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Sample records for antimony potassium tartrate

  1. Complexation of HSA with different forms of antimony (Sb): An application of fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhang, Daoyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has been of a great environmental concern in some areas in China. Sb enters human body via drinking water, inhalation and food chain, unavoidably interacts with human serum albumin (HSA) in blood plasma, and consequently does harm to human health. The harmful effects of Sb on human health depend on the Sb species and their binding ability to HSA. In the present study, binding of three forms of Sb with HSA was investigated by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. All of antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate quenched fluorescence of HSA. Values of conditional stability constant K a (×10 5 /M) for Sb and HSA systems were 8.13–9.12 for antimony potassium tartrate, 2.51–4.27 for antimony trichloride and 3.63–9.77 for potassium pyroantimonate. The binding constant K b (×10 4 /M) values of HSA with antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate were 0.02–0.07, 3.55–5.01, and 0.07–1.08, respectively. There was one independent class of binding site for antimony trichloride towards HSA. There was more than one Sb binding site and negative cooperativity between multiple binding sites for potassium pyroantimonate and antimony potassium tartrate towards HSA. The binding ability of HSA to complex Sb followed the order: antimony trichloride>potassium pyroantimonate>antimony potassium tartrate. -- Highlights: ► The first study reporting interaction of Sb with HSA. ► Sb can effectively quench the fluorescence of HSA. ► The binding ability of HSA to Sb was dependent on the form of Sb. ► Binding differences indicate differences in toxicity of various forms Sb to human. ► HAS-Sb binding parameters are important for understanding toxicity of Sb

  2. An electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation of the dosimetric potential of potassium tartrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, G.; Oezsayin, F.; Polat, M.

    2012-01-01

    While unirradiated potassium tartrate (PT) samples do not exhibit any electron spin resonance signal, irradiated ones contain many resonance signals. A power function of the radiation dose was found to describe well the dose-response curve of the central resonance signal, and adjusting the microwave power and modulation amplitude to be 2 mW and 1 mT, respectively, was found to increase the sensitivity of PT. The radiation sensitivity of PT and the accuracy of the measured radiation dose were found to be G = 0.42 and 6%, respectively. (authors)

  3. Antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Sutphin, David M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Carlin, James F.; Berger, Byron R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Antimony is an important mineral commodity used widely in modern industrialized societies. The element imparts strength, hardness, and corrosion resistance to alloys that are used in many areas of industry, including in lead-acid storage batteries. Antimony’s leading use is as a fire retardant in safety equipment and in household goods, such as mattresses. The U.S. Government has considered antimony to be a critical mineral mainly because of its use in military applications. The great majority of the world’s antimony comes from China, and much of the remainder is shipped to China for smelting. Antimony resources are unevenly distributed around the world. China has the bulk of the world’s identified resources; other countries that have identified antimony resources include Bolivia, Canada, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Tajikistan, and Turkey. Resources in the United States are located mainly in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada. The most significant antimony mineral deposits occur in geologic environments with a thick sequence of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks in areas with significant fault and fracture systems. The most common antimony ore mineral is stibnite (Sb2 S3 ), but more than 100 other minerals also contain antimony. The presence of antimony in surface waters and groundwaters results primarily from rock weathering, soil runoff, and anthropogenic sources. Global emissions of antimony to the atmosphere average 6,100 metric tons per year. Empirical data suggest that the acid-generating potential of antimony mine waste is low.

  4. Optimization of biodiesel production process from soybean oil using the sodium potassium tartrate doped zirconia catalyst under Microwave Chemical Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihuai; Ye, Bin; Shen, Jiaowen; Tian, Zhen; Wang, Lijun; Zhu, Luping; Ma, Teng; Yang, Dongya; Qiu, Fengxian

    2013-06-01

    A solid base catalyst was prepared by the sodium potassium tartrate doped zirconia and microwave assisted transesterification of soybean oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. It was found that the catalyst of 2.0(n(Na)/n(Zr)) and calcined at 600°C showed the optimum activity. The base strength of the catalysts was tested by the Hammett indicator method, and the results showed that the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was related to their total basicity. The catalyst was also characterized by FTIR, TGA, XRD and TEM. The experimental results showed that a 2.0:1 volume ratio of methanol to oil, 65°C reaction temperature, 30 min reaction time and 10 wt.% catalyst amount gave the highest the yield of biodiesel. Compared to conventional method, the reaction time of the way of microwave assisted transesterification was shorter. The catalyst had longer lifetime and maintained sustained activity after being used for four cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in polar tetragonal crystals of barium antimony tartrate trihydrate, Ba[Sb{sub 2}((+)C{sub 4}H{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminskii, Alexander A. [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rhee, Hanjo; Eichler, Hans J.; Lux, Oliver [Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, Technical University of Berlin (Germany); Nemec, Ivan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Yoneda, Hitoki; Shirakawa, Akira [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan); Becker, Petra; Bohaty, Ladislav [Section Crystallography, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    The non-centrosymmetric polar tetragonal (P4{sub 1}) barium antimony tartrate trihydrate, Ba[Sb{sub 2}((+)C{sub 4}H{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O, was found to be an attractive novel semi-organic crystal manifesting numerous χ{sup (2)}- and χ{sup (3)}-nonlinear optical interactions. In particular, with picosecond single- and dual-wavelength pumping SHG and THG via cascaded parametric four-wave processes were observed. High-order Stokes and anti-Stokes lasing related to two SRS-promoting vibration modes of the crystal, with ω{sub SRS1} ∼ 575 cm{sup -1} and ω{sub SRS2} ∼ 2940 cm{sup -1}, takes place. Basing on a spontaneous Raman investigation an assignment of the two SRS-active vibration modes is discussed. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Determination by neutron activation analysis of loss of arsenic, antimony, bromine and mercury during lyophilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, M.; Litman, R.

    1978-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used to monitor the loss of arsenic, as dimethylarsinic acid, (CH 3 ) 2 AsOOH, or as sodium arsenate (Na 2 HAsO 4 .7H 2 O), antimony (as potassium antimony, tartrate, KSbC 4 O 7 .1/2H 2 O) and bromine (as bromide ion) during lyophilization of acidified and neutral aqueous synthetic and environmental samples. Losses of Sb and As ranged from zero to 60%, while losses of bromine were constant (at 91%) in acidic solutions. The variable losses of As and Sb were due solely to the presence of and partial decomposition of the (CH 3 ) 2 AsOOH. Electrochemical oxidation of Br - to Br 2 is responsible for the high losses of bromine. In addition losses of mercury (as methylmercuric chloride) were 1O0% in both acidic and neutral aqueous synthetic samples during lyophilization. (author)

  7. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blackberries Root vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruit Your kidneys help to keep the right amount of potassium in your body. If you have chronic kidney disease, your kidneys may not remove extra potassium from ...

  8. Increased biliary excretion of glutathione is generated by the glutathione-dependent hepatobiliary transport of antimony and bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurasics, A; Koszorús, L; Varga, F; Gregus, Z

    1992-10-06

    We have recently demonstrated that the hepatobiliary transport of arsenic is glutathione-dependent and is associated with a profound increase in biliary excretion of glutathione (GSH), hepatic GSH depletion and diminished GSH conjugation (Gyurasics A, Varga F and Gregus Z, Biochem Pharmacol 41: 937-944 and Gyurasics A, Varga F and Gregus Z, Biochem Pharmacol 42: 465-468, 1991). The present studies in rats aimed to determine whether antimony and bismuth, other metalloids in group Va of the periodic table, also possess similar properties. Antimony potassium tartrate (25-100 mumol/kg, i.v.) and bismuth ammonium citrate (50-200 mumol/kg, i.v.) increased up to 50- and 4-fold, respectively, the biliary excretion of non-protein thiols (NPSH). This resulted mainly from increased hepatobiliary transport of GSH as suggested by a close parallelism in the biliary excretion of NPSH and GSH after antimony or bismuth administration. Within 2 hr, rats excreted into bile 55 and 3% of the dose of antimony (50 mumol/kg, i.v.) and bismuth (150 mumol/kg, i.v.), respectively. The time courses of the biliary excretion of these metalloids and NPSH or GSH were strikingly similar suggesting co-ordinate hepatobiliary transport of the metalloids and GSH. However, at the peak of their excretion, each molecule of antimony or bismuth resulted in a co-transport of approximately three molecules of GSH. Diethyl maleate, indocyanine green and sulfobromophthalein (BSP), which decreased biliary excretion of GSH, significantly diminished excretion of antimony and bismuth into bile indicating that hepatobiliary transport of these metalloids is GSH-dependent. Administration of antimony, but not bismuth, decreased hepatic GSH level by 30% and reduced the GSH conjugation and biliary excretion of BSP. These studies demonstrate that the hepatobiliary transport of trivalent antimony and bismuth is GSH-dependent similarly to the hepatobiliary transport of trivalent arsenic. Proportionally to their biliary

  9. Antimony: a flame fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Niki E.; Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a brittle, silvery-white semimetal that conducts heat poorly. The chemical compound antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) is widely used in plastics, rubbers, paints, and textiles, including industrial safety suits and some children’s clothing, to make them resistant to the spread of flames. Also, sodium antimonate (NaSbO3) is used during manufacturing of high-quality glass, which is found in cellular phones.

  10. Improved Antileishmanial Activity of Dppz through Complexation with Antimony(III and Bismuth(III: Investigation of the Role of the Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Demicheli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two novel trivalent antimony(III and bismuth(III complexes with the nitrogen-donor heterocyclic ligand dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz were synthesized and characterized as [Sb(dppzCl3]∙H2O∙CH3OH and [Bi(dppzCl3]. The crystal structure of Sb(III complex was determined by X-ray crystallography. These complexes were evaluated for their activity against the promastigote form of Sb(III-sensitive and –resistant Leishmania infantum chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis strains. Both complexes were more effective than dppz alone in inhibiting the growth of Leishmania promastigotes and were at least 77 and 2,400 times more active than potassium antimonyl tartrate in Sb(III-sensitive and -resistant Leishmania, respectively. The cytotoxicity of dppz and its complexes against mouse peritoneal macrophages occurred at dppz concentrations at least 6-fold greater than those found to be active against Leishmania promastigotes.To investigate the role of the metal in the improved antileishmanial activity of dppz, the activity of the Sb(III complex was compared between the Sb-resistant mutants and their respective parental sensitive strains. The lack of cross-resistance to the Sb(III-dppz complex together with the much lower activity of antimonyl tartrate, SbCl3 and BiCl3 strongly support the model that the metal is not active by itself but improves the activity of dppz through complexation.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter; hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25) of this chapter; jams and jellies as defined in § 170.3(n)(28) of this chapter; and soft candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(38) of this chapter. (d) Prior sanctions...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... also called the Rochelle salt. It occurs as colorless crystals or as a white, crystalline powder and has a cooling saline taste. It is obtained as a byproduct of wine manufacture. (b) The ingredient...

  13. 21 CFR 556.425 - Morantel tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Morantel tartrate. 556.425 Section 556.425 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.425 Morantel tartrate. A tolerance of 0.7 part per million is established for N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine (MAPA, marker residue) in the liver (target tissue) of...

  14. Diastereoselectivity in scalemic tartrate/titanium epoxidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J M; Leppard, S J; Oakes, J; Thornthwaite, D

    2000-06-01

    Nonlinearity in the diastereoselectivity of epoxidation of allylic alcohols with mixtures of titanium isopropoxide, tertbutyl hydroperoxide, and diethyl tartrate was observed. Racemic and enantiomerically pure alcohols E-2-methyl-4-hexen-3-ol and E-1-methoxy-5-(O-tertbutyldimethylsilyloxy)-2-penten-4-ol were prepared. Epoxidation reactions were carried out with Ti(OPri)4 and ButOOH accompanied by diethyl tartrate of varying enantiomeric purity. The simplest explanation of these results is that a dimeric epoxidation reagent is involved, with significantly different reactivity for the homochiral and racemic forms. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Dielectric behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    on second harmonic generation, crystal oscillators and rescuators, and devices to central laser emission are ... molecular structure of tartrate, monohydrotartrate and water indents. Since the data on dielectric properties .... Design of sample holder used for measurements. Evacuation of the holder is not required. 1. Sample ...

  16. [Inhibitory mechanism of ifenprodil tartrate on rabbit platelet aggregation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irino, O; Saitoh, K; Hayashi, T; Ohkubo, K

    1985-05-01

    The effects of dl-erythro-4-benzyl-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-beta-methyl-l-piperidine-eth anol tartrate (ifenprodil tartrate) on rabbit platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo were studied. Ifenprodil tartrate inhibited platelet aggregation in vitro induced by ADP, collagen and epinephrine. It also inhibited 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake into platelets and 5-HT release from platelets. Since these inhibitory effects of ifenprodil tartrate on the functions of rabbit platelets were similar to the effects of imipramine, the effects of ifenprodil tartrate may be due to the stabilizing action of ifenprodil tartrate on the platelet membrane. The platelet aggregation by ADP was significantly inhibited in rabbits after oral administration of ifenprodil tartrate, the maximal plasma level of ifenprodil being reached at 20 ng/ml ex vivo, while the maximal level was only 1/40 of the minimal concentration of ifenprodil tartrate necessary to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. These results indicate that factors other than ifenprodil tartrate acting directly on the platelets (e.g., PGI2 which is an endogenous inhibitor of platelet aggregation) are involved in inducing the inhibitory effects of ifenprodil tartrate on platelet aggregation ex vivo. The effects of ifenprodil tartrate on both PGI2 release from the aorta and the inhibitory effects of PGI2 on platelet aggregation in vitro were investigated: PGI2 was found to intensify the inhibitory effects of ifenprodil tartrate on platelet aggregation in vitro, but there was little effect, if any, on PGI2 release. Therefore, it is considered that the ex vivo effects of ifenprodil tartrate might be due to its interaction with endogenous PGI2 in the blood.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article describes the characteristics and industrial uses of antimony. Antimony, which is produced as a byproduct of mining other metals such as gold, lead or silver, is used in everything from flame retardants, batteries, ceramics and glass. It is also used in glass for television picture tubes, computer monitors, pigments and catalysts.

  18. Heteronuclear compounds of arsenic and antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, James E.

    1982-09-01

    Volatilization of secondary metals such as arsenic, antimony, and bismuth, during the smelting of copper ores, is important because of environmental and resource considerations. The Bureau of Mines, United States Department of the Interior, has been studying copper concentrate roasting in conjunction with the volatility of these minor constituents. Some unusual vaporization behavior initiated this supplemental paper which shows that when the mixed sulfides of arsenic and antimony are heated, the volatilization of arsenic is retarded and the volatilization of antimony increased. Mixed oxides of arsenic and antimony also exhibit exceptional volatilization behavior. These anomalous vaporization behaviors are attributed to the formation of heteronuclear compounds of arsenic and antimony, but the colligative properties of solutions may also be a factor.

  19. Surface complexation of antimony on kaolinite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Sudipta; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical fate of antimony (Sb) - a similar oxyanion as arsenic (As) - in a variety of environment is largely unexplored. Kaolinite is an important, naturally occurring clay mineral in soils and aquifers and is known to control the fate of several contaminants via a multitude of geochemical processes, primarily adsorption. Here we report adsorption of antimony on kaolinite as a function of solution chemistry: initial antimony concentration, pH, ionic strength, and a competing anion. A surface complexation modeling (SCM) approach was undertaken to understand the potential mechanistic implications of sorption envelope data. In the SCM, a multicomponent additive approach, in which kaolinite is assumed to be a (1:1) mixture of quartz (≡SiOH) and gibbsite (≡AlOH), was tested. Results indicated that ionic strength has a minimal effect on antimony adsorption. For the lower initial antimony concentration (4.11 μM), the additive model with binuclear surface complexes on quartz and gibbsite showed a better fit at pH3.5. However, the additive model with binuclear surface complex on quartz and mononuclear surface complex on gibbsite showed an excellent fit of the data. Phosphate greatly influenced antimony adsorption on kaolinite at both low and high antimony loadings, indicating competition for available surface sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation into the reduction of antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a program being implemented to decrease the antimony being released in waste water from the processing of liquid low-level radioactive wastes. The process being studied is the use of a crossflow membrane filter to remove antimony, and possibly cobalt 58. The process will evaluate the efficiency gains available from changing the oxidation states of the antimony with respect to the removal efficiency. Ion absorbers and ion exchange media will also be evaluated. The equipment is to be first tested on waste water from the November outage of Oconee, and then to use it on other radwaste processing studies

  1. FIRST REPORT ON OTOTOXICITY OF MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pentavalent antimonials are the first drug of choice in the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Data on ototoxicity related with such drugs is scarcely available in literature, leading us to develop a study on cochleovestibular functions. Case Report: A case of a tegumentary leishmaniasis patient, a 78-year-old man who presented a substantial increase in auditory threshold with tinnitus and severe rotatory dizziness during the treatment with meglumine antimoniate, is reported. These symptoms worsened in two weeks after treatment was interrupted. Conclusion: Dizziness and tinnitus had already been related to meglumine antimoniate. However, this is the first well documented case of cochlear-vestibular toxicity related to meglumine antimoniate.

  2. Potassium Organic Salts as Burn Additives in Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three potassium salts of organic acids, namely malate, citrate and tartrate, have been sprayed onto flue-cured blend tobacco and subsequently tested for their performance as burn additives in cigarettes. In one experiment where potassium malate was added to vary the final tobacco potassium from ca. 3.1% to 8.3% (wet weight, an almost linearly reduction in puff temperature was measured. This was accompanied by a gradual increase in the cigarette's pressure drop. In another set of experiments where the final tobacco potassium contents were increased to ca. 5.1%, the three potassium salts showed almost equal reduction in the mainstream nicotine-free-dry-particulate-matter (NFDPM at 32-35%, nicotine at 25-32% and carbon monoxide at 24-35%. Puff number showed ca. 23% increase with malate, 13% with citrate and almost unchanged for tartrate. Evidence of melting and coating by potassium malate was discovered in cigarette ash by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. This contributed to a noticeable change in ash morphology: small ash particles appeared to be coated and more tightly bonded together by the melt. This phenomenon was thought to be able to restrict the airflow during puffing, hence causing the measured increase in pressure drop, and the reductions in puff temperature, NFDPM, nicotine and carbon monoxide.

  3. Sorption of antimony on human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nofal, M.; Amin, H.; Alian, G.

    1997-01-01

    The study of the uptake of toxic elements on human teeth represents an interesting research area, as the fate of these elements when present in the human food is of health significance. Since antimony is one of the common toxic elements and since, the chemical behaviour of antimony is similar to that of arsenic, one of the most important toxic elements commonly encountered in cases of food poisoning, it has been decided to investigate its uptake on human teeth and on other restoration materials. The radioactive tracer technique was used to evaluate the concentration of antimony sorbed on teeth. This tracer was obtained by irradiation of antimony metal in the reactor, subsequent dissolution in concentrated sulphuric acid, evaporation to dryness and making the solution 6 M in Hydrochloric acid (1). Antimony prepared in this way is in the trivalent state (Sb III). Sorption was studied in water, tea, coffee, red tea and chicken soup. The highest sorption was achieved from water and chicken soup and least sorption was noticed in case of coffee. The results are presented in the form of the depletion of the radioactivity (A) of antimony with time in presence of a tooth in water and other drinks

  4. Integrated process using non-stoichiometric sulfides or oxides of potassium for making less active metals and hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, R.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a combinative integrated chemical process using inorganic reactants and yielding, if desired, organic products. The process involves first the production of elemental potassium by the thermal or thermal-reduced pressure decomposition of potassium oxide or potassium sulfide and distillation of the potassium. This elemental potassium is then used to reduce ores or ore concentrates of copper, zinc, lead, magnesium, cadmium, iron, arsenic, antimony or silver to yield one or more of these less active metals in elemental form. Process potassium can also be used to produce hydrogen by reaction with water or potassium hydroxide. This hydrogen is reacted with potassium to produce potassium hydride. Heating the latter with carbon produces potassium acetylide which forms acetylene when treated with water. Acetylene is hydrogenated to ethene or ethane with process hydrogen. Using Wurtz-Fittig reaction conditions, the ethane can be upgraded to a mixture of hydrocarbons boiling in the fuel range

  5. Spectroscopic investigation of the structures of dialkyl tartrates and their cyclodextrin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Polavarapu, Prasad L

    2007-02-08

    Structures of three dialkyl tartrates, namely, dimethyl tartrate, diethyl tartrate, and diisopropyl tartrate, in CCl4, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/DMSO-d6, and H2O/D2O solvents have been investigated using vibrational absorption (VA), vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), and optical rotatory dispersion (ORD). VA, VCD, and ORD spectra are found to be dependent on the solvent used. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to interpret the experimental data in CCl4 and DMSO. The trans-COOR conformer with hydrogen bonding between the OH group and the C=O group attached to the same chiral carbon is dominant for dialkyl tartrates both in vacuum and in CCl4. The experimental VA, VCD, and ORD data of dialkyl-D-tartrates in CCl4 correlated well with those predicted for dimethyl-(S,S)-tartrate molecule as both isolated and solvated in CCl4. In DMSO solvent, dialkyl tartrate molecules favor formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonding with DMSO molecules. Clusters of dimethyl-(S,S)-tartrate, with one molecule of dimethyl-(S,S)-tartrate hydrogen bonded to two DMSO molecules, are used for the DFT calculations. A trans-COOR cluster and a trans-H cluster are needed to obtain a reasonable agreement between the predicted and experimental data of dimethyl tartrate in DMSO solvent. VA, VCD, and optical rotations are also measured for dialkyl tartrate-cyclodextrin complexes. It is noted that these properties are barely affected by complexation of dialkyl tartrates with cyclodextrins, indicating weak interaction between tartrates and cyclodextrin. Binding constants of alpha-CD and beta-CD with diethyl L-tartrate in both H2O and DMSO have been determined using isothermal titration calorimetry technique. The smaller binding constants (less than 100) confirmed the weak interaction between tartrates and cyclodextrin in the solution state.

  6. Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate crystals grown with the aid of sodium metasilicate gel is investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Effect of magnetic field and dopant (Pb)2+ on the crystal stability is also studied using thermal analysis. This study reveals that water molecules are ...

  7. On the growth of calcium tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    menon, especially those involved in the gel technique. With an aim of controlling nucleation and improving the size, in the present study, we have grown pure calcium tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals using calcium formate mixed with formic acid as the supernatant solution. The grown crystals have been characterized by ...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of gel-grown cobalt tartrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Physics, Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. ∗. Corresponding .... The indexed XRD data for cobalt tartrate crystals are shown in table 2. The indexing was .... Manimaran, Head, Marketing, Pricol Castings Ltd, Coimbatore for the support during the course of this work.

  9. Crystal structure of lead(II tartrate: a redetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of poly[μ4-tartrato-κ6O1,O3:O1′:O2,O4:O4′-lead], [Pb(C4H4O6]n, were grown in a gel medium. In comparison with the previous structure determination of this compound from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data [De Ridder et al. (2002. Acta Cryst. C58, m596–m598], the redetermination on the basis of single-crystal data reveals the absolute structure, all atoms with anisotropic displacement parameters and a much higher accuracy in terms of bond lengths and angles. It could be shown that a different space group or incorporation of water as reported for similarly gel-grown lead tartrate crystals is incorrect. In the structure, each Pb2+ cation is bonded to eight O atoms of five tartrate anions, while each tartrate anion links four Pb2+ cations. The resulting three-dimensional framework is stabilized by O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the OH groups of one tartrate anion and the carboxylate O atoms of adjacent anions.

  10. Determination of Tolterodine tartrate in bulk and formulation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a new simple, accurate, precise and fully validated extractive colorimetric method for the determination of tolterodine tartrate (TL) in bulk and in tablet dosage form, Method: A chloroform extractable orange red complex formed between the acid dye, tropaeolin OOO-1 and tolterodine in acid media is the ...

  11. Growth features of ammonium hydrogen d-tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Ammonium hydrogen d-tartrate (d-AHT) single crystals were grown in silica gel. The growth fea- tures of these crystals with variation of parameters like specific gravity of the gel, gel pH, acid concentrations, concentration of the feed solution and gel age were studied in detail. Keywords. d-AHT single crystals; growth features ...

  12. Arformoterol Tartrate: A Review of Pharmacology, Analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is a review of the therapeutic significance of arformoterol tartrate, a new generation 2 adrenergic agonist bronchodilator available in a nebulized form. Arformoterol is well absorbed through the lungs when administered via a standard jet nebulizer and is useful in long-term maintenance therapy of ...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of gel-grown cobalt tartrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rate, or for heating to acquire a constant mass loss with time. The TGA curve for cobalt tartrate crystals is shown in figure 5. There are four stages of decomposition starting from room temperature of 40. ◦. C. The first stage of decompo- sition starts from 40. ◦. C and continues up to 200. ◦. C where the weight loss is about 25%.

  14. Growth features of ammonium hydrogen d-tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Most of the tartrate compounds are insoluble in water and decompose before melting. Hence, single crystals of such type cannot be grown either by slow evaporation or by melt technique, but can be grown easily by gel method. Gel method is an alternative method to solution growth with controlled diffusion and the growth ...

  15. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  16. Chlorination of antimony and its volatilization treatment of waste antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, K.; Enokida, Y.

    2011-01-01

    For the waste antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst, the chlorination of antimony and its volatilization treatment were proposed, and evaluated using hydrogen chloride gas at 873-1173 K. During the treatment, the weight loss of the composite oxide sample, which resulted from the volatilization of antimony, was confirmed. An X-ray diffraction analysis showed that uranium oxide, U 3 O 8 , was formed during the reaction. After the treatment at 1173 K for 1 h, almost all the uranium contained in the waste catalyst was dissolved by a 3 M nitric acid solution at 353 K within 10 min, although that of the non-treated catalyst was less than 0.1%. It was found that the chlorination and volatilization treatment was effective to separate antimony from the composite oxide catalyst and change uranium into its removable form. (orig.)

  17. Microbial antimony biogeochemistry: Enzymes, regulation, and related metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Qian Wang,; Oremland, Ronald S.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago. This portends the possibility of future discoveries with regard to the ability of microorganisms to conserve energy for their growth from antimony redox reactions and the isolation of new species of “antimonotrophs.”

  18. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Antimony Susceptibility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Probing natural antimony resistance using customised DNA microarrays with oligos of all ABC transporters · Slide 38 · Comparative proteomics to reveal changes in drug resistant parasites · isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ®) allows global analyses of protein expression and quantitative ...

  19. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Antimony Susceptibility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Antimony Susceptibility/Resistance in L. donovani Rentala Madhubala School of Life Sciences Jawaharlal Nehru ... tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ®) allows global analyses of protein expression and quantitative comparison among samples by mass spectrometry.

  20. Potassium clavulanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Fujii

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, K+·C8H8NO5− [systematic name: potassium (2R,5R,Z-3-(2-hydroxyethylidene-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate], a widely used β-lactam antibiotic, is usually chemically unstable even in the solid state owing to its tendency to be hydrolysed. In the crystal structure, the potassium cations are arranged along the a axis, forming interactions to the carboxylate and hydroxy groups, resulting in one-dimensional ionic columns. These columns are arranged along the b axis, connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer in the ab plane.

  1. Chemical nickel plating in tartrate solutions with borohydride reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plokhov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the influence of various factors on the rate of chemical nickel plating in strongly alkaline tartrate solutions with a borohydride reducing agent. After 30 min of the process of nickel plating, the final concentration of sodium borohydride decreases to 0.26 g/liter, leading to stoppage of the process. The nickel plating process can be intensified by increasing the concentration of sodium hydroxide in the solution, suppressing hydrolysis of borohydride, and also by introducing additives which suppress hydrolysis of borohydride. For chemical deposition of nickel-boron coatings from tartrate solutions the authors recommend the following composition (g/liter): nickel chloride 15-25, Rochelle salt 450-550, sodium hydroxide 140-160, sodium borohydride 0.8-1.0, thallium nitrate 0.003-0.008. The process temperature is 92-95 C, and the deposition rate is 4-6 um/h

  2. Characterization of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal growth of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals bearing composition Cu Fe(1−) C4H4O6 · H2O, where = 0, 0.07, 0.06, 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, is achieved using gel technique. The elemental analysis has been done using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) spectrum. The characterization studies ...

  3. Characterization of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Single crystal growth of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals bearing composi- tion Cux Fe(1−x)C4H4O6 · nH2O, where x = 0, 0.07, 0.06, 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, is achieved using gel technique. The elemental analysis has been done using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) spectrum. The characterization ...

  4. Characterization of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal growth of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals bearing composition Cu Fe(1−) C4H4O6 · H2O, where = 0, 0.07, 0.06, 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, is achieved using gel technique. The elemental analysis has been done using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) spectrum. The characterization studies ...

  5. Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    This is in conformity with the IR spectral studies. Table 1 summarizes the decomposition steps and the expected and observed mass losses at different steps for. Sr(C4H4O6)⋅4H2O. Figure 3a illustrates DTA curve recor- ded for strontium tartrate tetrahydrate. The DTA curve was recorded taking 14⋅4 mg of SrT. The heating ...

  6. Spectrophotometric methods for determination of zolpidem tartrate in tablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Chomwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The study aims to develop simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for estimation of Zolpidem tartrate in tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods : For method I, II, III and IV in a series of 10 ml volumetric flask, aliquots of standard drug solution (100 μg/ml in 0.1N HCl were transferred and diluted with same so as to give several dilutions in concentration range of 5-30 μg/ml, 5-30 μg/ml, 10-50 μg/ml and 5-40 μg/ml respectively of zolpidem tartrate. To 5 ml of each dilution taken in a separating funnel, (5 ml of bromo phenol red, bromo cresol purple, bromo cresol green and bromo phenol blue for method I, II, III and IV respectively reagent and 5 ml of chloroform was added. Reaction mixture was shaken gently for 5 min and allowed to stand so as to separate aqueous and chloroform layer. Absorbance maxima measured at 407 nm, 417 nm, 412 nm and 415 nm for method I, II, III and IV respectively. Results : The recovery studies were found close to 100 % that indicates accuracy and precision of the proposed methods. The statistical analysis was carried out and results of which were found satisfactory. Standard deviation values were found low that indicated reproducibility of the proposed methods. Conclusion : Based on results the developed methods could be used for routine estimation of zolpidem tartrate from tablet formulations.

  7. In vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: samanta@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo (IMT-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia]. E-mail:hfandrad@usp.br

    2005-10-15

    Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes {sup 122} Sb and {sup 124} Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology. (author)

  8. Speciation analysis of antimony in marine biota by HPLC-(UV)-HG-AFS: Extraction procedures and stability of antimony species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Ida; Quiroz, Waldo; Pinochet, Hugo; Pannier, Florence; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2007-09-30

    Speciation analysis of antimony in marine biota is not well documented, and no specific extraction procedure of antimony species from algae and mollusk samples can be found in the literature. This work presents a suitable methodology for the speciation of antimony in marine biota (algae and mollusk samples). The extraction efficiency of total antimony and the stability of Sb(III), Sb(V) and trimethylantimony(V) in different extraction media (water at 25 and 90 degrees C, methanol, EDTA and citric acid) were evaluated by analyzing the algae Macrosystis integrifolia (0.55+/-0.04mugSbg(-1)) and the mollusk Mytilus edulis (0.23+/-0.01mugSbg(-1)). The speciation analysis was performed by anion exchange liquid chromatography (post-column photo-oxidation) and hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry as detection system (HPLC-(UV)-HG-AFS). Results demonstrated that, based on the extraction yield and the stability, EDTA proved to be the best extracting solution for the speciation analysis of antimony in these matrices. The selected procedure was applied to antimony speciation in different algae samples collected from the Chilean coast. Only the inorganic Sb(V) and Sb(III) species were detected in the extracts. In all analyzed algae the sum of total antimony extracted (determined in the extracts after digestion) and the antimony present in the residue was in good agreement with the total antimony concentration determined by HG-AFS. However, in some extracts the sum of antimony species detected was lower than the total extracted, revealing the presence of unknown antimony species, possibly retained on the column or not detected by HPLC-(UV)-HG-AFS. Further work must be carried out to elucidate the identity of these unknown species of antimony.

  9. Potassium Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/potassiumbloodtest.html Potassium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Potassium Blood Test? A potassium blood test measures the amount of ...

  10. The presence of antimony in various dental filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molokhia, Anat; Combe, E.C.; Lilley, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Antimony was determined in a number of non-metallic dental materials currently used for tooth restoration. The method applied was instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of antimony in some of the brands tested was found to be as high as 900 fold that in the normal hard dental tissues. (author)

  11. The exposure to and health effects of antimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    of the eyes, skin, and lungs. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant...

  12. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mails: samanta@usp.br; nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb{sup +5}) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony

  13. Structural and electrical characterization of zinc oxide doped with antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Juárez Díaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the results of structural and electrical characterization realized on zinc oxide single crystal samples with (001 orientation, which were doped with antimony. Doping was carried out by antimony thermal diffusion at 1000 °C for periods of 1 and 2 hours under nitrogen environment from a solid source formed by antimony oxide. Electrical characterization by I-V curves and Hall effect shown an increase in acceptor concentration which demonstrates that doping is effective and create holes in zinc oxide samples.

  14. EPR of Mn2+ in strontium tartrate trihydrate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.; Aktas, B.

    1985-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of Mn 2+ doped in single crystals of strontium tartrate trihydrate grown by a diffusion technique are investigated at room temperature. Mn 2+ enters the lattice substitutionally and is trapped at two magnetically equivalent but crystallographically inequivalent sites. The EPR measurements give the following values for the spin-Hamiltonian parameters: g/sub x/(= g/sub y/) = 1.9781, g/sub z/ = 2.0012, A/sub x/(= A/sub y/) = -94.9 x 10 -4 T, A/sub z/ = -96.2 x 10 -4 T, B 0 2 (= D/3) = +160.9 x 10 -4 T, B 2 2 (= E) = +101.2 x 10 -4 T, B 0 4 = +0.013 x 10 -4 T, and B 2 4 = +0.088 x 10 -4 T. (author)

  15. Potassium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... potassium to: Build proteins Break down and use carbohydrates Build muscle Maintain normal body growth Control the electrical activity of the heart Control the acid-base balance Food Sources Many foods contain potassium. All meats (red meat ...

  16. Effects of sodium tartrate anodizing on fatigue life of TA15 titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chunjuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anodizing is always used as an effective surface modification method to improve the corrosion resistance and wear resistance of titanium alloy. The sodium tartrate anodizing is a new kind of environmental anodizing method. In this work, the effects of sodium tartrate anodizing on mechanical property were studied. The oxide film was performed on the TA15 titanium alloy using sodium tartrate as the film former. The effects of this anodizing and the traditional acid anodizing on the fatigue life of TA15 alloy were compared. The results show that the sodium tartrate anodizing just caused a slight increase of hydrogen content in the alloy, and had a slight effect on the fatigue life. While, the traditional acid anodizing caused a significant increase of hydrogen content in the substrate and reduced the fatigue life of the alloy significantly.

  17. Technetium 99-m labeled radio-diagnostic agents employing stannous tartrate and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.; Wilczewski, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A method of preparing improved technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents by reducing technetium-99m with stannous tartrate. Such radiodiagnostic agents are useful in scintigraphic examinations of the bone and lung. 31 claims, no drawings

  18. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  19. The discovery of novel tartrate-based TNF-[alpha] converting enzyme (TACE) inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, Kristin E.; Guo, Zhuyan; Orth, Peter; Shipps, Jr., Gerald W.; Belanger, David B.; Chan, Tin Yau; Curran, Patrick J.; Dai, Chaoyang; Deng, Yongqi; Girijavallabhan, Vinay M.; Hong, Liwu; Lavey, Brian J.; Lee, Joe F.; Li, Dansu; Liu, Zhidan; Popovici-Muller, Janeta; Ting, Pauline C.; Vaccaro, Henry; Wang, Li; Wang, Tong; Yu, W.; Zhou, G.; Niu, X.; Sun, J.; Kozlowski, J.A.; Lundell, D.J.; Madison, V.; McKittrick, B.; Piwinski, J.J.; Shih, N.Y.; Siddiqui, M. Arshad; Strickland, Corey O. (SPRI)

    2010-09-17

    A novel series of TNF-{alpha} convertase (TACE) inhibitors which are non-hydroxamate have been discovered. These compounds are bis-amides of L-tartaric acid (tartrate) and coordinate to the active site zinc in a tridentate manner. They are selective for TACE over other MMP's. We report the first X-ray crystal structure for a tartrate-based TACE inhibitor.

  20. Electroreduction of bismuth(3) and tellurium(4) from chloride and tartrate solutions of thiazine dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyak, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of thionine, Azur 1 and Methylene Blue on the electroreduction of Bi(3) and Te(4) in chloride and tartrate solutions has been studied. The analytical signals of Bi(3) and Te(4) increase in chloride solutions of thiazine dyes, the signal of Bi(3) decreases and that of Te(4) increases in tartrate solutions. Optimal conditions were found and tellurium was determined in high-purity bismuth alloyes with tellurium

  1. Development of Modified-Release Tablets of Zolpidem Tartrate by Biphasic Quick/Slow Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N. H.; Murthy, P. N.

    2014-01-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium s...

  2. Simultaneous determination of asrenic, mercury, antimony and selenium in biological materials with prior collection of gaseous products followed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.Y.; Chen, P.Y.; Yang, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    A method combining prior collection of gaseous products with subsequent neutron activation analysis has been developed for simultaneous determination of traces of arsenic, mercury, antimony and selenium in biological materials. The generation of hydrides of arsenic, antimony and selenium and cold vapor of mercury in the generation and collection system was investigated by the use of radiotracers of the respective elements. The result indicates that selenium and mercury can be completely evaporated from the digested sample solution in 5M HCl with the addition of 5% sodium tetrahydroborate solution, while additional reduction process by potassium iodide and ascorbic acid is needed for complete evaporation of arsenic and antiomony. The gaseous products were collected in a quartz tube for neutron irradiation. The detection limits of these elements were found to be in the range of 10 -7 to 10 -8 g under the present experimental conditions. The reliability was checked with NBS standard reference materisl. (author)

  3. Enantiopure Chiral Coordination Polymers Based on Polynuclear Paddlewheel Helices and Arsenyl Tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Valentín-Pérez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the preparation of chiral, one-dimensional coordination polymers based on trinuclear paddlewheel helices [M3(dpa4]2+ (M = Co(II and Ni(II; dpa = the anion of 2,2′-dipyridylamine. Enantiomeric resolution of a racemic mixture of [M3(dpa4]2+ complexes was achieved by chiral recognition of the respective enantiomer by [Δ-As2(tartrate2]2− or [Λ-As2(tartrate2]2− in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF, affording crystalline coordination polymers formed from [(Δ-Co3(dpa4(Λ-As2(tartrate2]·3DMF (Δ-1, [(Λ-Co3(dpa4(Δ-As2(tartrate2]·3DMF (Λ-1, [(Δ-Ni3(dpa4(Λ-As2(tartrate2]·(4 − nDMF∙nEt2O (Δ-2 or [(Λ-Ni3(dpa4(Δ-As2(tartrate2]·(4 − nDMF∙nEt2O (Λ-2 repeating units. UV-visible circular dichroism spectra of the complexes in DMF solutions demonstrate the efficient isolation of optically active species. The helicoidal [M3(dpa4]2+ units that were obtained display high stability towards racemization as shown by the absence of an evolution of the dichroic signals after several days at room temperature and only a small decrease of the signal after 3 h at 80 °C.

  4. Potassium fluorotitanate preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, Patricia; Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine the best conditions for potassium fluotitanate preparation as intermediate step in the electrolytic production of metalic titanium, the effects of a number of experimental variables have been studied. This method is a process of sintering titanium dioxide with potassium fluosilicate and potassium chloride, followed by leaching with boiling water and further crystallization by cooling the solution. An overall yield of 90% has been attained under the following conditions: working temperature: 750 deg C; heating time for sintering: 3 hours; molar ratio: titanium dioxide: potassium fluosilicate: potassium chloride: 1 : 2 : 0.4; number of leachings: 6. (Author) [es

  5. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on antimony phyto-uptake and compartmentation in vegetables cultivated in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Dumat, Camille; Maes, Arthur QuyManh; Sejalon-Delmas, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    1. Urban areas are often contaminated with various forms of persistent metal (loid) and emerging contaminants such as antimony (Sb). Thus, in the context of urban agriculture where sustainable practices such as biofertilizers application (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) could improve nutrient transfer from the soil to the vegetables, the effect of AMF on metal (loid) mobility and human bioaccessibility is still poorly known. 2. The role of AMF in Sb uptake by lettuce and carrot grown in artificial substrate spiked with different Sb chemical species was investigated. Plants were grown under hydroponic conditions and half of the treatments received a concentrated spore solution to obtain mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized plants. Three weeks before harvest, plants were exposed to 10 mg.L -1 of either Sb 2 O 3 or KSbO-tartrate (KSb). 3. The presence of AMF significantly increased its accumulation in carrots (all organs) with higher accumulation in roots. In lettuce, accumulation appeared to be dependent on the Sb chemical species. Moreover, it was observed for the first time that AMF changed the human bioaccessible fraction of Sb in edible organs. 4. The present results highlight a possible risk of Sb transfer from soil to edible plants cultivated in soil naturally containing AMF propagules, or when AMF are added as biofertilizers. After validating the influence of soil environment and AMF on Sb behavior in the field, these results should be considered in health risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monomeric tartrate resistant acid phosphatase induces insulin sensitive obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Lång

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue, which may link adipose inflammation to insulin resistance. However, the impact of inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP is an enzyme expressed by subsets of macrophages and osteoclasts that exists either as an enzymatically inactive monomer or as an active, proteolytically processed dimer.Using mice over expressing TRAP, we show that over-expression of monomeric, but not the dimeric form in adipose tissue leads to early onset spontaneous hyperplastic obesity i.e. many small fat cells. In vitro, recombinant monomeric, but not proteolytically processed TRAP induced proliferation and differentiation of mouse and human adipocyte precursor cells. In humans, monomeric TRAP was highly expressed in the adipose tissue of obese individuals. In both the mouse model and in the obese humans the source of TRAP in adipose tissue was macrophages. In addition, the obese TRAP over expressing mice exhibited signs of a low-grade inflammatory reaction in adipose tissue without evidence of abnormal adipocyte lipolysis, lipogenesis or insulin sensitivity.Monomeric TRAP, most likely secreted from adipose tissue macrophages, induces hyperplastic obesity with normal adipocyte lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

  7. Tolterodine Tartrate Proniosomal Gel Transdermal Delivery for Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Rajabalaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to formulate and evaluate side effects of transdermal delivery of proniosomal gel compared to oral tolterodine tartrate (TT for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB. Proniosomal gels are surfactants, lipids and soy lecithin, prepared by coacervation phase separation. Formulations were analyzed for drug entrapment efficiency (EE, vesicle size, surface morphology, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, in vitro skin permeation, and in vivo effects. The EE was 44.87%–91.68% and vesicle size was 253–845 nm for Span formulations and morphology showed a loose structure. The stability and skin irritancy test were also carried out for the optimized formulations. Span formulations with cholesterol-containing formulation S1 and glyceryl distearate as well as lecithin containing S3 formulation showed higher cumulative percent of permeation such as 42% and 35%, respectively. In the in vivo salivary secretion model, S1 proniosomal gel had faster recovery, less cholinergic side effect on the salivary gland compared with that of oral TT. Histologically, bladder of rats treated with the proniosomal gel formulation S1 showed morphological improvements greater than those treated with S3. This study demonstrates the potential of proniosomal vesicles for transdermal delivery of TT to treat OAB.

  8. AAS and spectrophotometric determination of propranolol HCl and metoprolol tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ries, M A; Abou Attia, F M; Ibrahim, S A

    2000-12-15

    Two simple and accurate spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of propranolol hydrochloride (I) and metoprolol tartrate (II). The methods are based on the reaction of each drug as a secondary amine: (a) with carbon disulphide, the formed complex extracted into iso-butyl methyl ketone (IBMK) after chelation with Cu(II) ions at pH 7.5, followed by measuring the absorbance at 435.4 nm or indirectly for the drug by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The calibration graph is linear up to 40 and 60 microg ml(-1) with apparent molar absorptivities of 6.89 x 10(3) and 1.08 x 104 l mol(-1) cm(-1) and correlation coefficients of 0.9994 and 0.9995 for propranolol and metoprolol, respectively; (b) with pi-acceptors, tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), or chloranilic acid (CLA) to give highly coloured complex species. The coloured products are quantitated spectrophotometrically at 415 or 510 nm for the two drugs with TCNE and CLA, respectively, and obey Beer's Law with RSD less than 2.0. The methods were applied to the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical preparation without interferences.

  9. Complex processing of antimony-mercury gold concentrates of Dzhizhikrut Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdusalyamova, M.N.; Gadoev, S.A.; Dreisinger, D.; Solozhenkin, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Present article is devoted to complex processing of antimony-mercury gold concentrates of Dzhizhikrut Deposit. The purpose of research was obtaining the metallic mercury and antimony with further gold and thallium extraction.

  10. Martensite transformation in antimony implanted stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Littmark, U.; Johansen, A.; Christodoulides, C.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have used Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffraction to investigate austenitic stainless steel crystals implanted at room temperature with 80 keV Sb + ions to a fluence of 5 x 10 20 ions/m 2 , thus providing implantation with a heavy group V element. RBS channeling spectra from implanted crystals show a damage peak which approaches the height of the random level and therefore indicates a very high degree of disorder in the implanted layers. The distribution of the disorder extends to a depth 3-5 times the depth of the primary radiation damage. The Sb peaks under channeling as well as random conditions are indistinguishable, confirming that substitutionality during implantation is negligible. To establish the nature of the disorder which cannot be assessed from the RBS analysis alone, and in particular to assess whether an amorphous alloy is formed in the implanted layer as indicated from the RBS spectra, samples implanted under similar conditions were investigated in the TEM. Significant extra spots in the patterns can be ascribed to the presence of a radiation induced b.c.c. phase of martensitic origin. The result that a significant amount of martensite can be induced by antimony implantation seems to indicate that the main driving force for the transition is due to damage induced stress concentrations. (Auth.)

  11. Two-chiral component microemulsion EKC - chiral surfactant and chiral oil. Part 2: diethyl tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P

    2007-08-01

    In this second study on dual-chirality microemulsions containing a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil, a less hydrophobic and lower interfacial tension chiral oil, diethyl tartrate, is employed (Part 1, Foley, J. P. et al.., Electrophoresis, DOI: 10.1002/elps.200600551). Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and diethyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 0.88% v/v) were examined as pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the enantioseparation of six chiral pharmaceutical compounds: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Average efficiencies increased with the addition of a chiral oil to R-DDCV PSP formulations. Modest improvements in resolution and enantioselectivity (alpha(enant)) were achieved with two-chiral-component systems over the one-chiral-component microemulsion. Slight enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Results obtained in this study are compared to those obtained in Part 1 as well as those obtained with chiral MEEKC using an achiral, low-interfacial-tension oil (ethyl acetate). Dual-chirality microemulsions with the more hydrophobic oil dibutyl tartrate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, higher efficiencies (100,000-134,000 vs. 80,800-94,300), but lower resolution (1.64-1.91 vs. 2.08-2.21) due to lower enantioselectivities (1.060-1.067 vs. 1.078-1.081). Atenolol enantiomers could not be separated with the dibutyl tartrate-based microemulsions but were partially resolved using diethyl tartrate microemulsions. A comparable single-chirality microemulsion based on the achiral oil ethyl acetate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, lower efficiency (78 300 vs. 91 600), higher resolution (1.99 vs. 1.83), and similar enantioselectivities.

  12. [Pollution characteristics of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair at Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bi-Jun; Wu, Feng-Chang; Deng, Qiu-Jing; Mo, Chang-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zeng, Li; Fu, Zhi-You; Li, Wen

    2009-03-15

    The concentration levels of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair collected from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City were determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry after having been digested by nitric acid and perchloric acid. The contents of Sb, As and Hg are 15.9, 4.21, 1.79 microg/g in the samples from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and 0.532, 0.280, 0.338 microg/g in the samples from Guiyang City respectively. The contents of Sb, As and Hg in human hair of Xikuangshan antimony area are much higher than those of Guiyang City. The independent-samples t-test shows that there are no marked differences in the contents of Sb and As between male and female hair samples from both Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City (p > 0.05), while Hg contents in male hair are apparently higher than those in female hair from Guiyang City (p mining area may significantly affect human health than in the un-mining areas.

  13. Heat-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcellino, Sebastien [Universite de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5180, bat CPE, 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Attar, Hossein [Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences Separatives, CNRS UMR 7178, ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France); Lievremont, Didier; Lett, Marie-Claire [Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Genetique et Microbiologie, CNRS UMR 7156, 28 rue Goethe, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Barbier, Frederique [CNRS USR 59, Service Central d' Analyse, 59 Chemin du Canal BP22 69390 Vernaison (France); Lagarde, Florence [Universite de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5180, bat CPE, 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences Separatives, CNRS UMR 7178, ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: florence.lagarde@univ-lyon1.fr

    2008-11-23

    An analytical method was developed for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples. The method is based on the selective retention of Sb(III) by modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of Sb(V). Heat, caustic and solvent pretreatments of the biomass were investigated to improve the kinetics and thermodynamics of Sb(III) uptake process at room temperature. Heating for 30 min at 80 deg. C was defined as the optimal treatment. Antimony accumulation by the cells was independent of pH (5-10) and ionic strength (0.01-0.1 mol L{sup -1}). 140 mg of yeast and 2 h of contact were necessary to ensure quantitative sequestration of Sb(III) up to 750 {mu}g L{sup -1}. In these conditions, Sb(V) was not retained. Sb(V) was quantified in sorption supernatant by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Sb(III) was determined after elution with 40 mmol L{sup -1} thioglycolic acid at pH 10. A preconcentration factor close to nine was achieved for Sb(III) when 100 mL of sample was processed. After preconcentration, the detection limits for Sb(III) and Sb(V) were 2 and 5 ng L{sup -1}, respectively, using ICP-MS, 7 and 0.9 {mu}g L{sup -1} using ICP-OES. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in spiked river and mineral water samples. The relative standard deviations (n = 3) were in the 2-5% range at the tenth {mu}g L{sup -1} level and less than 10% at the lowest Sb(III) and Sb(V) tested concentration (0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Corrected recoveries were in all cases close to 100%.

