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Sample records for antimony iodides

  1. Antimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Nielsen, Elsa

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has requested an evaluation of health hazards by exposure to antimony. This resulted in the present report which includes estimation of a quality criterion in soil for antimony....

  2. Antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Sutphin, David M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Carlin, James F.; Berger, Byron R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Antimony is an important mineral commodity used widely in modern industrialized societies. The element imparts strength, hardness, and corrosion resistance to alloys that are used in many areas of industry, including in lead-acid storage batteries. Antimony’s leading use is as a fire retardant in safety equipment and in household goods, such as mattresses. The U.S. Government has considered antimony to be a critical mineral mainly because of its use in military applications. The great majority of the world’s antimony comes from China, and much of the remainder is shipped to China for smelting. Antimony resources are unevenly distributed around the world. China has the bulk of the world’s identified resources; other countries that have identified antimony resources include Bolivia, Canada, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Tajikistan, and Turkey. Resources in the United States are located mainly in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada. The most significant antimony mineral deposits occur in geologic environments with a thick sequence of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks in areas with significant fault and fracture systems. The most common antimony ore mineral is stibnite (Sb2 S3 ), but more than 100 other minerals also contain antimony. The presence of antimony in surface waters and groundwaters results primarily from rock weathering, soil runoff, and anthropogenic sources. Global emissions of antimony to the atmosphere average 6,100 metric tons per year. Empirical data suggest that the acid-generating potential of antimony mine waste is low.

  3. Antimony Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The...

  4. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  5. Investigation of antimony extraction from nitric acid solutions by tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakaev, V.S.; Smelov, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of iodide, hydrogen and pertechnetate ions on antimony extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) from aqueous nitric acid solutions under irradiated nuclear fuel processing is investigated at room temperature. The coefficients of antimony distribution are shown to increase at the presence of technetium ions 2-3 times and iodine ions - 100 and more times. Variation of hydrogen ion concentration does not affect antimony extraction. The schemes of the mechanism of antimony extraction at the pressence of iodide and pertechnetate ions are presented. Compositions of the formed compounds are given

  6. Potassium Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain other liquids including low-fat white or chocolate milk, flat soda, orange juice, raspberry syrup, or ... Potassium iodide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: swollen glands metallic taste in the ...

  7. Antimony in aquatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Filella, Montserrat; Belzile, Nelson; Chen, Yuwei; Elleouet, C.; May, P. M.; Mavrocordatos, D.; Nirel, P.; Porquet, A.; Quentel, F.; Silver, S.

    2003-01-01

    Antimony is ubiquitous in the environment. In spite of its proven toxicity, it has received scant attention so far. This communication presents an overview of current knowledge as well as the early results of a concerted, multidisciplinary effort to unveil antimony behaviour and fate in natural aquatic systems.

  8. Antimony: a flame fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Niki E.; Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a brittle, silvery-white semimetal that conducts heat poorly. The chemical compound antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) is widely used in plastics, rubbers, paints, and textiles, including industrial safety suits and some children’s clothing, to make them resistant to the spread of flames. Also, sodium antimonate (NaSbO3) is used during manufacturing of high-quality glass, which is found in cellular phones.

  9. THE ATOMIC WEIGHT OF ANTIMONY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青莲; 钱秋宇; 赵墨田

    1989-01-01

    With enriched antimony isotopes of 99.224 atom% 121Sb and 99.528 atom% 123Sb, twotracer solutions were prepared, whose antimony content was ascertained by the isotopicdilution analysis utilizing an accurately assayed laboratory standard. Mass spectrometricmeasurements were made on a Finnigan MAT- 261 instrument to find the ratio of masses121 and 123. Five synthetic mixtures formed from the tracers served to determine thecorrection factor of mass discrimination. The isotopic abundances thus found for the anti-mony in the mineral stibnite together with the known nuclidic masses yield an accurateatomic weight of antimony as 121 .7575± 0 .0009.

  10. Oligosilanylated Antimony Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Zitz, Rainer; Gatterer, Karl; Reinhold, Crispin R. W.; M?ller, Thomas; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    By reactions of magnesium oligosilanides with SbCl3, a number of oligosilanylated antimony compounds were obtained. When oligosilanyl dianions were used, either the expected cyclic disilylated halostibine was obtained or alternatively the formation of a distibine was observed. Deliberate formation of the distibine from the disilylated halostibine was achieved by reductive coupling with C8K. Computational studies of Sb?Sb bond energies, barriers of pyramidal inversion at Sb, and the conformati...

  11. Development of Na/sup 123/I pharmaceutical from antimony target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongjian, L.; Qixun, S.; Dequn, S. (Shanghai Inst. of Nuclear Research, Academia Sinica, Shanghai (China))

    A new method for the production of Na/sup 123/I is described. It is produced by the /sup 121/Sb(..cap alpha..,2n)/sup 123/I nuclear reaction and using a natural antimony target prepared by electroplating in a bath of antimony oxide and hydrofluoric acid. The target is irradiated with 32MeV ..cap alpha..-beams then transferred to a dry distillation apparatus and the iodide evolved and absorbed in NaOH. Quality control is by paper chromatography.

  12. dl-Alaninium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lamberts

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of dl-alanine hydroiodide (1-carboxyethanaminium iodide, C3H8NO2+·I−, is that of an organic salt consisting of N-protonated cations and iodide anions. The compound features homochiral helices of N—H...O hydrogen-bonded cations in the [010] direction; neighbouring chains are related by crystallographic inversion centers and hence show opposite chirality. The iodide counter-anions act as hydrogen-bond acceptors towards H atoms of the ammonium and carboxy groups, and cross-link the chains along [100]. Thus, an overall two-dimensional network is formed in the ab plane. No short contacts occur between iodide anions.

  13. Determination of antimony in antimony oxide by EDXRF and NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, M.; Swain, K.K.; Wagh, D.N.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed to use 124 Sb - 9 Be neutron source for starting Proto Type Fast Breeder Reactor, IGCAR, Kalpakkam. 124 Sb (γ-ray energy = 1.69 MeV; t 1/2 = 60 d) is obtained by irradiating antimony oxide and as per specification, antimony content in the oxide should be ≥ 83.0 % i.e antimony should be in the form of trioxide. Although gravimetry is the most precise and accurate method for % level analysis, it is tedious and time consuming. In this work, the study reported the determination of antimony by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry and validation of the result by neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. Antimony oxide encapsulated in stainless steel tube (internal diameter = 0.5 mm) was received from BHAVINI, Kalpakkam. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement indicated that the sample was antimony trioxide. For EDXRF analysis, calibration standards were prepared by mixing spectroscopic grade antimony trioxide with microcrystalline cellulose (2.5 to 20 mg g -1 of antimony) and pellets were made by using hydraulic press. Sample pellets were also prepared by mixing with microcrystalline cellulose. EDXRF measurement was carried out using Jordan Valley, EX-3600 M spectrometer with a Rhodium X-ray source. Characteristic K α X-ray of Sb (26.35 keV) was used for quantification. A typical XRF spectrum of the sample is shown after XRF analysis, sample and standard pellets were sealed in clean polyethylene bags and were irradiated in AHWR critical facility reactor, BARC for 4 h. Gamma ray measurement of irradiated samples were carried out using HPGe detector and 564.2 keV gamma ray of 122 Sb was used for quantification

  14. Mineral Resource of the Month: Antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a lustrous silvery-white semimetal or metalloid. Archaeological and historical studies indicate that antimony and its mineral sulfides have been used by humans for at least six millennia. The alchemist Basil Valentine is sometimes credited with “discovering” the element; he described the extraction of metallic antimony from stibnite in his treatise “The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony,” published sometime between 1350 and 1600. In the early 18th century, Jöns Jakob Berzelius chose the periodic symbol for antimony (Sb) based on stibium, which is the Latin name for stibnite.

  15. Tin-antimony oxide oxidation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Frank J. [Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-15

    Tin-antimony oxide catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons have been made by precipitation techniques. The dehydration of the amorphous dried precipitate by calcination at increasingly higher temperatures induces the crystallisation of a rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase and the segregation of antimony oxides which volatilise at elevated temperatures. The rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase contains antimony(V) in the bulk and antimony(III) in the surface. Specific catalytic activity for the oxidative dehydrogenation of butene to butadiene is associated with materials with large concentrations of antimony(III) in the surface.

  16. First principles calculation of two dimensional antimony and antimony arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, Sharad Babu, E-mail: sbpillai001@gmail.com; Narayan, Som; Jha, Prafulla K. [Department. of Physics, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Dabhi, Shweta D. [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    This work focuses on the strain dependence of the electronic properties of two dimensional antimony (Sb) material and its alloy with As (SbAs) using density functional theory based first principles calculations. Both systems show indirect bandgap semiconducting character which can be transformed into a direct bandgap material with the application of relatively small strain.

  17. Selective liquid-liquid extraction of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media by N-n-octylaniline in xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ANUSE

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available N-n-Octylaniline in xylene was used for the extraction separation of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media. Antimony(III was extracted quantitatively with 10 mL 4 % N-n-octylaniline in xylene. It was stripped from the organic phase with 0.5 M ammonia and estimated photometrically by the iodide method. The effect of metal ion, acid, reagent concentration and various foreign ions was investigated. The method affords binary and ternary separation of antimony(III from tellurium(IV, selenium(IV, lead(II, bismuth(III, tin(IV, germanium(IV, copper(II, gold(III, iron(III and zinc(II. The method is applicable for the analysis of synthetic mixtures, alloys and semiconductor thin films. It is fast, accurate and precise.

  18. On-line lab-in-syringe cloud point extraction for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Most of the procedures for antimony determination require time-consuming sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents), which are harmful to the environment. Because of the high antimony toxicity, a rapid, sensitive and greener procedure for its determination becomes necessary. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical procedure exploiting for the first time the cloud point extraction on a lab-in-syringe flow system aiming at the spectrophotometric determination of antimony. The procedure was based on formation of an ion-pair between the antimony-iodide complex and H(+) followed by extraction with Triton X-114. The factorial design showed that the concentrations of ascorbic acid, H2SO4 and Triton X-114, as well as second and third order interactions were significant at the 95% confidence level. A Box-Behnken design was applied to obtain the response surfaces and to identify the critical values. System is robust at the 95% confidence level. A linear response was observed from 5 to 50 µg L(-1), described by the equation A=0.137+0.050C(Sb) (r=0.998). The detection limit (99.7% confidence level), the coefficient of variation (n=5; 15 µg L(-1)) and the sampling rate was estimated at 1.8 µg L(-1), 1.6% and 16 h(-1), respectively. The procedure allows quantification of antimony in the concentrations established by environmental legislation (6 µg L(-1)) and it was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in freshwater samples and antileishmanial drugs, yielding results in agreement with those obtained by HGFAAS at the 95% confidence level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Geomicrobial interactions with arsenic and antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Although arsenic and antimony are generally toxic to life, some microorganisms exist that can metabolize certain forms of these elements. Some can use arsenite or stibnite as potential or sole energy sources, whereas others can use aresenate and antimonite (as was discovered only recently) as terminal electron acceptors. Still other microbes can metabolize arsenic and antimony compounds to detoxify them. These reactions are important from a geomicrobial standpoint because they indicate that a number of microbes contribute to arsenic and antimony mobilization or immobilization in the environment and play a role in arsenic and antimony cycles. Recent reviews include five on prokaryotes and arsenic metabolism, a review with an arsenic perspective on biomining, and a series on environmental antimony, including one about antimony and its interaction with microbiota.

  20. Potassium iodide stockpiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    After examination by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other federal agencies of federal policy on the use and distribution of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid-blocking agent for use in off-site preparedness around commercial nuclear powerplants, FEMA believes the present shelf life of KI is too short, that the minimum ordering quantities are an obstacle to efficient procurement, and that the packaging format offered by the drug industry does not meet the wishes of state and local government officials. FEMA has asked assistance from the Food and Drug Administration in making it possible for those states wishing to satisfy appropriate requirements to do so at the minimum cost to the public. Given an appropriate packaging and drug form, there appears to be no reason for the federal government to have further involvement in the stockpiling of KI

  1. Mineral resource of the month: antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article describes the characteristics and industrial uses of antimony. Antimony, which is produced as a byproduct of mining other metals such as gold, lead or silver, is used in everything from flame retardants, batteries, ceramics and glass. It is also used in glass for television picture tubes, computer monitors, pigments and catalysts.

  2. Mercuric iodide sensor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.B.; Anderson, R.J.; Schlesinger, T.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the improvement in the performance and the manufacturing yield of mercuric iodide detectors achieved by identifying the dominant impurities, carrier traps, and processing steps limiting device performance. Theoretical studies of electron and hole transport in this material set fundamental limits on detector performance and provided a standard against which to compare experimental results. Spectroscopy techniques including low temperature photoluminescence and thermally stimulated current spectroscopy were applied to characterize the deep level traps in this material. Traps and defects that can be introduced into the detector during growth, from the contact, and during the various steps in detector fabrication were identified. Trap energy levels and their relative abundances were determined. Variations in material quality and detector performance at the micron scale were investigated to understand the distribution in electric field in large volume detectors suitable for gamma-ray spectroscopy. Surface aging and contact degradation was studied extensively by techniques including atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Preferred handling and processing procedures for maximizing detector performance and yield were established. The manufacturing yield of high resolution gamma-ray detectors was improved from a few percent to more than 30%

  3. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Phase Stability and Electronic Structure of Prospective Sb-Based Mixed Sulfide and Iodide 3D Perovskite (CH3NH3)SbSI2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyang; Wang, Xiaoming; Yan, Yanfa; Mitzi, David B

    2018-06-29

    Lead-free antimony-based mixed sulfide and iodide perovskite phases have recently been reported to be synthesized experimentally and to exhibit reasonable photovoltaic performance. Through a combination of experimental validation and computational analysis, we show no evidence of the formation of the mixed sulfide and iodide perovskite phase, MASbSI 2 (MA = CH 3 NH 3 + ), and instead that the main products are a mixture of the binary and ternary compounds (Sb 2 S 3 and MA 3 Sb 2 I 9 ). Density functional theory calculations also indicate that such a mixed sulfide and iodide perovskite phase should be thermodynamically less stable compared with binary/ternary anion-segregated secondary phases and less likely to be synthesized under equilibrium conditions. Additionally, band structure calculations show that this mixed sulfide and iodide phase, if possible to synthesize (e.g., under nonequilibrium conditions), should have a suitable direct band gap for photovoltaic application.

  5. FIRST REPORT ON OTOTOXICITY OF MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pentavalent antimonials are the first drug of choice in the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Data on ototoxicity related with such drugs is scarcely available in literature, leading us to develop a study on cochleovestibular functions. Case Report: A case of a tegumentary leishmaniasis patient, a 78-year-old man who presented a substantial increase in auditory threshold with tinnitus and severe rotatory dizziness during the treatment with meglumine antimoniate, is reported. These symptoms worsened in two weeks after treatment was interrupted. Conclusion: Dizziness and tinnitus had already been related to meglumine antimoniate. However, this is the first well documented case of cochlear-vestibular toxicity related to meglumine antimoniate.

  6. A comparative study of ion exchange properties of antimony (III) tungstoselenite with those of antimony (III) tungstate and antimony (III) selenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardanan, C.; Nair, S.M.K.

    1996-01-01

    A new inorganic ion exchanger, antimony (III) tungstoselenite, has been prepared and characterised. Its exchange capacity and distribution coefficients for various metal ions and the effects of temperature and electrolyte concentrations on ion exchange capacity have been compared with antimony (III) tungstate and antimony (III) selenite. Six binary separations using the exchanger have been carried out. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  7. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  8. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  9. Sorption of antimony on human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nofal, M.; Amin, H.; Alian, G.

    1997-01-01

    The study of the uptake of toxic elements on human teeth represents an interesting research area, as the fate of these elements when present in the human food is of health significance. Since antimony is one of the common toxic elements and since, the chemical behaviour of antimony is similar to that of arsenic, one of the most important toxic elements commonly encountered in cases of food poisoning, it has been decided to investigate its uptake on human teeth and on other restoration materials. The radioactive tracer technique was used to evaluate the concentration of antimony sorbed on teeth. This tracer was obtained by irradiation of antimony metal in the reactor, subsequent dissolution in concentrated sulphuric acid, evaporation to dryness and making the solution 6 M in Hydrochloric acid (1). Antimony prepared in this way is in the trivalent state (Sb III). Sorption was studied in water, tea, coffee, red tea and chicken soup. The highest sorption was achieved from water and chicken soup and least sorption was noticed in case of coffee. The results are presented in the form of the depletion of the radioactivity (A) of antimony with time in presence of a tooth in water and other drinks

  10. Antimony measurement in high pressure reactor water loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svarc, V.; Dudjakova, K.; Martykan, M.; Sus, F.; Kysela, J.

    2005-01-01

    RVS 3 loop is highly contaminated due to antimony main circulating pump bearings. Antimony is one of the major contaminant in PWR units. Different technologies to remove Sb from the systems have been tried. (N.T.)

  11. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  12. Potential of rice husks for antimony removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Nasir; Ahmad, Shujaat; Toheed, Aqidat; Ahmed, Jamil

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of rice husks for antimony ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated as a function of appropriate electrolyte, equilibration time, hydrogen ions, amount of adsorbent, concentration of adsorbate, effect of diverse ions and temperature. The best conditions in which this material can be used as adsorbent have been explored. The radiotracer technique was employed to determine the distribution of antimony ( 122 Sb) using a batch method. Maximum adsorption was observed at 0.01 mol L -1 acid solutions (HNO 3 , HCl, H 2 SO 4 and HClO 4 ) using 1.0 g of adsorbent for 1.92x10 -5 mol L -1 antimony concentration in 10 min equilibration time. Studies show that the adsorption decreases with the increase in the concentrations of all the acids. The adsorption data follow the Freundlich isotherm over the range of 1.92x10 -5 to 2.05x10 -4 mol L -1 antimony concentration. The characteristic Freundlich constants i.e., 1/n=0.82±0.05 and K=4.61±0.07 m mol g -1 have been computed for the sorption system. The uptake of antimony increases with the rise in temperature (299-323 K). Thermodynamic quantities i.e., ΔG 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔH 0 have also been calculated for the system. The sorption process was found to be endothermic

  13. Perspectives of antimony compounds in oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj SHARMA; Diego PEREZ; Armando CABRERA; Nee ROSAS; Jose Luis ARIAS

    2008-01-01

    Antimony, a natural element that has been used as a drug for over more than 100 years, has remarkable therapeutic efficacy in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. This review focuses on recent advances in developing antimony anti- cancer agents with an emphasis on antimony coordination complexes, Sb (Ⅲ) and Sb (V). These complexes, which include many organometallic complexes, may provide a broader spectrum of antitumoral activity. They were compared with classical platinum anticancer drugs. The review covers the literature data pub- lished up to 2007. A number of antimonials with different antitumoral activities are known and have diverse applications, even though little research has been done on their possibilities. It might be feasible to develop more specific and effective inhibitors for phosphatase-targeted, anticancer therapeutics through the screen- ing of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and potassium antimonyltartrate-related compounds, which are comprised of antimony conjugated to different organic moieties. For example, SSG appears to be a better inhibitor than suramin which is a compound known for its antineoplastic activity against several types of cancers.

  14. Antimony bioavailability in mine soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Helen C.; Meharg, Andy A.; Bowyer, Phillipa K.; Paton, Graeme I.

    2003-01-01

    Antimony has low bioavailability in mining and smelting contaminated soils and bacterial biosensors are not suitable for its detection. - Five British former mining and smelting sites were investigated and found to have levels of total Sb of up to 700 mg kg -1 , indicating high levels of contamination which could be potentially harmful. However, this level of Sb was found to be biologically unavailable over a wide range of pH values, indicating that Sb is relatively unreactive and immobile in the surface layers of the soil, remaining where it is deposited rather than leaching into lower horizons and contaminating ground water. Sb, sparingly soluble in water, was unavailable to the bacterial biosensors tested. The bioluminescence responses were correlated to levels of co-contaminants such as arsenic and copper, rather than to Sb concentrations. This suggests that soil contamination by Sb due to mining and smelting operations is not a severe risk to the environment or human health provided that it is present as immobile species and contaminated sites are not used for purposes which increase the threat of exposure to identified receptors. Co-contaminants such as arsenic and copper are more bioavailable and may therefore be seen as a more significant risk

  15. Extraction of antimony from nitric acid solutions using tributyl phosphate. II. Tributyl phosphate-antimony(V)-nitric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakaev, V.S.; Smelov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    The extraction of pentavalent antimony from nitric acid solutions using tributyl phosphate has been investigated. A possible mechanism for the extraction of antimony(V) has been determined and the (pre)concentration constant for the process has been calculated. The composition of the extracted antimony(V) complex has been deduced. A negative effect of temperature on the distribution coefficient for antimony(V) has also been demonstrated

  16. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ANTIMONY INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS SILICON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Wang; H.Z. Li; C.N. Yu; G.M. Wu; I. Gordon; P. Schattschneider; O. Van Der Biest

    2007-01-01

    Antimony induced crystallization of PVD (physics vapor deposition) amorphous silicon can be observed on sapphire substrates. Very large crystalline regions up to several tens of micrometers can be formed. The Si diffraction patterns of the area of crystallization can be observed with TEM (transmission electron microscopy). Only a few and much smaller crystals of the order of 1μm were formed when the antimony layer was deposited by MBE(molecular beam epitaxy) compared with a layer formed by thermal evaporation. The use of high vacuum is essential in order to observe any Sb induced crystallization at all. In addition it is necessary to take measures to limit the evaporation of the antimony.

  18. The evolution of hydrogen and iodine by the decomposition of ammonium iodide and hydrogen iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Nakane, Masanori; Ishii, Eiichi; Uehara, Itsuki; Miyake, Yoshizo

    1977-01-01

    As a fundamental study on thermochemical production of hydrogen from water, the evolution of hydrogen and iodine from ammonium iodide and hydrogen iodide was investigated. Hydrogen was evolved by the reaction of nickel with ammonium iodide or with hydrogen iodide, and the resulting nickel(II) iodide was decomposed thermally at 600 -- 700 0 C to form nickel. First, the iodination of powdered nickel with ammonium iodide was studied by heating their powder mixture. The maximum yield of hydrogen was obtained at a temperature near 430 0 C. The iodination of powdered nickel with gaseous ammonium iodide or with dry hydrogen iodide gas was also investigated. In this case, coating of nickel particles with a layer of resulting nickel(II) iodide prevented further conversion of nickel and lowered the reaction rate. Such a retardation effect was appreciably lessened by use of carrier. When nickel was supported on such a carrier as ''isolite'', the nickel was converted into nickel(II) iodide easily. In a reaction temperature from 400 to 500 0 C, the rate of reaction between nickel and hydrogen iodide increased slightly with the elevation of the reaction temperature. In the case of ammonium iodide, the reaction rate was higher than that for hydrogen iodide and decreased apparently with the elevation of the reaction temperature, because ammonium iodide decomposed to ammonia and hydrogen iodide. Tests using a fixed bed reactor charged with 8 -- 10 mesh ''isolite''-nickel (30 wt%) were also carried out. The maximum yield of hydrogen was about 80% for ammonium iodide at 430 0 C of reaction temperature and 60% for hydrogen iodide at 500 0 C. (auth.)

  19. Neutrons and antimony physical measurements and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    New experimental information for the elastic and inelastic scattering of ∼ 4--10 MeV neutrons from elemental antimony is presented. The differential measurements are made at ∼ 40 or more scattering angles and at incident neutron-energy intervals of ∼ 0.5 MeV. The present experimental results, those previously reported from this laboratory and as found in the literature are comprehensively interpreted using spherical optical-statistical and dispersive-optical models. Direct vibrational processes via core-excitation, isospin and shell effects are discussed. Antimony models for applications are proposed and compared with global, regional, and specific models reported in the literature

  20. Synthesis and application of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU You-nian; LI Hong-bing; SHU Wan-gen; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2005-01-01

    A new type of thermal stabilizer, antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate)(Sb(SCH2COOC8H17)5), was synthesized by using antimony trioxide, isooctanol and thioglycolic acid in 2 steps. Firstly, antimony trioxide was oxidized into colloidal antimony peroxide. Then antimony peroxide and isooctyl thioglycollate reacted stoichiometrically for 2 h with the yield of 87%. This compound was used as thermal stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride(PVC). The results show that the thermal stability time is 52 min at 200 ℃ by heat-ageing oven test when adding 2.5% thermal stabilizer to PVC resin. Compared with antimony tris(isooctyl thiolycollate), the initial thermal stability of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) is better than that of antimony tris(isooctyl thioglycollate), while the long-term thermal stability time is shorter than that of antimony tris(isooctyl thioglycollate). Meanwhile, the synergism of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) with calcium stearate was studied, indicating that when the mass ratio of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) to calcium stearate is 2:1, the thermal stability time of PVC is 58 min.

  1. Effect of precipitation route on the properties of antimony trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Noor, Nor Hayati Mohd; Ramli, Irmawati; Hashim, Mansor

    2008-01-01

    Antimony trioxide was prepared, using antimony potassium tartarate as starting material, via forward and reverse precipitation technique. The characteristics of the resulting antimony oxides were determined by BET surface area method, differential thermogravimetry analysis (DTG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and SEM. The DTG curves for all uncalcined samples showed only a single endothermic peak which indicated that the sample is antimony trioxide. Unlike forward precipitation technique which resulted in a single antimony trioxide phase which is senarmontite, reverse precipitation technique produced antimony trioxide with both senarmontite and valentinite phase. Upon calcinations at 723 K, a small amount of Sb 2 O 4 with cervantite phase was formed at the expense of Sb 2 O 3 senarmontite phase as detected from the XRD pattern and infrared spectrum of RSb. The effect of preparation route on the properties of the antimony trioxide produced was clearly demonstrated

  2. Microbial antimony biogeochemistry: Enzymes, regulation, and related metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Qian Wang,; Oremland, Ronald S.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago. This portends the possibility of future discoveries with regard to the ability of microorganisms to conserve energy for their growth from antimony redox reactions and the isolation of new species of “antimonotrophs.”

  3. Chlorination of antimony and its volatilization treatment of waste antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, K.; Enokida, Y.

    2011-01-01

    For the waste antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst, the chlorination of antimony and its volatilization treatment were proposed, and evaluated using hydrogen chloride gas at 873-1173 K. During the treatment, the weight loss of the composite oxide sample, which resulted from the volatilization of antimony, was confirmed. An X-ray diffraction analysis showed that uranium oxide, U 3 O 8 , was formed during the reaction. After the treatment at 1173 K for 1 h, almost all the uranium contained in the waste catalyst was dissolved by a 3 M nitric acid solution at 353 K within 10 min, although that of the non-treated catalyst was less than 0.1%. It was found that the chlorination and volatilization treatment was effective to separate antimony from the composite oxide catalyst and change uranium into its removable form. (orig.)

  4. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI (aq) ) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. - Highlights: • Iodide sorption experiments were completed with a diverse array of clay minerals. • Iodide uptake trended with CEC and swamping electrolyte identity and concentration. • Results can be explained by considering the formation of ion pairs in clay interlayers

  5. The use of masking agents in the determination, by hydride generation and atomic-absorption spectrophotometry, of arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium, and bismuth in the presence of noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerman, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of thiosemicarbazide, tellurium, and potassium iodide as masking agents to eliminate interferences was assessed. Thiosemicarbazide was found to be effective in eliminating or reducing the interferences on arsenic, antimony, and bismuth, and tellurium reduced the interferences on selenium. The interferences on tellurium could not be eliminated. Arsenic, antimony, selenium, and bismuth were determined in metal sulphide concentrates that were spiked with the noble metals (defined here as gold plus all the platinum-group metals except osmium). The relative standard deviations for arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and selenium were 0,061, 0,017, 0,029, and 0,145 respectively. The values obtained for all the analytes agreed favourably with the preferred values for two in-house reference samples. The laboratory method is detailed in an appendix

  6. Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.

  7. Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters. PMID:22489166

  8. Potent heme-degrading action of antimony and antimony-containing parasiticidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, G S; Kappas, A

    1981-02-01

    The ability of antimony and antimony-containing parasiticidal agents to enhance the rate of heme degradation in liver and kidney was investigated. Trivalent antimony was shown to be an extremely potent inducer of heme oxygenase, the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, in both organs, whereas the pentavalent form was a weak inducer of this enzyme. The ability of antimony to induce heme oxygenase was dose-dependent, independent of the salt used, and not a result of a direct activation of the enzyme in vitro. Concomitant with heme oxygenase induction by antimony, microsomal heme and cytochrome P-450 contents decreased, the cyto-chrome P-450-dependent mixed function oxidase system was impaired, and delta-ami-nolevulinate synthase (ALAS), the rate-limiting enzyme of heme synthesis, underwent the sequential changes-initial inhibition followed by rebound induction-usually associated with the administration of transition elements such as cobalt. Antimony induction of heme oxygenase however, unlike the enzyme induction elicited by cobalt, was not prevented either by cysteine administered orally or as a cysteine metal complex, or by simultaneous zinc administration. Desferoxamine also did not block heme oxygenase induction by antimony, but this chelator did prevent the rebound increase in ALAS activity associated with antimony or cobalt treatment. Antimony-containing parasiticidal drugs were also potent inducers of heme oxygenase in liver and kidney. The heme degradative action of these drugs may be related in part to the jaundice commonly associated with the prolonged therapeutic use of these agents. The heme-oxygenase-inducing action of antimony-containing parasiticidal drugs is a newly defined biological property of these compounds. The relation between the parasiticidal and the heme-oxygenase-inducing actions of such drugs is unknown. However, certain parasites contain hemoproteins or require heme compounds during their life cycle. It may therefore be

  9. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be...

  10. Interaction of simple indium iodides with silver- and aluminium iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, Yu.N.; Halova, N.S.; Fedorov, P.I.

    1976-01-01

    Fusibility diagrams of the systems InI-AlI 3 , InI-AgI, InI 2 -AgI, and InI 2 -AlI 3 have been studied. In the system InI-AlI 3 a compound InAlI 4 has been detected having a melting point 194 deg C and two lamination regions. In the system InI-AgI two compounds In 2 AgI 3 and InAgI 2 are formed which melt incongruently at 272 deg and 220 deg C, respectively. The formation of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray phase analysis. Specific electroconductivity of a number of alloys of the system InI-AlI 3 has been studied. The systems of eutectic type formed by diiodide of indium with iodides of silver and aluminium have been studied by thermal and X-ray analysis and by measuring electroconductivity

  11. Preparation of antimony-doped nanoparticles by hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ming-xi; YANG Tian-zu; GU Ying-ying; DU Zuo-juan; LIU Jian-ling

    2005-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide(ATO) nanoparticles were prepared by the mild hydrothermal method at 200 ℃ using sodium stannate, antimony oxide, sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid as the starting materials. The doped powders were examined by differential thermal analysis(DTA), X-ray diffractometry(XRD) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The doping levels of antimony were determined by volumetric method and iodimetry.The results show that antimony is incorporated into the crystal lattice of tin oxide and the doping levels of antimony in the resulting powders are 2.4%, 4.3 % and 5.1 % (molar fraction). The mean particle size of ATO nanoparticles is in the range of 25 - 30 nm. The effects of antimony doping level on the crystalline size and crystallinity were also discussed.

  12. In vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: samanta@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo (IMT-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia]. E-mail:hfandrad@usp.br

    2005-10-15

    Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes {sup 122} Sb and {sup 124} Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology. (author)

  13. Electrical properties of cadmium telluride films doped with antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atdaev, B.S.; Garyagdyev, G.; Grin', V.F.; Noskov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of cadmium telluride doping with antimony on electric and photoelectric properties is investigated. Temperature dependence of dark (σ d ) and photoconductivity (σ p ) during excitation from the range of proper absorption in the temperature range 77-300 K and spectral distribution of photoconductivity at 300 K are investigated. It is shown that in the process of doping antimony diffusses intensively over CdTe grain boundaries, decreasing potential barriers between them and due to diffusion into CdTe grains it changes their electrical properties. The acceptor character of antimony impurity can be caused by antimony diffusion into tellurium sublattice owing to proximity of their ionic and covalent radii

  14. The exposure to and health effects of antimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    . Antimony toxicity is dependent on the exposure dose, duration, route (breathing, eating, drinking, or skin contact), other chemical exposures, age, sex, nutritional status, family traits, life style, and state of health. Chronic exposure to antimony in the air at levels of 9 mg/m3 may exacerbate irritation...... of the eyes, skin, and lungs. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant...

  15. Protection of cesium-antimony photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzulutskov, A.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Prager, M.; Shefer, E.

    1996-06-01

    In order to operate gaseous photomultipliers in the visible range it was suggested to protect sensitive photocathodes against contact to air and counting gases by their coating with a thin solid dielectric film. We present data on coating of cesium- antimony photocathodes with alkali-halide (NaI, CsI, CsF, NaF), oxide (SiO) and organic (hexatriacontane, calcium stearate) films. The photoelectron transmission through these films and their protection capability have been studied in detail. Cesium-antimony photocathodes are shown to withstand exposure to considerable doses of oxygen and dry air when coated with Nal films. This opens ways to their operation in gas media. (authors), 11 refs., 6 figs

  16. EVALUAION OF NEUTRON DATA FOR NATURAL ANTIMONY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    <正> The complete neutron nuclear data of natural antimony have been per-formed for CENDL-2 in neutron energy range from 10-5eV to 20 MeV.Someof the data have been calculated by means of theoretical model.A good agree-ment was obtained with measured values.The recommended data were com-pared with the evaluations of JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-6.

  17. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Antimony Susceptibility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Antimony Susceptibility/Resistance in L. donovani Rentala Madhubala School of Life Sciences Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi, India · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16.

  18. Synthesis of Antimony Doped Amorphous Carbon Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, H.; Takashima, M.; Akasaka, H.; Ohtake, N.

    2013-06-01

    We report the effects of antimony (Sb) doping on the electrical and optical properties of amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films grown on silicon and copper substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. For film deposition, the mixture targets fabricated from carbon and antimony powders was used. The atomic concentration of carbon, hydrogen, and antimony, in the film deposited from the 1.0 mol% Sb containing target were 81, 17, 2 at.%, respectively. These elements were homogeneously distributed in the film. On the structural effect, the average continuous sp2 carbon bonding networks decreased with Sb concentration increasing, and defects in the films were increased with the Sb incorporation because atomic radius of Sb atoms is twice larger size than that of carbon. The optical gap and the electrical resistivity were carried out before and after the Sb doping. The results show that optical gap dropped from 3.15 to 3.04 eV corresponding to non-doping to Sb-doping conditions, respectively. The electrical resistivity reduced from 10.5 to 1.0 MΩm by the Sb doping. These results suggest the doping level was newly formed in the forbidden band.

  19. Synthesis of Antimony Doped Amorphous Carbon Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, H; Takashima, M; Akasaka, H; Ohtake, N

    2013-01-01

    We report the effects of antimony (Sb) doping on the electrical and optical properties of amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films grown on silicon and copper substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. For film deposition, the mixture targets fabricated from carbon and antimony powders was used. The atomic concentration of carbon, hydrogen, and antimony, in the film deposited from the 1.0 mol% Sb containing target were 81, 17, 2 at.%, respectively. These elements were homogeneously distributed in the film. On the structural effect, the average continuous sp 2 carbon bonding networks decreased with Sb concentration increasing, and defects in the films were increased with the Sb incorporation because atomic radius of Sb atoms is twice larger size than that of carbon. The optical gap and the electrical resistivity were carried out before and after the Sb doping. The results show that optical gap dropped from 3.15 to 3.04 eV corresponding to non-doping to Sb-doping conditions, respectively. The electrical resistivity reduced from 10.5 to 1.0 MΩm by the Sb doping. These results suggest the doping level was newly formed in the forbidden band.

  20. Dynamic iodide trapping by tumor cells expressing the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingli, David; Bergert, Elizabeth R.; Bajzer, Zeljko; O'Connor, Michael K.; Russell, Stephen J.; Morris, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in combination with various radioactive isotopes has shown promise as a therapeutic gene in various tumor models. Therapy depends on adequate retention of the isotope in the tumor. We hypothesized that in the absence of iodide organification, isotope trapping is a dynamic process either due to slow efflux or re-uptake of the isotope by cells expressing NIS. Iodide efflux is slower in ARH-77 and K-562 cells expressing NIS compared to a thyroid cell line. Isotope retention half times varied linearly with the number of cells expressing NIS. With sufficient NIS expression, iodide efflux is a zero-order process. Efflux kinetics in the presence or absence of perchlorate also supports the hypothesis that iodide re-uptake occurs and contributes to the retention of the isotope in tumor cells. Iodide organification was insignificant. In vivo studies in tumors composed of mixed cell populations confirmed these observations

  1. Kinetic Isotope Effects in the Reduction of Methyl Iodide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1999-01-01

    a Grignard reagent to methyl iodide, and for reduction of methyl iodide with tributyltin hydride or with gaseous hydrogen iodide. Very small KIE's were found for electron transfer to methyl iodide from magnesium in ether or from sodium in ammonia. The reason may be that these reactions are transport...

  2. Methyl Iodide Decomposition at BWR Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Mike; Bell, Merl

    2012-09-01

    Based on favourable results from short-term testing of methanol addition to an operating BWR plant, AREVA has performed numerous studies in support of necessary Engineering and Plant Safety Evaluations prior to extended injection of methanol. The current paper presents data from a study intended to provide further understanding of the decomposition of methyl iodide as it affects the assessment of methyl iodide formation with the application of methanol at BWR Plants. This paper describes the results of the decomposition testing under UV-C light at laboratory conditions and its effect on the subject methyl iodide production evaluation. The study as to the formation and decomposition of methyl iodide as it is effected by methanol addition is one phase of a larger AREVA effort to provide a generic plant Safety Evaluation prior to long-term methanol injection to an operating BWR. Other testing phases have investigated the compatibility of methanol with fuel construction materials, plant structural materials, plant consumable materials (i.e. elastomers and coatings), and ion exchange resins. Methyl iodide is known to be very unstable, typically preserved with copper metal or other stabilizing materials when produced and stored. It is even more unstable when exposed to light, heat, radiation, and water. Additionally, it is known that methyl iodide will decompose radiolytically, and that this effect may be simulated using ultra-violet radiation (UV-C) [2]. In the tests described in this paper, the use of a UV-C light source provides activation energy for the formation of methyl iodide. Thus is similar to the effect expected from Cherenkov radiation present in a reactor core after shutdown. Based on the testing described in this paper, it is concluded that injection of methanol at concentrations below 2.5 ppm in BWR applications to mitigate IGSCC of internals is inconsequential to the accident conditions postulated in the FSAR as they are related to methyl iodide formation

  3. Prevention of organic iodide formation in BWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karjunen, T.; Laitinen, T.; Piippo, J.; Sirkiae, P.

    1996-01-01

    During an accident, many different forms of iodine may emerge. Organic iodides, such as methyl iodide and ethyl iodide, are relatively volatile, and thus their appearance leads to increased concentration of gaseous iodine. Since organic iodides are also relatively immune to most accident mitigation measures, such as sprays and filters, they can affect the accident source term significantly even when only a small portion of iodine is in organic form. Formation of organic iodides may not be limited by the amount of organic substances available. Excessive amounts of methane can be produced, for example, during oxidation of boron carbide, which is used in BWR's as a neutron absorber material. Another important source is cable insulation. In a BWR, a large quantity of cables is placed below the pressure vessel. Thus a large quantity of pyrolyse gases will be produced, should the vessel fail. Organic iodides can be formed as a result of many different reactions, but at least in certain conditions the main reaction takes place between an organic radical produced by radiolysis and elemental iodine. A necessary requirement for prevention of organic iodide production is therefore that the pH in the containment water pools is kept high enough to eliminate formation of elemental iodine. In a typical BWR the suppression pool water is usually unbuffered. As a result, the pH may be dominated by chemicals introduced during an accident. If no system for adding basic chemicals is operable, the main factor affecting pool water pH may be hydrochloric acid released during cable degradation. Should this occur, the conditions could be very favorable for production of elemental iodine and, consequently, formation of organic iodides. Although high pH is necessary for iodine retention, it could have also adverse effects. High pH may, for example, accelerate corrosion of containment materials and alter the characteristics of the solid corrosion products. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs

  4. In Vitro Bioavailability Study of an Antiviral Compound Enisamium Iodide

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonore Haltner-Ukomadu; Svitlana Gureyeva; Oleksii Burmaka; Andriy Goy; Lutz Mueller; Grygorii Kostyuk; Victor Margitich

    2018-01-01

    An investigation into the biopharmaceutics classification and a study of the in vitro bioavailability (permeability and solubility) of the antiviral compound enisamium iodide (4-(benzylcarbamoyl)-1-methylpyridinium iodide) were carried out. The solubility of enisamium iodide was determined in four different buffers. Apparent intestinal permeability (Papp) of enisamium iodide was assessed using human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells at three concentrations. The solubility of enisamium iodide in ...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3110 - Antimony test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antimony test system. 862.3110 Section 862.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3110 Antimony test system. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5547 - Antimony double oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Antimony double oxide. 721.5547 Section 721.5547 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5547 Antimony double oxide. (a)...

  7. Determination of antimony trioxide in fire-retardant conveyor belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytych-Witwicka, B.; Szmyd, E.

    1976-12-01

    Two methods for the determination of antimony trioxide in rubber and pvc are described. One is a colorimetric method based on the reaction of antimony with rhodamine B; the other is a polarographic method. The results of the two methods show a satisfactory consistency and the methods themselves appear rapid and effective.

  8. The presence of antimony in various dental filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molokhia, Anat; Combe, E.C.; Lilley, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Antimony was determined in a number of non-metallic dental materials currently used for tooth restoration. The method applied was instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of antimony in some of the brands tested was found to be as high as 900 fold that in the normal hard dental tissues. (author)

  9. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb +5 ) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes 122 Sb and 124 Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony and high

  10. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mails: samanta@usp.br; nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb{sup +5}) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony

  11. Antimony-121 Moessbauer spectra of antimony(III) compounds with a stereochemically active lone pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masuo; Takahashi, Masashi; Ohyama, Ryuhichi

    1986-01-01

    The Sb-121 Moessbauer parameters at 20 K for 23 antimony(III) compounds were obtained and the data are discussed in terms of known crystal structures. The isomer shifts and quadrupole coupling constants depend strongly on the type of configuration around the Sb(III) atoms with stereochemically active lone pair electrons. (Auth.)

  12. Effect of antimony on lead-acid battery negative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahato, B.K.; Bullock, K.R.; Strebe, J.L.; Wilkinson, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    The role of antimony on the lead-acid battery negative in terms of its effect on charge efficiency, its effect on gassing overpotential, its interactive influence with lignin expander in controlling the charge efficiency, and its retentive behavior or purging characteristics as SbH 3 in the overcharge gas stream was investigated. Linear potential sweep (LPS) cycling of Plante-type lead electrodes were used to determine the effect of antimony on gassing overpotential and to monitor its concentration either in the active material or the exit gas stream. Results showed a significant contribution of antimony in decreasing charge efficiency and an overwhelming role of lignin expander in suppressing the effect of antimony on charge efficiency. The critical lead-electrode potential for purging antimony from the electrode is close to -1275 mV (vs. Hg/Hg 2 SO 4 )

  13. Antimony removal from aqueous solutions using Zirconium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, D.; Velciu, L.; Bucur, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper it is presented an experimental test for non-radioactive antimony removal from aqueous solutions using zirconium hydroxide powder. Also, it was studied how the temperature and pH influences antimony adsorption onto zirconium hydroxide surface. After the adsorption, solutions were filtered on Cellulose Mixed Ester Membrane with 0.2 μm pore size to remove the zirconium powder and then the aqueous solutions were sent to Inductively Coupled Plasma Optic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for quantitative analysis of Sb. Zirconium hydroxide powders were examined by optical microscopy. For the solutions that were tested at pH 4.5 and 10.2 the antimony concentration dropped below the detection limit of ICP-OES device, proof of antimony adsorption on zirconium hydroxide. Also, for the other tested solutions which had pH=12 the antimony concentration reduced with 77% and 80%. The temperature had no influence upon adsorption mechanism. (authors)

  14. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  15. Structural and electrical characterization of zinc oxide doped with antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Juárez Díaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the results of structural and electrical characterization realized on zinc oxide single crystal samples with (001 orientation, which were doped with antimony. Doping was carried out by antimony thermal diffusion at 1000 °C for periods of 1 and 2 hours under nitrogen environment from a solid source formed by antimony oxide. Electrical characterization by I-V curves and Hall effect shown an increase in acceptor concentration which demonstrates that doping is effective and create holes in zinc oxide samples.

