)Te(3) alloys with tunable composition and PbTe-Sb(2)Te(3) nanocomposites with controlled grain size. Characterization of the TE properties of these materials showed that their Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal conductivities, and ZT values compared favorably with those of previously reported solution-processed TE materials.

  6. Assessment and distribution of antimony in soils around three coal mines, Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kang, Y.; Lam, P.K.S.; Chou, C.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-three soil samples were collected from the Luling, Liuer, and Zhangji coal mines in the Huaibei and Huainan areas of Anhui Province, China. The samples were analyzed for antimony (Sb) by inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The average Sb content in the 33 samples was 4 mg kg-1, which is lower than in coals from this region (6.2 mg kg-1). More than 75% of the soils sampled showed a significant degree of Sb pollution (enrichment factors [EFs] 5-20). The soils collected near the gob pile and coal preparation plant were higher in Sb content than those collected from residential areas near the mines. The gob pile and tailings from the preparation plant were high in mineral matter content and high in Sb. They are the sources of Sb pollution in surface soils in the vicinity of coal mines. The spatial dispersion of Sb in surface soil in the mine region shows that Sb pollution could reach out as far as 350 m into the local environment conditions. Crops in rice paddies may adsorb some Sb and reduce the Sb content in soils from paddyfields. Vertical distribution of Sb in two soil profiles indicates that Sb is normally relatively immobile in soils. ?? 2011 Air & Waste Management Association.

  7. DFT Study on the Carrier Concentration and Temperature-Dependent Thermoelectric Properties of Antimony Selenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Jayaraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the thermoelectric properties of Antimony Selenide (Sb2Se3 obtained using first principles calculations. We investigated the electronic band structure using the FP-LAPW method within the sphere of the density functional theory. Thermoelectric properties were calculated using BoltzTrap code using the constant relaxation time (τ approximation at three different temperatures 300 K, 600 K, and 800 K. Seebeck coefficient (S was found to decrease with increasing temperature, electrical conductivity (σ/τ was almost constant in the entire temperature range, and electronic thermal conductivity (κ/τ increased with increasing temperature. With increase in temperature S decreased from 1870 μV/K (at 300 K to 719 μV/K (at 800 K, electronic thermal conductivity increased from 1.56 × 1015 W/m K s (at 300 K to 3.92 × 1015 W/m K s (at 800 K, and electrical conductivity decreased from 22 × 1019/Ω m s (at 300 K to 20 × 1019/Ω m s (at 800 K. The thermoelectric properties were also calculated for different hole concentrations and the optimum concentration for a good thermoelectric performance over a large range of temperatures (from 300 K to 1000 K was found for hole concentration around 1019 cm−3.

  8. Comparison of arsenic and antimony biogeochemical behavior in water, soil and tailings from Xikuangshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyou; Wu, Fengchang; Mo, Changli; Deng, Qiujing; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P

    2016-01-01

    Although similar geochemical behaviors of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in the environment has been assumed and widely reported, growing evidence suggests the two elements cannot, under some conditions, be assumed to behave similarly. In this four-year study (samples collected in each year), comparative investigation of the biogeochemistry of As and Sb in water/fish, soil/vegetable, tailings/plant samples were carried out at the world's largest active Sb mine area (Xikuangshan, China). Depending on duration the tailings had been stacked, significant differences in spatial distributions between As and Sb were found, and these were associated with change in pH over time. Bio-accumulation factors (BAFs) of As were approximately 10-fold greater than those of Sb in fish/water, plant/tailing, and vegetable/soil systems. Sb had higher BAF in non-fatty tissues such as gills of fishes and shells of crabs. BAFs of Sb in vegetable/soil exhibited insignificantly, but different from As, positive correlation with pH in soil. PMID:26356182