  14. Powder XRD, TEM, FTIR and thermal studies of strontium tartrate nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathiya, U. M.; Jethva, H. O.; Joshi, M. J.; Vyas, P. M.

    2017-05-01

    Strontium tartrate finds several applications, e.g., as non-linear optical and dielectric material, in tracer composition and ammunition unit, in treating structural integrity of bone. The growth of single crystals of strontium tartrate in silica gel has been widely reported. In the present study, strontium tartrate nano particles were synthesized by wet chemical method using strontium chloride, tartaric acid and sodium meta-silicate solutions in the presence of Triton X -100 surfactant. It was found that the presence of sodium meta-silicate facilitated the reaction for strontium tartrate product. The powder XRD study of strontium tartrate nano-particles suggested monoclinic crystal system and the average crystallite size was found to be 40 nm determined by applying Scherrer's formula. The TEM analysis indicated that the nano particles were spherical in nature. The FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of various functional groups such as O-H,C-H, and C=O stretching mode. The thermal analysis was carried out by using TGA and DTA studies. The nano-particles were found to be stable up to 175°C and then decomposed through various stages. The results are compared with the bulk crystalline material available in the literature.

  15. Elevated serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5a levels in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jhih; Huang, Tsai-Wang; Chao, Tsu-Yi; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chu, Der-Ming; Chen, Wei-Liang; Wu, Li-Wei

    2017-09-29

    Tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a is expressed in tumor-associated macrophages and is a biomarker of chronic inflammation. Herein, we correlated serum tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels with metabolic syndrome status and made comparisons with traditional markers of inflammation, including c-reactive protein and interleukin-6. One hundred healthy volunteers were randomly selected, and cut-off points for metabolic syndrome related inflammatory biomarkers were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Linear and logistic regression models were subsequently used to correlate inflammatory markers with the risk of metabolic syndrome. Twenty-two participants met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, and serum tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels of >5.8 μg/L were associated with metabolic syndrome (c-statistics, 0.730; p = 0.001; 95% confidence interval, 0.618-0.842). In addition, 1 μg/L increases in tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels were indicative of a 1.860 fold increase in the risk of metabolic syndrome (p = 0.012). Elevated serum tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels are associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome, with a cut-off level of 5.8 μg/L.

  16. Minimal inhibitory concentration of natural vinegar and of aluminium acetate-tartrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ursula

    2013-07-01

    Vinegar and aluminium acetate preparations are used for treatment of ear infections. It is instrumental to know the minimal inhibitory concentration to get effective remedies. This study was performed to assess the lowest dilution of vinegar (specified content, 6% acetic acid) and aluminium acetate-tartrate solution (specified content, 1.4% aluminium and 6% acetic acid) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration against bacteria commonly found in chronic ear infections. Laboratory study on 2 samples of aluminium acetate-tartrate and on 1 sample of natural white wine vinegar on antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Performing of a susceptibility testing-determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the method of microbouillon dilution (DIN 58940 part 7). Acetic acid was found to be effective in vitro in concentrations of 0.1% to 0.2% against the tested bacteria; aluminium acetate-tartrate solution was found to be effective in vitro in concentrations of 1.25% to 2.5% against the tested bacteria. Vinegar respectively acetic acid diluted with water and aqueous aluminium acetate-tartrate solution could be effective ototopic preparations caused by one of the tested bacteria. For its effectiveness, an acid pH not higher than 4.5 is essential. Experiments with aluminium acetate-tartrate preparations on animals and clinical trials are required to obtain information about the response rates in ear infections and about any adverse effects.

  17. Antimony recovery from end-of-life products and industrial process residues: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, David; Arnout, Sander; Jones, Peter Tom; Binnemans, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Antimony has become an increasingly critical element in recent years, due to a surge in industrial demand and the Chinese domination of primary production. Antimony is produced from stibnite ore (Sb2O3) which is processed into antimony metal and antimony oxide (Sb2O3). The industrial importance of antimony is mainly derived from its use as flame retardant in plastics, coatings, and electronics, but also as decolourizing agent in glass, alloys in lead-acid batteries, and catalysts for the p...

  18. Selective oxidation of propene on bismuth molybdate and mixed oxides of tin and antimony and of uranium and antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, P.; Taylor, D.

    1976-01-01

    Propene + 18 0 2 reactions have been studied in a static reaction system on bismuth molybdate and mixed oxides of tin and antimony and of uranium and antimony. The [ 16 0] acrolein content of the total acrolein formed and the proportion of 16 0 in the oxygen of the carbon dioxide by-product have been determined. The results indicate that for each catalyst the lattice is the only direct source of the oxygen in the aldehyde, and that lattice and/or gas phase oxygen is used in carbon dioxide formation. Oxygen anion mobility appears to be greater in the molybdate catalyst than in the other two. (author)

  19. Growth and characterization of 2-Methylimidazolium D-tartrate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, T. P.; Anandhi, S.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2011-03-01

    Single crystal of 2-Methylimidazolium D-tartrate (2MImdT; C8N2O6H12) has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature using mixed solvents of ethanol and deionized water. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirms that 2-Methylimidazolium D-tartrate belongs to monoclinic crystal system with non-centrosymmetric space group P21. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of 2-Methylimidazolium D-tartrate reveals the presence of methyl and carboxyl functional groups in the compound. The mechanical properties of 2MImdT crystal were studied. The theoretical factor group analysis predicts 168 optical modes in the title compound. The dielectric behavior of 2MImdT crystals was studied at different frequencies and temperatures. Decomposition and melting point of 2MImdT were found using thermal measurements. SHG behavior of the title compound was demonstrated using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

  20. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001179.htm High potassium level To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when ...

  1. Synthetic aspects, spectral, thermal studies and antimicrobial screening on bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)antimony(III) complexes with oxo or thio donor ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, H. P. S.; Carpenter, Jaswant; Joshi, Sapana

    2014-09-01

    The bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)antimony(III) complexes have been obtained by the reaction of chloro bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)antimony(III) with corresponding oxo or thio donor ligands such as sodium benzoate 1, sodium thioglycolate 2, phenol 3, sodium 1-propanethiolate 4, potassium thioacetate 5, sodium salicylate 6, ethane-1,2-dithiolate 7 and disodium oxalate 8. These complexes have been characterized by the physicochemical [melting point, molecular weight determination and elemental analysis (C, H, N, S and Sb)], spectral [UV-Visible, FT-IR, far IR, NMR (1H and 13C)], thermogravimetric (TG & DTA) analysis, ESI-Mass and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Thermogravimetric analysis of the complexes confirmed the final decomposition product as highly pure antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) and powder X-ray diffraction studies show that the complexes are in lower symmetry with monoclinic crystal lattice and nano-ranged particle size (11.51-20.82 nm). The complexes have also been screened against some bacterial and fungal strains for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and compared with standard drugs. These show that the complexes have greater activities against some human pathogenic bacteria and fungi than the activities of standard drugs.

  2. Synthetic aspects, spectral, thermal studies and antimicrobial screening on bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III) complexes with oxo or thio donor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, H P S; Carpenter, Jaswant; Joshi, Sapana

    2014-09-15

    The bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III) complexes have been obtained by the reaction of chloro bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III) with corresponding oxo or thio donor ligands such as sodium benzoate 1, sodium thioglycolate 2, phenol 3, sodium 1-propanethiolate 4, potassium thioacetate 5, sodium salicylate 6, ethane-1,2-dithiolate 7 and disodium oxalate 8. These complexes have been characterized by the physicochemical [melting point, molecular weight determination and elemental analysis (C, H, N, S and Sb)], spectral [UV-Visible, FT-IR, far IR, NMR (1H and 13C)], thermogravimetric (TG & DTA) analysis, ESI-Mass and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Thermogravimetric analysis of the complexes confirmed the final decomposition product as highly pure antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) and powder X-ray diffraction studies show that the complexes are in lower symmetry with monoclinic crystal lattice and nano-ranged particle size (11.51-20.82 nm). The complexes have also been screened against some bacterial and fungal strains for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and compared with standard drugs. These show that the complexes have greater activities against some human pathogenic bacteria and fungi than the activities of standard drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic and antimony in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Yukio; Isono, Hideo; Kozuka, Hiroshi.

    1975-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of trace amounts of arsenic and antimony in human hair samples is studied. The sample of hair (100 mg) irradiated for 5 hours with a neutron flux of 2.1x10 12 n/cm 2 s was decomposed with a sulfuric-nitric acid mixture after addition of each 5 mg of arsenic and antimony as carrier. Arsine and stibine were evolved from the solution of decomposed hair by reduction with 3 g of granular zinc and were absorbed in 0.1N iodine solution for half an hour. Metal arsenic was separated from iodine solution by precipitation with sodium hypophosphite, followed by precipitation of antimony as sulfide with thioacetamide. These precipitates were dissolved and their gamma-ray spectra were measured with a well type 3''x3'' NaI(TI) detector equipped with a 200 channel pulse-height analyzer. After the measurement of gamma-ray spectra, the chemical yields were determined by colorimetric methods. The relative standard deviations were 7% and 4% for 0.01 μg As and 0.024 μg Sb, respectively. The sensitivity of this method was estimated to be 1x10 -3 μg for arsenic and 2x10 -3 μg for antimony. (auth.)

  4. Electrical Properties of Antimony (Sb) Metal Contacts to Silicon (Si ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the behaviour of the contacts formed by Antimony (Sb) metal to Silicon (Si) thin films for electric field values 10 – 100V/m. Measurements of I-v characteristics were obtained at temperatures 303, 313, 323, 333, 343 and 353K respectively. The results show linear I – V relationship over a specified range ...

  5. electrocardiographic findings in ethiopians on penta valent antimony ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 78 No. 11 November 2001. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN ETHIOPIANS ON PENTA VALENT ANTIMONY THERAPY FOR VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS. N. Berhe, MD, DTMH, Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Y. Abraham, ...

  6. Vapor pressures of dimethylcadmium, trimethylbismuth, and tris(dimethylamino)antimony

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávek, Pavel; Fulem, Michal; Pangrác, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard; Růžička, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 360, Dec (2013), s. 106-110 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15286S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : vapor pressure * dimethylcadmium * trimethylbismuth * tris(dimethylamino)antimony * sublimation and vaporization enthalpy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2013

  7. Application of KWU antimony removal process at Gentilly-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundar, Y.; Odar, S.; Streit, K.; Allsop, H.; Guzonas, D.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the work performed to adapt the KWU PWR antimony removal process to CANDU plant conditions, and the application of the process at the Hydro Quebec unit, Gentilly-2. The results of the application will be presented and the 'lessons learned' will be discussed in detail. (author)

  8. Antimony content of macrofungi from clean and polluted areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, J.; Řanda, Zdeněk; Jelínek, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 11 (2006), s. 1837-1844 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : mushrooms * antimony pollution * bioaccumulation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.442, year: 2006

  9. The decoration of vicinal copper polycrystalline surface by Antimony

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlovu, GF

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An Ultra-high Vacuum Variable Temperature Scanning Tunnelling Microscope was used to study the growth mechanism of Antimony on vicinal Cu polycrystalline samples. The STM data after deposition of 0.3 ML Sb at 300°C showed localization of Sb atoms...

  10. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Xu-Zhou; Sun, You-Xu; Liu, Su-Mei; Huang, Daji; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of the metalloid elements arsenic and antimony in the East China Sea (ECS), one of the most important marginal seas for western Pacific, were examined in May 2011. Dissolved inorganic arsenic (As(V) and As(III)) and antimony (Sb(V) and Sb(III)) species were determined by selective hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Results show that total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs; [TDIAs]=[As(V)]+[As(III)]) were moderately depleted in the surface water and enriched in the deep water. Arsenite (As(III)) showed different vertical profiles with that of TDIAs, with significant surface enrichment in the middle shelf region where the concentrations of phosphate were extremely low. Speciation of dissolved arsenic was subtly controlled by the stoichiometric molar ratio of arsenate (As(V)) to phosphate. The average As(V)/P ratio for the ECS in spring 2011 was 10.8×10-3, which is higher than previous results and indicates the arsenate stress. The concentrations of total dissolved inorganic antimony (TDISb; [TDISb]=[Sb(V)]+[Sb(III)]) were high near the Changjiang Estuary and the coastal area of Hangzhou Bay and decreased moderately off the coast. TDISb displayed moderate conservative behavior in the ECS that confirms by the correlations with salinity and dissolved aluminum. Different with that of As(III), antimonite (Sb(III)) concentrations were extremely lower in the ECS, with relative higher concentration appeared at the bottom layer which indicates the contribution from sediment-water interface. A preliminary box model was established to estimate the water-mass balance and antimony budgets for the ECS. Compared with other areas in the world, the concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic and antimony in the ECS remain at natural levels.

  11. Phosphors for X-ray intensification screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebatin, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    An improved rare earth oxyhalide phosphor for x-ray intensification screens is described. The phosphors, of formula LnOX.T where Ln = La or Gd, X = Cl or Br and T = Tm or Tb, are mixed with a small amount of a trivalent antimony compound. The addition of antimony overcomes ageing due to attack by atmospheric moisture and renders the phosphor freeflowing so that dispersions can be readily made. Preferably the phosphor is washed with an aqueous solution of the antimony compound and the compound is the fluoride, chloride or butoxide, or potassium antimony tartrate. (U.K.)

  12. Efficacy of tylosin tartrate on canine Staphylococcus intermedius isolates in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian A; Mortensen, Joel E; McKeever, Tricia M; Logas, Dawn B; McKeever, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    In the past 5 years, the incidence of canine skin infections caused by resistant strains of Staphylococcus (pseud)intermedius has increased. Many older antibiotics are used to treat these infections because the sensitivity can be demonstrated in vitro. Additionally, many of these older drugs are efficacious and unlikely to induce multidrug resistance. More than a decade ago, the antibiotic tylosin tartrate was reported to be efficacious in vitro and in vivo against Staphylococcus intermedius. The purpose of this study was to determine whether S. (pseud)intermedius isolated from untreated pyoderma cases at veterinary referral centers across the United States are sensitive in vitro to this antibiotic. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for tylosin tartrate and other commonly used antibiotics were determined for 103 isolates. Most (82.61%) of the isolates not exposed to antibiotics in the 3 months before submission were sensitive to tylosin tartrate. These findings suggest that tylosin tartrate warrants further study as a first-line option for the treatment of dogs initially presenting with pyoderma.

  13. A Potent Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase Inhibitor to Study the Function of TRAP in Alveolar Macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boorsma, Carian E; van der Veen, T. Anienke; Putri, Kurnia S S; de Almeida, Andreia; Draijer, Christina; Mauad, Thais; Fejer, Gyorgy; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; van den Berge, Maarten; Bossé, Yohan; Sin, Don; Hao, Ke; Reithmeier, Anja; Andersson, Göran; Olinga, Peter; Timens, Wim; Casini, Angela; Melgert, Barbro N

    2017-01-01

    The enzyme tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, two isoforms 5a and 5b) is highly expressed in alveolar macrophages, but its function there is unclear and potent selective inhibitors of TRAP are required to assess functional aspects of the protein. We found higher TRAP activity/expression in

  14. Development of modified-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate by biphasic quick/slow delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N H; Murthy, P N

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium starch glycolate acts as a superdisintegrant in immediate-release part and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a release retarding agent in extended-release core. Tablets were prepared by direct compression. Both the core and the coat contained the drug. The pre-compression blends were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, and compressibility index. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation test, friability, and in vitro release studies. No interaction was observed between zolpidem tartrate and excipients from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results of all the formulations prepared were compared with reference product Stilnoct®. Optimized formulations showed release patterns that match the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines for zolpidem tartrate extended-release tablets. The mechanism of drug release was studied using different mathematical models, and the optimized formulation has shown Fickian diffusion. Accelerated stability studies were performed on the optimized formulation.

  15. The role of brimonidine tartrate gel in the treatment of rosacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J Mark; Knuckles, Melissa; Minni, John Paul; Johnson, Sandra Marchese; Belasco, Kevin Tate

    2015-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous condition with a prevalence rate ranging from 9.6% to 22% in recent studies. Facial erythema (transient and permanent) is considered a common denominator that is frequently observed in all subtypes of rosacea and is estimated to affect more than 40 million people worldwide. Brimonidine tartrate is a selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist and is the first topical treatment approved for facial erythema of rosacea. Clinical trials have demonstrated that brimonidine tartrate provided significantly greater efficacy, compared to vehicle, for the treatment of moderate to severe erythema of rosacea. In addition, brimonidine tartrate has demonstrated a rapid onset of effect, duration of action throughout the day, and good safety profile in studies of up to 1 year. This review critically discusses the role of brimonidine tartrate for the treatment of facial erythema of rosacea by examining both clinical study data and real-world dermatologist experiences across a wide spectrum of treated patients, and concludes that it is a significant therapeutic option in the management of an unmet need of this chronic condition. PMID:26566370

  16. Subchronic toxicity experiment with rats fed a diet containing ergotamine-tartrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers GJA; Wester PW; van Leeuwen FXR; de la Fonteyne-Blankestijn LJJ; Post W; van Egmond HP; Sizoo EA; Janssen GB

    1993-01-01

    In a subchronic toxicity study 4 groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats/group/sex received 0, 5, 20 and 80 mg ergotamine tartrate (EAT)/kg diet respectively during 13 weeks. Food intake and water intake were measured twice a week. Body weight gain was recorded weekly. After 7 weeks and 12 weeks urine

  17. [Biological profile of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a marker of bone resorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, H; Iritia, M; Arribas, I; Revilla, M

    1990-12-01

    Tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase was measured in 123 subjects, 80 of which were normal and the rest pathologic, in order to define the profile and value of this parameter as a biological marker of osteoclastic activity. Normal subjects were divided into age groups based on the period where skeletal growth ends (under 20 years), at the age of menopause in women (50 years, between 20 and 50 years) and those over 50 years. There was an increase in tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase coinciding with puberty and no sex differences were observed after the 50 year mark, when women showed higher values than men (p less than 0.001). Such tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase increase, is reflected as higher values in the 50 year group than in the 20 to 50 year group (p less than 0.001), the only age limit where a negative significant correlation between tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase values and age could be observed (p less than 0.05). Values were higher up to the age of 20 years (p less than 0.001) than in any other older age group. Levels increased significantly (p less than 0.001 for both groups) in post-menopausal osteoporosis (n = 20) and in Paget's disease of bone (n = 15), and decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in imperfect osteogenesis (n = 8), thus revealing its value as a biological marker of osteoclastic activity.

  18. Penicillin V Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you are allergic to penicillin V potassium, tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store the tablets at room temperature and away ...

  19. BioGeochemistry of antimony, Sources, Transfers, Impacts and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Gael; Pinelli, Eric; Hedde, Mickael; Guiresse, Maritxu; De Vleeschouwer, François; Silvestre, Jérôme; Enrico, Maxime; Gandois, Laure; Monna, Fabrice; Gers, Charles; Probst, Anne

    2013-04-01

    BioGeoSTIB is a project funded by ADEME (French Environmental Protection Agency). Its aim is to provide a better understanding of biogeochemical cycle disturbances of antimony by man. Specifically, it is focused on the atmosphere-soil-organism interfaces. Based on a multi-scale approach, the impact of antimony on organisms and organism communities and the factors of Sb dispersion in the environment aim to better characterized. This report gives the main results of 2 and 1 -2 years of research. Using peat bogs as environmental archives, we show that Sb contamination in soils date back to the beginning of the metallurgy. Atmospheric deposition of Sb largely increased by 100 times during the Industrial Revolution compared to natural levels (~0,001-0,01 mg m-2 an-1) estimated in the deepest peat layers. This disturbance in the antimony geochemical cycle modified its concentrations in soils. One main source of present Sb contamination is automotive traffic due to Sb in braking lines. This emerging contamination was characterized close to a roundabout. This additional source of Sb does not seem to impact soil fauna but Sb concentrations in soil solutions exceed 1 μg L-1. Genotoxicity tests have been performed on the model plant Vicia faba and show that antimony is genotoxic at its lowest concentrations and that there is a synergistic effect lead, a trace metal frequently found in association with antimony in the environment. It is a main issue to determine Sb critical loads in the environment but main identified lacks are thermodynamic data, which are not available yet, to model the behavior of Sb in soil solutions and the fact the antimony is always associated with other anthropogenic trace metals like lead. Critical thresholds of Sb have been determined for the first time based on genotoxicity experiment. Simulations show that these thresholds can be exceeded in the future, whereas present limits for invertebrates (US-EPA) are and will not be reached. However

  20. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® , is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology.Os antimoniais pentavalentes, como o antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® ou estibogluconato de sódio (Pentostam® , são o principal tratamento para a leishmaniose, um complexo de doenças causadas pelo protozoário parasita Leishmania, uma doença endêmica e negligenciada no Brasil. Apesar do seu uso clínico por mais de meio século, seu mecanismo de ação, toxicidade e dados de farmacocinética permanecem desconhecidos. Os métodos analíticos para determinação de antimônio em sistemas biológicos são complexos e apresentam baixa sensibilidade. Estudos utilizando radiotraçadores têm papel potencial no desenvolvimento farmacológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um radiotraçador de antimônio, com propriedades físicas e biológicas adequadas. O antimoniato de meglumina foi irradiado por nêutrons no reator nuclear IEA-R1, produzindo dois radioisótopos: 122

  1. Formulation and evaluation of new long acting metoprolol tartrate ophthalmic gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou el Ela, Amal El Sayeh F.; Khatib, Mona Mohamed El

    2014-01-01

    The rationale of the present work is to formulate and evaluate metoprolol tartrate (MT), which is a beta-1 selective adrenergic blocking agent in a new ocular gel delivery system; this is our way and method to increase its contact to the cornea, giving a longer time of drug contact to the eye and slow possible release from the preparation. Metoprolol tartrate is chosen as a candidate for gel formulation because although it has been available for a few years as ophthalmic solutions, it has not been marketed as an ocular gel yet. Two polymers; Carbopol 934 and Pluronic F127 (PF127) were used in two different concentrations in this study. Metoprolol tartrate was used in two concentrations, 0.5% and 1% (w/w). All formulations were exposed to visual examinations, pH measurement, in vitro release, rheological study and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results showed that all formulations were clear, showed pH within the acceptable range suitable to be administered in the eye, and exhibited pseudoplastic flow behavior. DSC results concluded that, MT was compatible with different polymers used. In vitro release results showed that the release rate of metoprolol tartrate from gel preparations decreased as an inverse function of polymer concentration, and the release rate of the drug increased as the initial concentration increased. Intra-ocular pressure (IOP) measurements of rabbit’s eye treated with 1% (w/w) metoprolol tartrate in gel formulations with different concentrations of the polymer were determined. Carbopol 934 gel formulations showed that this polymer extended the duration of pressure reducing effect of MT to more than 5hr when compared with Pluronic F127 gel formulations. The area above the curve (AAC), maximum response, time of maximum response (tmax), and the duration of the drug action were also calculated. PMID:25561869

  2. Comparative in vitro assessment of tolterodine tartrate tablets by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Danafar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolterodine tartrate, is a new, potent and competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist in clinical development for the treatment of urge incontinence and other symptoms of unstable bladder. The purpose of this study is to establish a reliable and quick method for the assignment of tolterodine tartrate by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV. A rapid  and  sensitive  high  performance  liquid  chromatographic  (HPLC  method  has  been developed  for  determination  of  tolterodine tartrate.  Mobile phase was composed of phosphate acetate 0.1 M (pH 2.5-acetonitrile (50:50 v/v with a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min. The eluted peaks were detected by a UV detector was set at wavelength of 285 nm. The method was validated in the range of tolterodine tartrate concentrations from 10 to 100 µg/ml. The limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ of the method were 5 and 10 µg/ml, respectively. The average drug recovery was 98.20 % throughout the linear concentration range. The average within-run and between-run accuracy values of 98.56 % and 99.11 % respectively. Statistical  assessment  of  various  in  vitro  dissolution  parameters  and  assay  results was  also  conducted  to  establish  if  there were  any significant difference among them. The validated HPLC method has been used successfully to study tolterodine tartrate.

  3. Final product analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of aqueous solutions of metoprolol tartrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slegers, Catherine [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: catherine.slegers@cham.ucl.ac.be; Tilquin, Bernard [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    The radiostability of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions and the influence of the absorbed dose (0-50 kGy), dose rate (e-beam (EB) vs. gamma ({gamma})) and radioprotectors (pharmaceutical excipients) are investigated by HPLC-UV analyses and through computer simulations. The use of radioprotecting excipients is more promising than an increase in the dose rate to lower the degradation of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions for applications such as radiosterilization. The decontamination of metoprolol tartrate from waste waters by EB processing appears highly feasible.

  4. Selective synthesis of ternary copper-antimony sulfide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongying; Shen, Shuling; Zhang, Yejun; Gu, Hongwei; Wang, Qiangbin

    2013-11-18

    Ternary copper-antimony sulfide nanocrystals (CAS NCs) have attracted increasing attention in photovoltaics and photoelectric nanodevices due to their tunable band gaps in the near-IR regime. Although much progress in the synthesis of CAS NCs has been achieved, the selective synthesis of CAS NCs with controllable morphologies and compositions is preliminary: in particular, a facile method is still in demand. In this work, we have successfully selectively synthesized high-quality CAS NCs with diverse morphologies, compositions, and band gaps, including rectangular CuSbS2 nanosheets (NSs), trigonal-pyramidal Cu12Sb4S13 NCs, and rhombic Cu3SbS3 NSs, by cothermodecomposition of copper diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate (Cu(Ddtc)2) and antimony diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate (Sb(Ddtc)3). The direct and indirect band gaps of the obtained CAS NCs were systematically studied by performing Kubelka-Munk transformations of their solid-state diffuse reflectance spectra.

  5. Determination of phosphorus contamination during antimony implantation by measurement and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, M.; Hulenyi, L.; Kinder, R.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental determination of phosphorus cross-contamination during antimony implantation is presented. As a suitable structure for this experiment, a buried layer was employed which is created by implanting antimony followed by a long diffusion process. The samples implanted in different implanters were analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), four-point probe and spreading resistance methods. The obtained results were compared with those calculated by program SUPREM-IV. Methods that can and cannot be used to determine phosphorus contamination during antimony implantation and to estimate the fluence of phosphorus being co-implanted with antimony are described in detail

  6. High dose implantations of antimony for buried layer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailliard, J.P.; Dupuy, M.; Garcia, M.; Roussin, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Electrical and physical properties of high dose implantations of antimony in silicon have been studied for use in buried layer applications. The results have been obtained both on and oriented silicon wafers. Following implantations which lead to amorphization we perform an annealing at 600 0 C for 10 mn in order to recrystallize the layer. The observed electrical properties (μ, R) show that the concentration of electrically active antimony ions is greater than that predicted from the solubility of antimony in silicon. Further annealing (in the range 1050 0 - 1200 0 ) induces: firstly a precipitation of the Sb and secondly a diffusion and dissolution of the precipitates. There is a different evolution of the defects in the and silicon slices. T.E.M. reveals no defects in the wafers after one hour annealing at 1200 0 C, whereas defects and twins remain in wafers. Having obtained the evolution of R with time and temperature it is then determined the implantation and annealing conditions which lead to the low resistivity (R = 10) needed for buried layer applications. Results with very many industrially made devices are discussed

  7. Research on the Characteristics and Mechanism of the Cumulative Release of Antimony from an Antimony Smelting Slag Stacking Area under Rainfall Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Deng, Renjian

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to study the characteristics and the mechanism of the cumulative release of antimony at an antimony smelting slag stacking area in southern China. A series of dynamic and static leaching experiments to simulate the effects of rainfall were carried out. The results showed that the release of antimony from smelting slag increased with a decrease in the solid-liquid ratio, and the maximum accumulated release was found to be 42.13 mg Sb/kg waste and 34.26 mg Sb/kg waste with a solid/liquid ratio of 1 : 20; the maximum amount of antimony was released within 149–420 μm size fraction with 7.09 mg/L of the cumulative leaching. Also, the antimony release was the greatest and most rapid at pH 7.0 with the minimum release found at pH 4.0. With an increase in rainfall duration, the antimony release increased. The influence of variation in rainfall intensity on the release of antimony from smelting slag was small. PMID:28804669

  8. Direct chlorination of alcohols with chlorodimethylsilane catalyzed by a gallium trichloride/tartrate system under neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Makoto; Shimizu, Kenji; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Baba, Akio

    2008-08-07

    The reaction of secondary alcohols 1 with chlorodimethylsilane (HSiMe(2)Cl) proceeded in the presence of a catalytic amount of GaCl(3)/diethyl tartrate to give the corresponding organic chlorides 3. In the catalytic cycle, the reaction of diethyl tartrate 4a with HSiMe(2)Cl 2 gives the chlorosilyl ether 5 with generation of H(2). Alcohol-exchange between the formed chlorosilyl ether 5 and the substrate alcohol 1 affords alkoxychlorosilane 6, which reacts with catalytic GaCl(3) to give the chlorinated product 3. The moderate Lewis acidity of GaCl(3) facilitates chlorination. Strong Lewis acids did not give product due to excessive affinity for the oxy-functionalities. Although tertiary alcohols were chlorinated by this system even in the absence of diethyl tartrate, certain alcohols that are less likely to give carbocationic species were effectively chlorinated using the GaCl(3)/diethyl tartrate system.

  9. Errors in potassium balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by 40 K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies

  10. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  11. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela

    2009-05-01

    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  12. Sorption of tartrate ions to lanthanum (III)-modified calcium fluor- and hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissa, Abdallah; Debbabi, Mongi; Gruselle, Michel; Thouvenot, René; Flambard, Alexandrine; Gredin, Patrick; Beaunier, Patricia; Tõnsuaadu, Kaia

    2009-02-01

    The present article details the formation of lanthanum-modified apatites and the binding process of tartrate ions with these obtained apatites. Chemical analyses, FT-IR and (31)P NMR spectroscopies, XRD powder, TGA, and TEM analyses were employed for studying the reaction between Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2) (HAp) or Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(F)(2) (FAp) and LaCl(3). The reaction was found to take place mainly through partial dissolution of the apatite followed by precipitation of a new phase containing lanthanum phosphate. When La(3+) was introduced in the presence of L(+)-tartaric acid (TAH(2)), no fundamental changes were observed in the HAp or FAp structures. However, there did occur a formation of a new phase of Ca or/and La tartrate salt.

  13. Leishmania donovani isolates with antimony-resistant but not -sensitive phenotype inhibit sodium antimony gluconate-induced dendritic cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Haldar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The inability of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG-unresponsive kala-azar patients to clear Leishmania donovani (LD infection despite SAG therapy is partly due to an ill-defined immune-dysfunction. Since dendritic cells (DCs typically initiate anti-leishmanial immunity, a role for DCs in aberrant LD clearance was investigated. Accordingly, regulation of SAG-induced activation of murine DCs following infection with LD isolates exhibiting two distinct phenotypes such as antimony-resistant (Sb(RLD and antimony-sensitive (Sb(SLD was compared in vitro. Unlike Sb(SLD, infection of DCs with Sb(RLD induced more IL-10 production and inhibited SAG-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and leishmanicidal effects. Sb(RLD inhibited these effects of SAG by blocking activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways. In contrast, Sb(SLD failed to block activation of SAG (20 microg/ml-induced PI3K/AKT pathway; which continued to stimulate NF-kappaB signaling, induce leishmanicidal effects and promote DC activation. Notably, prolonged incubation of DCs with Sb(SLD also inhibited SAG (20 microg/ml-induced activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways and leishmanicidal effects, which was restored by increasing the dose of SAG to 40 microg/ml. In contrast, Sb(RLD inhibited these SAG-induced events regardless of duration of DC exposure to Sb(RLD or dose of SAG. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of isogenic Sb(SLD expressing ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter MRPA on SAG-induced leishmanicidal effects mimicked that of Sb(RLD to some extent, although antimony resistance in clinical LD isolates is known to be multifactorial. Furthermore, NF-kappaB was found to transcriptionally regulate expression of murine gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase heavy-chain (mgammaGCS(hc gene, presumably an important regulator of antimony resistance. Importantly, Sb(RLD but not Sb(SLD blocked SAG-induced mgammaGCS expression in DCs by

  14. CLINICAL AND ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENTS OF METOPROLOL TARTRATE/SUCCINATE USAGE IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Soura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and clinicoeconomical studies review is presented as well as results of author’s comparative cost analysis on metoprolol tartrate (Betaloc and metoprolol succinate (Betaloc ZOK usage in patients with ischemic heart disease. Efficacy of metoprolol therapy is proven in randomized clinical studies in patients with angina and myocardial infarction (MI. In angina patients metoprolol prevents cardiac attacks, MI, reduces nitroglycerine consumption, increases exercise tolerability, prolongs the exercise time before ST segment depression (succinate better than tartrate, decrease of angina intensity. In MI patients metoprolol therapy reduces mortality, sudden death, recurring MI and the rate of early post MI angina attacks. Nowadays metoprolol is the only β-blocker having indication on secondary MI prevention. Besides for the present metoprolol succinate is the only β-blocker with proven direct antisclerosis effect. According to Swedish clinicoeconomical study in patients after MI secondary prevention with metoprolol therapy saves the costs in comparison with placebo. American clinicoeconomical model of metoprolol and atenolol usage in all patients with MI could result in significant reduction in mortality and recurring MI rate, prolong the life and improve its quality, save financial resources. The cost of monthly treatment of angina patient with metoprolol tartrate (Betaloc and metoprolol succinate (Betaloc ZOK is 135 and 354 rubles, respectively. The price range of comparative β-blockers in ascending order is the following: atenolol (Atenolol Nicomed → metoprolol tartrate (Betaloc → metoprolol succinate (Betaloc ZOK → bisoprolol (Concor → nebivolol (Nebilet. In conclusion, metoprolol therapy is the one of mostly economically reasonable approach.

  15. A practical and azide-free synthetic approach to oseltamivir from diethyl D-tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiang; Li, Yong-Bo; Wang, Rui-Bin; Li, Feng-Quan; Liu, Can; Chan, Albert S C; Lu, Gui

    2010-05-07

    A short and practical synthesis of oseltamivir was accomplished in 11 steps from inexpensive and abundant diethyl D-tartrate starting material. This azide-free route featured an asymmetric aza-Henry reaction and a domino nitro-Michael/Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction as the key steps to construct the relevant cyclohexene ring of the product, which provided an economical and practical alternative for the synthesis of oseltamivir.

  16. Titrimetric and Spectrophotometric Determination of Metaprolol tartrate in Pharmaceuticals Using N-Bromosuccinimide

    OpenAIRE

    K. Basavaiah; B. C. Somashekar

    2007-01-01

    One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods are presented for the assay of metaprolol tartrate (MPT) in bulk drug and in tablets. The methods employ N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as the oxidimetric reagent and two dyes, methyl orange and indigo carmine as spectrophotometric reagents. In titrimetry, an acidified solution of MPT is treated with a known excess amount of NBS and after a definite time, the unreacted oxidant is determined by iodometric back titration. Spectrophotometry involve...

  17. Sublingual fast dissolving niosomal films for enhanced bioavailability and prolonged effect of metoprolol tartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Allam, Ayat; Fetih, Gihan

    2016-01-01

    Ayat Allam, Gihan Fetih Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Abstract: The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate sublingual fast dissolving films containing metoprolol tartrate-loaded niosomes. Niosomes were utilized to allow for prolonged release of the drug, whereas the films were used to increase the drug’s bioavailability via the sublingual route. Niosomes were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol at different drug to...

  18. Characterization and in vitro degradation of poly(2,3-(1,4-diethyl tartrate)-co-2,3-isopropyliden tartrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliecker, Gesine; Schmidt, Carsten; Fuchs, Stefan; Kissel, Thomas

    2004-07-23

    In the present study, a less known polyester based on tartaric acid was characterized with respect to its degradation mechanism. Poly(2,3-(1,4-diethyl tartrate)-co-2,3-isopropyliden tartrate) (PTA) differs from commonly used biodegradable polyesters, such as poly(lactides-co-glycolides) (PLGA) by the presence of additional cleavable bonds in the polymer side chains. This modification results in different polymer properties and influences polymer degradation. The hydrolytic degradation of PTA was studied in parallel to PLGA using disc-shape matrices, which were obtained by compression-molding. The discs were incubated in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution at 37 degrees C. The degraded samples were characterized for percentage mass loss, water absorption, decay of molecular weight and change in glass transition temperature. The results demonstrate that the degradation of PTA proceeds via bulk erosion similar to PLGA. However, the degradation of PTA implants is characterized by a rapid mass loss within a short period of time appearing after a definite lag phase without remarkable mass loss. This makes the polymer promising for pulsatile drug release systems.

  19. COMPARISON BETAXOLOL AND METOPROLOL TARTRATE THERAPIES IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION ASSOCIATED WITH STABLE ANGINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Anderzhanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare antihypertensive, antianginal and antiischemic efficacy of β1-selective adrenoblockers (betaxolol and metoprolol tartrate in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degree associated with stable angina class II.Material and methods. 100 patients (aged 23-66 y.o. with HT associated with stable angina or without angina were involved in the study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups (G1 and G2. G1 patients were treated with betaxolol, and G2 patients – with metoprolol tartrate. Ambulatory BP and electrocardiogram monitoring, exercise stress-test, echocardiography, evaluating of respiratory function, blood analysis was performed initially and in 30 and 90 days of treatment.Results. Target BP level was reached in 44 (88% patients treated with betaxolol (average daily dose 10±4 mg. 34 patients of G1 took 10 mg daily. Target BP level was reached in 41 (82% patients treated with metoprolol tartrate (average daily dose 150±27 mg. 30 patients of G2 took 150 mg daily. Exercise tolerance increased and a number of ischemic ST segment depressions reduced significantly in both groups. There were no significant differences in antihypertensive, antianginal, and antiischemic efficacy between groups.Conclusion. Betaxolol advantage is an ability to maintain target BP level more than 24 hours. A possibility to take betaxolol once a day raises patient’s compliance with therapy.

  20. In vitro evaluation of tissue adhesives composed of hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Matsuda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the hydrophobic group content in gelatin on the bonding strength of novel tissue–penetrating tissue adhesives was evaluated. The hydrophobic groups introduced into gelatin were the saturated hexanoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl groups, and the unsaturated oleoyl group. A collagen casing was employed as an adherend to model soft tissue for the in vitro determination of bonding strength of tissue adhesives composed of various hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate. The adhesive composed of stearoyl-modified gelatin (7.4% stearoyl; 10Ste and disuccinimidyl tartrate showed the highest bonding strength. The bonding strength of the adhesives decreased as the degree of substitution of the hydrophobic groups increased. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 10Ste was integrated onto the surface of smooth muscle cells and showed no cytotoxicity. These results suggest that 10Ste interacted with the hydrophobic domains of collagen casings, such as hydrophobic amino acid residues and cell membranes. Therefore, 10Ste–disuccinimidyl tartrate is a promising adhesive for use in aortic dissection.

  1. Solid-state Chemical Reaction Synthesis and Characterization of Lanthanum Tartrate Nanocrystallites Under Ultrasonication Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao-hua; He, Shao-fen; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Cheng-yan; Yang, Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Under near room temperature, by using sodium tartrate, lanthanum trichloride, lanthanum acetate, and lanthanum nitrate as reactants, we synthesize the lanthanum tartrate nanocrystals in one step under the condition that the infrared lamp is irradiated and the polyethylene glycol 400 is used as the surfactant, where the synthesis method of nanoparticles by solid phase chemical reaction is used. Deionized water after washing with ethanol washes. Tartaric acid lanthanum crystalline powder is gotten, respectively. Analyze solid products phase using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction; characterize the functional groups structure with infrared spectra, and analyzethe change of functional groups in drugs before and after reaction; observe the size, shape, and size distribution of particlesby transmission electron microscopy(TEM). Testing 3 types of tartaric acid crystal powder of lanthanum are nano-crystallization, solid products are granular and relatively uniform in size, with an average particle diameter of about 40 nm, and the yield rate is approximately 92.3%. Furthermore, during the synthesis, the solid-state reaction conditions including raw materials, matching proportion of reactants, additions of inert substance, addition of trace solvents, surfactants and porphyrization time, etc, all have some influence on the morphology, particle size and size distribution of the final products. During the synthesis of the lanthanum tartrate nanocrystallites, the solid state reaction conditions such as changing reactant, matching proportion of reactant, adding inert substance, joining a little solvent or surface active solvent and grinding at different times may influence morphology, particle size and the size distribution of final products.

  2. Comparison of modification with strontium and the refining with antimony in A 356 aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuoco, Ricardo; Correa, Edison Roberto; Correa, Alzira V.O.; Bocalini Junior, Mario

    1992-01-01

    Strontium and Antimony treated A356 aluminium alloy samples were metallographically characterized in the as cast and solution and aged conditions. Antimony treated alloy has shown slower spheroidizing kinetics of the Silicon particles during solution treatment, lower porosity level and higher tensile strength and elongation than Strontium treated one. (author)

  3. Effect of antimony on the microbial growth and the activities of soil enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Youn-Joo; Kim, Minjin

    2009-02-01

    The effects of antimony (Sb) on microbial growth inhibition and activities of soil enzymes were investigated in the present study. Test bacterial species were Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus aureus. Among the microorganisms tested, S. aureus was the most sensitive. The 50% effects on the inhibition of specific growth rate of E. coli, B. subtilis, and, S. aureus were 555, 18.4, and 15.8 mg Sb L(-1), respectively. A silt loam soil was amended with antimony and incubated in a controlled condition. Microbial activities of dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase (P cycle), arylsulfatase (S cycle), beta-glucosidase (C cycle), urease (N cycle), and fluorescein diacetate hydrolase in soil were measured. Activities of urease and dehydrogenase were related with antimony and can be an early indication of antimony contamination. The maximum increase in soil urease activity by antimony was up to 168% after 3d compared with the control. The activities of other four enzymes (acid phosphatase, fluorescein diacetate hydrolase, arylsulfatase and ss-glucosidase) were less affected by antimony. This study suggested that antimony affects nitrogen cycle in soil by changing urease activity under the neutral pH, however, soil enzyme activities may not be a good protocol due to their complex response patterns to antimony pollution.

  4. The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessinger, Brad; Apps, John A.

    2003-03-23

    A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were used to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur

  5. Metabolism of antimony-124 in lactating dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; Colard, J.

    1982-01-01

    Lactating cows received oral and intravenous administrations of radioactive antimony (III) chloride to study its intestinal and urinary excretion, secretion into milk and organ distribution. Milk samples were taken twice a day and the milk, feces and urine assayed using gamma spectroscopy. Cows administered orally were sacrificed at 102 days and those injected intravenously at 70 days. Distribution of 124 Sb in the organs was determined at the time of sacrifice. Excretion of 124 Sb occurs mainly via urine, little is secreted into milk. Highest organ concentrations are in the spleen, liver and bone. (U.K.)

  6. Extraction of antimony and arsenic from sulphidic concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BalហPeter

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of both mineral processing and extractive metallurgy of minerals depends on the separation of individual mineral components and on the exposure of their surface. The production of flotation concentrates, with particle sizes of tens of microns, is not sufficient for many hydrometallurgical processes to operate at their optimum. As a consequence, metallurgical plants require for the effective processing high temperatures and pressures and some sort of concentrate pretreatment. Mechanical activation is an innovative procedure where an improvement in hydrometallurgical processes can be attained via a combination of new surface area and formation of crystalline defects in minerals. The lowering of reaction temperatures, the increase of rate and amount of solubility, preparation of water soluble compounds, the necessity for simpler and less expensive reactors and shorter reaction times are some of the advantages of mechanical activation. The environmental aspects of these processes are particularly attractive.This paper is devoted to the examples of application of mechanochemical treatment in the processing of sulfidic concentrates. The sulphide concentrates of various origin (Peru, Chile, Slovakia were succesfully tested for antimony and arsenic extraction. The mechanochemical treatment improve the degree of recovery and the rate of leaching of both metals. Two modes of mechanochemical treatment were tested: the mechanical activation before leaching and the mechanochemical leaching which integrates mechanical activation and leaching into a common step. The flowsheet consisted of mechanochemical leaching in an attritor and further operations as filtration, cementation, antimony precipitation, crystallization and arsenic precipitation. The pilot plant unit was designed for 500 kg per day feed of tetrahedrite concentrate. For the antimony extraction, electrowinning has also been considered. The residue which is a CuAgAu concentrate was

  7. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  8. Electrical conductivity of uranium-antimony oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golunski, S.E.; Nevell, T.G.; Hucknall, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The relative ionic and electronic contributions to the electrical conductivity of a uranium-antimony oxide catalyst and of USbO 5 have been determined from measurements of a.c. and d.c. conductance. Under inert atmospheres (390 to 775 K) conduction in the catalyst (predominantly USb 3 O 10 together with small proportions of Sb 2 O 4 and USbO 5 ) is associated with both electronic and effectively charged atomic point defects. Only electronic conduction occurs in USbO 5 . Under oxygen (10 to 70 kPa, 493 to 682 K) both materials are n-type semiconductors at higher temperatures, but at lower temperatures semiconducting behaviour varies with the pressure of oxygen. Heating USbO 5 in oxygen induces an ionic contribution to conductivity. Ionic conduction in the catalyst is eliminated by heating in hydrogen or propene at 470 K but is restored by heating in oxygen. It is suggested that both charged oxygen vacancies and interstitial oxide ions are involved in interactions of gaseous components with uranium-antimony oxides. With alkenes, interstitial oxide ions give rise to the products of selective partial oxidation. (author)

  9. Segregation of antimony in InP in MOVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    In this work the segregation of antimony in indium phosphide in metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)was systematically investigated. Therefore phosphine stabilized InP surfaces were treated with tri-methyl-antimony (TMSb) in MOVPE. An antimony rich Sb/InP surface was established, showing a typical spectra for the antimonides observed in reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS).Adsorption and desorption of antimony are investigated, as well as the incorporation of Sb during overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface with InP. Therefore the growth parameters temperature, TMSb partial pressure and treatment time are varied and their influence investigated. The experiments are monitored in-situ with RAS, the achieved data is correlated with ex-situ characterisation such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It is shown that under treatment with TMSb a stable Sb/InP surface is formed within seconds, which does not change under further TMSb treatment. This process is rarely influenced by the TMSb partial pressure. On the contrary, the desorption of Sb is a very slow process. Two main processes can be distinguished: The desorption of excess Sb from the surface and the formation of the MOVPE prepared InP (2 x 1) surface. The reaction velocity of adsorption and desorption increases with temperature. Above a critical value the increase of TMSb partial pressure has no influence on the time for desorption. During overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface the opposite temperature dependence is observed: with increasing growth temperature the typical spectra for antimonides is observed longer. An analysis of the grown samples with XRD and SIMS showed the formation of an InPSb double quantum well. One layer is formed at the interface, the second one 50 nm-120 nm deep in the InP. The location of the 2nd InPSb layer can be correlated with the vanishing of the Sb signature in RAS. The distance between the quantum wells increases with growth temperature, until it

  10. Segregation of antimony in InP in MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeke, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    In this work the segregation of antimony in indium phosphide in metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)was systematically investigated. Therefore phosphine stabilized InP surfaces were treated with tri-methyl-antimony (TMSb) in MOVPE. An antimony rich Sb/InP surface was established, showing a typical spectra for the antimonides observed in reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS).Adsorption and desorption of antimony are investigated, as well as the incorporation of Sb during overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface with InP. Therefore the growth parameters temperature, TMSb partial pressure and treatment time are varied and their influence investigated. The experiments are monitored in-situ with RAS, the achieved data is correlated with ex-situ characterisation such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It is shown that under treatment with TMSb a stable Sb/InP surface is formed within seconds, which does not change under further TMSb treatment. This process is rarely influenced by the TMSb partial pressure. On the contrary, the desorption of Sb is a very slow process. Two main processes can be distinguished: The desorption of excess Sb from the surface and the formation of the MOVPE prepared InP (2 x 1) surface. The reaction velocity of adsorption and desorption increases with temperature. Above a critical value the increase of TMSb partial pressure has no influence on the time for desorption. During overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface the opposite temperature dependence is observed: with increasing growth temperature the typical spectra for antimonides is observed longer. An analysis of the grown samples with XRD and SIMS showed the formation of an InPSb double quantum well. One layer is formed at the interface, the second one 50 nm-120 nm deep in the InP. The location of the 2nd InPSb layer can be correlated with the vanishing of the Sb signature in RAS. The distance between the quantum wells increases with growth temperature, until it

  11. Potassium Channelopathies and Gastrointestinal Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaeyong; Lee, Seung Hun; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Tong

    2016-11-15

    Potassium channels and transporters maintain potassium homeostasis and play significant roles in several different biological actions via potassium ion regulation. In previous decades, the key revelations that potassium channels and transporters are involved in the production of gastric acid and the regulation of secretion in the stomach have been recognized. Drugs used to treat peptic ulceration are often potassium transporter inhibitors. It has also been reported that potassium channels are involved in ulcerative colitis. Direct toxicity to the intestines from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated with altered potassium channel activities. Several reports have indicated that the long-term use of the antianginal drug Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, increases the chances of ulceration and perforation from the oral to anal regions throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Several of these drug features provide further insights into the role of potassium channels in the occurrence of ulceration in the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to investigate whether potassium channelopathies are involved in the mechanisms responsible for ulceration that occurs throughout the GI tract.