  16. Method to remove methyl iodide131 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.; Blachly, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    A two-stage impregnation process for charcoal is presented which is to be used for radioactive iodine or methyl iodide removal from the waste gas of a nuclear reactor. In the first stage, the coal is treated at pH 10 with an aqueous mixture of a salt of iodic acid (hypoiodite, iodate, or periodate) with iodine or iodide. In the second stage, impregnation with a tertiary amine occurs. The concentrations are chosen so that the charcoal will take up between 0.5 and 4% by weight of iodine. (UWI) [de

  17. Factors affecting the retention of methyl iodide by iodide-impregnated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.; Malstrom, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper comprises two sets of studies of methyl iodide retention by iodide-impregnated carbon. In the first of these, the retention of the methyl iodide on the carbon surface and its subsequent evolution were observed directly by a technique of combustion and phosphorescence. In the second, the methyl iodide retention in a standard test was compared with surface area measurements and the concentration of unreacted iodine. A correlation among these parameters was identified and characterized. Carbon quality was varied through the selection of used material with differing service histories. Air from the Savannah River Site reactor buildings is vented through carbon beds for control of radioiodine before release to the atmosphere. The carbon used is North American Carbon Co. type GX-176 coconut shell carbon impregnated with 1% triethylenedimaine (TEDA) and 2% potassium iodide by weight. Replacement intervals for the carbon have been as long as thirty months. Analysis of samples withdrawn at much shorter times has shown that the TEDA is lost after a few months, and the performance of the carbon for methyl iodide retention is dependent on the iodide impregnant. Efficient methyl iodide retention is not a requirement for carbon in this service; however, methyl iodide retention as measured by the ASTM Test D3803 (method B) has been found to correlate well with other desirable properties of the carbon such as radiation stability. The studies undertaken here were intended to shed light on the changes taking place in this carbon during long-term service and to provide a basis for simpler measurements of carbon quality

  18. Antimony distribution and environmental mobility at an historic antimony smelter site, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, N.J.; Craw, D.; Hunter, K.

    2004-01-01

    A historic antimony smelter site at Endeavour Inlet, New Zealand has smelter residues with up to 17 wt.% antimony. Residues include coarse tailings (cm scale particles, poorly sorted), sand tailings (well sorted) and smelter slag (blocks up to 30 cm across). All of this material has oxidised to some degree over the ca. 100 years since the site was abandoned. Oxidation has resulted in acidification of the residues down to pH 2-5. Smelter slag contains pyrrhotite (FeS) and metallic antimony, and oxidation is restricted to surfaces only. The coarse tailings are the most oxidised, and few sulfide grains persist. Unoxidised sand tailings contain 10-20 vol.% stibnite (Sb 2 S 3 ) containing up to 5% As, with subordinate arsenopyrite (FeAsS), and minor pyrite (FeS 2 ). The sand tailings are variably oxidised on a scale of 2-10 cm, but original depositional layering is preserved during oxidation and formation of senarmontite (Sb 2 O 3 ). Oxidation of sand tailings has resulted in localised mobility of both Sb and As on the cm scale, resulting in redistribution of these metalloids with iron oxyhydroxide around sand grain boundaries. Experiments demonstrate that Sb mobility decreases with time on a scale of days. Attenuation of both As and Sb occurs due to adsorption on to iron oxyhydroxides which are formed during oxidation of the smelter residues. There is no detectable loss of Sb or As from the smelter site into the adjacent river, <50 m away, which has elevated Sb (ca. 20 μg/l) and As (ca. 7 μg /l) from mineralised rocks upstream. Despite the high concentrations of Sb and As in the smelter residues, these metalloids are not being released into the environment. - High levels of antimony in primitive smelter soils remain largely immobile on the metre scale

  19. How can we adapt to geological scarcity of antimony? Investigation of antimony's substitutability and of other measures to achieve a sustainable use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    Abstract Antimony is an element that is applied in many useful applications for mankind. However, antimony resources are very scarce, when comparing the current extraction rates with the availability of antimony containing ores. From an inter-temporal sustainability perspective, current generations

  20. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Riba Coelho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meglumine antimoniate (MA and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous. Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h and a slow (t1/2 >> 24 h elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain. The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies.

  1. Zhao Tiancong——A MONUMENT TO ANTIMONY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Professor Zhao Tiancong is a famous specialist of our country in nonferrous merallurgy field and a doctoral teacher of Central South University of Technology. He has been devoting diligently his life to the development of the antimony metallurgy.

  2. Determining arsenic in elemental antimony containing selenium and tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogileva, M.G.; Kozlova, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a method of determining arsenic in metallic antimony containing selenium, tellurium, and mercury, in which they isolated it in elementary form for separation from the antimony and the associated elements (silicon and phosphorus), followed by colorimetric determination of the arsenic from arsenic-molbdenum blue. The reducing agents to reduce the arsenic were sodium hypophosphite and tin(II) chloride, which do not reduce antimony and which do not interfere with the determination. This method of determining arsenic in metallic antimony without preliminary separation of the selenium and tellurium is in no way inferior in accuracy to the method given in All-Union State Standard (GOST) 1367.4-83

  3. Thermodynamic Behavior of Lead-Antimony Alloy in Vacuum Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of metals in Pb-Sb ailoy during vacuum distillation was calculated.The composition curve of vapor-liquid phases determined by this work is different from those of. other researchers.The curve intersects the diagonal at C.The compositions of vapor and liquid at C are identical.The antimony content of vapor on the left of C is less than that of liquid,and the vapor on the right-side of C contains more antimony.These characteristics can be applied to the elimination of antimony from crude lead or the elimination of lead from crude antimony.The position of C moves rightwards with temperature increment.The discrepency among the compositions of C suggested by diffrent authors was explained.

  4. Interplay of single particle and collective excitations in antimony nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan-Sion, C.

    1987-01-01

    The antimony nuclei are considered classical examples for coexisting spherical and well-deformed structures. The electromagnetic moment measurements presented in this paper provide direct evidence for shape coexistence. 8 refs., 3 figs. (M.F.W.)

  5. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2012-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  6. Potentiometric determination of iodides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikolaev, B.A.; Primakova, L.N.; Rakhman'ko, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Variants of potentiometric method: determination using a calibrations plot, the Gran method, and the double addition method are considered. The method of double additions of the test solution to the reference one is suggested as the most favorable method of determining iodides in urine under clinical laboratory conditions. Refs. 5, tabs. 2

  7. Inclusion complexation of tetrabutylammonium iodide by cyclodextrins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Datta

    Host-guest inclusion complex of an ionic solid (tetrabutyl ammonium iodide) with α- and β- cyclodextrin has been ... tions.2 CDs are cyclic oligomer of α-D-glucose having numerous of ... of locating at the interface of two phases (liquid–liquid.

  8. Developments in mercuric iodide gamma ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, B E; Beyerle, A G; Dolin, R C; Ortale, C [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA). Santa Barbara Operations

    1989-11-01

    A mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) gamma ray imaging array and camera system previously described have been characterized for spatial and energy resolution. Based on these data a new camera is being developed to more fully exploit the potential of the array. Characterization results and design criteria for the new camera will be presented. (orig.).

  9. 21 CFR 184.1265 - Cuprous iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum treatment level in food Functional use... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cuprous iodide. 184.1265 Section 184.1265 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  10. Iodide-trapping defect of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannall, P.R.; Steyn, A.F.; Van Reenen, O.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a grossly hypothyroid 50-year-old woman, mentally retarded since birth. On the basis of her history of recurrent goitre, absence of 131 I neck uptake and a low saliva/plasma 131 I ratio, congenital hypothyroidism due to a defect of the iodide-trapping mechanism was diagnosed. Other family members studied did not have the defect

  11. Electrosorption of tetraalkylammonium ions on silver iodide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, de A.

    1981-01-01

    The object of the present investigations was to study the ef fect of the adsorption of charged organic ions on electrically charged, solid-liquid interfaces. To that end, symmetrical quater nary ammonium ions were adsorbed on a silver iodide-electrolyte interface at various

  12. Electronic and optical properties of lead iodide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahuja, R.; Arwin, H.; Ferreira da Silva, A.

    2002-01-01

    The electronic properties and the optical absorption of lead iodide (PbI2) have been investigated experimentally by means of optical absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry, and theoretically by a full-potential linear muffin-tin-orbital method. PbI2 has been recognized as a very promising...

  13. Vapor pressure of selected organic iodides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, M.; Růžička, K.; Morávek, P.; Pangrác, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard; Kozyrkin, B.; Shatunov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2010), 4780-4784 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : vapor pressure * static method * organic iodides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.089, year : 2010

  14. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye sentisised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Winter-Jensen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide / tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide / tri......-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI) - all deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrode in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  15. Barium iodide and strontium iodide crystals andd scintillators implementing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A; Cherepy, Nerine J; Hull, Giulia E; Drobshoff, Alexander D; Burger, Arnold

    2013-11-12

    In one embodiment, a material comprises a crystal comprising strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV. A scintillator radiation detector according to another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising europium-doped strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV. A scintillator radiation detector in yet another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising SrI.sub.2 and BaI.sub.2, wherein a ratio of SrI.sub.2 to BaI.sub.2 is in a range of between 0:1 A method for manufacturing a crystal suitable for use in a scintillator includes mixing strontium iodide-containing crystals with a source of Eu.sup.2+, heating the mixture above a melting point of the strontium iodide-containing crystals, and cooling the heated mixture near the seed crystal for growing a crystal. Additional materials, systems, and methods are presented.

  16. Antimony and sleep-related disorders: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C; Feroe, Aliya G; Attanasio, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Antimony is used as a flame-retardant in textiles and plastics, in semiconductors, pewter, and as pigments in paints, lacquers, glass and pottery. Subacute or chronic antimony poisoning has been reported to cause sleeplessness. The prevalence of short sleep duration (sleep apnea (OSA) affects 12-28 million US adults. Insufficient sleep and OSA have been linked to the development of several chronic conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression, conditions that pose serious public health threats. To investigate whether there is an association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders in the US adult population using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association of urinary antimony with several sleep disorders, including insufficient sleep and OSA, in adult (ages 20 years and older) participants of NHANES 2005-2008 (n=2654). We found that participants with higher urinary antimony levels had higher odds to experience insufficient sleep (≤6h/night) (OR 1.73; 95%CI; 1.04, 2.91) as well as higher odds to have increased sleep onset latency (>30min/night). Furthermore, we found that higher urinary antimony levels in participants were associated with OSA (OR 1.57; 95%CI; 1.05, 2.34), sleep problems, and day-time sleepiness. In this study, we found that urinary antimony was associated with higher odds to have insufficient sleep and OSA. Because of the public health implications of sleep disorders, further studies, especially a prospective cohort study, are warranted to evaluate the association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effect of antimony substitution in iron pnictide compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, D.; Braun, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have examined the effect of negative chemical pressure in iron pnictides. We have synthesized substitution series replacing arsenic by antimony in a number of 1111- and 122-iron arsenides and present their crystallographic and physical properties. The SDW transition temperature in LaFeAs$_{\\mathrm{1-x}}$Sb$_{\\mathrm{x}}$O decreases with increasing antimony content, while the superconducting transition temperature in LaFeAs$_{\\mathrm{1-x}}$Sb$_{\\mathrm{x}}$O$_{\\mathrm{0...

  18. Electron irradiation effects in amorphous antimony thin films obtained by cluster-beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G.; Treilleux, M.; Santos Aires, F.; Cabaud, B.; Melinon, P.; Hoareau, A. (Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France))

    1991-03-01

    In order to understand the differences existing between films obtained with a classical molecular beam deposition (MBD) and the new low-energy cluster beam deposition (LECBD), transmission electron microscopy has been used to characterize the first stages of antimony LECBD. Antimony deposits are discontinuous and amorphous up to 2 nm in thickness. They are formed with isolated amorphous antimony particles surrounded by an amorphous antimony oxide shell. Moreover, under electron beam exposure in the microscope, an amorphous-crystal transformation has been observed in the oxide shell. Electron irradiation induces the formation of a crystallized antimony oxide (Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) around the amorphous antimony core. (author).

  19. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiuming; Wen Shengping; Xiang Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1 M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by L-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3σ) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL -1 for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c = 1.0 ng mL -1 , n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results.

  20. Iodide adsorption on the surface of chemically pretreated clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska-Horvatova, E.; Lesny, J.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility to use the monoionic Ag +- form (eventually Hg +- and Hg 2+ -forms) of clinoptilolite of domestic origin for radioactive iodide elimination from waters has been studied. The capacity of the monoforms of clinoptilolite towards iodide exceeds many times that of the capacity of clinoptilolite in natural form. Due to the low solubility product of AgI, Hg 2 I 2 and HgI 2 iodides generate precipitates on the zeolite surface. Rtg analyses of the silver form of clinoptilolite after sorption of iodide demonstrate the formation of new crystals on the zeolite surface. The influence of interfering anions on the adsorption capacity of silver clinoptilolite towards iodide was investigated, too. Kinetic curves of iodide desorption from the surface of silver and mercury clinoptilolite were compared. Simultaneously, adsorption isotherms for the systems aqueous iodide solution/Ag-, Hg-clinoptilolite were determined. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. Complex crystals formed in the aqueous solution of copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugasaka, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Ayako

    1977-01-01

    Crystals of different crystal habits were separated from the copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide solution and the thermal changes of the composition of copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide complexes were studied by chemical analysis, thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometry. Granular and columnar crystals were determined to be copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide dihydrate by X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively. Needle crystal (A) which was separated from the solution at 25 0 C was assumed to be Na 2 CuI 3 .6H 2 O. (A) was stable in its appearance in the air, but the X-ray diffraction pattern of (A) changed. Needle crystal (B) which was recrystallized at 10 0 C from mother liquor after the separation of crystal (A) was assumed to be NaCuI 2 .4H 2 O. (B) was hygroscopic and decomposed to precipitate copper(I) iodide with moisture in the air. (A) and (B) were found to change by heating and or drying, respectively, as follows: Na 2 CuI 3 .6H 2 O → (-2H 2 O, 80 0 C) → 2NaI.2H 2 O + CuI → (-4H 2 O, 160 0 C) → 2NaI + CuI → (+1/2O 2 , 450 0 C) → 2NaI + CuO + 1/2I 2 , NaCuI 2 .4H 2 O → (-4H 2 O, Dried) → NaI + CuI. (auth.)

  2. Sorbents for effective removal of radioactive antimony during chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2014-01-01

    Removal of radioactive antimony is a challenging problem. Often, during decontamination, they get mobilized around the system and redeposit in different areas thus offsetting the reduction in the radiation field obtained by removing other activities such as 60 Co. Thus, there is a clear need for better antimony removing materials/strategies for effective reactor decontamination. In this regard, six commercially available sorbents namely, Tulsion A33 (strong base anion (-OH) resin), Amberlite IRC-718 (chelating resin), Radex ® Sb-1000, nano TiO 2 -special grade (Inorganic type IX), Chitosan (biosorbent) and Aeroxide p25 (nano TiO 2 , Inorganic type IX) were evaluated for their antimony sorption properties. Radex ® and TiO 2 based materials were found to be more effective in removing both Sb(V) and Sb(III). Solution pH was seen to significantly influence the antimony sorption and the effect was more prominent in anion resin, when tested under column conditions. Apart from the commercial sorbents, we have synthesised a robust high performing sorbent (TA-Chitosan beads) in the form of stable beads, using nano-TiO 2 and chitosan. The beads were found to retain the antimony sorption properties of the nano-TiO 2 , while adapting a physical format suitable for large scale operations. The sorbent exhibited almost complete sorption of antimony both in low (ppb level) as well as high concentrations of antimony. The suitability of the beads for use in column mode has been established and its radiation stability was probed in detail. The beads were found to be stable to irradiations as ascertained from the TOC values and unchanged sorption properties. The sorption properties of the CHITA beads in typical decontamination formulation containing mixture of complexing agents have been investigated in detail. (author)

  3. Complex processing of antimony-mercury gold concentrates of Dzhizhikrut Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdusalyamova, M.N.; Gadoev, S.A.; Dreisinger, D.; Solozhenkin, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Present article is devoted to complex processing of antimony-mercury gold concentrates of Dzhizhikrut Deposit. The purpose of research was obtaining the metallic mercury and antimony with further gold and thallium extraction.

  4. Solubility behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) solids in basic aqueous solutions at 300oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, R.J.; Tosello, N.B.; Halliday, J.D.

    1999-12-01

    The major contributions of the isotopes 122 Sb and 124 Sb to activity transport in a CANDU reactor primary heat transport system (HTS), have been associated with oxygen ingress during reactor shutdown. As part of a program to minimize the release and redeposition of these isotopes, the solubilities of antimony(III) and (V) oxides and salts have been measured in basic solutions at temperatures from 25 to 300 o C. The results provide information on the charge and the stability as a function of temperature of antimony solution species and, hence, a guide to the trends in the temperature dependence of the solubilities of antimony solids. In solutions in which oxidation of antimony(III) to antimony(V) is minimized, the solubility of Sb 2 O 3 increases by about two orders of magnitude between 25 and 200 o C, and then levels out or decreases slightly. At 250 o C, in oxidizing solutions, Sb 2 O 5 ·xH 2 O and simple sodium antimonate(V) were found to be unstable in sodium hydroxide solutions with respect to the solid, Na 2α [H(H 2 O)] 2-2α Sb 2 O 6 , which has a pyrochlore structure. The solubility of this partially protonated sodium antimonate increases from 25 to 200 o C and decreases at temperatures above 250 o C. These solubility changes for the antimony (V) solids reflect changes in the stability of the anionic antimony solution species (SbO 3 - or Sb(OH) 6 - ), even though the compositions of antimony-containing solids in basic oxidizing solutions are strongly dependent on the cations and their aqueous phase concentrations. All solids used in the present experiments would be expected to generate total solution antimony concentrations ≥ 0.00005 mol·dm -3 in any neutral or basic aqueous solutions (assuming no added sodium salts). Therefore, under HTS conditions, precipitation of any antimony oxides or mixed oxides is unlikely. It cannot be ruled out that hydrated Sb 2 O 5 (especially the pyrochlore form) might be less soluble in near-neutral, low

  5. Adsorption of methyl iodide on charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidajat, K.; Aracil, J.; Kenney, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The adsorption of non-radioactive methyl iodide has been measured experimentally over a range of conditions of concentration, and temperature on an activated charcoal. This is of interest since methyl iodide is formed from iodine fission products in gas cooled nuclear reactors. A mathematical model has also been developed which describes the rate of adsorption, under isothermal and linear adsorption isotherm conditions in a recycle adsorber. This model takes into account the resistance to adsorption caused by the surface adsorption, as well as the external and internal mass transfer resistances. The solution to the model for the recycle adsorber was obtained using a semidiscretisation method to reduce the partial differential equations to a system of stiff ordinary differential equations, and the resulting differential equations solved by a standard numerical technique. (author)

  6. Clinical value of sodium iodide symporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qian

    2003-01-01

    The sodium iodide symptorter (NIS) is a membrane glycoprotein that mediates iodide uptake in the thyroid gland and several extrathyroidal tissues. In addition to thyroid tissues, the expression of NIS is found in stomach, prostate, placenta and so on. Radioiodine-concentrating activity in thyroid tissues has allowed the use of radioiodine as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent for patients with thyroid disorders. However, some extrathyroid tissues also take up radioiodine, contributing to unwanted side effects of radioiodine therapy. Now that the molecule of NIS has been cloned and characterized, it may be possible to develop novel strategies to differentially modulate NIS expression and activity, enhancing it in target tissues and impeding it in others. It is also important to explore the use of NIS as an imaging reporter gene to monitor the expression profile of the transgene in transgenic mouse animal models and in patients undergoing gene therapy clinical trials

  7. Methyl iodide tests on used adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the history of events leading to the current problems in radioiodine test conditions. These radioiodine tests are performed in the adsorbent media from both safety and non-safety related Nuclear Air Treatment Systems (NATS). The main problem addressed is that currently there are still numerous plant technical specifications for NATS which reference outdated test protocols for the surveillance testing of the radioactive methyl iodide performance of the adsorbents. Recommendations for correcting the test condition problems are presented. 7 refs

  8. Simple and effective method for nuclear tellurium isomers separation from antimony cyclotron targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarevskij, S.I.; Eremin, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Simple and effective method of generation of tellurium nuclear isomers from irradiated on cyclotron metallic antimony is suggested. Basically this method consists in consideration of the big difference in volatilities of metallic forms of antimony, tin and tellurium. Heating of the tin-antimony alloy at 1200 K permits to separate about 90 % of produced quantity of 121m Te and 123m Te (in this case impurity of antimony radionuclides is not more than 1 % on activity) [ru

  9. Blocking of indium incorporation by antimony in III-V-Sb nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A M; Beltran, A M; Ben, T; Molina, S I; Beanland, R; Gass, M H; De la Pena, F; Walls, M; Taboada, A G; Ripalda, J M

    2010-01-01

    The addition of antimony to III-V nanostructures is expected to give greater freedom in bandgap engineering for device applications. One of the main challenges to overcome is the effect of indium and antimony surface segregation. Using several very high resolution analysis techniques we clearly demonstrate blocking of indium incorporation by antimony. Furthermore, indium incorporation resumes when the antimony concentration drops below a critical level. This leads to major differences between nominal and actual structures.

  10. The investigation of antimony extraction with tributyl phosphate from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakaev, V.S.; Smelov, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data on trivalent antimony extraction with tributyl phosphate from nitric acid solutions containing (3.2-4.3)x10 -6 mol/l of antimony-125 isotope are presented. Possible mechanism of antimony (3) extraction is determined and the concentration constant for this process is calculated. Effect of temperature on the extraction of trivalent antimony is estimated. The values of enthalpy, free enthalpy and entropy are determined

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of separating lead and antimony in chloride system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-zhong; CAO Hua-zhen; LI Bo; YUAN Hai-jun; ZHENG Guo-qu; YANG Tian-zu

    2009-01-01

    In chloride system, thermodynamic analysis is a useful guide to separate lead and antimony as well as to understand the separation mechanism. An efficient and feasible way for separating lead and antimony was discussed. The relationships of [Pb2+][Cl-]2-lg[Cl]T and E-lg[Cl]T in Pb-Sb-Cl-H2O system were studied, and the solubilities of lead chloride at different antimony concentrations were calculated based on principle of simultaneous equilibrium. The results show that insoluble salt PbCl2 will only exist stably in a certain concentration range of chlorine ion. This concentration range of chlorine ion expands a little with increasing the concentration of antimony in the system while narrows as the system acidity increases. The solubility of Pb2+ in solution decreases with increasing the concentration of antimony in the system, whereas increases with increasing the concentration of total chlorine. The concentration range of total chlorine causing lead solubility less than 0.005 mol/L increases monotonically.

  12. Behavior of arsenic impurity at antimony electric precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G.N.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the arsenic impurity electrochemical behavior and it purification from antimony by electric precipitation out of fluoride solutions was studied. For this the arsenic sample with mass 0.003-0.006 g has been irradiated at the WWR-SM nuclear reactor during 3-5 hour in the thermal neutron flux 10 13 n/cm 2 s, after 24 h keeping the sample has being dissolved in the concentrated nitric acid, and then it has been evaporated several times with distillation water addition up to wet precipitation state. It is shown, that arsenic impurity behavior character in the antimony electric precipitation out to fluoride electrolyte depends on the electrolyte content, electrolysis conditions, arsenic valency state in arsenic impurity existence in the five-valency state its joint electric reduction with antimony is practically not observing. In the case the arsenic being in three-valency state, it joint electric reduction with antimony is taking place. In this time the electrolytic antimony contents arsenic impurities less in dozen time than initial material

  13. Martensite transformation in antimony implanted stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Littmark, U.; Johansen, A.; Christodoulides, C.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have used Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffraction to investigate austenitic stainless steel crystals implanted at room temperature with 80 keV Sb + ions to a fluence of 5 x 10 20 ions/m 2 , thus providing implantation with a heavy group V element. RBS channeling spectra from implanted crystals show a damage peak which approaches the height of the random level and therefore indicates a very high degree of disorder in the implanted layers. The distribution of the disorder extends to a depth 3-5 times the depth of the primary radiation damage. The Sb peaks under channeling as well as random conditions are indistinguishable, confirming that substitutionality during implantation is negligible. To establish the nature of the disorder which cannot be assessed from the RBS analysis alone, and in particular to assess whether an amorphous alloy is formed in the implanted layer as indicated from the RBS spectra, samples implanted under similar conditions were investigated in the TEM. Significant extra spots in the patterns can be ascribed to the presence of a radiation induced b.c.c. phase of martensitic origin. The result that a significant amount of martensite can be induced by antimony implantation seems to indicate that the main driving force for the transition is due to damage induced stress concentrations. (Auth.)

  14. [Pollution characteristics of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair at Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bi-Jun; Wu, Feng-Chang; Deng, Qiu-Jing; Mo, Chang-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zeng, Li; Fu, Zhi-You; Li, Wen

    2009-03-15

    The concentration levels of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair collected from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City were determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry after having been digested by nitric acid and perchloric acid. The contents of Sb, As and Hg are 15.9, 4.21, 1.79 microg/g in the samples from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and 0.532, 0.280, 0.338 microg/g in the samples from Guiyang City respectively. The contents of Sb, As and Hg in human hair of Xikuangshan antimony area are much higher than those of Guiyang City. The independent-samples t-test shows that there are no marked differences in the contents of Sb and As between male and female hair samples from both Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City (p > 0.05), while Hg contents in male hair are apparently higher than those in female hair from Guiyang City (p mining area may significantly affect human health than in the un-mining areas.

  15. REACTION PRODUCTS AND CORROSION OF MOLYBDENUM ELECTRODE IN GLASS MELT CONTAINING ANTIMONY OXIDES AND SODIUM SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIŘÍ MATĚJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The products on the interface of a molybdenum electrode and glass melt were investigated primarily at 1400°C in three model glass melts without ingredients, with 1 % Sb2O3 and with 1 % Sb2O3 and 0.5 % SO3 (wt. %, both under and without load by alternating current. Corrosion of the molybdenum electrode in glass melt without AC load is higher by one order of magnitude if antimony oxides are present. The corrosion continues to increase if sulfate is present in addition to antimony oxides. Isolated antimony droplets largely occur on the electrode-glass melt interface, and numerous droplets are also dissipated in the surrounding glass if only antimony oxides are present in the glass melt. A comparatively continuous layer of antimony occurs on the interface if SO3 is also present, antimony being always in contact with molybdenum sulfide. Almost no antimony droplets are dissipated in the glass melt. The total amount of precipitated antimony also increases. The presence of sulfide on the interface likely facilitates antimony precipitation. The reaction of molybdenum with antimony oxides is inhibited in sites covered by an antimony layer. The composition of sulfide layers formed at 1400°C approximates that of Mo2S3. At 1100°C, the sulfide composition approximates that of MoS4. Corrosion multiplies in the glass melt without additions through the effect of AC current, most molybdenum being separated in the form of metallic particles. Corrosion also increases in the glass melt containing antimony oxides. This is due to increased corrosion in the neighborhood of the separated antimony droplets. This mechanism also results in the loosening of molybdenum particles. The amount of precipitated antimony also increases through the effect of the AC current. AC exerts no appreciable effect on either corrosion, the character of the electrode-glass interface, or antimony precipitation in the glass melt containing SO3.

  16. Antimony Resistance in Leishmania, Focusing on Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Jeddi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that spread in many countries with a prevalence of 12 million cases. There are few available treatments and antimonials are still of major importance in the therapeutic strategies used in most endemic regions. However, resistance toward these compounds has recently emerged in areas where the replacement of these drugs is mainly limited by the cost of alternative molecules. In this paper, we reviewed the studies carried out on antimonial resistance in Leishmania. Several common limitations of these works are presented before prevalent approaches to evidence antimonial resistance are related. Afterwards, phenotypic determination of resistance is described, then confronted to clinical outcome. Finally, we detail molecular mechanisms and targets involved in resistance and already identified in vitro within selected mutant strains or in clinical isolates.

  17. Products of the reaction between methylene iodide and tertiary arsines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigauri, R.D.; Arabuli, L.G.; Machaidze, Z.I.; Rusiya, M.Sh.

    2005-01-01

    Iodides of iodomethylenetrialkyl(aryl) arsonium were synthesized with high yields as a result of interaction between methylene iodide and tertiary arsines. Exchange reactions of the iodides prepared with lead(II) nitrate in water-alcohol solutions gave rise to formation of iodomethylenetrialkyl(aryl) arsonium nitrates. All the products prepared were characterized by data of elementary analysis, IR spectroscopy, conductometry and melting points measurements [ru

  18. Antimony recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James F.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of recycling has become more obvious as concerns about the environment and import dependence have grown in recent years. When materials are recycled, fewer natural resources are consumed, and less waste products go to landfills or pollute the water and air. This study, one of a series of reports on metals recycling in 2000, discusses the flow of antimony from mining through its uses and disposal with emphasis on recycling. In 2000, the recycling efficiency for antimony was estimated to be 89 percent, and the recycling rate was about 20 percent.

  19. Standardization of intralesional meglumine antimoniate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Vasconcellos, Érica de Camargo Ferreira E; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Pacheco, Sandro Javier Bedoya; Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Intralesional treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis has been applied for over 30 years at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, with good therapeutic results and without relevant systemic toxicity. Meglumine antimoniate was injected subcutaneously, using a long medium-caliber needle (for example, 30mm × 0.8mm); patients received 1-3 injections, with 15-day intervals. The technique is described in detail sufficient to enable replication. The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with intralesional meglumine antimoniate is a simple, effective, and safe technique, which may be used in basic healthcare settings.

  20. Lattice dynamics of femtosecond laser-excited antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mahmoud Hanafy [Applied Research Center, Old Dominion University, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Bugayev, Aleksey [Applied Research Center, Old Dominion University, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Elsayed-Ali, Hani E., E-mail: helsayed@odu.edu [Applied Research Center, Old Dominion University, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Ultrafast electron diffraction is used to probe the lattice dynamics of femtosecond laser-excited antimony thin film. The temporal hierarchies of the intensity and position of diffraction orders are monitored. The femtosecond laser excitation of antimony film was found to lead to initial compression after the laser pulse, which gives way to tension vibrating at new equilibrium displacement. A damped harmonic oscillator model, in which the hot electron-blast force contributes to the driving force of oscillations in lattice spacing, is used to interpret the data. The electron–phonon energy-exchange rate and the electronic Grüneisen parameter were obtained.

  1. Preparation and characterization of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X. P.; Yao, B. H.; Pan, Q. H.; Pen, C.; Zhang, C. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts have been prepared by two methods and characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by a photocatalytic reactor and an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The results showed that-BaSb2O5•4H2O, BaSb2O6 two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts were successfully prepared in this experiment and they showed good photocatalytic properties. In addition, BaSb2O6 morphology showed more regular, microstructure and better catalytic performance.

  2. Effect of nitrogen and oxygen on radiolysis of iodide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, H; Endo, M [Hitachi Ltd., Power and Industrial System R+D Divisions, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of nitrogen and oxygen on radiolysis of iodide solution was examined. Direct decomposition of nitrogen by {gamma}-radiation produced nitric acid to decrease a water pH. This resulted in the iodine formation in the radiolysis of iodide solution. Hydrogen peroxide was produced by the radiolysis of water containing oxygen. This worked a reducing agent to suppress the formation of iodine in the radiolysis of iodide solution. In the analytical model, fourteen iodine species were considered and reaction scheme consisted in 124 reactions. The analytical model could estimate the oxidation state of iodide ions. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  3. In Vitro Bioavailability Study of an Antiviral Compound Enisamium Iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Haltner-Ukomadu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the biopharmaceutics classification and a study of the in vitro bioavailability (permeability and solubility of the antiviral compound enisamium iodide (4-(benzylcarbamoyl-1-methylpyridinium iodide were carried out. The solubility of enisamium iodide was determined in four different buffers. Apparent intestinal permeability (Papp of enisamium iodide was assessed using human colon carcinoma (Caco-2 cells at three concentrations. The solubility of enisamium iodide in four buffer solutions from pH 1.2 to 7.5 is about 60 mg/mL at 25 °C, and ranges from 130 to 150 mg/mL at 37 °C, depending on the pH. Based on these results, enisamium iodide can be classified as highly soluble. Enisamium iodide demonstrated low permeability in Caco-2 experiments in all tested concentrations of 10–100 μM with permeability coefficients between 0.2 × 10−6 cm s−1 and 0.3 × 10−6 cm s−1. These results indicate that enisamium iodide belongs to class III of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS due to its high solubility and low permeability. The bioavailability of enisamium iodide needs to be confirmed in animal and human studies.

  4. Inhibition of DNA-double strand break repair by antimony compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Sentaro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Utsumi, Hiroshi; Bedford, Joel S.; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2002-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), induced by γ-irradiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells, were used to examine whether antimony compounds affect the repair of DNA damage. The cells were first incubated with antimony trichloride or antimony potassium tartrate (both Sb(III)) for 2 h, and then irradiated with γ-rays at a dose of 40 Gy. The DNA DSB was quantified with pulsed field gel electrophoresis immediately after irradiation (non-repair group) as well as at 30 min post-irradiation (repair group). The degree of repair inhibition was determined by the differences in the amount of DNA DSB between non-repair and repair groups. Both antimony compounds inhibited repair of DNA DSB in a dose dependent manner. In trichloride, 0.2 mM antimony significantly inhibited the rejoining of DSB, while 0.4 mM was necessary in potassium antimony tartrate. The mean lethal doses, D 0 , for the treatment with antimony trichloride and antimony potassium tartrate, were approximately 0.21 and 0.12 mM, respectively. This indicates that the repair inhibition by antimony trichloride occurred in the dose range near D 0 , but the antimony potassium tartrate inhibited the repair at doses where most cells lost their proliferating ability. This is the first report to indicate that antimony compounds may inhibit the repair of radiation-induced DNA DSB

  5. Analysis for iodide in groundwater by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry after collection as silver iodide on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, P.T.

    1980-01-01

    The report describes the determination of microgram quantities of iodide in water by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The iodide is concentrated by precipitation as silver iodide on activated charcoal. If a 60-mL sample is available, a concentration of 0.12 mg/L can be detected. Precision (2σ) at the 1-mg/L level is +- 0.08 mg/L. (auth)

  6. Self-standing nanoribbons of antimony selenide and antimony sulfide with well-defined size and band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadapoo, Rajasekarakumar; Krishnan, Sridevi; Yilmaz, Hulusi; Marin, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Sub-10 nm semiconducting nanostructures are crucial for the realization of nanoscale devices. Fabrication of nanostructures at this scale with homogeneous properties is challenging. Using ab initio calculations, we show that self-standing ribbons of antimony selenide and antimony sulfide of width 1.1 nm exhibit well-defined bandgaps of 1.66 and 2.16 eV, respectively. Molecular dynamics studies show that these ribbons are stable at 500 K. The one-dimensional (1D) heterostructure of these nanoribbons (Sb 2 Se 3 /Sb 2 S 3 ) along the [001] direction shows a straddling type behavior.

  7. Selective oxidation of propene on bismuth molybdate and mixed oxides of tin and antimony and of uranium and antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, P.; Taylor, D.

    1976-01-01

    Propene + 18 0 2 reactions have been studied in a static reaction system on bismuth molybdate and mixed oxides of tin and antimony and of uranium and antimony. The [ 16 0] acrolein content of the total acrolein formed and the proportion of 16 0 in the oxygen of the carbon dioxide by-product have been determined. The results indicate that for each catalyst the lattice is the only direct source of the oxygen in the aldehyde, and that lattice and/or gas phase oxygen is used in carbon dioxide formation. Oxygen anion mobility appears to be greater in the molybdate catalyst than in the other two. (author)

  8. Production of Molecular Iodine and Tri-iodide in the Frozen Solution of Iodide: Implication for Polar Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kitae; Yabushita, Akihiro; Okumura, Masanori; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A; Blaszczak-Boxe, Christopher S; Min, Dae Wi; Yoon, Ho-Il; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-02-02

    The chemistry of reactive halogens in the polar atmosphere plays important roles in ozone and mercury depletion events, oxidizing capacity, and dimethylsulfide oxidation to form cloud-condensation nuclei. Among halogen species, the sources and emission mechanisms of inorganic iodine compounds in the polar boundary layer remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the production of tri-iodide (I3(-)) via iodide oxidation, which is negligible in aqueous solution, is significantly accelerated in frozen solution, both in the presence and the absence of solar irradiation. Field experiments carried out in the Antarctic region (King George Island, 62°13'S, 58°47'W) also showed that the generation of tri-iodide via solar photo-oxidation was enhanced when iodide was added to various ice media. The emission of gaseous I2 from the irradiated frozen solution of iodide to the gas phase was detected by using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which was observed both in the frozen state at 253 K and after thawing the ice at 298 K. The accelerated (photo-)oxidation of iodide and the subsequent formation of tri-iodide and I2 in ice appear to be related with the freeze concentration of iodide and dissolved O2 trapped in the ice crystal grain boundaries. We propose that an accelerated abiotic transformation of iodide to gaseous I2 in ice media provides a previously unrecognized formation pathway of active iodine species in the polar atmosphere.

  9. Ultrafast photoinduced structure phase transition in antimony single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fausti, Daniele; Misochko, Oleg V.; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Picosecond Raman scattering is used to study the photoinduced ultrafast dynamics in Peierls distorted antimony. We find evidence for an ultrafast nonthermal reversible structural phase transition. Most surprisingly, we find evidence that this transition evolves toward a lower symmetry in contrast to

  10. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Morizot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure.

  11. Vapor pressures of dimethylcadmium, trimethylbismuth, and tris(dimethylamino)antimony

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávek, Pavel; Fulem, Michal; Pangrác, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard; Růžička, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 360, Dec (2013), s. 106-110 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15286S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : vapor pressure * dimethylcadmium * trimethylbismuth * tris(dimethylamino)antimony * sublimation and vaporization enthalpy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2013

  12. Application of KWU antimony removal process at Gentilly-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundar, Y.; Odar, S.; Streit, K.; Allsop, H.; Guzonas, D.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the work performed to adapt the KWU PWR antimony removal process to CANDU plant conditions, and the application of the process at the Hydro Quebec unit, Gentilly-2. The results of the application will be presented and the 'lessons learned' will be discussed in detail. (author)

  13. The acidic properties of mixed tin and antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, E.A.; Taylor, D.

    1978-01-01

    The acidic properties of mixed tin + antimony oxide catalysts were studied in the isomerization of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene, cyclopropane, 1-butene, and cis-2-butene and the dehydration of isopropanol over the mixed oxides outgassed at room temperature and 698/sup 0/K. Only the zero-order portions of the reaction were used for calculations. With catalysts outgassed at room temperature, weakly acidic sites were present, and all the reactions probably occurred by a carbonium ion mechanism with Broensted acid sites as a source of protons. The rates increased with increasing antimony content to a maximum at approx. 50 at. % and then decreased with further increase in the antimony content. Outgassing of the catalysts at 698/sup 0/K increased the isomerization rate of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene, but decreased those for cyclopropane and isopropanol due to poisoning by the propylene produced. For 1-butene and cis-2-butene and catalysts outgassed at 698/sup 0/K, only catalysts with less than 50Vertical Bar3< antimony were active. The catalysts were poisoned by treatment with bases or with sodium acetate. A proposed correlation between rates and acidity led to the conclusion that the catalyst composition corresponding to maximum acidity differs from that for maximum selective oxidation activity. Graphs and 10 references.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic and antimony in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Yukio; Isono, Hideo; Kozuka, Hiroshi.

    1975-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of trace amounts of arsenic and antimony in human hair samples is studied. The sample of hair (100 mg) irradiated for 5 hours with a neutron flux of 2.1x10 12 n/cm 2 s was decomposed with a sulfuric-nitric acid mixture after addition of each 5 mg of arsenic and antimony as carrier. Arsine and stibine were evolved from the solution of decomposed hair by reduction with 3 g of granular zinc and were absorbed in 0.1N iodine solution for half an hour. Metal arsenic was separated from iodine solution by precipitation with sodium hypophosphite, followed by precipitation of antimony as sulfide with thioacetamide. These precipitates were dissolved and their gamma-ray spectra were measured with a well type 3''x3'' NaI(TI) detector equipped with a 200 channel pulse-height analyzer. After the measurement of gamma-ray spectra, the chemical yields were determined by colorimetric methods. The relative standard deviations were 7% and 4% for 0.01 μg As and 0.024 μg Sb, respectively. The sensitivity of this method was estimated to be 1x10 -3 μg for arsenic and 2x10 -3 μg for antimony. (auth.)

  15. Antimony content of macrofungi from clean and polluted areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, J.; Řanda, Zdeněk; Jelínek, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 11 (2006), s. 1837-1844 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : mushrooms * antimony pollution * bioaccumulation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.442, year: 2006

  16. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721.1930 Section 721.1930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid,...

  17. Evaluating iodide recycling inhibition as a novel molecular initiating event for thyroid axis disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme iodotyrosine deiodinase (dehalogenase, IYD) catalyzes iodide recycling and promotes iodide retention in thyroid follicular cells. Loss of function or chemical inhibition of IYD reduces available iodide for thyroid hormone synthesis, which leads to hormone insufficiency...

  18. Studies on the dissolution of antimony doped ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keny, S.J.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Sanjukta, A.; Pandey, S.; Venkateswaran, G.; Ramanathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) present in the PHT (primary heat transport) pump seals and bearings of PHWRs (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) is released during operation of the reactor and gets deposited on the in-core zircaloy surfaces. Neutron flux in the reactor core activates this Sb to 122 Sb (t 1/2 2.6 days) and 124 Sb (t 1/2 60 days). Release of this Sb (radioactive antimony) and its deposition on out of core surfaces occurs due to oxygen ingress in the system during shutdown periods and off normal conditions. Sb deposition on the magnetite bearing carbon steel surface of the PHT system results in increase of radiation fields. The consequence of this is low apparent decontamination factors observed after system decontamination. Once Sb is deposited on bare carbon steel (CS) surface or magnetite bearing carbon steel surface it is not amenable for removal by normal reductive decontamination process. It has to decay by its own half-life or has to be removed by oxidative dissolution. To understand the role of antimony and its removal on the ion exchange column, antimony doped ferrites were prepared and their dissolution in CNA (citric acid, NTA, Ascorbic acid; 1.4+1.4+1.7 mM) formulation was studied. The time taken for the dissolution of antimony-doped ferrites was found to increase with increasing Sb content in the ferrite. The point of zero charge (pzc) value of Sb substituted magnetite was determined to understand its adsorption on carbon steel surfaces of the PHT system. The pzc values for Fe 3 O 4 and Sb 2 O 3 , with H + / OH - as only potential determining ions in the aqueous medium, were 6.5 and 1.7 respectively. While, pzc of magnetite in typical decontamination formulations was below 3. The pzc for aqueous suspension of antimony-substituted magnetite (sintered at 1173 K) was 4.4. On the other hand, in CEA (citric acid, EDTA, Ascorbic acid) formulation up to a pH of 1.5, surface charge on the antimony-substituted magnetite was negative. Hence, even at this low pH, pzc

  19. Photoluminescence Enhancement in Formamidinium Lead Iodide Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Wang, Feng; Adjokatse, Sampson; Zhao, Ni; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI(3)) has a broader absorption spectrum and better thermal stability than the most famous methylammonium lead iodide, thus exhibiting great potential for photovoltaic applications. In this report, the light-induced photoluminescence (PL) evolution in FAPbI(3) thin

  20. The iodine/iodide redox couple at a platinum electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dane, L.M.; Janssen, L.J.J.; Hoogland, J.G.

    1968-01-01

    The I/iodide redox couple was studied on Pt in 0.5M H2SO4 by measuring the impedance as a function of frequency. From these measurements, the exchange c.d. j0 was derived according to Sluyters. The dependence of j0 on the reversible potential and the I and the iodide concns. was established. By

  1. Increased thiol levels in antimony-resistant Leishmania infantum isolated from treatment-refractory visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Lucas S; Bomfim, Lays Gs; Mota, Sthefanne G; Cruz, Geydson S; Corrêa, Cristiane B; Tanajura, Diego M; Lipscomb, Michael W; Borges, Valéria M; Jesus, Amélia R de; Almeida, Roque P de; Moura, Tatiana R de

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND Treatment-refractory visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has become an important problem in many countries. OBJECTIVES We evaluated the antimony-resistance mechanisms of Leishmania infantum isolated from VL patients refractory or responsive to treatment with pentavalent antimony. METHODS Strains isolated from antimony-refractory patients (in vitro antimony-resistant isolates) and antimony-responsive patients (in vitro antimony-sensitive isolates) were examined. Morphological changes were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy after trivalent antimony exposure. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump activity was evaluated using the pump-specific inhibitor verapamil hydrochloride, and the role of thiol in trivalent antimony resistance was investigated using the enzymatic inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine. FINDINGS Antimony treatment induced fewer alterations in the cellular structure of L. infantum resistant isolates than in that of sensitive isolates. P-gp efflux activity was not involved in antimony resistance in these isolates. Importantly, the resistant isolates contained higher levels of thiol compared to the sensitive isolates, and inhibition of thiol synthesis in the resistant isolates recovered their sensitivity to trivalent antimony treatment, and enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species in promastigotes exposed to the drug. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrate that isolates from patients with antimony-refractory VL exhibited higher thiol levels than antimony-sensitive isolates. This indicates that redox metabolism plays an important role in the antimony-resistance of New World VL isolates.

  2. Ferroelastic Fingerprints in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Hermes, Ilka M.

    2016-02-12

    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite materials show an outstanding performance in photovoltaic devices. However, certain material properties, especially the possible ferroic behavior, remain unclear. We observed distinct nanoscale periodic domains in the piezoresponse of MAPbI3(Cl) grains. The structure and the orientation of these striped domains indicate ferroelasticity as their origin. By correlating vertical and lateral piezoresponse force microscopy experiments performed at different sample orientations with x-ray diffraction, the preferred domain orientation was suggested to be the a1-a2-phase. The observation of these ferroelastic fingerprints appears to strongly depend on the film texture and thus the preparation route. The formation of the ferroelastic twin domains could be induced by internal strain during the cubic-tetragonal phase transition.