  9. Validation of methodology and uncertainty assessment of antimony determination in environmental materials using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest because of the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a suitable method for the determination of several elements in different types, but in case of Sb, the analysis presents some difficulties due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the method of NAA and uncertainty assessment for Sb determination in environmental samples. The experimental procedure consisted of irradiating twelve certified reference samples of different kind of matrices. The samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA R1 IPEN/CNEN/SP followed by measurement of induced radioactivity, using a hyperpure germanium detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometry. The radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb were measured and the Sb concentrations with their respective uncertainties were obtained by the comparative method. Relative errors and values of Z scores were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the results for Sb determination in certified reference materials. The evaluation of the components that contribute to uncertainty measurement of the Sb concentration, showed that the major uncertainty contribution is due to statistical counting. The results also indicated that the uncertainty value of the combined standard uncertainty depends on the radioisotope measured and the decay time used for counting. (author)

  10. Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Grown by Home Made Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Gbadebo; Babatola, Babatunde Keji; Ishola, Abdulahi Dimeji; Awodugba, Ayodeji O.; Solar cell Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) films have been deposited on glass substrates by home made spray pyrolysis technique. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ATO films have been investigated as a function of Sb-doping level and annealing temperature. The optimum target composition for high conductivity and low resistivity was found to be 20 wt. % SnSb2 + 90 wt. ATO. Under optimized deposition conditions of 450oC annealing temperature, electrical resistivity of 5.2×10-4 Ω -cm, sheet resistance of 16.4 Ω/sq, average optical transmittance of 86% in the visible range, and average optical band-gap of 3.34eV were obtained. The film deposited at lower annealing temperature shows a relatively rough, loosely bound slightly porous surface morphology while the film deposited at higher annealing temperature shows uniformly distributed grains of greater size. Keywords: Annealing, Doping, Homemade spray pyrolysis, Tin oxide, Resistivity

  11. A density-functional study on the electronic and vibrational properties of layered antimony telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Ralf P.; Deringer, Volker L.; Simon, Ronnie E.; Hermann, Raphaël P.; Dronskowski, Richard

    2015-03-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of electronic and lattice-dynamical properties of crystalline antimony telluride (Sb2Te3). In a first step, the electronic structure and chemical bonding have been investigated, followed by calculations of the atomic force constants, phonon dispersion relationships and densities of states. Then, (macroscopic) physical properties of Sb2Te3 have been computed, namely, the atomic thermal displacement parameters, the Grüneisen parameter γ, the volume expansion of the lattice, and finally the bulk modulus B. We compare theoretical results from three popular and economic density-functional theory (DFT) approaches: the local density approximation (LDA), the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and a posteriori dispersion corrections to the latter. Despite its simplicity, the LDA shows excellent performance for all properties investigated—including the Grüneisen parameter, which only the LDA is able to recover with confidence. In the absence of computationally more demanding hybrid DFT methods, the LDA seems to be a good choice for further lattice dynamical studies of Sb2Te3 and related layered telluride materials.

  12. 21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... compensates for deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount...

  13. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  14. Quantitative analysis of Bordeaux red wine precipitates by solid-state NMR: Role of tartrates and polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shipra; Iturmendi, Nerea; Grelard, Axelle; Moine, Virginie; Dufourc, Erick

    2016-05-15

    Stability of wines is of great importance in oenology matters. Quantitative estimation of dark red precipitates formed in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from Bordeaux region for vintages 2012 and 2013 was performed during the oak barrel ageing process. Precipitates were obtained by placing wine at -4°C or 4°C for 2-6 days and monitored by periodic sampling during a one-year period. Spectroscopic identification of the main families of components present in the precipitate powder was performed with (13)C solid-state CPMAS NMR and 1D and 2D solution NMR of partially water re-solubilized precipitates. The study revealed that the amount of precipitate obtained is dependent on vintage, temperature and grape variety. Major components identified include potassium bitartrate, polyphenols, polysaccharides, organic acids and free amino acids. No evidence was found for the presence of proteins. The influence of main compounds found in the precipitates is discussed in relation to wine stability.