  12. Removal of arsenic and antimony from anode slime by vacuum dynamic flash reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deqiang; Qiu, Keqiang

    2011-04-15

    Anode slime is an important material of recycling precious metals. Up to now, treating the arsenic- and antimony-rich anode slime by conventional processes has the following problems: its economic and environmental effect is less than satisfactory, and the removal effect of arsenic and antimony from anode slime in present processes is not all that could be desired. Therefore, vacuum dynamic flash reduction, a new process for treating arsenic- and antimony-rich anode slime, was investigated in this work. During vacuum dynamic flash reduction, silver from the arsenic- and antimony-rich anode slime was left behind in the distilland as the silver alloy, and trivalent oxides of arsenic and antimony were evaporated in the distillate. The experimental results showed that the evaporation percent of the arsenic- and antimony-rich anode slime was 65.6%. Namely, 98.92% by weight of arsenic and 93.67% by weight of antimony can be removed under the following experimental conditions: temperature of 1083 K, vacuum evaporation time of 60 min, and air flow rate of 400 mL/min corresponding to the residual gas pressure of 250 Pa. Moreover, vacuum treatment eliminates much of the air pollution and material losses associated with other conventional treatment methods.

  13. Immobilization of antimony waste slag by applying geopolymerization and stabilization/solidification technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Güray

    2014-11-01

    During the processing of antimony ore by pyrometallurgical methods, a considerable amount of slag is formed. This antimony waste slag is listed by the European Union as absolutely hazardous waste with a European Waste Catalogue code of 10 08 08. Since the levels of antimony and arsenic in the leachate of the antimony waste slag are generally higher than the landfilling limits, it is necessary to treat the slag before landfilling. In this study, stabilization/solidification and geopolymerization technologies were both applied in order to limit the leaching potential of antimony and arsenic. Different combinations ofpastes by using Portland cement, fly ash, clay, gypsum, and blast furnace slag were prepared as stabilization/solidification or geopoljymer matrixes. Sodium silicate-sodium hydroxide solution and sodium hydroxide solution at 8 M were used as activators for geopolymer samples. Efficiencies of the combinations were evaluated in terms of leaching and unconfined compressive strength. None of the geopolymer samples prepared with the activators yielded arsenic and antimony leaching below the regulatory limit at the same time, although they yielded high unconfined compressive strength levels. On the other hand, the stabilization/solidification samples prepared by using water showed low leaching results meeting the landfilling criteria. Use of gypsum as an additive was found to be successful in immobilizing the arsenic and antimony.

  14. In Vitro Antiparasitic and Apoptotic Effects of Antimony Sulfide Nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Soflaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important sever diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. In the present study the effects of antimony sulfide nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum in vitro were evaluated. Antimony sulfide NPs (Sb2S5 were synthesized by biological method from Serratia marcescens bacteria. Then the cytotoxicity effects of different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of this nanoparticle were assessed on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. infantum. MTT method was used for verification results of promastigote assay. Finally, the percentages of apoptotic, necrotic, and viable cells were determined by flow cytometry. The results indicated the positive effectiveness of antimony sulfide NPs on proliferation of promastigote form. The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration of antimony sulfide NPs on promastigotes was calculated 50 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity effect was dose-dependent means by increasing the concentration of antimony sulfide NPs, the cytotoxicity curve was raised and the viability curve of the parasite dropped simultaneously. Moreover, the IC50 of antimony sulfide NPs on amastigote stage was calculated 25 μg/mL. On the other hand, however, antimony sulfide NPs have a low cytotoxicity effect on uninfected macrophages but it can induce apoptosis in promastigote stage at 3 of 4 concentrations.

  15. The potential DNA toxic changes among workers exposed to antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shanawany, Safaa; Foda, Nermine; Hashad, Doaa I; Salama, Naglaa; Sobh, Zahraa

    2017-05-01

    Occupational exposure to antimony has gained much interest when specific toxic effects were noticed among workers processing antimony. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the potential DNA oxidative damage occurring among Egyptian workers occupationally exposed to antimony trioxide. The study was conducted on 25 subjects exposed to antimony trioxide while working in the polymerization process of polyester in Misrayon and Polyester Fiber Company, KafrEldawwar, Beheira, Egypt. Urinary antimony levels were assessed using inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and considered as a biological exposure index. DNA damage and total oxidant capacity (TOC) were assessed using ELISA. DNA damage was detected in the form of increased apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites among antimony trioxide-exposed workers compared to control subjects, but it could not be explained by oxidative mechanisms due to lack of significant correlation between DNA damage and measured TOC. Antimony trioxide might have a genotoxic impact on occupationally exposed workers which could not be attributed to oxidative stress in the studied cases.

  16. Behaviour of antimony during thermal treatment of Sb-rich halogenated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J. [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Dorge, S., E-mail: sophie.dorge@uha.fr [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Trouve, G. [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Venditti, D.; Durecu, S. [TREDI Departement de Recherche, Technopole de Nancy-Brabois, 9 avenue de la Foret de Haye, BP 184, 54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2009-07-30

    Antimony compounds have a wide range of industrial applications, particularly as additives in flame retardants. To ensure environmentally friendly waste incineration of Sb-rich wastes, it is essential to strengthen the knowledge about the fate of antimony and the potential formation of harmful species. Investigations should be conducted particularly in relation with the main operational parameters controlling the process, chiefly temperature, residence time and air supply in the oven and in the post-combustion zone, prior final adapted cleaning of the flue-gas stream. Experimental studies focusing on antimony behaviour were undertaken through laboratory-scale thermal treatment at 850 deg. C and 1100 deg. C of a Sb-rich halogenated waste, originating from the sector of flame retardants formulation. The configuration of our laboratory experimental device allowed to achieve only low oxidative conditions in the waste bed, but high oxidative strength coupled with high temperature and sufficient gas residence time in the post-combustion zone, as prescribed during the incineration of hazardous wastes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to assess the partition of antimony in the different compartments of the process. The oxidation degree of antimony in the gas-phase was determined by the use of electrochemical techniques, namely polarography coupled with anodic stripping voltamperometry. The partition of antimony between the residual ash and the gas-phase under moderate oxidative conditions in the waste bed was constant, whatever the temperature: the volatilization rate for antimony was {approx}64%, while a {approx}36% fraction remained in the residual bottom ashes. But interestingly, while at 850 {sup o}C, antimony was mainly present in the gas-phase at a +III oxidation degree, an increase in temperature of 250 {sup o}C favoured the presence of antimony to its highest oxidation degree +V in the flue-gas stream, a valence known to be involved in less toxic species.

  17. Synthesis, characterisation and electrochemical evaluation of reduced graphene oxide modified antimony nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silwana, Bongiwe; Horst, Charlton van der [Natural Resources and the Environment (NRE), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa); SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Iwuoha, Emmanuel [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Somerset, Vernon, E-mail: vsomerset@csir.co.za [Natural Resources and the Environment (NRE), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

    2015-10-01

    This paper demonstrates some aspects on the synthesis and characterisation of nanoparticles of metallic alloys using polyvinyl alcohol as a stabiliser, which combines high surface area and superior hybrid properties. The present experimental design was to synthesise a nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide and antimony nanoparticles to be used as thin films for macro- and micro-carbon electrodes for enhancing sensing of different toxic metal pollutants in the environment. The synthetic process of reduced graphene oxide was done using the modified Hummers method while antimony pentachloride was reduced with sodium borohydride into nanoparticles of antimony using polyvinyl-alcohol as a stabiliser. The systematic investigation of morphology was done by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscope, which revealed the synthesis of a product, consists of reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles. The electrochemical behaviour of the reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles coated on a glassy carbon electrode was performed using voltammetric and impedance techniques. Electrochemical impedance measurements showed that the overall resistance, including the charge–transfer resistance, was smaller with reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles than reduced graphene oxide and antimony nanoparticles, on their own. Evaluation of the reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticle sensor in the stripping voltammetry has shown a linear working range for concentration of platinum (II) between 6.0 × 10{sup −6}–5.4 × 10{sup −5} μg L{sup −1} with limit of detection of 6 × 10{sup −6} μg L{sup −1} (signal-to-noise ratio = 3), which is below the World Health Organisation guidelines for freshwater. - Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide modified antimony nanoparticles were chemically synthesised. • TEM results show rGO-Sb nanoparticles with a diameter range of between 2 and 20 nm. • Impedance results confirm

  18. An investigation of inorganic antimony species and antimony associated with soil humic acid molar mass fractions in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steely, Sarah; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Xing Baoshan

    2007-01-01

    The presence of antimony compounds is often suspected in the soil of apple orchards contaminated with lead arsenate pesticide and in the soil of shooting ranges. Nitric acid (1 M) extractable Sb from the shooting range (8300 μg kg -1 ) and the apple orchard (69 μg kg -1 ) had considerably higher surface Sb levels than the control site ( -1 ), and Sb was confined to the top ∼30 cm soil layer. Sb(V) was the principal species in the shooting range and the apple orchard surface soils. Size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) analysis of humic acids isolated from the two contaminated soils demonstrated that Sb has complexed to humic acid molar mass fractions. The results also indicate that humic acids have the ability to arrest the mobility of Sb through soils and would be beneficial in converting Sb(III) to a less toxic species, Sb(V), in contaminated areas. - The soil surface and depth distribution Sb(V) and Sb(III) species in a contaminated apple orchard and a shooting range, and the effect soil humic acids on inorganic antimony species is reported

  19. Development of sustained release capsules containing "coated matrix granules of metoprolol tartrate".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Sabahuddin; Khanam, Jasmina; Bigoniya, Papiya

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to prepare sustained release capsule containing coated matrix granules of metoprolol tartrate and to study its in vitro release and in vivo absorption. The design of dosage form was performed by choosing hydrophilic hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K100M) and hydrophobic ethyl cellulose (EC) polymers as matrix builders and Eudragit® RL/RS as coating polymers. Granules were prepared by composing drug with HPMC K100M, EC, dicalcium phosphate by wet granulation method with subsequent coating. Optimized formulation of metoprolol tartrate was formed by using 30% HPMC K100M, 20% EC, and ratio of Eudragit® RS/RL as 97.5:2.5 at 25% coating level. Capsules were filled with free flowing optimized granules of uniform drug content. This extended the release period upto 12 h in vitro study. Similarity factor and mean dissolution time were also reported to compare various dissolution profiles. The network formed by HPMC and EC had been coupled satisfactorily with the controlled resistance offered by Eudragit® RS. The release mechanism of capsules followed Korsemeyer-Peppas model that indicated significant contribution of erosion effect of hydrophilic polymer. Biopharmaceutical study of this optimized dosage form in rabbit model showed 10 h prolonged drug release in vivo. A close correlation (R(2) = 0.9434) was established between the in vitro release and the in vivo absorption of drug. The results suggested that wet granulation with subsequent coating by fluidized bed technique, is a suitable method to formulate sustained release capsules of metoprolol tartrate and it can perform therapeutically better than conventional immediate release dosage form.

  20. Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate on Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Dong, Ying; Chen, Caidong; Zhu, Shimin; Ma, Xiangjuan

    2015-12-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are being used in various industries during the last few decades, while the good solubility and high stability of ILs may pose a potential threat to the aquatic environment. Effect of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate (RMIM T) on Scenedesmus obliquus (S.obliquus) was studied. The growth rate inhibition and cell membrane permeability increased with increasing RMIM T concentration and increasing alkyl chain lengths. The IC50 values of D-(-)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (D-(-)-HMIM T) were 28.30, 12.23,10.15 and 14.41 mg/L, respectively, at 24, 48, 72 and 96h. While that of L-(+)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (L-(+)-HMIM T) were 15.97, 7.91, 9.43 and 12.04 mg/L respectively. The concentration of chl a, chl b and chl (a+b) decreased with increasing RMIM T concentration. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Y(II), ETR and NPQ) were affected by RMIM T, indicating that the RMIM T will damage the PSII, inhibit the transmission of excitation energy, decrease the efficiency of photosynthesis. The results showed that there were enantioselective toxicity of RMIM T to algae, and the toxicity of L-(+)-RMIM T was greater than that of D-(-)-RMIM T, but the enantioselective difference becomes smaller with increasing exposure time, and with the increasing carbon chain length of cation, indicating that cation properties may have a larger effect on toxicity than anion properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Varicella zoster virus reactivation during or immediately following treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis with antimony compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barbieri Barros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimony compounds are the cornerstone treatments for tegumentary leishmaniasis. The reactivation of herpes virus is a side effect described in few reports. We conducted an observational study to describe the incidence of herpes zoster reactivation during treatment with antimony compounds. The global incidence of herpes zoster is approximately 2.5 cases per 1,000 persons per month (or 30 cases per 1,000 persons per year. The estimated incidence of herpes zoster in patients undergoing antimony therapy is higher than previously reported.

  2. Antimony(V) and Bismuth(V) Complexes of Lapachol: Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Cytotoxic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Demicheli; Carlos A. de Simone; Frédéric Frézard; Eufrânio N. da Silva Júnior; Cláudio L. Donnici; Elene C. Pereira-Maia; Ludmila G. de Oliveira; Meiriane M. Silva; Flávia C. S. de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Antimony(V) and bismuth(V) complexes of lapachol have been synthesized by the reaction of Ph3SbCl2 or Ph3BiCl2 with lapachol (Lp) and characterized by several physicochemical techniques such as IR, and NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The compounds contain six-coordinated antimony and bismuth atoms. The antimony(V) complex is a monomeric derivative, (Lp)(Ph3Sb)OH, and the bismuth(V) complex is a dinuclear compound bridged by an oxygen atom, (Lp)2(Ph3Bi)2O. Both compounds inhibited ...

  3. Clinical potential of eliglustat tartrate in the treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Paige KaplanLysosomal Disorders Center, Section of Metabolic Diseases, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Nonneuropathic type 1 Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive inherited disease caused by the deficiency or absence of beta glucocerebrosidase (beta glucosidase. The highest prevalence of type 1 is in Ashkenazi Jews, but it affects all ethnic groups. It manifests at any age but is seen predominantly in the first two decades. The phenotype is characterized by painless splenomegaly and secondary hypersplenism (low hemoglobin concentration and low platelet and white blood cell counts. Symptoms and signs include splenomegaly; chronic fatigue, frequent nose bleeds, prolonged bleeding, and/or bruising; hepatomegaly; bone pain, bone destruction and low bone density; and poor growth in childhood and delayed pubertal development. Current treatment with intravenous enzyme replacement has been generally successful. However, oral treatments have been developed because enzyme replacement is time-consuming and invasive, and intravenous infusions are not universally available for patients who live far from medical centers or home infusion nurses. Furthermore, it may become difficult to access veins after repeated infusions. Orally administered substrate reduction is a newer treatment approach. The aim is to limit the synthesis of the substrate, glucosylceramide. The residual intrinsic enzyme, acting alone or with recombinant enzyme, can then completely catabolize the smaller amounts of glucosylceramide that are transported into lysosomes. Eliglustat tartrate is a new specific inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase. Phase III trials in humans have been completed. Eliglustat tartrate has been shown to be efficacious and safe in adult humans. The results are as good or better compared with intravenous replacement with regard to reductions in spleen and liver enlargement and improvements in hemoglobin concentrations, platelet

  4. Evaluation of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) containing copolymer networks of varied composition as sustained metoprolol tartrate delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Bistra; Ivanova, Sijka; Balashev, Konstantin; Rachev, Dimitar; Christova, Darinka

    2014-08-01

    Segmented copolymer networks (SCN) based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, and/or methyl methacrylate segments have been evaluated as potential sustained release systems of the water soluble cardioselective β-blocker metoprolol tartrate. The structure and properties of the drug carriers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Swelling kinetics of SCNs in various media was followed, and the conditions for effective MT loading were specified. MT-loaded SCNs with drug content up to 80 wt.% were produced. The release kinetics of metoprolol tartrate from the systems was studied and it was shown that the conetworks of different structure and composition are able to sustain the metoprolol tartrate release without additional excipients.

  5. Potassium oxalurate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, poly[aqua-μ3-oxalurato-potassium(I], [K(C3H3N2O4(H2O]n, which was obtained from a water solution of oxaluric acid and KOH at room temperature, crystallizes as potassium and oxalurate ions along with a water molecule. The K+ cation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis (site symmetry 2, Wyckoff position f, and the water and oxalurate molecules are located within different mirror planes (site symmetry m, Wyckoff position g. The K+ cation is eight-coordinated by six O atoms of six oxalurate ligands and two O atoms from two water molecules in a distorted square-antiprismatic geometry. All of the eight coordinated O atoms are in a monodentate bridging mode, with alternate bridged K...K distances of 3.5575 (12 and 3.3738 (12 Å. The oxalurate ligand shows a μ3-bridging coordination mode, which links the K+ cation into a three-dimensional network. The oxalurate ligands and the water molecules are involved in inter- and intramolecular N—H...O, and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which stabilize the network.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solution of potassium hydroxide with excess carbon dioxide to produce potassium carbonate; (3) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce potassium bicarbonate, which is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619 Food...

  7. Potassium in milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Tangonan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  8. Silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Perry, Daniel; Wendt, Joel; Manginell, Ronald; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Luhman, Dwight; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    Antimony donor implants next to silicon quantum dots have been detected with integrated solid-state diode detectors with single ion precision. Devices with counted number of donors have been fabricated and low temperature transport measurements have been performed. Charge offsets, indicative of donor ionization and coupling to the quantum dot, have been detected in these devices. The number of offsets corresponds to 10-50% of the number of donors counted. We will report on tunneling time measurements and spin readout measurements on the donor offsets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Fluoride and oxyfluoride compounds and niobium, antimony and tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, Odile.

    1982-02-01

    This paper is a detailed bibliographic report on fluoride and oxyfluoride compounds and niobium, antimony and tellurium oxides. Compounds identified to date are: NbF 3 , NbF 4 , NbF 5 , NbF 6 , NbO 2 F, NbOF 3 , Nb 3 O 7 F, SbF 3 , SbF 5 , SbOF, SbOF 3 , SbO 2 F, Sb 2 O 3 , Sb 2 O 4 , TeF 4 , Te 2 F 10 , TeF 6 , Te 2 OF 10 , Te 3 O 2 F 14 , Te 6 F 26 O 5 , TeO, TeO 2 , TeO 3 . Synthesis processes, physical properties and chemical properties are given for each of the above compounds [fr

  10. Calcium metal as a scavenger for antimony from aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Daniels, E.J.; Wu, C.T.

    1994-10-04

    Previous work has shown that trace amounts of antimony (Sb) can affect the mechanical properties of strontium (Sr) modified aluminum castings. ANL has been investigating technology to remove or neutralize Sb to reduce its negative effect on the physical properties of those alloys. Review of past work on processing and recovery of scrap aluminum inferred that calcium (Ca) is an effective scavenger of Sb, bismuth, lead and cadmium. Following up on that lead, we have found that Ca is, indeed, effective for removing Sb from molten aluminum alloys although its effectiveness can be compromised by a wide range of processing conditions. A minimum ratio of about four to one, by weight, of Ca to Sb appears necessary to insure an effective scavenging of contained Sb.in 356 aluminum alloys.

  11. Antimony Accumulation Risk in Lettuce Grown in Brazilian Urban Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mancarella

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of the Brazilian population inhabits urban areas. Diffused poverty and the lack of fresh vegetables have generated malnutrition and unbalanced diets. Thus, the interest in growing food locally, in urban allotments and community gardens, has increased. However, urban agriculture may present some risks caused by the urban pollution. Road traffic is considered the biggest source of heavy metals in urban areas. Hence, the objective of the study was the assessment of the accumulation of heavy metals in an urban garden in the city of Recife, at different distances from a road with high traffic burden. The results showed that the distance from the street decreased the accumulation of many potentially toxic elements. Furthermore, the human health risk was estimated, revealing that greater danger was associated with the accumulation of antimony. Concentration of other elements in the leaf tissues were within previously reported thresholds.

  12. Antimony as a global dilemma: Geochemistry, mobility, fate and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Indika; Vithanage, Meththika; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Elevated concentrations of antimony (Sb) in environmental, biological and geochemical systems originating from natural, geological and anthropogenic sources are of particular global concern. This review presents a critical overview of natural geochemical processes which trigger the mobilization of Sb from its host mineral phases and related rocks to the surrounding environments. The primary source of Sb contamination in the environment is geogenic. The geochemical characteristics of Sb are determined by its oxidation states, speciation and redox transformation. Oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals and aqueous dissolution are the most prevalent geochemical mechanisms for the release of Sb to the environment. Transformation of mobile forms of Sb is predominantly controlled by naturally occurring precipitation and adsorption processes. Oxyhydroxides of iron, manganese and aluminum minerals have been recognized as naturally occurring Sb sequestrating agents in the environment. Antimony is also immobilized in the natural environment via precipitation with alkali and heavy metals resulting extremely stable mineral phases, such as schafarzikite, tripuhyite and calcium antimonates. Many key aspects, including detection, quantification, and speciation of Sb in different environmental systems as well as its actual human exposure remain poorly understood. Identification of global distribution of most vulnerable Sb-contaminated regions/countries along with aquifer sediments is an urgent necessity for the installation of safe drinking water wells. Such approaches could provide the global population Sb-safe drinking and irrigation water and hinder the propagation of Sb in toxic levels through the food chain. Hence, raising awareness through the mobility, fate and transport of Sb as well as further transdisciplinary research on Sb from global scientific communities will be a crucial stage to establish a sustainable Sb mitigation on a global scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  13. NEW THIO S2- ADDUCTS WITH ANTIMONY (III AND V HALIDE: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ALLOUCH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new S2- adducts with SbIII and SbV halides have been synthesized and studied by infrared. Discrete structures have been suggested, the environment around the antimony being tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  14. Antimony-based focal plane arrays for shortwave-infrared to visible applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop antimony-based focal plane arrays (FPAs) for NASA's imaging and spectroscopy applications in the spectral band from visible to...

  15. Antimony-Based Focal Plane Arrays for Shortwave-Infrared to Visible Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop antimony-based focal plane arrays (FPAs) for NASA's imaging and spectroscopy applications in the spectral band from visible to...

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium by zinc diethyldithiocarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1978-03-01

    The authors report the solvent extraction, oxidation, reduction, extraction in the presence of iron, and reextraction of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium. These processes were studied using radioactive tracers. (G.T.H.)

  17. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of metoprolol tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh Machhindranath Satpute

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for fast dissolving tablets has been growing during the last decade, especially for elderly and children who have swallowing difficulties. In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of metoprolol tartrate, were prepared using sodium starch glycolate, sodium croscarmellose and crospovidone as superdisintegrants, by the direct compression method. The tablets prepared were evaluated for various parameters including weight variation, hardness, friability, in vitro dispersion time, drug-polymer interaction, drug content water absorption ratio, wetting time, in vitro drug release, FTIR and DSC studies. The tablets prepared by the direct compression method had a weight variation in the range of 145 mg to 152 mg, which is below ± 7.5%, a hardness of 3.6 kg/cm² to 4.5 kg/cm², percentage friability of 0.46% to 0.73%, in vitro dispersion time of 18 s to 125 s, drug content uniformity of between 98.12% and 100.03%, a water absorption ratio of 67% to 87%, wetting time of 32 sec. to 64 sec., and an in vitro drug release of 53.92% - 98.82% within 15 min. The IR spectral analysis and DSC study showed no drug interaction with formulation additives of the tablet, and the formulations indicated no significant changes in hardness, friability, drug content or in vitro drug release. Fast dissolving tablets of metoprolol tartrate have enhanced dissolution and will lead to improved bioavailability and more effective therapy.

  18. Eliglustat tartrate for the treatment of adults with type 1 Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett LL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lunawati L Bennett, Kelsey TurcotteSchool of Pharmacy, Union University, Jackson, TN, USA Abstract: The purpose of this article is to review eliglustat tartrate, a substrate reduction therapy, for the treatment of Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1. GD is an rare inborn error of metabolism caused by accumulation of lipid substrates such as glucosylceramide within the monocyte-macrophage system that affects the body by causing enlargement of the spleen and liver, destruction of bone, and abnormalities of the lungs and blood, such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. GD is classified into three types: GD1, a chronic and non-neuronopathic disease accounting for 95% of GD cases; and types 2 and 3 (GD2 GD3 which are more progressive diseases with no approved drugs available at this time. Treatment options for GD1 include enzyme replacement therapy and substrate reduction therapy. Eliglustat works by inhibiting UDP-glucosylceramide synthase, the first enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, thus reducing the load of glucosylceramide influx into the lysosome. Eliglustat was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration after three Phase I, two Phase II, and two Phase III clinical trials. The dose of eliglustat is 84 mg twice a day or once daily depending on the cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype of the patient. Keywords: Gaucher disease, glucocerebrosidase, glucosylceramide synthase, eliglustat tartrate, substrate reduction therapy

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis and optical properties of hexagonal tungsten oxide nanocrystals assisted by ammonium tartrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hua-Feng; Li, Zhi-Jie [Department of Applied Physics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Xiang, Xia; Zu, Xiao-Tao [Department of Applied Physics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); International Center for Material Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Fu, Yong-Qing [Thin Film Center, Scottish Universities of Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of the West of Scotland, Paisley (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    Crystals of hexagonal tungsten oxides (hex-WO{sub 3}) have been synthesized using hydrothermal method at 150 C, assisted by the capping reagent of ammonium tartrate (AT). The XRD and EDX results reveal that the lattice distortion exists in all the samples, possibly due to the defects and the intercalation of the residual sodium ions. Different crystal shapes including plate-like, urchin-like, and particle structures were obtained by varying concentration of AT and pH values in the precursor solution. Beside the absorption action of the NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Na{sup +} ions, the capping effect can be reinforced by the hydrogen bonding from the tartrate groups in the crystallization process. The bandgap energies were modulated by the size of the nanostructured hex-WO{sub 3} crystals due to quantum confinement effect, which increases from 2.74 to 3.04 eV. Based on the analysis of the photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the enhancement of the blue emission of the nanocrystals is assigned as a result of a complex of the local intercalation of the residual sodium ions and the oxygen vacancies or defects. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Crystal structure of di-( N-methylmorpholine betaine)- L(+)-tartrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Dutkiewicz, G.; Kosturkiewicz, Z.; Szafran, M.

    2002-11-01

    The crystal structure of di-( N-methylmorpholine betaine)- L(+)-tartrate has been determined by X-ray diffraction method. Crystals are orthorhombic, space group P2 12 12 1, a=9.580(1), b=12.208(1), c=18.677(1) Å, Z=4, R=0.037. The molecule of L(+)-tartaric acid appears in the extended form with the hydroxyl groups as well as carboxyl groups in anti positions. The molecule is involved in a number of the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The COOH groups of the tartaric acid link two non-equivalent N-methylmorpholine betaine molecules by a short, intermolecular O-H⋯O bonds of the lengths 2.456(1) and 2.510(1) Å. The OH groups form two different bifurcated hydrogen bonds, the intramolecular with the CO oxygen atoms (2.641(2) and 2.638(2) Å) and the intermolecular (2.919(2) and 3.084(2) Å) with neighbouring tartaric acid molecules, and link complexes in the zigzag ribbon parallel to the x-axis. The morpholine rings of both betaine molecules are in chair conformation with methyl groups in an axial position and CH 2COO - substituents in an equatorial one. In the crystals and the PM3-optimized structures there is no symmetry, both in the tartrate and N-methylmorpholine betaine moieties. FTIR spectrum confirms the complex structure of the investigated molecule.

  1. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  2. Potassium supplementation and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Molenberg, Famke; Bakker, S.J.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Increasing the intake of potassium has been shown to lower blood pressure, but whether it also affects heart rate (HR) is largely unknown. We therefore assessed the effect of potassium supplementation on HR in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods and

  3. Neural synchronization via potassium signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry E; Ryazanova, Ludmila S; Mosekilde, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature of this reso...

  4. Neural Synchronization via Potassium Signaling,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Ryazanova, L. S.; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature of this reso...

  5. Flupentixol tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna, Thammarse S; Kaur, Manpreet; Anderson, Brian J; Jasinski, Jerry P; Yathirajan, H S

    2014-02-01

    In the title salt, C23H26F3N2OS(+)·C4H5O6 (-) [systematic name: 1-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)-4-[3-(2-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)thioxanthen-9-yl-idene)prop-yl]piperazin-1-ium 3-carb-oxy-2,3-di-hydroxy-pro-pion-ate], the monoprotonated piperazine ring in the cation adopts a chair conformation, while the thio-pyran ring of the thioxanthene group has a boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two outer aromatic rings of the thioxanthene groups is 31.6 (2)°. In the crystal, the cations and anions are linked via O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [100]. In addition, R (2) 2(7), R (2) 2(11), R (2) 2(10) and R (2) 2(12) graph-set ring motifs involving the anions, and R (2) 2(9) graph-set ring motifs involving both the cations and anions are observed. The three F atoms of the tri-fluoro-methyl group are disordered over two sets of sites and the individual atoms were refined with occupancy ratios of 0.54 (6):0.46 (6), 0.72 (2):0.28 (2) and 0.67 (3):0.33 (3).

  6. Exposure to antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays used in ready-to-eat meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldimann, M; Blanc, A; Dudler, V

    2007-08-01

    Antimony residues, a result of the use of a polycondensation catalyst in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) oven-proof trays, were analysed in ready-to-eat meals. The toxicity of antimony has raised concerns about consumer safety; therefore, the migration of small fractions of these residues into ready meals and foods as a result of cooking directly in the PET trays was studied. A straightforward approach of measuring real samples was selected to obtain accurate exposure data. Background antimony concentration was determined separately from a series of lunch meals, which ranged from not detectable to 3.4 microg kg(-1). Microwave and conventional oven-cooking caused a distinct increase in the concentration of antimony in food and ready meals of 0-17 and 8-38 microg kg(-1), respectively, depending, to a certain extent, on the industrial preparations. The migrated quantities of antimony corresponded to 3-13 microg. For comparison, PET roasting bags and ready-made dough products in PET baking dishes were also evaluated. About half of the products prepared at a temperature of 180 degrees C exceeded the specific migration limit set for food contact material by the European Commission. However, the migrated amounts of antimony relative to the accepted tolerable daily intake (TDI) show that exposure from this type of food is currently not of toxicological concern.

  7. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  8. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    . The underlying posttranscriptional and posttranslational remodeling of the individual K(+) channels changes their activity and significance relative to each other, and they must be viewed together to understand their role in keeping a stable heart rhythm, also under menacing conditions like attacks of reentry......About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  9. Potassium iodide stockpiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    After examination by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other federal agencies of federal policy on the use and distribution of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid-blocking agent for use in off-site preparedness around commercial nuclear powerplants, FEMA believes the present shelf life of KI is too short, that the minimum ordering quantities are an obstacle to efficient procurement, and that the packaging format offered by the drug industry does not meet the wishes of state and local government officials. FEMA has asked assistance from the Food and Drug Administration in making it possible for those states wishing to satisfy appropriate requirements to do so at the minimum cost to the public. Given an appropriate packaging and drug form, there appears to be no reason for the federal government to have further involvement in the stockpiling of KI

  10. Precipitation of lysozyme with sodium succinate, sodium tartrate and sodium citrate: Solubility and osmotic second virial coefficient data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Vélez, José Sebastián; Azzoni, Adriano Rodrigues; Pessoa Filho, Pedro de Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility of lysozyme in biodegradable salt solutions was investigated. • Studied biodegradable salts: sodium succinate, sodium tartrate and sodium citrate. • Sodium succinate and sodium tartrate are promising salting-out agents. • Osmotic second virial coefficient (B 22 ) of lysozyme was also investigated. • Values of B 22 indicate that crystallization may be achieved using these salts. - Abstract: Precipitation and crystallization are unit operations widely used to concentrate and purify proteins in biotechnology industry. In this work, the potential use of the biodegradable salts sodium succinate, sodium tartrate and sodium citrate to reduce the solubility of proteins is investigated. Lysozyme was studied as a model protein. The solubility of lysozyme in aqueous solutions of sodium succinate, sodium tartrate and sodium citrate was experimentally determined as a function of the ionic strength and pH at 298.2 K. All these salts induce the precipitation of lysozyme, being sodium succinate the most effective one to reduce the solubility of this protein. The osmotic second virial coefficient of lysozyme as a function of the ionic strength was also determined using self-interaction chromatography at 298.2 K and pH 8.5. The experimental data show that the value of the second virial coefficient is negative at the investigated conditions and lies mostly within or close to the crystallization slot, i.e., the range of values of this coefficient for which the formation of crystals is favored.

  11. The effects of changes of plasma endothelin level in patients with hypertension after medication of metoprolol tartrate combined with felodipine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zhihu; Pan Quan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of metoprolol tartrate combined with felodipine sustained-release tablets in treatment of high blood pressure. Methods: Patients were allocated to groups of medication of metoprolol tartrate combined with felodipine (Group A, n=57) and single medication of metoprolol tartrate (Group B, n=60). All patients received daily measurement of blood pressure, heart rate, observation of adverse reactions and detection of the plasma endothelin levels before and after the medication. Results: Compared with Group B after the medication, the therapeutic effect was significant in Group A (P<0.01) and both the plasma endothelin levels and the side effects were much lower(P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Metoprolol tartrate combined with sustained release felodipine tablets appears effectively in treatment of hypertension, and the therapeutic effect may be associated with the variation of plasma endothelin levels. In addition, metoprolol in combination sustained release felodipine tablets can counteract the adverse reaction from single dose and is worthy for wide clinical use. (authors)

  12. Simulation of antimony adsorption on nano-zero valent iron and kaolinite and analyzing the influencing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidnia, Setareh; Asadollahfardi, Gholamreza; Darban, Ahmad Khodadadi; Mohseni, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Antimony is one of the most toxic pollutants in industrial and mineral wastewaters threatening the life of humans and other creatures. We simulated the adsorption of antimony in the presence of nano-zero valent iron (nZVI) adsorbent, on kaolinite and in the presence of nZVI coated on kaolinite from mineral wastewater using VISUAL MINTEQ 3.1 software. Our aim was to determine the factors affecting the adsorption of antimony by applying simulation. The simulation was performed using an adsorption model of a diffuse layer model. The results of the simulation indicated that the nZVI concentration, initial concentrations of antimony and pH factor are effective on the adsorption of antimony. In the conducted stimulation, the optimum pH was 2-5 and the highest adsorption occurred in an acidic state. With increasing initial concentrations of antimony in the simulation, we concluded that nZVI had absorbed various concentrations above 90% and, by increasing the concentration of nZVI, antimony adsorption rate increased. The increased surface area of nZVI and the expansion of more interchangeable surfaces available for reaction with antimony ions causes more antimony ions to be adsorbed. In all cases, the coefficient of determination between the laboratory results and the model predictions that was obtained was more than 0.9.

  13. Spectrophotometric Determination of Metoprolol Tartrate in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms on Complex Formation with Cu(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Cesme

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the assay of metoprolol tartrate (MPT, which is based on the complexation of drug with copper(II [Cu(II] at pH 6.0, using Britton-Robinson buffer solution, to produce a blue adduct. The latter has a maximum absorbance at 675 nm and obeys Beer’s law within the concentration range 8.5-70 mg/mL. Regression analysis of the calibration data showed a good correlation coefficient (r = 0.998 with a limit of detection of 5.56 mg/mL. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of this drug in its tablets. In addition, the spectral data and stability constant for the binuclear copper(II complex of MPT (Cu2MPT2Cl2 have been reported.

  14. The effects of temperature on ESR spectrum of gamma-irradiated ammonium tartrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Mustafa [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: polat@hacettepe.edu.tr; Korkmaz, Mustafa [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    Unirradiated ammonium tartrate (AT) samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, irradiation produces an unresolved singlet at g=2.0034{+-}0.0006 with two shoulders at g{sub 1}=2.0093{+-}0.0006 and g{sub 2}=2.0048{+-}0.0006. The dose-response curve was found to increase linearly with the applied radiation doses in the range of 0.1-2.0 kGy and the slope of this curve was increased as the modulation amplitude increased. The activation energy value E{sub a}=69.0{+-}1.2 kJ/mol was calculated from Arrhenius plot for the radical species responsible from ESR spectrum of irradiated AT.

  15. The effects of temperature on ESR spectrum of gamma-irradiated ammonium tartrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Unirradiated ammonium tartrate (AT) samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, irradiation produces an unresolved singlet at g=2.0034±0.0006 with two shoulders at g 1 =2.0093±0.0006 and g 2 =2.0048±0.0006. The dose-response curve was found to increase linearly with the applied radiation doses in the range of 0.1-2.0 kGy and the slope of this curve was increased as the modulation amplitude increased. The activation energy value E a =69.0±1.2 kJ/mol was calculated from Arrhenius plot for the radical species responsible from ESR spectrum of irradiated AT.

  16. Formulation and Evaluation of Extended- Release Tablet of Zolpidem Tartrate by Wet Granulation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pourhashem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to design and evaluate extended - release system of the hypnotic agent, Zolpidem tartrate usefulness for the treatment of insomnia. The half-life of this drug is about 1.9 - 3 hours that indicating it a candidate for the extended release formulation. Our investigation relates to development of extended drug delivery system based on Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMCK4M as release retardant, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP k30 as binder and Magnesium Stearate using Factorial design. In vitro release study of matrix tablets was carried out in 0.01N HCl for 2 hours. All prepared matrix tablets were evaluated for physicochemical evaluation and drug content. The formulation that had release profile according to United State Pharmacopoeia selected for stability study according to ICH guidelines.

  17. Sublingual fast dissolving niosomal films for enhanced bioavailability and prolonged effect of metoprolol tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ayat Allam, Gihan Fetih Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Abstract: The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate sublingual fast dissolving films containing metoprolol tartrate-loaded niosomes. Niosomes were utilized to allow for prolonged release of the drug, whereas the films were used to increase the drug’s bioavailability via the sublingual route. Niosomes were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol at different drug to surfactant ratios. The niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, and entrapment efficiency. The selected niosomal formulation was incorporated into polymeric films using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E15 and methyl cellulose as film-forming polymers and Avicel as superdisintegrant. The physical characteristics (appearance, texture, pH, uniformity of weight and thickness, disintegration time, and palatability of the prepared films were studied, in addition to evaluating the in vitro drug release, stability, and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbits. The release of the drug from the medicated film was fast (99.9% of the drug was released within 30 minutes, while the drug loaded into the niosomes, either incorporated into the film or not, showed only 22.85% drug release within the same time. The selected sublingual film showed significantly higher rate of drug absorption and higher drug plasma levels compared with that of commercial oral tablet. The plasma levels remained detectable for 24 hours following sublingual administration, compared with only 12 hours after administration of the oral tablet. In addition, the absolute bioavailability of the drug (ie, relative to intravenous administration following sublingual administration was found to be significantly higher (91.06%±13.28%, as compared with that after oral tablet administration (39.37%±11.4%. These results indicate that the fast dissolving niosomal film could be a promising delivery system to

  18. Chick chorioallantoic membrane model for in ovo evaluation of timolol maleate-brimonidine tartrate ocular inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Vinod Kombath; Repala, Swathi; Subadhra, Sandhya; Appapurapu, Ashok Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The main aspire of this study was to develop ocular drug delivery system for dual drug glaucoma therapy by timolol maleate-brimonidine tartrate and endeavor the possibility of biocompatibility studies by in ova studies. Matrix type, both hydrophilic and lipophilic polymers, and reservoir-type ocular inserts of timolol maleate were prepared using hydrophilic polymers like polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose K4M and lipophilic polymers like ethylcellulose and eudragit S100 and were optimized. Based on the optimized formulation, triple-layered ocular inserts (reservoir type) of dual drug were prepared by solvent casting technique with an objective of reducing the frequency of administration, obtaining controlled release and greater therapeutic efficacy, preservative free dosage form for the treatment of glaucoma. FTIR spectral studies revealed no pharmaceutical incompatibility and no drug polymer interactions. Maximum drug release (99.18 ± 1.7) was achieved when PVP and HPMC K4M in 1:1 ratio with PEG 400 (0.3 ml) drug reservoir layer was sandwiched between ethyl cellulose as rate control membrane up to 32 h in a controlled fashion. Drug release was by non-Fickian diffusion mechanism for single drug formulation. But in dual drug insert, timolol maleate best fit into zero order and for brimonidine tartrate to Higuchi model and diffusion of drugs from this by non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. In ovo studies suggested that the optimized formulation was found to be sterile, biocompatible and physicochemically stable and support us to claim that the developed formulation was biocompatible.

  19. Sublingual fast dissolving niosomal films for enhanced bioavailability and prolonged effect of metoprolol tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ayat; Fetih, Gihan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate sublingual fast dissolving films containing metoprolol tartrate-loaded niosomes. Niosomes were utilized to allow for prolonged release of the drug, whereas the films were used to increase the drug's bioavailability via the sublingual route. Niosomes were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol at different drug to surfactant ratios. The niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, and entrapment efficiency. The selected niosomal formulation was incorporated into polymeric films using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E15 and methyl cellulose as film-forming polymers and Avicel as superdisintegrant. The physical characteristics (appearance, texture, pH, uniformity of weight and thickness, disintegration time, and palatability) of the prepared films were studied, in addition to evaluating the in vitro drug release, stability, and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbits. The release of the drug from the medicated film was fast (99.9% of the drug was released within 30 minutes), while the drug loaded into the niosomes, either incorporated into the film or not, showed only 22.85% drug release within the same time. The selected sublingual film showed significantly higher rate of drug absorption and higher drug plasma levels compared with that of commercial oral tablet. The plasma levels remained detectable for 24 hours following sublingual administration, compared with only 12 hours after administration of the oral tablet. In addition, the absolute bioavailability of the drug (ie, relative to intravenous administration) following sublingual administration was found to be significantly higher (91.06%±13.28%), as compared with that after oral tablet administration (39.37%±11.4%). These results indicate that the fast dissolving niosomal film could be a promising delivery system to enhance the bioavailability and prolong the therapeutic effect of metoprolol tartrate.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety of the complexation product of sodium tartrate and iron(III) chloride as a food additive

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The complexation product of sodium tartrates and iron(III) chloride (Fe mTA) is proposed for use as an anti-caking agent, only in salt or its substitutes, with a maximum use level of 106 mg Fe mTA/kg salt. Fe mTA can be expected to dissociate into its constituent iron(III) and tartrate components upon ingestion. Studies in rats demonstrated that up to 90 % of ingested DL-tartrate or tartaric acid were absorbed, studies in humans suggested that only 20 % of an ingested dose of tartaric acid we...

  1. Potassium Channels in Neurofbromatosis-1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Mingkui

    2006-01-01

    .... We were the first to investigate potential mechanisms of cognitive impairment in NF-1 at the molecular level involving potassium channels, and demonstrated a possible mechanism for the learning deficits seen in NF1...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  4. New fluorescent polymeric nanocomposites synthesized by antimony dodecyl-mercaptide thermolysis in polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the formation of semiconductive Sb2S3 nanoparticles inside amorphous polystyrene has been achieved by thermal degradation of the corresponding antimony dodecyl-mercaptide, Sb(SC12H253. The thermolysis of the dodecyl-mercaptide precursor was studied as both pure phase and mercaptide solution in polystyrene. The thermal decomposition of the antimony mercaptide precursor at 350°C, under vacuum, showed the formation of a mixture of antimony trisulfide (stibnite, Sb2S3 and zero-valent antimony (Sb phase. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD and Rietveld analysis carried out on the obtained nanostructured powder confirmed the presence of Sb and Sb2S3 phases in 10.4 wt% and 89.6 wt% amount, respectively. The same pyrolysis reaction was carried out in the polymer and the resulting nanocomposite material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanocomposite structural characterization indicated the presence of well-dispersed nanoclusters of antimony and stibnite (15–30 nm in size inside the amorphous polymeric phase. Optical measurements on the obtained nanocomposite films showed a strong emission at 432 nm upon excitation at 371 nm, probably related to the presence of Sb2S3 nanoclusters.

  5. Predictors of an unsatisfactory response to pentavalent antimony in the treatment of American visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Mácia A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimony is usually successful, some patients require second-line drug therapy, most commonly with amphotericin B. To identify the clinical characteristics that predict an inadequate response to pentavalent antimony, a case-control study was undertaken in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. Over a two-year period, there were 19 cases of VL in which the staff physicians of a hospital prescribed second-line therapy with amphotericin B after determining that treatment with pentavalent antimony had failed. The control group consisted of 97 patients that were successfully treated with pentavalent antimony. A chart review using univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. The cure rate was 90% with amphotericin B. The odds ratio for the prescription of amphotericin B was 10.2 for children less than one year old, compared with individuals aged over 10 years. Patients who presented coinfection had an OR of 7.1 while those on antibiotics had an OR of 2.8. These data support either undertaking a longer course of therapy with pentavalent antimony for children or using amphotericin B as a first-line agent for children and individuals with coinfections. It also suggests that chemoprophylaxis directed toward bacterial coinfection in small children with VL may be indicated.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate. It occurs as transparent crystals or a white... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS...

  7. Mixed Antimony(V Complexes with Different Sugars to Modulate the Oral Bioavailability of Pentavalent Antimonial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weverson A. Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the association of the drug meglumine antimoniate (MA with β-cyclodextrin can improve its bioavailability by the oral route. In this work, ribose and maltose were investigated for their ability to form mixed or association complexes with MA, release MA and modulate the serum levels of Sb after oral administration in mice. Analysis of the MA/ribose composition by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF revealed the presence of mixed meglumine-Sb-ribose and Sb-ribose complexes. Analysis of the MA/maltose composition suggested the formation of MA-maltose association compounds. Circular dichroism characterization of these compositions following dilution in water at 37 °C suggested a partial and slow dissociation of the association compounds. When the MA/ribose composition was administered orally and compared to MA, the serum concentration of Sb was significantly lower after 1 h and greater after 3 h. On the other hand, the MA/maltose composition showed similar serum Sb concentration after 1 h and higher level of Sb after 3 h, when compared to MA. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated the formation of mixed or association complexes of MA with sugars, such as maltose and ribose, which promoted sustained serum level of Sb after oral administration.

  8. A comparative study of antimony accumulation in plants growing in two mining areas in Iran, Moghanlo, and Patyar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajiani, N.J.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Karimi, N.; Schat, H.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony occurs locally at high concentrations in some mineralized soils. Very little is known about behavior of antimony in plants. In this study, we analyzed the soil and vegetation of two mining areas in Iran, Patyar, and Moghanlo. Total Sb concentrations in soil were 358–3482 mg/kg in Moghanlo

  9. Study of upscaling possibilities for antimony sulfide solid state sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Archontoula; Raptis, Dimitrios; Dracopoulos, Vasilios; Sygellou, Lamprini; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Solid state solar cells of inverted structure were constructed by successive deposition of nanoparticulate titania, antimony sulfide sensitizer and P3HT on FTO electrodes with PEDOT:PSS:Ag as counter electrode. Sensitized photoanode electrodes were characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, FESEM and UV-vis. Small laboratory scale cells were first constructed and optimized. Functional cells were obtained by annealing the antimony sulfide film either in air or in inert atmosphere. High short-circuit currents were recorded in both cases with air-annealed sample producing more current but lower voltage. Small unit cells were combined to form cell modules. Connection of unit cells in parallel increased current but not proportionally to that of the unit cell. Connection in series preserved current and generated voltage multiplication. Cells were constructed and studied under ambient conditions, without encapsulation. The results encourage upscaling of antimony sulfide solar cells.

  10. Anodic stripping voltammetry of antimony using gold nanoparticle-modified carbon screen-printed electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Renedo, Olga; Arcos Martinez, M. Julia

    2007-01-01

    Carbon screen-printed electrodes (CSPE) modified with gold nanoparticles present an interesting alternative in the determination of antimony using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Metallic gold nanoparticles deposits have been obtained by direct electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy measurements show that the electrochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles are deposited in aggregated form. Any undue effects caused by the presence of foreign ions in the solution were also analyzed to ensure that common interferents in the determination of antimony by ASV. The detection limit for Sb(III) obtained was 9.44 x 10 -10 M. In terms of reproducibility, the precision of the above mentioned method in %R.S.D. values was calculated at 2.69% (n = 10). The method was applied to determine levels of antimony in seawater samples and pharmaceutical preparations

  11. Conceptual design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters which contains arsenic and antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kamberović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters (MMW from the basin of antimony “Zajača“, which contains high concentrations of arsenic and antimony. MMW have been investigated in laboratory, due to large difference in concentrations of pollutants. Metallurgical wastewaters were treated using iron (II-sulfate and lime milk used to adjust the pH value at 7. After chemical treatment of metallurgical wastewater and its joining with mining wastewater, residual amount of arsenic in water was below maximum allowed concentrations, while the concentration of antimony, remained above the maximum allowed value. The final phase of purification process was performed using ion exchange resin. After treatment of MMW, they can be used as technical water in the smelting process of secondary raw lead materials.