  3. Effects of antimony additions on the fracture of nickel at 600 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.L.; Padgett, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Antimony additions (about 1 wt pct) are found to drastically lower tensile ductility and induce extensive intergranular cracking in nickel at 600 C. This effect is most pronounced at lower strain rates. These results are contrasted to results for pure nickel where ductility is high and failure occurs via plastic instability. Scanning electron microscopy revealed faceting of crack and cavity surfaces in the antimony doped nickel. Auger electron spectroscopy revealed segregation of antimony and (residual) sulfur to both grain boundaries and to the internal free surfaces of cracks and cavities. Inert ion sputter profiling showed that most of the antimony and sulfur enrichment on these surfaces is confined within a few atom layers of the interface. The embrittling influence of antimony is discussed in terms of the observed antimony and sulfur segregation to internal interfaces. Possible connections between the segregation and the observed embrittlement involve segregation effects on grain boundary sliding, grain boundary and surface diffusivities, and interfacial energetics

  4. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® , is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology.Os antimoniais pentavalentes, como o antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® ou estibogluconato de sódio (Pentostam® , são o principal tratamento para a leishmaniose, um complexo de doenças causadas pelo protozoário parasita Leishmania, uma doença endêmica e negligenciada no Brasil. Apesar do seu uso clínico por mais de meio século, seu mecanismo de ação, toxicidade e dados de farmacocinética permanecem desconhecidos. Os métodos analíticos para determinação de antimônio em sistemas biológicos são complexos e apresentam baixa sensibilidade. Estudos utilizando radiotraçadores têm papel potencial no desenvolvimento farmacológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um radiotraçador de antimônio, com propriedades físicas e biológicas adequadas. O antimoniato de meglumina foi irradiado por nêutrons no reator nuclear IEA-R1, produzindo dois radioisótopos: 122

  5. Study of radiation formation of methyl-iodide Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartonicek, B.; Schweiner, Z.; Bednar, J.; Hladky, E.

    1975-01-01

    Purified methane, ethylene, iodine, methyl iodide, ethyl iodide and hydrogen iodide were irradiated and/or pyrolyzed in Pyrex ampoules by 60 Co-γ-radiation at temperatures between 150 and 450 deg C. The results on radiolysis and pyrolysis were as follows: 1., The most thermally stable product is hydrogen iodide in which already at 450 deg C essen-tially all originally present iodine appears. 2., The radiolytic formation of methyl iodide and hydrogen iodide is positively influenced by the rise in temperature, This and the absolute values of yields indicate a chain mechanism of radiolytic (and pyrolytic) decomposition of the mixture. 3., The ratio of equilibrium concentrations [HI]/[CH 3 I] increases with increasing temperature of pyrolysis showing that HI is the end product of the thermal chain reaction. Methyl iodide is likely to contribute (by its thermal decomposition) to the initiation and propagation of this chain reaction. 4., The negligible temperature dependence of G(H 2 ) and the absence of molecular hydrogen among the products of pyrolytic decomposition of methane-iodine mixtures shows, that (up to 450 deg C) H atoms do not play any role in the thermal chain decomposition of these mixtures. (K.A.)

  6. Flavonoid rutin increases thyroid iodide uptake in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Lima Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO, the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH, and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function.

  7. Controls on the Mobility of Antimony in Mine Waste from Three Deposit Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, H.; Radková, A. B.; Fawcett, S.

    2017-12-01

    Antimony can be considered both a critical metal and an environmental hazard, with a toxicity similar to arsenic. It is concentrated in stibnite deposits, but also present in polymetallic and precious metal ores, frequently accompanied by arsenic. We have studied the mineralogical controls on the mobility of antimony in three types of mine waste: stibnite tailings from an antimony mine, tetrahedrite-bearing waste rock from copper mining, and gold mine tailings and ore roaster waste. Our results demonstrate that the tendency of antimony to leach into the aqueous environment or remain sequestered in solid phases depends on the primary host minerals and conditions governing the precipitation of secondary antimony-hosting phases. In tailings at the Beaver Brook antimony mine in Newfoundland, Canada, stibnite oxidizes rapidly, and secondary minerals such as the relatively insoluble Sb-Fe tripuhyite-like phase and Sb-bearing goethite. However, under dry conditions, the most important secondary Sb host is the Mg-Sb hydroxide brandholzite, but this easily soluble mineral disappears when it rains. Antimony that was originally hosted in tetrahedrite, a complex multi-element sulfosalt, in the historic waste rock piles at Špania Dolina-Piesky, Slovakia, is not as mobile as Cu and As during weathering but reprecipiates to a mixture of tripuhyite and romeite. Finally, the original antimony-hosting minerals, both stibnite and sulphosalts, in the gold ore at Giant Mine, Yellowknife, Canada were completely destroyed during ore roasting. In tailings-contaminated sediments, antimony persists in roaster-generated iron oxide phases, except under reducing conditions where some of the antimony forms a Sb-S phase. The combined presence of antimony and arsenic in mine waste complicates risk assessment but in general, our findings suggest that antimony is less mobile than arsenic in the environment.

  8. Identification of Antimony- and Arsenic-Oxidizing Bacteria Associated with Antimony Mine Tailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Natsuko; Fukushima, Koh; Itai, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a naturally occurring toxic element commonly associated with arsenic (As) in the environment and both elements have similar chemistry and toxicity. Increasing numbers of studies have focused on microbial As transformations, while microbial Sb interactions are still not well understood. To gain insight into microbial roles in the geochemical cycling of Sb and As, soils from Sb mine tailing were examined for the presence of Sb- and As-oxidizing bacteria. After aerobic enrichment culturing with AsIII (10 mM) or SbIII (100 μM), pure cultures of Pseudomonas- and Stenotrophomonas-related isolates with SbIII oxidation activities and a Sinorhizobium-related isolate capable of AsIII oxidation were obtained. The AsIII-oxidizing Sinorhizobium isolate possessed the aerobic arsenite oxidase gene (aioA), the expression of which was induced in the presence of AsIII or SbIII. However, no SbIII oxidation activity was detected from the Sinorhizobium-related isolate, suggesting the involvement of different mechanisms for Sb and As oxidation. These results demonstrate that indigenous microorganisms associated with Sb mine soils are capable of Sb and As oxidation, and potentially contribute to the speciation and mobility of Sb and As in situ. PMID:23666539

  9. Electro regeneration of iodide loaded resin. Contributed Paper RD-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Kumar, T.; Sree Kumar, B.; Seshadri, K.S.; Paul, Biplob

    2014-01-01

    Spent resins generated in the nuclear reactor contain essentially cationic activities due to Cesium, Strontium, Cobalt, and anionic activities due to Iodide, Iodate etc with activity loading to the extent of 0.1 Cim -3 and a surface dose of the order of 5 R. It is necessary to convert the spent resin into innocuous, reusable forms. An attempt has been made to regenerate Iodide containing spent resin into OH - electrolytically by using the OH - produced at the cathode compartment of an electrolytic cell. Results show that the regeneration of the spent resin containing Iodide could be completely accomplished electrolytically more efficiently than by addition of alkali. (author)

  10. Determination of phosphorus contamination during antimony implantation by measurement and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, M.; Hulenyi, L.; Kinder, R.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental determination of phosphorus cross-contamination during antimony implantation is presented. As a suitable structure for this experiment, a buried layer was employed which is created by implanting antimony followed by a long diffusion process. The samples implanted in different implanters were analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), four-point probe and spreading resistance methods. The obtained results were compared with those calculated by program SUPREM-IV. Methods that can and cannot be used to determine phosphorus contamination during antimony implantation and to estimate the fluence of phosphorus being co-implanted with antimony are described in detail

  11. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Hernandez-Garcia, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA

    2015-06-01

    CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  12. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mamun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  13. Correlation of CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A., E-mail: mmamu001@odu.edu; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  14. Antimony contamination, consequences and removal techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayu; Zheng, BoHong; He, Yangzhuo; Zhou, Yaoyu; Chen, Xiao; Ruan, Shan; Yang, Yuan; Dai, Chunhao; Tang, Lin

    2018-07-30

    A significant amount of antimony (Sb) enters into the environment every year because of the wide use of Sb compounds in industry and agriculture. The exposure to Sb, either direct consumption of Sb or indirectly, may be fatal to the human health because both antimony and antimonide are toxic. Firstly, the introduction of Sb chemistry, distribution and health threats are presented in this review, which is essential to the removal techniques. Then, we provide the recent and common techniques to remove Sb, including adsorption, coagulation/flocculation, membrane separation, electrochemical methods, ion exchange and extraction. Removal techniques concentrate on the advantages, drawbacks, economical efficiency and the recent achievements of each technique. We also take an overall consideration of experimental conditions, comparison criteria, and economic aspects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Proton-activation technique for the determination of antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivan, V.; Barth, P.

    1979-01-01

    Photon-activation analysis has been applied to the determination of antimony. Thick-target yields and analytical sensitivities are given for the indicator-radionuclides sup(119m)Te, sup(119g)Te, sup(121m)Te, sup(121g)Te, sup(123m)Te, sup(120m)Sb and sup(122g)Sb for proton energies between 9 and 25 MeV. In irradiations with a 5-μA beam for 5 hr, followed by a specific separation of the indicator-radionuclides, limits of detection at the ppm level can be achieved. Data are given for the most significant interfering reactions. Antimony was determined instrumentally in bismuth of very pure grade and the results are compared with those obtained from two independent techniques. (author)

  16. Preparation and properties of organo(acetylacetonato)antimony(V) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinema, H.A.; Noltes, J.G.

    Organo(acetylacetonato)antimony(V) compounds of the types R2SbCl2Acac, R4SbAcac, PhSbCl3Acac and Cl4SbAcac have been synthesized. The compounds are monomeric in solution. IR and PMR data of these compounds, which contain a chelated Acac ligand have been discussed. Ph2SbCl2Acac shows abnormal

  17. Uptake and Transformation of Methylated and Inorganic Antimony in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying; Mestrot, Adrien; Schulin, Rainer; Tandy, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Used as a hardening agent in lead bullets, antimony (Sb) has become a major contaminant in shooting range soils of some countries including Switzerland. Soil contamination by Sb is also an environmental problem in countries with Sb-mining activities such as China and Bolivia. Because of its toxicity and relatively high mobility, there is concern over the risk of Sb transfer from contaminated soils into plants, and thus into the food chain. In particular there is very little information on the environmental behavior of methylated antimony, which can be produced by microbial biomethylation of inorganic Sb in contaminated soils. Using a new extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method, we investigated antimony speciation in roots and shoots of wheat, fescue, rye, and ryegrass plants exposed to trimethyl antimony(V) (TMSb), antimonite (Sb(III)), and antimonate (Sb(V)) in hydroponics. The total root Sb concentrations followed the order Sb(III) treatment > Sb(V) treatment > TMSb treatment, except for fescue. Shoot Sb concentrations, however, did not differ among the three treatments. In the Sb(V) treatment small quantities of TMSb were found in the roots, whereas no TMSb was detected in the roots of Sb(III)-treated plants. In contrast, similar concentrations of TMSb were found in the shoots in both inorganic Sb treatments. The results indicate that biomethylation of Sb may occur in plants. In the TMSb treatment TMSb was the major Sb species, but the two inorganic Sb species were also found both in shoots and roots along with some unknown Sb species, suggesting that also TMSb demethylation may occur within plant tissues. The results furthermore indicate that methylated Sb is more mobile in plants than inorganic Sb species. Knowledge about this is important in risk assessments of Sb-contaminated sites, as methylation may render Sb more toxic than inorganic Sb, as it is known for arsenic (As).

  18. Theoretical Analysis of Rydberg and Autoionizing State Spectra of Antimony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang-Fei Lv; Ruohong Li; Feng-Dong Jia; Xiao-Kang Li; Jens Lassen; Zhi-Ping Zhong

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the Rydberg and autoionization Rydberg spectra of antimony (Sb) from first principles by relativistic multichannel theory within the framework of multichannel quantum defect theory.Our calculation can be used to classify and assign the atomic states described in recently reported three Rydberg series and four autoionizing states.The perturbation effects on line intensity,variation and line profile are discussed.Assignments of the perturber states and autoionizing states are presented.

  19. Distribution of liposome-encapsulated antimony in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Schettini

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of complete cure in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis is currently a great challenge, since dogs are the main reservoir for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis to humans and they respond poorly to conventional treatment with pentavalent antimonials. In order to improve the efficacy of treatment, we developed a novel formulation for meglumine antimoniate based on the encapsulation of this drug in freeze-dried liposomes (LMA. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biodistribution of antimony (Sb in dogs following a single intravenous bolus injection of LMA. Four healthy male mongrel dogs received LMA at 3.8 mg Sb/kg body weight and were sacrificed 3, 48 and 96 h and 7 days later. Antimony was determined in the blood, liver, spleen and bone marrow. In the bone marrow, the highest Sb concentration was observed at 3 h (2.8 µg/g wet weight whereas in the liver and spleen it was demonstrated at 48 h (43.6 and 102.4 µg/g, respectively. In these organs, Sb concentrations decreased gradually and reached levels of 19.1 µg/g (liver, 28.1 µg/g (spleen and 0.2 µg/g (bone marrow after 7 days. Our data suggest that the critical organ for the treatment with LMA could be the bone marrow, since it has low Sb levels and, presumably, high rates of Sb elimination. A multiple dose treatment with LMA seems to be necessary for complete elimination of parasites from bone marrow in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

  20. Redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis of metallic arsenic for antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, Tomihisa; Yoshioka, Hiroe; Suzuki, Junsuke; Shibata, Yasue.

    1979-01-01

    In 1 M HCl solution Sb(III) reacts with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) to form a complex extractable into chloroform while the extraction of Sb(V) is negligible. The redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis based on this reaction was applied to the determination of antimony in metallic arsenic. After the dissolution of metallic arsenic, Sb(V) was separated from As(V) by a tribenzylamine extraction from 8 M HCl solution and the extracted Sb(V) was stripped into 0.5 M NaOH solution. Thereafter, all the Sb(V) were completely reduced to Sb(III) by bubbling SO 2 gas through 3 M HCl solution. As the substoichiometric reaction, the oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) by a substoichiometric amount of potassium dichromate was used, followed by separation of these species by the BPHA extraction of Sb(III). The substoichiometric oxidation of Sb(III) was found to be quantitative over HCl concentration range from 0.8 to 1.2 M. The amount of antimony was determined by isotope dilution analysis using the method of carrier amount variation. By the present method the determination of as small as 0.36 μg antimony was accomplished with a good accuracy (relative error; 5.6%) and also the method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in arsenic samples containing known amounts of Sb(III) and in metallic arsenic. The present method gives reliable results with the good accuracy and precision. (author)

  1. High dose implantations of antimony for buried layer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailliard, J.P.; Dupuy, M.; Garcia, M.; Roussin, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Electrical and physical properties of high dose implantations of antimony in silicon have been studied for use in buried layer applications. The results have been obtained both on and oriented silicon wafers. Following implantations which lead to amorphization we perform an annealing at 600 0 C for 10 mn in order to recrystallize the layer. The observed electrical properties (μ, R) show that the concentration of electrically active antimony ions is greater than that predicted from the solubility of antimony in silicon. Further annealing (in the range 1050 0 - 1200 0 ) induces: firstly a precipitation of the Sb and secondly a diffusion and dissolution of the precipitates. There is a different evolution of the defects in the and silicon slices. T.E.M. reveals no defects in the wafers after one hour annealing at 1200 0 C, whereas defects and twins remain in wafers. Having obtained the evolution of R with time and temperature it is then determined the implantation and annealing conditions which lead to the low resistivity (R = 10) needed for buried layer applications. Results with very many industrially made devices are discussed

  2. Synthesis and tribological properties of antimony N, N-diethanoldithiocarbamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 黄可龙; 瞿龙; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Antimony N, N-diethanoldithiocarbamate was synthesized with diethanolamine, antimony trioxide and carbon disulfide. The influences of temperature, reaction time, solvents and their dosages were investigated, and the optimum synthesis conditions were: reaction temperature 15~20 ℃, reaction time 2.5 h, 250 mL CH3OH as solvent and the hot CH3OH as recrystallization solvent. Element analysis, IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectra were used to study its chemical composition and molecular structure. Antimony N, N-diethanol-dithiocarbamate was added in the base oil, and its properties of wear resistance and extreme pressure were studied by FB, FD and WSD. The synthesis product behaves per fectly as wear resistance and extreme pressure additive and its extreme pressure property is superior to its wear resistance property. The mechanism of tribological action was discussed by using XPS and AES spectra, and the reason of good wear resistance and extreme pressure properties is that the synthesis product decompose element C, S and N.

  3. Study on antimony oxide self-assembled inside HZSM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Li Shijie; Wang Yingxia; Li Neng; Liu Xiyao; Lin Bingxiong

    2005-01-01

    Sb/ZSM-5 was obtained by solid-state reaction with the mixture of Sb 2 O 3 and zeolite HZSM-5 under a dry nitrogen flow at 773K. Characterization of the treated zeolite was undertaken with XRD, 27 Al MAS NMR, BET, TGA and FT-IR. The results revealed that part of the antimony oxides migrated into the channels of zeolite, and decreased the Bronsted acid sites in Sb/ZSM-5 remarkably. The other part of antimony oxides together with the amorphous alumino-silicate in the products distributed on the external surface of zeolite ZSM-5 and modified it, while the framework of ZSM-5 in crystal phase was retained. The structure of occluded antimony oxide inside the channels of ZSM-5 was studied by XRD Rietveld method. The result showed that their structure can be described as a chain of non-perfect [Sb 5 O 5 (H 2 O) 2 ] n 5n+ , which is parallel to the straight channel of ZSM-5. There is about 0.6 [Sb 5 O 5 (H 2 O) 2 ] 5+ unit in every cell of the ZSM-5 on an average

  4. Research on the Characteristics and Mechanism of the Cumulative Release of Antimony from an Antimony Smelting Slag Stacking Area under Rainfall Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Deng, Renjian

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to study the characteristics and the mechanism of the cumulative release of antimony at an antimony smelting slag stacking area in southern China. A series of dynamic and static leaching experiments to simulate the effects of rainfall were carried out. The results showed that the release of antimony from smelting slag increased with a decrease in the solid-liquid ratio, and the maximum accumulated release was found to be 42.13 mg Sb/kg waste and 34.26 mg Sb/kg waste with a solid/liquid ratio of 1 : 20; the maximum amount of antimony was released within 149–420 μm size fraction with 7.09 mg/L of the cumulative leaching. Also, the antimony release was the greatest and most rapid at pH 7.0 with the minimum release found at pH 4.0. With an increase in rainfall duration, the antimony release increased. The influence of variation in rainfall intensity on the release of antimony from smelting slag was small. PMID:28804669

  5. 21 CFR 520.763b - Dithiazanine iodide powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... therapy for adult worms. (2) The drug is contraindicated in animals sensitive to dithiazanine iodide and...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.763b Dithiazanine...

  6. Prevention of organic iodide formation in BWR`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjunen, T [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Laitinen, T; Piippo, J; Sirkiae, P [VTT Manufacturing Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    During an accident, many different forms of iodine may emerge. Organic iodides, such as methyl iodide and ethyl iodide, are relatively volatile, and thus their appearance leads to increased concentration of gaseous iodine. Since organic iodides are also relatively immune to most accident mitigation measures, such as sprays and filters, they can affect the accident source term significantly even when only a small portion of iodine is in organic form. Formation of organic iodides may not be limited by the amount of organic substances available. Excessive amounts of methane can be produced, for example, during oxidation of boron carbide, which is used in BWR`s as a neutron absorber material. Another important source is cable insulation. In a BWR, a large quantity of cables is placed below the pressure vessel. Thus a large quantity of pyrolyse gases will be produced, should the vessel fail. Organic iodides can be formed as a result of many different reactions, but at least in certain conditions the main reaction takes place between an organic radical produced by radiolysis and elemental iodine. A necessary requirement for prevention of organic iodide production is therefore that the pH in the containment water pools is kept high enough to eliminate formation of elemental iodine. In a typical BWR the suppression pool water is usually unbuffered. As a result, the pH may be dominated by chemicals introduced during an accident. If no system for adding basic chemicals is operable, the main factor affecting pool water pH may be hydrochloric acid released during cable degradation. Should this occur, the conditions could be very favorable for production of elemental iodine and, consequently, formation of organic iodides. Although high pH is necessary for iodine retention, it could have also adverse effects. High pH may, for example, accelerate corrosion of containment materials and alter the characteristics of the solid corrosion products. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  7. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  8. Accelerated degradation of methyl iodide by agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Papiernik, Sharon K; Guo, Mingxin; Yates, Scott R

    2003-01-29

    The fumigant methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane) is considered a promising alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for soil-borne pest control in high-cash-value crops. However, the high vapor pressure of MeI results in emissions of a significant proportion of the applied mass into the ambient air, and this may lead to pollution of the environment. Integrating the application of certain agrochemicals with soil fumigation provides a novel approach to reduce excessive fumigant emissions. This study investigated the potential for several agrochemicals that are commonly used in farming operations, including fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors, to transform MeI in aqueous solution. The pseudo-first-order hydrolysis half-life (t(1/2)) of MeI was approximately 108 d, while the transformation of MeI in aqueous solutions containing selected agrochemicals was more rapid, with t(1/2) agrochemicals on the rate of MeI degradation in soil was also determined. Adsorption to soil apparently reduced the availability of some nitrification inhibitors in the soil aqueous phase and lowered the degradation rate in soil. In contrast, addition of the nitrification inhibitors thiourea and allylthiourea to soil significantly accelerated the degradation of MeI, possibly due to soil surface catalysis. The t(1/2) of MeI was 300 h).

  9. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  10. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela

    2009-05-01

    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  11. Complexation of HSA with different forms of antimony (Sb): An application of fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhang, Daoyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has been of a great environmental concern in some areas in China. Sb enters human body via drinking water, inhalation and food chain, unavoidably interacts with human serum albumin (HSA) in blood plasma, and consequently does harm to human health. The harmful effects of Sb on human health depend on the Sb species and their binding ability to HSA. In the present study, binding of three forms of Sb with HSA was investigated by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. All of antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate quenched fluorescence of HSA. Values of conditional stability constant K a (×10 5 /M) for Sb and HSA systems were 8.13–9.12 for antimony potassium tartrate, 2.51–4.27 for antimony trichloride and 3.63–9.77 for potassium pyroantimonate. The binding constant K b (×10 4 /M) values of HSA with antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate were 0.02–0.07, 3.55–5.01, and 0.07–1.08, respectively. There was one independent class of binding site for antimony trichloride towards HSA. There was more than one Sb binding site and negative cooperativity between multiple binding sites for potassium pyroantimonate and antimony potassium tartrate towards HSA. The binding ability of HSA to complex Sb followed the order: antimony trichloride>potassium pyroantimonate>antimony potassium tartrate. -- Highlights: ► The first study reporting interaction of Sb with HSA. ► Sb can effectively quench the fluorescence of HSA. ► The binding ability of HSA to Sb was dependent on the form of Sb. ► Binding differences indicate differences in toxicity of various forms Sb to human. ► HAS-Sb binding parameters are important for understanding toxicity of Sb

  12. Complexation of HSA with different forms of antimony (Sb): An application of fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wenjuan [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Zhang, Daoyong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Pan, Xiangliang, E-mail: xlpan@ms.xjb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Lee, Duu-Jong [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has been of a great environmental concern in some areas in China. Sb enters human body via drinking water, inhalation and food chain, unavoidably interacts with human serum albumin (HSA) in blood plasma, and consequently does harm to human health. The harmful effects of Sb on human health depend on the Sb species and their binding ability to HSA. In the present study, binding of three forms of Sb with HSA was investigated by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. All of antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate quenched fluorescence of HSA. Values of conditional stability constant K{sub a} (×10{sup 5}/M) for Sb and HSA systems were 8.13–9.12 for antimony potassium tartrate, 2.51–4.27 for antimony trichloride and 3.63–9.77 for potassium pyroantimonate. The binding constant K{sub b} (×10{sup 4}/M) values of HSA with antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate were 0.02–0.07, 3.55–5.01, and 0.07–1.08, respectively. There was one independent class of binding site for antimony trichloride towards HSA. There was more than one Sb binding site and negative cooperativity between multiple binding sites for potassium pyroantimonate and antimony potassium tartrate towards HSA. The binding ability of HSA to complex Sb followed the order: antimony trichloride>potassium pyroantimonate>antimony potassium tartrate. -- Highlights: ► The first study reporting interaction of Sb with HSA. ► Sb can effectively quench the fluorescence of HSA. ► The binding ability of HSA to Sb was dependent on the form of Sb. ► Binding differences indicate differences in toxicity of various forms Sb to human. ► HAS-Sb binding parameters are important for understanding toxicity of Sb.

  13. LUMINESCENT PROPERTIES OF SILICATE GLASSES WITH CERIUM IONS AND ANTIMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Klykova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the results of an experimental study of luminescence excitation spectra and luminescence of silicate glasses containing cerium ions and antimony. The aim of this work was to study the features of the luminescence and the effect of UV irradiation and heat treatment on luminescence and the state of cerium ions and antimony in glass. We investigated glass system Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2-NaF-NaBr with additives CeO2 and Sb2O3. Synthesis was carried out in platinum crucibles in the air at 14500C. The samples were polished glass plates with a thickness of 0.5-1 mm. UV irradiation was carried out with a mercury lamp having a wide range of radiation in the spectral range 240-390 nm. It was conducted in a Nabertherm muffle furnaces. Luminescence spectra and excitation spectra were measured using a spectrofluorimeter MPF-44A (PerkinElmer at the room temperature. Measured luminescence spectra were corrected in view of the spectral sensitivity of the photodetector for spectrofluorimeter. Adjustment of the excitation spectra for the spectral dependence of the intensity of the excitation source was not carried out. During the experiments it was found that in silicate glasses Sb3+ ions can exist in two energy states, which corresponds to a different environment with oxygen ions. Heat treatment of these glasses in an oxidizing atmosphere leads to an increase in ion concentration of Sb3+ ions with a greater amount of oxygen in the environment. In glasses containing antimony and cerium ions, ultraviolet irradiation causes a change in the valence of cerium ions and antimony, which is accompanied by luminescence quenching. Subsequent heat treatment of glass leads to the inverse processes and restore luminescence excitation spectra. The study of fluorescent properties of silicate glasses with cerium and antimony ions led to the conclusion of the practical significance of this work. Promising multifunctional materials can be created on the basis of

  14. Effect of temperature during ion sputtering on the surface segregation rate of antimony in an iron-antimony alloy at higher temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, M.; Hirokawa, K.; Kimura, H.; Suzuki, S.

    1986-01-01

    The surface segregation of antimony in an iron-0.23 at% antimony alloy was studied by XPS. The segregation rate in the temperature range between 800 and 900 K depends on the temperature during sputtering with argon ion of kinetic energy of 1 keV. The sputtering at room temperature or 473 K gives higher values of the segregation rate than those at 673 K. Both cases give the activation energy of 170 kJmol -1 for the surface segregation rate. The segregation of antimony is not observed after the sample is heated at 1000 K. (author)

  15. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F L; de Freitas, Mariana L; Ferreira, Andrea C F

    2017-06-12

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer.

  16. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F. L.; de Freitas, Mariana L.; Ferreira, Andrea C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer. PMID:28604619

  17. Aqueous-gas phase partitioning and hydrolysis of organic iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowa, G.A.; Wren, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The volatility and decomposition of organic iodides in a reactor containment building are important parameters to consider when assessing the potential consequences of a nuclear reactor accident. However, there are few experimental data available for the volatilities (often reported as partition coefficients) or few rate constants regarding the decomposition (via hydrolysis) of organic iodides. The partition coefficients and hydrolysis rate constants of eight organic iodides, having a range of molecular structures, have been measured in the current studies. This data, and data accumulated in the literature, have been reviewed and discussed to provide guidelines for appropriate organization of organic iodides for the purpose of modelling iodine behaviour under postulated nuclear reactor accident conditions. After assessment of the partition coefficients and their temperature dependences of many classes of organic compounds, it was found that organic iodides could be divided into two categories based upon their volatility relative to molecular iodine. Similarly, hydrolysis rates and their temperature dependences are assigned to the two categories of organic iodides. (author)

  18. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye-sensitised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, L.; West, K.; Winther-Jensen, B.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide/tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide....../tri-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI)-all deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrodes in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  19. Leishmania donovani isolates with antimony-resistant but not -sensitive phenotype inhibit sodium antimony gluconate-induced dendritic cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Haldar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The inability of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG-unresponsive kala-azar patients to clear Leishmania donovani (LD infection despite SAG therapy is partly due to an ill-defined immune-dysfunction. Since dendritic cells (DCs typically initiate anti-leishmanial immunity, a role for DCs in aberrant LD clearance was investigated. Accordingly, regulation of SAG-induced activation of murine DCs following infection with LD isolates exhibiting two distinct phenotypes such as antimony-resistant (Sb(RLD and antimony-sensitive (Sb(SLD was compared in vitro. Unlike Sb(SLD, infection of DCs with Sb(RLD induced more IL-10 production and inhibited SAG-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and leishmanicidal effects. Sb(RLD inhibited these effects of SAG by blocking activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways. In contrast, Sb(SLD failed to block activation of SAG (20 microg/ml-induced PI3K/AKT pathway; which continued to stimulate NF-kappaB signaling, induce leishmanicidal effects and promote DC activation. Notably, prolonged incubation of DCs with Sb(SLD also inhibited SAG (20 microg/ml-induced activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways and leishmanicidal effects, which was restored by increasing the dose of SAG to 40 microg/ml. In contrast, Sb(RLD inhibited these SAG-induced events regardless of duration of DC exposure to Sb(RLD or dose of SAG. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of isogenic Sb(SLD expressing ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter MRPA on SAG-induced leishmanicidal effects mimicked that of Sb(RLD to some extent, although antimony resistance in clinical LD isolates is known to be multifactorial. Furthermore, NF-kappaB was found to transcriptionally regulate expression of murine gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase heavy-chain (mgammaGCS(hc gene, presumably an important regulator of antimony resistance. Importantly, Sb(RLD but not Sb(SLD blocked SAG-induced mgammaGCS expression in DCs by

  20. 40 CFR 421.140 - Applicability: Description of the primary antimony subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability: Description of the primary antimony subcategory. 421.140 Section 421.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Antimony Subcategory § 421.140...

  1. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability;...

  2. Investigation of the effect of some parameters on the degree of leaching antimony from stibnite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remeteiová Dagmar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experiments of agitation leaching of antimony from stibnite in alkaline solutions of Na2S +NaOH. The influence of different solution solutions ratio of the reacting phases and of different rate of stirring on the degree of leaching of antimony was investigated.

  3. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived films doped with platinum and antimony deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savaniu, C.; Arnautu, A.; Cobianu, C.; Craciun, G.; Flueraru, C.; Zaharescu, M.; Parlog, C.; Paszti, F.; van den Berg, Albert

    1999-01-01

    SnO2 sol-gel derived thin films doped simultaneously with Pt and Sb are obtained and reported for the first time. The Sn sources were tin(IV) ethoxide or tin(II) ethylhexanoate, while hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and antimony chloride (SbCl3) were used as platinum and antimony sources,

  4. Removing antimony from waste lead storage batteries alloy by vacuum displacement reaction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Qiu, Keqiang

    2018-04-05

    With the wide application of lead acid battery, spent lead acid battery has become a serious problem to environmental protection and human health. Though spent battery can be a contaminant if not handled properly, it is also an important resource to obtain refined lead. Nowadays, the Sb-content in lead storage batteries is about 0.5-3 wt%, which is higher than the Sb-content in the crude lead. However, there are few reports about the process of removing antimony from high-antimony lead bullion. In this study, vacuum displacement reaction technology, a new process for removing antimony from high-antimony lead melts, was investigated. During this process, lead oxide was added to the system and antimony from lead melts was converted into antimony trioxide, which easily was evaporated under vacuum so that antimony was removed from lead melts. The experimental results demonstrated that Sb-content in lead melts decreased from 2.5% to 23 ppm under following conditions: mass ratio of PbO/lead bullion of 0.33, residual gas pressure of 30 Pa, melt temperature of 840 °C, reaction time of 60 min. The distillate gotten can be used as by-product to produce antimony white. Moreover, this study is of importance to recycling of waste lead storage batteries alloy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrodeposition of antimony, tellurium and their alloys from molten acetamide mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Peng, X.; Murugan, G.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Vereecken, P.M.; Fransaer, J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the electrodeposition of antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te) and their alloys from molten mixtures of acetamide - antimony chloride and tellurium chloride. The binary mixtures of acetamide with SbCl3 and TeCl 4 exhibit eutectic formation with large depressions of freezing points to below room

  6. Leishmania donovani: an in vitro study of antimony-resistant amphotericin B-sensitive isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharief, Abdalla Hassan; Gasim Khalil, Eltahir Awad; Theander, Thor G

    2006-01-01

    Drug sensitivity of clinically antimony-unresponsive Leishmania donovani isolates from Eastern Sudan was evaluated in an in vitro culture system against sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and Amphotericin B. Eight isolates, six from antimony-resistant and two from clinically responsive patients were...

  7. Comparison of modification with strontium and the refining with antimony in A 356 aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuoco, Ricardo; Correa, Edison Roberto; Correa, Alzira V.O.; Bocalini Junior, Mario

    1992-01-01

    Strontium and Antimony treated A356 aluminium alloy samples were metallographically characterized in the as cast and solution and aged conditions. Antimony treated alloy has shown slower spheroidizing kinetics of the Silicon particles during solution treatment, lower porosity level and higher tensile strength and elongation than Strontium treated one. (author)

  8. Assessment of Industrial Antimony Exposure and Immunologic Function for Workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2017-06-26

    This study investigated antimony exposure among employees in industries in Taiwan and evaluated whether their immunologic markers were associated with antimony exposure. We recruited 91 male workers and 42 male office administrators from 2 glass manufacturing plants, 1 antimony trioxide manufacturing plants, and 2 engineering plastic manufacturing plants. Air samples were collected at worksites and administrative offices, and each participant provided specimens of urine, blood, and hair to assay antimony levels. We also determined white blood cells, lymphocyte, and monocyte, IgA, IgE, and IgG in blood specimens. The mean antimony concentration in the air measured at worksites was much higher in the antimony trioxide plant (2.51 ± 0.57 mg/m³) than in plastic plants (0.21 ± 0.06 mg/m³) and glass plants (0.14 ± 0.01 mg/m³). Antimony levels in blood, urine, and hair measured for participants were correlated with worksites and were higher in workers than in administrators. The mean serum IgG, IgA, and IgE levels were lower in workers than in administrators ( p industrial plants than for administrators. This study suggests serum IgG, IgA, and IgE levels are negatively associated with antimony exposure.

  9. Surface area of antimony oxide by isotope exchange and other methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Y.K.; Acharya, B.V.; Rangamannar, B.

    1985-06-17

    Specific surface areas of antimony oxide samples, one commercial, the other prepared from antimony trichloride were measured by heterogeneous isotope exchange, gas adsorption, air permeability and microscopic methods. Specific surface areas obtained by these four methods for the two samples were compared and the observed differences are explained.

  10. Formamidinium iodide: crystal structure and phase transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Petrov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available At a temperature of 100 K, CH5N2+·I− (I, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c. The formamidinium cation adopts a planar symmetrical structure [the r.m.s. deviation is 0.002 Å, and the C—N bond lengths are 1.301 (7 and 1.309 (8 Å]. The iodide anion does not lie within the cation plane, but deviates from it by 0.643 (10 Å. The cation and anion of I form a tight ionic pair by a strong N—H...I hydrogen bond. In the crystal of I, the tight ionic pairs form hydrogen-bonded zigzag-like chains propagating toward [20-1] via strong N—H...I hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen-bonded chains are further packed in stacks along [100]. The thermal behaviour of I was studied by different physicochemical methods (thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and powder diffraction. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed three narrow endothermic peaks at 346, 387 and 525 K, and one broad endothermic peak at ∼605 K. The first and second peaks are related to solid–solid phase transitions, while the third and fourth peaks are attributed to the melting and decomposition of I. The enthalpies of the phase transitions at 346 and 387 K are estimated as 2.60 and 2.75 kJ mol−1, respectively. The X-ray powder diffraction data collected at different temperatures indicate the existence of I as the monoclinic (100–346 K, orthorhombic (346–387 K and cubic (387–525 K polymorphic modifications.

  11. Pilot plant studies on the extraction of antimony metal from lower grade krinj stibnite ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, W.; Riaz, M.; Ishaq, M.

    2013-01-01

    Antimony is a silvery white, brittle and crystalline solid which is extensively consumed in lead acid batteries, antimonial lead alloys, flame retardants and a variety of metallic products. The antimony content of commercial ores range from 5-60% and determines the method of extraction, either pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical. The present study focuses on pilot plant scale extraction of antimony metal from lower grade stibnite ore of Krinj (Chitral) without the use of iron scrap, thus eliminating the second step of iron removal in conventional direct reduction method. A tilting gas fired furnace with digital temperature control system and a heat recuperator was designed to optimize the operating parameters for extraction of antimony metal. Weight ratios of flux and reductant, operating time and operating temperature were optimized. Highest percentage recovery and purity were achieved using soda ash as a flux, at a temperature of 900 degree C for 2 hours. (author)

  12. Vapor transport deposition of antimony selenide thin film solar cells with 7.6% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xixing; Chen, Chao; Lu, Shuaicheng; Li, Kanghua; Kondrotas, Rokas; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Wenhao; Gao, Liang; Wang, Chong; Zhang, Jun; Niu, Guangda; Tang, Jiang

    2018-06-05

    Antimony selenide is an emerging promising thin film photovoltaic material thanks to its binary composition, suitable bandgap, high absorption coefficient, inert grain boundaries and earth-abundant constituents. However, current devices produced from rapid thermal evaporation strategy suffer from low-quality film and unsatisfactory performance. Herein, we develop a vapor transport deposition technique to fabricate antimony selenide films, a technique that enables continuous and low-cost manufacturing of cadmium telluride solar cells. We improve the crystallinity of antimony selenide films and then successfully produce superstrate cadmium sulfide/antimony selenide solar cells with a certified power conversion efficiency of 7.6%, a net 2% improvement over previous 5.6% record of the same device configuration. We analyze the deep defects in antimony selenide solar cells, and find that the density of the dominant deep defects is reduced by one order of magnitude using vapor transport deposition process.

  13. Alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory Au-Ag ore for improved cyanidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Ibrahim; Celep, Oktay; Deveci, Haci

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents the alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory gold and silver ore. In the ore, gold occurs mainly as gold-silver alloys and as associated with quartz and framboidal pyrite grains, and, to a small extent, as the inclusions within antimonial sulfides. Silver is present extensively as antimonial sulfides such as andorite. Alkaline sulfide pretreatment was shown to allow the decomposition of the antimonial sulfide minerals (up to 98% Sb removal) and to remarkably improve the amenability of gold (e.g., from leaching. An increase in reagent concentration (1-4 mol/L Na2S or NaOH) and temperature (20-80°C), and a decrease in particle size seem to produce an enhancing effect on metal extraction. These findings suggest that alkaline sulfide leaching can be suitably used as a chemical pretreatment method prior to the conventional cyanidation for antimonial refractory gold and silver ores.

  14. Organic ligand-induced dissolution kinetics of antimony trioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingyun Hu; Mengchang He

    2017-01-01

    The influence of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (LMWDOM) on the dissolution rate of Sb2O3 was investigated.Some representative LMWDOMs with carboxyl,hydroxyl,hydrosulfuryl and amidogen groups occurring naturally in the solution were chosen,namely oxalic acid,citric acid,tartaric acid,EDTA,salicylic acid,phthalandione,glycine,thiolactic acid,xylitol,glucose and catechol.These LMWDOMs were dissolved in inert buffers at pH =3.7,6.6 and 8.6 and added to powdered Sb2O3 in a stirred,thermostatted reactor (25℃).The addition of EDTA,tartaric acid,thiolactic acid,citric acid and oxalic acid solutions at pH 3.7 and catechol at pH 8.6 increased the rate of release of antimony.In the 10 mmol/L thiolactic acid solution,up to 97% by mass of the antimony was released after 120 min reaction.There was no effect on the dissolution of Sb2O3 for the other ligands.A weak correlation between dissolution rate with the dissociation constant of ligands and the stability of the dissolved complex was also found.All the results showed that the extent of the promoting effect of ligands on the dissolution of Sb2O3 was not determined by the stability of the dissolved complex,but by the dissociation constant of ligands and detachment rate of surface chelates from the mineral surface.This study can not only help in further understanding the effect of individual low-molecular-weight organic ligands,but also provides a reference to deduce the effect of natural organic matters with oxygen-bearing functional groups on the dissolution of antimony oxide minerals.

  15. Organic ligand-induced dissolution kinetics of antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingyun; He, Mengchang

    2017-06-01

    The influence of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (LMWDOM) on the dissolution rate of Sb 2 O 3 was investigated. Some representative LMWDOMs with carboxyl, hydroxyl, hydrosulfuryl and amidogen groups occurring naturally in the solution were chosen, namely oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, EDTA, salicylic acid, phthalandione, glycine, thiolactic acid, xylitol, glucose and catechol. These LMWDOMs were dissolved in inert buffers at pH=3.7, 6.6 and 8.6 and added to powdered Sb 2 O 3 in a stirred, thermostatted reactor (25°C). The addition of EDTA, tartaric acid, thiolactic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid solutions at pH3.7 and catechol at pH8.6 increased the rate of release of antimony. In the 10mmol/L thiolactic acid solution, up to 97% by mass of the antimony was released after 120min reaction. There was no effect on the dissolution of Sb 2 O 3 for the other ligands. A weak correlation between dissolution rate with the dissociation constant of ligands and the stability of the dissolved complex was also found. All the results showed that the extent of the promoting effect of ligands on the dissolution of Sb 2 O 3 was not determined by the stability of the dissolved complex, but by the dissociation constant of ligands and detachment rate of surface chelates from the mineral surface. This study can not only help in further understanding the effect of individual low-molecular-weight organic ligands, but also provides a reference to deduce the effect of natural organic matters with oxygen-bearing functional groups on the dissolution of antimony oxide minerals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Comprehensive thermal and structural characterization of antimony-phosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, S. Y.; Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    For the first time, we prepare new ternary glass systems of composition (95-x)Sb2O3-xP2O5-5MgO, where x = 45, 40, 35 mol%; (85-x)Sb2O3-xP2O5-15MgO, where x = 55, 35, 25 mol%; (75-x)Sb2O3-xP2O5-25MgO, where x = 45, 35, 25 mol%; and 60Sb2O3-(40-x)P2O5-xMgO, where x = 10, 20 mol% via melt-quenching method. Synthesized glasses are characterized using XRD, FESEM, EDX, and TG/DTA measurements. The influence of varying modifier concentrations on their thermal properties is evaluated. The XRD patterns confirmed the amorphous nature of samples. SEM images demonstrated interesting phase formation with ribbons-like texture. Five crystalline phases are evidenced in the ternary diagram which are antimony phosphate and antimony orthophosphate as major phases as well as magnesium phosphate, magnesium cyclo-tetraphosphate and cervantite as minor phases. EDX spectra detected the right elemental traces. Detailed thermal analysis of these glasses revealed their high-molecular polymer character for Sb2O3 content greater than 50 mol%. Three different glass transition temperatures are achieved around 276, 380-381 and 422-470 °C depending on the composition. Furthermore, the solidus and liquidus temperature are found to decrease with increasing Sb2O3 and increases for MgO contents till 15 mol% and then decrease, where the lowest recorded solidus temperature is 426 °C. This observation may open up new research avenues for antimony based ternary glasses and an exploitation of the derived results for optoelectronics applications, photonic devices and non-linear optical devices.

  17. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony during simulated HLLW vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Weyers, C.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of ruthenium, cesium, and antimony during the vitrification of simulated high-level radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) in a liquid fed melter was studied on a laboratory scale and on a semi-pilot scale. In the laboratory melter of a 2.5 kg capacity, a series of tests with the simulate traced with 103 Ru, 134 Cs and 124 Sb, has shown that the Ru and Cs losses to the melter effluent are generally higher than 10% whereas the antimony losses remain lower than 0.4%. A wet purification system comprising in series, a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column retains most of the activity present in the off-gas so that the release fractions for Ru at the absolute filter inlet ranges between 5.10 -3 to 5.10 -5 % of the Ru fed, for Cs the corresponding release fraction ranges between 3.10 -3 to 10 -4 % and for Sb the release fraction ranges between 1.7 10 -4 to 1.7 10 -5 %. The same experiments were performed at a throughput of 1 to 2 1 h -1 of simulated solution in the semi-pilot scale unit RUFUS. The RUFUS unit comprises a glass melter with a 50 kg molten glass capacity and the wet purification train comprises in series a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column. The tracer tests were restricted to 103 Ru and 134 Cs since the laboratory tests had shown that the antimony losses were very low. The results of the tests are presented

  18. Antimony(3) ethylenediaminetetraacetate complexes with single- and doubly charged cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovich, R.L.; Logvinova, V.B.; Kajdalova, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The antimony(3) ethylenediaminetetraacetate complexes with alkaline and bivalent metals cations of the M + Sb(Edta) · H 2 O (M + = K, Rb, Cs, NH 4 ), M 2+ [Sb(Edta)] 2 · 8H 2 O (M 2+ = Mg, Ca, Sr, Co, Cd) composition are synthesized. Roentgenographic and IR-spectroscopic characteristics of the synthesized substances are determined. Two groups of the isostructural compounds: M + Sb(Edta) · H 2 O (M + = K, Rb, NH 4 ) and M 2+ [Sb(Edta)] 2 · 8H 2 O (M 2+ = Mg, Ca, Sr, Mn, Co, Cd) are established [ru

  19. Metabolism of antimony-124 in lactating dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; Colard, J.

    1982-01-01

    Lactating cows received oral and intravenous administrations of radioactive antimony (III) chloride to study its intestinal and urinary excretion, secretion into milk and organ distribution. Milk samples were taken twice a day and the milk, feces and urine assayed using gamma spectroscopy. Cows administered orally were sacrificed at 102 days and those injected intravenously at 70 days. Distribution of 124 Sb in the organs was determined at the time of sacrifice. Excretion of 124 Sb occurs mainly via urine, little is secreted into milk. Highest organ concentrations are in the spleen, liver and bone. (U.K.)