  15. Gold and Antimony Mixed Flotation on a Micrite Gold Antimony ore in Guizhou%贵州某泥晶灰岩型含锑金矿金锑混浮试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石贵明; 周意超

    2015-01-01

    贵州某泥晶灰岩型含锑金矿石为块状构造,金属矿物主要为黄铁矿、针铁矿,含量小于1%,非金属矿物以方解石为主,另有少量石英、有机质等;金含量为6.04 g/t,显微镜下未见自然金粒,74.34%的金赋存在硫化矿中,游离金仅占总金的7.14%;硅酸盐、碳酸盐包裹金分别占11.96%和6.56%;锑主要以辉锑矿的形式存在。为高效、低成本回收矿石中的金、锑,对混合浮选工艺进行了试验研究。结果表明,在一段磨矿细度为-0.074 mm占71%的情况下1粗2扫混浮、尾矿再磨细度为-0.074 mm占92.7%的情况下再1粗2扫混浮、两粗精矿合并后3次精选、中矿顺序返回流程处理,最终获得了金品位为47.60 g/t、锑品位为9.81%、金回收率为76.68%、锑回收率为85.22%的金锑混合精矿,金锑混浮效果较理想。尾矿中金的回收及金锑分离工艺研究将另文介绍。%The micrite type antimony-containing gold ore in Guizhou is in blocky construction. Its metallic minerals are mainly pyrite and goethite,with content of less than 1%. Non-metallic minerals are calcite,and few of quartz,organic matter, etc. It contains gold of 6. 04 g/t,and natural gold grains were not seen in microscope,74. 34% of the gold occurred in sulfide ore,free gold accounted for only 7. 14%,wrapped gold in silicate and carbonate accounted for 11. 96% and 6. 56% respective-ly. Antimony mainly existed in the form of stibnite. Bulk flotation process was studied to make high efficient recovery of gold and antimony at low costs. The results indicated that,at the grinding fineness of 71% passing 0. 074 mm,through one roughing and two scavenging bulk flotation,one roughing and two scavenging bulk flotation after regrinding the tailings to 92. 7% passing 0. 074 mm,three cleaning flotation for the two mixed rough concentrate,and then middles back to the flow-sheet in turn,rough gold-antimony concentrate with gold grade of 47. 60 g

  16. Quantitative HPLC-ICP-MS analysis of antimony redox speciation in complex sample matrices: new insights into the Sb-chemistry causing poor chromatographic recoveries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus; Schmidt, Bjørn; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt;

    2011-01-01

    In solution antimony exists either in the pentavalent or trivalent oxidation state. As Sb(III) is more toxic than Sb(V), it is important to be able to perform a quantitative speciation analysis of Sb’s oxidation state. The most commonly applied chromatographic methods used for this redox speciation...... analysis do, however, often show a low chromatographic Sb recovery when samples of environmental or biological origin are analysed. In this study we explored basal chemistry of antimony and found that formation of macromolecules, presumably oligomeric and polymeric Sb(V) species, is the primary cause...... of low chromatographic recoveries. A combination of HPLC-ICP-MS, AFFF-ICP-MS and spinfiltration was applied for analysis of model compounds and biological samples. Quantitative chromatographic Sb redox speciation analysis was possible by acidic hydrolysis of the antimony polymers prior to analysis...

  17. Process for preparation of potassium-38. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wolf, A.P.

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the /sup 40/Ar(p,3n)/sup 38/K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30 requests to use the NCELs... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  20. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, J Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S;

    2007-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase generates electrochemical gradients for sodium and potassium that are vital to animal cells, exchanging three sodium ions for two potassium ions across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure at 3.5 A resolution of the...

  1. Potassium cycling and losses in grassland systems : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayser, M; Isselstein, J

    2005-01-01

    Cycling of potassium in grassland systems has received relatively little attention in research and practice in recent years. Balanced nutrient systems require consideration of nutrients other than nitrogen (N). Potassium (K) is needed in large amounts and is closely related to N nutrition. In intens

  2. STUDIES INTO THE MECHANISMS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE INDUCED THYROID CARCINOGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies into the Mechanisms of Potassium Bromate Induced Thyroid Carcinogenesis. Potassium bromate (KBrO3) occurs in finished drinking water as a by-product of the ozonation disinfection process and has been found to induce thyroid follicular cell tumors in the rat after ...

  3. 75 FR 63856 - Potassium Permanganate From China Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or....2(f)). Background The Commission instituted this review on May 3, 2010 (75 FR 23298) and...