  12. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Response from Copper Antimony Zinc Sulfide Thin Films on Transparent Conducting Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K. Sarswat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper antimony sulfide (CAS is a relatively new class of sustainable absorber material, utilizing cost effective and abundant elements. Band gap engineered, modified CAS thin films were synthesized using electrodeposition and elevated temperature sulfurization approach. A testing analog of copper zinc antimony sulfide (CZAS film-electrolyte interface was created in order to evaluate photoelectrochemical performance of the thin film of absorber materials. Eu3+/Eu2+ redox couple was selected for this purpose, based on its relative band offset with copper antimony sulfide. It was observed that zinc has a significant effect on CAS film properties. An enhanced photocurrent was observed for CAS film, modified with zinc addition. A detailed investigation has been carried out by changing stoichiometry, and corresponding surface and optical characterization results have been evaluated. A summary of favorable processing parameters of the films showing enhanced photoelectrochemical response is presented.

  13. Antimony(V) and bismuth(V) complexes of lapachol: synthesis, crystal structure and cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ludmila G de; Silva, Meiriane M; Paula, Flávia C S de; Pereira-Maia, Elene C; Donnici, Cláudio L; Simone, Carlos A de; Frézard, Frédéric; Silva, Eufrânio N da; Demicheli, Cynthia

    2011-12-13

    Antimony(V) and bismuth(V) complexes of lapachol have been synthesized by the reaction of Ph₃SbCl₂ or Ph₃BiCl₂ with lapachol (Lp) and characterized by several physicochemical techniques such as IR, and NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The compounds contain six-coordinated antimony and bismuth atoms. The antimony(V) complex is a monomeric derivative, (Lp)(Ph₃Sb)OH, and the bismuth(V) complex is a dinuclear compound bridged by an oxygen atom, (Lp)₂(Ph₃Bi)₂O. Both compounds inhibited the growth of a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line and the complex of Bi(V) was about five times more active than free lapachol. This work provides a rare example of an organo-Bi(V) complex showing significant cytotoxic activity.

  14. Antimony(V and Bismuth(V Complexes of Lapachol: Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Cytotoxic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Demicheli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony(V and bismuth(V complexes of lapachol have been synthesized by the reaction of Ph3SbCl2 or Ph3BiCl2 with lapachol (Lp and characterized by several physicochemical techniques such as IR, and NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The compounds contain six-coordinated antimony and bismuth atoms. The antimony(V complex is a monomeric derivative, (Lp(Ph3SbOH, and the bismuth(V complex is a dinuclear compound bridged by an oxygen atom, (Lp2(Ph3Bi2O. Both compounds inhibited the growth of a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line and the complex of Bi(V was about five times more active than free lapachol. This work provides a rare example of an organo-Bi(V complex showing significant cytotoxic activity.

  15. Genotoxicity studies of heavy metals: lead, bismuth, indium, silver and antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Keiko; Satoh, Hiroshi; Chiba, Momoko; Okamoto, Masahide; Serizawa, Koji; Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Many kinds of heavy metals are used in industry; thus, it is important for us to clarify their toxicity. For example, lead, which is a component of solder, is notorious for its neurotoxicity, and substitute materials have been sought for many years. Therefore, we examined the genotoxicity of lead and also those of metallic bismuth, indium, silver and antimony which are possible substitutes for lead in solder. Bacterial reverse mutation tests and chromosomal aberration tests in cultured mammalian cells were performed according to standard procedures. Antimony showed genotoxicity in both tests, and bismuth also showed positive results in the chromosomal aberration test. In contrast, lead, indium, and silver were considered to be inactive by the criteria of the present study. Although further studies are needed because of the difficulty of genotoxicity evaluation using an in vitro system, sufficient precautions should be made when antimony and bismuth are used.

  16. On-line lab-in-syringe cloud point extraction for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Most of the procedures for antimony determination require time-consuming sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents), which are harmful to the environment. Because of the high antimony toxicity, a rapid, sensitive and greener procedure for its determination becomes necessary. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical procedure exploiting for the first time the cloud point extraction on a lab-in-syringe flow system aiming at the spectrophotometric determination of antimony. The procedure was based on formation of an ion-pair between the antimony-iodide complex and H(+) followed by extraction with Triton X-114. The factorial design showed that the concentrations of ascorbic acid, H2SO4 and Triton X-114, as well as second and third order interactions were significant at the 95% confidence level. A Box-Behnken design was applied to obtain the response surfaces and to identify the critical values. System is robust at the 95% confidence level. A linear response was observed from 5 to 50 µg L(-1), described by the equation A=0.137+0.050C(Sb) (r=0.998). The detection limit (99.7% confidence level), the coefficient of variation (n=5; 15 µg L(-1)) and the sampling rate was estimated at 1.8 µg L(-1), 1.6% and 16 h(-1), respectively. The procedure allows quantification of antimony in the concentrations established by environmental legislation (6 µg L(-1)) and it was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in freshwater samples and antileishmanial drugs, yielding results in agreement with those obtained by HGFAAS at the 95% confidence level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia, E-mail: claudiamartinezalonso30@gmail.com [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico); Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000 (Mexico); Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, MéxicoD.F., 04510 (Mexico); Mayén-Hernández, S.A. [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Hu, Hailin, E-mail: hzh@ier.unam.mx [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods.

  18. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  19. Photochemical Degradation of Dimethyl Phthalate by Fe(III)/tartrate/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xianghua; Ding, Shimin; Xie, Faping [Yangtze Normal Univ., Fuling (China)

    2012-11-15

    Photochemical degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in Fe(III)/tartrate/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system was investigated utilizing fluorescent lamps as the primary light source. Effects of initial pH, light source, and initial concentration of each reactant on DMP photodegradation was examined. The results show that the system was able to effectively photodegrade DMP utilizing visible light. Fluorescent lamp, halide lamp, UV lamp and sunlight could all be used as the light sources. The optimal pH ranged among 3.0-4.0 for the system. Increases of the initial concentrations of Fe(III) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accelerated the photodegradation of DMP, whereas excessively high initial tartrate concentration resulted in the decrease of photodegradation efficiency and rate of DMP.

  20. Systemic Meglumine Antimoniate in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis of Children: Clinical and Laboratory Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layegh, Pouran; Khademi, Zeinab; Afzal Aghaee, Monavar; Moghiman, Toktam

    2015-12-01

    Children account for 7%-20% of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Iran, but there are few safety data to guide pediatric antiparasitic therapy. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory tolerance of the systemic pentavalent antimonial compound meglumine antimoniate, in 70 Iranian children with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Adverse effects were similar to those seen in adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Redox speciation analysis of antimony in soil extracts by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Edwar; Pinochet, Hugo; Gregori, Ida de E-mail: idegrego@ucv.cl; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2003-07-18

    A sensitive atomic spectrometric method for the redox speciation analysis of antimony in soils is described. The method is based on the selective generation of stibine from Sb(III) in a continuous flow system using atomic fluorescence spectrometry for detection. Sb(V) is masked by citric or oxalic acid in HCl medium. The procedure was optimized with synthetic solutions of Sb(III) and Sb(V). The effect of carboxylic acid and HCl concentration on the recovery of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species from standard solutions, and on the fluorescence signal were studied. Both species were extracted from soil with H{sub 2}O, 0.05 mol l{sup -1} EDTA and 0.25 mol l{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Since the soil samples were collected from sites impacted by copper mining activities, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the determination of antimony in synthetic solutions and soil extracts was studied. Cu{sup 2+} decreased the Sb(III) signal, but had no effect on the total antimony determination. Therefore, the selective determination of Sb(III) was carried out in citric acid-HCl medium, using the analyte addition technique. Total antimony in soil extracts was determined using the standard calibration technique after reducing Sb(V) to Sb(III) at room temperature with KI-ascorbic acid. The Sb(V) concentration was calculated from the difference between total antimony and Sb(III). The limits of detection (PS Analytical, Excalibur Millennium model) were 17 and 10 ng l{sup -1} for Sb(III) and total antimony, respectively, and the R.S.D. at the 0.5-{mu}g l{sup -1} level were 2.5 and 2.4%, respectively. The total antimony concentration of soils is in the mg kg{sup -1} range; the Sb recovery from the different soils by the extracting solutions was between less than 0.02% and approximately 10%. Similar recoveries were obtained using EDTA and sulfuric acid solutions. Sb(V) was found to be the main antimony species extracted from soils.

  2. Co-doping with antimony to control phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-02-15

    In germanium, phosphorous and antimony diffuse quickly and as such their transport must be controlled in order to design efficient n-typed doped regions. Here, density functional theory based calculations are used to predict the influence of double donor co-doping on the migration activation energies of vacancy-mediated diffusion processes. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous and antimony were found to be increased significantly when larger clusters involving two donor atoms and a vacancy were formed. These clusters are energetically stable and can lead to the formation of even larger clusters involving a number of donor atoms around a vacancy, thereby affecting the properties of devices.

  3. Reaction of Antimony-Uranium Composite Oxide in the Chlorination Treatment of Waste Catalyst - 13521

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oxygen gas concentration on the chlorination treatment of antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst waste was investigated by adding different concentrations of oxygen at 0-6 vol% to its chlorination agent of 0.6 or 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas at 1173 K. The addition of oxygen tended to prevent the chlorination of antimony in the oxide. When 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas was used, the addition of oxygen up to 0.1 vol% could convert the uranium contained in the catalyst to U 3 O 8 without any significant decrease in the reaction rate compared to that of the treatment without oxygen. (authors)

  4. Two-chiral-component microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography-chiral surfactant and chiral oil: part 1. dibutyl tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P

    2007-06-01

    The first simultaneous use of a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil for microemulsion EKC (MEEKC) is reported. Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and dibutyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 1.23% v/v) were examined as chiral pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the separation of six pairs of pharmaceutical enantiomers: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Subtle differences were observed for three chromatographic figures of merit (alpha(enant), alpha(meth), k) among the chiral microemulsions; a moderate difference was observed for efficiency (N) and elution range. Dual-chirality microemulsions provided both the largest and smallest enantioselectivities, due to small positive and negative synergies between the chiral microemulsion components. For the ephedrine family of compounds, dual-chiral microemulsions with surfactant and oil in opposite stereochemical configurations provided higher enantioselectivities than the single-chiral component microemulsion (RXX), whereas dual-chiral microemulsions with surfactant and oil in the same stereochemical configurations provided lower enantioselectivities than RXX. Slight to moderate enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Efficiencies observed with microemulsions comprised of racemic dibutyl tartrate or dibutyl-D-tartrate were significantly higher than those obtained with dibutyl-L-tartrate, with an average difference in plate count of about 25 000. Finally, one two-chiral-component microemulsion (RXS) provided significantly better resolution than the remaining one- and two-chiral-component microemulsions for the ephedrine-based compounds, but only slightly better or equivalent resolution for non-ephedrine compounds.

  5. Evaluation of Poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline) Containing Copolymer Networks of Varied Composition as Sustained Metoprolol Tartrate Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kostova, Bistra; Ivanova, Sijka; Balashev, Konstantin; Rachev, Dimitar; Christova, Darinka

    2014-01-01

    Segmented copolymer networks (SCN) based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, and/or methyl methacrylate segments have been evaluated as potential sustained release systems of the water soluble cardioselective β-blocker metoprolol tartrate. The structure and properties of the drug carriers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron ...

  6. Formulation and Characterization of Matrix and Triple-Layer matrix tablets for Controlled Delivery of Metoprolol tartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Izhar Ahmed Syed; Lakshmi Narsu Mangamoori; Yamsani Madhusudan Rao

    2011-01-01

    In the present study matrix and triple layer matrix tablets of metoprolol tartrate were formulated by using xanthan gum as the matrix forming agent and Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (Na CMC) as barrier layers. The prepared tablets were analysed for their hardness, friability, drug content and in-vitro drug release studies. Marked differences in dissolution characteristics of (M3) and (M3L3) were observed and showed a significant difference statistically. Mean dissolution time (MDT) for M3 a...

  7. Syntheses and characterization of one-dimensional alkali metal antimony(III) thiostannates(IV), A{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} (A=K, Rb, Cs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru, E-mail: kvsagar@iitm.ac.in

    2015-01-15

    Three new isostructural quaternary antimony(III) thiostannates(IV), A{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} (A=K, Rb, Cs) have been synthesized by using alkali metal thiosulfate flux and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. Their structures contain A{sup +} ions around the [Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10}]{sup 2−} chains, which are built from SbS{sub 3} pyramids, SnS{sub 6} octahedra and SnS{sub 4} tetrahedra. Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements corroborate the oxidation states and coordination environments of Sb(III) and Sn(IV). All three compounds are wide band gap semiconductors. Potassium compound undergoes partial exchange with strontium, cadmium and lead ions. - Graphical abstract: Syntheses, crystal structure, spectroscopic and partial ion-exchange studies of new one-dimensional alkali metal antimony(III) thiostannates(IV), A{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} (A=K, Rb, Cs) are described. - Highlights: • Syntheses of new alkali metal antimony(III) thiostannates(IV), A{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} (A=K, Rb, Cs). • Wide band gap semiconductors with one-dimensional structure. • Topotactic partial exchange of K{sup +} ions of K{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} with Sr{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions.

  8. A cold active (2R,3R)-(-)-di-O-benzoyl-tartrate hydrolyzing esterase from Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Christian; Platz, Tanja; Cadez, Neza; Giffhorn, Friedrich; Kohring, Gert-Wieland

    2006-11-01

    In a screening procedure a pink-colored yeast was isolated from enrichment cultures with (2R,3R)-(-)-di-O-benzoyl-tartrate (benzoyl-tartrate) as the sole carbon source. The organism saar1 was identified by morphological, physiological, and 18S ribosomal DNA/internal transcribed spacer analysis as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, a basidiomycetous yeast. During growth the yeast hydrolyzed the dibenzoyl ester stoichiometrically to the monoester using the separated benzoate as the growth substrate, before the monoester was further cleaved into benzoate and tartrate, which were both metabolized. The corresponding benzoyl esterase was purified from the culture supernatant and characterized as a monomeric glycosylated 86-kDa protein with an optimum pH of 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 45 degrees C. At 0 degrees C the esterase still exhibited 20% of the corresponding activity at 30 degrees C, which correlates it to psychrophilic enzymes. The esterase could hydrolyze short chain p-nitrophenyl-alkyl esters and several benzoyl esters like benzoyl-methyl ester, ethylene-glycol-dibenzoyl ester, phenyl-benzoyl ester, cocaine, and 1,5-anhydro-D: -fructose-tribenzoyl ester. However feruloyl-ethyl ester was not hydrolyzed. The activity characteristics let the enzyme appear as a promising tool for synthesis of benzoylated compounds for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, or fine chemical applications, even at low temperatures.

  9. Prevention of Tartrate Crystallization in Wine by Hydrocolloids : The Mechanism Studied by Dynamic Light Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankhorst, Peter P.; Voogt, Benjamin; Tuinier, Remco; Lefol, Blandine; Pellerin, Patrice; Virone, Cristiana

    2017-01-01

    Young wines are supersaturated in potassium bitartrate, which induces rather uncontrolled crystallization processes. Delayed crystallization may occur even after bottling of the young wines, which is undesirable because it gives rise to a visual defect in the wine. Colloids such as mannoproteins,

  10. Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase: Potential Co-regulators of Bone Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling Linder, Cecilia; Ek-Rylander, Barbro; Krumpel, Michael; Norgård, Maria; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Andersson, Göran; Magnusson, Per

    2017-07-01

    Phosphorylated osteopontin (OPN) inhibits hydroxyapatite crystal formation and growth, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) promotes extracellular mineralization via the release of inorganic phosphate from the mineralization inhibitor inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), produced by osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, exhibits potent phosphatase activity towards OPN; however, its potential capacity as a regulator of mineralization has not previously been addressed. We compared the efficiency of BALP and TRAP towards the endogenous substrates for BALP, i.e., PPi and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), and their impact on mineralization in vitro via dephosphorylation of bovine milk OPN. TRAP showed higher phosphatase activity towards phosphorylated OPN and PPi compared to BALP, whereas the activity of TRAP and BALP towards PLP was comparable. Bovine milk OPN could be completely dephosphorylated by TRAP, liberating all its 28 phosphates, whereas BALP dephosphorylated at most 10 phosphates. OPN, dephosphorylated by either BALP or TRAP, showed a partially or completely attenuated phosphorylation-dependent inhibitory capacity, respectively, compared to native OPN on the formation of mineralized nodules. Thus, there are phosphorylations in OPN important for inhibition of mineralization that are removed by TRAP but not by BALP. In conclusion, our data indicate that both BALP and TRAP can alleviate the inhibitory effect of OPN on mineralization, suggesting a potential role for TRAP in skeletal mineralization. Further studies are warranted to explore the possible physiological relevance of TRAP in bone mineralization.

  11. Electron spin resonance of X-irradiated single crystal of calcium tartrate tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.

    1977-01-01

    The electron spin resonance spectra of an irradiated single crystal of calcium tartrate tetrahydrate grown from silica gel have been investigated. Only one species of free radical was observed at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The free radical was found to be the result of the splitting of a C-H bond adjacent to both the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. For some orientations of the crystal in the external magnetic field two unresolved doublets, due to two noequivalent protons, was observed. The g factor was found to be almost isotropic, with a value of 2.0032 +- 0.0005. Couplings with two H nuclei are believed to be the result of the proton of the hydroxyl group attached directly to the unsaturated asymmetric carbon atom and of the proton attached directly to the other asymmetric carbon atom of the molecule. The principal elements of the nuclear coupling of these protons are 5.8, 7.9, 3.7 and 6.8, 7.0, 17.3 G respectively. The radical was found to be very stable, the ESR pattern being undiminished for more than half a year after the irradiation. (author)

  12. Validated spectophotometric methods for the assay of cinitapride hydrogen tartrate in pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana K.V.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, selective and rapid spectrophotometric methods have been established for the determination of cinitapride hydrogen tartrate (CHT in pharmaceutical tablets. The proposed methods are based on the diazotization of CHT with sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid, followed by coupling with resorcinol, 1-benzoylacetone and 8-hydroxyquinoline in alkaline medium for methods A, B and C respectively. The formed azo dyes are measured at 442, 465 and 552 nm for methods A, B and C respectively. The parameters that affect the reaction were carefully optimized. Under optimum conditions, Beer’s law is obeyed over the ranges 2.0-32.0, 1.0-24.0 and 1.0-20.0 μg. mL-1 for methods A, B, and C, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity values are 1.2853 x104, 1.9624 x104 and 3.92 x104 L.mol-1.cm-1 for methods A, B and C, respectively. The results of the proposed procedures were validated statistically according to ICH guidelines. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of CHT in Cintapro tablets without interference from common excipients encountered.

  13. Separation of corticosteroids by microemulsion EKC with diethyl L-tartrate as the oil phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Hung; Chen, Tse-Hsien; Huang, Kuan-Pin; Wang, Guan-Ren; Liu, Chuen-Ying

    2007-10-01

    A novel microemulsion based on a mixture of diethyl L-tartrate (DET) and SDS was developed for the microemulsion EKC (MEEKC) determination of structurally related steroids. The system consisted of 0.5% w/w DET, 1.7% w/w SDS, 1.2% w/w 1-butanol, 89.6% w/w phosphate buffer (40 mM, pH 7.0), and 7% w/w ACN. With an applied voltage of +10 kV, a baseline separation of aldosterone (A), cortisone acetate (CA), dexamethasone (D), hydrocortisone (H), hydrocortisone acetate (HA), prednisolone (P), prednisolone acetate (PA), prednisone (Ps), triamcinolone (T), and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) could be achieved. Under the optimized conditions, the reproducibility of the retention time (n = 4) for most of the compounds was less than +/-0.8% with the exception of A, Ps, and T. The average number of theoretical plates was 18 800 plates/m. The results were compared with those achieved by the modified micellar EKC (MEKC). MEEKC showed obvious advantages over MEKC for the separation of highly hydrophobic substances. To further evaluate the system, we tested the MEEKC method by analyzing corticosteroids in a spiked urine sample.

  14. Optimization of bilayer floating tablet containing metoprolol tartrate as a model drug for gastric retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, C; Srinath, M S; Babu, Ganesh

    2006-04-07

    The purpose of the present study was to develop an optimized gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS) containing metoprolol tartrate (MT) as a model drug by the optimization technique. A 2(3) factorial design was employed in formulating the GFDDS with total polymer content-to-drug ratio (X1), polymer-to-polymer ratio (X2), and different viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) (X3) as independent variables. Four dependent variables were considered: percentage of MT release at 8 hours, T50%, diffusion coefficient, and floating time. The main effect and interaction terms were quantitatively evaluated using a mathematical model. The results indicate that X1 and X2 significantly affected the floating time and release properties, but the effect of different viscosity grades of HPMC (K4M and K10M) was nonsignificant. Regression analysis and numerical optimization were performed to identify the best formulation. Fickian release transport was confirmed as the release mechanism from the optimized formulation. The predicted values agreed well with the experimental values, and the results demonstrate the feasibility of the model in the development of GFDDS.

  15. Extrarenal potassium adaptation: role of skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachley, J.D.; Crider, B.P.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Following the ingestion of a high-potassium-content diet for only a few days, the plasma potassium of rats rises only modestly in response to a previously lethal dose of potassium salts. This acquired tolerance, termed potassium adaptation, is principally the result of increased capacity to excrete potassium into the urine. However, a substantial portion of the acute potassium dose is not immediately excreted and is apparently translocated into cells. Previous studies have failed to show an increase in the content of potassium of a variety of tissues from such animals. Using 86 Rb as a potassium analogue, we have shown that the skeletal muscle of potassium-adapted rats takes up significantly greater amounts of potassium in vivo in response to an acute challenge than does that of control animals. Furthermore, the same animals exhibit greater efflux of 86 Rb following the termination of the acute infusion. We have also shown that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity of skeletal muscle microsomes are increased by the process of potassium adaptation. We conclude that skeletal muscle is an important participant in potassium adaptation and acts to temporarily buffer acute increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium

  16. Influence of cooling rate and antimony addition content on graphite morphology and mechanical properties of a ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling rate and inoculation practice can greatly affect the graphite morphology of ductile irons. In the present research, the effects of the cooling rate and antimony addition on the graphite morphology and mechanical properties of ductile irons have been studied. Three ductile iron castings were prepared through solidification under cooling conditions S (slow, M (medium and F (fast. The cooling rates around the equilibrium eutectic temperature (1,150 ℃ for these cooling conditions (S, M and F were set at 0.21 ℃·min-1, 0.32 ℃·min-1 and 0.37 ℃·min-1, respectively. In addition, four ductile iron castings were prepared by adding 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04% (by weight antimony, respectively under the slow cooling condition. The results show that the nodularity index, tensile strength and hardness of the ductile iron castings without antimony addition are all improved with the increase of cooling rate, while the ductile iron casting solidified under the medium cooling rate possesses the largest number of graphite nodules. Furthermore, for the four antimony containing castings, the graphite morphology and tensile strength are also improved by the antimony additions, and the effect of antimony addition is intensified when the addition increases from 0.01% to 0.03%. Moreover, the rare earth elements (REE/antimony ratio of 2 appears to be the most effective for fine nodular graphite formation in ductile iron.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Potassium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH...

  18. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt...

  19. Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar. ARUN PANDYA*, S G VAIJAPURKAR and P K BHATNAGAR. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur 342 011, India. MS received 12 July 1999; revised 15 February 2000. Abstract. The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of raw and annealed feldspar have been studied for their.

  20. Effects of spark plasma sintering conditions on the anisotropic thermoelectric properties of bismuth antimony telluride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Hegelund Spangsdorf, Steeven; Van Nong, Ngo

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth antimony telluride (BixSb2-xTe3, 0.4 room-temperature thermoelectric power generation. In this work, p-type Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 samples were prepared under various conditions (temperature, holding time, and ramp...

  1. Mixing of phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, H.L.; Lam, Y.W.; Wong, S.P.; Poon, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of mixing phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation were examined. The electrical properties after ion mixing were investigated, and the results were compared with those obtained using other techniques. Different degrees of activation were also studied, by investigating the annealing behaviour. (U.K.)

  2. Improvement of hydrogen storage kinetics in ball-milled magnesium doped with antimony

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír; Roupcová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2017), s. 6144-6151 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Hydrogen * Hydrogen storage * Storage capacity * Magnesium alloys * Antimony Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  3. Dismantling and chemical characterization of spent Peltier thermoelectric devices for antimony, bismuth and tellurium recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balva, Maxime; Legeai, Sophie; Garoux, Laetitia; Leclerc, Nathalie; Meux, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Major uses of thermoelectricity concern refrigeration purposes, using Peltier devices, mainly composed of antimony, bismuth and tellurium. Antimony was identified as a critical raw material by EU and resources of bismuth and tellurium are not inexhaustible, so it is necessary to imagine the recycling of thermoelectric devices. That for, a complete characterization is needed, which is the aim of this work. Peltier devices were manually dismantled in three parts: the thermoelectric legs, the alumina plates on which remain the electrical contacts and the silicone paste used to connect the plates. The characterization was performed using five Peltier devices. It includes mass balances of the components, X-ray diffraction analysis of the thermoelectric legs and elemental analysis of each part of the device. It appears that alumina represents 45% of a Peltier device in weight. The electrical contacts are mainly composed of copper and tin, and the thermoelectric legs of bismuth, tellurium and antimony. Thermoelectric legs appear to be Se-doped Bi 2 Te 3 and (Bi 0,5 Sb 1,5 )Te 3 for n type and p type semiconductors, respectively. This work shows that Peltier devices can be considered as a copper ore and that thermoelectric legs contain high amounts of bismuth, tellurium and antimony compared to their traditional resources.

  4. ANTIMONY HALIDES AND HgX2 (X = Cl, Br AMINE ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NDONGO GUEYE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight new SbF3, SbCl5 and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br amine adducts have been synthesized and their infrared study carried out. Discrete structures have been suggested on the basis of elemental analysis and infrared data, the coordination number of antimony varying from five to nine, while the environment around Hg is tetrahedral.

  5. On the segregation behavior of tin and antimony at grain boundaries of polycrystalline bcc iron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Šandera, P.; Horníková, J.; Pokluda, J.; Godec, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 363, Feb (2016), 140-144 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0144 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : grain boundary segregation * tin * antimony * Fe based alloy * AES quantification Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  6. Morphology and photoresponse of crystalline antimony film grown on mica by physical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafa Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimony is a promising material for the fabrication of photodetectors. This study deals with the growth of a photosensitive thin film by the physical vapor deposition (PVD of antimony onto mica surface in a furnace tube. The geometry of the grown structures was studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and elemental diffraction analysis. XRD peaks of the antimony film grown on mica mostly matched with JCPDF Card. The formation of rhombohedral crystal structures in the film was further confirmed by SEM micrographs and chemical composition analysis. The Hall measurements revealed good electrical conductivity of the film with bulk carrier concentration of the order of 1022 Ω·cm-3 and mobility of 9.034 cm2/Vs. The grown film was successfully tested for radiation detection. The photoresponse of the film was evaluated using its current-voltage characteristics. These investigations revealed that the photosensitivity of the antimony film was 20 times higher than that of crystalline germanium.

  7. Reaction products and corrosion of molybdenum electrode in glass melt containing antimony oxides and sodium sulfate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, J.; Langrová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2012), s. 280-285 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : antimony oxides * corrosion * glass melt * Molybdenum electrode * sulfate Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_03_280.pdf

  8. Differences in antimony and arsenic releases from lead smelter fly ash in soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Mihaljevič, M.; Šebek, O.; Valigurova, R.; Klementová, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 72, Supp. 4 (2012), s. 15-22 ISSN 0009-2819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Antimony * Arsenic * Lead smelting * Fly ash * Soil * Mobility Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.351, year: 2012

  9. Diel variation of arsenic, molybdenum and antimony in a stream draining natural As geochemical anomaly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drahota, P.; Nováková, B.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Mihaljevič, M.; Rohovec, Jan; Filippi, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, APR (2013), s. 84-93 ISSN 0883-2927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : arsenic * molybdenum * antimony * trace elements * diel cycle Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S) Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2013

  10. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  11. Obtaining of potassium dicyan-argentate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattarova, M.A.; Solojenkin, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    This work is devoted to obtaining of potassium dicyan-argentate. By means of exchange reaction between silver nitrate and potassium cyanide the potassium dicyan-argentate was synthesized. The analysis of obtained samples was carried out by means of titration and potentiometry.

  12. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  14. Potassium nutrition of heat-stressed lactating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    total dietary potassium, dietary potassium bicarbonate. (KHC03) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHC03) on pro- duction responses. It was postulated that mineral buffers might increase efficiency of fermentation by increasing ruminal pH. Also, KHC03 might serve as a source of bicarbonate and supplemental potassium.

  15. Thanatochemistry: Study of vitreous humor potassium | Tumram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has been carried out to determine the death interval from the biochemical parameter of vitreous potassium. In 308 medicolegal cases vitreous humor was taken and analyzed for potassium with known time of death. There was a linear rise in potassium concentration with increasing death interval. Regression ...

  16. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China... antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  17. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for efficient rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate delivery into SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Mahmonir; Rashidi, Ladan; Ganji, Fariba

    2017-04-01

    Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate (RT) is a molecule with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties used for the treatment of the Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the larger pore size of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (P1-MSN) was synthesized and then, P1-MSN were functionalized by succinic anhydride (S-P1-MSN) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) (AP-CO-P1-MSN) using the grafting and co-condensation methods, respectively. A new method was used for the functionalization of P1-MSN by succinic anhydride at room temperature. Nanoparticles were characterized by special instrumental analysis and loaded by RT. Maximum entrapment efficiency and RT loading percentage into P1-MSN, AP-CO-P1-MSN and S-P1-MSN were respectively obtained as 21.26 and 25.5%, 41.5 and 49.8%, and 11.9 and 14.28% for 24 h. In the simulated gastric and body fluids, the release rate of RT-loaded AP-CO-P1-MSN (AP-CO-P1-MSN-RT) was lower than that of other RT-loaded nanoparticles. In oral pathway, the sustained release of RT was observed in AP-CO-P1-MSN-RT. Moreover, no cytotoxicity effect was observed for P1-MSN, but the cells treated by AP-CO-P1-MSN showed a reduction in SY5Y cell viability due to easy entrance of these nanoparticles and their accumulation in different parts of the cell as observed by TEM.

  18. Titrimetric and Spectrophotometric Determination of Metaprolol tartrate in Pharmaceuticals Using N-Bromosuccinimide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Basavaiah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods are presented for the assay of metaprolol tartrate (MPT in bulk drug and in tablets. The methods employ N-bromosuccinimide (NBS as the oxidimetric reagent and two dyes, methyl orange and indigo carmine as spectrophotometric reagents. In titrimetry, an acidified solution of MPT is treated with a known excess amount of NBS and after a definite time, the unreacted oxidant is determined by iodometric back titration. Spectrophotometry involves adding a measured excess of NBS to MPT in acid medium followed by determination of residual NBS by reacting with a fixed amount of either methyl orange and measuring the absorbance at 520 nm (Method A or indigo carmine and measuring the absorbance at 610 nm (Method B. In all the methods, the amount of NBS reacted corresponds to the amount of MPT. Reaction conditions have been optimized. Titrimetry allows the determination of 1 - 12 mg of MPT and the calculations are based on a 1: 4 (MPT: NBS reaction stoichiometry. In spectrophotometry, the measured absorbance is found to increase linearly with the concentration of MPT serving as basis for quantitation. The systems obey Beer’s law for 0.5 - 4.0 μg mL-1 and 1.25 - 10.0 μg mL-1 for method A and method B, respectively. The apparent absorptivities are calculated to 1.07 × 105 be and 4.22 × 104 L mol cm-1 for method A and method B, respectively. The methods developed were applied to the assay of MPT in commercial tablet formulations, and the results were compared statistically with those of a reference method. The accuracy and reliability of the methods were further ascertained by performing recovery tests via standard-addition method.

  19. Screening of cesticidal compounds on a tapeworm hymenolepis nana in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A. B.; Hawking, F.

    1960-01-01

    A simple and convenient in vitro technique is described for the screening of compounds for action against Hymenolepis nana and probably many other intestinal worms. The results obtained from this test are in broad agreement with the findings of clinical experience and of a small series of in vivo tests. Among the substances tested, the most active ones were oil of chenopodium, dichlorophen, extract of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale), antimony potassium tartrate, and BIQ 20 [eicosamethylenebis(isoquinolinium iodide)]. PMID:13750047

  20. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  1. Carbon paste electrodes modified with a reaction product obtained by hydrolysis of an antimony(III) salt

    OpenAIRE

    Švancara, Ivan; Florescu, Monica; Stočes, Matěj; Baldrianová, Lucie; Svobodová, Eva; Badea, Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a new type of antimony-modified electrode is described based on carbon-paste bulk dispersion of a precipitate obtained by hydrolysis of the respective Sb(III) salt. Subsequently, the resultant electrode (SbOL-CPE in two variants)  operated via the antimony film formed in nascenti at the electrode surface  was subjected to the basic characterisation with respect to its electroanalytical performance in the anodic stripping voltammetry of six heavy metal ions (Z...

  2. On the Effect of Antimony Segregation to the Electronic Properties of InAs/InAsSb Superlattices (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-03

    distribution at the hetero-interfaces engendered by Sb segregation. * Electronic mail: heather.haugan.ctr@us.af.mil 2 I. INTRODUCTION Reuse After...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0231 ON THE EFFECT OF ANTIMONY SEGREGATION TO THE ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF INAS/INASSB SUPERLATTICES (PREPRINT...December 2016 Interim 11 September 2013 – 12 November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ON THE EFFECT OF ANTIMONY SEGREGATION TO THE ELECTRONIC

  3. Effect of trimethylcolchicinic acid methyl ether d-tartrate (TMCA) on Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolinsky, D C; Jacobs, E M; Irwin, L E; Pajak, T F; Bateman, J R

    1976-01-01

    Trimethylcolchicinic acid methyl ether d-tartrate (TMCA; NSC-36351) was administered daily by mouth to 71 patients with malignant lymphomas. Partical (greater than 50%) responses were observed in eleven of 37 patients with Hodgkin's disesse, two of 22 patients with lymphocytic lymphoma, and one of two patients with mixed cell lymphoma. One complete and three partial responses were noted in nine patients with histiocytic lymphoma. Responses lasted from one to 91+ months (median: four months) and occurred in patients whose disease was resistant to alkylating agents, vinblastine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone or BCNU. Toxic effects included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea, diarrhea, stomatitis, alopecia and dermatitis.

  4. Molecular Preadaptation to Antimony Resistance in Leishmania donovani on the Indian Subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumetz, F; Cuypers, B; Imamura, H; Zander, D; D'Haenens, E; Maes, I; Domagalska, M A; Clos, J; Dujardin, J-C; De Muylder, G

    2018-04-25

    Antimonials (Sb) were used for decades for chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Now abandoned in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) because of Leishmania donovani resistance, this drug offers a unique model for understanding drug resistance dynamics. In a previous phylogenomic study, we found two distinct populations of L. donovani : the core group (CG) in the Gangetic plains and ISC1 in the Nepalese highlands. Sb resistance was only encountered within the CG, and a series of potential markers were identified. Here, we analyzed the development of resistance to trivalent antimonials (Sb III ) upon experimental selection in ISC1 and CG strains. We observed that (i) baseline Sb III susceptibility of parasites was higher in ISC1 than in the CG, (ii) time to Sb III resistance was higher for ISC1 parasites than for CG strains, and (iii) untargeted genomic and metabolomic analyses revealed molecular changes along the selection process: these were more numerous in ISC1 than in the CG. Altogether these observations led to the hypothesis that CG parasites are preadapted to Sb III resistance. This hypothesis was experimentally confirmed by showing that only wild-type CG strains could survive a direct exposure to the maximal concentration of Sb III The main driver of this preadaptation was shown to be MRPA , a gene involved in Sb III sequestration and amplified in an intrachromosomal amplicon in all CG strains characterized so far. This amplicon emerged around 1850 in the CG, well before the implementation of antimonials for VL chemotherapy, and we discuss here several hypotheses of selective pressure that could have accompanied its emergence. IMPORTANCE The "antibiotic resistance crisis" is a major challenge for scientists and medical professionals. This steady rise in drug-resistant pathogens also extends to parasitic diseases, with antimony being the first anti- Leishmania drug that fell in the Indian subcontinent (ISC). Leishmaniasis is a major but neglected infectious

  5. Selective speciation of inorganic antimony on tetraethylenepentamine bonded silica gel column and its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendil, Durali; Bardak, Hilmi; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2013-03-30

    A speciation system for antimony (III) and antimony (V) ions that based on solid phase extraction on tetraethylenepentamine bonded silica gel has been established. Antimony was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). Analytical conditions including pH, sample volume, etc., were studied for the quantitative recoveries of Sb (III) and Sb (V). Matrix effects on the recovery were also investigated. The recovery values and detection limit for antimony (III) at optimal conditions were found as >95% and 0.020 μg L(-1), respectively. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 50. The capacity of adsorption for the tetraethylenepentamine bonded silica gel was 7.9 mg g(-1). The validation was checked by analysis of NIST SRM 1573a Tomato laves and GBW 07605 Tea certified reference materials. The procedure was successfully applied to speciation of antimony in tap water, mineral water and spring water samples. Total antimony was determined in refined salt, unrefined salt, black tea, rice, tuna fish and soil samples after microwave digestion and presented enrichment method combination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  7. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  8. Evaluation of the potassium adsorption capacity of a potassium adsorption filter during rapid blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, H; Akatsuka, Y; Muramatsu, C; Isogai, S; Sugiura, Y; Arakawa, S; Murayama, M; Kurahashi, M; Takasuga, H; Oshige, T; Yuba, T; Mizuta, S; Emi, N

    2015-05-01

    The concentration of extracellular potassium in red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) increases during storage, leading to risk of hyperkalemia. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) can eliminate the potassium at normal blood transfusion. This study aimed to investigate the potassium adsorption capacity of a PAF during rapid blood transfusion. We tested several different potassium concentrations under a rapid transfusion condition using a pressure bag. The adsorption rates of the 70-mEq/l model were 76·8%. The PAF showed good potassium adsorption capacity, suggesting that this filter may provide a convenient method to prevent hyperkalemia during rapid blood transfusion. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. Miniaturized membrane sensors for potentiometric determination of metoprolol tartrate and hydrochlorothiazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Nesrin K; Mohamed, Heba M; Mostafa, Azza A

    2012-06-01

    Four microsized graphite and platinum wire poly(vinyl chloride) matrix membrane electrodes responsive to some drugs affecting cardiovascular system, Metoprolol tartrate (MT) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HZ) were developed, described and characterized. These sensors were constructed by using (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (2HP β-CD) as an ionophore which has a significant influence on increasing both membrane sensitivity and selectivity. The four sensors were fabricated in a polymeric matrix of carboxylated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-COOH) and dioctylphthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer, based on the interaction between the drugs and the dissociated COOH groups in the PVC-COOH. Fast and stable Nernstian responses of 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-2 M for MT (sensors 1 and 2) and of 1.0 × 10-7-1.0 × 10-3 M for HZ (sensors 3 and 4) over pH range 3.0-9.0 and 3.0-7.0 for the MT and HZ sensors respectively were obtained. Nernstian slopes of 56.2, 54.6, 19.0 and 20.8 mV/decade for electrodes 1-4 respectively were observed. The proposed method displayed useful analytical characteristics for the determination of MT and HZ in their pure powder forms with average recoveries of 99.11 ± 0.357, 99.21 ± 0.389, 100.08 ± 0.459 and 100.28 ± 0.438% for sensors 1-4 respectively. The lower limit of detection (LOD) were 5.5 × 10-6, 4.5 × 10-6, 4.8 × 10-8 and 5.0 × 10-8 M for sensors 1-4 respectively indicated high sensitivity. The four sensors displayed a good stability over a period of 6 weeks. The selectivity coefficients of the developed sensors indicated excellent selectivity. Results obtained by the four electrodes revealed the performance characteristics of these electrodes which evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations. The method was successively applied for the determination of MT and HZ in presence of each other, in presence of Salamide (SA), the main degradation product of HZ, in their pharmaceutical formulations and in human plasma samples. Statistical comparison between the

  10. Antimony Influence on Shape of Eutectic Silicium in Al-Si Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquid AI-Si alloys are usually given special treatments before they are cast to obtain finer or modified matrix and eutectic structures, leading to improved properties. For many years, sodium additions to hypoeutectic and eutectic AI-Si melts have been recognized as the most effective method of modifying the eutectic morphology, although most of the group IA or IIA elements have significant effects on the eutectic structure. Unfortunately, many of these approaches also have associated several founding difficulties, such as fading, forming dross in presence of certain alloying elements, reduced fluidity, etc. ln recent years, antimony additions to AI-Si castings have attracted considerable attention as an alternative method of refining the eutectic structure. Such additions eliminate many of the difficulties listed above and provide permanent (i.e. non-fading refining ability. In this paper, the authors summarize work on antimony treatment of Al-Si based alloys.

  11. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Herein, we report a safe, low cost and reproducible approach for the synthesis of antimony (Sb) nanostructures with most of them having prism like morphology and having well defined faces in the range of ∼70210 nm. The organics free approach is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free is economical, fast and free of pollution, which will make it suitable for large scale production. Furthermore, it is well expected that such a technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. The prospects of the process are bright and promising. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the efficiency of the processes of purification of antimony to semiconductor grade purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walis, L.; Rowinska, L.; Panczyk, E.

    1992-01-01

    A complex of techniques for purification of antimony from arsenic has been examined with the aid of radiotracer 76 As. The investigated processes comprised vacuum distillation, zone melting and remelting of the metal under artificial slags. The purification efficiencies for the above processes were high and amounted to 94% (for 30% of the charge), 50% (for 50% of the charge) and 99.5% (for 60% of the charge), respectively. Attempts were made to determine the kinetics of the separation of arsenic from antimony by distillation. The application of the radioactive tracer made it possible to determine rapidly the distribution of impurities after each stage of the process within a wide concentration range (10 -2 -10 -7 g/g). (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Reaction of Antimony-Uranium Composite Oxide in the Chlorination Treatment of Waste Catalyst - 13521

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Kayo [EcoTopia Science Institute (Japan); Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The effect of oxygen gas concentration on the chlorination treatment of antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst waste was investigated by adding different concentrations of oxygen at 0-6 vol% to its chlorination agent of 0.6 or 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas at 1173 K. The addition of oxygen tended to prevent the chlorination of antimony in the oxide. When 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas was used, the addition of oxygen up to 0.1 vol% could convert the uranium contained in the catalyst to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} without any significant decrease in the reaction rate compared to that of the treatment without oxygen. (authors)

  14. Study of complex equilibria in niobium(V) and vanadium(V) systems with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, tartrate and hydrogen peroxide using RP-HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oszwaldowski, S.; Jarosz, M.

    1997-01-01

    Complex equilibria in multiligand niobium(V) systems with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridilazo)-5-diethyl aminophenol (5-Br-PADAP), tartrate and hydrogen peroxide and vanadium(V) with 5-Br-PADP and tartrate were evaluated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using C 18 column and VIS detection at 590 nm. In Nb(V)-H 2 O 2 -tartrate-(5-Br P ADAP) system formation of multiligand niobium complex, non-reactive towards 5-Br-PADAP, was postulated. For V(V) system distribution of metal ion between V(V)-(5-Br-PADAP) binary and V(V)-tartrate-(5-Br-PADAP) ternary complexes were evaluated. On this base it was proved, that coloured ternary vanadium complex is only an intermediate stage in the formation of stable V(V)-tartrate binary complex. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  15. Synthesis and vibrational spectrum of antimony phosphate, SbPO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Lars P

    2002-07-01

    SbPO4 was synthesized via a new route by reacting antimony metal with meta-phosphoric acid, (HPO3)n at high temperatures. The Raman and IR spectra of the title compound were recorded and the vibrational modes assigned on the basis of a factor group analysis. The internal vibrations are derived from tetrahedral PO4 units (approaching Sb[PO4]) by the correlation method, although the structure is polymeric and not ionic.

  16. Preconcentration and Determination of Antimony in Drinking Water Bottled by Modified Nano-Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad Zakizade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 has been utilized as a catalyst in polyethylene terephtalate (PET production, and the studies conducted on the bottled water has demonstrated that antimony can be leached from PET bottles into drinking water. Methods: In this study, a simple method was applied in order to determine the trace amount of antimony in bottled drinking water based on preconcentration /solid phase extraction. The nano alumina modified with Schiff base ligand was used in regard with Sb preconcentration. The experiments were performed in a continuous system and HCI was used as eluent of Sb ion. Several chemical and flow variables were optimized for a quantitative preconcentration and determination of Sb ion. The atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine Sb ion concentration. In order to study the keeping conditions on the leaching of Sb ion from PET plastic, drinking water bottles were kept in different conditions(room temperature, sunny light and -18˚C. Results: The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5 to 15.0 ppm Sb with detection limit of 0.055 ppm. The flow rate of sample was optimized in range of 1.0-9.0 mLmin-1 and Sb ion can be quantitatively eluted at 90 Vsample: Veluent retio. Conclusion: The study results revealed that the modified nano alumina is an effective sorbent in regard with absorbing Sb ion from water and HCI 1M can be used as an appropriate eluent. Maximum leaching of Sb ion is observed when the bottled drinking water was exposed to the sun light. Keywords: Antimony; Bottled drinking water; Modified alumina; Preconcentration

  17. Purification of indium, gallium, and antimony by melting with synthetic slug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walis, L.; Rowinska, L.; Nowicki, A.

    1997-01-01

    The tracer technique has been used for metal purification process control. The indium, gallium and antimony have been purified up to semiconductor purity in the melting with synthetic slug process. The 115m Cd, 59 Fe, 204 Tl. 76 As, 210 Bi have been used as tracers. The high effectiveness of proposed purification method have been found in the cases of indium and gallium. 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Optical switching property of a light-induced pinhole in antimony thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Toshio; Tominaga, Junji; Nakano, Takashi; Atoda, Nobufumi

    1999-11-01

    Optical near-field recording, called a super-resolution near-field structure, records and retrieves small marks beyond the diffraction limit. A thin layer of an antimony (Sb) film, added to the usual phase-change optical disk, is the key material of this technique. Nonlinear optical properties of an Sb film, especially optical switching, were studied in the stationary state using a nanosecond pulse laser. Clear switching was observed under microscopic measurement.

  19. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confusion listlessness tingling, prickling, burning, tight, or pulling sensation of arms, hands, legs, or feet heaviness or weakness of legs cold, pale, gray skin stomach pain unusual stomach bulging ...

  20. Potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, M L; Kamel, K S

    1998-07-11

    In a logical, stepwise approach to patients presenting with hypokalaemia or hyperkalaemia the clinician must first recognise circumstances in which the dyskalaemia represents a clinical emergency because therapy then takes precedence over diagnosis. If a dyskalaemia has been present for a long time, there is an abnormal renal handling of K+. The next step to analyse is the rate of excretion of K+ and, if necessary, its two components (urine flow rate and K+ concentration in the cortical collecting duct [CCD]) analysed independently. If the K+ concentration in the CCD is not in the expected range, its basis should be defined at the ion-channel level in the CCD from clinical information that can be used to deduce the relative rates of reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- in the CCD. This analysis provides the basis for diagnosis and may indicate where non-emergency therapy should then be directed.

  1. Antimony in the Contaminated Site of El Triunfo, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez A. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimony has properties similar to arsenic with some of its compounds toxic to humans. Therefore it is necessary to control the wastes accumulated by anthropogenic activities, such as mining, where it is in tailings to be released to the environment. According to the Environment Protection Agency, the maximum value in sediments is 11.2 mg Sb kg–1 and the Earth’s crust average is 0.2 mg Sb kg–1. In this semiarid area, the drainage basin El Carrizal is impacted with wastes of an abandoned gold mine at the Mining District El Triunfo (MD – ET which have tailings with 17,600 mg kg–1 of antimony. In the main dry river (arroyo, the Sb content is between 0.6 and 122 mg kg–1. This element is transported from the source throughout the fluvial basin to discharge into the Pacific Ocean. In the arroyo mouth we collected one sedimentary core and the sediment from dunes (28.6 – 45.7 and 6.43 – 7.74 mg Sb kg–1. This research concluded the antimony is enriched in this semiarid system, with Normalized Enrichment Factors severely enriched mainly in arroyo sediments close to the MD-ET

  2. A NOVEL METHOD OF THE HYDRIDE SEPARATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC AND ANTIMONY BY AAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganden Supriyanto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel method is proposed for the hydride separation when determinining of arsenic and antimony by AAS. A chromatomembrane cell was used as preconcentration-, extraction- and separation-manifold instead of the U-tube phase separator, which is normally fitted in continuous flow vapour systems generating conventionaly the hydrides. The absorbances of the hydrides produced were measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer at 193.7 nm and 217.6 nm. Under optimized analytical conditions, the calibration plot for arsenic was linear from 50 to 500 ng.mL-1 (r2 = 0.9982. The precision for three subsequent measurements of 500 ng.mL-1 arsenic gave rise to a relative standard deviation of 0.4%. The detection limit was 15 ng.mL-1, which is much lower compared with that of the conventional hydride system (2000 ng.mL-1. A similar result was observed in case of antimony: the detection limit was 8 ng.mL-1 when the proposed method was applied. Consequently, the sensitivity of the novel method surpasses systems with conventional hydride generation, i.e. the precision and the acuracy increase whereas the standard deviation and the detection limit decrease. The proposed method was applied in pharmacheutial analysis and the certified As-content of a commercial product was very sufficiently confirmed.   Keywords: Chromatomembrane Cell, Hydride separation, Arsenic detection, Antimony detection, AAS

  3. Sequestration of Antimony on Calcite Observed by Time-Resolved Nanoscale Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, François; Putnis, Christine V; Montes-Hernandez, German; King, Helen E; Breedveld, Gijs D; Okkenhaug, Gudny

    2018-01-02

    Antimony, which has damaging effects on the human body and the ecosystem, can be released into soils, ground-, and surface waters either from ore minerals that weather in near surface environments, or due to anthropogenic releases from waste rich in antimony, a component used in batteries, electronics, ammunitions, plastics, and many other industrial applications. Here, we show that dissolved Sb can interact with calcite, a widespread carbonate mineral, through a coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism. The process is imaged in situ, at room temperature, at the nanometer scale by using an atomic force microscope equipped with a flow-through cell. Time-resolved imaging allowed following the coupled process of calcite dissolution, nucleation of precipitates at the calcite surface and growth of these precipitates. Sb(V) forms a precipitate, whereas Sb(III) needs to be oxidized to Sb(V) before being incorporated in the new phase. Scanning-electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy allowed identification of the precipitates as two different calcium-antimony phases (Ca 2 Sb 2 O 7 ). This coupled dissolution-precipitation process that occurs in a boundary layer at the calcite surface can sequester Sb as a solid phase on calcite, which has environmental implications as it may reduce the mobility of this hazardous compound in soils and groundwaters.