  20. Evaluation of Neutron Nuclear Data for Natural Titanium and Antimony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1989-01-01

    <正> The evaluations of neutron data of natural titanium and antimony are performedin the energy range from 10-5 eV to 20 MeV.The following data are included:resonance parameters,cross sections of total,elastic seattering,nonelastic sea-ttering,inelastic seattering,(n,2n),(n,3n),and(n,X)(X=p,d,t,3He,α)reactions etc.The angular distributions and energy distributions of secondaryneutrons are also given.The reproduced cross sections from resolved and unresolved

  1. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  2. Extraction of antimony and arsenic from sulphidic concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BalហPeter

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of both mineral processing and extractive metallurgy of minerals depends on the separation of individual mineral components and on the exposure of their surface. The production of flotation concentrates, with particle sizes of tens of microns, is not sufficient for many hydrometallurgical processes to operate at their optimum. As a consequence, metallurgical plants require for the effective processing high temperatures and pressures and some sort of concentrate pretreatment. Mechanical activation is an innovative procedure where an improvement in hydrometallurgical processes can be attained via a combination of new surface area and formation of crystalline defects in minerals. The lowering of reaction temperatures, the increase of rate and amount of solubility, preparation of water soluble compounds, the necessity for simpler and less expensive reactors and shorter reaction times are some of the advantages of mechanical activation. The environmental aspects of these processes are particularly attractive.This paper is devoted to the examples of application of mechanochemical treatment in the processing of sulfidic concentrates. The sulphide concentrates of various origin (Peru, Chile, Slovakia were succesfully tested for antimony and arsenic extraction. The mechanochemical treatment improve the degree of recovery and the rate of leaching of both metals. Two modes of mechanochemical treatment were tested: the mechanical activation before leaching and the mechanochemical leaching which integrates mechanical activation and leaching into a common step. The flowsheet consisted of mechanochemical leaching in an attritor and further operations as filtration, cementation, antimony precipitation, crystallization and arsenic precipitation. The pilot plant unit was designed for 500 kg per day feed of tetrahedrite concentrate. For the antimony extraction, electrowinning has also been considered. The residue which is a CuAgAu concentrate was

  3. Solubility behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) solids in basic aqueous solutions at 300{sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemire, R.J.; Tosello, N.B.; Halliday, J.D

    1999-12-01

    The major contributions of the isotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb to activity transport in a CANDU reactor primary heat transport system (HTS), have been associated with oxygen ingress during reactor shutdown. As part of a program to minimize the release and redeposition of these isotopes, the solubilities of antimony(III) and (V) oxides and salts have been measured in basic solutions at temperatures from 25 to 300{sup o}C. The results provide information on the charge and the stability as a function of temperature of antimony solution species and, hence, a guide to the trends in the temperature dependence of the solubilities of antimony solids. In solutions in which oxidation of antimony(III) to antimony(V) is minimized, the solubility of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases by about two orders of magnitude between 25 and 200{sup o}C, and then levels out or decreases slightly. At 250{sup o}C, in oxidizing solutions, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O and simple sodium antimonate(V) were found to be unstable in sodium hydroxide solutions with respect to the solid, Na{sub 2{alpha}}[H(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2-2{alpha}}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which has a pyrochlore structure. The solubility of this partially protonated sodium antimonate increases from 25 to 200{sup o}C and decreases at temperatures above 250{sup o}C. These solubility changes for the antimony (V) solids reflect changes in the stability of the anionic antimony solution species (SbO{sub 3}{sup -} or Sb(OH){sub 6}{sup -}), even though the compositions of antimony-containing solids in basic oxidizing solutions are strongly dependent on the cations and their aqueous phase concentrations. All solids used in the present experiments would be expected to generate total solution antimony concentrations {>=} 0.00005 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} in any neutral or basic aqueous solutions (assuming no added sodium salts). Therefore, under HTS conditions, precipitation of any antimony oxides or mixed oxides is unlikely. It cannot be

  4. Standard free energy of formation of iron iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandkar, A.; Tare, V. B.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment is reported where silver iodide is used to determine the standard free energy of formation of iron iodide. By using silver iodide as a solid electrolyte, a galvanic cell, Ag/AgI/Fe-FeI2, is formulated. The standard free energy of formation of AgI is known, and hence it is possible to estimate the standard free energy of formation of FeI2 by measuring the open-circuit emf of the above cell as a function of temperature. The free standard energy of formation of FeI2 determined by this method is -38784 + 24.165T cal/mol. It is estimated that the maximum error associated with this method is plus or minus 2500 cal/mol.

  5. Study on gold concentrate leaching by iodine-iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-xia; Sun, Chun-bao; Li, Shao-ying; Fu, Ping-feng; Song, Yu-guo; Li, Liang; Xie, Wen-qing

    2013-04-01

    Gold extraction by iodine-iodide solution is an effective and environment-friendly method. In this study, the method using iodine-iodide for gold leaching is proved feasible through thermodynamic calculation. At the same time, experiments on flotation gold concentrates were carried out and encouraging results were obtained. Through optimizing the technological conditions, the attained high gold leaching rate is more than 85%. The optimum process conditions at 25°C are shown as follows: the initial iodine concentration is 1.0%, the iodine-to-iodide mole ratio is 1:8, the solution pH value is 7, the liquid-to-solid mass ratio is 4:1, the leaching time is 4 h, the stirring intensity is 200 r/mim, and the hydrogen peroxide consumption is 1%.

  6. The Evaluation of the Corrosion Resistance of the Al-Si Alloys Antimony Alloyed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodova J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloys alloyed with the different amount of antimony. Specifically it goes about the alloy AlSi7Mg0,3 which is antimony alloyed in the concentrations 0; 0,001; 0,005; 0,01 a 0,05 wt. % of antimony. The introduction of the paper is dedicated to the theory of the aluminium alloys corrosion resistance, testing and evaluation of the corrosion resistance. The influence of the antimony to the Al-Si alloys properties is described further in the introduction. The experimental part describes the experimental samples which were prepared for the experiment and further they were exposed to the loading in the atmospheric conditions for a period of the 3 months. The experimental samples were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The results of the experiment were documented and the conclusions in terms of the antimony impact to the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloy were concluded. There was compared the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloy antimony alloyed (with the different antimony content with the results of the Al-Si alloy without the alloying after the corrosion load in the atmospheric conditions in the experiment.

  7. The potential DNA toxic changes among workers exposed to antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shanawany, Safaa; Foda, Nermine; Hashad, Doaa I; Salama, Naglaa; Sobh, Zahraa

    2017-05-01

    Occupational exposure to antimony has gained much interest when specific toxic effects were noticed among workers processing antimony. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the potential DNA oxidative damage occurring among Egyptian workers occupationally exposed to antimony trioxide. The study was conducted on 25 subjects exposed to antimony trioxide while working in the polymerization process of polyester in Misrayon and Polyester Fiber Company, KafrEldawwar, Beheira, Egypt. Urinary antimony levels were assessed using inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and considered as a biological exposure index. DNA damage and total oxidant capacity (TOC) were assessed using ELISA. DNA damage was detected in the form of increased apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites among antimony trioxide-exposed workers compared to control subjects, but it could not be explained by oxidative mechanisms due to lack of significant correlation between DNA damage and measured TOC. Antimony trioxide might have a genotoxic impact on occupationally exposed workers which could not be attributed to oxidative stress in the studied cases.

  8. Investigation of Antimony Leaching from Bottles (PET into the Bottled Waters in Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Noshadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most common material used in manufacturing mineral water bottles. Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 used to form the PET containers may pollute water with their ingredients. In this research, graphite furnance atomic absorption spectrometry was used to investigate the effects of storage time (1 to 8 weeks, storage temperature (-20 to 80 °C, pH (6.3 to 8.3, exposure to sunlight, and UV radiation on leaching antimony from PET bottles into the mineral water of 15 bottled water brands available in Fars Province. Concentrations of antimony in the first and second weeks were lower than the maximum standard limit (5 ppb recommended by Iranian regulations. Antimony concentration in one sample (brand A rose above the standard limit after four weeks and in 3 samples (brands A, F, and J with antimony concentrations of 5.48, 5.08, and 5.06 µg/L, respectively exceeded the standard limit after 8 weeks. Sunlight, UV radiation, changes in pH, and storage at temperatures of -20 ℃, 60 ℃, and 80℃ were also found to increase antimony concentrations to levels above the maximum standard limit. Clearly, storing bottled mineral water in ambient conditions may lead to the release of antimony into bottled water, which is a serious threat to public health.

  9. In Vitro Antiparasitic and Apoptotic Effects of Antimony Sulfide Nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Soflaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important sever diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. In the present study the effects of antimony sulfide nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum in vitro were evaluated. Antimony sulfide NPs (Sb2S5 were synthesized by biological method from Serratia marcescens bacteria. Then the cytotoxicity effects of different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of this nanoparticle were assessed on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. infantum. MTT method was used for verification results of promastigote assay. Finally, the percentages of apoptotic, necrotic, and viable cells were determined by flow cytometry. The results indicated the positive effectiveness of antimony sulfide NPs on proliferation of promastigote form. The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration of antimony sulfide NPs on promastigotes was calculated 50 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity effect was dose-dependent means by increasing the concentration of antimony sulfide NPs, the cytotoxicity curve was raised and the viability curve of the parasite dropped simultaneously. Moreover, the IC50 of antimony sulfide NPs on amastigote stage was calculated 25 μg/mL. On the other hand, however, antimony sulfide NPs have a low cytotoxicity effect on uninfected macrophages but it can induce apoptosis in promastigote stage at 3 of 4 concentrations.

  10. Electrical conductivity of uranium-antimony oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golunski, S.E.; Nevell, T.G.; Hucknall, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The relative ionic and electronic contributions to the electrical conductivity of a uranium-antimony oxide catalyst and of USbO 5 have been determined from measurements of a.c. and d.c. conductance. Under inert atmospheres (390 to 775 K) conduction in the catalyst (predominantly USb 3 O 10 together with small proportions of Sb 2 O 4 and USbO 5 ) is associated with both electronic and effectively charged atomic point defects. Only electronic conduction occurs in USbO 5 . Under oxygen (10 to 70 kPa, 493 to 682 K) both materials are n-type semiconductors at higher temperatures, but at lower temperatures semiconducting behaviour varies with the pressure of oxygen. Heating USbO 5 in oxygen induces an ionic contribution to conductivity. Ionic conduction in the catalyst is eliminated by heating in hydrogen or propene at 470 K but is restored by heating in oxygen. It is suggested that both charged oxygen vacancies and interstitial oxide ions are involved in interactions of gaseous components with uranium-antimony oxides. With alkenes, interstitial oxide ions give rise to the products of selective partial oxidation. (author)

  11. Thermal decomposition kinetics of antimony oxychloride in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳卫军; 唐谟堂; 金胜明

    2002-01-01

    The DTA and XRD techniques were employed to study thermal decomposition mechanism of antimony oxychloride SbOCl in the air. The thermal decomposition reaction occurs in four steps, and the former three steps as: SbOCl(s)→Sb4O5Cl2(s)+SbCl3(g)→Sb8O11Cl2(s)+SbCl3(g)→Sb2O3(s)+SbCl3(g). The forth step is the oxidation of Sb2O3 by air, Sb2O3(s)+O2→Sb2O4(s). The activation energy and the order of the thermal decomposition reaction of antimony oxychloride in three steps presented in DTA curves were calculated according to Kinssinger methods from DTA curves. The values of activation energy and the order are respectively 91.97kJ/mol, 0.73 in the first step, 131.14kJ/mol, 0.63 in the second step and 146.94kJ/mol, 1.58 in the third step.

  12. Bacterial Communities in the Groundwater of Xikuangshan Antimony Mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, N.; Wang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Xikuangshan (XKS) is the biggest antimony (Sb) mine around the word, which causes serious environmental contamination due to the mining actives. To fully understand the bacterial compositions in the groundwater around the mining area in XKS and their correlation with environmental factors, groundwater samples were collected and subject to 16S rDNA high throughput sequencing. Results indicated that Proteobacteria (especially Gamma-Proteobacteria) dominated bacterial communities in high-Sb groundwater samples, whereas Bacteroidetes predominated in low-Sb groundwater. Furthermore, antimony concentration was found to be the most significant factor shaping bacterial communities (P=0.002) with an explanation of 9.16% of the variation. Other factors such as pH, contents of Mg, Ca and orthophosphate were also observed to significantly correlate with bacterial communities. This was the first report to show the important impact of Sb concentration on bacterial community structure in the groundwater in the mining area. Our results will enhance the understanding of subsurface biogeochemical processes mediated by microbes.

  13. Electrical conductivity of uranium-antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golunski, S.E.; Nevell, T.G. (Portsmouth Polytechnic (UK)); Hucknall, D.J. (Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1985-05-01

    The relative ionic and electronic contributions to the electrical conductivity of a uranium-antimony oxide catalyst and of USbO/sub 5/ have been determined from measurements of a.c. and d.c. conductance. Under inert atmospheres (390 to 775 K) conduction in the catalyst (predominantly USb/sub 3/O/sub 10/ together with small proportions of Sb/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and USbO/sub 5/) is associated with both electronic and effectively charged atomic point defects. Only electronic conduction occurs in USbO/sub 5/. Under oxygen (10 to 70 kPa, 493 to 682 K) both materials are n-type semiconductors at higher temperatures, but at lower temperatures semiconducting behaviour varies with the pressure of oxygen. Heating USbO/sub 5/ in oxygen induces an ionic contribution to conductivity. Ionic conduction in the catalyst is eliminated by heating in hydrogen or propene at 470 K but is restored by heating in oxygen. It is suggested that both charged oxygen vacancies and interstitial oxide ions are involved in interactions of gaseous components with uranium-antimony oxides. With alkenes, interstitial oxide ions give rise to the products of selective partial oxidation.

  14. Experimental studies of caesium iodide aerosol condensation: theoretical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.M.; Benson, C.G.; Horton, K.D.; Buckle, E.R.

    1990-07-01

    Caesium iodide is predicted to be a significant source of fission product aerosols during the course of a severe accident in a pressurised water reactor (PWR). The nucleation and growth of caesium iodide aerosols have been studied using a plume chamber and the results compared with theoretical values calculated using the approach developed by Buckle for aerosol nucleation. The morphology of the particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission optical microscopy (TOM), whilst the particle size distributions were determined from differential mobility (DMPS) and aerodynamic (APS) measurements. (author)

  15. Behaviour of antimony during thermal treatment of Sb-rich halogenated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J. [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Dorge, S., E-mail: sophie.dorge@uha.fr [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Trouve, G. [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Venditti, D.; Durecu, S. [TREDI Departement de Recherche, Technopole de Nancy-Brabois, 9 avenue de la Foret de Haye, BP 184, 54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2009-07-30

    Antimony compounds have a wide range of industrial applications, particularly as additives in flame retardants. To ensure environmentally friendly waste incineration of Sb-rich wastes, it is essential to strengthen the knowledge about the fate of antimony and the potential formation of harmful species. Investigations should be conducted particularly in relation with the main operational parameters controlling the process, chiefly temperature, residence time and air supply in the oven and in the post-combustion zone, prior final adapted cleaning of the flue-gas stream. Experimental studies focusing on antimony behaviour were undertaken through laboratory-scale thermal treatment at 850 deg. C and 1100 deg. C of a Sb-rich halogenated waste, originating from the sector of flame retardants formulation. The configuration of our laboratory experimental device allowed to achieve only low oxidative conditions in the waste bed, but high oxidative strength coupled with high temperature and sufficient gas residence time in the post-combustion zone, as prescribed during the incineration of hazardous wastes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to assess the partition of antimony in the different compartments of the process. The oxidation degree of antimony in the gas-phase was determined by the use of electrochemical techniques, namely polarography coupled with anodic stripping voltamperometry. The partition of antimony between the residual ash and the gas-phase under moderate oxidative conditions in the waste bed was constant, whatever the temperature: the volatilization rate for antimony was {approx}64%, while a {approx}36% fraction remained in the residual bottom ashes. But interestingly, while at 850 {sup o}C, antimony was mainly present in the gas-phase at a +III oxidation degree, an increase in temperature of 250 {sup o}C favoured the presence of antimony to its highest oxidation degree +V in the flue-gas stream, a valence known to be involved in less toxic species.

  16. Behaviour of antimony during thermal treatment of Sb-rich halogenated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.; Dorge, S.; Trouve, G.; Venditti, D.; Durecu, S.

    2009-01-01

    Antimony compounds have a wide range of industrial applications, particularly as additives in flame retardants. To ensure environmentally friendly waste incineration of Sb-rich wastes, it is essential to strengthen the knowledge about the fate of antimony and the potential formation of harmful species. Investigations should be conducted particularly in relation with the main operational parameters controlling the process, chiefly temperature, residence time and air supply in the oven and in the post-combustion zone, prior final adapted cleaning of the flue-gas stream. Experimental studies focusing on antimony behaviour were undertaken through laboratory-scale thermal treatment at 850 deg. C and 1100 deg. C of a Sb-rich halogenated waste, originating from the sector of flame retardants formulation. The configuration of our laboratory experimental device allowed to achieve only low oxidative conditions in the waste bed, but high oxidative strength coupled with high temperature and sufficient gas residence time in the post-combustion zone, as prescribed during the incineration of hazardous wastes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to assess the partition of antimony in the different compartments of the process. The oxidation degree of antimony in the gas-phase was determined by the use of electrochemical techniques, namely polarography coupled with anodic stripping voltamperometry. The partition of antimony between the residual ash and the gas-phase under moderate oxidative conditions in the waste bed was constant, whatever the temperature: the volatilization rate for antimony was ∼64%, while a ∼36% fraction remained in the residual bottom ashes. But interestingly, while at 850 o C, antimony was mainly present in the gas-phase at a +III oxidation degree, an increase in temperature of 250 o C favoured the presence of antimony to its highest oxidation degree +V in the flue-gas stream, a valence known to be involved in less toxic species.

  17. Antimony and arsenic exhibit contrasting spatial distributions in the sediment and vegetation of a contaminated wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Jan; Ohlsson, Rohana; Welsh, David T; Teasdale, Peter R; Chelsky, Ariella; Bennett, William W

    2017-08-01

    Antimony is a priority environmental contaminant that is relatively poorly studied compared to other trace metal(loid)s. In particular, the behaviour of antimony in wetland sediments, where anaerobic conditions often dominate, has received considerably less attention compared to well-drained terrestrial soil environments. Here we report the results of a spatial assessment of antimony in the sediments and vegetation of a freshwater wetland exposed to stibnite tailings for the past forty years. The concentration of antimony in the sediment decreased rapidly with distance from the tailings deposit, from a maximum of ∼22,000 mg kg -1 to ∼1000 mg kg -1 at a distance of ∼150 m. In contrast, arsenic was distributed more evenly across the wetland, indicating that it was more mobile under the prevailing hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Less clear trends were observed in the tissues of wetland plants, with the concentrations of antimony in waterlilies (2.5-195 mg kg -1 ) showing no clear trends with distance from the tailings deposit, and no correlation with sediment concentrations. Sedges and Melaleuca sp. trees had lower antimony concentrations (<25 mg kg -1 and 5 mg kg -1 , respectively) compared to waterlilies, but showed a non-significant trend of higher concentrations closer to the tailings. For all vegetation types sampled, antimony concentrations were consistently lower than arsenic concentrations (Sb:As = 0.27-0.31), despite higher concentrations of antimony in the sediment. Overall, the results of this study highlight clear differences in the behaviour of antimony and arsenic in freshwater wetlands, which should be considered during the management and remediation of such sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, characterisation and electrochemical evaluation of reduced graphene oxide modified antimony nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silwana, Bongiwe; Horst, Charlton van der [Natural Resources and the Environment (NRE), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa); SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Iwuoha, Emmanuel [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Somerset, Vernon, E-mail: vsomerset@csir.co.za [Natural Resources and the Environment (NRE), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

    2015-10-01

    This paper demonstrates some aspects on the synthesis and characterisation of nanoparticles of metallic alloys using polyvinyl alcohol as a stabiliser, which combines high surface area and superior hybrid properties. The present experimental design was to synthesise a nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide and antimony nanoparticles to be used as thin films for macro- and micro-carbon electrodes for enhancing sensing of different toxic metal pollutants in the environment. The synthetic process of reduced graphene oxide was done using the modified Hummers method while antimony pentachloride was reduced with sodium borohydride into nanoparticles of antimony using polyvinyl-alcohol as a stabiliser. The systematic investigation of morphology was done by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscope, which revealed the synthesis of a product, consists of reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles. The electrochemical behaviour of the reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles coated on a glassy carbon electrode was performed using voltammetric and impedance techniques. Electrochemical impedance measurements showed that the overall resistance, including the charge–transfer resistance, was smaller with reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles than reduced graphene oxide and antimony nanoparticles, on their own. Evaluation of the reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticle sensor in the stripping voltammetry has shown a linear working range for concentration of platinum (II) between 6.0 × 10{sup −6}–5.4 × 10{sup −5} μg L{sup −1} with limit of detection of 6 × 10{sup −6} μg L{sup −1} (signal-to-noise ratio = 3), which is below the World Health Organisation guidelines for freshwater. - Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide modified antimony nanoparticles were chemically synthesised. • TEM results show rGO-Sb nanoparticles with a diameter range of between 2 and 20 nm. • Impedance results confirm

  19. Segregation of antimony in InP in MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeke, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    In this work the segregation of antimony in indium phosphide in metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)was systematically investigated. Therefore phosphine stabilized InP surfaces were treated with tri-methyl-antimony (TMSb) in MOVPE. An antimony rich Sb/InP surface was established, showing a typical spectra for the antimonides observed in reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS).Adsorption and desorption of antimony are investigated, as well as the incorporation of Sb during overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface with InP. Therefore the growth parameters temperature, TMSb partial pressure and treatment time are varied and their influence investigated. The experiments are monitored in-situ with RAS, the achieved data is correlated with ex-situ characterisation such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It is shown that under treatment with TMSb a stable Sb/InP surface is formed within seconds, which does not change under further TMSb treatment. This process is rarely influenced by the TMSb partial pressure. On the contrary, the desorption of Sb is a very slow process. Two main processes can be distinguished: The desorption of excess Sb from the surface and the formation of the MOVPE prepared InP (2 x 1) surface. The reaction velocity of adsorption and desorption increases with temperature. Above a critical value the increase of TMSb partial pressure has no influence on the time for desorption. During overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface the opposite temperature dependence is observed: with increasing growth temperature the typical spectra for antimonides is observed longer. An analysis of the grown samples with XRD and SIMS showed the formation of an InPSb double quantum well. One layer is formed at the interface, the second one 50 nm-120 nm deep in the InP. The location of the 2nd InPSb layer can be correlated with the vanishing of the Sb signature in RAS. The distance between the quantum wells increases with growth temperature, until it

  20. Segregation of antimony in InP in MOVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    In this work the segregation of antimony in indium phosphide in metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)was systematically investigated. Therefore phosphine stabilized InP surfaces were treated with tri-methyl-antimony (TMSb) in MOVPE. An antimony rich Sb/InP surface was established, showing a typical spectra for the antimonides observed in reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS).Adsorption and desorption of antimony are investigated, as well as the incorporation of Sb during overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface with InP. Therefore the growth parameters temperature, TMSb partial pressure and treatment time are varied and their influence investigated. The experiments are monitored in-situ with RAS, the achieved data is correlated with ex-situ characterisation such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It is shown that under treatment with TMSb a stable Sb/InP surface is formed within seconds, which does not change under further TMSb treatment. This process is rarely influenced by the TMSb partial pressure. On the contrary, the desorption of Sb is a very slow process. Two main processes can be distinguished: The desorption of excess Sb from the surface and the formation of the MOVPE prepared InP (2 x 1) surface. The reaction velocity of adsorption and desorption increases with temperature. Above a critical value the increase of TMSb partial pressure has no influence on the time for desorption. During overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface the opposite temperature dependence is observed: with increasing growth temperature the typical spectra for antimonides is observed longer. An analysis of the grown samples with XRD and SIMS showed the formation of an InPSb double quantum well. One layer is formed at the interface, the second one 50 nm-120 nm deep in the InP. The location of the 2nd InPSb layer can be correlated with the vanishing of the Sb signature in RAS. The distance between the quantum wells increases with growth temperature, until it

  1. Simultaneous analysis of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium in environmental samples using hydride generation ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, L.M.; Breidenbach, R.; Bakker, I.J.I.; Epema, O.J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A quantitative method for simultaneous analysis of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium in environmental samples is being developed using hydride generation ICPMS. These elements must be first transformed into hydride-forming oxidation states. This is particularly challenging for selenium and antimony because selenium is susceptible to reduction to the non-hydride-forming elemental state and antimony requires strong reducing conditions. The effectiveness of three reducing agents (KI, thiourea, cysteine) is studied. A comparison is made between addition of reducing agent to the sample and addition of KI to the NaBH 4 solution. Best results were obtained with the latter approach. (author)

  2. Antimony susceptibility of Leishmania isolates collected over a 30-year period in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddaikra, Naouel; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Kherrachi, Ihcen; Oury, Bruno; Moulti-Mati, Farida; Benikhlef, Razika; Harrat, Zoubir; Sereno, Denis

    2018-03-01

    In Algeria, the treatment of visceral and cutaneous leishmanioses (VL and CL) has been and continues to be based on antimony-containing drugs. It is suspected that high drug selective pressure might favor the emergence of chemoresistant parasites. Although treatment failure is frequently reported during antimonial therapy of both CL and VL, antimonial resistance has never been thoroughly investigated in Algeria. Determining the level of antimonial susceptibility, amongst Leishmania transmitted in Algeria, is of great importance for the development of public health policies. Within the framework of the knowledge about the epidemiology of VL and CL amassed during the last 30 years, we sampled Leishmania isolates to determine their susceptibility to antimony. We analyzed a total of 106 isolates including 88 isolates collected between 1976 and 2013 in Algeria from humans, dogs, rodents, and phlebotomines and 18 collected from dogs in France. All the Algerian isolates were collected in 14 localities where leishmaniasis is endemic. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of potassium antimony tartrate (the trivalent form of antimony, Sb(III)) and sodium stibogluconate (the pentavalent form of antimony, Sb(V)) were determined in promastigotes and intramacrophage amastigotes, respectively. The epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) that allowed us to differentiate between Leishmania species causing cutaneous or visceral leishmaniases that were susceptible (S+) or insusceptible (S-) to the trivalent form of antimony was determined. The computed IC50 cutoff values were 23.83 μg/mL and 15.91 μg/mL for VL and CL, respectively. We report a trend of increasing antimony susceptibility in VL isolates during the 30-year period. In contrast, an increase in the frequency of S- phenotypes in isolates causing CL was observed during the same period. In our study, the emergence of S- phenotypes correlates with the inclusion of L. killicki (syn: L. tropica) isolates that cause cutaneous

  3. Characteristic electron energy losses in monoatomic antimony films on (110) and (112) tungsten faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskij, D.A.; Gorchinskij, A.D.; Shevlyakov, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Complex investigations of antimony condensation on a monoatomical clean surface of tungsten monocrystals are carried out. The completion of a physical antimony monolayer has been controlled by the methods of Auger-electron spectroscopy and slow electron diffraction. It is shown that at submonolayer coatings a collectivization of valent electrons occurs leading to appearance of peaks of surface and volumetric plasmons in the energy losses spectrum. The anomalous cencentrational dependence of antimony ionization peak intensity has been found. The origin of previously unexplored peaks in the energy losses spectrum is discussed [ru

  4. Varicella zoster virus reactivation during or immediately following treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis with antimony compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barbieri Barros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimony compounds are the cornerstone treatments for tegumentary leishmaniasis. The reactivation of herpes virus is a side effect described in few reports. We conducted an observational study to describe the incidence of herpes zoster reactivation during treatment with antimony compounds. The global incidence of herpes zoster is approximately 2.5 cases per 1,000 persons per month (or 30 cases per 1,000 persons per year. The estimated incidence of herpes zoster in patients undergoing antimony therapy is higher than previously reported.

  5. An investigation of inorganic antimony species and antimony associated with soil humic acid molar mass fractions in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steely, Sarah; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Xing Baoshan

    2007-01-01

    The presence of antimony compounds is often suspected in the soil of apple orchards contaminated with lead arsenate pesticide and in the soil of shooting ranges. Nitric acid (1 M) extractable Sb from the shooting range (8300 μg kg -1 ) and the apple orchard (69 μg kg -1 ) had considerably higher surface Sb levels than the control site ( -1 ), and Sb was confined to the top ∼30 cm soil layer. Sb(V) was the principal species in the shooting range and the apple orchard surface soils. Size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) analysis of humic acids isolated from the two contaminated soils demonstrated that Sb has complexed to humic acid molar mass fractions. The results also indicate that humic acids have the ability to arrest the mobility of Sb through soils and would be beneficial in converting Sb(III) to a less toxic species, Sb(V), in contaminated areas. - The soil surface and depth distribution Sb(V) and Sb(III) species in a contaminated apple orchard and a shooting range, and the effect soil humic acids on inorganic antimony species is reported

  6. New antimony(III) halide complexes with dithiocarbamate ligands derived from thiuram degradation: The effect of the molecule's close contacts on in vitro cytotoxic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgut, O.S.; Ozturk, I.I.; Banti, C.N.; Kourkoumelis, N.; Manoli, M.; Tasiopoulos, A.J.; Hadjikakou, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Antimony(III) halide complexes of the formulae {[SbBr(Me 2 DTC) 2 ] n } (1), {[SbI(Me 2 DTC) 2 ] n } (2) and {[(Me 2 DTC) 2 Sb(μ 2 -I)Sb(Me 2 DTC) 2 ] + .I 3 − } (3) (Me 2 DTC = dimethyldithiocarbomate) were synthesized from SbX 3 , (X = Br or I) and tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (Me 4 tms) or tetramethylthiuram disulfide (Me 4 tds). The complexes were characterized by melting point (m.p.), elemental analysis (e.a.), Fourier-transform Infra-Red (FT-IR), Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H, 13 C-NMR) spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA). Crystal structures of complexes 1–3 were determined with single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Complexes 1 and 2 are polymers with distorted square pyramidal (SP) geometry in each monomeric unit, whereas complex 3 is ionic, containing an iodonium linkage Sb–I + –Sb and an I 3 − counter anion; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first ionic antimony(III) iodide complex. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of 1–3 against human adenocarcinoma cells: breast (MCF-7) and cervix (HeLa) cells and non-cancerous cells: MRC-5 (normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells) was evaluated with trypan blue (TB) and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. Among antimony(III) compounds with sulfur containing ligand, those of dithiocarbamates exhibit significant cytotoxic activity. Hirshfeld surface volumes were analyzed to clarify the nature of the intermolecular interactions by the 2D fingerprint plot. Molecules with lower H-all atoms inter-molecular interactions exhibit the higher activity against MCF-7 cells. The in vivo genotoxicity of 1–3 was evaluated by the mean of Allium cepa test. Alterations in the mitotic index values due to the chromosomal aberrations were observed in the case of complexes 2 and 3. Since, no such alteration is caused by 1, it makes this compound candidate for further study as potential drug. - Graphical abstract: The in vitro

  7. New antimony(III) halide complexes with dithiocarbamate ligands derived from thiuram degradation: The effect of the molecule's close contacts on in vitro cytotoxic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgut, O.S. [Department of Chemistry, Namık Kemal University, 59030, Tekirdag (Turkey); Ozturk, I.I., E-mail: iiozturk@nku.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Namık Kemal University, 59030, Tekirdag (Turkey); Banti, C.N., E-mail: cbanti@cc.uoi.gr [Section of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kourkoumelis, N., E-mail: nkourkou@uoi.gr [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, 45110 (Greece); Manoli, M.; Tasiopoulos, A.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus); Hadjikakou, S.K., E-mail: shadjika@uoi.gr [Section of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Antimony(III) halide complexes of the formulae {[SbBr(Me_2DTC)_2]_n} (1), {[SbI(Me_2DTC)_2]_n} (2) and {[(Me_2DTC)_2Sb(μ_2-I)Sb(Me_2DTC)_2]"+.I_3"−} (3) (Me{sub 2}DTC = dimethyldithiocarbomate) were synthesized from SbX{sub 3}, (X = Br or I) and tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (Me{sub 4}tms) or tetramethylthiuram disulfide (Me{sub 4}tds). The complexes were characterized by melting point (m.p.), elemental analysis (e.a.), Fourier-transform Infra-Red (FT-IR), Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ({sup 1}H,{sup 13}C-NMR) spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA). Crystal structures of complexes 1–3 were determined with single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Complexes 1 and 2 are polymers with distorted square pyramidal (SP) geometry in each monomeric unit, whereas complex 3 is ionic, containing an iodonium linkage Sb–I{sup +}–Sb and an I{sub 3}{sup −} counter anion; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first ionic antimony(III) iodide complex. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of 1–3 against human adenocarcinoma cells: breast (MCF-7) and cervix (HeLa) cells and non-cancerous cells: MRC-5 (normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells) was evaluated with trypan blue (TB) and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. Among antimony(III) compounds with sulfur containing ligand, those of dithiocarbamates exhibit significant cytotoxic activity. Hirshfeld surface volumes were analyzed to clarify the nature of the intermolecular interactions by the 2D fingerprint plot. Molecules with lower H-all atoms inter-molecular interactions exhibit the higher activity against MCF-7 cells. The in vivo genotoxicity of 1–3 was evaluated by the mean of Allium cepa test. Alterations in the mitotic index values due to the chromosomal aberrations were observed in the case of complexes 2 and 3. Since, no such alteration is caused by 1, it makes this compound candidate for further study as potential drug. - Graphical

  8. The promotion on cell growth of androgen-dependent prostate cancer by antimony via mimicking androgen activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwen; Li, Penghao; Wen, Yingwu; Feng, Guowei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yangyi; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Zhihong

    2018-05-15

    Antimony is a widely used heavier pnictogens in industry, and its toxicity has been a matter of concern. Although previous studies have suggested that antimony may have the function as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene in several cancers, the molecular basis underlying antimony-mediated transformation is still unclear. In the current study, we attempt to elucidate the potential role of antimony in the development of prostate cancer. Our results showed that the concentration of antimony was much higher in serum of prostate cancer patients, and was closely associated with poor outcome of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Additionally, low dose of antimony could promote proliferation and invasion of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that exposure to antimony triggered the phosphorylation of androgen receptor (AR), which transcriptionally regulates the expression of androgen-related targets, including PSA and NKX3.1. Overall, our results unearthed that antimony could promote tumor growth by mimicking androgen activity in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells. Therefore, these findings expanded our understanding on the molecular mechanism of antimony in tumorigenesis and tumor progression of prostate cancer, and it appears to be an inspiring strategy to restrain prostate cancer by inhibiting antimony-induced androgen-like effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electronic properties and Compton profiles of silver iodide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have carried out an extensive study of electronic properties of silver iodide in - and -phases. The theoretical Compton profiles, energy bands, density of states and anisotropies in momentum densities are computed using density functional theories. We have also employed full-potential linearized augmented ...

  10. Effects of Potassium Iodide on Low Avid Immunological Reactions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In identical test conditions keeping appropriate control, the following ... Abstract. Background: Selective in‑vivo anti‑fungal action of potassium iodide (KI) is an enigma, but .... mechanism of action of the drug against selective infections. In fact, if ...

  11. Research on solubility characteristics of gaseous methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yanmin; Sun Zhongning; Gu Haifeng; Wang Junlong

    2014-01-01

    With the deionized water as the absorbent, the solubility characteristics of the gaseous methyl iodide were studied under different temperature and pressure conditions, using a dynamic measuring method. The results show that within the range of experiment parameters, namely temperature is below 80℃ and pressure is lower than 0.3 MPa, the physical dissolution process of gaseous methyl iodide in water obeys Henry's law. The solubility coefficient under different temperature and pressure conditions was calculated based on the measurement results. Further research indicates that at atmospheric pressure, the solubility coefficient of methyl iodide in water decreases exponentially with the increase of temperature. While the pressure changes from 0.1 MPa to 0.3 MPa with equal interval, the solubility coefficient also increases linearly. The variation of the solubility coefficient with temperature under different pressure conditions all decreases exponentially. An equation is given to calculate the solubility coefficient of methyl iodide under different pressure and temperature conditions. (authors)

  12. Gravimetric determination of cadmium with o-phenanthroline and iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Kazunori; Taga, Mitsuhiko; Hikime, Seiichiro

    1976-01-01

    Cadmium forms insoluble mixed ligand complex with o-phenanthroline and iodide ions. By using the complex a new gravimetric method for the determination of cadmium was investigated. The recommended analytical procedure is as follows: Adjust pH value of a solution containing 5 to 45 mg cadmium to 4 with 3 M acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution. Add over threefold moles of potassium iodide to the solution and heat to just before boiling. To the solution add 0.1% ascorbic acid solution and then 0.1 M o-phenanthroline solution drop by drop in excess with stirring, and cool the mixture to room temperature. Filter the precipitates and wash first with 0.01% potassium iodide solution and then with water. Dry the precipitates at 110 0 C for two hours and weigh as Cd(o-phen) 2 I 2 (I). The gravimetric factor of the complex for cadmium is 0.1547. Chemical composition of the precipitate is variable when o-phenanthroline is added less than twofold moles to cadmium. Adding the o-phenanthroline solution 2.4-fold moles against cadmium, the ternary complex (I) precipitates quantitatively. Though a large excess of iodide ion in the solution contaminated the precipitate, the contamination was avoided when precipitation was carryed out at high temperature and in the presence of ascorbic acid. By the presented procedure 5 to 45 mg of cadmium are determined with a standard deviation of 0 C. (JPN)

  13. Kinetic method for determination of iodide ion ultramicroamounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkauskas, Yu.K.; Ramanauskas, Eh.I.

    1980-01-01

    A kinetic method for iodides ultramicroamount determination from their catalytic effect on oxidation of malachite green with chloramine B in the presence of acetone at pH 5.78+-0.3 is developed. The induction period of the reaction is determined from a change in the redox potential of the system. The induction period is proportional to the iodides concentration. Determination limit of iodides is equal to 4 μg iodide per 100 l of solution. More than 10 5 -multiple amounts of K + , Na + , NH 4+ , Ba 2 + , Al 3 + , Cu 2 + , Mg 2 + , SO 4 2 - , Cl - , MoO 4 2 - , NO 3- , ClO 3- , IO 3- , IO 4- , ClO 4- , BrO 3- ; 10 5 -10 3 -multiple amounts of Cr 3 + , Fe 3 + , Sn 2 + , S 2 - , MnO 4- , NO 2- etc. do not interfere with the determination, while 10-multiple amounts of SCN, 0.2-multiple quantities of Ag + , Hg 2 2 + do

  14. Confinement Effects in Low-Dimensional Lead Iodide Perovskite Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Honghua; Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano; Baas, Jacobus; Blake, Graeme R.; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a layered solution crystal growth technique to synthesize high-quality single crystals of phenylalkylammonium lead iodide organic/inorganic hybrid compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals low-dimensional structures consisting of inorganic sheets separated by bilayers of the organic

  15. Temperature Dependent Charge Carrier Dynamics in Formamidinium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelvez Rueda, M.C.; Renaud, N.; Grozema, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental opto-electronic properties of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are strongly affected by their structural parameters. These parameters are particularly critical in formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3), in which its large structural disorder leads to a non-perovskite

  16. Detection of apoptotic cells using propidium iodide staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P.; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry assays are often used to detect apoptotic cells in in vitro cultures. Depending on the experimental model, these assays can also be useful in evaluating apoptosis in vivo. In this protocol, we describe a propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry assay to evaluate B-cell lymphomas that have

  17. FY-2015 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear fission produces fission and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2015 according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. Updates to the deep-bed test system have also been performed to enable the inclusion of evaporated HNO3 and increased NO2 concentrations in future tests. This report summarizes the result of those activities. Test results showed that iodine adsorption from gaseous methyl iodide using reduced silver zeolite (AgZ) resulted in initial iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) under 1,000 for the conditions of the long-duration test performed this year (45 ppm CH3I, 1,000 ppm each NO and NO2, very low H2O levels [3 ppm] in balance air). The mass transfer zone depth exceeded the cumulative 5-inch depth of 4 bed segments, which is deeper than the 2-4 inch depth estimated for the mass transfer zone for adsorbing I2 using AgZ in prior deep-bed tests. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity for the AgZ under the conditions of this test was 6.2% (6.2 g adsorbed I per 100 g sorbent). The maximum Ag utilization was 51%. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  18. FY-2015 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2015 according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. Updates to the deep-bed test system have also been performed to enable the inclusion of evaporated HNO 3 and increased NO 2 concentrations in future tests. This report summarizes the result of those activities. Test results showed that iodine adsorption from gaseous methyl iodide using reduced silver zeolite (AgZ) resulted in initial iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) under 1,000 for the conditions of the long-duration test performed this year (45 ppm CH3I, 1,000 ppm each NO and NO 2 , very low H 2 O levels [3 ppm] in balance air). The mass transfer zone depth exceeded the cumulative 5-inch depth of 4 bed segments, which is deeper than the 2-4 inch depth estimated for the mass transfer zone for adsorbing I 2 using AgZ in prior deep-bed tests. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity for the AgZ under the conditions of this test was 6.2% (6.2 g adsorbed I per 100 g sorbent). The maximum Ag utilization was 51%. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  19. Liquid-liquid extraction of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium by zinc diethyldithiocarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1978-03-01

    The authors report the solvent extraction, oxidation, reduction, extraction in the presence of iron, and reextraction of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium. These processes were studied using radioactive tracers. (G.T.H.)

  20. Possibilities of using neutron activation analysis to discovery antimony aureoles at near-surface deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voin, M.I.; Kuligin, V.M.; Rakovskij, Eh.E.

    1978-01-01

    Described is the technique for determining antimony in rock and ore samples by instrumental neutron activation method with the sensitivity of 0.5 g/t from the 0.3-0.5 g weighed amount. Antimony was determined using the photopeak of antimony-124 isotope with the energy of 1692 keV. For analysis, 0.1 g samples were packed in aluminium foil and irradiated for 22 hours by reactor neutron fluence of 1.2x10 13 neutron/cm 2 xs. After cooling for 7 days induced activity of samples was measured using multichannel analizer with semiconductor detector with sensitive zone volume of 40 cm 3 . Real sensitivity while determining antimony was 1g/t, mean square error in the content range of 1-10 g/t is 14%

  1. Antimony Trioxide (ATO) - Summary of External Peer Review and Public Comments and Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the public and external peer review comments that the EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) received for the draft work plan risk assessment for Antimony Trioxide (ATO).

  2. NEW THIO S2- ADDUCTS WITH ANTIMONY (III AND V HALIDE: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ALLOUCH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new S2- adducts with SbIII and SbV halides have been synthesized and studied by infrared. Discrete structures have been suggested, the environment around the antimony being tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  3. Distribution of antimony in the oxide layer formed by potentiostatic oxidation of Pb-Sb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifuku, F.; Yoneyama, H.; Tamura, H.

    1979-09-01

    The distribution of antimony within the oxide films on Pb-Sb alloy prepared by potentiostatic oxidation in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions was examined by SIMS. The study of oxide films prepared by applying different potentials for three hours showed that two types of film were obtained depending on whether the potential was more negative or more positive than 1.5 V. Antimony profiles were obtained for films at several stages in the initial growth. It was found that antimony was retained in the oxide film at 1.5 V during both nucleation and two- or three-dimensional growth of PbO/sub 2/ and at 1.6 V during the lateral overlaps of three-dimensional centers of PbO/sub 2/. Relationships between the antimony distribution profiles and the oxide film growth are discussed. 8 figures, 1 table.

  4. Co-doping with antimony to control phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    donor co-doping on the migration activation energies of vacancy-mediated diffusion processes. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous and antimony were found to be increased significantly when larger clusters involving two donor atoms and a vacancy

  5. Kinetic method for determination of iodide ion ultramicroamounts. Kineticheskij sposob opredeleniya ul'tramikrokolichestv iodid-ionov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkauskas, Yu K; Ramanauskas, Eh I

    1980-04-03

    A kinetic method for iodides ultramicroamount determination from their catalytic effect on oxidation of malachite green with chloramine B in the presence of acetone at pH 5.78+-0.3 is developed. The induction period of the reaction is determined from a change in the redox potential of the system. The induction period is proportional to the iodides concentration. Determination limit of iodides is equal to 4 ..mu..g iodide per 100 l of solution. More than 10/sup 5/-multiple amounts of K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, NH/sub 4//sup +/, Ba/sup 2 +/, Al/sup 3 +/, Cu/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, Cl/sup -/, MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, ClO/sub 3//sup -/, IO/sub 3//sup -/, IO/sub 4//sup -/, ClO/sub 4//sup -/, BrO/sub 3//sup -/; 10/sup 5/-10/sup 3/-multiple amounts of Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Sn/sup 2 +/, S/sup 2 -/, MnO/sub 4//sup -/, NO/sub 2//sup -/ etc. do not interfere with the determination, while 10-multiple amounts of SCN, 0.2-multiple quantities of Ag/sup +/, Hg/sub 2//sup 2 +/ do.