  4. The role of dietary potassium in hypertension and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekcioglu, Cem; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, Alexa L; Moeslinger, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Potassium is an essential mineral which plays major roles for the resting membrane potential and the intracellular osmolarity. In addition, for several years, it has been known that potassium also affects endothelial and vascular smooth muscle functions and it has been repeatedly shown that an increase in potassium intake shifts blood pressure to a more preferable level. Meanwhile, the blood pressure lowering effects of potassium were presented in several intervention trials and summarized in a handful of meta-analyses. Furthermore, accumulating epidemiological evidence from, especially, the last decade relates low dietary potassium intake or serum potassium levels to an increased risk for insulin resistance or diabetes. However, intervention trials are required to confirm this association. So, in addition to reduction of sodium intake, increasing dietary potassium intake may positively affect blood pressure and possibly also glucose metabolism in many populations. This concise review not only summarizes the studies linking potassium to blood pressure and diabetes but also discusses potential mechanisms involved, like vascular smooth muscle relaxation and endothelium-dependent vasodilation or stimulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells, respectively.

  5. Potassium sorbate-A new aqueous copper corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelev, Esta [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Starosvetsky, David [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Ein-Eli, Yair [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)]. E-mail: eineli@tx.technion.ac.il

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the novel nature of 2,4-hexadienoic acid potassium salt (potassium sorbate (KCH{sub 3}CH=CHCH=CHCO{sub 2})) as an effective copper aqueous corrosion inhibitor. The influence of pH and potassium sorbate concentration on copper corrosion in aerated sulfate and chloride solutions is reported. Degree of copper protection was found to increase with an increase in potassium sorbate concentration; an optimum concentration of this inhibitor in sulfate solutions was found to be 10 g/L. Copper is highly resistant to corrosion attacks by chloride ions in the presence of potassium sorbate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies suggest that copper protection is achieved via the formation of a mixed layer of cuprous oxide, cupric hydroxide and copper(II)-sorbate at the metal surface.

  6. Minerogenetic Mechanism of the Songxi Silver—Antimony Deposit of Northeastern Guangdong—Ore—Controlling Role of Organic Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凯; 肖振宇; 等

    1999-01-01

    Organic geochemistry and comparisons of characteristics of the organic matter in wall rocks of the ore-controlling strata and ores of the Lower Jurassic Songling black shale formation and the related Songxi silver-antimony deposit of northeastern Guangdong have been studied in this paper.The results show that the Lower Jurassic Songling shale formation is a suite of biologic-rich and organic-rich ore-bearing marine sedimentary rocks.Micro-components of the organic matter in the Songling black shale formation consists primarily of algae,amorphous marine kerogen,solid bitument,and pyrobitument.The thermal evolution of organic matter is at the over-maturity stage.There is a general positive correlation between total organic carbon(CO)and metallogenetic elements such as Ag and Sb in the black shale formation.Organic matter in the host rocks in the Songxi ore deposit played a role in controlling the silver-antimony depositing environment during the forming process of the black shale ore-bearing formation.In the absence of vitrinite,the relative level of thermal maturity calculated by solid bitument reflectance indicates that the ore-forming temperatute of the Songxi silver-antimony deposit was about 150-170℃,which was considered as an epithermally reworked ore deposit.The roles of organic matter in the formation of the Sonxi ore deposit are a primitive accumulation of the metallogenetic elements(Ag,Sb) in the sea-water cycle system for ore source and a concentration of metals by ion exchange of chelation as well as reductionn of the oxidzed metals.

  7. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robayo, Marta L.; Lopez, Myriam C.; Daza, Carlos D.; Bedoya, Angela; Mariño, Maria L.; Saavedra, Carlos H.

    2016-01-01

    Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate) under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antimonial derivatives as treatment for ACL show a healing rate of about 75% and reasons for treatment failure are not well known. Methods In order to characterise the clinical and parasitological features of patients with ACL that did not respond to Glucantime, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a cohort of 43 patients recruited in three of the Colombian Army National reference centers for complicated ACL. Clinical and paraclinical examination, and epidemiological and geographic information were recorded for each patient. Parasitological, histopathological and PCR infection confirmation were performed. Glucantime IC50 and in vitro infectivity for the isolated parasites were estimated. Results Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (95.4%) and 35% of the parasites isolated showed a significant decrease in in vitro Glucanatime susceptibility associated with previous administration of the medicament. Lesion size and in vitro infectivity of the parasite are negatively correlated with decline in Glucantime susceptibility (Spearman: r = (-)0,548 and r = (-)0,726; respectively). Conclusion A negative correlation between lesion size and parasite resistance is documented. L. braziliensis was found as the main parasite species associated to lesion of patients that underwent treatment failure or relapse. The indication of a second round of treatment in therapeutic failure of ACL, produced by L. braziliensis, with pentavalent antimonial