  4. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Garcia, L.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); Loredo, S.L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  5. pH-regulated antimony oxychloride nanoparticle formation on titanium oxide nanostructures: a photocatalytically active heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Buchholcz, Balázs

    2017-02-06

    Improving the catalytic activity of heterogeneous photocatalysts has become a hot topic recently. To this end, considerable progress has been made in the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers by e.g. the realization of heterojunction photocatalysts. V-VI-VII compound semiconductors, namely, bismuth oxyhalides, are popular photocatalysts. However, results on antimony oxyhalides [SbOX (X = Br, Cl, I)], the very promising alternatives to the well-known BiOX photomodifiers, are scarce. Here, we report the successful decoration of titanium oxide nanostructures with 8-11 nm diameter SbOX nanoparticles for the first time ever. The product size and stoichiometry could be controlled by the pH of the reactant mixture, while subsequent calcination could transform the structure of the titanate nanotube (TiONT) support and the prepared antimony oxychloride particles. In contrast to the ease of composite formation in the SbOX/TiONT case, anatase TiO could not facilitate the formation of antimony oxychloride nanoparticles on its surface. The titanate nanotube-based composites showed activity in a generally accepted quasi-standard photocatalytic test reaction (methyl orange dye decolorization). We found that the SbOCl/TiONT synthesized at pH = 1 is the most active sample in a broad temperature range.

  6. Increased parasite surface antigen-2 expression in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani augments antimony resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Vasundhra; Kumar, Dhiraj; Verma, Sandeep; Srividya, Gurumurthy; Negi, Narendra Singh; Singh, Ruchi; Salotra, Poonam

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) is a major cause of therapeutic failure in a large proportion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. Determinants of SAG resistance have been widely studied; however, the mechanism operating in clinical isolates is poorly understood. In the present study, expression of parasite surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) gene was studied in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani comprising of antimony resistant (n=10) and sensitive (n=4) parasites. The expression of PSA-2 gene was found to be consistently high in SAG resistant clinical isolates (≥1.5-fold) at both transcript and protein level. Further, over-expression of PSA-2 in L. donovani isolates (LdPSA-2(++)) resulted in conversion of SAG sensitive phenotype to resistant. The LdPSA-2(++) parasites showed significantly decreased susceptibility towards SAG (>12-fold), amphotericin B (>4-fold) and miltefosine (>2.5-fold). Marked decrease in antimony accumulation and enhanced tolerance towards complement mediated lysis was evident in LdPSA-2(++) parasites. The study established the role of PSA-2 gene in SAG resistance and its potential as a biomarker to distinguish resistant and sensitive clinical isolates of L. donovani. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parto prematuro após uso de antimonial pentavalente: relato de um caso Premature birth after the use of pentavalent antimonial: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Pinheiro Silveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma mulher de 19 anos, na 24ª semana de gravidez e com leishmaniose visceral. Tratada com antimonial pentavalente na posologia de 850mg/dia por 20 dias, ocorreu parto prematuro no quinto dia de tratamento e óbito da criança um dia após nascimento. Considerando a importância da protozoose no nosso meio e a raridade da associação com a gestação, julgamos de interesse a publicação do caso.A case is reported of a 19-year-old woman, at week 24 of gestation, with visceral leishmaniosis. She was treated with meglumine antimoniate at a dose of 850mg/day for 20 days. There occurred premature birth on day five of treatment and the neonate died one day after birth. Considering the importance of protozoiasis in our population and the rarity of the association with pregnancy, we resolved to publish the case.

  8. Inward-rectifying potassium channelopathies: new insights into disorders of sodium and potassium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Sung, Chih-Chien; Huang, Chou-Long; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels allow more inward than outward potassium flux when channels are open in mammalian cells. At physiological resting membrane potentials, however, they predominantly mediate outward potassium flux and play important roles in regulating the resting membrane potential in diverse cell types and potassium secretion in the kidneys. Mutations of Kir channels cause human hereditary diseases collectively called Kir channelopathies, many of which are characterized by disorders of sodium and potassium homeostasis. Studies on these genetic Kir channelopathies have shed light on novel pathophysiological mechanisms, including renal sodium and potassium handling, potassium shifting in skeletal muscles, and aldosterone production in the adrenal glands. Here, we review several recent advances in Kir channels and their clinical implications in sodium and potassium homeostasis.

  9. Radical distributions in ammonium tartrate single crystals exposed to photon and neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrale, M.; Longo, A.; Brai, M.; Barbon, A.; Brustolon, M.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation therapy carried out by means of heavy charged particles (such as carbon ions) and neutrons is rapidly becoming widespread worldwide. The success of these radiation therapies relies on the high density of energy released by these particles or by secondary particles produced after primary interaction with matter. The biological damages produced by ionising radiations in tissues and cells depend more properly on the energy released per unit pathlength, which is the linear energy transfer and which determines the radiation quality. To improve the therapy effectiveness, it is necessary to grasp the mechanisms of free radical production and distribution after irradiation with these particles when compared with the photon beams. In this work some preliminary results on the analysis of the spatial distributions of the free radicals produced after exposure of ammonium tartrate crystals to various radiation beams ( 60 Co gamma photons and thermal neutrons) were reported. Electron spin resonance analyses were performed by the electron spin echo technique, which allows the determination of local spin concentrations and by double electron-electron resonance technique, which is able to measure the spatial distance distribution (range 1.5-8 nm) among pairs of radicals in solids. The results of these analyses are discussed on the basis of the different distributions of free radicals produced by the two different radiation beams used. This paper extends to the single crystal case, a similar work done on AT powder irradiated with different beams, with assessment of microscopic radical concentration by determining the amount of ID contribution and obtaining the inter-radical distance distributions by double microwave irradiation. In this paper single crystals of AT have been exposed to 60 Co photons and neutrons. The results confirm that advanced pulse EPR techniques allow the direct measurement of the local free radical concentration and provide information about the

  10. Synthesis of a Parkinson's Disease Treatment Drug, the "R,R"-Tartrate Salt "of R"-Rasagiline: A Three Week Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Noberto; Garcia, Billy; Cunningham, Mark; David, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    A synthesis of the "R,R"-tartrate salt of the popular anti-Parkinson's drug "R"-rasagiline (Azilect) was adapted to introduce the organic laboratory student to a medically relevant synthesis. It makes use of concepts found in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, appropriately fits into three approximately 4 h lab…

  11. Erythrocyte potassium and glutathione polymorphism determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    This research is aimed at determining the erythrocyte potassium and glutathione polymorphisms and also to identify the relationship among the various blood parameters in Saanen x Malta crossbred goat raised in Turkey. The allele gene frequencies of KH and KL associated with the potassium concentration.

  12. Erythrocyte potassium and glutathione polymorphism determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is aimed at determining the erythrocyte potassium and glutathione polymorphisms and also to identify the relationship among the various blood parameters in Saanen x Malta crossbred goat raised in Turkey. The allele gene frequencies of KH and KL associated with the potassium concentration were ...

  13. Thanatochemistry: Study of synovial fluid potassium | Tumram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to test previously developed regression formulae for estimating death interval based on synovial fluid potassium and to assess its reliability in estimating death interval. Synovial fluid potassium was measured on a sample of 308 individuals. Death interval was regressed on synovial fluid ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: potassium-aggravated myotonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating potassium-rich foods such as bananas and potatoes. Stiffness occurs in skeletal muscles throughout the body. Potassium-aggravated myotonia ranges in severity from mild episodes of muscle stiffness to severe, disabling disease with frequent attacks. Unlike some other forms of ...

  15. Potassium doped MWCNTs for hydrogen storage enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adabi Qomi, S.; Gashtasebi, M.; Khoshnevisan, B.

    2012-01-01

    Here we have used potassium doped MWCNTs for enhancement of hydrogen storage process. XRD and SEM images have confirmed the doping of potassium. For studying the storage process a hydrogenic battery set up has been used. In the battery the working electrode has been made of the silver foam deposited by the doped MWCNTs electrophoretically.

  16. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a)...

  17. Effect of potassium on micromorphological and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that epidermal and mesophyl cells were more turgid, uniform, flaccid, symmetrical and structurally improved with potassium application. Larger number of starch grains was observed in plant leaves grown without potassium application while in leaves supplied with K their number decreased. Thickness of the ...

  18. Erythrocyte potassium and glutathione polymorphism determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... erythrocyte and hematocrit values (Igbokwe et al., 1998). This study aims to detect the genetic makeup of. Saanen x Malta crossbred goat depending on the gluta- thione and potassium types in erythrocyte and also to find if the association between erythrocyte potassium and some of the blood parameters ...

  19. 75 FR 51112 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of an expedited review... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to...

  20. Biodistribution of meglumine antimoniate in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi-infected BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimonials such as meglumine antimoniate (MA are the primary treatments for leishmaniasis, a complex disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania . Despite over 70 years of clinical use, their mechanisms of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetics have not been fully elucidated. Radiotracer studies performed on animals have the potential to play a major role in pharmaceutical development. The aims of this study were to prepare an antimony radiotracer by neutron irradiation of MA and to determine the biodistribution of MA in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi-infected mice. MA (Glucantime(r was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes, 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This irradiated compound presented anti-leishmanial activity similar to that of non-irradiated MA in both in vitro and in vivo evaluations. In the biodistribution studies, healthy mice showed higher uptake of antimony in the liver than infected mice and elimination occurred primarily through biliary excretion, with a small proportion of the drug excreted by the kidneys. The serum kinetic curve was bi-exponential, with two compartments: the central compartment and another compartment associated with drug excretion. Radiotracers, which can be easily produced by neutron irradiation, were demonstrated to be an interesting tool for answering several questions regarding antimonial pharmacokinetics and chemotherapy.

  1. Development of an analytical method for antimony speciation in vegetables by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, David; Bravo, Manuel; Feldmann, Jorg; Raab, Andrea; Neaman, Alexander; Quiroz, Waldo

    2012-01-01

    A new method for antimony speciation in terrestrial edible vegetables (spinach, onions, and carrots) was developed using HPLC with hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Mechanical agitation and ultrasound were tested as extraction techniques. Different extraction reagents were evaluated and optimal conditions were determined using experimental design methodology, where EDTA (10 mmol/L, pH 2.5) was selected because this chelate solution produced the highest extraction yield and exhibited the best compatibility with the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that EDTA prevents oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) and maintains the stability of antimony species during the entire analytical process. The LOD and precision (RSD values obtained) for Sb(V), Sb(III), and trimethyl Sb(V) were 0.08, 0.07, and 0.9 microg/L and 5.0, 5.2, and 4.7%, respectively, for a 100 microL sample volume. The application of this method to real samples allowed extraction of 50% of total antimony content from spinach, while antimony extracted from carrots and onion samples ranged between 50 and 60 and 54 and 70%, respectively. Only Sb(V) was detected in three roots (onion and spinach) that represented 60-70% of the total antimony in the extracts.

  2. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate after a single oral and i.v. administration in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L-W; Dong, L-L; Ji, H; Feng, X-W; Li, D; Ding, R-L; Jiang, S-X

    2014-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were carried out in broiler chickens according to a principle of single dose, random, parallel design. The two formulations of tylosin were given orally and intravenously at a dose level of 10 mg/kg b.w to chicken after an overnight fasting (n = 10 chickens/group). Serial blood samples were collected at different time points up to 24 h postdrug administration. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used for the determination of tylosin concentrations in chicken plasma. The tylosin plasma concentration's time plot of each chicken was analyzed by the 3P97 software. The pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a one-compartmental open model 1st absorption after oral administration. After intravenous administration the pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a two-compartmental open model, and there were no significant differences between tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate. After oral administration, there were significant differences in the Cmax (0.18 ± 0.01, 0.44 ± 0.09) and AUC (0.82 ± 0.05, 1.57 ± 0.25)between tylosin phosphate and tylosin tartrate. The calculated oral bioavailability (F) of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were 25.78% and 13.73%, respectively. Above all, we can reasonably conclude that, the absorption of tylosin tartrate is better than tylosin phosphate after oral administration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Extracellular potassium inhibits Kv7.1 potassium channels by stabilizing an inactivated state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Steffensen, Annette Buur; Grunnet, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) channels are regulators of several physiological processes including vasodilatation, repolarization of cardiomyocytes, and control of secretory processes. A number of Kv7.1 pore mutants are sensitive to extracellular potassium. We hypothesized that extracellular potassium also...... modulates wild-type Kv7.1 channels. The Kv7.1 currents were measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes at different concentrations of extracellular potassium (1-50 mM). As extracellular potassium was elevated, Kv7.1 currents were reduced significantly more than expected from theoretical calculations based...... on the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz flux equation. Potassium inhibited the steady-state current with an IC(50) of 6.0 ± 0.2 mM. Analysis of tail-currents showed that potassium increased the fraction of channels in the inactivated state. Similarly, the recovery from inactivation was slowed by potassium, suggesting...

  4. Studies on the growth and characterization of a non linear optical crystal: 3 Hydroxy Pyridinium Tartrate Mono Hydrate (3HPTMH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, J.; Prabu, S.; Srinivasan, P.; Srinivasan, T.; Velmurugan, D.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of 3 Hydroxy Pyridinium Tartrate Mono Hydrate (3HPTMH) was synthesised and successfully grown in mixed solvent of ethanol and water by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. 3HPTMH belongs to the orthorhombic crystal system with space group P212121. The lattice parameters of 3HPTMH are a = 7.4597(2) Å, b = 8.7012(3) Å, c = 17.8786(5) Å, V = 1160.47(6) Å3, obtained by single crystal X ray diffraction studies. Hyperpolarizability and HOMO-LUMO analysis were performed for grown crystal using DFT calculations using Gaussian 03 software. Functional groups were identified by FT-IR studies. The lower cut-off wavelength of the 3HPTMH has been identified by UV-Vis study. The thermal behavior has been studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The powder second harmonic generation efficiency of 3HPTMH was compared with KDP.

  5. Investigation on Growth, Structural, Spectral, Optical, and Mechanical Properties of an Organic Nonlinear Optical Material: Morpholinium Hydrogen Tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Renugadevi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic nonlinear optical crystal morpholinium hydrogen tartrate (MHT, with molecular formula [C8H15NO7], has been grown by slow evaporation solution technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirms that MHT crystallizes in orthorhombic system with noncentrosymmetric space group P212121. FTIR spectrum was recorded to identify the various functional groups of MHT. The various kinds of protons and carbons of MHT have been identified using 1H and 13C NMR spectral analyses. The range of optical absorption was ascertained by recording UV-Vis-NIR spectral studies. The TG/DTA studies revealed that the grown crystal is thermally stable up to 159.26°C. The mechanical property of the grown crystal was studied using Vickers microhardness studies. The relative second harmonic generation efficiency of MHT was determined using Kurtz and Perry powder technique; it was observed to be greater than that of KDP crystal.

  6. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of metoprolol tartrate and ramipril in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, K Veeran; Mandal, Uttam; Senthamil Selvan, P; Sam Solomon, W D; Ghosh, Animesh; Sarkar, Amlan Kanti; Agarwal, Sangita; Nageswar Rao, T; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2007-10-15

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for quantification of metoprolol tartrate (MT) and ramipril, in human plasma. Both the drugs were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether-dichloromethane (70:30, v/v). The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-phase C8 column with a mobile phase of 10 mM ammonium formate-methanol (3:97, v/v). The protonated analyte was quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The method was validated over the concentration range of 5-500 ng/ml for metoprolol and ramipril in human plasma. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 268.0-103.10 and m/z 417.20-117.20 were used to measure metoprolol and ramipril, respectively.

  7. The influence of Metolose structure on the free volume and the consequent metoprolol tartrate release of patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, József; Marton, Sylvia; Süvegh, Károly; Zelkó, Romána

    2009-01-01

    Matrix-type patches containing Metoprolol tartrate were prepared from two types of Metolose and acrylate polymers. Metolose SM 4000 and Metolose 90SH 100.000SR were applied in different proportions in the patches where the total polymer content was kept constant in each sample. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of Metolose structure on the free volume of the patches and the consequent drug release profile. The drug release profiles were characterized by zero-order and first-order models. The results indicate that Metolose, containing hydroxypropyl ether groups and methyl ether groups, enables the formation of H-bonds, thus increasing the free volume holes and the consequent extent and rate of drug release of patches.

  8. Highly active and stable Pt electrocatalysts promoted by antimony-doped SnO2 supports for oxygen reduction reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Min; Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative composite supports for platinum catalysts were synthesized from antimony doped tin dioxide (ATO) nanoparticles. In the range of the antimony content from 0 to 11mol%, the highest electrical conductivity of 1.1Scm-1 at 130°C was obtained for the 5mol% Sb ATO, from which composite suppo...

  9. Leishmaniose cutânea com desfecho fatal durante tratamento com antimonial pentavalente American cutaneous leishmaniasis with fatal outcome during pentavalent antimoniate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiri Vanderlei Nogueira de Lima

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de paciente de 58 anos, hipertensa e diabética, com diagnóstico de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, tratada com antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina (15mg SbV/kg/dia, acompanhada pelo serviço de atenção básica em saúde e que evoluiu para óbito no 18º dia de tratamento.The authors report a case of a 58 years-old, hypertensive, diabetic female patient, with the diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, undergoing treatment with Nmethyl glucamine antimoniate (15mg SbV/Kg/day. She was followed up by the basic health care service, but has died on the 18th treatment day.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and single crystal X-ray analysis of chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.S. Chauhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III has been prepared in distilled acetonitrile and characterized by physicochemical [melting point and molecular weight determination, elemental analysis (C, H, N, S & Sb], spectral [FT–IR, far IR, NMR (1H & 13C] studies. The crystal and molecular structure was further confirmed using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which features a five-coordinate geometry for antimony(III within a ClS4 donor set. The distortion in the co-planarity of ClSbS3 evidences the stereochemical influence exerts by the lone pair of electrons on antimony(III. Two centrosymmetrically related molecule held together via C–H···Cl secondary interaction result in molecular aggregation of the compound.

  11. Selective liquid-liquid extraction of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media by N-n-octylaniline in xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ANUSE

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available N-n-Octylaniline in xylene was used for the extraction separation of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media. Antimony(III was extracted quantitatively with 10 mL 4 % N-n-octylaniline in xylene. It was stripped from the organic phase with 0.5 M ammonia and estimated photometrically by the iodide method. The effect of metal ion, acid, reagent concentration and various foreign ions was investigated. The method affords binary and ternary separation of antimony(III from tellurium(IV, selenium(IV, lead(II, bismuth(III, tin(IV, germanium(IV, copper(II, gold(III, iron(III and zinc(II. The method is applicable for the analysis of synthetic mixtures, alloys and semiconductor thin films. It is fast, accurate and precise.

  12. Nanoscaled hydrated antimony (V oxide as a new approach to first-line antileishmanial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco AMR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antonia MR Franco,1 Iryna Grafova,2 Fabiane V Soares,1,3 Gennaro Gentile,4 Claudia DC Wyrepkowski,1,3 Marcos A Bolson,5 Ézio Sargentini Jr,5 Cosimo Carfagna,4 Markku Leskelä,2 Andriy Grafov2 1Laboratory of Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease, National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 2Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Multi-Institutional Post-Graduate Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 4Institute for Polymers, Composites, and Biomaterials, National Research Council, Pozzuoli, Naples Province, Italy; 5Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Background: Coordination compounds of pentavalent antimony have been, and remain, the first-line drugs in leishmaniasis treatment for >70 years. Molecular forms of Sb (V complexes are commercialized as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® and meglumine antimoniate (MA (Glucantime®. Ever-increasing drug resistance in the parasites limits the use of antimonials, due to the low drug concentrations being administered against high parasitic counts. Sb5+ toxicity provokes severe side effects during treatment. To enhance therapeutic potency and to increase Sb (V concentration within the target cells, we decided to try a new active substance form, a hydrosol of Sb2O5⋅nH2O nanoparticles (NPs, instead of molecular drugs. Methodology/principal findings: Sb2O5⋅nH2O NPs were synthesized by controlled SbCl5 hydrolysis in a great excess of water. Sb2O5⋅nH2O phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The surface of Sb (V NPs was treated with ligands with a high affinity for target cell membrane receptors. The mean particle size determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy was ~35–45 nm. In vitro tests demonstrated a 2.5–3 times higher antiparasitic activity of Sb (V nanohybrid hydrosols

  13. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The

  14. Field-portable-XRF reveals the ubiquity of antimony in plastic consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat

    2017-04-15

    Very little systematic information exists on the occurrence and concentrations of antimony (Sb) in consumer products. In this study, a Niton XL3t field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer was deployed in situ and in the laboratory to provide quantitative information on Sb dissipated in plastic items and fixtures (including rubber, textile and foamed materials) from the domestic, school, vehicular and office settings. The metalloid was detected in 18% of over 800 measurements performed, with concentrations ranging from about 60 to 60,000μgg -1 . The highest concentrations were encountered in white, electronic casings and in association with similar concentrations of Br, consistent with the use of antimony oxides (e.g. Sb 2 O 3 ) as synergistic flame retardants. Concentrations above 1000μgg -1 , and with or without Br, were also encountered in paints, piping and hosing, adhesives, whiteboards, Christmas decorations, Lego blocks, document carriers, garden furniture, upholstered products and interior panels of private motor vehicles. Lower concentrations of Sb were encountered in a wide variety of items but its presence (without Br) in food tray packaging, single-use drinks bottles, straws and small toys were of greatest concern from a human health perspective. While the latter observations are consistent with the use of antimony compounds as catalysts in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, co-association of Sb and Br in many products not requiring flame retardancy suggests that electronic casings are widely recycled. Further research is required into the mobility of Sb when dissipated in new, recycled and aged polymeric materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dual mode antimony electrode for simultaneous measurements of PO2 and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, F; Nilsson, G

    2000-01-01

    In biomedical research and clinical medicine there is a demand for potent sensors to measure the components that make up blood gas analyses. Today, as when the electrochemical PO2, PCO2 and pH electrodes were first introduced, these measurements are usually made with the same type of sensor technology. The aims of the present study were, firstly, to find out whether the platinum cathode in the Clark electrode can be replaced by antimony for oxygen measurements (amperometry (A)); secondly, whether, during oxygen measurements, the inherent corrosion potential of the antimony metal can be used for measurement of pH in the same measurement area (potentiometry (P)). An electrode of purified, crystallographically orientated monocrystalline antimony (COMA) connected to a reference electrode (silver-silver chloride) was used for the P measurements. Measurements of A (at -900 mV) and P were made in an aqueous environment regulated for oxygen, pH, and temperature. Reproducible oxygen sensitivities of 0.925 nA/% oxygen (2% CV (coefficient of variation)) (A), 10.7 mV/% (P), and 0.7 mV/% (P) were found in the oxygen range: 0-21%, <5%, and above 5%, respectively. The pH sensitivity was 57 mV/pH unit (P). Oxygen and pH measurements were less accurate at oxygen concentrations close to 0%. Both the oxygen and pH part of the composite electrode signal can be identified by this dual mode technique (A and P). The sensor seems to be promising as it provides measurements of two separate variables (oxygen and pH) and also has the desirable characteristics of a solid state sensor.

  16. Development and pharmacokinetic of antimony encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine using radioisotopes in experimental leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis are a complex of parasitic diseases caused by intra macrophage protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and is fatal if left untreated. Pentavalent antimonials, though toxic and their mechanism of action being unclear, remain the first-line drugs for treatment. Effective therapy could be achieved by delivering antileishmanial drugs to these sites of infection. Liposomes are phospholipid vesicles that promote improvement in the efficacy and action of drugs in target cell. Liposomes are taken up by the cells of mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). The purpose of this study was to develop a preparation of meglumine antimonate encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine and to study its pharmacokinetic in healthy mice to establish its metabolism and distribution. Quantitative analysis of antimony from liposomes demonstrated that Neutron Activation Analysis was the most sensitive technique with almost 100 % of accuracy. All liposome formulations presented a mean diameter size of 150 nm. The determination of IC 50 in infected macrophage showed that liposome formulations were between 10 - 63 fold more effective than the free drug, indicating higher selectivity index. By fluorescence microscopy, an increased uptake of fluorescent-liposomes was seen in infected macrophages during short times of incubation compared with non-infected macrophages. Biodistribution studies showed that meglumine antimonate irradiated encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine promoted a targeting of antimony for MPS tissues and maintained high doses in organs for a prolonged period. In conclusion, these data suggest that meglumine antimonate encapsulated in liposomes showed higher effectiveness than the non-liposomal drug against Leishmania infection. The development of liposome formulations should be a new alternative for the chemotherapy of infection diseases, especially Leishmaniasis, as they are used to sustain and target pharmaceuticals to the local of infection. (author)

  17. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of Antimony after multiple intramuscular administrations in the Hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jaser, May H.; Radwan, Mahasen A.; Zaghloul, Imam Y.

    2006-01-01

    The fate of pentavalent antimony (Sb) in different tissues in the body after intramuscular administration is of great interest for the future study of Sb therapy in different sitting. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of antimony (Sb) were studied in the hamster after daily dose of sodium stibogluconate equivalent to 120 mg kg of Sb, administered intramuscularly for two weeks. Liver, spleen, heart, kidney and skin tissues were isolated after blood collection at the specified time. Antimony was measured in these tissues after suitable treatment, ashing and processing, by flame less atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentration of Sb time profile in blood showed a linear raid decline with elimination half life (tz1/2) of 1.7h. The concentration of drug (ug/gm) declined in a biphasic manner from almost all tissues. However, the concentrations of Sb were declined in slower fashion from the hamster tissues than from the blood. The maximum concentration of Sb was determined in the kidney tissues (3416+-631ug/gm) while the lowest concentration was in the spleen (209+-187ug/gm). The maximum concentration of Sb in the kidney (ug/gm) was more than 25 fold higher than that measured from blood (ug/ml). The AUC of Sb in the studied tissues was in this rank: kidney>liver>skin>spleen>heart>blood. Surprisingly, the heart, spleen and liver showed a similar t1/2 of 5.2-6.2h while the kidney and skin had a t1/2 of about 3h. Therefore, disposition of Sb seems to kinetically follow multicompartmental compartmental model. The kidneys got the highest concentration of drug which may lead to nephrotoxicity on long term therapy. (author)

  18. Antimony Adsorption from Zarshouran Gold Mineral Processing Plant Wastewater by Nano Zero Valent Iron Coated on Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nader nosrati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effluent from Zarshouran gold mineral processing plant contains high quantities of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and bismuth. These metals and metalloids are soluble in water and very toxic when they enter the environment. Their solubility in water causes the polluted area to extend beyond their point of origin. In this article, different methods of antimony removal from water and wastewater were reviewed and the zero-valent iron nanoparticles coated on Bentonite were selected as an effective and low cost material for removing antimony from wastewater. For the purposes of this study, zero-valent iron nanoparticles of 40-100 nanometers in size were synthesized by dropwise addition of sodium borohydride solution to an Iron (III aqueous solution at  ambient temperature and mixed with nitrogen gas. To avoid particle agglomeration and to enhance the product’s environmentally safe application, the  nanoparticles were coated on Bentonite and characterized by SEM/EDAX and BET. The experiments were carried out by intense mixing of the adsorbent with 10ml of real/synthtic wastewater samples in 20ml bottles.  The effects of pH, contact time, temperature, and adsorbent dosage on antimony removal efficiency were investigated under intense mixing using a magnetic mixer. Finally, the effluents were filtered upon completion of the experiments and used for atomic adsorption analysis. The results of the experiments showed that the adsorption isotherms of the synthesized nanoparticles obeyed the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The experiments carried out on real samples showed that antimony adsorption capacity for B-nZVI was 2.6 mg/g of the adsorbent and that the highest antimony removal efficiency was 99.56%.

  19. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  20. Photodegradation of Naphthol green B in the presence of semiconducting antimony trisulphide - SHORT COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAKSHIT AMETA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of wastewater treatment are being used for the removal of dyes from their solution, but in most of the cases, either homogeneous catalysts or different adsorbents are used. These methods have their own merits and demerits. In the present work, antimony trisulphide was used as a heterogeneous catalyst. The effects of different parameters on the rate of the reaction were observed, such as pH, concentration of dye, amount of semiconductor and light intensity. A tentative mechanism is proposed in which the role of hydroxyl radical as an active oxidizing species is shown for degradation of Naphthol green B.

  1. Determination of arsenic, selenium and antimony by neutron activation analysis. Application to hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Nieuwendijk, B.J.T.; Sloot, H.A. van der; Teunissen, G.J.A.; Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1983-04-01

    A fast rabbit system for instrumental activation analysis with reactor neutrons is described. Its use in the determination of selenium in hair is discussed. A survey is given of the correction factors which are inherent to the use of short-lived radionuclides. An alternative to INAA is NAA based on the separation of arsenic, selenium and antimony by hydride evaporation and adsorption to active carbon. Data for some Standard Reference Materials are given. This work was done under research contract 2440/RI/RB with the IAEA

  2. Direct Band Gap Gallium Antimony Phosphide (GaSbxP1−x) Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    H. B. Russell; A. N. Andriotis; M. Menon; J. B. Jasinski; A. Martinez-Garcia; M. K. Sunkara

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report direct band gap transition for Gallium Phosphide (GaP) when alloyed with just 1?2 at% antimony (Sb) utilizing both density functional theory based computations and experiments. First principles density functional theory calculations of GaSbxP1?x alloys in a 216 atom supercell configuration indicate that an indirect to direct band gap transition occurs at x?=?0.0092 or higher Sb incorporation into GaSbxP1?x. Furthermore, these calculations indicate band edge straddling of the h...

  3. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performances of new antimony-containing graphite compounds used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailly, A.; Willmann, P.; Billaud, D.

    2002-01-01

    Graphite intercalation intercalated with metal alloys able to alloy reversibly lithium constitute a large set of new anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries of significantly improved reversible capacities. Especially, graphite intercalated with cesium-antimony alloys can be used as materials for anodes in lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical insertion of lithium in such chemically modified precursors shows that lithium both intercalates in the empty van der Waals spaces of graphite and alloys reversibly with antimony. The total electrochemical reversible capacities, measured between 0 and 2 V vs Li + /Li, close to 700 mAh g -1 have been currently obtained

  4. Serum potassium concentrations: Importance of normokalaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Manuel; Fernández-Reyes, María José

    2017-06-21

    Abnormalities in potassium concentrations are associated with morbidity and mortality. In recent years it has been considered that small variations in serum potassium concentrations within normal intervals may also be associated with mortality. Strategies for achieving normokalaemia include dietary measures, limiting the use of potassium retaining drugs, and use of conventional cation exchange resins (calcium/sodium polystyrene sulfonate) and/or the new non-absorbed cation exchange polymer (patiromer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. X-ray absorption in atomic potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomilsek, Jana Padeznik; Kodre, Alojz; Arcon, Iztok; Nemanic, Vincenc

    2008-01-01

    A new high-temperature absorption cell for potassium vapor is described. X-ray absorption coefficient of atomic potassium is determined in the energy interval of 600 eV above the K edge where thresholds for simultaneous excitations of 1s and outer electrons, down to [1s2p] excitation, appear. The result represents also the atomic absorption background for XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) structure analysis. The K ionization energy in the potassium vapor is determined and compared with theoretical data and with the value for the metal

  6. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of.... No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is...

  7. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 3. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium Ferricyanide. Sangeeta Pandita Saral Baweja. Classroom Volume 21 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 285-288 ...

  8. Structural and optical study on antimony-silicate glasses doped with thulium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosz, D; Zmojda, J; Kochanowicz, M; Miluski, P; Jelen, P; Sitarz, M

    2015-01-05

    Structural, spectroscopic and thermal properties of SiO₂-Al₂O₃-Sb₂O₃-Na₂O glass system doped with 0.2 mol% Tm₂O₃ have been presented. Synthesis of antimony-silicate glasses with relatively low phonon energy (600 cm(-1), which implicates a small non-radiative decay rate) was performed by conventional high-temperature melt-quenching methods. The effect of SiO₂/Sb₂O₃ ratio in fabricated Tm(3+) doped glass on thermal, structural and luminescence properties was investigated. On the basis of structural investigations decomposition of absorption bands in the infrared FTIR region was performed, thus determining that antimony ions are the only glass-forming ions, setting up the lattice of fabricated glasses. Luminescence band at the wavelength of 1.8 μm corresponding to (3)F₄→(3)H₆ transition in thulium ions was obtained under 795 nm laser pumping. It was observed that combination of relatively low phonon energy and greater separation of optically active centers in the fabricated glasses influenced in decreasing the luminescence intensity at 1800 nm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of Trace Antimony (III by Adsorption Voltammetry at Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongyue He

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a sensitive method for the determination of trace antimonybased on the antimony-pyrogallol red (PGR adsorption at a carbon paste electrode (CPE.The optimal conditions were to use an electrode containing 25% paraffin oil and 75%high purity graphite powder as working electrode, a 0.10 mol/L HCl solution containing3.0×10-5 mol/L PGR as accumulation medium and a 0.20 mol/L HCl solution aselectrolyte with an accumulation time of 150 s and a reduction time of 60 s at -0.50 Vfollowed with a sweep from -0.50 V to 0.20 V. The mechanism of the electrode reactionwas discussed. Interferences of other metal ions were studied as well. The detection limitwas 1×10-9 mol/L. The linear range was from 2.0×10-9 mol/L to 5.0×10-7 mol/L.Application of the proposed method to the determination of antimony in water andhuman hair samples gave good results.

  10. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmund Michalski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemical cycles of chemical compounds, determination of toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products, control of medicines and pharmaceutical products, technological process control, research on the impact of technological installation on the environment, examination of occupational exposure, and clinical analysis. Conventional methods are usually labor intensive, time consuming, and susceptible to interferences. The hyphenated techniques, in which separation method is coupled with multidimensional detectors, have become useful alternatives. The main advantages of those techniques consist in extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant interference, influence as well as high precision and repeatability of the determinations. In view of their importance, the present work overviews and discusses different hyphenated techniques used for arsenic, antimony, and thallium species analysis, in different clinical, environmental and food matrices.

  11. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Rajmund; Szopa, Sebastian; Jabłońska, Magdalena; Łyko, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemical cycles of chemical compounds, determination of toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products, control of medicines and pharmaceutical products, technological process control, research on the impact of technological installation on the environment, examination of occupational exposure, and clinical analysis. Conventional methods are usually labor intensive, time consuming, and susceptible to interferences. The hyphenated techniques, in which separation method is coupled with multidimensional detectors, have become useful alternatives. The main advantages of those techniques consist in extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant interference, influence as well as high precision and repeatability of the determinations. In view of their importance, the present work overviews and discusses different hyphenated techniques used for arsenic, antimony, and thallium species analysis, in different clinical, environmental and food matrices. PMID:22654649

  12. Migration of antimony from PET containers into regulated EU food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Cámara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2013-11-15

    Antimony migration from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers into aqueous (distilled water, 3% acetic acid, 10% and 20% ethanol) and fatty food simulants (vegetable oil), as well as into vinegar, was studied. Test conditions were according to the recent European Regulation 10/2011 (EU, 2011). Sb migration was assayed by ICP-MS and HG-AFS. The results showed that Sb migration values ranged from 0.5 to 1.2μg Sb/l, which are far below the maximum permissible migration value for Sb, 40μg Sb/kg, (EU, Regulation 10/2011). Parameters as temperature and bottle re-use influence were studied. To assess toxicity, antimony speciation was performed by HPLC-ICP-MS and HG-AFS. While Sb(V) was the only species detected in aqueous simulants, an additional species (Sb-acetate complex) was measured in wine vinegar. Unlike most of the studies reported in the literature, migration tests were based on the application of the EU directive, which enables comparison and harmonisation of results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimonial Therapy Induces Circulating Proinflammatory Cytokines in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Gur, Selahaddin; Gurel, Mehmet S.; Bulut, Vedat; Ulukanligil, Mustafa

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between antimonial therapy and circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Patients were treated with conventional chemotherapy by using pentavalent antimonium salts (Glucantime) for 3 weeks. Circulating plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined for CL patients and healthy subjects before and 3 weeks after the treatment was started. Plasma IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher for pretreatment CL patients than for healthy subjects. Proinflammatory cytokines significantly increased after 21 days postinfection compared to levels for the pretreatment patients. These increments were approximately 3-fold for IL-1β and TNF-α levels, 10-fold for IL-6 levels, and 20-fold for IL-8 levels in patients with CL. Taken together these results indicate that circulating proinflammatory cytokine levels were increased in patients with CL as a consequence of host defense strategies, and antimonial therapy may induce these cytokines by affecting the macrophage or other components of the host defense system. PMID:12438329

  14. Meglumine antimoniate is more effective than sodium stibogluconate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilova, Yavuz; Surucu, Hacer Altın; Ardic, Nurittin; Aksoy, Mustafa; Yesilova, Abdullah; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2016-01-01

    Sodium stibogluconate (SSG, Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime) are two antimonials that are widely used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), but the relative efficacies of these treatments are not clear. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of intralesional SSG with intralesional MA therapy in the treatment of CL. One month after completion of the therapy, 1431 of 1728 patients (82%) who received intralesional MA showed complete clinical cure compared to 1157 of 1728 patients (67%) in the SSG group. Patients who did not respond to the first round of therapy were re-administered the same treatment but with twice weekly injections. Following completion of the second course of therapy, 237 of 297 patients (80%) in the MA group and 407 of 561 patients (72%) in the SSG group healed their lesions by 1-month post-treatment. At both times, the differences in cure rates between MA and SSG groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Cure rates in the MA group were always significantly higher than SSG groups irrespective of other parameters including age, gender, lesion site and type of lesion. Intralesional MA is more effective than intralesional SSG in the treatment of CL.

  15. Growth of antimony doped P-type zinc oxide nanowires for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Pradel, Ken

    2016-09-27

    In a method of growing p-type nanowires, a nanowire growth solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO.sub.3).sub.2), hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and polyethylenemine (800 M.sub.w PEI) is prepared. A dopant solution to the growth solution, the dopant solution including an equal molar ration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), glycolic acid (C.sub.2H.sub.4O.sub.3) and antimony acetate (Sb(CH.sub.3COO).sub.3) in water is prepared. The dopant solution and the growth solution combine to generate a resulting solution that includes antimony to zinc in a ratio of between 0.2% molar to 2.0% molar, the resulting solution having a top surface. An ammonia solution is added to the resulting solution. A ZnO seed layer is applied to a substrate and the substrate is placed into the top surface of the resulting solution with the ZnO seed layer facing downwardly for a predetermined time until Sb-doped ZnO nanowires having a length of at least 5 .mu.m have grown from the ZnO seed layer.

  16. High levels of antimony in dust from e-waste recycling in southeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Zhonggen; Zhuang, Xiaochun; Han, Zhixuan; Yang, Wenlin

    2011-01-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global issue. Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element used in semiconductor components and flame retardants for circuit board within electronic equipment. When e-waste is recycled, Sb is released and contaminates the surrounding environment; however, few studies have characterized the extent of this problem. In this study, we investigated Sb and arsenic (As) distributions in indoor dust from 13 e-waste recycling villages in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, southeastern China. Results revealed significantly elevated concentrations of Sb (6.1-232 mg/kg) in dust within all villages, which were 3.9-147 times higher than those from the non e-waste sites, indicating e-waste recycling was an important source of Sb pollution. On the contrary, As concentrations (5.4-17.7 mg/kg) in e-waste dusts were similar to reference values from the control sites. Therefore, dusts emitted from e-waste recycling may be characterized by high Sb/As ratios, which may help identify the contamination due to the e-waste recycling activities. - Highlights: → Antimony and arsenic concentrations in dust from e-waste recycling were investigated. → E-waste recycling is an important emerging source of Sb pollution. → Sb/As ratios may help identify the e-waste contamination.

  17. Antimony trioxide-induced apoptosis is dependent on SEK1/JNK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Koren K; Davison, Kelly; Colombo, Myrian; Colosimo, April L; Diaz, Zuanel; Padovani, Alessandra M S; Guo, Qi; Scrivens, P James; Gao, Wenli; Mader, Sylvie; Miller, Wilson H

    2006-01-05

    Very little is known concerning the toxicity of antimony, despite its commercial use as a flame retardant and medical use as a treatment for parasitic infections. Our previous studies show that antimony trioxide (Sb(2)O(3)) induces growth inhibition in patient-derived acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell lines, a disease in which a related metal, arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)), is used clinically. However, signaling pathways initiated by Sb(2)O(3) treatment remain undefined. Here, we show that Sb(2)O(3) treatment of APL cells is associated with increased apoptosis as well as differentiation markers. Sb(2)O(3)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) correlated with increased apoptosis. In addition, when we decreased the buffering capacity of the cell by depleting glutathione, ROS production and apoptosis was enhanced. Arsenic-resistant APL cells with increased glutathione levels exhibited increased cross-resistance to Sb(2)O(3). Based on studies implicating c-jun kinase (JNK) in the mediation of the response to As(2)O(3), we investigated the role for JNK in Sb(2)O(3)-induced apoptosis. Sb(2)O(3) activates JNK and its downstream target, AP-1. In fibroblasts with a genetic deletion in SEK1, an upstream regulator of JNK, Sb(2)O(3)-induced growth inhibition as well as JNK activation was decreased. These data suggest roles for ROS and the SEK1/JNK pathway in the cytotoxicity associated with Sb(2)O(3) exposure.

  18. Leaching of the antimony and accompanying of elements Sb2S3 in the alkaline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Remeteiová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the laboratory investigation of alkaline leaching of stibnite that is an important mineral occuring in the antimony-bearing raw materials. The following components were present in stibnite: Sb2S3, SiO2, ZnS, FeS2. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of composition of the aqueous alkaline leaching medium (1 % NaOH, 1 % NaOH + 1 % Na2S2O3, 1 % NaOH + 1 % Na2S on the recoveries of Sb, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Hg. The antimony recoveries in the leaching solutions NaOH and NaOH + Na2S2O3 solutions were lower in comparison with the leaching in NaOH + Na2S. The Fe, Pb, Zn recoveries in alkaline solutions were found to decrease in the following order: Fe, Pb, Zn. The mercury recovery in the leaching test with the solution containing 1 % NaOH+1 % Na2S was 3,7 %.

  19. Evaluation of antimony microparticles supported on biochar for application in the voltammetric determination of paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaerd, Ava; de Oliveira, Paulo R; Mangrich, Antonio S; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the construction and application of carbon paste electrodes modified with biochar and antimony microparticles (SbBCPE) for voltammetric determination of paraquat using a simple and sensitive procedure based on voltammetric stripping analysis. Some parameters such as amount of biochar and antimony used in the composition of the carbon paste and instrumental parameters were examined in detail. Under optimized conditions, an analytical curve was obtained for paraquat determination employing SbBCPE, which showed a linear response ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 μmol L(-1), with limit of detection and quantification of 34 nmol L(-1) and 113 nmol L(-1), respectively, after paraquat pre-concentration of 120 s. The repeatability study presented a RSD=2.0% for 10 consecutive measurements using the same electrode surface and the reproducibility study showed a RSD=2.7% for measurements with 10 different electrode surfaces. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for paraquat determination in tap water and citric fruit juice spiked samples and good recoveries were obtained without any sample pre-treatment, showing its promising analytical performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of antimony in nail and hair by thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Yukio; Ishida, Norio

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of antimony in nail and hair was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis. Samples were collected from the workers of an antimony refinery, inhabitants near the refinery, and residents in control area. They were irradiated by Kyoto University 5000 kW Reactor for 1 h, and cooled for 30 to 100 days. After cooling, the concentration of Sb in nail and hair was estimated by measuring the intensity of γ-ray from 124 Sb of the samples, then the samples were washed by 0.1 % aqueous solution of nonionic surface active agent in an ultrasonic cleaner. The γ-ray spectrometry was done again (after washing). The concentration of Sb in nail before washing was 730 ppm for the workers, 2.46 ppm for habitants near the refinery, and 0.19 ppm for the control; after washing, it became 230 ppm for the workers, 0.63 ppm for habitants, and 0.09 ppm for the control. The concentration of Sb in hair before and after washing was 222 ppm and 196 ppm for the workers, and 0.21 ppm and 0.15 ppm for the control, respectively. (author)

  1. Distributions and impact factors of antimony in topsoils and moss in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Nan; Sun Liguang; He Xin; You Kehua; Zhou Xin; Long Nanye

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of antimony (Sb) in topsoil and moss (Dicranum angustum) in disturbed and undisturbed areas, as well as coal and gangue, in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic was examined. Results show that the weathering of coal bed could not contribute to the increase of Sb concentrations in topsoil and moss in the study area. The distribution of Sb is partially associated with traffic and historical mining activities. The occurrence of the maximum Sb concentration is due to the contribution of human activities. In addition, the decrease of Sb content in topsoil near the coastline may be caused by the washing of seawater. Compared with topsoils, moss could be a useful tool for monitoring Sb in both highly and lightly polluted areas. - Highlights: ► We examined the distribution of antimony in topsoil and moss in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic. ► The distribution of Sb is associated with traffic and historical mining activities. ► The weathering of coal bed cannot lead to the Sb increase in the surface environment. ► The distribution of Sb in moss could reflect the accumulation of Sb pollution. ► Moss can be a useful tool for monitoring Sb in highly and lightly polluted areas. - The distribution of Sb in Ny-Ålesund is partially associated with traffic and historical mining activities, and moss can be a useful tool for monitoring Sb in both highly and lightly polluted areas.

  2. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium...

  3. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  4. Transverse thermal magnetoresistance of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newrock, R.S.; Maxfield, B.W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of extensive thermal magnetoresistance measurements on single-crystal and polycrystalline specimens of potassium having residual resistance ratios (RRR) ranging from 1100 to 5300. Measurements were made between 2 and 9 0 K for magnetic fields up to 1.8 T. The observed thermal magnetoresistance cannot be understood on the basis of either semiclassical theories or from the electrical magnetoresistance and the Wiedemann-Franz law. A number of relationships are observed between the thermal and electrical magnetoresistances, many of which are not immediately obvious when comparing direct experimental observations. The thermal magnetoresistance W(T,H) is given reasonably well by W(T,H)T = W(T,0)T + AH + BH 2 , where both A and B are temperature-dependent coefficients. Results show that A = A 0 + A 1 T 3 , while B(T) cannot be expressed as any simple power law. A 0 is dependent on the RRR, while A 1 is independent of the RRR. Two relationships are found between corresponding coefficients in the electrical and thermal magnetoresistance: (i) the Wiedmann--Franz law relates A 0 to the Kohler slope of the electrical magnetoresistance and (ii) the temperature-dependent portions of the electrical and thermal Kohler slopes are both proportional to the electron--phonon scattering contribution to the corresponding zero-field resistance. The latter provides evidence that inelastic scattering is very important in determining the temperature-dependent linear magnetoresistances. Part, but by no means all, of the quadratic thermal resistance is accounted for by lattice thermal conduction. It is concluded that at least a portion of the anomalous electrical and thermal magnetoresistances is due to intrinsic causes and not inhomogeneities or other macroscopic defects

  5. Glass and antimony electrodes for long-term pH monitoring: a dynamic in vitro comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, W. P.; Smout, A. J.; Kooiman, J. C.; Lamers, C. B.; Gues, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of combined glass microelectrodes with monocrystalline and polycrystalline antimony electrodes with external reference in a 24-h dynamic in vitro study. DESIGN AND METHODS: In an artificial stomach, the pH of the contents titrated from pH1-7 and back by NaOH and

  6. Ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring: a comparison between antimony, ISFET, and glass pH electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmink, Gerrit J. M.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Oors, Jac; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Timmer, Robin; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ambulatory oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring is a widely used test to evaluate patients with reflux symptoms. Several types of pH electrodes are available: antimony, ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET), and glass electrodes. These pH electrodes have not been compared

  7. Health and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals pollution in an antimony mining region: a case study from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jiang-Chi; Min, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Xing; Pang, Zhi-Hua; Liang, Yan-Jie; Ke, Yong

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, international research on the toxicity of the heavy metal, antimony, has gradually changed focus from early medical and pharmacological toxicology to environmental toxicology and ecotoxicology. However, little research has been conducted for sources identification and risk management of heavy metals pollution by long-term antimony mining activities. In this study, a large number of investigations were conducted on the temporal and spatial distribution of antimony and related heavy metal contaminants (lead, zinc, and arsenic), as well as on the exposure risks for the population for the Yuxi river basin in the Hunan province, China. The scope of the investigations included mine water, waste rock, tailings, agricultural soil, surface water, river sediments, and groundwater sources of drinking water. Health and ecological risks from exposure to heavy metal pollution were evaluated. The main pollution sources of heavy metals in the Yuxi River basin were analyzed. Remediation programs and risk management strategies for heavy metal pollution were consequently proposed. This article provides a scientific basis for the risk assessment and management of heavy metal pollution caused by antimony basin ore mining.