  6. Removal of lead from crude antimony by using NaPo3 as lead elimination reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the shortcomings when removing lead from crude antimony in the traditional antimony smelting, a new process was provided using NaPO3 as lead elimination reagent to yield phosphate slag, and it was removed by floating on the surface of the liquid antimony. Reaction mechanism was clarified by using the TG-DTA and XRD techniques and single factor experiments of removal lead from crude antimony were engaged. The results show that PbO and NaPO3 begin endothermic reaction at 863K (590°C, and the reaction mainly form NaPb4(PO43 and NaPbPO4 below 1123K (850°C and above 1123K (850°C, respectively. Sb2O3 and NaPO3 start the reaction at 773K (500°C and generate an antimonic salt compound. The reaction product of the mixture of PbO, Sb2O3 and NaPO3 show that NaPO3 reacted with PbO prior when NaPO3 was insufficient, amorphous antimony glass will be generated only when NaPO3 was adequate. Single factor experiments were taken with NaNO3 as oxidizing agent under argon, effect of reaction time, reaction temperature and dosage of NaPO3 and NaNO3 on smelting results. The average content of lead in refined antimony was 0.05340% and 98.85% of lead were removed under optimal conditions; the content of lead in antimony have meet the requirements of commercial antimony.

  7. Atomistic mechanisms governing structural stability change of zinc antimony thermoelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaolong [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); Lin, Jianping, E-mail: jaredlin@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Qiao, Guanjun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Zhao, E-mail: zwangzhao@gmail.com [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-01-05

    The structural stability of thermoelectric materials is a subject of growing importance for their energy harvesting applications. Here, we study the microscopic mechanisms governing the structural stability change of zinc antimony at its working temperature, using molecular dynamics combined with experimental measurements of the electrical and thermal conductivity. Our results show that the temperature-dependence of the thermal and electrical transport coefficients is strongly correlated with a structural transition. This is found to be associated with a relaxation process, in which a group of Zn atoms migrates between interstitial sites. This atom migration gradually leads to a stabilizing structural transition of the entire crystal framework, and then results in a more stable crystal structure of β–Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} at high temperature.

  8. Antimony Accumulation Risk in Lettuce Grown in Brazilian Urban Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mancarella

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of the Brazilian population inhabits urban areas. Diffused poverty and the lack of fresh vegetables have generated malnutrition and unbalanced diets. Thus, the interest in growing food locally, in urban allotments and community gardens, has increased. However, urban agriculture may present some risks caused by the urban pollution. Road traffic is considered the biggest source of heavy metals in urban areas. Hence, the objective of the study was the assessment of the accumulation of heavy metals in an urban garden in the city of Recife, at different distances from a road with high traffic burden. The results showed that the distance from the street decreased the accumulation of many potentially toxic elements. Furthermore, the human health risk was estimated, revealing that greater danger was associated with the accumulation of antimony. Concentration of other elements in the leaf tissues were within previously reported thresholds.

  9. Pump pulse duration dependence of coherent phonon amplitudes in antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misochko, O. V., E-mail: misochko@issp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Coherent optical phonons of A{sub 1k} and E{sub k} symmetry in antimony have been studied using the femtosecond pump–probe technique. By varying the pump-pulse duration and keeping the probe duration constant, it was shown that the amplitude of coherent phonons of both symmetries exponentially decreases with increasing pulse width. It was found that the amplitude decay rate for the fully symmetric phonons with larger frequency is greater than that of the doubly degenerate phonons, whereas the frequency and lifetime for coherent phonons of both symmetries do not depend on the pump-pulse duration. Based on this data, the possibility of separation between dynamic and kinematic contributions to the generation mechanism of coherent phonons is discussed.

  10. Silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Perry, Daniel; Wendt, Joel; Manginell, Ronald; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Luhman, Dwight; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    Antimony donor implants next to silicon quantum dots have been detected with integrated solid-state diode detectors with single ion precision. Devices with counted number of donors have been fabricated and low temperature transport measurements have been performed. Charge offsets, indicative of donor ionization and coupling to the quantum dot, have been detected in these devices. The number of offsets corresponds to 10-50% of the number of donors counted. We will report on tunneling time measurements and spin readout measurements on the donor offsets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. High-pressure Raman investigation of the semiconductor antimony oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Aihui; Cao, Lihua [State Key Lab on High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130012 Changchun (China); Wan, Chunming [State Key Lab on High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Ma, Yanmei [Department of Agronomy, Jilin University, 130062 Changchun (China)

    2011-05-15

    The in situ high-pressure behavior of the semiconductor antimony trioxide (Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy techniques in a diamond anvil cell up to 20 GPa at room temperature. New peaks in the external lattice mode range emerged at a pressure above 8.6-15 GPa, suggesting that the structural phase transition occurred. The pressure dependence of Raman frequencies was obtained. The band at 139 cm{sup -1} (assigned to group mode) has a pressure dependence of -0.475 cm{sup -1}/GPa and reveals significant softening at high pressure. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Antimony-Induced Neurobehavioral and Biochemical Perturbations in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanu, Tanzina; Anjum, Adiba; Jahan, Momotaj; Nikkon, Farjana; Hoque, Mominul; Roy, Apurba Kumar; Haque, Azizul; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled; Saud, Zahangir Alam

    2018-03-08

    Groundwater used for drinking has been contaminated with naturally occurring inorganic arsenic and other metals, and metal-contaminated drinking water is the biggest threat to public health in Bangladesh. Toxic metals present in the drinking water have a strong relationship with chronic diseases in humans. Antimony (Sb), a naturally occurring metal, has been reported to be present in the drinking water along with other heavy metals in Bangladesh. Although Sb is present in the environment, very little attention has been given to the toxic effects of Sb. The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of Sb on neurobehavioral changes like anxiety, learning and memory impairment, and blood indices related to organ dysfunction. Mice exposed to antimony potassium-tartrate hydrate (Sb) (10 mg/kg body weight) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the time spent in open arms while increased the time spent in closed arms compared to the control mice in elevated plus maze. The mean latency time of control group to find the platform decreased (p < 0.05) significantly during 7 days learning as compared to Sb-treated group in Morris water maze test, and Sb-exposed group spent significantly (p < 0.05) less time in the desired quadrant as compared to the control group in probe trial. Sb treatment also significantly altered blood indices related to liver and kidney dysfunction. Additionally, Sb-induced biochemical alterations were associated with significant perturbations in histological architecture of liver and kidney of Sb-exposed mice. These data suggest that Sb has a toxic effect on neurobehavioral and biochemical changes in mice.

  13. Enrichment of Gold in Antimony Matte by Direct Smelting of Refractory Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzu; Xie, Boyi; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Chen, Lin

    2018-04-01

    Conventional cyanidation technology achieves low gold recovery when used to process refractory gold concentrate. Based on the geochemical characteristics of gold deposit mineralization, a new method is proposed herein for gold enrichment in antimony matte by smelting of refractory gold concentrate. The effects of the FeO/SiO2 and CaO/SiO2 ratios, smelting temperature, and smelting time on the gold recovery were investigated in detail. The optimum conditions were determined to be FeO/SiO2 ratio of 1.2, CaO/SiO2 ratio of 0.4, smelting temperature of 1200°C, and smelting time of 45 min. The gold content in antimony matte and smelting slag was 96.68 and 1.13 g/t, respectively. The gold, antimony, and arsenic recovery was 97.72%, 26.89%, and 6.56%, respectively, with most of the antimony and arsenic volatilized into dust. Mineral liberation analyzer results showed that the antimony matte mainly consisted of FeS and FeO, with three phases, viz. FeAs, SbAs, and AuSb, embedded between them, indicating that gold was easily enriched with antimony and arsenic during smelting of refractory gold concentrate.

  14. Radiochemical studies of the separation of some chloro-complexes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; Mani, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioisotopes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium such as tin-113, antimony-124, antimony-125, cadmium-109, cadmium-115, indium-113m and indium-111 find extensive applications as tracers in various fields. These isotopes are produced by irradiation of targets in a reactor or a cyclotron. It is usually observed that in addition to the nuclear reactions giving rise to the desired isotopes, side reactions also take place giving rise to radionuclidic contaminants. Thus, antimony-125, indium-114m and indium-114 will be present in the cyclotron produced indium-111. The authors have studied column chromatography over hydrous zirconia for the separation of antimony from tin and indium, and cadmium from indium. These studies have thrown light on the role and behaviour of antimony-125 present as an impurity in tin-113 during the preparation of tin-113-indium-113m generators and have indicated methods for the preparation of 115 Cd-sup(115m)In generators and for separation of 111 In from proton irradiated cadmium targets. (Authors)

  15. Efficiency of manganese dioxide for the removal of antimony from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.; Najamuddin; Ikram, M.

    1993-01-01

    The sorption of antimony onto manganese dioxide from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of shaking time, composition of electrolyte, concentration of sorbent and sorbate, Maximum sorption of antimony has been achieved from deionized water after 15 minutes shaking at 45 cm/sup 3/g/sup -1/ V/W ratio. The influence of different anions and cations on the sorption has also been examined. EDTA, tartrate, citrate and Fe(II) decreased the sorption significantly. Among the metal ions tested only Se (IV) has shown strong sorption than antimony whereas Co(II), Hf (IV) and Te(IV) indicated low sorption affinity under similar experimental conditions. The sorption of antimony was also tested by different isotherms. The data fitted only to Freyndlich and D-R models. The sorption capacity of 7.71 m mole g/sup -1/, mean energy of sorption of 8.9 kJ mole/sup -1/ and of B = 0.00632 mole/sup 2/kJ/sup -2/ have been system. It is concluded that manganese dioxide can be used for the removal of antimony from industrial effluents and for its recovery from very dilute solutions. The oxide can also be applied for the separation of antimony, selenium and arsenic from Te(IV). (author)

  16. Exposure to antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays used in ready-to-eat meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldimann, M; Blanc, A; Dudler, V

    2007-08-01

    Antimony residues, a result of the use of a polycondensation catalyst in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) oven-proof trays, were analysed in ready-to-eat meals. The toxicity of antimony has raised concerns about consumer safety; therefore, the migration of small fractions of these residues into ready meals and foods as a result of cooking directly in the PET trays was studied. A straightforward approach of measuring real samples was selected to obtain accurate exposure data. Background antimony concentration was determined separately from a series of lunch meals, which ranged from not detectable to 3.4 microg kg(-1). Microwave and conventional oven-cooking caused a distinct increase in the concentration of antimony in food and ready meals of 0-17 and 8-38 microg kg(-1), respectively, depending, to a certain extent, on the industrial preparations. The migrated quantities of antimony corresponded to 3-13 microg. For comparison, PET roasting bags and ready-made dough products in PET baking dishes were also evaluated. About half of the products prepared at a temperature of 180 degrees C exceeded the specific migration limit set for food contact material by the European Commission. However, the migrated amounts of antimony relative to the accepted tolerable daily intake (TDI) show that exposure from this type of food is currently not of toxicological concern.

  17. Enrichment of Gold in Antimony Matte by Direct Smelting of Refractory Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzu; Xie, Boyi; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Chen, Lin

    2018-06-01

    Conventional cyanidation technology achieves low gold recovery when used to process refractory gold concentrate. Based on the geochemical characteristics of gold deposit mineralization, a new method is proposed herein for gold enrichment in antimony matte by smelting of refractory gold concentrate. The effects of the FeO/SiO2 and CaO/SiO2 ratios, smelting temperature, and smelting time on the gold recovery were investigated in detail. The optimum conditions were determined to be FeO/SiO2 ratio of 1.2, CaO/SiO2 ratio of 0.4, smelting temperature of 1200°C, and smelting time of 45 min. The gold content in antimony matte and smelting slag was 96.68 and 1.13 g/t, respectively. The gold, antimony, and arsenic recovery was 97.72%, 26.89%, and 6.56%, respectively, with most of the antimony and arsenic volatilized into dust. Mineral liberation analyzer results showed that the antimony matte mainly consisted of FeS and FeO, with three phases, viz. FeAs, SbAs, and AuSb, embedded between them, indicating that gold was easily enriched with antimony and arsenic during smelting of refractory gold concentrate.

  18. Sodium iodide symporter: Its role in nuclear oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June-Key

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Thyroid iodide uptake is basic to the clinical applications of radioiodine in diagnosis and therapy. Iodide uptake occurs across the membrane of thyroid follicular cells via an active transporter process mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). The recent cloning of the gene encoding NIS enabled better characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying the iodide transport, thus opening the way to clarify and expand its role in medicine. NIS contains 13 transmembrane segments, and its gene encodes a glycoprotein of 643 amino acids. Decreased NIS expression levels account for the reduced iodide uptake in thyroid carcinomas. We found that thyroid cancer patients with positive immunostaining for NIS responded to I-131 therapy better than did the patients with negative immunostaining. Thus, NIS gene can be used for radionuclide gene therapy. Targeted expression of functional NIS in cancer cells would enable these cells to concentrate iodide from plasma and would, therefore, offer the possibility of radioiodine therapy. We and others have shown that gene transfer of NIS into a variety of cell types confers increased radioiodine uptake up to several hundred-fold that of controls. There is great interest in exploring the possibility of NIS gene transfer to facilitate radioiodine therapy for non-thyroidal human cancers including hepatoma, prostate, breast, colon cancers as well as thyroid cancer. Recently, several approaches such as, targeted gene transfer, thyroid peroxidase gene co-transfection, retinoic acid treatment and Re-188 therapy instead of I-131, have been tried to improve this novel gene therapy. Imaging reporter gene is useful in non-invasively determining the location, duration and magnitude of transgene expression in living animal. Conventionally, HSV-tk and dopaminergic receptor (D2R) genes have been presented as possible imaging reporter genes. We proved that NIS could serve as an alternative imaging reporter gene. NIS has many

  19. Ion-exchange separation of radioiodine and its application to production of {sup 124}I by alpha particle induced reactions on antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuza Uddin, Md. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Qaim, Seyed M.; Spahn, Ingo; Spellerberg, Stefan; Scholten, Bernhard; Coenen, Heinz H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Hermanne, Alex [Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium). Cyclotron Lab.; Hossain, Syed Mohammod [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-07-01

    The basic parameters related to radiochemical separation of iodine from tellurium and antimony by anion-exchange chromatography using the resin Amberlyst A26 were studied. The separation yield of {sup 124}I amounted to 96% and the decontamination factor from {sup 121}Te and {sup 122}Sb was > 10{sup 4}. The method was applied to the production of {sup 124}I via the {sup 123}Sb(α, 3n) reaction. In an irradiation of 110 mg of {sup nat}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (thickness ∝0.08 g/cm{sup 2}) with 38 MeV α-particles at 1.2 μA beam current for 4 h, corresponding to the beam energy range of E{sub α} = 37 → 27 MeV, the batch yield of {sup 124}I obtained was 12.42 MBq and the {sup 125}I and {sup 126}I impurities amounted to 3.8% and 0.7%, respectively. The experimental batch yield of {sup 124}I amounted to 80% of the theoretically calculated value but the level of the radionuclidic impurities were in agreement with the theoretical values. About 96% of the radioiodine was in the form of iodide and the inactive impurities (Te, Sb, Sn) were below the permissible level. Due to the relatively high level of radionuclidic impurity the {sup 124}I produced would possibly be useful only for restricted local consumption or for animal experiments.

  20. Behaviour of organic iodides under pwr accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, M.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study the behaviour of radioactive methyl iodide under PWR loss-of-coolant conditions. The pressure relief equipment consisted of an autoclave for simulating the primary circuit and of an expansion vessel for simulating the conditions after a rupture in the reactor coolant system. After pressure relief, the composition of the CH 3 sup(127/131)I-containing steam-air mixture within the expansion vessel was analysed at 80 0 C over a period of 42 days. On the basis of the values measured and of data taken from the literature, both qualitative and quantitative assessments have been made as to the behaviour of radioactive methyl iodide in the event of loss-of-coolant accidents. (author)

  1. Growth of mercuric iodide single crystals from dimethylsulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlston, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoxide is used as a solvent for the growth of red mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ) crystals for use in radiation detectors. The hygroscopic property of the solvent allows controlled amounts of water to enter into the solvent phase and diminish the large solubility of HgI 2 so that the precipitating solid collects as well-defined euhedral crystals which grow into a volume of several cc

  2. 1-(3-Iodopropyl-4-methylquinolin-1-ium Iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Deligeorgiev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free “one-pot” synthetic approach to 1-(3-iodopropyl-4-methylquinolin-1-ium iodide is reported in the present work. The title compound is derived from N-alkylation of 4-methylquinoline with 1,3-diiodopropane proceeded at room temperature. The target quinolinium salt is obtained in a highly pure form. It’s structure was evaluated by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and DEPT135 spectra.

  3. FY-2016 Methyl Iodide Higher NOx Adsorption Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2016 under the Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) Program Offgas Sigma Team to further research and advance the technical maturity of solid sorbents for capturing iodine-129 in off-gas streams during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Adsorption testing with higher levels of NO (approximately 3,300 ppm) and NO2 (up to about 10,000 ppm) indicate that high efficiency iodine capture by silver aerogel remains possible. Maximum iodine decontamination factors (DFs, or the ratio of iodine flowrate in the sorbent bed inlet gas compared to the iodine flowrate in the outlet gas) exceeded 3,000 until bed breakthrough rapidly decreased the DF levels to as low as about 2, when the adsorption capability was near depletion. After breakthrough, nearly all of the uncaptured iodine that remains in the bed outlet gas stream is no longer in the form of the original methyl iodide. The methyl iodide molecules are cleaved in the sorbent bed, even after iodine adsorption is no longer efficient, so that uncaptured iodine is in the form of iodine species soluble in caustic scrubber solutions, and detected and reported here as diatomic I2. The mass transfer zone depths were estimated at 8 inches, somewhat deeper than the 2-5 inch range estimated for both silver aerogels and silver zeolites in prior deep-bed tests, which had lower NOx levels. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity and silver utilization for these higher NOx tests, at about 5-15% of the original sorbent mass, and about 12-35% of the total silver, respectively, were lower than for trends from prior silver aerogel and silver zeolite tests with lower NOx levels. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to expand the database for organic iodide adsorption and increase the technical maturity if iodine adsorption processes.

  4. Photochemical versus biological production of methyl iodide during Meteor 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, U.; Wallace, D.

    2003-04-01

    The flux of methyl iodide from sea to air represents the largest flux of iodine from the ocean to the atmosphere. Surface water concentrations and hence fluxes are particularly high in tropical regions. This flux may be responsible for the enrichment of iodine in the marine aerosol and may contribute to important processes in the marine boundary layer, including particle formation. Methyl iodide is commonly referred to as a biogenic gas, with both macroalgae and phytoplankton identified as important sources. On the other hand experimental and field data have shown the importance of photochemical production that is not necessarily associated directly with biological activity. During the Meteor cruise 55 along 11°N in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, a series of experiments were conducted to examine the biological vs. photochemical production of methyl iodide. A total of eight separate experiments were conducted. Production of CH3I in quartz glass flasks during 24 hour incubations (dark and natural sunlight) was measured under three experimental treatments: untreated seawater, filtered seawater (0.1 um pore size filter to exclude most phytoplankton and bacteria), and seawater that was poisoned with mercuric chloride. There were two clear findings from these experiments: (1) methyl iodide production was significantly higher in all the incubations that were exposed to the light than in the dark incubations; (2) there was no significant difference between CH3I production under the three experimental treatments. These results argue very strongly for the primary importance of photochemical production of CH3I as opposed to biogenic production at least for the tropical open ocean surface waters. Further experiments are required to investigate the reactants involved, their sources, the wavelength and depth dependence of production, etc. as well as (possibly related) sink processes.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacotte, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This work was intended to discover small organic molecules acting as iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid cells. These compounds can indeed be derivatized into biochemical probes for further characterization of proteins involved in iodide transport mechanisms. On the long term, these inhibitors also appear as attractive drug candidates for treatment of thyroid pathologies or radioprotection against iodine isotopes. A similar strategy was adopted for both of the two inhibitor families. First, we synthesized a chemical library of around 100 analogues; we measured their IC50 against iodide uptake in FRTL-5 cells to get structure-activity relationships. Absolute configuration of stereo-genic centers was also investigated, and a preferential stereochemistry was found to be responsible for activity. From this basis, around twenty 'second-generation' analogues were synthesized by combining fragments contributing to biological activity. Biological evaluation indicated that nine were very potent inhibitors, with IC50 ≤ 6 nM and satisfying physicochemical properties required for drug candidates. Finally, one photoactivatable biotinylated probe was developed in each family and used for photoaffinity labeling. Several specifically labeled proteins are still under identification and constitute new potential therapeutic targets. (author)

  6. The sodium iodide symporter: its implications for imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzweg, C.

    2007-01-01

    The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is an intrinsic plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates the active transport of iodide in the thyroid gland and a number of extrathyroidal tissues, in particular lactating mammary gland. In addition to its key function in thyroid physiology, NIS-mediated iodide accumulation allows diagnostic thyroid scintigraphy as well as therapeutic radioiodine application in benign and malignant thyroid disease. NIS therefore represents one of the oldest targets for molecular imaging and therapy. Based on the effective administration of radioiodine that has been used for over 60 years in the management of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer, cloning and characterization of the NIS gene has paved the way for the development of a novel cytoreductive gene therapy strategy based on targeted NIS expression in thyroidal and nonthyroidal cancer cells followed by therapeutic application of 131 I or alternative radionuclides, including 188 Re and 211 At. In addition, the possibility of direct and non-invasive imaging of functional NIS expression by 123 I- and 99m Tc-scintigraphy or 124 I-PET-imaging allows the application of NIS as a novel reporter gene. In conclusion, the dual role of NIS as diagnostic and therapeutic gene and the detection of extra-thyroidal endogenous NIS expression in breast cancer open promising perspectives in nuclear medicine and molecular oncology for diagnostic and therapeutic application of NIS outside the thyroid gland. (orig.)

  7. Copper-promoted cementation of antimony in hydrochloric acid system: A green protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lian-Kui; Li, Ying-Ying; Cao, Hua-Zhen; Zheng, Guo-Qu, E-mail: zhenggq@zjut.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Antimony can be efficiently removed by cementation with copper powder. • Cemented antimony is in the form of Cu{sub 2}Sb. • Consumed copper powder is transformed to CuCl. • The cementation is a chemically controlled step. • No toxic stibine generates during the cementation process. - Abstract: A new method of recovering antimony in hydrochloric acid system by cementation with copper powder was proposed and carried out at laboratory scale. Thermodynamic analysis and cyclic voltammetry test were conducted to study the cementation process. This is a novel antimony removal technology and quite meets the requirements of green chemistry. The main cement product Cu{sub 2}Sb is a promising anodic material for lithium and sodium ion battery. And nearly all consumed copper powder are transformed into CuCl which is an important industrial material. The effect of reaction temperature, stoichiometric ratio of Cu to Sb(III), stirring rate and concentration of HCl on the cementation efficiency of antimony were investigated in detail. Optimized cementation condition is obtained at 60 °C for 120 min and stirring rate of 600 rpm with Cu/Sb(III) stoichiometric ratio of 6 in 3 mol L{sup −1} HCl. At this time, nearly all antimony can be removed by copper powder and the cementation efficiency is over 99%. The structure and morphologies of the cement products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Results show that the reaction temperature has little influence on the morphology of the cement products which consist of particles with various sizes. The activation energy of the cementation antimony on copper is 37.75 kJ mol{sup −1}, indicating a chemically controlled step. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry results show that no stibine generates during the cementation process.

  8. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murciego, A. Murciego; Sanchez, A. Garcia; Gonzalez, M.A. Rodriguez; Gil, E. Pinilla; Gordillo, C. Toro; Fernandez, J. Cabezas; Triguero, T. Buyolo

    2007-01-01

    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas

  9. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. Murciego [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Sanchez, A. Garcia [IRNA-CSIC, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Aptdo. 257, Salamanca (Spain); Gonzalez, M.A. Rodriguez [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gil, E. Pinilla [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: epinilla@unex.es; Gordillo, C. Toro [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Fernandez, J. Cabezas [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Triguero, T. Buyolo [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas.

  10. Enhanced iodide sequestration by 3-biphenyl-5,6-dihydroimidazo 2,1-b thiazole in sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS)-expressing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecat-Guillet, N.; Ambroise, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of the sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) to take up iodide has long provided the basis for cyto-reductive gene therapy and cancer treatment with radio-iodide. One of the major limitations of this approach is that radio-iodide retention in NIS-expressing cells is not sufficient for their destruction. We identified and characterized a small organic molecule capable of increasing iodide retention in HEK293 cells permanently transfected with human NIS cDNA (hNIS-HEK293) and in the rat thyroid-derived cell line FRTL-5. In the presence of 3-biphenyl-4'-yl-5,6-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b)thiazole (ISA1), the transmembrane iodide concentration gradient was increased up to 4.5-fold. Our experiments indicate that the imidazo-thiazole derivative acts either by inhibiting anion efflux mechanisms, or by promoting the relocation of iodide into subcellular compartments. This new compound is not only an attractive chemical tool to investigate the mechanisms of iodide flux at the cellular level, but also opens promising perspectives in the treatment of cancer after NIS gene transfer. (authors)

  11. Behavior of radioactive organic iodide in an atmosphere of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Masakatsu; Nakashima, Mikio; Sagawa, Chiaki; Masaki, Nobuyuki; Hirabayashi, Takakuni; Aratono, Yasuyuki

    1990-06-01

    Formation and decomposition behavior of radioactive organic iodide have been studied in an atmosphere of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, HTTR). Na 125 I was chosen for radioactive iodine source instead of CsI diffusing from coated fuel particles. Na 125 I adsorbed on graphite was heated in pure He and He containing O 2 or H 2 O atmosphere. The results obtained are as follows. It was proved that organic iodide was formed with organic radicals released from graphite even in He atmosphere. Thus, the interchange rate of inorganic iodide with organic iodide was remarkably decreased with prolonged preheat-treatment period at 1000degC. Organic iodide formed was easily decomposed by its recirculation into hot reaction tube kept at 900degC. When organic iodide was passed through powdered graphite bed, more than 70% was decomposed at 90degC. Oxygen and water vapour intermixed in He suppressed the interchange rate of inorganic iodide with organic iodide. These results suggest that organic iodide rarely exists in the pressure vessel under normal operating condition of HTTR, and, under hypothetical accident condition of HTTR, organic iodide fraction never exceeds the value used for a safety assessment of light water reactor. (author)

  12. Laccase-catalyzed oxidation of iodide and formation of organically bound iodine in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Miharu; Oikawa, Jun-ichi; Taguchi, Taro; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Sakamoto, Kazunori; Amachi, Seigo

    2013-01-02

    Laccase oxidizes iodide to molecular iodine or hypoiodous acid, both of which are easily incorporated into natural soil organic matter. In this study, iodide sorption and laccase activity in 2 types of Japanese soil were determined under various experimental conditions to evaluate possible involvement of this enzyme in the sorption of iodide. Batch sorption experiment using radioactive iodide tracer ((125)I(-)) revealed that the sorption was significantly inhibited by autoclaving (121 °C, 40 min), heat treatment (80 and 100 °C, 10 min), γ-irradiation (30 kGy), N(2) gas flushing, and addition of reducing agents and general laccase inhibitors (KCN and NaN(3)). Interestingly, very similar tendency of inhibition was observed in soil laccase activity, which was determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as a substrate. The partition coefficient (K(d): mL g(-1)) for iodide and specific activity of laccase in soils (Unit g(-1)) showed significant positive correlation in both soil samples. Addition of a bacterial laccase with an iodide-oxidizing activity to the soils strongly enhanced the sorption of iodide. Furthermore, the enzyme addition partially restored iodide sorption capacity of the autoclaved soil samples. These results suggest that microbial laccase is involved in iodide sorption on soils through the oxidation of iodide.

  13. Electrochemistry of silver iodide the capacity of the double layer at the silver iodide-water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.; Overbeek, J.Th.G.

    1961-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining differential double layer capacities on silver iodide. Especially the influence of the nature and concentration of indifferent electrolytes was investigated, viz., the nitrates of Li·, K·, Rb·, NH4·, H·, Tl·, Mg··, Ba··, Co··, Cd··, Pb··, La···, Th····, the

  14. Predictors of an unsatisfactory response to pentavalent antimony in the treatment of American visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Mácia A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimony is usually successful, some patients require second-line drug therapy, most commonly with amphotericin B. To identify the clinical characteristics that predict an inadequate response to pentavalent antimony, a case-control study was undertaken in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. Over a two-year period, there were 19 cases of VL in which the staff physicians of a hospital prescribed second-line therapy with amphotericin B after determining that treatment with pentavalent antimony had failed. The control group consisted of 97 patients that were successfully treated with pentavalent antimony. A chart review using univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. The cure rate was 90% with amphotericin B. The odds ratio for the prescription of amphotericin B was 10.2 for children less than one year old, compared with individuals aged over 10 years. Patients who presented coinfection had an OR of 7.1 while those on antibiotics had an OR of 2.8. These data support either undertaking a longer course of therapy with pentavalent antimony for children or using amphotericin B as a first-line agent for children and individuals with coinfections. It also suggests that chemoprophylaxis directed toward bacterial coinfection in small children with VL may be indicated.

  15. Influence of sulfur, phosphorus, and antimony segregation on the intergranular hydrogen embrittlement of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Baer, D.R.; Jones, R.H.; Thomas, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of sulfur, phosphorus, and antimony in promoting the intergranular embrittlement of nickel was investigated using straining electrode tests in 1N H 2 SO 4 at cathodic potentials. Sulfur was found to be the critical grain boundary segregant due to its large enrichment at grain boundaries (10 4 to 10 5 times the bulk content) and the direct relationship between sulfur coverage and hydrogeninduced intergranular failure. Phosphorus was shown to be significantly less effective than sulfur or antimony in inducing the intergranular hydrogen embrittlement of nickel. The addition of phosphoru to nickel reduced the tendency for intergranular fracture and improved ductility because phosphoru segregated strongly to grain interfaces and limited sulfur enrichment. The hydrogen embrittling potency of antimony was also less than that of sulfur while its segregation propensity was considerably less. It was found that the effectiveness of segregated phosphorus and antimony in prompting inter granular embrittlement vs that of sulfur could be expressed in terms of an equivalent grain boundary sulfur coverage. The relative hydrogen embrittling potencies of sulfur, phosphorus, and antimony are discussed in reference to general mechanisms for the effect of impurity segregation on hydrogeninduced intergranular fracture

  16. Arsenic and antimony removal from drinking water by adsorption on granular ferric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazakli, Eleni; Zouvelou, Stavroula V; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Leotsinidis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony occur in drinking water due to natural weathering or anthropogenic activities. There has been growing concern about their impact on health. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of a granular ferric oxide adsorbent medium to remove arsenic and antimony from drinking water via rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs). Three different water matrices - deionized, raw water treated with a reverse osmosis domestic device and raw water - were spiked with arsenic and/or antimony to a concentration of 100 μg L⁻¹. Both elements were successfully adsorbed onto the medium. The loadings until the guideline value was exceeded in the effluent were found to be 0.35-1.63 mg g⁻¹ for arsenic and 0.12-2.11 mg g⁻¹ for antimony, depending on the water matrix. Adsorption of one element was not substantially affected by the presence of the other. Aeration did not affect significantly the adsorption capacity. Granular ferric oxide could be employed for the simultaneous removal of arsenic and antimony from drinking water, whereas full-scale systems should be assessed via laboratory tests before their implementation.

  17. New fluorescent polymeric nanocomposites synthesized by antimony dodecyl-mercaptide thermolysis in polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the formation of semiconductive Sb2S3 nanoparticles inside amorphous polystyrene has been achieved by thermal degradation of the corresponding antimony dodecyl-mercaptide, Sb(SC12H253. The thermolysis of the dodecyl-mercaptide precursor was studied as both pure phase and mercaptide solution in polystyrene. The thermal decomposition of the antimony mercaptide precursor at 350°C, under vacuum, showed the formation of a mixture of antimony trisulfide (stibnite, Sb2S3 and zero-valent antimony (Sb phase. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD and Rietveld analysis carried out on the obtained nanostructured powder confirmed the presence of Sb and Sb2S3 phases in 10.4 wt% and 89.6 wt% amount, respectively. The same pyrolysis reaction was carried out in the polymer and the resulting nanocomposite material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanocomposite structural characterization indicated the presence of well-dispersed nanoclusters of antimony and stibnite (15–30 nm in size inside the amorphous polymeric phase. Optical measurements on the obtained nanocomposite films showed a strong emission at 432 nm upon excitation at 371 nm, probably related to the presence of Sb2S3 nanoclusters.

  18. Extended solubility and martensitic hcp nickel formation in antimony implanted nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Johansen, A.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation damage microstructure and associated disorder have been investigated in antimony implanted nickel crystals using combined RBS and TEM analyses. In crystals implanted at and below room temperature with 80 keV Sb + ions to a fluence of 5x10 20 m -2 , the retained antimony concentration in the implantation zone is approaching 15 at.%, with nearly all the antimony located substitutionally. The associated disorder as seen in the RBS analysis is insignificant. Annealing up to 600 0 C has little influence on the antimony distribution, whilst the dechanneling level is reduced. TEM and diffraction analysis of room temperature implanted samples show that the radiation damage consists of dense distributions of dislocation clusters and tangles, superimposed on a rather homogeneous background of new phase particles, identified as hcp nickel. The particles have a size 0.1-0.2 μm. The high substitutional antimony concentration at and below room temperature, which exceeds the solubility limit, indicates that its formation is thermally diffusionless and rather an effect of radiation enhanced solubility. The diffusionless nature of the microstructure is also indicated from the presence of martensitic hcp nickel, believed to form due to relief of radiation induced internal stress. (Auth.)

  19. Calcium-Antimony Alloys as Electrodes for Liquid Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, T; Kim, H; Ning, XH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-08-08

    The performance of a calcium-antimony (Ca-Sb) alloy serving as the positive electrode in a Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery was investigated in an electrochemical cell, Ca(in Bi) vertical bar LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2 vertical bar Ca(in Sb). The equilibrium potential of the Ca-Sb electrode was found to lie on the interval, 1.2-0.95 V versus Ca, in good agreement with electromotive force (emf) measurements in the literature. During both alloying and dealloying of Ca at the Sb electrode, the charge transfer and mass transport at the interface are facile enough that the electrode potential varies linearly from 0.95 to 0.75 V vs Ca(s) as current density varies from 50 to 500 mA cm(-2). The discharge capacity of the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb cells increases as the operating temperature increases due to the higher solubility and diffusivity of Ca in Sb. The cell was successfully cycled with high coulombic efficiency (similar to 100%) and small fade rate (<0.01% cycle(-1)). These data combined with the favorable costs of these metals and salts make the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery attractive for grid-scale energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanisms of antimony interstitial penetration into cadmium telluride crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nikonyuk, E S; Zakharuk, Z I; Fochuk, P M; Rarenko, A I

    2001-01-01

    The results of electrophysical investigations of CdTe crystals, grown by Bridgman method and doped with Sb impurity in concentrations for 10 sup 1 sup 7 -3 x 10 sup 1 sup 9 cm sup - sup 3 are presented. The analysis of the temperature dependence of Hall coefficient, current carrier mobility and photoconductivity at intrinsic excitation for samples taken from different parts of ingots allows to conclude, that Sb sub T sub e , Sb sub C sub d centers and (Sb sub T sub e Sb sub C sub d) associated appear in CdTe crystal during its doping by antimony impurity. The hole conductivity in doped crystals is controlled by A sub 3 (Sb sub T sub e) acceptors, their density not exceeding 5 x 10 sup 1 sup 6 cm sup - sup 3 , and is essentially less than the real impurity content. The ionization energy of A sub 3 acceptors is (0.28 +- 0.01) eV. In non-equilibrium conditions these acceptors play the role of adhesion centers for holes (at high temperatures) and the slow recombination centers for electrons (at low temperatures)

  1. NEW ERBIUM DOPED ANTIMONY GLASSES FOR LASER AND GLASS AMPLIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tioua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the special spectroscopic properties of the rare earth ions, rare earth doped glasses are widely used in bulk and fiber lasers or amplifiers. The modelling of lasers and searching for new laser transitions require a precise knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in different host glasses. In this poster will offer new doped erbium glasses synthesized in silicate crucibles were obtained in the combination Sb2O3-WO3-Na2O. Several properties are measured and correlated with glass compositions. The absorption spectral studies have been performed for erbium doped glasses. The intensities of various absorption bands of the doped glasses are measured and the Judd-Ofelt parameters have been computed. From the theory of Judd-Ofelt, various radiative properties, such as transition probability, branching ratio and radiative life time for various emission levels of these doped glasses have been determined and reported. These results confirm the ability of antimony glasses for glass amplification.

  2. Mitochondrial Proteomics of Antimony and Miltefosine Resistant Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimony (SbIII and miltefosine (MIL are important drugs for the treatment of Leishmania parasite infections. The mitochondrion is likely to play a central role in SbIII and MIL induced cell death in this parasite. Enriched mitochondrial samples from Leishmania promastigotes selected step by step for in vitro resistance to SbIII and MIL were subjected to differential proteomic analysis. A shared decrease in both mutants in the levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase was observed, as well as a differential abundance in two calcium-binding proteins and the unique dynamin-1-like protein of the parasite. Both mutants presented a shared increase in the succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase and the abundance of numerous hypothetical proteins was also altered in both mutants. In general, the proteomic changes observed in the MIL mutant were less pronounced than in the SbIII mutant, probably due to the early appearance of a mutation in the miltefosine transporter abrogating the need for a strong mitochondrial adaptation. This study is the first analysis of the Leishmania mitochondrial proteome and offers powerful insights into the adaptations to this organelle during SbIII and MIL drug resistance.

  3. Samarium Polystibides Derived from Highly Activated Nanoscale Antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Christoph; Bestgen, Sebastian; Egeberg, Alexander; Klementyeva, Svetlana; Feldmann, Claus; Konchenko, Sergey N; Roesky, Peter W

    2018-05-14

    Zintl ions in molecular compounds are of fundamental interest for basic research and application. Two reactive antimony sources are presented that allow direct access to molecular polystibide compounds. These are Sb amalgam (Sb/Hg) and ultrasmall Sb 0 nanoparticles (d=6.6±0.8 nm), which were used independently as precursors for the synthesis of the largest f-element polystibide, [(Cp* 2 Sm) 4 Sb 8 ]. Whereas the reaction of the nanoparticles with [Cp* 2 Sm] directly led to [(Cp* 2 Sm) 4 Sb 8 ], Sm/Sb/Hg intermediates were isolated when using Sb/Hg as the precursor. These Sm/Sb/Hg intermediates [{(Cp* 2 Sm) 2 Sb} 2 (μ-Hg)] and [{(Cp* 2 Sm) 3 (μ 4 ,η 1:2:2:2 -Sb 4 )} 2 Hg] were synthetically trapped and structurally characterized, giving insight in the formation mechanism of polystibide compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Natural attenuation of antimony in mine drainage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Mitsuo; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tsutomu; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the natural attenuation of antimony (Sb) in the drainage water of an abandoned mine. Drainage water, waste rocks, and ocherous precipitates collected from the mine were investigated in terms of their mineralogy and chemistry. The chemistry of the drainage water was analyzed by measuring pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and electric conductivity on site as well as by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. As the drainage flowed downstream, the pH decreased rapidly from 7.05 to 3.26 and then increased slowly to 3.50. In a section where the pH increased, ocherous precipitates occur on a drainage water channel. We determined Sb levels in the drainage water, and the distribution of Sb in the mineral phases of waste rocks and precipitates was estimated by means of a sequential extraction procedure. The results of these investigations indicated that Sb, which is generated by the dissolution of stibnite (Sb 2 S 3 ) and secondary formed Sb minerals in waste rocks, was attenuated by iron-bearing ocherous precipitates, especially schwertmannite, that form over time in the drainage water. The Sb concentrations in the ocherous precipitates were up to 370 mg/kg, whereas the Sb concentrations in the drainage water downstream were below background levels (0.6 μg/L). Bulk distribution coefficients (K d ) for this Sb adsorption to the precipitates ranges up to at least 10 5 L/kg. (author)

  5. Determination of antimony by using tungsten trap atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titretir, Serap [Department of Chemistry, Inoenue University, 44065 Malatya (Turkey); Kenduezler, Erdal [Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Ahi Evran University, 40100 Kirsehir (Turkey); Arslan, Yasin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kula, Ibrahim [Department of Chemistry, Mugla University, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Bakirdere, Sezgin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey); Ataman, O. Yavuz. [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ataman@metu.edu.tr

    2008-08-15

    An electrically heated tungsten coil was used as a trap in the determination of antimony. The technique consists of three steps. Initially, SbH{sub 3} is formed by hydride generation procedure; then the analyte species in vapor form are transported to W-coil trap heated at 370 deg. C. Following the preconcentration step, the trap is heated to 895 deg. C; analyte species are revolatilized and transported to the flame-heated quartz atom cell where atomization and the formation of signal take place. The experimental parameters were optimized both for trap and no-trap studies. The most important experimental parameters are concentrations of HCl and NaBH{sub 4} solutions, H{sub 2} and Ar gas flow rates, and collection and revolatilization temperatures of W-coil. Accuracy was tested using a certified reference material, waste water EU-L-1. Limit of detection for the system is 16 ng l{sup -1} using a sample of 36 ml collected in 4.0 min. Enhancement factor in sensitivity was 17.

  6. Highly active and stable Pt electrocatalysts promoted by antimony-doped SnO2 supports for oxygen reduction reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Min; Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative composite supports for platinum catalysts were synthesized from antimony doped tin dioxide (ATO) nanoparticles. In the range of the antimony content from 0 to 11mol%, the highest electrical conductivity of 1.1Scm-1 at 130°C was obtained for the 5mol% Sb ATO, from which composite...

  7. Electrodeposition as an alternate method for preparation of environmental samples for iodide by AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamic, M.L., E-mail: Mary.Adamic@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Lister, T.E.; Dufek, E.J.; Jenson, D.D.; Olson, J.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Vockenhuber, C. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Watrous, M.G. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents an evaluation of an alternate method for preparing environmental samples for {sup 129}I analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Idaho National Laboratory. The optimal sample preparation method is characterized by ease of preparation, capability of processing very small quantities of iodide, and ease of loading into a cathode. Electrodeposition of iodide on a silver wire was evaluated using these criteria. This study indicates that the electrochemically-formed silver iodide deposits produce ion currents similar to those from precipitated silver iodide for the same sample mass. Precipitated silver iodide samples are usually mixed with niobium or silver powder prior to loading in a cathode. Using electrodeposition, the silver is already mixed with the sample and can simply be picked up with tweezers, placed in the sample die, and pressed into a cathode. The major advantage of this method is that the silver wire/electrodeposited silver iodide is much easier to load into a cathode.

  8. Electrodeposition as an alternate method for preparation of environmental samples for iodide by AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamic, M.L.; Lister, T.E.; Dufek, E.J.; Jenson, D.D.; Olson, J.E.; Vockenhuber, C.; Watrous, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an alternate method for preparing environmental samples for "1"2"9I analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Idaho National Laboratory. The optimal sample preparation method is characterized by ease of preparation, capability of processing very small quantities of iodide, and ease of loading into a cathode. Electrodeposition of iodide on a silver wire was evaluated using these criteria. This study indicates that the electrochemically-formed silver iodide deposits produce ion currents similar to those from precipitated silver iodide for the same sample mass. Precipitated silver iodide samples are usually mixed with niobium or silver powder prior to loading in a cathode. Using electrodeposition, the silver is already mixed with the sample and can simply be picked up with tweezers, placed in the sample die, and pressed into a cathode. The major advantage of this method is that the silver wire/electrodeposited silver iodide is much easier to load into a cathode.

  9. Discovery of aryl-tri-fluoroborates as potent sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecat-Guillet, N.; Ambroise, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The structure-based design of sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) inhibitors identified new active compounds. The organo-tri-fluoroborate shown was found to inhibit iodide uptake with an IC50 value of 0.4 μM on rat-derived thyroid cells. The biological activity is rationalized by the presence of the BF3 - ion as a minimal binding motif for substrate recognition at the iodide binding site. (authors)

  10. Discovery of aryl-tri-fluoroborates as potent sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecat-Guillet, N.; Ambroise, Y. [CEA, DSV, Dept Bioorgan Chem and Isotop Labelling, Inst Biol and Technol, iBiTecS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    The structure-based design of sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) inhibitors identified new active compounds. The organo-tri-fluoroborate shown was found to inhibit iodide uptake with an IC50 value of 0.4 {mu}M on rat-derived thyroid cells. The biological activity is rationalized by the presence of the BF3{sup -} ion as a minimal binding motif for substrate recognition at the iodide binding site. (authors)

  11. Effect of antimony nano-scale surface-structures on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.; Shima, D.; Ahirwar, P.; Rotter, T. J.; Hains, C. P.; Dang, T.; Bedford, R. G.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of antimony crystallization on the surface of GaSb during low temperature molecular beam epitaxy growth are investigated. The geometry of these structures is studied via transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, which show the surface metal forms triangular-shaped, elongated nano-wires with a structured orientation composed entirely of crystalline antimony. By depositing antimony on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector, the field is localized within the antimony layer. Polarization dependent transmission measurements are carried out on these nano-structures deposited on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector. It is shown that the antimony-based structures at the surface favor transmission of light polarized perpendicular to the wires.

  12. Method of removing alkyl iodides or mixtures of iodine and alkyl iodides from a gas phase and an aqueous solution phase by utilizing ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Mizuuchi, Noboru; Yokoyama, Fumio.