  8. Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles based chemical sensor and photo-catalyst for environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal, Aslam [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Rahman, Mohammed M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Sher Bahadar, E-mail: drkhanmarwat@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Faisal, Mohd. [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Akhtar, Kalsoom [Division of Nano Sciences and Department of Chemistry, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Rub, Malik Abdul; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A dichloromethane chemical sensor using cobalt antimony oxides has been fabricated. This sensor showed high sensitivity and will be a useful candidate for environmental and health monitoring. Also it showed high photo-catalytic activity and can be a good candidate as a photo-catalyst for organic hazardous materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reusable chemical sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green environmental and eco-friendly chemi-sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good candidate for environmental and health monitoring. - Abstract: Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles (NPs) have been synthesized by hydrothermal process and structurally characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) which revealed that the synthesized cobalt antimony oxides (CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) are well crystalline nano-particles with an average particles size of 26 {+-} 10 nm. UV-visible absorption spectra ({approx}286 nm) were used to investigate the optical properties of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The chemical sensing of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} NPs have been primarily investigated by I-V technique, where dichloromethane is used as a model compound. The analytical performance of dichloromethane chemical sensor exhibits high sensitivity (1.2432 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and a large linear dynamic range (1.0 {mu}M-0.01 M) in short response time (10 s). The photo catalytic activity of the synthesized CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles was evaluated by degradation of acridine orange (AO), which degraded 58.37% in 200 min. These results indicate that CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles can play an excellent research impact in the environmental field.

  9. Dietary levels of potassium for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional requirements of potassium (K for male Ross broiler chickens, from 8 to 21, 22 to 42 and 43 to 53 days of age. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR. In each experiment, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments (K levels, and six, eight and eight numbers of replicates, and eight, five and four birds per pen, respectively. The experimental diets were basal diets deficient in K but supplemented with K carbonate to result in levels of 0.30, 0.44, 0.58, 0.72, 0.86 and 1.00% K. Estimated requirements for BWG were 0.628, 0.714 and 0.798% K, for the periods 8-21, 22-42 and 43-53 d, respectively.

  10. Burning characteristics of potassium and lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of laboratory scale tests has been carried out in which lithium and potassium were burnt in trays in atmospheres of air and nitrogen. The test results are compared with those from literature. The maximum weight of metal in a test was 200 gram. The tests were carried out in a glove box which allowed the atomospheric composition to be varied to some extent. The initial temperature was varied to determine its effect on the course of the reaction. The temperature and the composition of the atmosphere were recorded during the tests. After each test the reaction products were weighed and chemically analysed. A good insight into the course of the reaction was obtained from the results. The main phases of the reaction are illustrated by a series of photographs. (orig.)

  11. Researches toward potassium channels on tumor progressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zheng; Yang, Qian; You, Qidong

    2009-01-01

    As trans-membrane proteins located in cytoplasm and organelle membrane, potassium (K(+)) channels are generally divided into four super-families: voltage-gated K(+) channels (K(v)), Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)), inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (K(ir)) and two-pore domain K(+) channels (K(2P)). Since dysfunctions of K(+) channels would induce many diseases, various studies toward their functions in physiologic and pathologic process have been extensively launched. This review focuses on the recent advances of K(+) channels in tumor progression, including the brief introduction of K(+) channels, the role of K(+) channels in tumor cells, the possible mechanism of action at cellular level, and the possible application of K(+) channel modulators in cancer chemotherapy.