  8. Comparative phytotoxicity of methylated and inorganic arsenic- and antimony species to Lemna minor, Wolffia arrhiza and Selenastrum capricornutum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duester, L.; van der Geest, H.G.; Moelleken, S.; Hirner, A.V.; Kueppers, K.

    2011-01-01

    The alkylation of metalloids through the transfer of methyl groups is an important factor in the biogeochemical cycling of elements like arsenic and antimony. In the environment, many different organic and inorganic forms of these elements can therefore be found in soils, sediments or organisms.

  9. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films and Their Applications in CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony telluride alloy thin films were deposited at room temperature by using the vacuum coevaporation method. The films were annealed at different temperatures in N2 ambient, and then the compositional, structural, and electrical properties of antimony telluride thin films were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Hall measurements. The results indicate that single phase antimony telluride existed when the annealing temperature was higher than 488 K. All thin films exhibited p-type conductivity with high carrier concentrations. Cell performance was greatly improved when the antimony telluride thin films were used as the back contact layer for CdTe thin film solar cells. The dark current voltage and capacitance voltage measurements were performed to investigate the formation of the back contacts for the cells with or without Sb2Te3 buffer layers. CdTe solar cells with the buffer layers can reduce the series resistance and eliminate the reverse junction between CdTe and metal electrodes.

  10. LC-MS analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of metoprolol tartrate in aqueous solution: Structure elucidation and formation mechanism of radiolytic products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slegers, Catherine [Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, Universite Catholique de Louvain, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: catherine.slegers@skynet.be; Maquille, Aubert [Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, Universite Catholique de Louvain, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium); Deridder, Veronique [Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, Universite Catholique de Louvain, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium); Sonveaux, Etienne [Unite de Chimie Pharmaceutique et de Radiopharmacie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Habib Jiwan, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Tilquin, Bernard [Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, Universite Catholique de Louvain, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    E-beam and gamma products from the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ({+-})-metoprolol tartrate, saturated in nitrogen, are analyzed by HPLC with on-line mass and UV detectors. The structures of 10 radiolytic products common to e-beam and gamma irradiations are elucidated by comparing their fragmentation pattern to that of ({+-})-metoprolol. Two of the radiolytic products are also metabolites. Different routes for the formation of the radiolytic products are proposed.

  11. Efeitos do tartarato de metoprolol em pacientes portadores de insuficiência cardíaca Effects of metoprolol tartrate therapy in patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albuquerque de Figueiredo Neto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos do tartarato de metoprolol em pacientes portadores de insuficiência cardíaca. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados em estudo prospectivo, 50 pacientes (36 homens com insuficiência cardíaca, classe funcional II a IV, com 52±14,8 anos, e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE 0,05. A freqüência cardíaca apresentou redução de 78,84±batimentos por minuto para 67,48±1,86 batimentos por minuto (pOBJECTIVE: To study the effects of metoprolol tartrate therapy in patients with heart failure. METHODS: Fifty patients (36 males aged 52±14.8 yrs, with functional class II to IV heart failure (HF and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVFE 0.05. Cardiac frequency decreased from 78.84±1.68 to 67.48±1.86 b.p.m. (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The adding of metoprolol tartrate to the usual heart failure therapy is followed by an increase of ejection fraction, functional class improvement, and decrease of ventricular diameters and cardiac frequency. These results suggest anti-remodeling effects in patients with HF who utilize metoprolol tartrate in addition to the usual therapy.

  12. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  13. Speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in meglumine antimoniate pharmaceutical formulations by PSA using carbon nanotube electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vivian Silva; Santos, Wilney de Jesus Rodrigues; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira

    2009-09-08

    A new and simple electroanalytical method for speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in pharmaceutical formulation by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) using a multiwall carbon nanotube paste electrode was developed. All instrumental and chemical parameters influencing the performance of the method were carefully assessed and optimized. Trivalent antimony was determined in acid medium (pH 3.6) under the optimized condition (deposition potential of -0.7 V, deposition time of 180 s, ionic strength of 0.3M and oxidant mercury concentration of 10 mg l(-1)). Total antimony was determined after quantitative reduction of Sb(V) with l-cysteine (1.5%, w/v) and its concentration was calculated from difference between the total antimony and Sb(III). The developed method provided two distinct linear calibration one ranging from 10 up to 50 microg l(-1) and other from 100 up to 800 microg l(-1) with respective correlation coefficient of 0.9978 and 0.9993, presenting a detection limit of 6.2 microg l(-1). Repeatability for the six independent samples expressed in terms of relative standard deviation was found to be 3.01 and 1.39% for 40.0 and 300.0 microg l(-1) antimony concentration, respectively. Results on the effect of foreign substances [Al(III), Mg(II), Fe(III), Cd(II), Zn(II) and meglumine] on analytical signal of antimony showed no interference even using high content of foreign ions in the analyte:interferent ratio up to 1:100. The proposed method was successfully applied for the speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in pharmaceutical formulation and the accuracy was assessed from addition and recovery tests as well as comparing with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) technique used as reference analytical method.

  14. Effect of polacrilin potassium as disintegrant on bioavailability of diclofenac potassium in tablets : a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Mrudula H; Derle, Diliprao V

    2012-09-01

    Polacrilin potassium is an ion exchange resin used in oral pharmaceutical formulations as a tablet disintegrant. It is a weakly acidic cation exchange resin. Chemically, it is a partial potassium salt of a copolymer of methacrylic acid with divinyl benzene. It ionizes to an anionic polymer chain and potassium cations. It was hypothesized that polacrilin potassium may be able to improve the permeability of anionic drugs according to the Donnan membrane phenomenon. The effect of polacrilin potassium on the permeability of diclofenac potassium, used as a model anionic drug, was tested in vitro using diffusion cells and in vivo by monitoring serum levels in rats. The amount of drug permeated across a dialysis membrane in vitro was significantly more in the presence of polacrilin potassium. Significant improvement was found in the extent of drug absorption in vivo. It could be concluded that polacrilin potassium may be used as a high-functionality excipient for improving the bioavailability of anionic drugs having poor gastrointestinal permeability.

  15. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J; Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R

    2014-10-16

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this

  16. Growth and characterization of organic second order nonlinear optical (NLO) 4-chloroanilinium-L-tartrate monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaram, Jayaprakash; Varadharajan, Krishnakumar; Singaram, Boobas; Rajendhran, Ranjith

    2018-03-01

    The protonated organic single crystal of 4-chloroanilinium-L-tartrate monohydrate (4CALTM) was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution technique at room temperature. Powder X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystal system of the grown crystal and its lattice parameters were calculated. Microanalysis confirms the elemental compositions and the vibrations of the functional groups were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The grown crystal exhibits 65% of optical transparency in the 289-800 nm range and the optical bandgap was calculated. The dielectric constant and loss were studied as a function of frequency at different temperatures. The TG-DSC analysis shows the thermal stability of the grown crystal. Vickers hardness measurement reveals the mechanically soft nature of the crystal, and it obeys the reverse indentation size effect (RISE). The positive photoconductivity of the crystal was supported by a linear increase of photocurrent on illumination. Kurtz - Perry powder technique shows the second harmonic generation efficiency of a range of particles (25-300 μm) and the phasematching ability of the crystal.

  17. Solving manufacturing problems for L-carnitine-L-tartrate to improve the likelihood of successful product scale-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badawi Aliaa A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available L-carnitine-L-tartrate, a non-essential amino acid, is hygroscopic. This causes a problem in tablet production due to pronounced adhesion of tablets to punches. A 33 full factorial design was adopted to suggest a tablet formulation. Three adsorbents were suggested (Aerosil 200, Aerosil R972, talc to reduce stickiness at three concentrations (1, 3 and 5 %, and three fillers (mannitol, Avicel PH 101, Dibasic calcium phosphate were chosen to prepare 27 formulations. Micromeritic properties of formulations were studied, and tablets were prepared by wet granulation. Absence of picking, sticking or capping, recording of sufficient hardness, acceptable friability and tablet ejection force indicated formulation success. The resulting formulation prepared using Avicel PH 101 and 1 % Aerosil 200 was submitted to further investigation in order to choose the most suitable compression conditions using a 33 full factorial design. Variables included compression force, tableting rate and magnesium stearate (lubricant concentration. The formulation prepared at compression force of 25 kN, using 2 % magnesium stearate, at a production rate of 30 tablets/ minute, was found to be the most appropriate scale up candidate.

  18. Solving manufacturing problems for L-carnitine-L-tartrate to improve the likelihood of successful product scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Aliaa A; Hegazy, Mahmoud M; Louis, Dina; Eldegwy, Mohammed A

    2017-12-20

    L-carnitine-L-tartrate, a non-essential amino acid, is hygroscopic. This causes a problem in tablet production due to pronounced adhesion of tablets to punches. A 33 full factorial design was adopted to suggest a tablet formulation. Three adsorbents were suggested (Aerosil 200, Aerosil R972, talc) to reduce stickiness at three concentrations (1, 3 and 5 %), and three fillers (mannitol, Avicel PH 101, Dibasic calcium phosphate) were chosen to prepare 27 formulations. Micromeritic properties of formulations were studied, and tablets were prepared by wet granulation. Absence of picking, sticking or capping, recording of sufficient hardness, acceptable friability and tablet ejection force indicated formulation success. The resulting formulation prepared using Avicel PH 101 and 1 % Aerosil 200 was submitted to further investigation in order to choose the most suitable compression conditions using a 33 full factorial design. Variables included compression force, tableting rate and magnesium stearate (lubricant) concentration. The formulation prepared at compression force of 25 kN, using 2 % magnesium stearate, at a production rate of 30 tablets/ minute, was found to be the most appropriate scale up candidate.

  19. Experimental and theoretical investigations of non-centrosymmetric 8-hydroxyquinolinium dibenzoyl-(L)-tartrate methanol monohydrate single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudharsana, N.; Krishnakumar, V.; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: ORTEP diagram of HQDBT. - Highlights: • Single crystal XRD and NMR studies confirm the formation of the title compound. • SHG efficiency was found to be 0.6 times that of KDP. • First-order hyperpolarizability (β) was calculated using HF and B3LYP methods. - Abstract: A novel 8-hydroxyquinolinium dibenzoyl-(L)-tartrate methanol monohydrate crystal has been grown by slow evaporation technique. The single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis has been done for the title compound and is found to crystallize in orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 . The optical absorption cut-off wavelength is found to be 440 nm. The vibrational analysis has been carried out to assess the functional groups present in the title compound. The molecular structure of the title compound has been confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetric and differential thermal analyses reveal the melting point and thermal stability of the title compound. The second harmonic generation efficiency is confirmed by Kurtz–Perry powder technique. Further quantum chemical calculations are performed using Gaussian 03 software

  20. First-principles study lone-pair effects of Sb (III)-S chromophore influence on SHG response in quaternary potassium containing silver antimony sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Junben [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS,, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China); School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Su, Xin; Hou, Dianwei; Lei, Binghua [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS,, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Zhihua, E-mail: zhyang@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS,, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China); Pan, Shilie, E-mail: slpan@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS,, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China)

    2017-05-15

    First-principles studies of the geometric structures, electronic structures and optical properties of non-centrosymmetrical (NCS) KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4}, K{sub 2}AgSbS{sub 4} and K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7} and centrosymmetrical (CS) KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 3} and K{sub 3}Ag{sub 9}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 12} have been performed by means of density functional theory. It is indicated that although they have similarity in their anionic groups and, the electronic structures, prominent features of the optical anisotropy or second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibilities are apparently different. The calculated birefringences are 0.0537, 0.0343, 0.1324, 0.2217 and 0.0604 which are attributed to the different anionic groups [SbS{sub 3}] and triangles [AgS{sub 3}]. Also, the calculated NLO responses are about 0.5×, 1.0× and 2.0× times than that commercial AgGaS{sub 2} (AGS, d{sub 36}=11 pm/V) for K{sub 2}AgSbS{sub 4}, KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4} and K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7}, respectively. In comparison with the absolute magnitude of second harmonic generation (SHG) coefficients, the order K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7}>KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4}>K{sub 2}AgSbS{sub 4} is clearly established in the SHG response. Further analysis based on the real-space atom-cutting method reveals that the main sources of the SHG properties of these compounds are from the Sb-S group, especially K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7} is mainly attributed to the lone pair stereochemical activity of Sb (III)-S group. - Graphical abstract: Compounds K{sub 2}AgSbS{sub 4}, KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4} and K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7} exhibit second-order NLO response: 15×, 30× and 62× times than that KDP (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, d{sub 36}=0.39 pm/V), respectively. First-principles methods reveal that the large SHG response of K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7} is dominated by the Sb-S chromophore with lone pairs.

  1. Role of ATP sensitive potassium channel in extracellular potassium accumulation and cardiac arrhythmias during myocardial ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, G E

    1994-06-01

    Extracellular potassium rises rapidly during myocardial ischaemia, correlating with the onset of ventricular arrhythmias. The extracellular accumulation of potassium can induce abnormalities in both impulse conduction and impulse generation. Inhomogeneities of potassium conductance will elicit regional differences in action potential duration and repolarisation. The resulting spatial dispersion of refractory period will allow for fragmentation of impulse conduction on ensuing beats, the formation of irregular reentrant pathways and ventricular fibrillation. In a similar manner, the spread of injury current from the ischaemic tissue to surrounding normal tissue can trigger extrasystoles (depolarisation induced automaticity). It has been hypothesised that the activation of the ATP sensitive potassium channel contributes significantly to reductions in action potential duration and increases in extracellular potassium accumulation during myocardial ischaemia. ATP sensitive potassium channel antagonists prevent ischaemically induced reductions in action potential duration and the dispersion of refractory period but may induce oscillatory afterpotentials under some conditions (for example, calcium overload). In contrast, potassium channel agonists enhance the dispersion of refractory period ischaemia, which promotes the formation of re-entrant arrhythmias. The pharmacological modulation of the ATP sensitive potassium channels could therefore offer a novel approach for the management of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with ischaemic heart disease. In general, channel antagonists prevent ventricular fibrillation, while high (hypotensive) doses of channel agonists can induce malignant arrhythmias during ischaemia in animal models. However, recent evidence also suggests that potassium channel agonists may promote a better preservation of myocardial mechanical performance during reperfusion while ATP sensitive potassium channel antagonists exacerbate mechanical depression

  2. Potassium adsorption in soil cultivated with sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Joycyely M A S; Netto, André M; Corrêa, Marcus M; Xavier, Bruno T L; Assis, Fernando X DE

    2017-10-16

    Vinasse is a byproduct of the process of distillation of sugarcane juice for the manufacture of sugar and alcohol. Because it is rich in nutrients, mainly potassium (K), is used as fertilizer and applied via fertigation, without concerning for the fate of this compound in the soil. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate the interactions of the potassium ion (K+), applied via vinasse in a soil representative of the sugarcane zone of the State of Pernambuco using adsorption isotherms. The methodology was based on physical, chemical and soil mineralogical characterization, as well as equilibrium batch tests, where the experimental curves were fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results allowed to infer that the Freundlich model showed better fit of the curve in both forms: linear and non-linear (direct fit); the non-linear model was selected due to the values ​​of coefficient of determination (R²). The interaction between potassium and soil occurred mainly with organic matter and the presence of soil kaolinite, because they showed negative ions on the external surface, thereby promoting potassium adsorption. Soil potassium adsorption capacity was higher for the first layer (0-20 cm) and decreased along the depth profile.

  3. Novel antimony doped tin oxide/carbon aerogel as efficient electrocatalytic filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimeng Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile method was developed to prepare antimony doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO2/carbon aerogel (CA for use as an electrocatalytic filtration membrane. The preparation process included synthesis of a precursor sol, impregnation, and thermal decomposition. The Sb-SnO2, which was tetragonal in phase with an average crystallite size of 10.8 nm, was uniformly distributed on the CA surface and firmly attached via carbon-oxygen-tin chemical bonds. Preliminary filtration tests indicated that the Sb-SnO2/CA membrane had a high rate of total organic carbon removal for aqueous tetracycline owing to its high current efficiency and electrode stability.

  4. Synthesis and optical properties of antimony oxide glasses doped with holmium trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunatha, S.; Eraiah, B., E-mail: eraiah@rediffmail.com [Department of physics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru – 560 056. India (India)

    2016-05-06

    Holmium doped lithium-antimony-lead borate glasses having 1 mol% AgNO{sub 3} with composition 50B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20PbO-25Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-5Li{sub 2}O have been prepared using single step melt quenching technique. The XRD spectrum confirms amorphous nature of glasses. The optical absorbance studies were carried out on these glasses. The optical direct band gap energies were found to be in the range of 3.10 eV to 3.31 eV and indirect band gap energies were found to be in the range of 2.28 eV to 3.00 eV. The refractive indexes have been calculated by using Lorentz-Lorenz formula and the calculated values in the range of 2.31 to 2.37.

  5. Mid-infrared optical properties of chalcogenide glasses within tin-antimony-selenium ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruiqiang; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yicong; Song, Baoan; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Xianghua; Ji, Wei

    2017-10-16

    In this work, we investigated the mid-infrared (MIR) optical properties of selenide (Se-based) chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) within an As- and Ge-free system, namely the environment-friendly and low-cost tin-antimony-selenium (Sn-Sb-Se, SSS) ternary system, which has not been systematically studied to the best of our knowledge. As compared to ChGs within those conventional Se-based systems, SSS ChGs were found to exhibit extended infrared transmittance range as well as larger linear refractive index (n 0 ). Femtosecond Z-scan measurements show the presence of evident three-photon absorption from Urbach absorption of the SSS ChGs at MIR wavelength, which resonantly enhanced the nonlinear refractive behavior and resulted in large nonlinear refractive index (n 2 ).

  6. Microbial diversity and community structure in an antimony-rich tailings dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Qingxiang; Sun, Weimin

    2016-09-01

    To assess the impact of antimony (Sb) on microbial community structure, 12 samples were taken from an Sb tailings pile in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. All 12 samples exhibited elevated Sb concentrations, but the mobile and bioaccessible fractions were small in comparison to total Sb concentrations. Besides the geochemical analyses, microbial communities inhabiting the tailing samples were characterized to investigate the interplay between the microorganisms and environmental factors in mine tailings. In all samples, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most dominant phyla. At the genus level, Thiobacillus, Limnobacter, Nocardioides, Lysobacter, Phormidium, and Kaistobacter demonstrated relatively high abundances. The two most abundant genera, Thiobacillus and Limnobacter, are characterized as sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, respectively, while the genus Lysobacter contains arsenic (As)-resistant bacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicates that TOC and the sulfate to sulfide ratio strongly shaped the microbial communities, suggesting the influence of the environmental factors in the indigenous microbial communities.

  7. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  8. The electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series: Prospects for optoelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, John J.; Allen, Jeremy P.; Scanlon, David O.; Watson, Graeme W.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, density functional theory is used to evaluate the electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series. Analysis of the electronic density of states and charge density shows that asymmetric density, or ‘lone pairs’, forms on the Sb III cations in the distorted oxide, sulphide and selenide materials. The asymmetric density progressively weakens down the series, due to the increase in energy of valence p states from O to Te, and is absent for Sb 2 Te 3 . The fundamental and optical band gaps were calculated and Sb 2 O 3 , Sb 2 S 3 and Sb 2 Se 3 have indirect band gaps, while Sb 2 Te 3 was calculated to have a direct band gap at Γ. The band gaps are also seen to reduce from Sb 2 O 3 to Sb 2 Te 3 . The optical band gap for Sb 2 O 3 makes it a candidate as a transparent conducting oxide, while Sb 2 S 3 and Sb 2 Se 3 have suitable band gaps for thin film solar cell absorbers. - Graphical abstract: A schematic illustrating the interaction between the Sb III cations and the chalcogenide anions and the change in their respective energy levels down the series. - Highlights: • The electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series is modelled using DFT. • Asymmetric density is present on distorted systems and absent on the symmetric telluride system. • Asymmetric density is formed from the mixing of Sb 5s and anion p states, where the anti-bonding combination is stabilised by the Sb 5p states. • The asymmetric density weakens down the series due to the increase in energy of chalcogenide p states. • The increase in energy of the anion p states reduces the fundamental and optical band gaps

  9. Successful treatment of feline leishmaniosis using a combination of allopurinol and N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Basso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This work describes the diagnosis and successful treatment of a 2-year-old domestic cat infected with Leishmania species and presenting fever, and ulcerative and nodular skin lesions after being treated for pyodermatitis for 1 year without clinical improvement. After anamnesis the cat was submitted to a complete clinical examination. Blood was collected for determination of haematological and biochemical parameters, detection of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, feline coronavirus (FCoV and Leishmania amastigotes. Fine-needle aspiration puncture from the skin nodules was also performed. After definitive diagnosis the animal was treated and followed up over a 2 year period. The animal tested negative for FIV-specific antibodies, FeLV antigen and feline coronavirus RNA. Leishmania amastigotes in the skin nodules were confirmed by cytology and molecular diagnosis. Treatment was initiated with allopurinol, resulting in a slight clinical improvement. Thus, N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate was added and administered for 30 days, with complete closure of the ulcerative lesions in the hindlimbs requiring a surgical approach. Close monitoring of the patient in the following 24 months indicated that combined therapy was safe and clinical cure was achieved without further relapses or side effects. Relevance and novel information Considering the increasing number of feline leishmaniosis cases and the inconsistent results of most therapeutic protocols described in the literature, the use of new approaches, especially in refractory cases, is essential. Although the use of allopurinol and N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate is off-label in cats, in this case the combination treatment was followed by an extensive analytical monitoring, supporting their safety and effectiveness.

  10. Toxicity Assessments of Antimony, Barium, Beryllium, and Manganese for Development of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (ECO-SSL) Using Earthworm (Eisenia Fetida) Benchmark Values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simini, Michael

    2002-01-01

    ... soil that supports relatively high bioavailability of barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb). For the metals tested, cocoon production was a more sensitive endpoint than was survival...

  11. Differential pulse polarographic determination of trace antimony in standard biological samples after preconcentration using 2-nitroso-1-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taher, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    A highly selective, rapid and economical differential polarographic method has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of antimony in various standard alloys and biological samples after of its 2-naphthol-4 sulfonic acid tetradecyl dimethylbenzylammonium chloride on microcrystalline naphthalene in the ph range of 7.5-11.0. After filtration, the solid mass is shaken with 8-10 ml of 1 M hydrochloric acid (with preconcentration factor of 10) and antimony is determined by differential pulse polarography. Antimony can alternatively be quantitatively absorbed on 2-nitroso-1-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid tetradecyl dimethylbenzylammonium-naphthalene absorbed packed in a column (with preconcentration factor of 30) and determined similarly. In this case, 1.5 μg of antimony can be concentrated in a column from 300 ml of aqueous sample, where its concentration is as low as 5 ng/ml. Characterization of the electro active process included an examination of the degree of reversibility. The results show that the irreversibility of antimony. Various parameters such as the effect of ph, volume of aqueous phase, HCl concentration, reagent concentration, naphthalene concentration, shaking time and interference of a number of metal ions on the determination of antimony have been studied in detail to optimize the conditions for determination in standard alloys and standard biological samples

  12. Remediation of antimony-rich mine waters: Assessment of antimony removal and shifts in the microbial community of an onsite field-scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Kalin, Margarete; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Ning, Zengping; Liu, Tong; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Mao, Jianzhong; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-08-01

    An on-site field-scale bioreactor for passive treatment of antimony (Sb) contamination was installed downstream of an active Sb mine in Southwest China, and operated for one year (including a six month monitoring period). This bioreactor consisted of five treatment units, including one pre-aerobic cell, two aerobic cells, and two microaerobic cells. With the aerobic cells inoculated with indigenous mine water microflora, the bioreactor removed more than 90% of total soluble Sb and 80% of soluble antimonite (Sb(III)). An increase in pH and decrease of oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) was also observed along the flow direction. High-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene variable (V4) region revealed that taxonomically diverse microbial communities developed in the bioreactor. Metal (loid)-oxidizing bacteria including Ferrovum, Thiomonas, Gallionella, and Leptospirillum, were highly enriched in the bioreactor cells where the highest total Sb and Sb(III) removal occurred. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that a suite of in situ physicochemical parameters including pH and Eh were substantially correlated with the overall microbial communities. Based on an UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) tree and PCoA (Principal Coordinates Analysis), the microbial composition of each cell was distinct, indicating these in situ physicochemical parameters had an effect in shaping the indigenous microbial communities. Overall, this study was the first to employ a field-scale bioreactor to treat Sb-rich mine water onsite and, moreover, the findings suggest the feasibility of the bioreactor in removing elevated Sb from mine waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Flow Method for Chemiluminescence Determination of Antimony(III) and Antimony(V) Using a Rhodamine B-Cetyltrimethylammonium Chloride Reversed Micelle System Following On-Line Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanin, Tamer H A; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Ishizaka, Shoji; Fujiwara, Terufumi

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive flow method, based on the combination of on-line solvent extraction with reversed micellar mediated chemiluminescence (CL) detection using rhodamine B (RB), was developed for the determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in aqueous samples. The on-line extraction procedure involved ion-pair formation of the antimony(V) chloro-complex anion with the protonated RBH(+) ion and its extraction from an aqueous hydrochloric acid solution into toluene, followed by phase separation using a microporous membrane. When in a flow cell of a detector, the ion-pair in the extract driven was mixed with the reversed micellar solution of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride in 1-hexanol-cyclohexane/water (0.60 mol dm(-3) H2SO4) containing cerium(IV), its uptake by the reversed micelles and the subsequent CL oxidation of RB with Ce(IV) occurred easily, then the produced CL signal was measured. Using the proposed flow method under the optimized experimental conditions, a detection limit (DL) of 0.35 μmol dm(-3) and a linear calibration graph with a dynamic range from DL to 16 μmol dm(-3) were obtained for Sb(V) with a precision of 1.4% relative standard deviation (n = 5) at the Sb(V) concentration of 8.2 μmol dm(-3). The present method was successfully applied to the determination of Sb(V) in water samples and to the differential determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in copper electrolyte industrial samples, where total antimony Sb(III) + Sb(V) was determined after oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) with Ce(IV) and Sb(III) was calculated by difference, for which the DL was almost the same as that for Sb(V).

  14. Identification of a non-purple tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase: an evolutionary link to Ser/Thr protein phosphatases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hume David A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatases (TRAcPs, also known as purple acid phosphatases (PAPs, are a family of binuclear metallohydrolases that have been identified in plants, animals and fungi. The human enzyme is a major histochemical marker for the diagnosis of bone-related diseases. TRAcPs can occur as a small form possessing only the ~35 kDa catalytic domain, or a larger ~55 kDa form possessing both a catalytic domain and an additional N-terminal domain of unknown function. Due to its role in bone resorption the 35 kDa TRAcP has become a promising target for the development of anti-osteoporotic chemotherapeutics. Findings A new human gene product encoding a metallohydrolase distantly related to the ~55 kDa plant TRAcP was identified and characterised. The gene product is found in a number of animal species, and is present in all tissues sampled by the RIKEN mouse transcriptome project. Construction of a homology model illustrated that six of the seven metal-coordinating ligands in the active site are identical to that observed in the TRAcP family. However, the tyrosine ligand associated with the charge transfer transition and purple color of TRAcPs is replaced by a histidine. Conlusion The gene product identified here may represent an evolutionary link between TRAcPs and Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. Its biological function is currently unknown but is unlikely to be associated with bone metabolism.

  15. Synergistic effect of iontophoresis and chemical enhancers on transdermal permeation of tolterodine tartrate for the treatment of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prasanthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective of the study was to evaluate the synergistic transdermal permeation effect of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis technique on tolterodine tartrate (TT transdermal gel and to evaluate its pharmacokinetic properties. Materials and Methods Taguchi robust design was used for optimization of formulations. Skin permeation rates were evaluated using the Keshary-chein type diffusion cells in order to optimize the gel formulation. In-vivo studies of the optimized formulation were performed in a rabbit model and histopathology studies of optimized formulation were performed on rats. Results Transdermal gels were formulated successfully using Taguchi robust design method. The type of penetration enhancer, concentration of penetration enhancer, current density and pulse on/off ratio were chosen as independent variables. Type of penetration enhancer was found to be the significant factor for all the responses. Permeation parameters were evaluated when maximum cumulative amount permeated in 24 hours (Q24 was 145.71 ± 2.00µg/cm2 by CIT4 formulation over control (91.89 ± 2.30µg/cm2. Permeation was enhanced by 1.75 fold by CIT4 formulation. Formulation CIT4 containing nerolidol (5% and iontophoretic variables applied (0.5mA/cm2 and pulse on/off ratio 3:1 was optimized. In vivo studies with optimized formulation CIT4 showed increase in AUC and T1/2 when compared to oral suspension in rabbits. The histological studies showed changes in dermis indicating the effect of penetration enhancers and as iontophoresis was continued only for two cycles in periodic fashion so it did not cause any skin damage observed in the slides. Conclusion Results indicated that iontophoresis in combination with chemical enhancers is an effective method for transdermal administration of TT in the treatment of overactive bladder.

  16. Effect of permeation enhancers on the iontophoretic transport of metoprolol tartrate and the drug retention in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anroop; Vyas, Hiral; Shah, Jigar; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of chemical penetration enhancers in conjunction with iontophoresis is regarded as the most effective method to enhance the passage of molecules across the skin barrier. A systematic approach to enhance the transdermal delivery of metoprolol tartrate and the subsequent release of the drug depot in the skin was investigated. Gel formulations with proximate viscosity were prepared and assessed for the effect of polymers (carbopol, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, and methyl cellulose), permeation enhancers (5% w/w, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dimethyl formamide, n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and polyethylene glycol 400), and the combination approach (permeation enhancers with iontophoresis-0.5 mA/cm² on the drug delivery. The flux values observed in passive (4.59-5.89 µg/cm²/h) and iontophoresis (37.99-41.57 µg/cm²/h) processes revealed that the permeation of metoprolol was not influenced by the polymers studied, under similar conditions, and further studies were carried out using carbopol gel as a representative polymer. Appreciable enhancement (~5-fold) in drug delivery was observed with SLS in the passive process while the optimum iontophoretic delivery condition ensured better delivery (~7-fold). Combination of iontophoresis with SLS further enhanced the drug delivery (~9-fold) and leads to noticeable drug retention in the skin as well. Moreover, the drug retained in the cutaneous layer of the skin eventually released over a period of time (5 days) and followed a near first order profile. This study concludes that the combination of iontophoresis with SLS augmented the metoprolol delivery and rendered skin drug depot, which eventually released over a period of time.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation administered to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniesse, Delphine; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K; Smith, Dale A; Mosley, Cornelia; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Beaufrère, Hugues

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate incorporated into poloxamer 407 (P407) after SC administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). ANIMALS 11 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (6 males and 5 females; 11 to 27 years old). PROCEDURES A sterile formulation of butorphanol in P407 (But-P407) 25% (percentage determined as [weight of P407/weight of diluent] × 100]) was created (8.3 mg/mL). Five preliminary experiments (2 birds/experiment) were performed to determine the ideal dose for this species. The formulation then was administered (12.5 mg/kg, SC) to 8 birds. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.08, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Some birds were used more than once, with a washout period of ≥ 3 months between subsequent treatments. Butorphanol concentrations were quantitated by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by use of noncompartmental analysis. RESULTS Maximal plasma butorphanol concentration was reached at 1.31 hours. Plasma concentrations of butorphanol remained > 100 ng/mL for > 3 hours (all birds) or > 4 hours (5/8 birds) but < 8 hours (all birds). Half-life of the terminal slope was 3.41 hours. No adverse effects were detected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Butorphanol was absorbed well from the But-P407 25% by Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and absorption followed a pharmacokinetic profile compatible with a sustained-release drug. A dose of 12.5 mg/kg, SC, would theoretically provide analgesia for 4 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were detected. Studies on the pharmacodynamics of this formulation are necessary to confirm the degree and duration of analgesia.

  18. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte balance in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases conditions characterized by low or high blood potassium levels. (b) Classification. Class II. ...

  19. Potassium load from blood transfusion in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malament, I B; Uhlman, W; Eisinger, R P

    1975-01-01

    When a transfusion of packed red blood cells is given, the net potassium load results from lysis of some cells and absorption of potassium by surviving cells. Potassium load was calculated which results from administration of 1 unit (200 cc.) of packed RBC and also that resulting from administration of sufficient packed cells to yield 200 cc. of surviving RBC. Although the acute load of potassium due to cell lysis increases as blood is stored for longer periods, the absorption of potassium by surviving cells also increases. Thus, net potassium load may be least if blood is stored for about one week. Hence the acute potassium load and the net potassium burden a patient receives from a transfusion can be considered when transfusion therapy is selected.

  20. Altered potassium homeostasis in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Bosaller, C.; Lehr, L.

    1983-01-01

    The total body potassium (TBK), serum potassium, and the number of red blood cell ouabain-binding sites was studied in 94 patients with Crohn's diease. TBK was measured by counting the endogenous 40 K in a whole body counter. TBK was 87%+-13% in 94 patients was Crohn's disease, while in control subjects, it was 97%+-12% (n=24). This significant reduction in TBK was accompanied by normal serum potassium levels (4.4+-0.5 mM). TBK was significantly correlated with the Crohn's disease activity index (r=0.79, n=113, P 3 H-ouabain showed a significant increse in the number of Na-K pumps in Crohn's disease (396+-65, n=27) compared with the control group. 290+-45 (n=24). These results support the suggestion that changes in TBK may regulate the synthesis of Na-K pump molecules. The total body potassium depletion and the need for a preoperative nutritional support in Crohn's disease are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Acute Renal Failure following Accidental Potassium Bromate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental poisoning is common in children. Potassium bromate is a commonly used additive and raising agent in many edibles particularly bread, a staple food worldwide, yet its accidental poisoning has hitherto, not been documented in Nigeria. We report an unusual case of acute renal failure following accidental ...

  2. Effect Of Virkon Disinfectant Brand Of Potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Nigerian market are many brands of disinfectants with varying efficacy against bacteria, fungi and viruses. Recently Virkon brand of potassium monoperoxysulphate (Antec, UK) was introduced. The Kelsey -Sykes test was carried out to determine the efficacy of Virkon against standard bacterial strains and ...

  3. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    observation is not reversed by the KD which to some extent supports our initial hypothesis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Epilepsy , Ketogenic Diet , Seizure Disorder... ketogenic diet (KD), which is used to treat epilepsy (primarily in children) exerts a positive effect on seizure activity by regulating neuronal... Epilepsy , Ketogenic Diet , Seizure Disorder, Potassium Channels, Neurophysiology 3. Overall Project Summary: To determine the impact of KD on

  4. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3616...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582...

  7. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3640...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of.... 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt... supplement as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter. (d) The ingredient is used in table salt in...

  11. METHODS OF AVAILABLE POTASSIUM ASSESSMENT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    An alternative rationale for corn N fertilizer recommendations. J. Prod. Agric. 7: 243-249. Vanotti, M. B. and Bundy, L. G. 1994b. Corn nitrogen recommendations based on yield response data. J. Prod. Agric. 7: 249-256. Wild, A. A. 1971. The potassium status of soils in the savanna zone of Nigeria. Expl. Agric. 7: 257-270. 87.

  12. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K (2.50 g/kg, supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per egg dozen, estimating the requirements of 4.26, 4.41, 4.38, 4.43 and 4.48 (g/kg of K diet, respectively. There was no significant effect on the levels of K in the diet on egg weight, albumen weight, percentage of yolk or shell and yolk color. However, yolk and shell weights reduced and the albumen percentage increased linearly with increasing levels of K in the diet. Despite the reduction of shell weight, the increased levels of K did not influence the specific gravity and shell thickness. The use of 4.41 g/kg of potassium is recommended in the diet for laying Japanese quails.

  13. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS' contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe +6 ) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern

  14. Effect of potassium on micromorphological and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Euglena gracilis together with a monogram for the determination of chlorophyll concentration. Planta, 78: 200-207. Liang DY, Xu MD, Wang S, Chen PS, Lin FQ, Wen RT, Zhang YJ. (1992). Effects of potassium application on nutrient uptake and dry matter accumulation in cotton. Scientia Agricultura Sinica ...

  15. The existence of the potassium dioxodifluorobromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantot, Georges; Bougon, Roland

    1975-01-01

    The reaction of liquid bromine pentafluoride with potassium bromate allows the formation of an oxyfluorinated complex ion of bromine V: the dioxodifluorobromate ion BrO 2 F 2 - . From Raman spectroscopy data this ion has a structure related to those of the chlorine and iodine corresponding ions [fr

  16. 186 183 Potassium Bromate Content of Bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... nutritional quality of bread. This leads to degradation of vitamin A, B1, B2 , E and niacin. Results obtained from in-vivo and in-vitro mutagenic studies show that potassium bromate is a potential cancer initiator. In humans, acute intoxication of this substance leads to renal failure and loss of hearing (Sai et al., ...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  18. Effect of potassium on micromorphological and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (15), pp. 3511-3518, 4 August, ... P2O5/kg soil to all the pots, while potassium (K) was applied at three levels; control (no K), 100 and 200 mg K2O/kg soil. ... Key words: Cotton, mesophyl cells, starch grains, protein, seed cotton yield, K applicatiion. INTRODUCTION.

  19. doped cadmium potassium phosphate hexahydrate: A substitutional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal EPR studies of VO(II)-doped cadmium potassium phosphate hexahydrate (CPPH) have been carried out at room temperature. The angular variation spectra in the three orthogonal planes indicate that the paramagnetic impurity has entered the lattice only substitutionally in place of Cd(II). Spin Hamiltonian ...

  20. Cyanide and antimony thermodynamic database for the aqueous species and solids for the EPA-MINTEQ geochemical code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1989-05-01

    Thermodynamic data for aqueous species and solids that contain cyanide and antimony were tabulated from several commonly accepted, published sources of thermodynamic data and recent journal article. The review does not include gases or organic complexes of either antimony or cyanide, nor does the review include the sulfur compounds of cyanide. The basic thermodynamic data, ΔG/sub f,298//sup o/, ΔH/sub f,298//sup o/, and S/sub f//sup o/ values, were chosen to represent each solid phase and aqueous species for which data were available in the appropriate standard state. From these data the equilibrium constants (log K/sub r,298//sup o/) and enthalpies of reaction (ΔH/sub r,298//sup o/) at 298 K (25/degree/C) were calculated for reactions involving the formation of these aqueous species and solids from the basic components. 34 refs., 14 tabs

  1. First report of the use of meglumine antimoniate for treatment of canine leishmaniasis in a pregnant dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Groppetti, Debora; Perego, Roberta; Grieco, Valeria; Ferro, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis during pregnancy is rarely reported, even in countries where the infection in dogs is endemic. The authors report a case of a 4 yr old bitch with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate during pregnancy. The pregnancy and delivery were normal and the bitch presented improvement of the infection during treatment. Three puppies died within 2 days of birth and tested negative via real-time PCR for L. infantum. The two surviving puppies were followed clinically, serologically, and by real-time PCR until 1 yr of age with no evidence of congenital leishmaniasis. L. infantum DNA was detected with real-time PCR analysis of uterine tissue from the bitch at the time of ovariohysterectomy. PCR analysis was performed after an ovariohysterectomy of the bitch that was performed two months after parturition. Meglumine antimoniate use in the pregnant bitch may have prevented vertical transmission of leishmaniasis.

  2. Potassium and thallium uptake in dog myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassingthwaighte, J B; Winkler, B; King, R B

    1997-02-01

    We sought to ascertain the rates and mechanisms of uptake of markers for regional myocardial blood flows. The rates of exchange of potassium and thallium across capillary walls and cell membranes in isolated blood-perfused dog hearts were estimated from multiple indicator dilution curves recorded for 131I-albumin, 42K and 201Tl from the coronary sinus outflow following injection into arterial inflow. Analysis involved fitting the observed dilution curves with a model composed of a capillary-interstitial fluid-cell exchange region and nonexchanging larger vessels. Capillary permeability surface products (PSc) for potassium and thallium were similar, 0.82 +/- 0.33 (mean +/- s.d., n = 19) and 0.87 +/- 0.32 ml min-1 g-1 (n = 24) with a ratio for simultaneous pairs of 1.02 +/- 0.27 (n = 19). For the myocardial cells, PSpc averaged 3.7 +/- 3.1 ml min-1 g-1 (n = 19) for K+ and 9.5 +/- 3.9 (n = 24) for Tl+; the ratio of potassium to thallium averaged 0.40 +/- 0.19 (n = 18), thereby omitting a single high value for potassium. This high cellular influx for thallium is interpreted as due to its passage through ionic channels for both Na+ and K+. The high permeabilities and large volumes of distribution make thallium and potassium among the best ionic deposition markers for regional flow. Their utility for this purpose is compromised by significant capillary barrier limitation retarding uptake; so regional flow is underestimated modestly in high-flow regions particularly.

  3. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Franco, Jairo E.; Cruz-Barrera, M?nica L.; Robayo, Marta L.; Lopez, Myriam C.; Daza, Carlos D.; Bedoya, Angela; Mari?o, Maria L.; Saavedra, Carlos H.; Echeverry, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate) under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antim...

  4. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  5. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...

  8. A novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulon in Anabaena torulosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    torulosa and of nine proteins in Escherichia coli. These were termed potassium deficiency-induced proteins or. PDPs and constitute hitherto unknown potassium deficiency–induced stimulons. Potassium deficiency also enhanced the synthesis of certain osmotic stress-induced proteins. Addition of K+ repressed the ...

  9. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  10. Relationship between potassium intake and radiocesium retention in the reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleman, D.F.; Luick, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of dietary potassium on radiocesium retention was studied in reindeer fed winter diets of lichens. Potassium added to the diet markedly decreased radiocesium retention; this suggests that seasonal changes in cesium retention observed earlier in reindeer might be caused largely by nutritional factors. Data indicate that a 20-fold increase in dietary potassium results in a 2-fold decrease in radiocesium retention

  11. Migration of antimony from PET bottles into beverages: determination of the activation energy of diffusion and migration modelling compared with literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, F; Franz, R

    2011-01-01

    Plastics bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are increasingly used for soft drinks, mineral water, juices and beer. In this study a literature review is presented concerning antimony levels found both in PET materials as well as in foods and food simulants. On the other hand, 67 PET samples from the European bottle market were investigated for their residual antimony concentrations. A mean value of 224 ± 32 mg kg(-1) was found, the median was 220 mg kg(-1). Diffusion coefficients for antimony in PET bottle materials were experimentally determined at different temperature between 105 and 150°C. From these data, the activation energy of diffusion for antimony species from the PET bottle wall into beverages and food simulants was calculated. The obtained value of 189 kJ mol(-1) was found to be in good agreement with published data on PET microwave trays (184 kJ mol(-1)). Based on these results, the migration of antimony into beverages was predicted by mathematical migration modelling for different surface/volume ratios and antimony bottle wall concentrations. The results were compared with literature data as well as international legal limits and guidelines values for drinking water and the migration limit set from food packaging legislation. It was concluded that antimony levels in beverages due to migration from PET bottles manufactured according to the state of the art can never reach or exceed the European-specific migration limit of 40 microg kg(-1). Maximum migration levels caused by room-temperature storage even after 3 years will never be essentially higher than 2.5 microg kg(-1) and in any case will be below the European limit of 5 microg kg(-1) for drinking water. The results of this study confirm that the exposure of the consumer by antimony migration from PET bottles into beverages and even into edible oils reaches approximately 1% of the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by World Health Organisation (WHO). Having

  12. PANCREATIC TOXICITY AS AN ADVERSE EFFECT INDUCED BY MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE THERAPY IN A CLINICAL TRIAL FOR CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosandiski LYRA

    Full Text Available SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL, although doses are controversial. In a clinical trial for CL we investigated the occurrence of pancreatic toxicity with different schedules of treatment with meglumine antimoniate (MA. Seventy-two patients were allocated in two different therapeutic groups: 20 or 5 mg of pentavalent antimony (Sb5+/kg/day for 20 or 30 days, respectively. Looking for adverse effects, patients were asked about abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia in each medical visit. We performed physical examinations and collected blood to evaluate serum amylase and lipase in the pre-treatment period, and every 10 days during treatment and one month post-treatment. Hyperlipasemia occurred in 54.8% and hyperamylasemia in 19.4% patients. Patients treated with MA 20 mg Sb5+ presented a higher risk of hyperlipasemia (p = 0.023. Besides, higher MA doses were associated with a 2.05 higher risk ratio (p = 0.003 of developing more serious (moderate to severe hyperlipasemia. The attributable fraction was 51% in this group. Thirty-six patients presented abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia but only 47.2% of those had hyperlipasemia and/ or hyperamylasemia. These findings suggest the importance of the search for less toxic therapeutic regimens for the treatment of CL.

  13. Antimony speciation analysis in sediment reference materials using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potin-Gautier, M.; Pannier, F.; Quiroz, W.; Pinochet, H.; Gregori, I. de

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the development of suitable methodologies for determination of the speciation of antimony in sediment reference samples. Liquid chromatography with a post-column photo-oxidation step and hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry as detection system is applied to the separation and determination of Sb(III), Sb(V) and trimethylantimony species. Post-column decomposition and hydride generation steps were studied for sensitive detection with the AFS detector. This method was applied to investigate the conditions under which speciation analysis of antimony in sediment samples can be carried out. Stability studies of Sb species during the extraction processes of solid matrices, using different reagents solutions, were performed. Results demonstrate that for the extraction yield and the stability of Sb species in different marine sediment extracts, citric acid in ascorbic acid medium was the best extracting solution for antimony speciation analysis in this matrix (between 55% and 65% of total Sb was recovered from CRMs, Sb(III) being the predominant species). The developed method allows the separation of the three compounds within 6 min with detection limits of 30 ng g -1 for Sb(III) and TMSbCl2 and 40 ng g -1 for Sb(V) in sediment samples

  14. Antimony speciation analysis in sediment reference materials using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potin-Gautier, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, BioInorganique et Environnement LCABIE (UMR CNRS 3054), Universite de Pau et des pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France); Pannier, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, BioInorganique et Environnement LCABIE (UMR CNRS 3054), Universite de Pau et des pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France)]. E-mail: Florence.pannier@univ-pau.fr; Quiroz, W. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, BioInorganique et Environnement LCABIE (UMR CNRS 3054), Universite de Pau et des pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France); Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad catolica de Valparaiso (Chile); Pinochet, H. [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad catolica de Valparaiso (Chile); Gregori, I. de [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad catolica de Valparaiso (Chile)

    2005-11-30

    This work presents the development of suitable methodologies for determination of the speciation of antimony in sediment reference samples. Liquid chromatography with a post-column photo-oxidation step and hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry as detection system is applied to the separation and determination of Sb(III), Sb(V) and trimethylantimony species. Post-column decomposition and hydride generation steps were studied for sensitive detection with the AFS detector. This method was applied to investigate the conditions under which speciation analysis of antimony in sediment samples can be carried out. Stability studies of Sb species during the extraction processes of solid matrices, using different reagents solutions, were performed. Results demonstrate that for the extraction yield and the stability of Sb species in different marine sediment extracts, citric acid in ascorbic acid medium was the best extracting solution for antimony speciation analysis in this matrix (between 55% and 65% of total Sb was recovered from CRMs, Sb(III) being the predominant species). The developed method allows the separation of the three compounds within 6 min with detection limits of 30 ng g{sup -1} for Sb(III) and TMSbCl2 and 40 ng g{sup -1} for Sb(V) in sediment samples.

  15. Evaluation of potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in some common Nigerian beverages: A look at antimony, tin and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Roberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently little information on the composition of heavy metals in beverages imported and locally produced in Nigeria. The study quantitatively determined the composition of antimony (Sb, tin (Sn and mercury (Hg in 50 different beverage samples and evaluated the extent of violation of guideline values. Analysis of the beverage samples for the presence of Sb, Sn, and Hg was carried out using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS 929. The mean values detected for mercury, tin and antimony (±SE in fruit juices and soft drinks were 2.39±0.25, 3.66±0.22 and 0.49±0.048 μg/l; 2.93±0.34, 3.60±0.46 and 0.49±0.10 μg/l in dairy drinks and 0.94±0.02, 4.34±0.48 and 0.48±0.05 μg/l in bottled water samples respectively. While antimony detected in all products was below guideline values, mercury and tin were above the acceptable levels established by the World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency and European Union in most samples tested.

  16. 75 FR 12723 - Notice of Meeting of the National Organic Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ...); Phosphoric acid; Potassium acid tartrate; Potassium carbonate; Potassium citrate; Potassium hydroxide; Potassium iodide; Potassium phosphate; Silicon dioxide; Sodium citrate; Sodium hydroxide; Sodium phosphates...; Pheromones; Sulfur dioxide; Vitamin D 3 ; Copper hydroxide; Copper oxide; Copper oxychloride; Copper sulfate...