    1967-01-01

    Alkyl iodides and mixtures of iodine and alkyl iodides are removed from a gas phase and an aquous solution phase by using solely an anion exchange resin containing a tertiary amine or together with an anion exchange resin containing quarternary ammonium compound. The resin containing the quarternary ammonium compound is employed mainly to remove iodine, and the resin containing the tertiary amine serves mainly to remove alkyl iodides. The method can be applied to collecting a majority of the methyl iodide as well as the radioactive iodine produced in the atmosphere of a reactor in case of a fuel accident. In embodiments, it is desirable to maintain the sufficient moisture content of the anion exchange resins at a sufficient moisture level so as not to reduce the migration speed of the iodine and alkyl iodides. The iodine and alkyl iodide can be produced with high efficiency and stability independently of the relative humidity of the gas phase. In examples, a solution which consists of 20.5 mg/l of iodine and 42.2mg/l of methyl iodide flew through a column of Amberite IRA-93 alone or blended with IRA-900 at a speed of 15 /hr. respectively. The resins were able to treat 400 times their equivalent in water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  13. Spectrophotometric procedure using rhodamine B for determination of submicrogram quantities of antimony in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepfe, M.M.

    1973-01-01

    A spectrophotometric procedure using Rhodamine B is given for the determination of antimony in mineralized rocks after its separation as stibine. A study of the Rhodamine B reaction points to the importance of the order of addition of reagents in enhancing sensitivity and increasing the stability of the system. The tolerance of some 26 elements is established for the overall procedure. Although the limit of determination is approximately 0??5 ppm Sb in a 0??2-g sample, the procedure is intended primarily for screening samples containing more than 1 ppm Sb. In pure solutions 0??1 ??g of antimony can be determined with a relative standard deviation of 25%. For >0??2 ??g of antimony a relative standard deviation of 15% or less can be expected. ?? 1973.

  14. Assessment of alternate ion exchange resins for improved antimony removal from the primary heat transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burany, R.; Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A. [Kinectrics, Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Radiation fields around the CANDU heat transport system are a major contributor to worker dose during inspection, maintenance and refurbishment activities. While Co-60 is typically the dominant contributor to radiation fields in CANDU reactors, Sb-124, an activation product of antimony, is also a significant contributor, accounting for 5-20% of the radiation fields. The goal of this research project was to investigate resins for improved removal of antimony under both oxidizing and reducing conditions.Several candidate resins were tested and short-listed through a sequence of iterative testing. The results of the laboratory testing have identified potential candidates for improved antimony removal. Further testing is required to ensure compatibility with existing station resin specifications. (author)

  15. Synthesis of barium mercaptides and application of antimony/barium mercaptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿龙; 张露露; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Mercaptoacetic acid, isooctyl thioglycolate and barium hydroxide used as start materials, barium bis (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Ba(2EHTG)2), barium thioglycolate (Ba(TG)) and barium bisthioglycolate (Ba(TG)2) were synthesized. Their optimum synthetic techniques were discussed, and some physicochemical data were reported. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods were used to identify the structures. They were put into PVC plastic products together with antimony tris (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Sb(2EHTG)3) under the suitable compounding, and their heat stability to PVC was studied. It is shown that these barium mercaptides have remarkable synergisms with antimony mercaptides and the long-term stabilizing effect of organoantimony stabilizer can be effectively improved, reducing the amount of antimony compounds so as to avoid the decrease of its stabilizing effect.

  16. Specific features of doping with antimony during the ion-beam crystallization of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashchenko, A. S., E-mail: as.pashchenko@gmail.com; Chebotarev, S. N.; Lunin, L. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Southern Scientific Center (Russian Federation); Irkha, V. A. [Special Engineering and Technology Department “Inversiya” Ltd. (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    A method of doping during the growth of thin films by ion-beam crystallization is proposed. By the example of Si and Sb, the possibility of controllably doping semiconductors during the ion-beam crystallization process is shown. A calibrated temperature dependence of the antimony vapor flow rate in the range from 150 to 400°C is obtained. It is established that, an increase in the evaporator temperature above 200°C brings about the accumulation of impurities in the layer growth direction. Silicon layers doped with antimony to a concentration of 10{sup 18} cm{sup –3} are grown. It is shown that, as the evaporator temperature is increased, the efficiency of the activation of antimony in silicon nonlinearly decreases from ~10{sup 0} to ~10{sup –3}.

  17. Anodic stripping voltammetry of antimony using gold nanoparticle-modified carbon screen-printed electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Renedo, Olga; Arcos Martinez, M. Julia

    2007-01-01

    Carbon screen-printed electrodes (CSPE) modified with gold nanoparticles present an interesting alternative in the determination of antimony using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Metallic gold nanoparticles deposits have been obtained by direct electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy measurements show that the electrochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles are deposited in aggregated form. Any undue effects caused by the presence of foreign ions in the solution were also analyzed to ensure that common interferents in the determination of antimony by ASV. The detection limit for Sb(III) obtained was 9.44 x 10 -10 M. In terms of reproducibility, the precision of the above mentioned method in %R.S.D. values was calculated at 2.69% (n = 10). The method was applied to determine levels of antimony in seawater samples and pharmaceutical preparations

  18. Conceptual design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters which contains arsenic and antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kamberović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters (MMW from the basin of antimony “Zajača“, which contains high concentrations of arsenic and antimony. MMW have been investigated in laboratory, due to large difference in concentrations of pollutants. Metallurgical wastewaters were treated using iron (II-sulfate and lime milk used to adjust the pH value at 7. After chemical treatment of metallurgical wastewater and its joining with mining wastewater, residual amount of arsenic in water was below maximum allowed concentrations, while the concentration of antimony, remained above the maximum allowed value. The final phase of purification process was performed using ion exchange resin. After treatment of MMW, they can be used as technical water in the smelting process of secondary raw lead materials.

  19. Study of upscaling possibilities for antimony sulfide solid state sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Archontoula; Raptis, Dimitrios; Dracopoulos, Vasilios; Sygellou, Lamprini; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Solid state solar cells of inverted structure were constructed by successive deposition of nanoparticulate titania, antimony sulfide sensitizer and P3HT on FTO electrodes with PEDOT:PSS:Ag as counter electrode. Sensitized photoanode electrodes were characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, FESEM and UV-vis. Small laboratory scale cells were first constructed and optimized. Functional cells were obtained by annealing the antimony sulfide film either in air or in inert atmosphere. High short-circuit currents were recorded in both cases with air-annealed sample producing more current but lower voltage. Small unit cells were combined to form cell modules. Connection of unit cells in parallel increased current but not proportionally to that of the unit cell. Connection in series preserved current and generated voltage multiplication. Cells were constructed and studied under ambient conditions, without encapsulation. The results encourage upscaling of antimony sulfide solar cells.

  20. Uranium accumulation in valentinite within the oxidation zone of an antimony occurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, I.P.; Kurilo, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    As a result of mineralogic-radiogeochemical study of real composition of oxidation zone of antimony occurrence represented by quartz - antimonite vien in silicificated sandstones the previousy undescribed phenomenon of uranium concentration in valentinite Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/ one of antimonite oxidation products has been found. According to the data of fission radiography the enrichment of valentinite with uranium is clearly seen, particularly of its concentrically zonal aggregates. The valentinite is the basic uranium mineral-concentrator in the oxidation zone, whereas in the initial mineral - antimonite as well as in the product of its more complete oxidation - stibiconite - uranium is lacking. Probably the crystallochemical properties of anhydrous antimony oxide (valentinite) by analogy with those for iron (goethite hematite) and titanium (leucoxene) are the most favourable for uranium adsorption as compared with high-water antimony oxides (stibiconite) or iron (limonite), which do not usually sorb uranium.

  1. Uranium accumulation in valentinite within the oxidation zone of an antimony occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, I.P.; Kurilo, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    As a result of mineralogic-radiogeochemical study of real composition of oxidation zone of antimony occurrence represented by quartz - antimonite vien in silicificated sandstones the previousy undescribed phenomenon of uranium concentration in valentinite Sb 2 O 3 one of antimonite oxidation products has been found. According to the data of fission radiography the enrichment of valentinite with uranium is clearly seen, particularly of its concentrically zonal aggregates. The valentinite is the basic uranium mineral-concentrator in the oxidation zone, whereas in the initial mineral - antimonite as well as in the product of its more complete oxidation - stibiconite - uranium is lacking. Probably the crystallochemical properties of anhydrous antimony oxide (valentinite) by analogy with those for iron (goethite hematite) and titanium (leucoxene) are the most favourable for uranium adsorption as compared with high-water antimony oxides (stibiconite) or iron (limonite), which do not usually sorb uranium

  2. Autoradiolytic decomposition and reductant-free sodium sup 124 I- and sup 123 I-iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajjad, M.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Bakr, S.A. (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Radionuclide and Cyclotron Operations)

    1990-01-01

    The presence of salts and metal cations in {sup 124}I- and {sup 123}I-sodium iodide solutions separated from {sup 124}Te targets promots autoradiolytic decomposition of iodide to several different iodine species dependent upon the chemical environment. The stabilization of the radioiodine as iodide by removal of trace salts and trace metal cations and in the absence of reducing agents is described. The high specific activity {sup 123}I- and {sup 124}I-iodide is suitable for labeling antibodies, proteins and radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.).

  3. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray...

  4. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray spectrometers. Two...

  5. Mixed Antimony(V Complexes with Different Sugars to Modulate the Oral Bioavailability of Pentavalent Antimonial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weverson A. Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the association of the drug meglumine antimoniate (MA with β-cyclodextrin can improve its bioavailability by the oral route. In this work, ribose and maltose were investigated for their ability to form mixed or association complexes with MA, release MA and modulate the serum levels of Sb after oral administration in mice. Analysis of the MA/ribose composition by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF revealed the presence of mixed meglumine-Sb-ribose and Sb-ribose complexes. Analysis of the MA/maltose composition suggested the formation of MA-maltose association compounds. Circular dichroism characterization of these compositions following dilution in water at 37 °C suggested a partial and slow dissociation of the association compounds. When the MA/ribose composition was administered orally and compared to MA, the serum concentration of Sb was significantly lower after 1 h and greater after 3 h. On the other hand, the MA/maltose composition showed similar serum Sb concentration after 1 h and higher level of Sb after 3 h, when compared to MA. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated the formation of mixed or association complexes of MA with sugars, such as maltose and ribose, which promoted sustained serum level of Sb after oral administration.

  6. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  7. Antimony sorption properties of chitosan - nano TiO2 composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2015-01-01

    Routine decontamination campaigns of nuclear reactors are generally effective in removing various radionuclides such as cobalt, caesium, etc., and bring down the radiation field. However, during some of the decontamination campaigns, the radiation field at some surfaces was seen to have actually gone up. This was found to be due to lack of removal of antimony isotopes by the regular ion exchange resins used, which subsequently deposited over out of core surfaces leading to increased radiation field on those surfaces. Thus there exists a need for efficient antimony removal system. We have synthesised nano titania impregnated - epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan beads, which were found to have high sorption capacity for antimony. The beads, which were synthesised in formats suitable for large scale (column mode) applications, were shown to be effective sorbent of antimony in both +3 and +5 oxidation states. The sorbent exhibited complete removal of antimony from its aqueous solutions of concentration ranging from 150 ppb to 120 ppm. In order to understand the sorption mechanism and to fine tune the bead composition, the effect of crosslinker concentration used during the synthesis on the swelling and sorption properties of the beads was investigated in detail. The variation effected significant changes in physical parameters such as bead diameter, swelling ratio, equilibrium water content and true wet density. Sorption capacity, unlike with regular resins, was found to increase with increase in crosslinker amount. The antimony sorption capacity of the crosslinked beads prepared by crosslinking 0.3 g uncrosslinked beads with 6.4 mmol epichlorohydrin (crosslinker) was 493 μmol/g. Non-crosslinked beads showed a capacity of 75 μmol/g, while the crosslinked beads made with the least amount of crosslinker (0.64 mmol per 0.3 g beads) showed a capacity of 133 μmol/g. These results indicate the possible involvement of the crosslinker in the sorption. (author)

  8. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Sun, Keye; Saidi, Wissam A.; Scudiero, Louis; Gupta, Mool C.; Choi, Joshua J.

    2015-06-01

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  9. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Saidi, Wissam A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Scudiero, Louis, E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Chemistry Department and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  10. Growth and fabrication of large size sodium iodide crystal scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwal, S.C.; Karandikar, S.C.; Mirza, T.; Ghosh, B.; Deshpande, R.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The growth of 80 - 135 mm dia. Sodium iodide crystals activated with thallium is described in the present report. The growth is effected in a glazed porcelain crucible in a protective ambient of dry nitrogen. The technical details of the equipment developed have been fully described. The results of measurements on the rate of growth of crystal and the optimization of different growth parameters are reported. The dependence of various factors upon the performance characteristics of the scintillator detectors made using these crystals is also discussed. The energy resolution obtained for a typical detector of dimensions 76 mm dia x 76 mm ht. is 10 percent. (auth.)

  11. 1-(Ferrocen-1-ylmethyl-3-methylimidazol-3-ium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent O. Nyamori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, [Fe(C5H5(C10H12N2]I, consists of a 1-(ferrocen-1-ylmethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation which is counter-balanced by an iodide anion. The cyclopentadienyl (Cp rings of the ferrocene unit have a slightly staggered conformation skewed from an ideal eclipsed conformation by an angle of 3.5 (6°. The interplanar angle between the Cp and the imidazole ring is 67.94 (2°.

  12. Syntheses with isotopically labelled carbon. Methyl iodide, formaldehyde and cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Boothe, T.E.; Vora, M.M.; Hildner, J.C.; Emran, A.M.; Kothari, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Many of the uniquely labelled synthetic precursors currently employed in the design of sophisticated radiolabelled compounds have their origins in the field of hot atom chemistry. Particularly, the development during the past few years of automated, on-line synthetic procedures which combine the nuclear reaction, hot atom and classical chemistry, and rapid purification methods has allowed the incorporation of useful radionuclides into suitable compounds of chemical and biochemical interest. The application of isotopically labelled methyl iodide, formaldehyde, and cyanide anion as synthetic intermediates in research involving human physiology and nuclear medicine, as well as their contributions to other scientific methodology, is reviewed. (author)

  13. Redox speciation analysis of antimony in soil extracts by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Edwar; Pinochet, Hugo; Gregori, Ida de; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2003-01-01

    A sensitive atomic spectrometric method for the redox speciation analysis of antimony in soils is described. The method is based on the selective generation of stibine from Sb(III) in a continuous flow system using atomic fluorescence spectrometry for detection. Sb(V) is masked by citric or oxalic acid in HCl medium. The procedure was optimized with synthetic solutions of Sb(III) and Sb(V). The effect of carboxylic acid and HCl concentration on the recovery of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species from standard solutions, and on the fluorescence signal were studied. Both species were extracted from soil with H 2 O, 0.05 mol l -1 EDTA and 0.25 mol l -1 H 2 SO 4 . Since the soil samples were collected from sites impacted by copper mining activities, the effect of Cu 2+ on the determination of antimony in synthetic solutions and soil extracts was studied. Cu 2+ decreased the Sb(III) signal, but had no effect on the total antimony determination. Therefore, the selective determination of Sb(III) was carried out in citric acid-HCl medium, using the analyte addition technique. Total antimony in soil extracts was determined using the standard calibration technique after reducing Sb(V) to Sb(III) at room temperature with KI-ascorbic acid. The Sb(V) concentration was calculated from the difference between total antimony and Sb(III). The limits of detection (PS Analytical, Excalibur Millennium model) were 17 and 10 ng l -1 for Sb(III) and total antimony, respectively, and the R.S.D. at the 0.5-μg l -1 level were 2.5 and 2.4%, respectively. The total antimony concentration of soils is in the mg kg -1 range; the Sb recovery from the different soils by the extracting solutions was between less than 0.02% and approximately 10%. Similar recoveries were obtained using EDTA and sulfuric acid solutions. Sb(V) was found to be the main antimony species extracted from soils

  14. Co-doping with antimony to control phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-02-15

    In germanium, phosphorous and antimony diffuse quickly and as such their transport must be controlled in order to design efficient n-typed doped regions. Here, density functional theory based calculations are used to predict the influence of double donor co-doping on the migration activation energies of vacancy-mediated diffusion processes. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous and antimony were found to be increased significantly when larger clusters involving two donor atoms and a vacancy were formed. These clusters are energetically stable and can lead to the formation of even larger clusters involving a number of donor atoms around a vacancy, thereby affecting the properties of devices.

  15. Reaction of Antimony-Uranium Composite Oxide in the Chlorination Treatment of Waste Catalyst - 13521

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oxygen gas concentration on the chlorination treatment of antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst waste was investigated by adding different concentrations of oxygen at 0-6 vol% to its chlorination agent of 0.6 or 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas at 1173 K. The addition of oxygen tended to prevent the chlorination of antimony in the oxide. When 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas was used, the addition of oxygen up to 0.1 vol% could convert the uranium contained in the catalyst to U 3 O 8 without any significant decrease in the reaction rate compared to that of the treatment without oxygen. (authors)

  16. Experience with antimony activity removal process in Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, S.; Mittal, Vinit K.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Bhat, H.R.; Krishna Rao, K.S.; Upadhyay, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of antimony (Sb) activity during decontamination was first encountered in NAPS-1 and Sb activity deposition took place during the decontamination resulting in poor decontamination factors (DF). Sb problem has been observed in PWRs and PHWRs elsewhere also. These utilities use an oxidative process involving the addition of H 2 O 2 to remove these Sb activities from the core and remove it on ion exchange resins. Experience in CANDU PHWRs indicated disappearance of H 2 O 2 in quantities higher than that observed in PWRs. This is attributed to the higher pick-up of H 2 O 2 by the magnetite/ferrites over large carbon steel surface present in the primary coolant system of PHWRs. Systematic work was carried out to understand the deposition of Sb on PHT system surfaces and a new method was evolved to remove the Sb activities from the system. This alternative reductive chemical process involve the addition of Nitrilo Tri Acetic Acid, Citric Acid and Rodine-92B and circulating the chemicals for a short period and then the Sb and other activities released from the core are removed by the mixed bed. Subsequent to the Sb removal process, the normal chemical decontamination of the system is carried out to remove 60 Co and other activities. This non-oxidizing Sb removal process was applied to NAPS-2 primary system prior to EMCCR. During this Sb removal process of NAPS-2, around 450 μCi/L activity of 124 Sb was released from the system surfaces to the formulation. Activity measurement in the samples collected and the on-line radiation field data indicated that deposition of Sb activities on system surfaces has been prevented by Rodine-92B and subsequently these activities have been removed by mixed bed IX columns. Antimony removal process worked successfully, but in the second normal decontamination process around 150 μCi/L activities came in the formulation which was not anticipated. As a result DF observed immediately after the decontamination campaign was not good

  17. Traffic-related distribution of antimony in roadside soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Sauermann, Simon; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2018-06-01

    Vehicular emissions have become one of the main source of pollution of urban soils; this highlights the need for more detailed research on various traffic-related emissions and related distribution patterns. Since the banning of asbestos in the European Union, its substitution with antimony (Sb) in brake linings has led to increased inputs of this toxic metalloid to environmental compartments. The objective of this study was to provide detailed information about the spatial distribution patterns of Sb and to assess its mobility and bioavailability. Roadside soils along an arterial road (approx. 9000 vehicles per day) in Cologne (Germany) were studied along five transects, at four soil depths and at seven sampling points set at varying distances from the road (n = 140). For all samples, comprehensive soil characterization was performed and inverse aqua regia-extractable trace metal content was determined being pseudo-total contents. Furthermore, for one transect, also total Sb and a chemical sequential extraction procedure was applied (n = 28). Pseudo-total Sb for all transects decreased significantly with soil depth and distance from the road, reflecting a distribution pattern similar to that of other trace metals associated with brake lining emissions. Conversely, metals associated with exhaust emissions showed a convex distribution. The geochemical fractionation of Sb revealed the following trends: i) non-specifically sorbed Sb was <5%; ii) specifically sorbed Sb was only detected within 1 m distance from the road and decreased with depth; iii) Sb associated with poorly-crystalline Fe oxides decreased with distance from the road; and iv) content of Sb bounded to well-crystalline Fe oxides, and Sb present in the residual fraction remained relatively constant at each depth. Consequently, roadside soils appear to inhibit brake lining-related Sb contamination, with significant but rather low ecotoxicological potential for input into surface and groundwater

  18. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia, E-mail: claudiamartinezalonso30@gmail.com [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico); Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000 (Mexico); Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, MéxicoD.F., 04510 (Mexico); Mayén-Hernández, S.A. [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Hu, Hailin, E-mail: hzh@ier.unam.mx [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods.

  19. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia; Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U.; Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida; Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y.; Mayén-Hernández, S.A.; Hu, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb_2S_3 were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb_2S_3 can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb_2S_3 were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb_2S_3 with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb_2S_3 obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb_2S_3 microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb_2S_3 microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb_2S_3 nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb_2S_3 nanorods.

  20. Selective gettering of hydrogen in high pressure metal iodide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuus, G.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main problems in the manufacture of high pressure gas discharge lamps is the elimination of gaseous impurities from their arc tubes. Long degassing processes of all the lamp components are necessary in order to produce lamps with a low ignition voltage and good maintenance of the radiation properties. The investigation described deals with a selective getter place in the arc tube which can replace the long degassing process. The getter consists of a piece of yttrium encapsulated in thin tantalum foil. By this way it is possible to use the gettering action of tantalum and yttrium without having reaction between the metal iodide of the arc tube and yttrium. Yttrium is used because this metal can adsorb a large quantity of hydrogen even at a temperature of 1000 0 C. Hydrogen forms the main gaseous impurity in the high pressure metal iodide lamp. For this reason the adsorption properties like adsorption rate and capacity of the tantalum--yttrium getter for hydrogen are examined, and the results obtained from lamp experiments are given

  1. Organic iodide capture using a zeolite dry filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sanggil; Sung, Joonyoung; Kim, Gi-ppeum; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2017-01-01

    An organic iodide, especially, methyl iodide (CH 3 I) would generated non-negligibly from a severe accident in a nuclear power plant. This CH 3 I will be dangerous for human when it was inhaled, it is highly toxic and causes a serious nerve disorder. Even it is a major contributor to a thyroid cancer. In order to prevent its environmental release, it is required to decontaminate using a filtration system. For the removal of CH 3 I from the release gases, wet-type is not ideal due to a high re-volatile characteristics of CH 3 I. It may become volatile after dissolving in a pool and forms CH 3 I again at the surface of water pool. Therefore, a dry-filtration should be installed to remove the CH 3 I. In this study, we preliminary investigate the characteristics of zeolite filtration methods for the removal of CH 3 I. We used both silver ion exchanged ZSM-5-zeolite (Ag+-ZSM-5) to study the effect of silver ion for the removal of iodine from CH 3 I. In summary, the CH 3 I capture tests using a silver ion exchanged zeolite was conducted in the coupled TGAGC test set-up. The mass change of the sample and concentration of CH 3 I were measured. The samples were investigated by the SEM/EDS to see its surface characteristics.

  2. Interruption with the Migration of Iodide by GR(CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Jeong, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of green rust on the migration of iodide. GR(CT) would be major corrosion product of iron near the seawater or saline layer in underground. The GR(CT) may play an important role in the retardation of the iodide migration in a deep geological environment due to it's anionic exchange reaction. In underground radioactive waste repository, the corrosion of iron canisters would be proceed as follows; Fe(II) and/or Fe(III) dissolved from iron containers → Fe(II)(OH) 2 and/or Fe(III)(OH) 3 → Green rust → Lepidocrocite or Magnetite → Goetite etc. Generally, the green rust has known to exist in environments close to the Fe(Π)/Fe(ΠΙ) transition zone or between the oxidized layer and reduced layer in the underground. As anion exchanger and strong reducer, the green rusts can affect the migration of anions, reactions involving green rusts were poorly studied in relation to the safety assessment of radioactive waste repository

  3. Nuclear detonation, thyroid cancer and potassium iodide prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent nuclear disaster at Japan has raised global concerns about effects of radioactive leakage in the environment, associated hazards, and how they can be prevented. In this article, we have tried to explain about the guidelines laid down by World Health Organization for a potassium iodide prophylaxis following a nuclear disaster, and its mechanism of action in preventing thyroid cancer. Data was collected mainly from the studies carried out during the Chernobyl disaster of Russia in 1986 and the hazardous effects especially on the thyroid gland were studied. It was seen that radioactive iodine leakage from the nuclear plants mainly affected the thyroid gland, and especially children were at a higher risk at developing the cancers. Potassium Iodide prophylaxis can be administered in order to prevent an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in the population of an area affected by a nuclear disaster. However, one has to be cautious while giving it, as using it without indication has its own risks.

  4. Determination of total antimony and inorganic antimony species by hydride generation in situ trapping flame atomic absorption spectrometry: a new way to (ultra)trace speciation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henryk Matusiewicz; Magdalena Krawczyk

    2008-07-01

    The analytical performance of non-chromatographic coupled hydride generation, integrated atom trap (HG-IAT) atomizer flame absorption spectrometry (FAAS) systems were evaluated for the speciation analysis of antimony in environmental samples. Antimony, using formation of stibine (SbH{sub 3}) vapors were atomized in an air-acetylene flame-heated IAT. A new design of HG-IAT-FAAS hyphenated technique that would exceed the operational capabilities of existing arrangements was investigated. For the estimation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) concentrations in samples, the difference between the analytical sensitivities of the absorbance signals obtained for antimony hydride without and with previous treatment of samples with L-cysteine can be used. The concentration of Sb(V) was calculated by the difference between total Sb and Sb(III). A dramatic improvement in detection limit was achieved compared with that obtained using either of the atom trapping techniques, presented above, separately. This novel approach decreases the detection limit down to low pg mL{sup -1} levels. The concentration detection limit, defined as 3 times the blank standard deviation was 0.2 ng mL{sup -1}. For a 120 s in situ pre-concentration time , sensitivity enhancement compared to flame AAS, was 550 fold for Sb, using hydride generation-atom trapping technique. The accuracy of the method was verified by the use of certified reference materials (NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment, SRM 2710 Montana Soil, SRM 1633a Coal Fly Ash, SRM 1575 Pine Needles, SRM 1643e Trace Elements in Water) and by aqueous standard calibration technique. The measured Sb content, in reference materials, were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values. The hyphenated technique was applied for antimony determinations in soil, sediment, coal fly ash, sewage and river water.

  5. The effects of antimony doping on the surface structure of rutile TiO2(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechstein, Ralf; Schuette, Jens; Kuehnle, Angelika; Kitta, Mitsunori; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide represents a very important wide bandgap photocatalyst that is known to be sensitized to visible light by transition metal doping. Antimony doping has been demonstrated to provide photocatalytic activity when codoped with chromium at an optimum dopant ratio [Sb]/[Cr] of about 1.5. Here, the role of antimony doping on the surface structure of rutile TiO 2 (110) is studied using non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) under ultra-high vacuum conditions. At first glance, the surface structure of antimony-doped TiO 2 (110) resembles the structure of pristine TiO 2 (110). However, in contrast to what is found in pristine TiO 2 (110), a dense layer of protruding features is observed upon antimony doping, which is tentatively ascribed to antimony-rich clusters. Moreover, homogeneously distributed holes are found on the surface, which differ in depth and shape depending on the preparation conditions. Holes with depths ranging from a few up to more than a hundred monatomic steps are observed. These holes are explained by surface segregation of antimony during annealing, as the ionic radius of Sb 3+ is considerably larger than the ionic radius of Ti 4+ . Our finding provides an indication of why an antimony concentration larger than the optimum ratio results in decreased photocatalytic activity. Moreover, controlling annealing temperature seems to constitute a promising strategy for creating nanosized holes on TiO 2 surfaces.

  6. Influence of cooling rate and antimony addition content on graphite morphology and mechanical properties of a ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling rate and inoculation practice can greatly affect the graphite morphology of ductile irons. In the present research, the effects of the cooling rate and antimony addition on the graphite morphology and mechanical properties of ductile irons have been studied. Three ductile iron castings were prepared through solidification under cooling conditions S (slow, M (medium and F (fast. The cooling rates around the equilibrium eutectic temperature (1,150 ℃ for these cooling conditions (S, M and F were set at 0.21 ℃·min-1, 0.32 ℃·min-1 and 0.37 ℃·min-1, respectively. In addition, four ductile iron castings were prepared by adding 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04% (by weight antimony, respectively under the slow cooling condition. The results show that the nodularity index, tensile strength and hardness of the ductile iron castings without antimony addition are all improved with the increase of cooling rate, while the ductile iron casting solidified under the medium cooling rate possesses the largest number of graphite nodules. Furthermore, for the four antimony containing castings, the graphite morphology and tensile strength are also improved by the antimony additions, and the effect of antimony addition is intensified when the addition increases from 0.01% to 0.03%. Moreover, the rare earth elements (REE/antimony ratio of 2 appears to be the most effective for fine nodular graphite formation in ductile iron.

  7. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis: model-based analyses on the spread of antimony-resistant L. donovani in Bihar, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Stauch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pentavalent antimonials have been the mainstay of antileishmanial therapy for decades, but increasing failure rates under antimonial treatment have challenged further use of these drugs in the Indian subcontinent. Experimental evidence has suggested that parasites which are resistant against antimonials have superior survival skills than sensitive ones even in the absence of antimonial treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use simulation studies based on a mathematical L. donovani transmission model to identify parameters which can explain why treatment failure rates under antimonial treatment increased up to 65% in Bihar between 1980 and 1997. Model analyses suggest that resistance to treatment alone cannot explain the observed treatment failure rates. We explore two hypotheses referring to an increased fitness of antimony-resistant parasites: the additional fitness is (i disease-related, by causing more clinical cases (higher pathogenicity or more severe disease (higher virulence, or (ii is transmission-related, by increasing the transmissibility from sand flies to humans or vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: Both hypotheses can potentially explain the Bihar observations. However, increased transmissibility as an explanation appears more plausible because it can occur in the background of asymptomatically transmitted infection whereas disease-related factors would most probably be observable. Irrespective of the cause of fitness, parasites with a higher fitness will finally replace sensitive parasites, even if antimonials are replaced by another drug.

  8. Development of w/o microemulsion for transdermal delivery of iodide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hao; Qiu, Ni; Crill, Catherine; Helms, Richard; Almoazen, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion which can be utilized as a transdermal delivery for iodide ions. Several w/o microemulsion formulations were prepared utilizing Span 20, ethanol, Capryol 90®, and water. The selected formulations had 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and a maximum of 23% w/w water content. Potassium iodide (KI) was incorporated in all formulations at 5% w/v. Physicochemical characterizations were conducted to evaluate the structure and stability. These studies included: mean droplet size, pH, viscosity, conductivity, and chemical stability tests. In vitro human skin permeation studies were conducted to evaluate the diffusion of the iodide ion through human skin. The w/o microemulsion formulations were stable and compatible with iodide ions with water content ranging from 5% to 23% w/w. The addition of KI influenced the physicochemical properties of microemulsion as compared to blank microemulsion formulations. In vitro human skin permeation studies indicated that selected formulations improved iodide ion diffusion significantly as compared to control (KI solution; P valuemicroemulsion. Span 20, ethanol and Capryol 90 protected the iodide ions against oxidation and formed a stable microemulsion. It is worth to note that according to Hofmeister series, iodide ions tend to lower the interfacial tension between water and oil and consequently enhance overall stability. This work illustrates that microemulsion system can be utilized as a vehicle for the transdermal administration of iodide.

  9. Radiolytic formation of organic iodides from organic compounds released from ripolin paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, S.; Evans, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of a serious nuclear reactor accident is governed to a large extent by the possible release of airborne organic iodides to the environment. This research examines the identification and behavior of organic iodides formed in the containment due to the release of organic compounds from Ripolin paint, into the aqueous phase, following a nuclear reactor accident. A bench scale apparatus installed in the irradiation chamber of a Gammacell was used to analyze the formation of organic iodides. Iodo-organics, transferred to the gas phase above irradiated aqueous samples, were analyzed using a Thermal Desorption method coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Detailed studies of the identity of the organic compounds released and the organic iodides formed were conducted. The effects of parameters such as irradiation dose were also examined. All the organic iodides formed, under radiolytic conditions, were identified as iodo-alkanes. The organic compounds that were released from the Ripolin paint, such as methyl isobutyl ketone, were found to decompose, by a series of reactions, to produce the organic iodides. The precursor organic compounds and the organic iodides formed were observed to consist of the same alkyl group. These results indicate that organic compounds released from surface paints directly influence the formation of radiolytic organic iodide. (author)

  10. Structural templating in a nonplanar phthalocyanine using single crystal copper iodide

    OpenAIRE

    Rochford, L. A. (Luke A.); Ramadan, Alexandra J.; Keeble, Dean S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, T. S. (Tim S.)

    2015-01-01

    Solution-grown copper iodide crystals are used as substrates for the templated growth of the nonplanar vanadyl phthalocyanine using organic molecular beam deposition. Structural characterization reveals a single molecular orientation produced by the (111) Miller plane of the copper iodide crystals. These fundamental measurements show the importance of morphology and structure in templating interactions for organic electronics applications.

  11. A model for additive transport in metal halide lamps containing mercury and dysprosium tri-iodide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beks, M.L.; Haverlag, M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of additives in a metal halide lamp is examined through numerical modelling. A model for a lamp containing sodium iodide additives has been modified to study a discharge containing dysprosium tri-iodide salts. To study the complex chemistry the method of Gibbs minimization is used

  12. Extraction method for the determination of inorganic iodides in Rose Bengal labelled with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, J.; Krtil, J.; Vecernik, J.

    1982-01-01

    An extraction method for the determination of inorganic iodides in Rose Bengal preparations labelled with 131 I is described. The method is based on the quantitative extraction of Rose Bengal into chloroform from acidic medium while the inorganic iodides remain in the aqueous phase. The method is simple, rapid, and reproducible. (author)

  13. Oxygen-hydrogen fuel cell with an iodine-iodide cathode - A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javet, P.

    1970-01-01

    Fuel cell uses a porous cathode through which is fed a solution of iodine in aqueous iodide solution, the anode is a hydrogen electrode. No activation polarization appears on the cathode because of the high exchange-current density of the iodine-iodide electrode.

  14. Iodine K-edge EXAFS analysis of iodide ion-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, T; Ueda, M; Nagamatsu, S; Konishi, T; Fujikawa, T; Mizumaki, M

    2009-01-01

    We study the structure of inclusion complexes of α-, β-, γ-cyclodextrin with mono-iodide ion in aqueous solution by means of iodine K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy. The analysis is based on the assumption that two kinds of iodide ions exist in KI-cyclodextrin aqueous solution i.e. hydrated mono-iodide ions and one-one mono-iodide-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes. In KI-α-cyclodextrin system, iodine K-edge EXAFS analyse show that the average coordination number of the oxygen atoms in water molecules in the first hydration shell decreases as the fraction of included ions increases. This result suggests that dehydration process accompanies the formation of the inclusion complex. This is not found in the case of β-cyclodextrin, indicating that in this case the iodide ions are included together with the whole first hydration shell.

  15. Determination of nanogram amounts of iodide by electrochemical isotope dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielsson, A.-B.; Beronius, P.

    1976-01-01

    A known quantity of iodide in ethanol as solvent was labelled with 131 I-and subsequently diluted with a predetermined amount of inactive iodide. Specific activities before and after the isotope dilution were established by anodically depositing small fractions of the halide in each sample on rotating silver micro electrodes and determining the activities of the electrodeposits. The lowest concentration of iodide used in any analysis was 1.10 -5 M. Further deposition studies revealed that iodide can be deposited with 1 100% current efficiency on the rotating silver micro electrode for concentration down to 2.4.10 -6 M. Electrodeposition studies for still lower concentrations have not yet been undertaken. These results suggest that amounts of iodide ion down to about 10 ng, and possibly still smaller quantitites, might be determined with the method developed. Amounts from 42 ng to 1 μg can be determined with an error of 2.5%. (T.G.)

  16. Evaluation of optimal silver amount for the removal of methyl iodide on silver-impregnated adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, G.I.; Cho, I.H.; Kim, J.H.; Oh, W.Z.

    2001-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of methyl iodide generated from the simulated off-gas stream on various adsorbents such as silver-impregnated zeolite (AgX), zeocarbon and activated carbon were investigated. An extensive evaluation was made on the optimal silver impregnation amount for the removal of methyl iodide at temperatures up to 300 deg. C. The degree of adsorption efficiency of methyl iodide on silver-impregnated adsorbent is strongly dependent on impregnation amount and process temperature. A quantitative comparison of adsorption efficiencies on three adsorbents in a fixed bed was investigated. The influence of temperature, methyl iodide concentration and silver impregnation amount on the adsorption efficiency is closely related to the pore characteristics of adsorbents. It shows that the effective impregnation ratio was about 10wt%, based on the degree of silver utilization for the removal of methyl iodide. The practical applicability of silver-impregnated zeolite for the removal of radioiodine generated from the DUPIC process was consequently proposed. (author)

  17. Colorimetric sensing of iodide based on triazole-acetamide functionalized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I-Lin; Sung, Yi-Ming; Wu, Shu-Pao; Wu, Chien-Hou

    2014-01-01

    We have modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with triazole acetamide to obtain a material for the sensitive and selective colorimetric determination of iodide. The functionalized AuNPs were prepared by a reductive single chemical step using a Cu(I)-catalyzed click reaction. The presence of iodide ions induces the aggregation of these AuNPs and results in a color change from wine-red to purple. The iodide-induced aggregation can be detected visually with bare eyes, but also by photometry. The detection limit is as low as 15 nM. The method displays excellent selectivity for iodide over other anions due to the selective interaction with the amido groups of the triazole. The method was applied to the determination of iodide in spiked lake waters. (author)

  18. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free

  19. Anion sensing with a Lewis acidic BODIPY-antimony(v) derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Anna M; Gabbaï, François P

    2017-02-21

    We describe the synthesis of a BODIPY dye substituted with a Lewis acidic antimony(v) moiety. This compound, which has been fully characterized, shows a high affinity for small anions including fluoride and cyanide, the complexation of which elicits a fluorescence turn-on response.

  20. Chemical consequences of the neutron irradiation of ionic antimony oxides and Fe Sb2O4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti, J F [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1970-01-01

    The chemical consequences fo the neutron irradiation of ionic antimony oxides and Fe Sb2O4 are studied. The nature of the Sb-O2 bond effects the yield of SbV the higher the yield the more covalent the bond. In addition, the Fe Sb2O4 obeys the Maddock's rule.

  1. On the segregation behavior of tin and antimony at grain boundaries of polycrystalline bcc iron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Šandera, P.; Horníková, J.; Pokluda, J.; Godec, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 363, Feb (2016), 140-144 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0144 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : grain boundary segregation * tin * antimony * Fe based alloy * AES quantification Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  2. Morphology and photoresponse of crystalline antimony film grown on mica by physical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafa Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimony is a promising material for the fabrication of photodetectors. This study deals with the growth of a photosensitive thin film by the physical vapor deposition (PVD of antimony onto mica surface in a furnace tube. The geometry of the grown structures was studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and elemental diffraction analysis. XRD peaks of the antimony film grown on mica mostly matched with JCPDF Card. The formation of rhombohedral crystal structures in the film was further confirmed by SEM micrographs and chemical composition analysis. The Hall measurements revealed good electrical conductivity of the film with bulk carrier concentration of the order of 1022 Ω·cm-3 and mobility of 9.034 cm2/Vs. The grown film was successfully tested for radiation detection. The photoresponse of the film was evaluated using its current-voltage characteristics. These investigations revealed that the photosensitivity of the antimony film was 20 times higher than that of crystalline germanium.

  3. Transparent Conducting Films of Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide with Uniform Mesostructure Assembled from Preformed Nanocrystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, V.; Rasp, M.; Rathouský, Jiří; Schütz, B.; Niederberger, M.; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2010), s. 633-637 ISSN 1613-6810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : antimony -doped tin oxide * msoporous materials * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.333, year: 2010

  4. Mechanisms of antimony adsorption onto soybean stover-derived biochar in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited mechanistic knowledge is available to understand how biochar interacts with trace elements that exist predominantly as oxoanions, such as antimony (Sb). Soybean stover biochars were produced at 300 degrees C (SBC300) and 700 degrees C (SBC700), and were characterized by BET, Boehm titration,...

  5. Reaction products and corrosion of molybdenum electrode in glass melt containing antimony oxides and sodium sulfate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, J.; Langrová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2012), s. 280-285 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : antimony oxides * corrosion * glass melt * Molybdenum electrode * sulfate Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_03_280.pdf

  6. Sorption-desorption of antimony species onto calcined hydrotalcite: Surface structure and control of competitive anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Leonel Vinicius; Quirino, Juliana Nunes; Abrão, Taufik; Parreira, Paulo Sérgio; Urbano, Alexandre; Santos, Maria Josefa

    2018-02-15

    Calcined hydrotalcite can be applied to remove anionic contaminants from aqueous systems such as antimony species due to its great anion exchange capacity and high surface area. Hence, this study evaluated antimonite and antimonate sorption-desorption processes onto calcined hydrotalcite in the presence of nitrate, sulfate and phosphate. Sorption and desorption experiments of antimonite and antimonate were carried out in batch equilibrium and the post-sorption solids were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Sorption data were better fitted by dual-mode Langmuir-Freundlich model (R 2 >0.99) and desorption data by Langmuir model. High maximum sorption capacities were found for the calcined hydrotalcite, ranging from 617 to 790meqkg -1 . The competing anions strongly affected the antimony sorption. EDXRF analysis and mathematical modelling showed that sulfate and phosphate presented higher effect on antimonite and antimonate sorption, respectively. High values for sorption efficiency (SE=99%) and sorption capacity were attributed to the sorbent small particles and the large surface area. Positive hysteresis indexes and low mobilization factors (MF>3%) suggest very low desorption capacity to antimony species from LDH. These calcined hydrotalcite characteristics are desirable for sorption of antimony species from aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Field-based scanning tunneling microscope manipulation of antimony dimers on Si(001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogge, S.; Timmerman, R.H.; Scholte, P.M.L.O.; Geerligs, L.J.; Salemink, H.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The manipulation of antimony dimers, Sb2, on the silicon (001) surface by means of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been experimentally investigated. Directed hopping of the Sb2 dimers due the STM tip can dominate over the thermal motion at temperatures between 300 and 500 K. Statistics on

  8. Enhancing the antimony sorption properties of nano titania-chitosan beads using epichlorohydrin as the crosslinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2017-07-15

    Antimony is classified as a pollutant of priority importance by USEPA. We have earlier reported the synthesis of nano-titania impregnated epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan (TA-Cts-Epi) beads, in a format suitable for large scale applications with high sorption capacity for antimony. To understand the sorption mechanism, and to fine tune the bead composition, the effect of crosslinking density on the swelling and sorption properties of the beads was investigated in detail. Epichlorohydrin effected significant changes in physical and sorption properties of the beads. The antimony sorption capacity of the TA-Cts-Epi beads prepared by crosslinking 0.3g non-crosslinked titania-chitosan beads (TA-Cts-NCL) with 6.4mmol epichlorohydrin was 493μmol/g, while those crosslinked with 0.64mmol showed a capacity of 133μmol/g. Whereas, TA-Cts-NCL beads showed a capacity of 75μmol/g. The increase in uptake capacity with increase in crosslinking demonstrated the active involvement of the epichlorohydrin moieties in antimony binding leading to enhanced sorption. Apart from altering the stability, swelling behaviour and sorption kinetics of the beads, crosslinking significantly increased the uptake of the anionic species via electrostatic interactions. Epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan beads prepared without TiO 2 also showed similar behaviour. The results demonstrated the involvement of chitosan, TiO 2 and epichlorohydrin in sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mixing of phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, H.L.; Lam, Y.W.; Wong, S.P.; Poon, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of mixing phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation were examined. The electrical properties after ion mixing were investigated, and the results were compared with those obtained using other techniques. Different degrees of activation were also studied, by investigating the annealing behaviour. (U.K.)

  10. Dismantling and chemical characterization of spent Peltier thermoelectric devices for antimony, bismuth and tellurium recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balva, Maxime; Legeai, Sophie; Garoux, Laetitia; Leclerc, Nathalie; Meux, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Major uses of thermoelectricity concern refrigeration purposes, using Peltier devices, mainly composed of antimony, bismuth and tellurium. Antimony was identified as a critical raw material by EU and resources of bismuth and tellurium are not inexhaustible, so it is necessary to imagine the recycling of thermoelectric devices. That for, a complete characterization is needed, which is the aim of this work. Peltier devices were manually dismantled in three parts: the thermoelectric legs, the alumina plates on which remain the electrical contacts and the silicone paste used to connect the plates. The characterization was performed using five Peltier devices. It includes mass balances of the components, X-ray diffraction analysis of the thermoelectric legs and elemental analysis of each part of the device. It appears that alumina represents 45% of a Peltier device in weight. The electrical contacts are mainly composed of copper and tin, and the thermoelectric legs of bismuth, tellurium and antimony. Thermoelectric legs appear to be Se-doped Bi 2 Te 3 and (Bi 0,5 Sb 1,5 )Te 3 for n type and p type semiconductors, respectively. This work shows that Peltier devices can be considered as a copper ore and that thermoelectric legs contain high amounts of bismuth, tellurium and antimony compared to their traditional resources.

  11. Determination of barium and antimony in gun shot residues by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charuchinda, A.