  12. Electrocaloric properties of potassium tantalate niobate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    The electrocaloric properties of potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) crystals were investigated by indirect estimation and direct measurement of temperature-electric field (T-E) hysteresis loops. The measured T-E loops showed a similar shape to strain-electric field (s-E) loops. The adiabatic temperature change ΔT due to the electrocaloric effect was estimated from the polarization change of this sample to be 0.49 K under a field of 20 kV/cm. The measured temperature change ΔT in these samples upon the release of the electric field from 20 kV/cm to zero was 0.42 K. The temperature dependences of the electromechanical and electrocaloric properties were measured. The maximum performance appeared at approximately the phase transition temperature of KTN crystal and the properties were relatively moderate-temperature-dependent.

  13. High pressure studies of potassium perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravica, Michael; Wang, Yonggang; Sneed, Daniel; Reiser, Sharissa; White, Melanie

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments are reported on KClO4 at extreme conditions. A static high pressure Raman study was first conducted to 18.9 GPa. Evidence for at least two new phases was observed: one between 2.4 and 7.7 GPa (possibly sluggish), and the second near 11.7 GPa. Then, the X-ray induced decomposition rate of potassium perchlorate (KClO4 → hν KCl + 2O2) was studied up to 15.2 GPa. The time-dependent growth of KCl and O2 was monitored. The decomposition rate slowed at higher pressures. We present the first direct evidence for O2 crystallization at higher pressures, demonstrating that O2 molecules aggregate at high pressure.

  14. Bioinspired Artificial Sodium and Potassium Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Nuria; Fuertes, Alberto; Amorín, Manuel; Granja, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    In Nature, all biological systems present a high level of compartmentalization in order to carry out a wide variety of functions in a very specific way. Hence, they need ways to be connected with the environment for communication, homeostasis equilibrium, nutrition, waste elimination, etc. The biological membranes carry out these functions; they consist of physical insulating barriers constituted mainly by phospholipids. These amphipathic molecules spontaneously aggregate in water to form bilayers in which the polar groups are exposed to the aqueous media while the non-polar chains self-organize by aggregating to each other to stay away from the aqueous media. The insulating properties of membranes are due to the formation of a hydrophobic bilayer covered at both sides by the hydrophilic phosphate groups. Thus, lipophilic molecules can permeate the membrane freely, while the small charged or very hydrophilic molecules require the assistance of other membrane components in order to overcome the energetic cost implied in crossing the non-polar region of the bilayer. Most of the large polar species (such as oligosaccharides, polypeptides or nucleic acids) cross into and out of the cell via endocytosis and exocytosis, respectively. Nature has created a series of systems (carriers and pores) in order to control the balance of small hydrophilic molecules and ions. The most important structures to achieve these goals are the ionophoric proteins that include the channel proteins, such as the sodium and potassium channels, and ionic transporters, including the sodium/potassium pumps or calcium/sodium exchangers among others. Inspired by these, scientists have created non-natural synthetic transporting structures to mimic the natural systems. The progress in the last years has been remarkable regarding the efficient transport of Na(+) and K(+) ions, despite the fact that the selectivity and the ON/OFF state of the non-natural systems remain a present and future challenge

  15. Comparative Efficacies of Two Antimony Regimens To Treat Leishmania braziliensis-Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, G.; Porrozzi, R.; Friedrich, K.; Teva, A.; Marchevsky, R. S.; Vieira, F.; Miekeley, N.; Paumgartten, F. J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the efficacies of two N-methylglucomine antimoniate (MA) dose regimens for treating macaques with Leishmania braziliensis-induced chronic skin disease. Whereas all animals treated with the full dose (20 mg MA/kg/day) were cured, 50% of the monkeys receiving a low-dose regimen (5 mg MA/kg/day) relapsed. The antimony concentrations in macaque plasma and tissue samples were greater in the full-dose group than in that receiving a subtherapeutic MA regimen. Our data also suggest the presence of drug-induced hepatic pathology. PMID:19822700

  16. Influence of antimony on the mechanical properties and gas content of alloy AlSi6Cu4

    OpenAIRE

    D. Medlen; D. Bolibruchova

    2011-01-01

    Aluminium alloys based on Al-Si are used in automotive and aerospace industries. AlSi6Cu4 alloy is used the complicated castings, whichmust comply high strength requirements. Strength characteristics can also be affected by the modifiers: Na, Sr, Sb. In the li terature ismentioned, that AlSi6Cu4 modified by sodium and strontium has negative effect - increases of the gas absorption. Modification of AlSi6Cu4 alloy by antimony, is still not mentioned in the literature. The article gives the effe...