  17. Functioning of antimony film electrode in acid media under cyclic and anodic stripping voltammetry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebez, Bine; Ogorevc, Bozidar; Hocevar, Samo B; Veber, Marjan

    2013-06-27

    New insights into the functioning, i.e. electrochemical behaviour and analytical performance, of in situ prepared antimony film electrodes (SbFEs) under square-wave anodic stripping (SW-ASV) and cyclic (CV) voltammetry conditions are presented by studying several key operational parameters using Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) as model analyte ions. Five different carbon- and metal-based substrate transducer electrodes revealed a clear advantage of the former ones while the concentration of the precursor Sb(III) ion exhibited a distinct influence on the ASV functioning of the SbFE. Among six acids examined as potential supporting electrolytes the HNO3 was demonstrated to yield nearly identical results in conducting ASV experiments with SbFE as so far almost exclusively used HCl. This is extremely important as HNO3 is commonly employed acidifying agent in trace metal analysis, especially in elemental mass spectrometry measurements. By carrying out a systematic CV and ASV investigation using a medium exchange protocol, we confirmed the formation of poorly soluble oxidized Sb species at the substrate electrode surface at the end of each stripping step, i.e. at the potentials beyond the anodic dissolution of the antimony film. Hence, the significance of the cleaning and initializing the surface of a substrate electrode after accomplishing a stripping step was thoroughly studied in order to find conditions for a complete removal of the adhered Sb-oxides and thus to assure a memory-free functioning of the in situ prepared SbFE. Finally, the practical analytical application of the proposed ASV method was successfully tested and evaluated by measuring the three metal analytes in ground (tap) and surface (river) water samples acidified with HNO3. Our results approved the appropriateness of the SbFE and the proposed method for measuring low μg L(-1) levels of some toxic metals, particularly taking into account the possibility of on-field testing and the use of low cost

  18. Comparative study of hematological responses to platinum group metals, antimony and silver nanoparticles in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Catherine E; Gagnon, Zofia E; Pavel Sizemore, Ioana E

    2014-01-01

    Research was conducted to examine the hematological effects of heavy metals (platinum (Pt ((IV))), palladium (Pd ((II))), rhodium (Rh ((III))), antimony (Sb ((III)) and Sb ((V))), and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)) on white blood cells in mammalian (rat) and avian (chick embryo) models. These metals are used in many everyday products and are accumulating in our environment. Six-week old Sprague-Dawley female rats were treated daily by gavage and six-day old, fertile, specific pathogen-free white leghorn strain chick embryos' eggs were injected on days 7 and 14 of incubation with 0.0, 1.0, 5.0 or 10.0 ppm concentrations of Pt ((IV)) and a platinum group metal (PGM) mix of Pt ((IV)), Pd ((II)) and Rh ((III)). Chick embryos were also tested with 1.0 or 5.0 ppm of antimony compounds (Sb ((III)) and Sb ((V))) and 0.0, 15.0, 30.0, 60.0, or 100.0 ppm of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). After 8 weeks of treatment, blood was obtained from the rats by jugular cut down and from chick embryos on day 20 of incubation by heart puncture. Blood smears were made and stained and a differential white cell count was performed on each. Examination of the smears revealed unconventional dose responses, stimulation of the immune response, and decreases in leukocyte production with various metals and concentrations. Chick embryos responded differently than rats to Pt and the PGM mix; suggesting that species differences and/or stage of development are important components of response to heavy metals. Route of administration of the metals might also influence the response. All of the heavy metals tested affected the immune responses of the tested animals as demonstrated by changes in the types and numbers of leukocytes. Our findings warrant further research to determine the mechanism of these effects and to understand and prevent toxicological effects in humans and other living organisms.

  19. Effects of cisplatin on potassium currents in CT26 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Potassium currents were detected in CT26 cells and the currents were reduced by the application of tetraethylammonium (TEA chloride, iberiotoxin, a big conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blocker and barium. The potassium currents were enhanced to 192< by the application of cisplatin (0.5 mM. Moreover, the increase of potassium currents by cisplatin was further inhibited by the application of TEA confirming the action of cisplatin on potassium channels. In addition, relative current induced by cisplatin in CT26 cells was bit larger than in normal IEC-6 cells.

  20. Multistability in a neuron model with extracellular potassium dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Xing; Shuai, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    Experiments show a primary role of extracellular potassium concentrations in neuronal hyperexcitability and in the generation of epileptiform bursting and depolarization blocks without synaptic mechanisms. We adopt a physiologically relevant hippocampal CA1 neuron model in a zero-calcium condition to better understand the function of extracellular potassium in neuronal seizurelike activities. The model neuron is surrounded by interstitial space in which potassium ions are able to accumulate. Potassium currents, Na+-K+ pumps, glial buffering, and ion diffusion are regulatory mechanisms of extracellular potassium. We also consider a reduced model with a fixed potassium concentration. The bifurcation structure and spiking frequency of the two models are studied. We show that, besides hyperexcitability and bursting pattern modulation, the potassium dynamics can induce not only bistability but also tristability of different firing patterns. Our results reveal the emergence of the complex behavior of multistability due to the dynamical [K+]o modulation on neuronal activities.

  1. Potassium tetracyanidoaurate(III monohydrate: a redetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Matsushita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title metal complex salt, K[Au(CN4]·H2O, has been redetermined using X-ray diffraction data at 173 K in order to improve the precision. The previous determination was based on neutron diffraction data [Bertinotti & Bertinotti (1970. Acta Cryst. B26, 422–428]. The title compound crystallizes in the space group P212121 with one potassium cation, one [Au(CN4]− anion and one water molecule in the asymmetric unit. The AuIII atom lies on a general position and has an almost square-planar coordination sphere defined by four cyanide ligands. Interactions between the potassium cation and N atoms of the complex anion, as well as O—H...N hydrogen bonds, lead to the formation of a three-dimensional framework structure.

  2. [About the history chemistry and potassium iodide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Josette

    2008-07-01

    Louis Melsen was born at Louvain, he spent four years in Paris, working in Dumas's laboratory. Four letters from Melsens to Chevreul, since 1951 to 1880, are commented on. Two letters relate to Van Helmont and common interest of the two scientists in history of sciences. The others recall Melsens's proposal that potassium iodide can cure and prevent lead and mercury poisoning, and Chevreul's researches about colours seeing.

  3. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Zanetti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the structure-function relationship of a small number of prokaryotic ion channels characterized so far greatly contributed to our knowledge on basic mechanisms of ion conduction. We identified a new potassium channel (SynK in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a photosynthetic model organism. SynK, when expressed in a K(+-uptake-system deficient E. coli strain, was able to recover growth of these organisms. The protein functions as a potassium selective ion channel when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The location of SynK in cyanobacteria in both thylakoid and plasmamembranes was revealed by immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions. SynK seems to be conserved during evolution, giving rise to a TPK (two-pore K(+ channel family member which is shown here to be located in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis. Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies.

  4. Partitioning geochemistry of arsenic and antimony, El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, J.T. [Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Bennett, P.C., E-mail: pbennett@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Engel, A.S. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Alsina, M.A.; Pasten, P.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Milliken, K. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The abundance of As and Sb in aqueous, mineral and biological reservoirs was examined at El Tatio Geyser Field, a unique hydrothermal basin located in the Atacama Desert region of Chile. Here the concentration of total As and Sb in hydrothermal springs and discharge streams are the highest reported for a natural surface water, and the geyser basin represents a significant source of toxic elements for downstream users across Region II, Chile. The geyser waters are near neutral Na:Cl type with {approx}0.45 and 0.021 mmol L{sup -1} total As and Sb, respectively, primarily in the reduced (III) redox state at the discharge with progressive oxidation downstream. The ferric oxyhydroxides associated with the microbial mats and some mineral precipitates accumulate substantial As that was identified as arsenate by XAS analysis (>10 wt% in the mats). This As is easily mobilized by anion exchange or mild dissolution of the HFO, and the ubiquitous microbial mats represent a significant reservoir of As in this system. Antimony, in contrast, is not associated with the mineral ferric oxides or the biomats, but is substantially enriched in the silica matrix of the geyserite precipitates, up to 2 wt% as Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Understanding the mobility and partitioning behavior of these metalloids is critical for understanding their eventual impact on regional water management.

  5. Retardation of grain boundary self-diffusion in nickel doped with antimony and tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, R.A.; White, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Many important metallurgical phenomena are strongly influenced or controlled by grain boundary mass transport. There is also much evidence that the composition of grain boundaries is often significantly different from the overall composition of metals and alloys, owing to strong segregation of residual (and often undetected) impurities. This segregation, which does not always advertise its presence through grain boundary brittleness, may vary markedly from heat to heat, and occasionally from specimen to specimen within a given heat. Unfortunately, there are relatively few experimental observations of how such segregation affects grain boundary mass transport, and even less fundamental understanding of how these effects occur. In this paper we present autoradiographic results on self-diffusion of 63 Ni in nickel and nickel doped with antimony and tin. While these results do not permit a quantitative evaluation of the grain boundary diffusivity, D, they qualitatively illustrate the dramatic effect that these solute elements have on the ability of nickel grain boundaries to act as preferential paths for mass transport

  6. Excitation functions for alpha-particle-induced reactions with natural antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N. L.; Shah, D. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Chintalapudi, S. N. [Vadodara, M. S. Univ. of Baroda (India). Fac. of Science. Dept. of Physics

    1997-07-01

    Stacked-foil activation technique and {gamma} - rays spectroscopy were used for the determination of the excitation functions of the {sup 121}Sb [({alpha}, n); ({alpha}, 2n); ({alpha},4 n); ({alpha}, p3n); ({alpha}, {alpha}n)]; and Sb [({alpha}, 3n); ({alpha}, 4n); ({alpha}, {alpha}3n)] reactions. The excitation functions for the production of {sup 124}I, {sup 123}I, {sup 121}I, {sup 121}Te and {sup 120}Sb were reported up to 50 MeV. The reactions {sup 121} Sb ({alpha}, {alpha}n) + {sup 123} Sb ({alpha}, {alpha}3n) are measured for the first time. Since natural antimony used as the target has two odd mass stable isotopes of abundances 57.3 % ({sup 121}Sb), their activation in some cases gives the same product nucleus through different reaction channels but with very different Q-values. In such cases, the individual reaction cross-sections are separated with the help of theoretical cross-sections. The experimental cross-sections were compared with the predictions based on hybrid model of Blann. The high-energy part of the excitation functions are dominated by the pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism and the initial exciton number n{sub 0} = 4 (4 p 0 h) gives fairly good agreement with presently measured results.

  7. Synthesis of Water-Soluble Antimony Sulfide Quantum Dots and Their Photoelectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Yan, Xuelian; Cheng, Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) has been applied in photoelectric devices for a long time. However, there was lack of information about Sb2S3 quantum dots (QDs) because of the synthesis difficulties. To fill this vacancy, water-soluble Sb2S3 QDs were prepared by hot injection using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) mixture as anionic-cationic surfactant, alkanol amide (DEA) as stabilizer, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as dispersant. Photoelectric properties including absorbing and emission were characterized by UV-Vis-IR spectrophotometer and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic technique. An intensive PL emission at 880 nm was found, indicating Sb2S3 QDs have good prospects in near-infrared LED and near-infrared laser application. Sb2S3 QD thin films were prepared by self-assembly growth and then annealed in argon or selenium vapor. Their band gaps ( E g s) were calculated according to transmittance spectra. The E g of Sb2S3 QD thin film has been found to be tunable from 1.82 to 1.09 eV via annealing or selenylation, demonstrating the good prospects in photovoltaic application.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of lead telluride/bismuth antimony telluride nanocomposites for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Shreyashi; Zhou, Chen; Morelli, Donald; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Uher, Ctirad; Brock, Stephanie L.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous nanocomposites of p-type bismuth antimony telluride (Bi 2- xSb xTe 3) with lead telluride (PbTe) nanoinclusions have been prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation approach. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and Hall coefficient were measured from 80 to 380 K in order to investigate the influence of PbTe nanoparticles on the thermoelectric performance of nanocomposites. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities of nanocomposites decrease with increasing PbTe nanoparticle concentration due to an increased hole concentration. The lattice thermal conductivity decreases with the addition of PbTe nanoparticles but the total thermal conductivity increases due to the increased electronic thermal conductivity. We conclude that the presence of nanosized PbTe in the bulk Bi 2- xSb xTe 3 matrix results in a collateral doping effect, which dominates transport properties. This study underscores the need for immiscible systems to achieve the decreased thermal transport properties possible from nanostructuring without compromising the electronic properties.

  9. Phase diagram of antimony up to 31 GPa and 835 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, A. L.; Stevenson, M.; McMahon, M. I.; Macleod, S. G.

    2018-04-01

    X-ray powder diffraction experiments using resistively heated diamond anvil cells have been conducted in order to establish the phase behavior of antimony up to 31 GPa and 835 K. The dip in the melting curve at 5.7 GPa and 840 K is identified as the triple point between the Sb-I, incommensurate Sb-II, and liquid phases. No evidence of the previously reported simple cubic phase was observed. Determination of the phase boundary between Sb-II and Sb-III suggests the existence of a second triple point in the region of 13 GPa and 1200 K. The incommensurate composite structure of Sb-II was found to remain ordered to the highest temperatures studies—no evidence of disordering of the guest-atom chains was observed. Indeed, the modulation reflections that arise from interactions between the host and guest subsystems were found to be present to the highest temperatures, suggesting such interactions remain relatively strong in Sb even in the presence of increased thermal motion. Finally, we show that the incommensurately modulated structure recently reported as giving an improved fit to diffraction data from incommensurate Ba-IV can be rejected as the structure of Sb-II using a simple density argument.

  10. Synthesis of Copper-Antimony-Sulfide Nanocrystals for Solution-Processed Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Satoshi; Horita, Keisuke; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Tooru; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Ishiwata, Yoichi; Shimanoe, Kengo; Kida, Tetsuya

    2015-08-17

    The p-type nanocrystals (NCs) of copper-based chalcogenides, such as CuInSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have attracted increasing attention in photovoltaic applications due to their potential to produce cheap solution-processed solar cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of copper-antimony-sulfide (CAS) NCs with different crystal phases including CuSbS2, Cu3SbS4, and Cu12Sb4S13. In addition, their morphology, crystal phase, and optical properties were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy, and photoemission yield spectroscopy. The morphology, crystal phase, and electronic structure were significantly dependent on the chemical composition in the CAS system. Devices were fabricated using particulate films consisting of CAS NCs prepared by spin coating without a high-temperature treatment. The CAS NC-based devices exhibited a diode-like current-voltage characteristic when coupled with an n-type CdS layer. In particular, the CuSbS2 NC devices exhibited photovoltaic responses under simulated sunlight, demonstrating its applicability for use in solution-processed solar cells.

  11. Determination of antimony by using a quartz atom trap and electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlioglu, Ipek; Korkmaz, Deniz [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Ataman, O. Yavuz [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ataman@metu.edu.tr

    2007-01-15

    The analytical performance of a miniature quartz trap coupled with electrochemical hydride generator for antimony determination is described. A portion of the inlet arm of the conventional quartz tube atomizer was used as an integrated trap medium for on-line preconcentration of electrochemically generated hydrides. This configuration minimizes transfer lines and connections. A thin-layer of electrochemical flow through cell was constructed. Lead and platinum foils were employed as cathode and anode materials, respectively. Experimental operation conditions for hydride generation as well as the collection and revolatilization conditions for the generated hydrides in the inlet arm of the quartz tube atomizer were optimized. Interferences of copper, nickel, iron, cobalt, arsenic, selenium, lead and tin were examined both with and without the trap. 3{sigma} limit of detection was estimated as 0.053 {mu}g l{sup -1} for a sample size of 6.0 ml collected in 120 s. The trap has provided 18 fold sensitivity improvement as compared to electrochemical hydride generation alone. The accuracy of the proposed technique was evaluated with two standard reference materials; Trace Metals in Drinking Water, Cat CRM-TMDW and Metals on Soil/Sediment 4, IRM-008.

  12. Determination of antimony by using a quartz atom trap and electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menemenlioglu, Ipek; Korkmaz, Deniz; Ataman, O. Yavuz

    2007-01-01

    The analytical performance of a miniature quartz trap coupled with electrochemical hydride generator for antimony determination is described. A portion of the inlet arm of the conventional quartz tube atomizer was used as an integrated trap medium for on-line preconcentration of electrochemically generated hydrides. This configuration minimizes transfer lines and connections. A thin-layer of electrochemical flow through cell was constructed. Lead and platinum foils were employed as cathode and anode materials, respectively. Experimental operation conditions for hydride generation as well as the collection and revolatilization conditions for the generated hydrides in the inlet arm of the quartz tube atomizer were optimized. Interferences of copper, nickel, iron, cobalt, arsenic, selenium, lead and tin were examined both with and without the trap. 3σ limit of detection was estimated as 0.053 μg l -1 for a sample size of 6.0 ml collected in 120 s. The trap has provided 18 fold sensitivity improvement as compared to electrochemical hydride generation alone. The accuracy of the proposed technique was evaluated with two standard reference materials; Trace Metals in Drinking Water, Cat CRM-TMDW and Metals on Soil/Sediment 4, IRM-008

  13. 90Y-labeled antimony trisulfide colloid as promising therapeutic agent: Physicochemical characterization and biological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Drina Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The suitability of 90Y-labeled antimony trisulfide colloid (ATC for the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceutical was studied taking into accounts its physicochemical properties and biological behavior in rats. Material and methods The labeling efficiency of 90Y- and 99mTc-labeled colloid particles was investigated by ITLC-SG and paper chromatography, the in vitro stability of the colloid was tested in human serum, while in vivo experiments were performed on healthy Wistar rats. Analysis of the particles enclosed the size (TEM, determination of the zeta potential (Zetasizer Nano as well as radioactivity particle size distribution (filtration analysis. Results 90Y-labeled ATC can be prepared in high yield under investigated conditions Labeling efficiency was >95% and filtration analysis showed that more than 90% of radioactive particles were smaller than 20 nm. The particles with the size range of 6-22 nm were achieved by using polyvinyipyrrolidone (mol wt ~44,000. The 90Y-ATC was quite stable in vitro in human serum. Tissue distribution studies in rats confirmed that the liver and spleen uptake of 90Y-labeled colloid was three-fold lower in comparison with 99mTc-ATC, although the bone uptake was five-fold higher at 20 min post injection. Conclusions 90Y-labeled ATC showed high labeling efficiency and good stability, and might be well suited for therapeutic application in nuclear medicine.

  14. Carbon nanotubes modified with antimony nanoparticles: A novel material for electrochemical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Fernando C.; Cesarino, Ivana; Cesarino, Vivian; Mascaro, Lucia H.; Machado, Sergio A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel material for the electrochemical sensing was developed. ► Sensor based CNTs modified with Sb-nanoparticles was characterised and applied. ► The proposed sensor was suitable and sensitive for the determination of bisphenol A. - Abstract: In this study, a novel material for the electrochemical determination of bisphenol A using a nanocomposite based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with antimony nanoparticles has been investigated. The morphology, structure, and electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite electrodes were characterised by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. A scan rate study and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the bisphenol A oxidation product is adsorbed on nanocomposite electrode surface. Differential pulse voltammetry in phosphate buffer solution at pH 6, allowed the development of a method to determine bisphenol A levels in the range of 0.5–5.0 μmol L −1 , with a detection limit of 5.24 nmol L −1 (1.19 μg L −1 ).

  15. Leaching of Antimony (Sb)from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Inga

    2004-07-01

    The mobility of antimony (Sb) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues often exceeds the limit values stipulated by the European Union. As an ash treatment by washing is conceivable, this work investigated the Sb release from Swedish bottom ash and fly ash when mixed with water. The leaching experiments revealed the factors significantly (a = 0.05) affecting Sb release from the ashes. The following factors were investigated: Liquid to solid ratio (L/S), time, pH, carbonation (treatment with CO{sub 2}), ultrasonics and temperature. The data were evaluated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The impact of the factors could be quantified. The maximum Sb release calculated was 13 mg/kg DM for bottom ash and 51 mg/kg DM for fly ash. The derived models explained the observed data well. Nevertheless, the calculated values were subject to a high uncertainty. For bottom ash, a lowering of the Sb total content of approximately 22% could be achieved. If this also involves a sufficient lowering of the Sb mobility to meet EU limit values could not yet be assessed. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to explain the empirical results. However, no solid phases controlling Sb release from the ashes could be identified.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of copper antimony tin sulphide thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, N., E-mail: nisar.ali@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Govt. Post Graduate Jehanzeb College Saidu Sharif, Swat, 19200 (Pakistan); Hussain, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Ahmed, R., E-mail: rashidahmed@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Wan Shamsuri, W.N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Fu, Y.Q., E-mail: richard.fu@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Environment, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A new and novel material for solar cell applications is demonstrated as a replacement for toxic and expansive compounds. • The materials used in this compound are abundant and low cost. • Compound exhibit unusual optical and electrical properties. • The band gap was found to be comparable with that of GaAs. - Abstract: Low price thin film modules based on Copper antimony tin sulphide (CATS) are introduced for solar harvesting to compete for the already developed compound semiconductors. Here, CATS thin films were deposited on soda lime glass by thermal evaporation technique followed by a rapid thermal annealing in an argon atmosphere. From Our XRD analysis, it was revealed that the annealed samples were poly-crystalline and their crystallinity was improved with increasing annealing temperature. The constituent elements and their corresponding chemical states were identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained optical band gap of 1.4 eV for CATS thin film is found nearly equal to GaAs – one of the highly efficient thin film material for solar cell technology. Furthermore, our observed good optical absorbance and low transmittance for the annealed CATS thin films in the visible region of light spectrum assured the aptness of the CATS thin films for solar cell applications.

  17. Capacity extended bismuth-antimony cathode for high-performance liquid metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tao; Zhao, Yue; Ning, Xiao-Hui; Lakshmi Narayan, R.; Li, Ju; Shan, Zhi-wei

    2018-03-01

    Li-Bi based liquid metal batteries (LMBs) have attracted interest due to their potential for solving grid scale energy storage problems. In this study, the feasibility of replacing the bismuth cathode with a bismuth-antimony alloy cathode in lithium based LMBs is investigated. The influence of the Bi:Sb ratio on voltage characteristics is evaluated via the constant current discharge method and electrochemical titration. On observing the cross section of the electrode at various stages of discharge, it is determined that both Sb and Bi form solid intermetallics with Li on the cathode. Additionally, the addition of Bi not only reduces the melting temperature of the Bi:Sb intermetallic but also actively contributes to the electrode capacity. Thereafter, a Li|LiCl-LiF|Sb-Bi liquid metal battery with 3 A h nameplate capacity, assembled and cycled at 1 C rate, is found to possess a stable capacity for over 160 cycles. The overall performance of this battery is discussed in the context of cost effectiveness, energy and coulombic efficiencies.

  18. Effects of antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) on sliding friction of automotive brake friction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan Kyu; Rhee, Tae Hee; Kim, Hyun Seong; Jang, Ho

    2013-09-01

    The effect of antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) on the tribological properties of automotive brake friction materials was investigated using a Krauss type tribometer and a 1/5 scale dynamometer with a rigid caliper. Results showed that Sb2S3 improved fade resistance by developing transfer films on the disc surface at elevated temperatures. On the other hand, the rubbing surfaces of the friction material exhibited contact plateaus with a broader height distribution when it contained Sb2S3, indicating fewer contact junctions compared to the friction material with graphite. The friction material with Sb2S3 also exhibited a lower stick-slip propensity than the friction material with graphite. The improved fade resistance with Sb2S3 is attributed to its lubricating capability sustained at high temperatures, while the lower stick-slip propensity of the friction material with Sb2S3 is associated with the slight difference between its static and kinetic coefficients of friction and high normal stiffness.

  19. Assessment and distribution of antimony in soils around three coal mines, Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kang, Y.; Lam, P.K.S.; Chou, C.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-three soil samples were collected from the Luling, Liuer, and Zhangji coal mines in the Huaibei and Huainan areas of Anhui Province, China. The samples were analyzed for antimony (Sb) by inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The average Sb content in the 33 samples was 4 mg kg-1, which is lower than in coals from this region (6.2 mg kg-1). More than 75% of the soils sampled showed a significant degree of Sb pollution (enrichment factors [EFs] 5-20). The soils collected near the gob pile and coal preparation plant were higher in Sb content than those collected from residential areas near the mines. The gob pile and tailings from the preparation plant were high in mineral matter content and high in Sb. They are the sources of Sb pollution in surface soils in the vicinity of coal mines. The spatial dispersion of Sb in surface soil in the mine region shows that Sb pollution could reach out as far as 350 m into the local environment conditions. Crops in rice paddies may adsorb some Sb and reduce the Sb content in soils from paddyfields. Vertical distribution of Sb in two soil profiles indicates that Sb is normally relatively immobile in soils. ?? 2011 Air & Waste Management Association.

  20. Adsorption of Antimony by Bagasse Fly Ash: Chemical Modification and Adsorption Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leechart, Piyawan; Inthorn, Duangrat; Thiravetyan, Paitip

      Modification of bagasse fly ash (BFA) and the adsorption mechanism of antimony (Sb) by modified BFA were studied. It was found that BFA grafted with acrylic acid (BFAG) and BFA treated with hydrochloric acid (BFA/HCl) led to a decrease in the pH of the zero point of charge (pH zpc ) of the adsorbents. The pH zpc of BFA, BFAG, BFA/HCl and activated carbon (AC) were 8.3, 6.4, 6.2 and 8.2, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities (Q max ) of Sb by BFA, BFAG, BFA/HCl and AC were 0.14, 0.34, 0.38 and 0.29 mg Sb/g adsorbent, respectively. Modified BFA had Q max higher than AC although the BET surface area of AC was the highest. This was due to the system pH of BFAG and BFA/HCl was 5.20-6.00 and the pH zpc of BFAG and BFA/HCl accounted for 6.4 and 6.2, respectively. Therefore, the adsorbent surface had a positive charge, resulting in increasing adsorption of Sb.

  1. O-Alkyl Hydroxamates as Metaphors of Enzyme-Bound Enolate Intermediates in Hydroxy Acid Dehydrogenases. Inhibitors of Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase, Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, and Tartrate Dehydrogenase(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrung, Michael C.; Han, Hyunsoo; Chen, Jrlung

    1996-07-12

    The inhibition of Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase by O-methyl oxalohydroxamate was studied for comparison to earlier results of Schloss with the Salmonella enzyme. It is a fairly potent (1.2 &mgr;M), slow-binding, uncompetitive inhibitor against isopropylmalate and is far superior to an oxamide (25 mM K(i) competitive) that is isosteric with the ketoisocaproate product of the enzyme. This improvement in inhibition was attributed to its increased NH acidity, which presumably is due to the inductive effect of the hydroxylamine oxygen. This principle was extended to the structurally homologous enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase from E. coli, for which the compound O-(carboxymethyl) oxalohydroxamate is a 30 nM inhibitor, uncompetitive against isocitrate. The pH dependence of its inhibition supports the idea that it is bound to the enzyme in the anionic form. Another recently discovered homologous enzyme, tartrate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida, was studied with oxalylhydroxamate. It has a relatively low affinity for the enzyme, though it is superior to tartrate. On the basis of these leads, squaric hydroxamates with increased acidity compared to squaric amides directed toward two of these enzymes were prepared, and they also show increased inhibitory potency, though not approaching the nanomolar levels of the oxalylhydroxamates.

  2. Identification, characterization and quantification of new impurities by LC-ESI/MS/MS and LC-UV methods in rivastigmine tartrate active pharmaceutical ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Saji; Shandilya, Sanjeev; Bharati, Amber; Paul, Saroj Kumar; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Mathela, Chandra S

    2012-01-05

    Six impurities were detected at trace level in rivastigmine tartrate drug substance by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography method. Three impurities were characterized rapidly and three impurities were found to be unknown. The unknown impurities were enriched and identified with a combination of semi-preparative HPLC and LC/MS/MS techniques. Proposed structures were further confirmed by characterization using NMR, FT-IR, and EA techniques of impurity standards. Based on the spectroscopic, spectrometric and elemental analysis data unknown impurities were characterized as 3-[1-(dimethylamino)ethyl]phenyl N-ethyl-N-methyl carbamate N-oxide, ethyl-methyl-carbamic acid 4-(1-dimethylamino-ethyl)-phenyl ester and ethyl-methyl-carbamic acid 2-(1-dimethylamino-ethyl)-phenyl ester. A plausible mechanism for the formation of these impurities is also proposed. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines for fourteen impurities to demonstrate specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and stability indicating nature of the method. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for rivastigmine tartrate and its impurities. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 93.41 and 113.33% for all impurities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Speciation of very low amounts of antimony in waters using magnetic core-modified silver nanoparticles and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Ignacio; Rengevicova, Silvia; Muñoz-Sandoval, María J; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    A micro-solid phase extraction procedure for the separation and preconcentration of antimony based in the use of magnetic particles covered with silver nanoparticles functionalized with the sodium salt of 2-mercaptoethane-sulphonate (MESNa) is discussed. After separation by means of a magnetic field, the solid phase is directly introduced into an electrothermal atomizer for antimony determination. Alternatively, the solid can be slurried and then injected into the atomizer. In all cases, palladium nitrate is used as a chemical modifier. The preconcentration factors are close to 205 and 325, with detection limits of 0.02 and 0.03µgL -1 antimony, for the slurry and solid sampling procedures, respectively. Speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) is achieved by means of two extractions carried out at different acidity. The results for total antimony are verified using certified reference materials. Water samples are analyzed for antimony speciation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Race, Serum Potassium, and Associations With ESRD and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H; Tin, Adrienne; Chang, Alex R; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Grams, Morgan E

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that potassium levels may differ by race. The basis for these differences and whether associations between potassium levels and adverse outcomes differ by race are unknown. Observational study. Associations between race and potassium level and the interaction of race and potassium level with outcomes were investigated in the Racial and Cardiovascular Risk Anomalies in Chronic Kidney Disease (RCAV) Study, a cohort of US veterans (N=2,662,462). Associations between African ancestry and potassium level were investigated in African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (N=3,450). Race (African American vs non-African American and percent African ancestry) for cross-sectional analysis; serum potassium level for longitudinal analysis. Potassium level for cross-sectional analysis; mortality and end-stage renal disease for longitudinal analysis. The RCAV cohort was 18% African American (N=470,985). Potassium levels on average were 0.162mmol/L lower in African Americans compared with non-African Americans, with differences persisting after adjustment for demographics, comorbid conditions, and potassium-altering medication use. In the ARIC Study, higher African ancestry was related to lower potassium levels (-0.027mmol/L per each 10% African ancestry). In both race groups, higher and lower potassium levels were associated with mortality. Compared to potassium level of 4.2mmol/L, mortality risk associated with lower potassium levels was lower in African Americans versus non-African Americans, whereas mortality risk associated with higher levels was slightly greater. Risk relationships between potassium and end-stage renal disease were weaker, with no difference by race. No data for potassium intake. African Americans had slightly lower serum potassium levels than non-African Americans. Consistent associations between potassium levels and percent African ancestry may suggest a genetic component to these differences. Higher and

  5. Effects of extracellular potassium diffusion on electrically coupled neuron networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Xing; Shuai, Jianwei

    2015-02-01

    Potassium accumulation and diffusion during neuronal epileptiform activity have been observed experimentally, and potassium lateral diffusion has been suggested to play an important role in nonsynaptic neuron networks. We adopt a hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron network in a zero-calcium condition to better understand the influence of extracellular potassium dynamics on the stimulus-induced activity. The potassium concentration in the interstitial space for each neuron is regulated by potassium currents, Na+-K+ pumps, glial buffering, and ion diffusion. In addition to potassium diffusion, nearby neurons are also coupled through gap junctions. Our results reveal that the latency of the first spike responding to stimulus monotonically decreases with increasing gap-junction conductance but is insensitive to potassium diffusive coupling. The duration of network oscillations shows a bell-like shape with increasing potassium diffusive coupling at weak gap-junction coupling. For modest electrical coupling, there is an optimal K+ diffusion strength, at which the flow of potassium ions among the network neurons appropriately modulates interstitial potassium concentrations in a degree that provides the most favorable environment for the generation and continuance of the action potential waves in the network.

  6. Proapoptotic Role of Potassium Ions in Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglin Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively promote the infiltration of potassium ions. The significance of these channels for tumor biology has become obvious. However, the effects of potassium ions on the tumor or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, we studied the biological effects of L02 and HepG2 cells with ectogenous potassium ions. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Our results indicated that potassium ions inhibited proliferation of L02 and HepG2 cells and promoted their apoptosis. Potassium ions induced apoptosis through regulating Bcl-2 family members and depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, especially for HepG2 cell. These biological effects were associated with channel protein HERG. By facilitating expression of channel protein HERG, potassium ions may prevent it from being shunted to procancerous pathways by inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrated that potassium ions may be a key regulator of liver cell function. Thus, our findings suggest that potassium ions could inhibit tumorigenesis through inducing apoptosis of hepatoma cells by upregulating potassium ions transport channel proteins HERG and VDAC1.

  7. Failure of both azithromycin and antimony to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in Manaus, AM, Brazil Falha da azitromicina e do antimonial no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea em Manaus, AM, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan César Teixeira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-randomized controlled clinical trial was carried outin order to evaluate both azithromycin and antimony efficacy in cutaneous leishmaniasis in Manaus, AM, Brazil. Forty nine patients from both genders, aged 14 to 70, with cutaneous ulcers for less than three months and a positive imprint for Leishmania spp. amastigotes were recruited into two groups. Group I (26 patients received a daily-single oral dose of 500 mg of azithromycin for 20 days and Group II (23 patients received a daily-single intramuscular dose of 20 mg/kg of meglumine antimony, also for 20 days. Azithromycin cured three of 24 (12.5% patients on days 60, 90 and 120 respectively whereas therapeutic failure was considered in 21 of 24 (87.5% cases. In group II, antimony cured eight of 19 (42.1% cases as follows: three on day 30, one each on day 60 and day 90, and three on day 120. Therapeutic failure occurred in 11 of 19 (57.9% individuals. The efficacy of antimony for leishmaniasis was better than azithromycin but analysis for the intention-to-treat response rate did not show statistical difference between them. Although azithromycin was better tolerated, it showed a very low efficacy to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in Manaus.Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia da azitromicina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, foi realizado ensaio comparativo, em Manaus. Foram recrutados 49 pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 14 e 70 anos que apresentassem úlceras cutâneas com menos de três meses de evolução e que tivessem exame direto positivo para amastigotas de leishmânia. Estes pacientes foram alocados em dois grupos assim: Grupo I (26 recebeu uma dose diária de 500 mg de azitromicina pela via oral durante 20 dias e o Grupo II, recebeu uma dose diária de 20 mg/kg de antimoniato de meglumina por via intramuscular, durante 20 dias. Do grupo da azitromicina, três (12,5% de 24 pacientes curaram 60, 90 e 120 dias, respectivamente, enquanto, em 21 (87,5% de 24 houve

  8. Effects of cisplatin on potassium currents in CT26 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naveen; Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Kim, Sun Young; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Kim, Min Sun; Han, Seong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin, a platinum-based drug, is an important weapon against many types of cancer. It is well-known that cisplatin induces apoptosis. Potassium channel plays very important role in several signaling pathways. To investigate the possibility that potassium channels also have a role in the cellular response to cisplatin, we examined the effect of cisplatin on the activity of potassium channels on CT26 cell, the colon carcinoma cell line. The cells were cultured in DMEM, supplemented with 10experiment with more than two groups. Potassium currents were detected in CT26 cells and the currents were reduced by the application of tetraethylammonium (TEA) chloride, iberiotoxin, a big conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blocker and barium. The potassium currents were enhanced to 192cisplatin (0.5 mM). Moreover, the increase of potassium currents by cisplatin was further inhibited by the application of TEA confirming the action of cisplatin on potassium channels. In addition, relative current induced by cisplatin in CT26 cells was bit larger than in normal IEC-6 cells. Potassium currents were detected in CT26 cells and the currents were reduced by the application of tetraethylammonium (TEA) chloride, iberiotoxin, a big conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blocker and barium. The potassium currents were enhanced to 192cisplatin (0.5 mM). Moreover, the increase of potassium currents by cisplatin was further inhibited by the application of TEA confirming the action of cisplatin on potassium channels. In addition, relative current induced by cisplatin in CT26 cells was bit larger than in normal IEC-6 cells.

  9. Comparison of modification with strontium and the refining with antimony in A 356 aluminium alloys; Comparacao entre a modificacao com estroncio e o refino com antimonio em ligas de aluminio a 356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuoco, Ricardo; Correa, Edison Roberto; Correa, Alzira V.O.; Bocalini Junior, Mario

    1992-12-31

    Strontium and Antimony treated A356 aluminium alloy samples were metallographically characterized in the as cast and solution and aged conditions. Antimony treated alloy has shown slower spheroidizing kinetics of the Silicon particles during solution treatment, lower porosity level and higher tensile strength and elongation than Strontium treated one. (author) 26 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Changes induced by gamma radiation in nanocomposites based on copper II and antimony sulfides in commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M.C.C. de; Garcia, O.P.; Aquino, K.A.S.; Araujo, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is a polymer with wide application in the manufacture of medical devices that is exposed to gamma irradiation. Currently the use of composite materials has been disseminated and PMMA is an excellent polymer matrix to package various materials. This study aimed to analyze the changes induced by gamma irradiation (25 kGy) on the properties of PMMA nanocomposites with nanoparticles of copper II sulfide (250nm-900nm) and antimony sulfite (300-500 nm). The nanoparticles were added to the polymer in different concentrations and synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation from the corresponding chlorides with thioacetamide. Viscometric results showed a good radioprotective effect of nanoparticles of copper and antimony. It was found a good protection of nanoparticles on PMMA matrix in the concentration of 0.3% wt. The protections of 75% and 50% were calculated for nanoparticles of antimony and copper II, respectively. (author)

  11. Nuclear resonance scattering study of iridates, iridium and antimony based pyrochlores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, P.

    2017-04-15

    on Ir nucleus have been determined for these compounds. In order to broaden the perspectives of NRS with the 73 keV resonance the first room temperature NRS on iridium metal is carried out. The results demonstrate NRS as a powerful research tool for the studies of iridium physics due to the high energy of the resonant photons and the high natural abundance of the {sup 193}Ir isotope under study, paving the way for studies of magnetism and electronic properties under extreme conditions. The second part of this work is dedicated to vibrational spectroscopy with Nuclear Inelastic Scattering (NIS). A sapphire backscattering monochromator was designed, installed and tested at the beamline. It provides high energy resolution due to the sub-mK temperature control, though the resolution is limited from theoretically proposed sub-meV to meV by the quality of currently available sapphire crystals. With this device the energy resolution of 1.3(1) meV at 23.88 keV and of 3.2(4) meV at 37.13 keV was achieved. Following this development, the vibrational spectra of antimony in defect pyrochlore Ag-Sb-O compounds have been measured by means of NIS at 37.13 keV. Density of phonon states for the Sb(III) and for the Sb(V) site has been unambiguously revealed. The difference in site-specific antimony modes illustrates the importance of lattice dynamics for the engineering of these compounds.

  12. Nuclear resonance scattering study of iridates, iridium and antimony based pyrochlores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, P.

    2017-04-01

    these compounds. In order to broaden the perspectives of NRS with the 73 keV resonance the first room temperature NRS on iridium metal is carried out. The results demonstrate NRS as a powerful research tool for the studies of iridium physics due to the high energy of the resonant photons and the high natural abundance of the 193 Ir isotope under study, paving the way for studies of magnetism and electronic properties under extreme conditions. The second part of this work is dedicated to vibrational spectroscopy with Nuclear Inelastic Scattering (NIS). A sapphire backscattering monochromator was designed, installed and tested at the beamline. It provides high energy resolution due to the sub-mK temperature control, though the resolution is limited from theoretically proposed sub-meV to meV by the quality of currently available sapphire crystals. With this device the energy resolution of 1.3(1) meV at 23.88 keV and of 3.2(4) meV at 37.13 keV was achieved. Following this development, the vibrational spectra of antimony in defect pyrochlore Ag-Sb-O compounds have been measured by means of NIS at 37.13 keV. Density of phonon states for the Sb(III) and for the Sb(V) site has been unambiguously revealed. The difference in site-specific antimony modes illustrates the importance of lattice dynamics for the engineering of these compounds.

  13. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo E Perez-Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antimonial derivatives as treatment for ACL show a healing rate of about 75% and reasons for treatment failure are not well known.In order to characterise the clinical and parasitological features of patients with ACL that did not respond to Glucantime, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a cohort of 43 patients recruited in three of the Colombian Army National reference centers for complicated ACL. Clinical and paraclinical examination, and epidemiological and geographic information were recorded for each patient. Parasitological, histopathological and PCR infection confirmation were performed. Glucantime IC50 and in vitro infectivity for the isolated parasites were estimated.Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (95.4% and 35% of the parasites isolated showed a significant decrease in in vitro Glucanatime susceptibility associated with previous administration of the medicament. Lesion size and in vitro infectivity of the parasite are negatively correlated with decline in Glucantime susceptibility (Spearman: r = (-0,548 and r = (-0,726; respectively.A negative correlation between lesion size and parasite resistance is documented. L. braziliensis was found as the main parasite species associated to lesion of patients that underwent treatment failure or relapse. The indication of a second round of treatment in therapeutic failure of ACL, produced by L. braziliensis, with pentavalent antimonial derivatives is discussable.

  14. First-line therapy for human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru using the TLR7 agonist imiquimod in combination with pentavalent antimony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Miranda-Verastegui

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current therapies for cutaneous leishmaniasis are limited by poor efficacy, long-term course of treatment, and the development of resistance. We evaluated if pentavalent antimony (an anti-parasitic drug combined with imiquimod (an immunomodulator was more effective than pentavalent antimony alone in patients who had not previously been treated.A randomized double-blind clinical trial involving 80 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was conducted in Peru. The study subjects were recruited in Lima and Cusco (20 experimental and 20 control subjects at each site. Experimental arm: Standard dose of pentavalent antimony plus 5% imiquimod cream applied to each lesion three times per week for 20 days. Control arm: Standard dose of pentavalent antimony plus placebo (vehicle cream applied as above. The primary outcome was cure defined as complete re-epithelization with no inflammation assessed during the 12 months post-treatment period.Of the 80 subjects enrolled, 75 completed the study. The overall cure rate at the 12-month follow-up for the intention-to-treat analysis was 75% (30/40 in the experimental arm and 58% (23/40 in the control arm (p = 0.098. Subgroup analyses suggested that combination treatment benefits were most often observed at the Cusco site, where L. braziliensis is the prevalent species. Over the study period, only one adverse event (rash was recorded, in the experimental arm.The combination treatment of imiquimod plus pentavalent antimony performed better than placebo plus pentavalent antimony, but the difference was not statistically significant.Clinical Trials.gov NCT00257530.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of lead telluride/bismuth antimony telluride nanocomposites for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, Shreyashi; Zhou Chen; Morelli, Donald; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Uher, Ctirad; Brock, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous nanocomposites of p-type bismuth antimony telluride (Bi 2−x Sb x Te 3 ) with lead telluride (PbTe) nanoinclusions have been prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation approach. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and Hall coefficient were measured from 80 to 380 K in order to investigate the influence of PbTe nanoparticles on the thermoelectric performance of nanocomposites. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities of nanocomposites decrease with increasing PbTe nanoparticle concentration due to an increased hole concentration. The lattice thermal conductivity decreases with the addition of PbTe nanoparticles but the total thermal conductivity increases due to the increased electronic thermal conductivity. We conclude that the presence of nanosized PbTe in the bulk Bi 2−x Sb x Te 3 matrix results in a collateral doping effect, which dominates transport properties. This study underscores the need for immiscible systems to achieve the decreased thermal transport properties possible from nanostructuring without compromising the electronic properties. - Graphical abstract: PbTe nanoparticles introduced into p-type Bi 2 Te 3 by incipient wetness results in decreased lattice thermal conductivity, but also acts as an electronic dopant, resulting in an overall decrease in thermoelectric performance. Highlights: ► Composites of PbTe nanoparticles in Bi 2−x Sb x Te 3 were formed by incipient wetness. ► PbTe nanoparticles leads to decreased κ l , consistent with phonon scattering. ► PbTe nanoparticles lead to decreased S and ρ, due to increased carriers. ► Collateral doping from PbTe leads to decreased ZT with increasing concentration. ► Immiscible systems are preferred for improved ZT.

  16. Antimony and arsenic leaching from secondary lead smelter air-pollution-control residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettler, Vojtech; Mihaljevic, Martin; Sebek, Ondrej

    2010-07-01

    Environments in the vicinity of the lead (Pb) smelters are contaminated by emissions containing high concentrations of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As). Air-pollution-control (APC) residues from bag-type filters from a secondary Pb smelter were subjected to leaching experiments to elucidate the controlling mechanisms of Sb and As release. Kinetic batch leaching tests at a liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio of 10 L kg(- 1) within the time frame of 720 hours and batch leaching at various L/S ratios (ranging from 1 to 1000 L kg(-1)) were performed. In contrast to other inorganic contaminants (Pb, Cd, Zn), less than 1% of the total Sb and As content was leached from the residues. At a L/S ratio of 10, the As and Sb concentrations in the leachates exceeded the EU limit values for non-hazardous waste (0.2 and 0.07 mg L(-1) ). According to PHREEQC-2 calculations, the concentrations of As and Sb are controlled by the precipitation of complex arsenates and antimonates mainly at low L/S ratios. The washing and related chemical/mineralogical transformation of APC residues was suggested as a technological pre-treatment process before their re-smelting in a blast furnace. The Ferrox-like processing of the resulting contaminated process water/leachate was simulated using the PHREEQC-2 code. Significant reduction was obtained in the concentration of some key contaminants (As, Cu, Pb, Zn) related to sorption on newly formed hydrous ferric oxides, whereas Sb and Cd exhibited only limited attenuation.

  17. Deposition efficiency in the preparation of ozone-producing nickel and antimony doped tin oxide anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Sandin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of precursor salts in the synthesis of nickel and antimony doped tin oxide (NATO electrodes using thermal decomposition from dissolved chloride salts was investigated. The salts investigated were SnCl4×5H2O, SnCl2×2H2O, SbCl3 and NiCl2×6H2O. It was shown that the use of SnCl4×5H20 in the preparation process leads to a tin loss of more than 85 %. The loss of Sb can be as high as 90 % while no indications of Ni loss was observed. As a consequence, the concentration of Ni in the NATO coating will be much higher than in the precursor solution. This high and uncontrolled loss of precursors during the preparation process will lead to an unpredictable composition in the NATO coating and will have negative economic and environmental effects. It was found that using SnCl2×2H20 instead of SnCl4×5H2O can reduce the tin loss to less than 50 %. This tin loss occurs at higher temperatures than when using SnCl4×5H2O where the tin loss occurs from 56 – 147 °C causing the composition to change both during the drying (80 – 110 °C and calcination (460 -550 °C steps of the preparation process. Electrodes coated with NATO based on the two different tin salts were investigated for morphology, composition, structure, and ozone electrocatalytic properties.

  18. Intralesional Infiltration with Meglumine Antimoniate for the Treatment of Leishmaniasis Recidiva Cutis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Paredes, Yolanda; Puebla, Edison; Flores, Jessica; Loor, Richard; Padilla, José

    2017-11-01

    Meglumine Antimoniate (MA), administered intramuscularly for 21 continuous days is the recommended treatment of leishmaniases in Ecuador. However, because of its toxicity and requirement for intramuscular injections, treatment is frequently abandoned before completion. In addition, therapeutic failure and reactivation are not uncommon. Here we evaluate the efficacy and safety of MA administered intralesionally (IL) in leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC). LRC is a special clinical variant of cutaneous leishmaniasis, characterized by reactivation at the edges of a primary cured lesion, presenting with active papules around the scar. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. All were diagnosed parasitologically by one of three diagnostic methods (smear, culture, and Leishmanin skin test). Each patient received MA intralesionally weekly for 4 weeks. Each papule was infiltrated until complete saturation. On average, patients received 1 mL of MA per administration. The criterion of cure was the complete resolution of the papules. Follow up was performed at 30, 90, and 180 days after treatment. At day 30 after treatment, 19 (90.5%) of 21 patients were clinically cured. The two patients, who did not heal by the fourth application, were cured on the seventh and eighth dose, achieving a clinical cure of 100% without subsequent reactivation. Mild to moderate local pain during infiltration was the only adverse reaction experienced by 81% of patients. In one case, subsequent infiltrations were discontinued because of a local allergic reaction. Complete compliance of patients to treatment and the small volume of drug administered make this method of administering MA an effective, safe, and inexpensive alternative. Consequently, IL could replace intramuscular administration in the treatment of LRC in Ecuador.