    1975-01-01

    The antimony contents on both hands of 7 persons before and after firing an automatic pistol were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The gun shot residues were removed from hands by a 4% solution of cellulose acetate in acetone. The average content of antimony on both hands before firing obtained from 70 measurements (35 from each hand) was 0.040 ± 0.010 micro gram, whereas the average contents on the right and the left hands after 1 firing were 0.385 ± 0.036 and 0.144 ± 0.029 micro gram respectively. The ration of the antimony contents after 1 firing to the normal level (before firing) was 9.9 for the right and 3.6 for the left. No significant difference was observed between male and female, smoker and non-smoker. The antimony content after several firings was not much different from that of 1 firing and it reduced to the normal level within 2 days after firing. The barium contents before and after firing were studied from one person. Barium was precipitated as Ba SO 4 before counting. An average contents of 0.936 ± 0.551 micro gram for both hands before firing, 4.092 ± 2.687 micro gram for the right hand and 1.363 ± 0.879 micro gram for the left hand after 1 firing were found

  12. Differences in antimony and arsenic releases from lead smelter fly ash in soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Mihaljevič, M.; Šebek, O.; Valigurova, R.; Klementová, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 72, Supp. 4 (2012), s. 15-22 ISSN 0009-2819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Antimony * Arsenic * Lead smelting * Fly ash * Soil * Mobility Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.351, year: 2012

  13. ANTIMONY HALIDES AND HgX2 (X = Cl, Br AMINE ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NDONGO GUEYE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight new SbF3, SbCl5 and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br amine adducts have been synthesized and their infrared study carried out. Discrete structures have been suggested on the basis of elemental analysis and infrared data, the coordination number of antimony varying from five to nine, while the environment around Hg is tetrahedral.

  14. Diel variation of arsenic, molybdenum and antimony in a stream draining natural As geochemical anomaly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drahota, P.; Nováková, B.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Mihaljevič, M.; Rohovec, Jan; Filippi, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, APR (2013), s. 84-93 ISSN 0883-2927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : arsenic * molybdenum * antimony * trace elements * diel cycle Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S) Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2013

  15. Antimony production by carbothermic reduction of stibnite in the presence of lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental work on the carbothermic reduction of Sb2S3 in the presence of lime was carried out in the temperature range of 973 to 1123 K to produce antimony in an environmentally friendly manner. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of producing antimony by this method without producing SO2 gas. Complete conversion of Sb2S3 was obtained at 1023 K in about 1000 seconds and at 1123 K in less than 250 seconds using stibnite-carbon-lime mixtures with molar ratios Sb2S3:CaO:C = 1:3:3. It was found that the reduction proceeds through the formation of an intermediate oxide SbO2, which is subsequently reduced by CO(g to yield antimony metal and CaS. The kinetics of the Sb2S3 reduction was analyzed by using the equation ln(1-X = -kt. The activation energy was 233 kJ mol-1 in the temperature range of 973 to 1123 K. This value would correspond to an antimony catalyzed carbon oxidation by CO2.

  16. Dehydrogenation and concurrent isomerization of n-butenes on mixed tin and antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, E.A.; Taylor, D.

    1978-01-01

    The dehydrogenation and concurrent isomerization of n-butenes on mixed tin and antimony oxide catalysts which had been outgassed at 698/sup 0/K were carried out in the presence of oxygen at 474/sup 0/K, and the initial approximately zero-order rates of 1,3-butadiene formation and rates of isomerization were used as a measure of catalytic activity to construct activity patterns as a function of catalyst composition. A comparison of the patterns with those for the isomerization of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene and for the selective oxidation of propane on the same catalysts indicated that the dehydrogenation of 1-butene involves a m-allyl intermediate, but isomerization occurs through carbonium ion formation. For the cis- and trans-isomers, both reactions apparently occurred via a common allyl (but not m-allyl) intermediate. Dehydrogenation to butadiene decreased in the order 1-butene > cis-2-butene trans-2-butene and was maximum at 10% antimony for 1-butene and 21% antimony for 2-butene. Isomerization was always slower than dehydrogenation and showed two maEima, at 21 (or 27%) and at 75% antimony.

  17. Improvement of hydrogen storage kinetics in ball-milled magnesium doped with antimony

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír; Roupcová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2017), s. 6144-6151 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Hydrogen * Hydrogen storage * Storage capacity * Magnesium alloys * Antimony Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  18. Comparative study of the influence of antimony oxide additives (III) and nickel hydroxide (II) on electrochemical behavior of cadmium electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadnikova, N.V.; Lvova, L.A.; Ryabskaya, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative study of the influence of additives indicated that with partial or complete replacement in the active mass of the cadmium electrode of nickel hydroxide (II) by antimony oxide (III), the electrochemical characteristics do not significantly change. During prolonged storage of charged cadmium electrodes the presence of nickel hydroxide (II) and intermetal compound (IMC) of cadmium with nickel is formed and the specific surface increases. In the case of adding antimony (III) formation of noticeable quantities of IMC of cadmium with antimony is not observed. The specific surface is reduced during storage.

  19. Linking loss of sodium-iodide symporter expression to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén; Kapoor, Nirmal; Ingeson-Carlsson, Camilla; Carlsson, Therese; Karlsson, Jan-Olof; Postgård, Per; Himmelman, Jakob; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva; Hammarsten, Ola; Nilsson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy of thyroid cancer with I-131 is abrogated by inherent loss of radioiodine uptake due to loss of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression in poorly differentiated tumor cells. It is also known that ionizing radiation per se down-regulates NIS (the stunning effect), but the mechanism is unknown. Here we investigated whether loss of NIS-mediated iodide transport may be elicited by DNA damage. Calicheamicin, a fungal toxin that specifically cleaves double-stranded DNA, induced a full scale DNA damage response mediated by the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase in quiescent normal thyrocytes. At sublethal concentrations (<1 nM) calicheamicin blocked NIS mRNA expression and transepithelial iodide transport as stimulated by thyrotropin; loss of function occurred at a much faster rate than after I-131 irradiation. KU-55933, a selective ATM kinase inhibitor, partly rescued NIS expression and iodide transport in DNA-damaged cells. Prolonged ATM inhibition in healthy cells also repressed NIS-mediated iodide transport. ATM-dependent loss of iodide transport was counteracted by IGF-1. Together, these findings indicate that NIS, the major iodide transporter of the thyroid gland, is susceptible to DNA damage involving ATM-mediated mechanisms. This uncovers novel means of poor radioiodine uptake in thyroid cells subjected to extrinsic or intrinsic genotoxic stress. - Highlights: • DNA damage inhibits polarized iodide transport in normal thyroid cells. • Down-regulation of NIS expression is mediated by activation of the ATM kinase. • Long-term ATM inhibition also represses NIS-mediated iodide transport. • IGF-1 rescues NIS expression and iodide transport in DNA-damaged cells.

  20. Linking loss of sodium-iodide symporter expression to DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (Sweden); Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell Biology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (Sweden); Kapoor, Nirmal [Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell Biology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (Sweden); Ingeson-Carlsson, Camilla; Carlsson, Therese [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (Sweden); Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell Biology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (Sweden); Karlsson, Jan-Olof [Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell Biology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (Sweden); Postgård, Per; Himmelman, Jakob; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (Sweden); Hammarsten, Ola [Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Mikael, E-mail: mikael.nilsson@gu.se [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (Sweden); Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell Biology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    Radiotherapy of thyroid cancer with I-131 is abrogated by inherent loss of radioiodine uptake due to loss of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression in poorly differentiated tumor cells. It is also known that ionizing radiation per se down-regulates NIS (the stunning effect), but the mechanism is unknown. Here we investigated whether loss of NIS-mediated iodide transport may be elicited by DNA damage. Calicheamicin, a fungal toxin that specifically cleaves double-stranded DNA, induced a full scale DNA damage response mediated by the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase in quiescent normal thyrocytes. At sublethal concentrations (<1 nM) calicheamicin blocked NIS mRNA expression and transepithelial iodide transport as stimulated by thyrotropin; loss of function occurred at a much faster rate than after I-131 irradiation. KU-55933, a selective ATM kinase inhibitor, partly rescued NIS expression and iodide transport in DNA-damaged cells. Prolonged ATM inhibition in healthy cells also repressed NIS-mediated iodide transport. ATM-dependent loss of iodide transport was counteracted by IGF-1. Together, these findings indicate that NIS, the major iodide transporter of the thyroid gland, is susceptible to DNA damage involving ATM-mediated mechanisms. This uncovers novel means of poor radioiodine uptake in thyroid cells subjected to extrinsic or intrinsic genotoxic stress. - Highlights: • DNA damage inhibits polarized iodide transport in normal thyroid cells. • Down-regulation of NIS expression is mediated by activation of the ATM kinase. • Long-term ATM inhibition also represses NIS-mediated iodide transport. • IGF-1 rescues NIS expression and iodide transport in DNA-damaged cells.

  1. Linearity and Reversibility of Iodide Adsorption on Sediments from Hanford, Washington Under Water Saturated Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2004-01-01

    A series of adsorption and desorption experiments were completed to determine the linearity of iodide adsorption, as a function of concentration, and its reversibility onto sediment for geochemical conditions germane to the proposed disposal of low-level radioactive waste by the U.S. Department of Energy's Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Iodine-129 is predicted to be one of the top three long-term risk drivers based on past performance assessment conducted for the eventual disposal of the low-level portion of radioactive wastes currently stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford, because iodide exhibits little adsorption affinity to mineral surfaces resulting in high mobility in the subsurface environment. Adsorption experiments, conducted with Hanford formation sediments and groundwater spiked with dissolved 125I (as an analog tracer for 129I), indicated that iodide adsorption was very low at pH 7.5 and could be represented by a linear isotherm up to a total concentration of 100 mg/L dissolved iodide. The linearity of iodide adsorption up to concentrations of 100 mg/L validates the use of the linear Kd construct in transport models to predict the fate and transport of 129I in subsurface systems at Hanford. The results of desorption experiments indicated that up to 60% of adsorbed iodide was readily desorbed after 14 days by the same groundwater solution. Iodide adsorption was considered to be partially reversible or weakly binding on the sediments. Even though small amount of initial iodide is retarded by adsorption reactions at mineral-water interfaces, the weak adsorption affinity results in release of iodide when iodide free pore waters and ground waters contact the contaminated sediments in the vadose zone and aquifer systems

  2. Montmorillonite Supported Titanium/Antimony Catalyst:Preparation, Characterization and Immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guiyong; WANG Xiaoqun; ZHAO Chuan; DU Shanyi

    2014-01-01

    Montmorillonite supported titanium (Ti-MMT) or antimony catalyst (Sb-MMT) has been a hot area of research on preparing polyethylene terephthalate/montmorillonite (PET/MMT) nanocomposites by in situ polymerization. So removal of Ti or Sb from Ti-MMT or Sb-MMT is not expected during in situ polymerization. Studies on immobilization of Ti or Sb on Ti-MMT or Sb-MMT are seldom reported. In this work, a series of montmorillonite supported catalysts of titanium (Ti-MMT) or antimony (Sb-MMT) and co-intercalated montmorillonite of titanium and antimony (Ti/Sb-MMT) were prepared by (1) the reaction of sodium bentonite suspension with intercalating solution containing titanium tetrachloride and/or antimony chloride, and (2) drying or calcinating the products at different temperature (100, 150, 240, 350 and 450℃). The physicochemical properties of these MMT supported catalysts were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICPOES), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy(UV-vis) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immobile character of Ti or Sb on MMT supported catalysts was evaluated by a two-step method in deionized water or ethylene glycol. Several results were obtained, i e, (a) during the preparation, with an increase in drying or calcinating temperature, the amount of titanium and/or antimony species remained on these MMT supported catalysts decreased, (b) the experiments about immobile character of Ti or/and Sb showed that with an increase in drying or calcinating temperature, the immobilization of Ti and/or Sb species remained on these MMT supported catalysts increased gradually, (c) Ti-MMT calcinated at 450℃had the biggest pore volume, which means Ti-MMT had the best adsorption application prospect.

  3. Horizontal Ampoule Growth and Characterization of Mercuric Iodide at Controlled Gas Pressures for X-Ray and Gamma Ray Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.; McGregor Elsa; Ariesanti Bridget Corcoran

    2004-01-01

    The project developed a new method for producing high quality mercuric iodide crystals of x-ray and gamma spectrometers. Included are characterization of mercuric iodide crystal properties as a function of growth environment and fabrication and demonstration of room-temperature-operated high-resolution mercuric iodide spectrometers

  4. Polarographic determination of indium and thallium iodides in phosphor tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babich, G.A.; Dzhurka, G.F.; Kozhushko, G.M.; Kravtsova, K.F.; Magda, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The technique of polarographic determination of indium and thallium iodides in phosphor tablets without preliminary separation of elements was developed. Mercury-dropping electrode was used as an indicator, and saturated calomel electrode was used as an auxiliary electrode. A recording of reduction currents was performed in the potential interval from -0.25 up to 1.15 V at potential sweep speed of 200 mV/min. Optimum conditions of sample acidic decomposition and polarography were presented. A solution of ethylene diamine (0.5 M), of ammonia (0.25 M) and of potassium chloride (0.05 M) served as a background electrolyte. The suggested technique allows one to determine component contents in tablets with a satisfactory accuracy. A period of one tablet analysis constitutes 1.5 h

  5. Mercuric iodide crystals obtained by solvent evaporation using ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugucioni, J.C.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Mulato, M.

    2010-01-01

    Millimeter-sized mercuric iodide crystals were fabricated by the solvent evaporation technique using pure ethanol as a solvent. Three different conditions for solution evaporation were tested: (i) in the dark at room temperature; (ii) in the presence of light at room temperature and (iii) in an oven at 40 deg. C. Morphology, structure, optical and electrical properties were investigated using several techniques. Crystals fabricated in the dark show better properties and stability than others, possibly because the larger the energy of the system, the larger the number of induced growth defects. The crystals fabricated in the dark have adequate structure for higher resistivity and activation energy close to half the optical band-gap, as desired. With proper encapsulation these crystals might be good candidates for the development of ionizing radiation sensors.

  6. Direct photometric determination of fluorides in potassium chloride and iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedkova, V.P.; Savvin, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to apply the technique of determining fluorides with xylenol orange and sulfochlorophenol S as being the most sensitive in the analysis of of fiber optics. It is known that an increase of the sensitivity of the determination can be achieved on increasing the sample size of the substance to be analyzed, and the length of the absorbing layer. However, a high salt background may have a strong influence on the course of the reaction, and a supplementary of this effect is mad. Potassium chloride and iodide were selected as model compounds. A direct photometric procedure is proposed for determining fluorides in the samples, with a determination limit of 5 x 10 -6 %. Such a low determination limit is achieved by increasing the sample weight to 3 g, by increasing the length of the absorbing layer in the cell to 50 mm, and by using a highly sensitive reaction for determining fluorides with zirconium and xylenol orange

  7. Electrical and photomechanical effects of plastic deformation of mercuric iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschall, J.; Milstein, F.; Gerrish, V.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of bulk plastic deformation of mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ), upon some of the electronic properties relevant to the performance of HgI 2 as a radiation detector were examined experimentally. Hole lifetimes, as well as hole and electron mobilities, were measured at various stages of sample deformation. Hole lifetimes were found to decrease by a factor of 2 under strains of several percent; carrier mobilities varied within experimental error, except during creep loading where electron and hole mobilities decreased by about 65 % and 25 %, respectively. Additionally, dark current measurements were made on specimens with varying degrees of accumulated plastic damage caused by c plane shear. Dark current values did not strongly reflect the extent of bulk plastic damage in deformed specimens. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Rapid sonochemical preparation of shape-selective lead iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Baojun; He, Qin; Fa, Wenjun; Li, Pinjiang; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SEM morphologies of various PbI2 products obtained with the iodine concentration of 6.7 g/L and irradiation time of 1 minute at the reaction temperatures of 35 °C (a), 25 °C (b), and 15 °C (c). Highlights: ► PbI 2 with various morphologies were rapidly formed at room temperature. ► We could well control the morphologies of PbI 2 by changing reaction conditions. ► The PbI 2 films could better resist rolling in a liquid media. -- Abstract: Lead iodide (PbI 2 ) films/crystals with various nano/micro morphologies (e.g., Nanoflake, block and microrod) were rapidly synthesized by taking advantage of a simple sonochemical method. The PbI 2 crystals with uniform nanoflake structures could be fabricated directly on lead foils with the irradiation time as short as 36 s via interfacial reaction between lead foils and elemental iodine in ethanol at ambient temperature. It was found experimentally that the morphologies of the resulting thin films/crystals could be well controlled by the adjustment of several parameters including irradiation time, reaction solvents, iodine concentration, ultrasonic power, and reaction temperature. Most importantly, the resultant PbI 2 films are stable enough to resist rolling under the drastic ultrasound irradiation in a liquid media. This method is believed to be the fastest way for in situ fabrication of morphology-controlled semiconductor films on various metal substrates for subsequent applications related to the other metal iodide or metal sulfide semiconductor films.

  9. Evaluation of quaternary ammonium halides for removal of methyl iodide from flowing air streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.; Mohacsi, T.G.; Kovach, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The quaternary ammonium halides of several tertiary amines were used as impregnants on activated carbon and were tested for methyl iodide penetration in accordance with test Method A, ASTM D3803, 1979, ''Standard Test Methods for Radio-iodine Testing of Nuclear Grade Gas Phase Adsorbents''. The results suggest that the primary removal mechanism for methyl iodide-131 is isotopic exchange with the quaternary ammonium halide. For example, a 5 wt% impregnation of each of the tetramethyl, tetraethyl, tetrapropyl and tetrabutyl ammonium iodides on activated carbon yielded percent penetrations of 0.47, 0.53, 0.78, and 0.08 respectively when tested according to Method A of ASTM D3803. A sample impregnated with 5% tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide gave a methyl iodide penetration of 64.87%, thus supporting the isotopic exchange mechanism for removal. It has been a generally held belief that the success of tertiary amines as impregnants for radioiodine removal is a result of their ability to complex with the methyl iodide. The results of the work indicates that the superiority of the tertiary amines similar to triethylene diamine and quinuclidine, when compared to their straight chain analogs, is a result of their ease in reacting with methyl iodide-127 to form the quaternary ammonium iodide followed by isotopic exchange

  10. Parametric Study on the Organic Iodide Behavior during a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Myung Hyun; Kim, Han Chul; Kim, Do Sam

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a major contributor to the potential health risk for the public following a severe accident from a nuclear power plant. Most of metal-iodides, the major form of iodine that enters the containment, can be readily dissolved in the sump water and result in iodide ions. These will be oxidized to form volatile I 2 through a large number of reactions such as radiolysis and hydrolysis. The organic radicals, made from organics such as paint in the sump water, react with iodine to produce organic iodides. Volatile iodine moves from the sump water to the atmosphere mainly by diffusion and natural convection, and react with surfaces and air radiolysis products (ARPs). Painted surfaces act as a sink for I 2 and as a source for organic iodides through adsorption and desorption. ARPs react with I 2 to form iodine oxides, which leads to the decrease of I 2 and organic iodides. Among the large number of iodine species, organic iodides have been extensively studied recently due to their volatility and very low retention. Qualified tools for modeling these phenomena have been developed and validated by several experiments such as EPICUR, PARIS and OECD-BIP. While mechanistic codes model a large number of reactions and species, semiempirical codes such as IODE or IMOD treat major ones. KINS developed a simple iodine model, RAIM (Radio-active iodine chemistry model), based on the IMOD methodology in order to deal with organic iodides conveniently, coupling with an integrated severe-accident analysis code. There are a number of mechanisms that affect the behavior of organic iodides. In this study, effects of pH of the aqueous phase, temperature, radiation dose rate, surface area of organic paints, initial iodine loads that are known to be important to organic iodide formation were studied analytically with RAIM, and also theoretically

  11. Parametric Study on the Organic Iodide Behavior during a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Myung Hyun; Kim, Han Chul; Kim, Do Sam [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Iodine is a major contributor to the potential health risk for the public following a severe accident from a nuclear power plant. Most of metal-iodides, the major form of iodine that enters the containment, can be readily dissolved in the sump water and result in iodide ions. These will be oxidized to form volatile I{sub 2} through a large number of reactions such as radiolysis and hydrolysis. The organic radicals, made from organics such as paint in the sump water, react with iodine to produce organic iodides. Volatile iodine moves from the sump water to the atmosphere mainly by diffusion and natural convection, and react with surfaces and air radiolysis products (ARPs). Painted surfaces act as a sink for I{sub 2} and as a source for organic iodides through adsorption and desorption. ARPs react with I{sub 2} to form iodine oxides, which leads to the decrease of I{sub 2} and organic iodides. Among the large number of iodine species, organic iodides have been extensively studied recently due to their volatility and very low retention. Qualified tools for modeling these phenomena have been developed and validated by several experiments such as EPICUR, PARIS and OECD-BIP. While mechanistic codes model a large number of reactions and species, semiempirical codes such as IODE or IMOD treat major ones. KINS developed a simple iodine model, RAIM (Radio-active iodine chemistry model), based on the IMOD methodology in order to deal with organic iodides conveniently, coupling with an integrated severe-accident analysis code. There are a number of mechanisms that affect the behavior of organic iodides. In this study, effects of pH of the aqueous phase, temperature, radiation dose rate, surface area of organic paints, initial iodine loads that are known to be important to organic iodide formation were studied analytically with RAIM, and also theoretically

  12. Thyroid iodide compartments and their implication in the rat thyroid iodine organification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiani, P.; Simon, C.

    1982-01-01

    To estimate the relative participation of transported and intrathyroidally generated iodide (internal iodide) in the iodination of newly synthesized and preexisting thyroglobulin (Tg) in the rat thyroid, the specific radioactivities (SRAs) of thyroid iodide, Tg, lysosomal iodine, and plasma hormones were followed for 92 h after radioactive iodide injection in intact or hypophysectomized rats. In control rats, the SRA of Tg and lysosomal iodine reached a maximum at 12 h. However, the SRA of lysosomal iodide was always smaller than that of Tg. In contrast, the SRA of hormonal iodide attained a maximum at 48 h. Thus, newly labeled iodine is endocytosed and mixed inside the lysosomes with older previously iodinated molecules; hormone secretion is mainly due to old labeled iodine (i.e. iodine with a high SRA from 48-96 h). These results are consistent with the presence of least two Tg compartments, with different turnover rates and hormone contents. On the other hand, in hypophysectomized rats, the SRA of Tg, lysosomes, and hormones showed only one maximum, at 24 h. Furthermore, the SRAs of Tg and lysosomes were similar at each time interval. It is inferred that in such rats, the old labeled iodine compartment is strongly reduced, and that inside the lysosomes, newly labeled iodine is predominant. Since in hypophysectomized rats, the recycling of iodide is abolished, it is concluded that in normal rats: 1) transported iodide is organified mainly by direct iodination of newly synthesized Tg, independently of TSH, and 2) internal iodide is organified mainly by delayed iodination of preexisting Tg, this process being TSH dependent

  13. Extraction-radiochemical study of the ion-association complex of antimony (V) with tetrazolium violet and its thermal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostova, S.G.; Boyanov, B.S.

    1995-01-01

    The optimum conditions for extraction of ion-associated complexes (IAS) formed from the tetrazolium salt - tetrazolium violet and Sb(V) in hydrochloric acid medium have been studied. An isotope of antimony ( 125 Sb) was used for determination of the recovery factor (R%) and distribution ratio (D S b). The thermal behavior of the antimony complex with tetrazole violet was studied using differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. (author) 12 refs.; 3 figs

  14. Localization of the antimony impurity atoms in the PbTe lattice determined by the Moessbauer emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masterov, V.F.; Nasredinov, F.S.; Nemov, S.A.; Seregin, P.P.; Troitskaya, N.N.; Bondarevskij, S.I.

    1997-01-01

    The 119 Sb ( 119m Sn) emission Moessbauer spectroscopy has shown that a localization of the antimony impurity atoms in the PbTe lattice is affected by the conductivity type of the host material, the antimony atoms occupied mainly anion and cation sites in n-type and p-type samples, respectively. The 119 Sn impurity in the anion sublattice of PbTe formed an decay. Its charge state was shown to be independent of the Fermi level position

  15. Solvent effect on the rate and equilibrium of reaction between 10-phenylphenoxarsine and methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V.I.; Gumerov, N.S.; Rakhmatullin, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Effect of solvent nature on nucleophilic capacity of three-coordinated arsenic and the equilibrium state of 10-phenylphenoxarsine (PA) reaction with methyl iodide are studied. Kinetic investigations are carried out by the conductometry at 24,35,45 deg C. It is established that quaternization of PA with methyl iodide when substituting a solvent (ketone for alcohol) increases 3-14 times with simultaneous growth of the activation energy value. When transforming from aprotic solvents to protic ones PA interaction equilibrium with methyl iodide shifts to the side of arsonic salt formation

  16. The method of determination of micro quantities of labeled iodide in carrier free Na125 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholbaev, A.Kh.; Shilin, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    The method of determination of microquantities of labelled iodide in Na 125 carrier-free solution was elaborated. This method permits to increase the sensitivity and radiation protection of the determination of labeled iodide. It includes oxidation of iodide by iodate in diluted sulphuric acid with molar concentration 0,03-0,04 mole/l. The extraction of I 2 is made by toluene. The coloured solution is made and optical density is measured at λ=640 nm at the 10 mm optical path .(A.A.D.)

  17. Intrachromosomal amplification, locus deletion and point mutation in the aquaglyceroporin AQP1 gene in antimony resistant Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monte-Neto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimony resistance complicates the treatment of infections caused by the parasite Leishmania.Using next generation sequencing, we sequenced the genome of four independent Leishmania guyanensis antimony-resistant (SbR mutants and found different chromosomal alterations including aneuploidy, intrachromosomal gene amplification and gene deletion. A segment covering 30 genes on chromosome 19 was amplified intrachromosomally in three of the four mutants. The gene coding for the multidrug resistance associated protein A involved in antimony resistance was also amplified in the four mutants, most likely through chromosomal translocation. All mutants also displayed a reduced accumulation of antimony mainly due to genomic alterations at the level of the subtelomeric region of chromosome 31 harboring the gene coding for the aquaglyceroporin 1 (LgAQP1. Resistance involved the loss of LgAQP1 through subtelomeric deletions in three mutants. Interestingly, the fourth mutant harbored a single G133D point mutation in LgAQP1 whose role in resistance was functionality confirmed through drug sensitivity and antimony accumulation assays. In contrast to the Leishmania subspecies that resort to extrachromosomal amplification, the Viannia strains studied here used intrachromosomal amplification and locus deletion.This is the first report of a naturally occurred point mutation in AQP1 in antimony resistant parasites.

  18. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R St J

    2013-06-01

    There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23°C and heated to ca. 105°C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  20. Review of the prevalence and causes of antimony compounds resistance in different societies review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jaffary

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an endemic parasitic disease of major health impact in many parts of the world and is caused by several species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Antimonial compounds (i.e glucantime and pentostam are the first-line treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis with emerging drug resistance as a problem. The control of Leishmania is further complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. In the clinical settings, resistance to SbV containing drugs is now well established and it was found to occur in South America, Europe, the Middle East and most notably in India. Clinical resistance to organic pentavalent antimonials, in the form of sodium stibogluconate (pentostam or N-methylglucamine antimoniate (glucantime, has long been recognized. However, it is unknown whether the clinical failure of chemotherapy is attributable to the development of drug resistance mechanisms in the parasite or to a variety of host factors that might also contribute to low drug response. Reported rate of drug-resistance to antimonial compounds in Iran varies from 9.4% to 94.2% and there is not any comprehensive study on this issue. Indeed, in the endemic region treatment with SbV fails in more cases; thus, in general patients infected with resistant parasites are unresponsive although exceptions have been reported. This article aims to review the mechanisms of drug resistance to these compounds. The main resistance factors include genetical, enzymatic, intracellular (such as apoptosis and cytoskeleton changes and resistance proteins. Also, mechanisms related to drug transport and intracellular activation are discussed. Various methods of drug resistance detection such as culture and molecular methods (i.e polymerase chain reaction are reviewed. Although the exact mechanism of action glucantime is not clear, it seems that protein and gene factors involved in cellular drug entry are the main causes of drug resistance. Cross

  1. Adsorption of antimony onto iron oxyhydroxides: Adsorption behavior and surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xuejun; Wu, Zhijun [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing 100875 (China); He, Mengchang, E-mail: hemc@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing 100875 (China); Meng, Xiaoguang [Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Jin, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing 100875 (China); Qiu, Nan; Zhang, Jing [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Antimony adsorption depended on the Sb species, pH, and the type of iron oxides. • Sb(V) adsorption favored at acidic pH, Sb(III) adsorption optimized in wider pH. • Antimony was adsorbed onto the iron oxides by the inner-sphere surface complex. • Bidentate mononuclear ({sup 2}E) was the dominant form of Sb incorporated into HFO. • XAFS and XPS indicated Sb(III) adsorbed was slowly oxidized to Sb(V). - Abstract: Antimony is detected in soil and water with elevated concentration due to a variety of industrial applications and mining activities. Though antimony is classified as a pollutant of priority interest by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Europe Union (EU), very little is known about its environmental behavior and adsorption mechanism. In this study, the adsorption behaviors and surface structure of antimony (III/V) on iron oxides were investigated using batch adsorption techniques, surface complexation modeling (SCM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The adsorption isotherms and edges indicated that the affinity of Sb(V) and Sb(III) toward the iron oxides depended on the Sb species, solution pH, and the characteristics of iron oxides. Sb(V) adsorption was favored at acidic pH and decreased dramatically with increasing pH, while Sb(III) adsorption was constant over a broad pH range. When pH is higher than 7, Sb(III) adsorption by goethite and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was greater than Sb(V). EXAFS analysis indicated that the majority of Sb(III), either adsorbed onto HFO or co-precipitated by FeCl{sub 3}, was oxidized into Sb(V) probably due to the involvement of O{sub 2} in the long duration of sample preservation. Only one Sb–Fe subshell was filtered in the EXAFS spectra of antimony adsorption onto HFO, with the coordination number of 1.0–1.9 attributed to bidentate mononuclear edge-sharing ({sup 2}E) between Sb and

  2. Molecular Preadaptation to Antimony Resistance in Leishmania donovani on the Indian Subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumetz, F; Cuypers, B; Imamura, H; Zander, D; D'Haenens, E; Maes, I; Domagalska, M A; Clos, J; Dujardin, J-C; De Muylder, G

    2018-04-25

    Antimonials (Sb) were used for decades for chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Now abandoned in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) because of Leishmania donovani resistance, this drug offers a unique model for understanding drug resistance dynamics. In a previous phylogenomic study, we found two distinct populations of L. donovani : the core group (CG) in the Gangetic plains and ISC1 in the Nepalese highlands. Sb resistance was only encountered within the CG, and a series of potential markers were identified. Here, we analyzed the development of resistance to trivalent antimonials (Sb III ) upon experimental selection in ISC1 and CG strains. We observed that (i) baseline Sb III susceptibility of parasites was higher in ISC1 than in the CG, (ii) time to Sb III resistance was higher for ISC1 parasites than for CG strains, and (iii) untargeted genomic and metabolomic analyses revealed molecular changes along the selection process: these were more numerous in ISC1 than in the CG. Altogether these observations led to the hypothesis that CG parasites are preadapted to Sb III resistance. This hypothesis was experimentally confirmed by showing that only wild-type CG strains could survive a direct exposure to the maximal concentration of Sb III The main driver of this preadaptation was shown to be MRPA , a gene involved in Sb III sequestration and amplified in an intrachromosomal amplicon in all CG strains characterized so far. This amplicon emerged around 1850 in the CG, well before the implementation of antimonials for VL chemotherapy, and we discuss here several hypotheses of selective pressure that could have accompanied its emergence. IMPORTANCE The "antibiotic resistance crisis" is a major challenge for scientists and medical professionals. This steady rise in drug-resistant pathogens also extends to parasitic diseases, with antimony being the first anti- Leishmania drug that fell in the Indian subcontinent (ISC). Leishmaniasis is a major but neglected infectious

  3. Experimental determination of the energy levels of the antimony atom (Sb II), ions of the antimony (Sb II, Sb III), mercury (Hg IV) and cesium (Cs X)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcimowicz, B.

    1993-01-01

    The thesis concerns establishing the energy scheme of the electronic levels, obtained from the analysis of the investigated spectra of antimony atom and ions (Sb I, Sb II, Sb III) and higher ionized mercury (Hg IV) and cesium (Cs X) atoms. The experimental studies were performed with optical spectroscopy methods. The spectra of the elements under study obtained in the spectral range from visible (680 nm) to vacuum UV (40 nm) were analysed. The classification and spectroscopic designation of the experimentally established 169 energy levels were obtained on the basis of the performed calculations and the fine structure analysis. The following configurations were considered: 5s 2 5p 2 ns, 5s 2 5p 2 n'd, 5s5p 4 of the antimony atom, 5s 2 5pns, 5s 2 5pn'd, 5s5p 3 of the ion Sb II, 5s 2 ns, 5s 2 n'd, 5s5p 2 of the on Sb III, 5d 8 6p of the ion Hg IV 4d 9 5s and 4d 9 5p Cs X. A reclassification was performed and some changes were introduced to the existing energy level scheme of the antimony atom, with the use of the information obtained from the absorption spectrum taken in the VUV region by the ''flash pyrolysis'' technique. The measurements of the hyperfine splittings in 19 spectral lines belonging to the antimony atom and ions additionally confirmed the assumed classification of the levels involved in these lines. The energy level scheme, obtained for Sb III, was compared to the other ones in the isoelectronic sequence starting with In I. On the basis of the analysis of the Hg IV spectrum it was proved that ground configuration of the three times ionized mercury atom is 5d 9 not 5d 8 6s as assumed until now. The fine structure, established from the analysis of the spectra of the elements under study was examined in multiconfiguration approximation. As a result of the performed calculations the fine structure parameters and wavefunctions were determined for the levels whose energy values were experimentally established in the thesis. (author). 140 refs, 22 figs, 17

  4. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Herein, we report a safe, low cost and reproducible approach for the synthesis of antimony (Sb) nanostructures with most of them having prism like morphology and having well defined faces in the range of ∼70210 nm. The organics free approach is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free is economical, fast and free of pollution, which will make it suitable for large scale production. Furthermore, it is well expected that such a technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. The prospects of the process are bright and promising. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Deciphering lead and cadmium stripping peaks for porous antimony deposited electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Aqeel Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and lead are generally taken as model heavy metal ions in water to scale the detection limit of various electrode sensors, using electrochemical sensing techniques. These ions interact with the electrochemically deposited antimony electrodes depending on the diffusion limitations. The phenomenon acts differently for the in-situ and ex-situ deposition as well as for porous and non-porous electrodes. A method has been adopted in this study to discourage the stripping and deposition of the working ions (antimony to understand the principle of heavy metal ion detection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS technique was used to establish the interaction between the working and dissolved ions. In addition to the distinct peaks for each analyte, researchers also observed a shoulder peak. A possible reason for the presence of this peak was provided. Different electrochemical tests were performed to ascertain the theory on the basis of the experimental observations.

  6. Antimony Influence on Shape of Eutectic Silicium in Al-Si Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquid AI-Si alloys are usually given special treatments before they are cast to obtain finer or modified matrix and eutectic structures, leading to improved properties. For many years, sodium additions to hypoeutectic and eutectic AI-Si melts have been recognized as the most effective method of modifying the eutectic morphology, although most of the group IA or IIA elements have significant effects on the eutectic structure. Unfortunately, many of these approaches also have associated several founding difficulties, such as fading, forming dross in presence of certain alloying elements, reduced fluidity, etc. ln recent years, antimony additions to AI-Si castings have attracted considerable attention as an alternative method of refining the eutectic structure. Such additions eliminate many of the difficulties listed above and provide permanent (i.e. non-fading refining ability. In this paper, the authors summarize work on antimony treatment of Al-Si based alloys.

  7. Dielectric Losses and Charge Transfer in Antimony-Doped TlGaS2 Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadov, S. M.; Mustafaeva, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    Effect of semimetallic antimony (0.5 mol % Sb) on the dielectric properties and ac-conductivity of TlGaS2-based single crystals grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method has been studied. The experimental results on the frequency dispersion of dielectric coefficients and the conductivity of TlGa0.995Sb0.005S2 single crystals allowed the revealing of the dielectric loss nature, the charge transfer mechanism, and the estimation of the parameters of the states localized in the energy gap. The antimony-doping of the TlGaS2 single crystal leads to an increase in the density of states near the Fermi level and a decrease in the average time and average distance of hopes.

  8. An additive approach to low temperature zero pressure sintering of bismuth antimony telluride thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Glenn C.; Tripathi, Rajesh; Nunes, Geoffrey; Lynch, Philip B.; Jones, Howard D.; Schmitt, Devin C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an additive-based approach to the formulation of thermoelectric materials suitable for screen printing. Such printing processes are a likely route to such thermoelectric applications as micro-generators for wireless sensor networks and medical devices, but require the development of materials that can be sintered at ambient pressure and low temperatures. Using a rapid screening process, we identify the eutectic combination of antimony and tellurium as an additive for bismuth-antimony-telluride that enables good thermoelectric performance without a high pressure step. An optimized composite of 15 weight percent Sb7.5Te92.5 in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is scaled up and formulated into a screen-printable paste. Samples fabricated from this paste achieve a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.74 using a maximum processing temperature of 748 K and a total thermal processing budget of 12 K-hours.

  9. Determination by neutron activation analysis of loss of arsenic, antimony, bromine and mercury during lyophilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, M.; Litman, R.

    1978-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used to monitor the loss of arsenic, as dimethylarsinic acid, (CH 3 ) 2 AsOOH, or as sodium arsenate (Na 2 HAsO 4 .7H 2 O), antimony (as potassium antimony, tartrate, KSbC 4 O 7 .1/2H 2 O) and bromine (as bromide ion) during lyophilization of acidified and neutral aqueous synthetic and environmental samples. Losses of Sb and As ranged from zero to 60%, while losses of bromine were constant (at 91%) in acidic solutions. The variable losses of As and Sb were due solely to the presence of and partial decomposition of the (CH 3 ) 2 AsOOH. Electrochemical oxidation of Br - to Br 2 is responsible for the high losses of bromine. In addition losses of mercury (as methylmercuric chloride) were 1O0% in both acidic and neutral aqueous synthetic samples during lyophilization. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the efficiency of the processes of purification of antimony to semiconductor grade purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walis, L.; Rowinska, L.; Panczyk, E.

    1992-01-01

    A complex of techniques for purification of antimony from arsenic has been examined with the aid of radiotracer 76 As. The investigated processes comprised vacuum distillation, zone melting and remelting of the metal under artificial slags. The purification efficiencies for the above processes were high and amounted to 94% (for 30% of the charge), 50% (for 50% of the charge) and 99.5% (for 60% of the charge), respectively. Attempts were made to determine the kinetics of the separation of arsenic from antimony by distillation. The application of the radioactive tracer made it possible to determine rapidly the distribution of impurities after each stage of the process within a wide concentration range (10 -2 -10 -7 g/g). (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  11. Reaction of Antimony-Uranium Composite Oxide in the Chlorination Treatment of Waste Catalyst - 13521

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Kayo [EcoTopia Science Institute (Japan); Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The effect of oxygen gas concentration on the chlorination treatment of antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst waste was investigated by adding different concentrations of oxygen at 0-6 vol% to its chlorination agent of 0.6 or 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas at 1173 K. The addition of oxygen tended to prevent the chlorination of antimony in the oxide. When 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas was used, the addition of oxygen up to 0.1 vol% could convert the uranium contained in the catalyst to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} without any significant decrease in the reaction rate compared to that of the treatment without oxygen. (authors)

  12. Feasibility Study for the Reduction of Perchlorate, Iodide, and Other Aqueous Anions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clewell, Rebecca A; Tsui, David T; Mattie, David R

    1999-01-01

    Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) was used as a technique to determine the feasibility of the use of a coulometric detector in the determination of perchlorate, iodide, and various other anions commonly found in drinking water...

  13. Capture of organic iodides from nuclear waste by metal-organic framework-based molecular traps

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan; Dong, Xinglong; Wang, Hao; Ma, Dingxuan; Tan, Kui; Jensen, Stephanie; Deibert, Benjamin J.; Butler, Joseph; Cure, Jeremy; Shi, Zhan; Thonhauser, Timo; Chabal, Yves J.; Han, Yu; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    capture from nuclear waste. The capture mechanism was investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.Capturing radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste is important for safe nuclear energy usage, but remains a significant challenge. Here, Li

  14. The iodide sym-porter (NIS): new perspectives in nuclear oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcher, Th.; Lindenthal, S.; Basquin, C.; Ferhat, O.; Marsault, R.; Carrier, P.; Koulibaly, M.; Bussiere, F.; Darcourt, J.

    2005-01-01

    The sodium iodide sym-porter (NIS) is the plasma membrane protein that mediates uptake of iodide in the thyroid and other organs such as the stomach and the salivary gland. The cloning of its cDNA allows the targeting of NIS expression into any cell using gene therapy. This enables iodide uptake and thus NIS can be used as reporter imaging for live animals. More intriguingly, this new technique has potential using radio-iodide therapy to selectively destroy tumour cells. These two approaches employ common techniques in nuclear medicine. Many experiments on cultured cells and on animals have been carried out; they established clearly the advantages of this genetically targeted radiotherapy. Recent studies employing this therapy on multiple myeloma cell lines implanted in mice or on hepato-carcinoma-bearing rats, resulted in important tumour remission. However, additional studies on NIS regulation and the use of alternative radioisotopes transported by NIS are required to further develop this promising approach. (author)

  15. Functionalized metal organic frameworks for effective capture of radioactive organic iodides

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan; Dong, Xinglong; Wang, Hao; Ma, Dingxuan; Tan, Kui; Shi, Zhan; Chabal, Yves J.; Han, Yu; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Highly efficient capture of radioactive organic iodides (ROIs) from off-gas mixtures remains a substantial challenge for nuclear waste treatment. Current materials utilized for ROI sequestration suffer from low capacity, high cost (e.g. use of noble

  16. Leaching of iodine from composites based on epoxy resin and lead iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, N.N.; Elizarova, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The scope for using solid composites obtained by incorporating dry powdery lead iodide and its aqueous suspension into epoxy resin for prolonged immobilization of iodine-129 under monitorable storage conditions has been assessed by a study of leaching of iodine

  17. Removal efficiency of radioactive methyl iodide on TEDA-impregnated activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, C.M.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Roman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by different series of carbon dioxide and steam activation from walnut shells for their optimal use as radioactive methyl iodide adsorbents in Nuclear Plants. The knowledge of the most favourable textural characteristics of the activated carbons was possible by the previous study of the commercial activated carbon currently used for this purpose. In order to increase their methyl iodide affinity, the effect of triethylenediamine impregnation was studied at 5 and 10 wt.%. The results obtained indicated that in both cases the adsorption efficiency is markedly improved by the addition of impregnant, which allows the adsorbate uptake to occur not only by physical adsorption, via non-specific interactions (as in non-impregnated carbons) but also by the specific interaction of triethylenediamine with radioactive methyl iodide. Methyl iodide retention efficiencies up to 98.1% were achieved. (author)

  18. Production of high quality sodium iodide preparations labelled with carrier free iodine-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukayumov, M.N.; Chistyakov, P.G.; Shilin, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Work is related to the problem of high-quality Sodium Iodide preparation production and to the choice of the peptids iodination methods with the purpose of control test developing to determine the Biological activity of the above mentioned preparation

  19. Kinetics of [123I]iodide uptake and discharge by perchlorate in studies of inhibition of iodide binding by antithyroid drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCruden, D.C.; Connell, J.M.C.; Alexander, W.D.; Hilditch, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    Thyroidal binding of iodide was studied by kinetic analysis of [ 123 ]iodide uptake and its discharge by perchlorate in 80 hyperthyroid subjects receiving antithyroid drug therapy. Five dosage regimens ranging from 5 mg carbimazole twice daily to 15 mg methimazole twice daily were studied. Binding inhibition was estimated at 5-7 h after drug as an index of the mean effect of the 12 hourly regimen. In all cases, except one in the lowest dose group, binding was found to be markedly reduced with mean binding rates ranging from 0.002 to 0.020 min -1 (normal > 0.15 min -1 ). The net clearance of iodide in the lowest dose group was reduced to a mean value near the upper limit of the euthyroid range, whereas in the highest dose group it lay at the lower limit of the euthyroid range. These results were reflected in the serum thyroid hormone response. There was a reducing incidence of inadequate control of hyperthyroidism and an increasing incidence of hypothyroidism with increasing thiourylene dose. The exit rate constant of free iodide for the various doses showed values from 0.048 to 0.055 min -1 . Correpsonding mean values for the discharge rate constant after perchlorate were 0.087 to 0.105 min -1 . This suggests that perchlorate increases the rate of iodide release from the thyroid gland. Studies at a later interval after drug (12-14 h) showed no change in discharge rate constant. This leads to the conclusion that perchlorate may further inhibit iodide binding in subjects receiving antithyroid drug therapy. (author)

  20. Studies on optical properties of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürakar, Sibel, E-mail: sgurakar@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Serin, Tülay, E-mail: serin@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Serin, Necmi, E-mail: nserin@eng.ankara.edu.tr

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Antimony doped tin oxide thin films were grown by spray method on glass substrates. • The antimony doping was varied from 0 to 4 at%. • The structural properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. • A simple analysis according to Swanepoel's method was applied to derive the real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction plus film thickness. • The dispersion of refractive index was investigated in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model to determine the optical parameters. - Abstract: Antimony doped tin oxide thin films were grown by spray method on microscope glass substrates. The antimony doping was varied from 0 to 4 at%. The structural properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. The optical transmittances of thin films were measured with UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer in the 300–2000 nm wavelength range. A simple analysis according to Swanepoel's method was applied to derive the real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction plus film thickness. The dispersion of refractive index was investigated in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model and the important oscillating parameters such as the dispersion energy E{sub d}, the oscillation energy E{sub o}, the high frequency dielectric constant ε{sub ∞} were determined. The analysis of the refractive index has been carried out to calculate the lattice dielectric constant ε{sub L} and the ratio of carrier concentration to the effective mass N/m*. The real and imaginary parts of the electronic dielectric constant and optical conductivity were analyzed. The optical band gap, E{sub g} values of the films were obtained from the spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient, using the Tauc relation.