  17. The influence of remelting on the properties of AlSi6Cu4 alloy modified by antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Medlen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of multiple remelting influence on AlSi6Cu4 alloy modified by antimony on chosen mechanical characteristics, microstructure and gas content. This foundry alloy is used mostly in automotive industry. Foundry Aluminum-Silicon alloys are also used in number of industrial weight sensitive applications because of their low weight and very good castability and good mechanical properties. Modifiers are usually added to molten aluminum-silicon alloys to refine the eutectic phase particle shape and improve the mechanical properties of the final cast products and Al-Si alloys cast properties.

  18. Flow analysis-hydride generation-gas phase derivative molecular absorption spectrophotometric determination of antimony in antileishmanial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Gallignani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the development of a method based on the coupling of flow analysis (FA, hydride generation (HG, and derivative molecular absorption spectrophotometry (D-EAM in gas phase (GP, is described in order to determine total antimony in antileishmanial products. Second derivative order (D²224nm of the absorption spectrum (190 - 300 nm is utilized as measurement criterion. Each one of the parameters involved in the development of the proposed method was examined and optimized. The utilization of the EAM in GP as detection system in a continuous mode instead of atomic absorption spectrometry represents the great potential of the analytic proposal.

  19. Effect of external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics of antimony and bismuth powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikram V Dabhade; Rama Mohan R Tallapragada; Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2009-10-01

    Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy on the powders of antimony and bismuth. The characteristics of powders treated by external energy are compared with the as received powders (control). The average particle sizes, 50 and 99, the sizes below which 99% of the particles are present showed significant increase and decrease indicating that the energy had caused deformation and fracture as if the powders have been subjected to high energy milling. To be able to understand the reasons for these changes the powders are characterized by techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area determination (BET), thermal analytical techniques such as DTA–DTG, DSC–TGA and SDTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The treated powder samples exhibited remarkable changes in the powder characteristics at all structural levels starting from polycrystalline particles, through single crystal to atoms. The external energy had changed the lattice parameters of the unit cell which in turn changed the crystallite size and density. The lattice parameters are then used to compute the weight and effective nuclear charge of the atom which showed significant variation. It is speculated that the external energy is acting on the nucleus through some reversible weak interaction of larger cross section causing changes in the proton to neutron ratios. Thus the effect is felt by all the atoms, and hence the unit cell, single crystal grain and grain boundaries. The stresses generated in turn may have caused deformation or fracture of the weak interfaces such as the crystallite and grain boundaries.

  20. Contamination of bottled waters with antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) increases upon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Antimony concentrations were determined in 132 brands of bottled water from 28 countries. Two of the brands were at or above the maximum allowable Sb concentration for drinking water in Japan (2 microg/L). Elevated concentrations of Sb in bottled waters are due mainly to the Sb2O3 used as the catalyst in the manufacture of polyethylene terephthalate (PET(E)). The leaching of Sb from PET(E) bottles shows variable reactivity. In 14 brands of bottled water from Canada, Sb concentrations increased on average 19% during 6 months storage at room temperature, but 48 brands of water from 11 European countries increased on average 90% under identical conditions. A mineral water from France in PET(E), purchased in Germany, yielded 725 ng/L when first tested, but 1510 ng/L when it was stored for 6 months at room temperature; the same brand of water, purchased in Hong Kong, yielded 1990 ng/L Sb. Pristine groundwater containing 1.7+/-0.4 ng/L Sb (n = 6) yielded 26.6+/-2.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) after storage in PET(E) bottles from Canada for 6 months versus 281+/-38 ng/L Sb (n = 3) in PET(E) bottles from Germany. Tap water bottled commercially in PET(E) in December 2005 contained 450+/-56 ng/L Sb (n = 3) versus 70.3+/-0.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) when sampled from a household faucet in the same village (Bammental, Germany), and 25.7+/-1.5 ng/L Sb (n = 3) from a local artesian flow. PMID:17396641