  19. TiO(2) crystal facet-dependent antimony adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiaying; Yan, Li; Duan, Jinming; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-06-15

    Anatase TiO 2 crystal facets are garnering increasing attention due to their unique surface property. However, no specific linear relationship had been derived between the facet exposed on TiO 2 and the surface adsorption capacity as well as photocatalytic performance. This study systematically explored the facet effects on antimony (Sb) adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation using high-index {201} and low-index {101}, {001}, and {100} TiO 2 . The results suggest that high-index {201} TiO 2 exhibits the best Sb(III) adsorption and photocatalytic activity compared to the low-index TiO 2 . Both the Sb(III) adsorption density and the amount of OH and O 2 - generated in solution were correlated to the magnitude of surface energy on TiO 2 facets. Photocatalytically generated OH and O 2 - were responsible for Sb(III) photooxidation as evidenced by radical-trapping experiments. The great contribution of OH was observed only on {201}, not on low-index TiO 2 . This phenomenon was found to be attributable to the high surface energy on {201}, which enables the generation of a large amount of photogeneration OH to compensate for the fast rate of OH dissipation. Therefore, the predominant participation of OH in Sb(III) photooxidation was only possible on high-index {201} TiO 2 , which resulted in an enhanced photocatalytic rate. On the other hand, O 2 - dominated the Sb(III) photocatalytic oxidation on low-index TiO 2 . The intrinsic facet-dependent adsorption and photocatalytic mechanism obtained from this study would be useful for developing TiO 2 -based environmental technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sound velocity in potassium hydroxide aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapuryan, Kh.D.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Kochetkov, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of ultrasonic velocities in potassium hydroxide aqueous solutions are carried out within the frames of studies on improvement of water chemistry in NPP cooling systems. Method of echo pulses superposition with acoustic path length of 41.447 mm is used for measurements. The measurements are performed at 2.6 MHz frequency. Complex temperature dependence of ultrasonic velocity is determined. Ultrasonic velocity dependence on pressure is close to linear one. The formula for calculation of thermodynamic properties of the studied solutions on the basis of experimental data obtained is proposed

  1. Terahertz birefringence of potassium niobate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsygin, V. D.; Mamrashev, A. A.; Nikolaev, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present terahertz optical properties (refractive indices and absorption coefficients) of potassium niobate crystals measured by time-domain spectroscopy in the range of 0.2-2.0 THz. We observe average refractive indices nx = 5.25, ny = 4.8, nz = 5.9 for corresponding optical axes X, Y, Z with the large birefringence of Δn = nz - ny = 1.1. We report rising absorption coefficient at higher frequencies (α ∼ 50 cm-1 at 1 THz for all three axes) while the dichroism is not pronounced. Somewhat higher absorption compared to the previous results could be attributed to some polydomain structure remaining in the crystal.

  2. Cefadroxil iodometric determination by potassium hydrogenperoxomonosulfate reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Юріївна Сердюкова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Simple methods of oxidimetric determination of β-lactam antibiotic cefadroxil in pure powder and in capsules, that are based on S-oxidation reactions by potassium hydrogenperoxomonosulphate acid in weak acid medium to S- oxide with following iodometric quantitative determination of the oxydator reagent excess were developed.Materials and methods. A triple potassium salt of caroate acid, 2KHSO5•KHSO4•K2SO4 (commercial «Oxone®» DuPont, production was used as oxidizing agent.Results. By the results of reaction kinetics using iodometric titration it was determined that redox reaction between cefadroxil and potassium hydrogenperoxomonosulfate is quantified and a stoichiometric: 1 mol of cefadroxil is per 1 mol of potassium hydrogen. Quantitative oxidation of Sulfur atom was finished in the time that is less than 1 min. The mean recovery of the main substance in the cefadroxil pure substance was 97.76%, RSD=1.33 % (δ=1.31 %, 1 mL of the standard 0.0200 mol L-1 sodium tiosulphate solution corresponds to 0.003634 g of sodium cefadroxil (C16H17N3O5S which should be 95–102 % in the pure anhydrous substance. The mean recovery of medical preparation “Cefadroxil”, 500 mg is 100.06 %, RSD=0.96 % (δ=1.01 %, which should be 92.5–107.5 %, in anhydrous preparation. The limit detection is С=0.05 mg mL-1. The advantages of the proposed procedure are the ability to assay cefadroxil by the biologically active part of the molecule (alicyclic and tiomethyl sulfur, good recovery and the accuracy of results.Conclusions. The obtained validation data meet the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, which indicates the possibility of its introduction in the practice of analytical laboratories analysis, or application during the stepwise control process or manufacturing of drugs quality control during equipment washing

  3. Natural potassium as a teaching material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1993-07-01

    An experience of an educational experiment is presented with results and discussion. It was performed in the introductory course of nuclear energy in the Nuclear Education Center of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Purpose of the experiment is understanding disintegration rate (Bq, radioactivity or λN) through measurement of low radioactivity of natural potassium. It was accomplished through calculation of the radioactivity of a measuring known sample and counting efficiency during measurement. The students in the training course had great variety and most students did not have preliminary knowledge. But they said in the questionnaire having almost understood the experiment; and some students enjoyed it. (author)

  4. Effects of cisplatin on potassium currents in CT26 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Sharma; Janardhan Prasad Bhattarai; Sun Young Kim; Pyoung Han Hwang; Min Sun Kim; Seong Kyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Cisplatin, a platinum-based drug, is an important weapon against many types of cancer. It is well-known that cisplatin induces apoptosis. Potassium channel plays very important role in several signaling pathways. To investigate the possibility that potassium channels also have a role in the cellular response to cisplatin, we examined the effect of cisplatin on the activity of potassium channels on CT26 cell, the colon carcinoma cell line. Materials and Methods: The cells were culture...

  5. Luminescence of tartrate bridged dinuclear 2,2'-bipyridine platinum(ii) complexes: emission color controlled by intra- and inter-molecular interactions in the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Keiji; Tanuma, Honami; Kusano, Yukiko; Kaizaki, Sumio; Nagasawa, Akira; Fujihara, Takashi

    2017-06-13

    Novel dinuclear Pt II complexes with a chiral (l-) and an achiral (meso-) tartrate [{Pt II (bpy)} 2 (μ-x-tart)] (bpy: 2,2'-bipyridine; tartH 2 2- : tartrate; x = l (1), meso (2)) and with a racemic (dl-) tartrate [{Pt II (bpy)} 2 (μ-d-tart)][{Pt II (bpy)} 2 (μ-l-tart)] (3) were synthesized, and the influence of their stereochemistry on their molecular and crystal structures affecting their luminescence was discussed. Effects of the dinuclearity on the structures and luminescence were revealed by comparison with those of a novel racemic mononuclear complex [Pt II (bpy)(d-tartH 2 )][Pt II (bpy)(l-tartH 2 )] (4). The X-ray crystallography showed the crystallization of 1 in two polymorphs, namely monoclinic 3[1·6H 2 O] (1α) and triclinic 2[1·6H 2 O] (1β), and those of other complexes in monoclinic hydrate crystals 2·12.5H 2 O, 3·4H 2 O, and 4·H 2 O. The chiral complexes in 1α, 1β, and 3·4H 2 O showed clamshell-like structures with Pt-Pt and π-π interactions, while the achiral complex in 2·12.5H 2 O displayed a twisted form without intramolecular interactions. The complexes in 1α were assembled in a right-handed helical arrangement through significant Pt-Pt interactions, and those in 1β and 3·4H 2 O were stacked in one-dimensional columns through significant and slight π-π interactions, respectively. The complex in 2·12.5H 2 O constructed an intermolecular dimer through Pt-Pt interactions with its adjacent complex. The crystal structure of 4·H 2 O displayed a three-dimensional network architecture through π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. These crystals exhibited luminescence depending on their molecular and crystal structures (λ max nm = 535 (4·H 2 O), 569 (3·4H 2 O), 621 (2·12.5H 2 O), 649 (1β), and 656 (1α)). The formations of intermolecular dimers and clamshell-like structures through Pt-Pt interactions in 2·12.5H 2 O and in 3·4H 2 O, respectively, lead to red-shifts in emissions compared to 4·H 2 O, and further low

  6. A Novel Framework Antimony (III) Phosphate: Synthesis and Structure of NaSb 3O 2(PO 4) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Brian A.; de Delgado, Graciela Díaz; Miguel Delgado, J.; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2000-04-01

    The antimony (III) phosphate, NaSb3O2(PO4)2, is a framework structure built from SbIII and PV centers; orthorhombic, space group Pca21 (No. 29), a=13.944(3), b=6.6822(13), c=20.886(4) Å, V=1946.1(7) Å3, Z=8. Stereochemically active lone pairs of electrons associated with SbIIIO5 and SbIIIO4 polyhedra point into eight-ring channels, approximately 5×7 Å2, which dominate the architecture of the title compound. Charge-compensating sodium cations occupy the remaining space in the channels.

  7. Photochemical properties of mono-, tri-, and penta-cationic antimony(V) metalloporphyrin derivatives on a clay layer surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takamasa; Shimada, Tetsuya; Takagi, Shinsuke

    2013-08-22

    Three types of mono-, tri-, and penta-cationic antimony(V) porphyrin derivatives (Sb(V)Pors) were synthesized, and their photochemical properties on the anionic clay were systematically investigated. Sb(V)Por derivatives are dihydroxo(5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato)antimony(V) chloride ([Sb(V)(TPP)(OH)2](+)Cl(-)), dihydroxo[5,10-diphenyl-15,20-di(N-methyl-pyridinium-4-yl)porphyrinato]antimony(V) trichloride ([Sb(V)(DMPyP)(OH)2](3+)3Cl(-)), and dihydroxo[5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-pyridinium-4-yl)porphyrinato]antimony(V) pentachloride ([Sb(V)(TMPyP)(OH)2](5+)5Cl(-)). The photochemical behaviors of three cationic Sb(V)Pors with and without clay were examined in aqueous solution. For all Sb(V)Por, aggregation behaviors were not observed in the clay complexes even at high density adsorption conditions. The transition probabilities and fluorescence quantum yields of Sb(V)Por showed a tendency to be increased by the complex formation with clay. The less cationic Sb(V)Por/clay complex showed the larger fluorescence quantum yield. The more cationic Sb(V)Por/clay complex showed the longer fluorescence lifetime. These effects of complex formation with clay on the photochemical properties of Sb(V)Pors were discussed using the molecular potential energy curves of the porphyrin ground state and excited state. It is concluded that two types of effects work in the Sb(V)Por/clay system: effect i (structure resembling effect) is that the most stable structure becomes relatively similar between the ground and excited states, mainly by hydrophobic interactions between the porphyrin molecule and the clay surface, and effect ii (structure fixing effect) is that sharpened potential energy curves of clay complexes can lead to the increase of activation energy for the internal conversion from excited state to a high vibration level of ground state, mainly by electrostatic interactions between cationic porphyrin and anionic clay. Like this, the unique effects of the clay surface on

  8. Influence of zirconium ions on the uptake of carrier-free antimony (III) (125Sb) by various sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, Ch.; Schoenfeld, T.; Vienna Univ.

    1975-01-01

    Sorption of carrier-free radioantimony ( 125 Sb) from acid aqueous solutions is strongly influenced by the presence of zirconium. For some sorbents (diatomaceous earth, clay minerals, activated charcoal) small amounts of dissolved zirconium salts increase 125 Sb sorption strongly. Larger amounts of zirconium reduce sorption again, sometimes below the uptake occurring in the absence of zirconium. With aluminium oxide only a reduction in uptake of 125 Sb results from the presence of Zr. These effects can be attributed to the formation of soluble complex species of zirconium with antimony (polynuclear cohydrolysis products) and to their sorption behaviour. (F.G.)

  9. Modeling removal of accumulated potassium from T-tubules by inward rectifier potassium channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, W.; Vliek, M.; Wienk, E.D.; Alberink, M.J.; Ypey, D.L.; Ypey, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The membrane models of Cannon et al. (1993) and Alberink et al. (1995) for mammalian skeletal muscle fibers are based upon Hodgkin-Huxley descriptions of sodium, potassium delayed rectifier and leak conductances and the capacitive current taking into account fast inactivation of sodium channels. Now

  10. Poisoning of vanadia based SCR catalysts by potassium:influence of catalyst composition and potassium mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard; Kügler, Frauke; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    exposure temperatures slowdown the deactivation. K2SO4 causes a lower rate of deactivation compared to KCl. This may be related to a faster transfer of potassium from the solid KCl matrix to the catalyst, however, it cannot be ruled out toalso be caused by a significantly larger particle size of the K2SO4...

  11. Potassium Chloride Versus Voltage Clamp Contractures in Ventricular Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, M.; Reeck, S.; Rao, M.

    1981-01-01

    In frog ventricle, developed tension was markedly larger in response to depolarization caused by a voltage clamp step than to depolarization induced by high concentrations of potassium chloride. Measurement of extracellular potassium activity at the surface and at the depth of muscle during the development of contractures showed that the diffusion of potassium is much slower than the spread of depolarization through the cross section of muscle. These two observations suggest that competition between the depolarizing and the negative inotropic effects of an increase in the extracellular potassium ion concentration may determine the time course and magnitude of contractile tension in heart muscle.

  12. Identification of a novel transposon-associated phosphoethanolamine transferase gene, mcr-5, conferring colistin resistance in d-tartrate fermenting Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiak, Maria; Fischer, Jennie; Hammerl, Jens A

    2017-01-01

    . Our findings suggest that the transfer of colistin-resistance-mediating phosphoethanolamine transferase genes from bacterial chromosomes to mobile genetic elements has occurred in multiple independent events raising concern regarding their variety, prevalence and impact on public health....... phosphoethanolamine transferase genes involved in colistin resistance. Subsequently PCR screening, S1-PFGE and DNA-DNA hybridization were performed to analyse the prevalence and location of the identified mcr-5 gene. Cloning and transformation experiments in Escherichia coli DH5α and Salmonella Paratyphi B d Ta......Plasmid-mediated mobilized colistin resistance is currently known to be caused by phosphoethanolamine transferases termed MCR-1, MCR-2, MCR-3 and MCR-4. However, this study focuses on the dissection of a novel resistance mechanism in mcr-1 -, mcr-2 - and mcr-3 -negative d -tartrate fermenting...

  13. Pseudo-first-order alkaline hydrolysis of diethyl tartrate: a baseline study for a polymer matrix used in controlled-release delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonia, D S; Simonelli, A P

    1990-04-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of a bifunctional group compound, diethyl tartrate, was studied as a function of temperature and pH in the alkaline region. A pH-stat was used to maintain constant pH conditions in the alkaline region. This allowed the studies to be carried out at low ionic strengths and without the use of buffers. The results indicate that the hydrolysis for both steps followed specific base catalysis. The ratio of the two rate constants was 13.31, which was attributed to a strong charge effect in the second step. The results also show that the use of an overall average rate constant may not be acceptable for multifunctional group compounds.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of metoprolol tartrate in suspensions of two TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalysts with different surface area. Identification of intermediates and proposal of degradation pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramovic, Biljana, E-mail: biljana.abramovic@dh.uns.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Kler, Sanja, E-mail: sanja.kler@dh.uns.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Sojic, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.sojic@dh.uns.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Lausevic, Mila, E-mail: milal@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Radovic, Tanja, E-mail: tradovic@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Vione, Davide, E-mail: davide.vione@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica Analitica, Universita di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 5, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetics and efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of the {beta}{sub 1}-blocker metoprolol tartrate (MET). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two TiO{sub 2} specimens employed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Faster degradation of MET, but slower mineralization, obtained with the TiO{sub 2} specimen having lower surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic transformation pathways of MET including mineralization. - Abstract: This study investigates the efficiency of the photocatalytic degradation of metoprolol tartrate (MET), a widely used {beta}{sub 1}-blocker, in TiO{sub 2} suspensions of Wackherr's 'Oxyde de titane standard' and Degussa P25. The study encompasses transformation kinetics and efficiency, identification of intermediates and reaction pathways. In the investigated range of initial concentrations (0.01-0.1 mM), the photocatalytic degradation of MET in the first stage of the reaction followed approximately a pseudo-first order kinetics. The TiO{sub 2} Wackherr induced a significantly faster MET degradation compared to TiO{sub 2} Degussa P25 when relatively high substrate concentrations were used. By examining the effect of ethanol as a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals ({center_dot}OH), it was shown that the reaction with {center_dot}OH played the main role in the photocatalytic degradation of MET. After 240 min of irradiation the reaction intermediates were almost completely mineralized to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, while the nitrogen was predominantly present as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. Reaction intermediates were studied in detail and a number of them were identified using LC-MS/MS (ESI+), which allowed the proposal of a tentative pathway for the photocatalytic transformation of MET as a function of the TiO{sub 2} specimen.

  15. Potassium citrate prevents increased osteoclastogenesis resulting from acidic conditions: Implication for the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Granchi

    Full Text Available The extracellular acidic milieu in bones results in activation of osteoclasts (OC and inhibition of osteoblasts (OB causing a net loss of calcium from the skeleton and the deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Alkalinization through supplementation with potassium citrate (K citrate has been proposed to limit the osteopenia progression, even though its pharmacological activity in bone microenvironment is not well defined. We evaluated if K citrate was able to prevent the adverse effects that acidic milieu induces on bone cells. OC and OB were maintained in neutral (pH 7.4 versus acidic (pH 6.9 culture medium, and treated with different K citrate concentrations. We evaluated the OC differentiation at seven days, by counting of multinucleated cells expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the activity of mature OC at 14 days, by quantifying of collagen degradation. To evaluate the effects on OB, we analyzed proliferation, mineralization, and expression of bone-related genes. We found that the low pH increased OC differentiation and activity and decreased OB function. The osteoclastogenesis was also promoted by RANKL concentrations ineffective at pH 7.4. Non-cytotoxic K citrate concentrations were not sufficient to steadily neutralize the acidic medium, but a inhibited the osteoclastogenesis, the collagen degradation, and the expression of genes involved in RANKL-mediated OC differentiation, b enhanced OB proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression, whereas it did not affect the in vitro mineralization, and c were effective also in OC cultures resistant to alendronate, i.e. the positive control of osteoclastogenesis inhibition. In conclusion, K citrate prevents the increase in OC activity induced by the acidic microenvironment, and the effect does not depend exclusively on its alkalizing capacity. These data provide the biological basis for the use of K citrate in preventing the osteopenia progression resulting from low

  16. Synthesis of manganese oxides and antimony silicates and their applications to take up Thorium-234

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Attar, L.; Budeir, Y.

    2009-07-01

    Birnessite, a layered manganese oxide, antimonysilicate and their corresponding cation-exchange derivatives were tested for their ability to take up thorium using a batch-type method. Sorption experiments were performed in different concentrations of acid, and sodium, potassium and calcium nitrate solutions in order to evaluate the influence of cations likely to be present in waste effluents. The results were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. Linear regressions of the logarithmic plots enabled the elucidation of exchange mechanisms. Variation in the magnitude and mechanism of thorium sorption on the exchangers was ascribed to structural differences and the exchange properties of the materials, as well as the aqueous chemistry of the actinide element. The work expanded to included investigation of thorium solution' pH in controlling the sorption process. In nitric acid solutions, H-antimonysilicate proved to be the best sorbent. The hydrated layer structure of birnessite allows for facile mobility of the interlayer cations with fast kinetics and little structural rearrangement, making it of great importance for intercalation and ion exchange uses in salt conditions. Potassium had the most, and calcium the least, effect on thorium selectivity by birnessites, when they are present as macro components. Conversely, calcium ions did greatly inhibit the sorption behaviour of the actinide on Ca-doped antimonysilicate. Studying the effect of thorium solution' pH reflected the microcrystal modifications of birnessites occurred during experiments. (authors)

  17. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzman-Rivero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  18. Antimony Anchored with Nitrogen-Doping Porous Carbon as a High-Performance Anode Material for Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianjing; Hou, Hongshuai; Zhang, Chenyang; Ge, Peng; Huang, Zhaodong; Jing, Mingjun; Qiu, Xiaoqing; Ji, Xiaobo

    2017-08-09

    Antimony represents a class of unique functional materials in sodium-ion batteries with high theoretical capacity (660 mA h g -1 ). The utilization of carbonaceous materials as a buffer layer has been considered an effective approach to alleviate rapid capacity fading. Herein, the antimony/nitrogen-doping porous carbon (Sb/NPC) composite with polyaniline nanosheets as a carbon source has been successfully achieved. In addition, our strategy involves three processes, a tunable organic polyreaction, a thermal annealing process, and a cost-effective reduction reaction. The as-prepared Sb/NPC electrode demonstrates a great reversible capacity of 529.6 mA h g -1 and an outstanding cycling stability with 97.2% capacity retention after 100 cycles at 100 mA g -1 . Even at 1600 mA g -1 , a superior rate capacity of 357 mA h g -1 can be retained. Those remarkable electrochemical performances can be ascribed to the introduction of a hierarchical porous NPC material to which tiny Sb nanoparticles of about 30 nm were well-wrapped to buffer volume expansion and improve conductivity.

  19. Treatment of air pollution control residues with iron rich waste sulfuric acid: does it work for antimony (Sb)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breedveld, Gijs D; Kirkeng, Terje; Lægreid, Marit; Mæhlum, Trond; Mulder, Jan

    2013-03-15

    Antimony (Sb) in air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration has gained increased focus due to strict Sb leaching limits set by the EU landfill directive. Here we study the chemical speciation and solubility of Sb at the APC treatment facility NOAH Langøya (Norway), where iron (Fe)-rich sulfuric acid (∼3.6M, 2.3% Fe(II)), a waste product from the industrial extraction of ilmenite, is used for neutralization. Antimony in water extracts of untreated APC residues occurred exclusively as pentavalent antimonate, even at low pH and Eh values. The Sb solubility increased substantially at pH<10, possibly due to the dissolution of ettringite (at alkaline pH) or calcium (Ca)-antimonate. Treated APC residues, stored anoxically in the laboratory, simulating the conditions at the NOAH Langøya landfill, gave rise to decreasing concentrations of Sb in porewater, occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Concentrations of Sb decreased from 87-918μgL(-1) (day 3) to 18-69μgL(-1) (day 600). We hypothesize that an initial sorption of Sb to Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rust) and eventually precipitation of Ca- and Fe-antimonates (tripuhyite; FeSbO4) occurred. We conclude that Fe-rich, sulfuric acid waste is efficient to immobilize Sb in APC residues from waste incineration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Arsenic, Antimony, Chromium, and Thallium Speciation in Water and Sediment Samples with the LC-ICP-MS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jabłońska-Czapla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation is a very important subject in the environmental protection, toxicology, and chemical analytics due to the fact that toxicity, availability, and reactivity of trace elements depend on the chemical forms in which these elements occur. Research on low analyte levels, particularly in complex matrix samples, requires more and more advanced and sophisticated analytical methods and techniques. The latest trends in this field concern the so-called hyphenated techniques. Arsenic, antimony, chromium, and (underestimated thallium attract the closest attention of toxicologists and analysts. The properties of those elements depend on the oxidation state in which they occur. The aim of the following paper is to answer the question why the speciation analytics is so important. The paper also provides numerous examples of the hyphenated technique usage (e.g., the LC-ICP-MS application in the speciation analysis of chromium, antimony, arsenic, or thallium in water and bottom sediment samples. An important issue addressed is the preparation of environmental samples for speciation analysis.

  1. Complement activation-related pseudoallergy in dogs following intravenous administration of a liposomal formulation of meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul R. Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of nanotechnologies in advanced therapies has allowed the observation of specific adverse reactions related to nanostructures. The toxicity of a novel liposome formulation of meglumine antimoniate in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis after single dose has been investigated. Groups of 12 animals received by the intravenous route a single dose of liposomal meglumine antimoniate (group I [GI], 6.5 mg Sb/kg, empty liposomes (GII or isotonic saline (GIII. Evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters showed no significant changes 4 days after administration. No undesired effects were registered in the GIII. However, adverse reactions were observed in 67.7% of dogs from both groups that received liposomal formulations. The side effects began moments after bolus administration and disappeared during the first 15 minutes after treatment. Prostation, sialorrhea and defecation were the most frequent clinical signs, registered in 33.3% and 41.6 % of animals from the groups GI and GII, respectively. Tachypnea, mydriasis, miosis, vomiting and cyanosis were also registered in both groups. The adverse reactions observed in this study were attributed to the activation of the complement system by lipid vesicles in a phenomenon known as Complement Activation-Related Pseudoallergy (CARPA. The influence of the physical-chemical characteristics of liposomal formulation in the triggering of CARPA is discussed.

  2. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Rivero, Miguel; Rojas, Ernesto; Verduguez-Orellana, Aleida; Pardo, Henry; Torrico, Mary Cruz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Akesson, Björn; Sejas, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  3. Arsenic, Antimony, Chromium, and Thallium Speciation in Water and Sediment Samples with the LC-ICP-MS Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska-Czapla, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Chemical speciation is a very important subject in the environmental protection, toxicology, and chemical analytics due to the fact that toxicity, availability, and reactivity of trace elements depend on the chemical forms in which these elements occur. Research on low analyte levels, particularly in complex matrix samples, requires more and more advanced and sophisticated analytical methods and techniques. The latest trends in this field concern the so-called hyphenated techniques. Arsenic, antimony, chromium, and (underestimated) thallium attract the closest attention of toxicologists and analysts. The properties of those elements depend on the oxidation state in which they occur. The aim of the following paper is to answer the question why the speciation analytics is so important. The paper also provides numerous examples of the hyphenated technique usage (e.g., the LC-ICP-MS application in the speciation analysis of chromium, antimony, arsenic, or thallium in water and bottom sediment samples). An important issue addressed is the preparation of environmental samples for speciation analysis. PMID:25873962

  4. Detection of pathogenic bacteria in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer: reluctant response to antimonial treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac-Márquez Angélica Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the bacterial flora present in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer from the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico using conventional culture methods (11 patients, and an immunocolorimetric detection of pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes (15 patients. Prevalence of bacteria isolated by culture methods was 90.9% (10/11. We cultured, from chiclero's ulcers (60%, pathogenic bacterial such as Staphylococcus aureus (20%, S. pyogenes (1.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.6%, Morganella morganii (1.6%, and opportunist pathogenic bacteria such as Klebsiella spp. (20.0%, Enterobacter spp. (20%, and Enterococcus spp. (20%. We also cultured coagulase-negative staphylococci in 40% (4/10 of the remaining patients. Micrococcus spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci constituted the bacterial genuses more frequently isolated in the normal skin of patients with chiclero's ulcer and healthy individuals used as controls. We also undertook another study to find out the presence of S. pyogenes by an immunocolorimetric assay. This study indicated that 60% (9/15 of the ulcerated lesions, but not normal controls, were contaminated with S. pyogenes. Importantly, individuals with purulent secretion and holding concomitant infections with S. pyogenes, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. morganii, and E. durans took longer to heal Leishmania (L. mexicana infections treated with antimonial drugs. Our results suggest the need to eliminate bacterial purulent infections, by antibiotic treatment, before starting antimonial administration to patients with chiclero's ulcer.

  5. Cytotoxicity and In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Antimony (V), Bismuth (V), and Tin (IV) Complexes of Lapachol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcele Neves; Nogueira, Paula Monalisa; Demicheli, Cynthia; de Oliveira, Ludmila Gonçalvez; da Silva, Meiriane Mariano; Frézard, Frédéric; Melo, Maria Norma; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is the etiologic agent of the cutaneous and diffuse leishmaniasis often associated with drug resistance. Lapachol [2-hydroxy-3-(3'-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone] displays a wide range of antimicrobial properties against many pathogens. In this study, using the classic microscopic in vitro model, we have analyzed the effects of a series of lapachol and chlorides complexes with antimony (V), bismuth (V), and tin (IV) against L. amazonensis. All seven compounds exhibited antileishmanial activity, but most of the antimony (V) and bismuth (V) complexes were toxic against human HepG2 cells and murine macrophages. The best IC50 values (0.17 ± 0.03 and 0.10 ± 0.11 μg/mL) were observed for Tin (IV) complexes (3) [(Lp)(Ph3Sn)] and (6) (Ph3SnCl2), respectively. Their selective indexes (SIs) were 70.65 and 120.35 for HepG2 cells, respectively. However, while analyzing murine macrophages, the SI decreased. Those compounds were moderately toxic for HepG2 cells and toxic for murine macrophages, still underlying the need of chemical modification in this class of compounds.

  6. Determination of Antimony (III in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Domínguez-Renedo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD, the repeatability (3.81 % and the reproducibility (5.07 % of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III was calculated at a value of 1.27×10–8 M. The linear range obtained was between 0.99 × 10–8 – 8.26 × 10–8 M. An analysis of possible effects due to the presence of foreign ions in the solution was performed and the procedure was successfully applied to the determination of antimony levels in pharmaceutical preparations and sea water samples.

  7. Evaluation of the Content of Antimony, Arsenic, Bismuth, Selenium, Tellurium and Their Inorganic Forms in Commercially Baby Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-de-Cenzano, M; Rochina-Marco, A; Cervera, M L; de la Guardia, M

    2017-12-01

    Baby foods, from the Spanish market and prepared from meat, fish, vegetables, cereals, legumes, and fruits, were analyzed to obtain the concentration of antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi), and tellurium (Te) as toxic elements and selenium (Se) as essential element. An analytical procedure was employed based on atomic fluorescence spectroscopy which allowed to obtain accurate data at low levels of concentration. Values of 14 commercial samples, expressed in nanograms per gram fresh weight, ranged for Sb 0.66-6.9, As 4.5-242, Te 1.35-2.94, Bi 2.18-4.79, and Se 5.4-109. Additionally, speciation studies were performed based on data from a non-chromatographic screening method. It was concluded that tellurium and bismuth were mainly present as inorganic forms and selenium as organic form, and antimony and arsenic species depend on the ingredients of each baby food. Risk assessment considerations were made by comparing dietary intake of the aforementioned elements through the consumption of one baby food portion a day and recommended or tolerable guideline values.

  8. Acute toxicity studies of potassium permanganate in Swiss albino mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study of potassium permanganate was carried out in Swiss albino mice. Potassium permanganate was administered at dose rate of 0.0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 and 3500mg/kg body weight to groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, ten per group for LD50 determination. The dead animals were posted for ...

  9. Spectroscopy of erbium-doped potassium double tungstate waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vázquez-Córdova, Sergio A.; Aravazhi, Shanmugam; Grivas, Christos; Heuer, Alexander M.; Kränkel, Christian; Yong, Yean Sheng; García-Blanco, Sonia M.; Herek, Jennifer L.; Pollnau, Markus

    2017-01-01

    We report the spectroscopy of crystalline waveguide amplifiers operating in the telecom C-band. Thin films of erbiumdoped gadolinium lutetium potassium double tungstate, KGdxLuyEr1-x-y (WO4)2, are grown by liquid-phase epitaxy onto undoped potassium yttrium double tungstate (KYW) substrates and

  10. Potassium Bromate Content of Bread Produced in Sokoto Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen different bread samples were randomly collected from various local bakeries located in Sokoto metropolis. The samples were analysed for presence and quantity of potassium bromate. All the samples were analysed using the redox titrimetric method for the detection of potassium bromate. All the samples contained ...

  11. Effect of Metformin on Potassium-adapted and Non- adapted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the effects of potassium adaptation on some biochemical parameters in diabetic rats treated with metformin. Methods: Diabetes was induced via intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin in potassium- adapted and non-adapted rats and, then metformin (350 mg/kg) was administered orally.

  12. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, J Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S

    2007-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase generates electrochemical gradients for sodium and potassium that are vital to animal cells, exchanging three sodium ions for two potassium ions across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure at 3.5 A resolution...

  13. The Effect Of Potassium Bromate On Some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Potassium bromate used widely in foods has been associated with various complications in humans. However there is paucity of literature on adverse effects on haematological parameters. Thus we decided to carry out an experimental study to determine the effects of potassium bromate on some blood indices ...

  14. Evaluation of in vitro antifungal activity of potassium bicarbonate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of increased concentrations of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) as a possible alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HG-I and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was evaluated in vitro, in this study. In addition, the effect of potassium bicarbonate on Trichoderma sp., a natural antagonist on ...

  15. Extractability of Potassium from Some Organic Manures in Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pH, time and concentration on the extractability of potassium from five types of organic manures (cow dung, local chickens, duck and commercial chickens, faeces on bedded and unbedded floor) were studied. Experiments were conducted in water at 40oC. Cumulative extraction curves of potassium resulting ...

  16. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... Aim: To determine the relationship between serum total magnesium and potassium levels in adult patients requiring an emergency ..... and in-hospital mortality in critically ill patients and a before-after analysis on the impact of computer- assisted potassium control. Crit Care [Internet]. 2015;19(1):1–11.

  17. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium and potassium concentrations have been measured in nectar from a variety of flowering plants visited by honey bees (Apis mellifera capensis). In 18 plant species the mean sodium concentration was 9,8 ± 1,4 mmol (± S.E.), and the mean potassium concentration was 18,7 ± 4,3 mmol. These results are compared ...

  18. Potassium bromate content and some other attributes of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no report on potassium bromate in bread sold in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State. Objective: The study examined commercial brands of wheat flour and bread samples in Odeda Local Government for the presence of potassium bromate, along with some physical, functional, chemical and sensory properties.

  19. Thermal decomposition of potassium bis-oxalatodiaqua-indate (III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2] 3H2O. Thermal decomposition studies show that the compound decomposes first to the anhydrous potassium indium oxalate and then to the final mixture of the oxides through formation of potassium carbonate and indium (III) oxide as ...

  20. the effect of potassium bromate on some haematological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    At the kidney, the potassium bromate induces renal oxidative stress which is known to cause renal failure, methaemoglobinaemia and kidney cancer (De. Angelo et al 1988, Parsons and Chipman. 2000).There has not been much reports on the effect of potassium bromate on haematological indices, thus this research was ...

  1. Thermal decomposition of potassium bis-oxalatodiaqua- indate(III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    )2]⋅3H2O. Thermal decomposition studies show that the compound decomposes first to the anhydrous potassium indium oxalate and then to the final mixture of the oxides through formation of potassium carbonate and indium (III) oxide as ...

  2. Potassium cycling and losses in grassland systems : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayser, M; Isselstein, J

    Cycling of potassium in grassland systems has received relatively little attention in research and practice in recent years. Balanced nutrient systems require consideration of nutrients other than nitrogen (N). Potassium (K) is needed in large amounts and is closely related to N nutrition. In

  3. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-03

    Aug 3, 1989 ... Sodium and potassium concentrations have been measured in nectar from a variety of flowering plants visited by honey bees fApis me/litera capensis). In 18 plant species the mean sodium concentration was 9,8 ± 1,4 mmol (± S.E.), and the mean potassium concentration was 18,7 ± 4,3 mmol.

  4. The role of potassium ion in muscle glycogenolysis and glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olerud, J E; Pryor, W H; Eason, R L; Carroll, H W

    1975-12-01

    We have presented evidence that in an in vitro system, glycogenolysis and glycolysis function normally at potassium levels far below those observed in muscle cell water of severely deficient dogs. We suggest that a functional impairment of glycogenolysis or glycolysis is unlikely to be a mechanism by which potassium deficiency leads to rhabdomyolysis.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and... titanium oxide (PMN P-01-764; CAS No. 39290-90-9) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  6. Potassium bromate content of some baked breads sold in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium bromate is an additive used by some bakers to make the bread rise rapidly, create a good texture in the finished product and to give bulkiness to the dough. Objective: The main objective of this work was to assess the potassium bromate residues of some baked breads sold in some selected local ...

  7. Evaluation of in vitro antifungal activity of potassium bicarbonate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... The effect of increased concentrations of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) as a possible alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HG-I and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was evaluated in vitro, in this study. In addition, the effect of potassium bicarbonate on Trichoderma sp., a.

  8. Determination and comparison of vitamin C, calcium and potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin C content was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method while calcium and potassium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results from the study showed inconsistent pattern with respect to vitamin C, calcium and potassium contents in the conventionally and organically grown ...

  9. Top-dressing of Potassium Fertilizers on Safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neginsadat Amir Khalili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of potassium foliar application (with two levels, use and non-use from potassium sulphate source and top-dressing application of potassium fertilizer (with two levels, use and non-use from potassium chloride source on number of seeds per capitulum, number of side branch per plant, seed yield, seed oil content, oil yield, seed to coat ratio, plant height and shoot dry weight in three safflower, genotypes including KW.2, Padideh and Goldasht a factorial experiment based on the randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications, was conducted during 2013 growing season at the Agricultural Research Center of Semnan province (Shahroud. Results showed that the highest average of number of seeds per capitulum (28.70, number of side branch per plant (17.83 and seed to coat ratio (1.47 were found in KW.2 genotype. The highest seed yield (2627.7 kg/ha and oil yield (1350.5 kg/ha were found from potassium sulphate foliar application in Padideh and KW.2 genotypes respectively. The interaction effect of genotype × potassium foliar application was significant for seed and oil yields. In conclusion, it was determined that potassium sulphate foliar application has better impacts on seed and oil yield of safflower genotypes than potassium top-dressing application.

  10. Quantitative analysis of Bordeaux red wine precipitates by solid-state NMR: Role of tartrates and polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shipra; Iturmendi, Nerea; Grelard, Axelle; Moine, Virginie; Dufourc, Erick

    2016-05-15

    Stability of wines is of great importance in oenology matters. Quantitative estimation of dark red precipitates formed in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from Bordeaux region for vintages 2012 and 2013 was performed during the oak barrel ageing process. Precipitates were obtained by placing wine at -4°C or 4°C for 2-6 days and monitored by periodic sampling during a one-year period. Spectroscopic identification of the main families of components present in the precipitate powder was performed with (13)C solid-state CPMAS NMR and 1D and 2D solution NMR of partially water re-solubilized precipitates. The study revealed that the amount of precipitate obtained is dependent on vintage, temperature and grape variety. Major components identified include potassium bitartrate, polyphenols, polysaccharides, organic acids and free amino acids. No evidence was found for the presence of proteins. The influence of main compounds found in the precipitates is discussed in relation to wine stability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effect of antimony-oxide on the shielding properties of some sodium-boro-silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoulfakar, A M; Abdel-Ghany, A M; Abou-Elnasr, T Z; Mostafa, A G; Salem, S M; El-Bahnaswy, H H

    2017-09-01

    Some sodium-silicate-boro-antimonate glasses having the molecular composition [(20) Na 2 O - (20) SiO 2 - (60-x) B 2 O 3 - (x) Sb 2 O 3 (where x takes the values 0, 5 … or 20)] have been prepared by the melt quenching method. The melting and annealing temperatures were 1500 and 650K respectively. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the experimental and empirical density and molar volume values showed gradual increase with increasing Sb 2 O 3 content. The empirical densities showed higher values than those obtained experimentally, while the empirical molar volume values appeared lower than those obtained experimentally, which confirm the amorphous nature and randomness character of the studied samples. The experimentally obtained shielding parameters were approximately coincident with those obtained theoretically by applying WinXCom program. At low gamma-ray energies (0.356 and 0.662MeV) Sb 2 O 3 has approximately no effect on the total Mass Attenuation Coefficient, while at high energies it acts to increase the total Mass Attenuation Coefficient gradually. The obtained Half Value Layer and Mean Free Path values showed gradual decrease as Sb 2 O 3 was gradually increased. Also, the Total Mass Attenuation Coefficient values obtained between about 0.8 and 3.0MeV gamma-ray energy showed a slight decrease, as gamma-ray photon energy increased. This may be due to the differences between the Attenuation Coefficients of both antimony and boron oxides at various gamma-ray photon energies. However, it can be stated that the addition of Sb 2 O 3 into sodium-boro-silicate glasses increases the gamma-ray Attenuation Coefficient and the best sample is that contains 20 mol% of Sb 2 O 3 , which is operating well at 0.356 and 0.662MeV gamma-ray. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of antimony segregation on the electronic properties of InAs/InAsSb superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, H. J.; Szmulowicz, F.; Hudgins, J. J.; Cordonnier, L. E.; Brown, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    There has been great progress in recent years in advancing the state-of-the-art of Ga-free InAs/InAsSb superlattice (SL) materials for infrared detector applications, spurred by the observation of long minority carrier lifetimes in this material system. However, compositional and dimensional changes through antimony (Sb) segregation alter the detector properties from those originally designed. For this reason, in this work, the authors explore epitaxial conditions that can mitigate this segregation in order to produce high-quality SL materials for optimum detector performance. A nominal SL structure of 7.7 nm InAs/3.5 nm InAs0.7 Sb0.3 tailored for an approximately six-micron response at 5 K was used to optimize the epitaxial parameters. Since the growth of mixed AsSb alloys is complicated by the potential reaction of As with Sb surfaces, the authors vary the substrate temperature (Ts) in order to control the As surface reaction on a Sb surface. Experimental results indicate that the SL sample grown at the lowest investigated Ts produces the highest Sb-mole fraction x of 0.3 in InAs1-x Sbx layers, which then decreases by 21 % as the Ts increases from 395 to 440 °C. This reduction causes an approximately 30 meV blueshift in the position of the excitonic photoluminescence (PL) peak. This finding differs from the results obtained from the Ga-containing InAs/GaSb SL equivalents, where the PL peak position remains constant at about 220 meV, regardless of Ts. The Ga-free SLs generally generate a broader PL linewidth than the corresponding Ga-containing SLs due to the higher spatial Sb distribution at the hetero-interfaces engendered by Sb segregation. In order for this newly proposed Ga-free SL materials to be viable for detector applications, the material problem associated with Sb segregation needs to be adequately controlled and further mitigated.

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the chromium-vanadium-antimony system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regus, Matthias; Bensch, Wolfgang [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Polesya, Svitlana; Kuhn, Gerhard; Mankovsky, Sergiy; Ebert, Hubert [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry; Bauers, Sage R.; Johnson, David C. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-03-01

    The binary compound V{sub 3}Sb (V{sub 2.64}Sb, V{sub 3}Sb and V{sub 3.24}Sb) was synthesized as thin multilayered films with varying V:Sb ratios. The V-content determines the crystallization temperature and it is highest for the film with the lowest amount of V. Ternary chromium-vanadium-antimony (Cr-V-Sb) films were prepared containing Cr from 10 to 51 at-% with the Sb content fixed to yield M{sub 3}Sb (M=Cr, V). In the as-deposited state the layers are already interdiffused which is most likely caused by the very low repeating unit thickness between 0.29 and 0.68 nm investigated by X-ray diffraction experiments. All ternary compounds crystallized from the amorphous state with crystallization temperatures depending more on the repeating unit thickness than on chemical composition. For most samples the simultaneous crystallization of the two phases M{sub 3}Sb (A15 structure type) and MSb is observed. The crystalline A15 compounds are only stable in a limited temperature range and decompose at elevated temperatures. Compared to the binary Cr-Sb system crystallization of the hexagonal phase MSb (M=Cr, V) occurs at remarkably higher temperatures, i.e. in the ternary system nucleation and crystallization of this phase is hindered. The chemical composition requires short-range composition fluctuations to nucleate the binary phase. The first principles total energy calculations using the spin-polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (SPR-KKR) method confirm the experimental observations concerning the concentration-dependent stability of different phases of the Cr-V-Sb system. For the ratio M:Sb=3:1 the system is preferably stabilized in the A15 crystal structure for all possible Cr and V concentrations, while an increase of Sb content up to M:Sb=2:1 results in the stabilization of the Ni{sub 2}In structure for almost all Cr concentrations. Only in the V-rich regime of the system the Heusler Ni{sub 2}MnAl-type structure was found to be energetically more preferable.

  14. Correlation models between environmental factors and bacterial resistance to antimony and copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunji Shi

    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb and copper (Cu are toxic heavy metals that are associated with a wide variety of minerals. Sb(III-oxidizing bacteria that convert the toxic Sb(III to the less toxic Sb(V are potentially useful for environmental Sb bioremediation. A total of 125 culturable Sb(III/Cu(II-resistant bacteria from 11 different types of mining soils were isolated. Four strains identified as Arthrobacter, Acinetobacter and Janibacter exhibited notably high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Sb(III (>10 mM,making them the most highly Sb(III-resistant bacteria to date. Thirty-six strains were able to oxidize Sb(III, including Pseudomonas-, Comamonas-, Acinetobacter-, Sphingopyxis-, Paracoccus- Aminobacter-, Arthrobacter-, Bacillus-, Janibacter- and Variovorax-like isolates. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that the soil concentrations of Sb and Cu were the most obvious environmental factors affecting the culturable bacterial population structures. Stepwise linear regression was used to create two predictive models for the correlation between soil characteristics and the bacterial Sb(III or Cu(II resistance. The concentrations of Sb and Cu in the soil was the significant factors affecting the bacterial Sb(III resistance, whereas the concentrations of S and P in the soil greatly affected the bacterial Cu(II resistance. The two stepwise linear regression models that we derived are as follows: MIC(Sb(III=606.605+0.14533 x C(Sb+0.4128 x C(Cu and MIC((Cu(II=58.3844+0.02119 x C(S+0.00199 x CP [where the MIC(Sb(III and MIC(Cu(II represent the average bacterial MIC for the metal of each soil (μM, and the C(Sb, C(Cu, C(S and C(P represent concentrations for Sb, Cu, S and P (mg/kg in soil, respectively, p<0.01]. The stepwise linear regression models we developed suggest that metals as well as other soil physicochemical parameters can contribute to bacterial resistance to metals.

  15. The presence and leachability of antimony in different wastes and waste handling facilities in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkenhaug, G; Almås, Å R; Morin, N; Hale, S E; Arp, H P H

    2015-11-01

    The environmental behaviour of antimony (Sb) is gathering attention due to its increasingly extensive use in various products, particularly in plastics. Because of this it may be expected that plastic waste is an emission source for Sb in the environment. This study presents a comprehensive field investigation of Sb concentrations in diverse types of waste from waste handling facilities in Norway. The wastes included waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), glass, vehicle fluff, combustibles, bottom ash, fly ash and digested sludge. The highest solid Sb concentrations were found in WEEE and vehicle plastic (from 1238 to 1715 mg kg(-1)) and vehicle fluff (from 34 to 4565 mg kg(-1)). The type of acid used to digest the diverse solid waste materials was also tested. It was found that HNO3:HCl extraction gave substantially lower, non-quantitative yields compared to HNO3:HF. The highest water-leachable concentration for wastes when mixed with water at a 1 : 10 ratio were observed for plastic (from 0.6 to 2.0 mg kg(-1)) and bottom ash (from 0.4 to 0.8 mg kg(-1)). For all of the considered waste fractions, Sb(v) was the dominant species in the leachates, even though Sb(iii) as Sb2O3 is mainly used in plastics and other products, indicating rapid oxidation in water. This study also presents for the first time a comparison of Sb concentrations in leachate at waste handling facilities using both active grab samples and DGT passive samples. Grab samples target the total suspended Sb, whereas DGT targets the sum of free- and other chemically labile species. The grab sample concentrations (from 0.5 to 50 μg L(-1)) were lower than the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of 113 μg L(-1). The DGT concentrations were substantially lower (from 0.05 to 9.93 μg L(-1)) than the grab samples, indicating much of the Sb is present in a non-available colloidal form. In addition, air samples were taken from the chimney and areas within combustible waste incinerators, as

  16. Is thallium-201 of use in the measurement of total exchangeable potassium in man?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, A; Davies, D L; Horton, P W

    1978-08-01

    Simultaneous measurements of exchangeable potassium were made in seven normal male subjects using potassium-43 and thallium-201. Exchangeable potassium values obtained using the 'thallium-201 space' were unreliable.

  17. Electron impact study of potassium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to measure the sum of the elastic, rotational and vibrational scattering of electrons by KOH at low impact energies (5 to 20 eV) at angles from 10 to 120 deg. Energy loss spectra taken in the 0 to 18 eV range using an electron impact spectrometer are used to identify the species contributing to electric scattering. At temperatures between 300 and 500 C, only inelastic spectral features belonging to water are detected, while at temperatures from 500 to 800 C strong atomic K lines, indicative of molecular dissociation, and H2 energy loss features become prominent. No features attributable to KOH, the KOH dimer, O2 or potassium oxides were observed, due to the effects of the dissociation products, and it is concluded that another technique will have to be developed in order to measure electron scattering by KOH.

  18. High dose potassium-nitrate chemical dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorda de Cancio, E.M.; Munoz, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    This dosimeter is used to control 10 kGY-order doses (1 Mrad). Nitrate suffers a radiolitic reduction phenomena, which is related to the given dose. The method to use potassium nitrate as dosimeter is described, as well as effects of the temperature of irradiation, pH, nitrate concentration and post-irradiation stability. Nitrate powder was irradiated at a Semi-Industrial Plant, at Centro Atomico Ezeiza, and also in a Gammacell-220 irradiator. The dose rates used were 2,60 and 1,80 KGY/hour, and the given doses varied between 1,0 and 150 KGY. The uncertainty was +-3% in all the range. (author) [es

  19. Potassium bromide, KBr/ ε: New Force Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Azcatl, Raúl; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a new force field for the Potassium Bromide, the KBr/ ε. The crystal density and structure, as well as, the density, the viscosity and the dielectric constant of the solution in water were computed and compared with the experiments and other atomistic models. Next, the transferability of the KBr/ ε and of the NaCl/ ε models is verified by creating the KCl/ ε and the NaBr/ ε models. The strategy was to employ the same parameters obtained for the NaCl/ ε and for the KBr/ ε force fields for the building up of the KCl/ ε and the NaBr/ ε models . The thermodynamic and dynamic properties of these two new models were compared with the experimental

  20. Real-world emission factors for antimony and other brake wear related trace elements: size-segregated values for light and heavy duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Lienemann, Peter; Hill, Matthias; Figi, Renato; Richard, Agnes; Furger, Markus; Rickers, Karen; Falkenberg, Gerald; Zhao, Yongjing; Cliff, Steven S; Prevot, Andre S H; Baltensperger, Urs; Buchmann, Brigitte; Gehrig, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Hourly trace element measurements were performed in an urban street canyon and next to an interurban freeway in Switzerland during more than one month each, deploying a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and subsequent sample analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). Antimony and other brake wear associated elements were detected in three particle size ranges (2.5-10, 1-2.5, and 0.1-1 microm). The hourly measurements revealed that the effect of resuspended road dust has to be taken into account for the calculation of vehicle emission factors. Individual values for light and heavy duty vehicles were obtained for stop-and-go traffic in the urban street canyon. Mass based brake wear emissions were predominantly found in the coarse particle fraction. For antimony, determined emission factors were 11 +/- 7 and 86 +/- 42 microg km(-1) vehicle(-1) for light and heavy duty vehicles, respectively. Antimony emissions along the interurban freeway with free-flowing traffic were significantly lower. Relative patterns for brake wear related elements were very similar for both considered locations. Beside vehicle type specific brake wear emissions, road dust resuspension was found to be a dominant contributor of antimony in the street canyon.