  1. Electronic band structure and optical properties of antimony selenide under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit, B.K.; Jayaraman, Aditya; Molli, Muralikrishna, E-mail: muralikrishnamolli@sssihl.edu.in [Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam, 515 134 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this work we present the optical properties of Antimony Selenide (Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}) under ambient conditions and under pressure of 9.2 GPa obtained using first principles calculations. We investigated the electronic band structure using the FP-LAPW method within the sphere of the density functional theory. Optical properties like refractive index, absorption coefficient and optical conductivity are calculated using the WIEN2k code.

  2. Preconcentration and Determination of Antimony in Drinking Water Bottled by Modified Nano-Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad Zakizade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 has been utilized as a catalyst in polyethylene terephtalate (PET production, and the studies conducted on the bottled water has demonstrated that antimony can be leached from PET bottles into drinking water. Methods: In this study, a simple method was applied in order to determine the trace amount of antimony in bottled drinking water based on preconcentration /solid phase extraction. The nano alumina modified with Schiff base ligand was used in regard with Sb preconcentration. The experiments were performed in a continuous system and HCI was used as eluent of Sb ion. Several chemical and flow variables were optimized for a quantitative preconcentration and determination of Sb ion. The atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine Sb ion concentration. In order to study the keeping conditions on the leaching of Sb ion from PET plastic, drinking water bottles were kept in different conditions(room temperature, sunny light and -18˚C. Results: The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5 to 15.0 ppm Sb with detection limit of 0.055 ppm. The flow rate of sample was optimized in range of 1.0-9.0 mLmin-1 and Sb ion can be quantitatively eluted at 90 Vsample: Veluent retio. Conclusion: The study results revealed that the modified nano alumina is an effective sorbent in regard with absorbing Sb ion from water and HCI 1M can be used as an appropriate eluent. Maximum leaching of Sb ion is observed when the bottled drinking water was exposed to the sun light. Keywords: Antimony; Bottled drinking water; Modified alumina; Preconcentration

  3. Synthesis and vibrational spectrum of antimony phosphate, SbPO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Lars P

    2002-07-01

    SbPO4 was synthesized via a new route by reacting antimony metal with meta-phosphoric acid, (HPO3)n at high temperatures. The Raman and IR spectra of the title compound were recorded and the vibrational modes assigned on the basis of a factor group analysis. The internal vibrations are derived from tetrahedral PO4 units (approaching Sb[PO4]) by the correlation method, although the structure is polymeric and not ionic.

  4. Chronic Arsenic Toxicity: Statistical Study of the Relationships Between Urinary Arsenic, Selenium and Antimony

    OpenAIRE

    Analía Boemo, BS; Irene María Lomniczi, PhD; Elsa Mónica Farfán Torres, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Background. The groundwater of Argentina’s Chaco plain presents arsenic levels above those suitable for human consumption. Studies suggest skin disorders among local populations caused by arsenic intake. The relationship between urinary arsenic and arsenic in drinking water is well known, but urinary arsenic alone is not enough for risk assessment due to modulating factors such as the intake of selenium and antimony. Objectives. Determining the relationship between urinary arsenic, seleniu...

  5. Neutron activation analysis of antimony in chromatin and nucleoids of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, H.A.; Topaloglou, A.; Altmann, H.

    1988-02-01

    Antimony seems to be cancerogenic in men. In the present investigations we tried to find out if Sb +++ are also bound to the cell nucleus. HeLa cells were incubated with SbCl 3 and after a 18 h incubation time cells were lysed and crude chromatin isolated. In this preparation Sb was determined by neutron activation analysis. From the same cell culture nucleoids were prepared by ultracentrifugation and also Sb detected in these structures. 12 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  6. The Potential for the Treatment of Antimony-Containing Wastewater by Iron-Based Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jian Deng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb and its compounds are considered as global priority pollutants. Elevated concentrations of antimony in natural and industrial process wastewater are of global concern, particularly given interest in the potential toxicity and harm to the environment from aquatic exposure. Iron-based materials for treatment by adsorption are widely regarded to have potential merit for the removal of trace contaminants from water and especially in the search for efficient and low-cost techniques. In this paper, we review the application of iron-based materials in the sorption treatment of antimony contaminated water. The interaction of Sb is discussed in relation to adsorption performance, influencing factors, mechanism, modelling of adsorption (isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic models, advantages, drawbacks and the recent achievements in the field. Although iron-based adsorbents show promise, the following three aspects are in need of further study. Firstly, a select number of iron based binary metal oxide adsorbents should be further explored as they show superior performance compared to other systems. Secondly, the possibility of redox reactions and conversion between Sb(III and Sb(V during the adsorption process is unclear and requires further investigation. Thirdly, in order to achieve optimized control of preferential adsorption sites and functional groups, the mechanism of antimony removal has to be qualitatively and quantitatively resolved by combining the advantages of advanced characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Atomic force microscope(AFM, X-ray absorption near edge structure(XANES, and other spectroscopic methods. We provide details on the achievements and limitations of each of these stages and point to the need for further research.

  7. Method for ion exchange purification of sodium iodide solution from heavy metals and potassium microimpurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, G.I.; Kachur, N.Ya.; Kostromina, O.N.; Ogorodnikova, A.A.; Khajnakov, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    A method of deep ion exchange purification of sodium iodide solution from heavy metals (iron, nickel, copper, lead) and potassium microimpurities is developed. The method includes multiple sorption of microimpurities on titanium phosphate with their subsequent desorption by sorbent processing with a solution with a solution of 3-6 N nitric acid, first, and then with a neutral solution of 2 % sodium thiosulfate. The given method permits to increase the purification degree of sodium iodide solution by 25-30 %. 2 tabs

  8. Radiolysis of cesium iodide solutions at 35 and 85 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1981-09-01

    An aqueous solution of cesium iodide was irradiated by the gamma rays from a cobalt 60 source with a dose rate of 0.4 Mrad/hr. At 35 deg C the iodide I - is oxidized in molecular iodine I 2 but at 85 deg C the iodate IO 3 - is obtained. The aim of this work is the study of aerosols behaviour released in accidental situation of a PWR in presence of steam [fr

  9. Permeation of iodide from iodine-enriched yeast through porcine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Zieliński, Michał; Chyra, Dagmara; Dobrzański, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a common phenomenon, threatening the whole global human population. Recommended daily intake of iodine is 150 μg for adults and 250 μg for pregnant and breastfeeding women. About 50% of human population can be at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. Due to this fact, increased iodine supplementation is recommended, through intake of iodized mineral water and salt iodization. The aim of this study was to investigate permeation and absorption of iodide from iodine bioplex (experimental group) in comparison with potassium iodide (controls). Permeation and absorption processes were investigated in vitro using a porcine intestine. The experimental model was based on a standard Franz diffusion cell (FD-Cell). The iodine bioplex was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and whey powder: iodine content - 388 μg/g, total protein - 28.5%, total fat - 0.9%., glutamic acid - 41.2%, asparaginic acid - 29.4%, lysine - 24.8%; purchased from: F.Z.N.P. Biochefa, Sosnowiec, Poland. Potassium iodide was used as controls, at 388 μg iodine concentration, which was the same as in iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. A statistically significant increase in iodide permeation was observed for iodine-enriched yeast bioplex in comparison with controls - potassium iodide. After 5h the total amount of permeated iodide from iodine-enriched yeast bioplex was 85%, which is ~ 2-fold higher than controls - 37%. Iodide absorption was by contrast statistically significantly higher in controls - 7.3%, in comparison with 4.5% in experimental group with iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. Presented results show that iodide permeation process dominates over absorption in case of iodine-enriched yeast bioplex.

  10. Predistribution of potassium iodide--the Tennessee experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowinkle, E.W.; Sell, S.H.; Wolle, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    Tennessee public health officials made a decision to predistribute potassium iodide tablets (KI) to householders in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant. The tablets would be stored until needed in the event of a radiation emergency. The officials believed that it was important to have the option available as a means of protecting nearby residents. KI, ingested before or soon after exposure to radioactive iodine, can act as a thyroid blocker to protect the gland from accepting further iodine and, therefore, the radiation. A pilot project was undertaken to deliver, door to door, a package that contained KI tablets in sufficient quantity to supply a starter dose to each member of households within a 5-mile radius of the Sequoyah nuclear power plant near Chattanooga. The package consisted of a vial of 14 130-mg tablets and a package insert from the manufacturer enclosed in a larger vial with a childproof cap. Home visitors who delivered the vials were professionals from the local public health departments, especially trained to answer questions about the project. About 66 percent of 5,591 homes accepted the medication. Extensive coverage of the project by information media was helpful in explaining local emergency plans as well as the KI distribution to the public

  11. Silver iodide sodalite for "1"2"9I immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, E.R.; Gregg, D.J.; Grant, C.; Stopic, A.; Maddrell, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Silver iodide sodalite was initially synthesised as a fine-grained major phase in a nominally stoichiometric composition following hot isostatic pressing at 850 °C with 100 MPa and its composition, Ag_4Al_3Si_3O_1_2I, was approximately verified by scanning electron microscopy. An alternative preparative method yielded a more dense and stoichiometric AgI sodalite on sintering and HIPing. As found for AgI, the I is released from AgI sodalite much more readily in reducing water than in ordinary water. Thus in normal PCT-B tests, the I release was <0.3 g/L in water, but it was ∼70 g/L under highly reducing conditions. This is an important point with regard to can material if HIPing is used for consolidation. - Highlights: • Dense AgI sodalite has been produced by hot isostatic pressing. • The stoichiometry of AgI sodalite has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. • Good I immobilisation in AgI sodalite exposed to water containing Cu or Ni metal powders was determined. • AgI sodalite exposed to water containing Fe powders decomposed and released significant quantities of iodine.

  12. In situ nucleophilic substitutional growth of methylammonium lead iodide polycrystals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acik, Muge [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials and Nanoscience and Technology Division; Alam, Todd M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Organic Materials Science; Guo, Fangmin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS) and X-ray Science Division; Ren, Yang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS) and X-ray Science Division; Lee, Byeongdu [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS) and X-ray Science Division; Rosenberg, Richard A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS) and X-ray Science Division; Mitchell, JF [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materials Science Division; Kinaci, Alper [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials and Nanoscience and Technology Division; Chan, Maria [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials and Nanoscience and Technology Division; Darling, Seth B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials and Nanoscience and Technology Division; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Inst. for Molecular Engineering

    2017-01-01

    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbIx) perovskites are organic-inorganic semiconductors that serve as the light-harvesting component of the photovoltaics, and are desirable with their long diffusion length yielding power conversion efficiencies of ≥22%. Conventional techniques grow perovskites by spin coating precursors on an oxide or a polymer substrate followed by annealing, however, use of high boiling point solvents and high temperatures hinder device stability and performance. Through a one-step, acid-catalyzed nucleophilic-substitutional crystal growth in polar protic solvents, we show evidence for the substrate- and annealing- free production of MAPbIx polycrystals that are metallic-lead-free with negligibly small amount of PbI2 precipitation (<10%). On the basis of this chemical composition, we have devised an in situ growth of highly air (upto ~1.5 months) and thermally-stable (≤300°C), tetragonal-phased, variable-sized polycrystals (~100 nm-10 μm) amendable for large-area deposition, and ultimately, large-scale manufacturing. This method is encouraging for stable optoelectronic devices, and leads to energy-efficient and low-cost processing.

  13. Slow hot carrier cooling in cesium lead iodide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Ripolles, Teresa S.; Even, Jacky; Ogomi, Yuhei; Nishinaka, Koji; Izuishi, Takuya; Nakazawa, Naoki; Zhang, Yaohong; Ding, Chao; Liu, Feng; Toyoda, Taro; Yoshino, Kenji; Minemoto, Takashi; Katayama, Kenji; Hayase, Shuzi

    2017-10-01

    Lead halide perovskites are attracting a great deal of interest for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, LEDs, and lasers because of their unique properties. In solar cells, heat dissipation by hot carriers results in a major energy loss channel responsible for the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. Hot carrier solar cells offer the possibility to overcome this limit and achieve energy conversion efficiency as high as 66% by extracting hot carriers. Therefore, fundamental studies on hot carrier relaxation dynamics in lead halide perovskites are important. Here, we elucidated the hot carrier cooling dynamics in all-inorganic cesium lead iodide (CsPbI3) perovskite using transient absorption spectroscopy. We observe that the hot carrier cooling rate in CsPbI3 decreases as the fluence of the pump light increases and the cooling is as slow as a few 10 ps when the photoexcited carrier density is 7 × 1018 cm-3, which is attributed to phonon bottleneck for high photoexcited carrier densities. Our findings suggest that CsPbI3 has a potential for hot carrier solar cell applications.

  14. Kinetics of the thermal decomposition of nickel iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hayato; Shimizu, Saburo; Onuki, Kaoru; Ikezoe, Yasumasa; Sato, Shoichi

    1984-01-01

    Thermal decomposition kinetics of NiI 2 under constant I 2 partial pressure was studied by thermogravimetry. The reaction is considered as a reaction step of the thermochemical hydrogen production process in the Ni-I-S system. At temperatures from 775K to 869K and under I 2 pressures from 0 to 960Pa, the decomposition started at the NiI 2 pellet surface and the reactant-product interface moved interior at a constant rate until the decomposed fraction, α, reached 0.6. The overall reaction rate at a constant temperature can be expressed as the difference of the constant decomposition (forward) rate, which is proportional to the equilibrium dissociation pressure of NiI 2 , and the iodide formation (backward) rate, which is proportional to the I 2 pressure. The apparent activation energy of the decomposition was 147 kJ.mol -1 , which is very close to the heat of reaction, 152 kJ.mol -1 calculated from the equilibrium dissociation pressure. The electron microscopic observations, revealed that the reaction product obtained by decomposing NiI 2 under pure He atomosphere was composed of relatively well grown cubic Ni crystals. Whereas, the decomposed product obtained under I 2 -He mixture was composed of larger but disordered crystals. (author)

  15. Persistent photovoltage in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We herein perform open circuit voltage decay (OCVD measurements on methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells to increase the understanding of the charge carrier recombination dynamics in this emerging technology. Optically pulsed OCVD measurements are conducted on CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells and compared to results from another type of thin-film photovoltaics, namely, the two reference polymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cell devices based on P3HT:PC60BM and PTB7:PC70BM blends. We observe two very different time domains of the voltage transient in the perovskite solar cell with a first drop on a short time scale that is similar to the decay in the studied organic solar cells. However, 65%–70% of the maximum photovoltage persists on much longer timescales in the perovskite solar cell than in the organic devices. In addition, we find that the recombination dynamics in all time regimes are dependent on the starting illumination intensity, which is also not observed in the organic devices. We then discuss the potential origins of these unique behaviors.

  16. Radiation damage resistance in mercuric iodide X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, B E; Dolin, R C; Devore, T M; Markakis, J M [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA); Iwanczyk, J S; Dorri, N [Xsirius, Inc., Marina del Rey, CA (USA); Trombka, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1990-12-20

    Mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) radiation detectors show great potential as ambient-temperature solid-state detectors for X-rays, gamma rays and visible light, with parameters that are competitive with existing technologies. In a previous experiment, HgI{sub 2} detectors irradiated with 10 MeV protons/cm{sup 2} exhibited no damage. The 10 MeV protons represent only the low range of the spectrum of energies that are important. An experiment has been conducted at the Saturne accelerator facility at Saclay, France, to determine the susceptibility of these detectors to radiation damage by high-energy (1.5 GeV) protons. The detectors were irradiated to a fluence of 10{sup 8} protons/cm{sup 2}. This fluence is equivalent to the cosmic radiation expected in a one-year period in space. The resolution of the detectors was measured as a function of the integral dose. No degradation in the response of any of the detectors or spectrometers was seen. It is clear from this data that HgI{sub 2} has extremely high radiation-damage resistance, exceeding that of most other semiconductor materials used for radiation detectors. Based on the results shown to date, HgI{sub 2} detectors are suitable for applications in which they may be exposed to high integral dose levels. (orig.).

  17. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2014-08-26

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  18. Mannosylated thiolated polyethylenimine nanoparticles for the enhanced efficacy of antimonial drug against Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Hafiz S; Ashraf, Sehreen; Akhtar, Sohail; Sohail, Muhammad F; Hussain, Syed Z; Rafay, Muhammad; Yasinzai, Masoom; Hussain, Irshad; Shahnaz, Gul

    2018-01-01

    Our aim was to inhibit trypanothione reductase (TR) and P-gp efflux pump of Leishmania by the use of thiolated polymers. Thus, increasing the intracellular accumulation and therapeutic effectiveness of antimonial compounds. Mannosylated thiolated chitosan and mannosylated thiolated chitosan-polyethyleneimine graft were synthesized and characterized. Meglumine antimoniate-loaded nanoparticles were prepared and evaluated for TR and P-gp efflux pump inhibition, biocompatibility, macrophage uptake and antileishmanial potential. Thiomers inhibited TR with Ki 2.021. The macrophage uptake was 33.7- and 18.9-fold higher with mannosylated thiolated chitosan-polyethyleneimine graft and mannosylated thiolated chitosan nanoparticles, respectively, as compared with the glucantime. Moreover, the in vitro antileishmanial activity showed 14.41- and 7.4-fold improved IC 50 for M-TCS-g-PEI and M-TCS, respectively as compared with glucantime. These results encouraged the concept that TR and P-gp inhibition by the use of thiomers improves the therapeutic efficacy of antimonial drugs.

  19. Antimony in the Contaminated Site of El Triunfo, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez A. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimony has properties similar to arsenic with some of its compounds toxic to humans. Therefore it is necessary to control the wastes accumulated by anthropogenic activities, such as mining, where it is in tailings to be released to the environment. According to the Environment Protection Agency, the maximum value in sediments is 11.2 mg Sb kg–1 and the Earth’s crust average is 0.2 mg Sb kg–1. In this semiarid area, the drainage basin El Carrizal is impacted with wastes of an abandoned gold mine at the Mining District El Triunfo (MD – ET which have tailings with 17,600 mg kg–1 of antimony. In the main dry river (arroyo, the Sb content is between 0.6 and 122 mg kg–1. This element is transported from the source throughout the fluvial basin to discharge into the Pacific Ocean. In the arroyo mouth we collected one sedimentary core and the sediment from dunes (28.6 – 45.7 and 6.43 – 7.74 mg Sb kg–1. This research concluded the antimony is enriched in this semiarid system, with Normalized Enrichment Factors severely enriched mainly in arroyo sediments close to the MD-ET

  20. A NOVEL METHOD OF THE HYDRIDE SEPARATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC AND ANTIMONY BY AAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganden Supriyanto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel method is proposed for the hydride separation when determinining of arsenic and antimony by AAS. A chromatomembrane cell was used as preconcentration-, extraction- and separation-manifold instead of the U-tube phase separator, which is normally fitted in continuous flow vapour systems generating conventionaly the hydrides. The absorbances of the hydrides produced were measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer at 193.7 nm and 217.6 nm. Under optimized analytical conditions, the calibration plot for arsenic was linear from 50 to 500 ng.mL-1 (r2 = 0.9982. The precision for three subsequent measurements of 500 ng.mL-1 arsenic gave rise to a relative standard deviation of 0.4%. The detection limit was 15 ng.mL-1, which is much lower compared with that of the conventional hydride system (2000 ng.mL-1. A similar result was observed in case of antimony: the detection limit was 8 ng.mL-1 when the proposed method was applied. Consequently, the sensitivity of the novel method surpasses systems with conventional hydride generation, i.e. the precision and the acuracy increase whereas the standard deviation and the detection limit decrease. The proposed method was applied in pharmacheutial analysis and the certified As-content of a commercial product was very sufficiently confirmed.   Keywords: Chromatomembrane Cell, Hydride separation, Arsenic detection, Antimony detection, AAS

  1. Sequestration of Antimony on Calcite Observed by Time-Resolved Nanoscale Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, François; Putnis, Christine V; Montes-Hernandez, German; King, Helen E; Breedveld, Gijs D; Okkenhaug, Gudny

    2018-01-02

    Antimony, which has damaging effects on the human body and the ecosystem, can be released into soils, ground-, and surface waters either from ore minerals that weather in near surface environments, or due to anthropogenic releases from waste rich in antimony, a component used in batteries, electronics, ammunitions, plastics, and many other industrial applications. Here, we show that dissolved Sb can interact with calcite, a widespread carbonate mineral, through a coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism. The process is imaged in situ, at room temperature, at the nanometer scale by using an atomic force microscope equipped with a flow-through cell. Time-resolved imaging allowed following the coupled process of calcite dissolution, nucleation of precipitates at the calcite surface and growth of these precipitates. Sb(V) forms a precipitate, whereas Sb(III) needs to be oxidized to Sb(V) before being incorporated in the new phase. Scanning-electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy allowed identification of the precipitates as two different calcium-antimony phases (Ca 2 Sb 2 O 7 ). This coupled dissolution-precipitation process that occurs in a boundary layer at the calcite surface can sequester Sb as a solid phase on calcite, which has environmental implications as it may reduce the mobility of this hazardous compound in soils and groundwaters.

  2. Structural, magnetic and dielectric investigations in antimony doped nano-phased nickel-zinc ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi, Ch.S. [Department of Physics, Regency Institute of Technology, Adivipolam Yanam 533464, Pondicherry (India); Sridhar, Ch.S.L.N. [Department of Physics, Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology, Aushapur(v) Ghatkesar (M), Hyderabad 501301, Telangana (India); Govindraj, G. [Department of Physics, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences, Pondicherry University, R.V.Nagar, Kalapet, Pondicherry 605014 (India); Bangarraju, S. [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003, Andhrapradesh (India); Potukuchi, D.M., E-mail: potukuchidm@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University:Kakinada, Kakinada 533003 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Nanocrystalline Ni–Zn–Sb ferrites synthesized by hydrothermal method are reported. Influence of Sb{sup 5+} ions on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of ferrites is studied. Phase identification, lattice parameter and crystallite size studies are carried out using by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Addition of dopant resulted for decrease in lattice parameter. Crystallite size gets reduced from 62 nm to 38 nm with doping of Antimony. Crystallite size and porosity exhibit similar trends with doping. Morphological study is carried out by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Strong FTIR absorption bands at 400–600 cm{sup −1} confirm the formation of ferrite structure. Increase of porosity is attributed to the grain size. Doping with Antimony results for decrease in saturation magnetization and increase in coercivity. An initial increase of saturation magnetization for x=0.1 is attributed to the unusually high density. Reversed trend of coercivity with crystallite size are observed. Higher value of dielectric constant ε′(ω) is attributed to the formation of excess of Fe{sup 2+} ions caused by aliovalent doping of Sb{sup 5+} ions. Variation of dielectric constant infers hopping type of conductivity mechanism. The dielectric loss factor tanδ attains lower values of ∼10{sup −2}. High ac resistivity ρ(ω) of 10{sup 8} Ω cm is witnessed for antimony doped ferrites. Higher saturation magnetization and enhanced dielectric response directs for a possible utility as microwave oscillators and switches.

  3. pH-regulated antimony oxychloride nanoparticle formation on titanium oxide nanostructures: a photocatalytically active heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Buchholcz, Balázs

    2017-02-06

    Improving the catalytic activity of heterogeneous photocatalysts has become a hot topic recently. To this end, considerable progress has been made in the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers by e.g. the realization of heterojunction photocatalysts. V-VI-VII compound semiconductors, namely, bismuth oxyhalides, are popular photocatalysts. However, results on antimony oxyhalides [SbOX (X = Br, Cl, I)], the very promising alternatives to the well-known BiOX photomodifiers, are scarce. Here, we report the successful decoration of titanium oxide nanostructures with 8-11 nm diameter SbOX nanoparticles for the first time ever. The product size and stoichiometry could be controlled by the pH of the reactant mixture, while subsequent calcination could transform the structure of the titanate nanotube (TiONT) support and the prepared antimony oxychloride particles. In contrast to the ease of composite formation in the SbOX/TiONT case, anatase TiO could not facilitate the formation of antimony oxychloride nanoparticles on its surface. The titanate nanotube-based composites showed activity in a generally accepted quasi-standard photocatalytic test reaction (methyl orange dye decolorization). We found that the SbOCl/TiONT synthesized at pH = 1 is the most active sample in a broad temperature range.

  4. Polycrystalline thin films of antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition and post deposition treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Pena, Yolanda; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining thin films of polycrystalline antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition followed by heating the thin films at 573 K in selenium vapor. The thin films deposited from chemical baths containing one or more soluble complexes of antimony, and selenosulfate initially did not show X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns corresponding to crystalline antimony selenide. Composition of the films, studied by energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated selenium deficiency. Heating these films in presence of selenium vapor at 573 K under nitrogen (2000 mTorr) resulted in an enrichment of Se in the films. XRD peaks of such films matched Sb 2 Se 3 . Evaluation of band gap from optical spectra of such films shows absorption due to indirect transition occurring in the range of 1-1.2 eV. The films are photosensitive, with dark conductivity of about 2 x 10 -8 (Ω cm) -1 and photoconductivity, about 10 -6 (Ω cm) -1 under tungsten halogen lamp illumination with intensity of 700 W m -2 . An estimate for the mobility life time product for the film is 4 x 10 -9 cm 2 V -1

  5. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L.V.; Loredo, S.L.; Krishnan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb_2S_3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb_2S_3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  6. Morphology and antimony segregation of spangles on batch hot-dip galvanized coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu; Lu, Jintang; Che, Chunshan; Kong, Gang; Xu, Qiaoyu

    2010-06-01

    Spangles produced by batch hot-dip galvanizing process have a rougher surface and a greater surface segregation of alloying element compared with those in continuous hot-dip galvanizing line (CGL), owing to the cooling rate of the former is much smaller than that of the later. Therefore, typical spangles on a batch hot-dipped Zn-0.05Al-0.2Sb alloy coating were investigated. The chemical, morphological characterization and identification of the phases on the spangles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging (BSE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the coating surface usually exhibited three kinds of spangles: shiny, feathery and dull spangle, of which extensively antimony surface segregation was detected. The nature of precipitate on the coating surface was identified as β-Sb 3Zn 4, The precipitated β-Sb 3Zn 4 particles distributed randomly on the shiny spangle surface, both β-Sb 3Zn 4 particles and dentritic segregation of antimony dispersed in the dendritic secondary arm spacings of the feathery spangle and on the whole dull spangle surface. The dentritic segregation of antimony and precipitation of Sb 3Zn 4 compound are discussed by a proposed model.

  7. Morphology and antimony segregation of spangles on batch hot-dip galvanized coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Shu, E-mail: shu.peng@mail.scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 371 Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lu Jintang; Che Chunshan; Kong Gang; Xu Qiaoyu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 371 Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Spangles produced by batch hot-dip galvanizing process have a rougher surface and a greater surface segregation of alloying element compared with those in continuous hot-dip galvanizing line (CGL), owing to the cooling rate of the former is much smaller than that of the later. Therefore, typical spangles on a batch hot-dipped Zn-0.05Al-0.2Sb alloy coating were investigated. The chemical, morphological characterization and identification of the phases on the spangles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging (BSE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the coating surface usually exhibited three kinds of spangles: shiny, feathery and dull spangle, of which extensively antimony surface segregation was detected. The nature of precipitate on the coating surface was identified as {beta}-Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4}, The precipitated {beta}-Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4} particles distributed randomly on the shiny spangle surface, both {beta}-Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4} particles and dentritic segregation of antimony dispersed in the dendritic secondary arm spacings of the feathery spangle and on the whole dull spangle surface. The dentritic segregation of antimony and precipitation of Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4} compound are discussed by a proposed model.

  8. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Garcia, L.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); Loredo, S.L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  9. Dissimilatory antimonate reduction and production of antimony trioxide microcrystals by a novel microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abin, Christopher A; Hollibaugh, James T

    2014-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid that has been exploited by humans since the beginning of modern civilization. The importance of Sb to such diverse industries as nanotechnology and health is underscored by the fact that it is currently the ninth-most mined metal worldwide. Although its toxicity mirrors that of its Group 15 neighbor arsenic, its environmental chemistry is very different, and, unlike arsenic, relatively little is known about the fate and transport of Sb, especially with regard to biologically mediated redox reactions. To further our understanding of the interactions between microorganisms and Sb, we have isolated a bacterium that is capable of using antimonate [Sb(V)] as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, resulting in the precipitation of antimonite [Sb(III)] as microcrystals of antimony trioxide. The bacterium, designated strain MLFW-2, is a sporulating member of a deeply branching lineage within the order Bacillales (phylum Firmicutes). This report provides the first unequivocal evidence that a bacterium is capable of conserving energy for growth and reproduction from the reduction of antimonate. Moreover, microbiological antimonate reduction may serve as a novel route for the production of antimony trioxide microcrystals of commercial significance to the nanotechnology industry.

  10. Effect of antimony oxide on magnesium vanadates for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.T.; Chi, Z.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tunghai University, ROC Taichung (Taiwan)

    2001-05-17

    The effect of antimony oxide addition to MgV{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Mg{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} was studied in the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur. Significant improvements in sulfur selectivity and yield were observed for the uncalcined mechanical mixtures of magnesium vanadates with {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Calcination of the mechanical mixtures resulted in the much stronger synergy in catalytic activity and sulfur selectivity. For the uncalcined samples, XRD, TPR and XPS studies indicated that antimony reduction behaviors in the mechanical mixtures differed very much from those in {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} alone, suggested that their selectivity improvements might be due to the interactions (probably oxygen transfer) between {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} and magnesium vanadates. For the calcined samples, XRD results indicated that their better catalytic performances in H{sub 2}S oxidation were primarily attributed to the formation of VSbO{sub 4} compound from antimony oxide and magnesium vanadates.

  11. A selective iodide ion sensor electrode based on functionalized ZnO nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Willander, Magnus

    2013-02-04

    In this research work, ZnO nanotubes were fabricated on a gold coated glass substrate through chemical etching by the aqueous chemical growth method. For the first time a nanostructure-based iodide ion selective electrode was developed. The ZnO nanotubes were functionalized with miconazole ion exchanger and the electromotive force (EMF) was measured by the potentiometric method. The iodide ion sensor exhibited a linear response over a wide range of concentrations (1 × 10-6 to 1 × 10-1 M) and excellent sensitivity of -62 ± 1 mV/decade. The detection limit of the proposed sensor was found to be 5 × 10-7 M. The effects of pH, temperature, additive, plasticizer and stabilizer on the potential response of iodide ion selective electrode were also studied. The proposed iodide ion sensor demonstrated a fast response time of less than 5 s and high selectivity against common organic and the inorganic anions. All the obtained results revealed that the iodide ion sensor based on functionalized ZnO nanotubes may be used for the detection of iodide ion in environmental water samples, pharmaceutical products and other real samples.

  12. A Selective Iodide Ion Sensor Electrode Based on Functionalized ZnO Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, ZnO nanotubes were fabricated on a gold coated glass substrate through chemical etching by the aqueous chemical growth method. For the first time a nanostructure-based iodide ion selective electrode was developed. The ZnO nanotubes were functionalized with miconazole ion exchanger and the electromotive force (EMF was measured by the potentiometric method. The iodide ion sensor exhibited a linear response over a wide range of concentrations (1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−1 M and excellent sensitivity of –62 ± 1 mV/decade. The detection limit of the proposed sensor was found to be 5 × 10−7 M. The effects of pH, temperature, additive, plasticizer and stabilizer on the potential response of iodide ion selective electrode were also studied. The proposed iodide ion sensor demonstrated a fast response time of less than 5 s and high selectivity against common organic and the inorganic anions. All the obtained results revealed that the iodide ion sensor based on functionalized ZnO nanotubes may be used for the detection of iodide ion in environmental water samples, pharmaceutical products and other real samples.

  13. Studies of selected transuranium and lanthanide tri-iodides under pressure using absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.; Young, J.P.; Peterson, J.R.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville; Benedict, U.

    1987-01-01

    The anhydrous tri-iodides of plutonium, americium and curium under pressure have been investigated using absorption spectrophotometry. These initial studies on plutonium and curium tri-iodides together with the published data for americium tri-iodide show that the rhombohedral form of these compounds (BiI 3 -type structure) can be converted to the orthorhombic form (PuBr 3 -type structure) by applying pressure at room temperature. Absorption spectrophotometry can often differentiate between two crystallographic forms of a material and has been used in the present high-pressure studies to monitor the effects of pressure on the tri-iodides. A complication in these studies of the tri-iodides is a significant shift of their absorption edges with pressure from the near UV to the visible spectral region. With curium tri-iodide this shift causes interference with the major f-f absorption peaks and precludes identification by absorption spectrophotometry of the high pressure phase of CmI 3 . (orig.)

  14. Mechanistic aspects of ingested chlorine dioxide on thyroid function: impact of oxidants on iodide metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercz, J.P.; Jones, L.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Bawa, R.; Condie, L.

    1986-01-01

    Toxicological studies dealing with recent findings of health effects of drinking water disinfectants are reviewed. Experiments with monkeys and rodents indicate that the biological activity of ingested disinfectants is expressed via their chemical interaction with the mucosal epithelia, secretory products, and nutritional contents of the alimentary tract. Evidence exists that a principal partner of this redox interaction is the iodide of nutritional origin that is ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus the observation that subchronic exposure to chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) in drinking water decreases serum thyroxine levels in mammalian species can be best explained with changes produced in the chemical form of the bioavailable iodide. Ongoing and previously reported mechanistic studies indicate that oxidizing agents such as chlorine-based disinfectants oxidize the basal iodide content of the gastrointestinal tract. The resulting reactive iodine species readily attaches to organic matter by covalent bonding. Evidence suggests that the extent to which such iodinated organics are formed is proportional to the magnitude of the electromotive force and stoichiometry of the redox couple between iodide and the disinfectant. Because the extent of thyroid uptake of the bioavailable iodide does not decrease during ClO 2 ingestion, it seems that ClO 2 does not cause iodide deficiency of sufficient magnitude to account for the decease in hormonogenesis. Absorption of one or more of iodinated molecules, e.g., nutrient, hormones, or cellular constituents of the alimentary tract having thyromimetic or thyroid inhibitory properties, is a better hypothesis for the effects seen

  15. Modelling iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol: Contributions of inorganic and organic iodine chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pechtl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of iodine in atmospheric aerosol is currently poorly understood. Models predict negligible iodide concentrations but accumulation of iodate in aerosol, both of which is not confirmed by recent measurements. We present an updated aqueous phase iodine chemistry scheme for use in atmospheric chemistry models and discuss sensitivity studies with the marine boundary layer model MISTRA. These studies show that iodate can be reduced in acidic aerosol by inorganic reactions, i.e., iodate does not necessarily accumulate in particles. Furthermore, the transformation of particulate iodide to volatile iodine species likely has been overestimated in previous model studies due to negligence of collision-induced upper limits for the reaction rates. However, inorganic reaction cycles still do not seem to be sufficient to reproduce the observed range of iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol. Therefore, we also investigate the effects of the recently suggested reaction of HOI with dissolved organic matter to produce iodide. If this reaction is fast enough to compete with the inorganic mechanism, it would not only directly lead to enhanced iodide concentrations but, indirectly via speed-up of the inorganic iodate reduction cycles, also to a decrease in iodate concentrations. Hence, according to our model studies, organic iodine chemistry, combined with inorganic reaction cycles, is able to reproduce observations. The presented chemistry cycles are highly dependent on pH and thus offer an explanation for the large observed variability of the iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol.

  16. Lead iodide X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers for room and high temperature operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermon, H.; James, R.B.; Lund, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this study the authors report on the results of the investigation of lead iodide material properties. The effectiveness of a zone refining purification method on the material purity is determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES and correlated to the electrical and physical material properties. They show that this zone refining method is very efficient in removing impurities from lead iodide, and they also determine the segregation coefficient for some of these impurities. Triple axis X-ray diffraction (TAD) analysis has been used to determine the crystalline perfection of the lead iodide after applying various cutting, etching and fabrication methods. The soft lead iodide crystal was found to be damaged when cleaved by a razor blade, but by using a diamond wheel saw, followed by etching, the crystallinity of the material was much improved, as observed by TAD. Low temperature photoluminescence also indicates an improvement in the material properties of the purified lead iodide. Electrical properties of lead iodide such as carrier mobility, were calculated based on carrier-phonon scattering. The results for the electrical properties were in good agreement with the experimental data

  17. The effects of antimony doping on the surface structure of rutile TiO{sub 2}(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechstein, Ralf; Schuette, Jens; Kuehnle, Angelika [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Osnabrueck, Barbarastrasse 7, D-49076 Osnabrueck (Germany); Kitta, Mitsunori; Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Kobe University, Rokko-dai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: kuehnle@uos.de

    2009-07-01

    Titanium dioxide represents a very important wide bandgap photocatalyst that is known to be sensitized to visible light by transition metal doping. Antimony doping has been demonstrated to provide photocatalytic activity when codoped with chromium at an optimum dopant ratio [Sb]/[Cr] of about 1.5. Here, the role of antimony doping on the surface structure of rutile TiO{sub 2}(110) is studied using non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) under ultra-high vacuum conditions. At first glance, the surface structure of antimony-doped TiO{sub 2}(110) resembles the structure of pristine TiO{sub 2}(110). However, in contrast to what is found in pristine TiO{sub 2}(110), a dense layer of protruding features is observed upon antimony doping, which is tentatively ascribed to antimony-rich clusters. Moreover, homogeneously distributed holes are found on the surface, which differ in depth and shape depending on the preparation conditions. Holes with depths ranging from a few up to more than a hundred monatomic steps are observed. These holes are explained by surface segregation of antimony during annealing, as the ionic radius of Sb{sup 3+} is considerably larger than the ionic radius of Ti{sup 4+}. Our finding provides an indication of why an antimony concentration larger than the optimum ratio results in decreased photocatalytic activity. Moreover, controlling annealing temperature seems to constitute a promising strategy for creating nanosized holes on TiO{sub 2} surfaces.

  18. Hydrogen iodide processing section in a thermochemical water-splitting iodine-sulfur process using a multistage hydrogen iodide decomposer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sakaba, Nariaki; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Shinji; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Kato, Ryoma

    2009-01-01

    A multistage hydrogen iodide (HI) decomposer (repetition of HI decomposition reaction and removal of product iodine by a HIx solution) in a thermochemical water-splitting iodine-sulfur process for hydrogen production using high-temperature heat from the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor was numerically evaluated, especially in terms of the flow rate of undecomposed HI and product iodine at the outlet of the decomposer, in order to reduce the total heat transfer area of heat exchangers for the recycle of undecomposed HI and to eliminate components for the separation. A suitable configuration of the multistage HI decomposer was countercurrent rather than concurrent, and the HIx solution from an electro-electro dialysis at a low temperature was a favorable feed condition for the multistage HI decomposer. The flow rate of undecomposed HI and product iodine at the outlet of the multistage HI decomposer was significantly lower than that of the conventional HI decomposer, because the conversion was increased, and HI and iodine were removed by the HIx solution. Based on this result, an alternative HI processing section using the multistage HI decomposer and eliminating some recuperators, coolers, and components for the separation was proposed and evaluated. The total heat transfer area of heat exchangers in the proposed HI processing section could be reduced to less than about 1/2 that in the conventional HI processing section. (author)

  19. Comparison of oral itraconazole and intramuscular meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Rahman, A.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral itraconazole against intramuscular meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Two hundred eligible and consenting patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) were divided in two groups with 100 patients in each. The number and location of the lesions were documented and clinical types of cutaneous leishmaniasis were noted. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin slit smear and histopathology of the lesional skin. Culture on Nicolle Novy MacNeal (NNN) medium and Leishmanin test was done in all patients. All the patients in both groups were subjected to complete blood picture, urine examination, serum urea and creatinine levels and ECG examination. One group was given itraconazole 100 mg twice daily orally for a duration of 6-8 weeks. The other group was given meglumine antimoniate 10 cc in the form of deep intramuscular injections for 15-30 days. The efficacy of the treatment was judged by clinical and parasitological response. Side effects of the agents were also noted during treatment. Out of 200 patients studied, 185 were males and 15 were females. The mean age of presentation was 30 + 6.6 years. Single lesion was seen in 132 (66%) subjects whereas 68 (34%) subjects had multiple lesions. Slit skin smears were positive in 50 (25%) of the patients. Skin biopsy yielded the presence of LT bodies in 150 (75%) subjects. The culture was positive in 102 (51%) cases. Leishmanin test was positive in 94% subjects. Seventy-five (75%) patients on itraconazole therapy showed complete clinical and parasitological cure in 4-8 weeks duration. A rise in ALT was seen in 12% subjects. Five (5%) subjects did not show any improvement till the end of therapy. Sixty-five (65%) subjects on meglumine antimoniate showed complete healing in 15-30 days. In 35 (35%) of the patients, the treatment had to be stopped due to intolerable side-effects. Four cases of lupoid leishmaniasis and 4 cases of sporotrichoid leishmaniasis

  20. Iodide behaviour in hard clay rocks under controlled physico-chemical conditions at different concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasca, B.; Savoye, S.; Wittebroodt, C.; Leupin, O.X.; Descostes, M.; Grenut, B.; Meier, P.; Michelot, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. With a half-life of 1.6 10 7 years, its high mobility and its potential to accumulate in the biosphere, iodine-129 is considered, from safety assessment calculations for radioactive waste repositories, to be one of the main radiological dose contributors. Based on the findings of previous studies, iodide, especially at low concentrations, seems to be migrating at a slower rate in clay rock than Cl-36. The cause of this retardation regarding the diffusion of iodide versus chloride is not yet understood but several hypotheses are point towards sorption on natural organic matter (NOM), pyrite or redox reactions. Oxidation of iodide would form IO 3 - which is known to have a higher sorption affinity on several soils and sediment samples than iodide. The present project aims at exploring the effect on the iodide behaviour of two parameters: (i) the initial concentration of iodide and (ii) the amount of NOM contained in the argillite samples. Such an investigation is carried out on Tournemire argillite by means of both batch and through-diffusion experiments. The main challenge is to exclude as much as possible the occurrence of any experimental artefact that could induce iodide uptake (oxygen contamination, dissolution/precipitation of carbonate phases). Regarding redox conditions and rock equilibrium, all the experiments were carried out under physico-chemical conditions as close as possible to those prevailing in field. Using a glove box with an atmosphere of N 2 /CO 2 (respectively 99.6% and 0.4%), we preserved the experiments from oxygen and maintained the calculated in-situ carbonate equilibrium. At first, four through-diffusion experiments with the non-sorbing tracers HTO and Cl-36 were performed to allow the diffusive parameters of each sample to be defined. Afterwards, iodide was injected in the diffusion cells at four different concentrations (10 -6 M to 10 -3 M). Thus, the comparison of the incoming fluxes of

  1. A glucose bio-battery prototype based on a GDH/poly(methylene blue) bioanode and a graphite cathode with an iodide/tri-iodide redox couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen-Yuan; Nien, Po-Chin; Chen, Chien-Hsiao; Chen, Lin-Chi; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2012-07-01

    A glucose bio-battery prototype independent of oxygen is proposed based on a glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) bioanode and a graphite cathode with an iodide/tri-iodide redox couple. At the bioanode, a NADH electrocatalyst, poly(methylene blue) (PMB), which can be easily grown on the electrode (screen-printed carbon paste electrode, SPCE) by electrodeposition, is harnessed and engineered. We find that carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are capable of significantly increasing the deposition amount of PMB and thus enhancing the PMB's electrocatalysis of NADH oxidation and the glucose bio-battery's performance. The choice of the iodide/tri-iodide redox couple eliminates the dependence of oxygen for this bio-battery, thus enabling the bio-battery with a constant current-output feature similar to that of the solar cells. The present glucose bio-battery prototype can attain a maximum power density of 2.4 μW/cm(2) at 25 °C. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. THERAPY OF GRAVES’ DISEASE WITH SODIUM IODIDE-131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Hartadi Noor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Graves’ disease is the most common form of thyrotoxicosis, with a peak incidence in the 20-40 year of age group. Females are involved about five times more commonly than male. The easiest sign to recognize patients with Graves’ disease is the present of Graves’ ophthalmopathy. The diagnosis of Graves’ disease may sometimes base only on a physical examination and a medical history. Diffuse thyroid enlargement and sign of thyrotoxicosis, mainly ophthalmopathy and to lesser extent dermopathy, usually adequate for diagnosis. TSH test combined with FT4 test is usually the first laboratory test performs in these patients. The patients suffered Graves’ disease can be treated with antithyroid drug therapy or undergo subtotal Thyroidectomy. Another therapy is by using sodium iodide-131, where this therapy has advantages including easy administration, effectiveness, low expense, and absence of pain. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Molecular epidemiology and in vitro evidence suggest that Leishmania braziliensis strain helps determine antimony response among American tegumenary leishmaniasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Silvana C; Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Silva, Juliana A; Magalhães, Viviane; Medina, Lilian; Queiroz, Adriano; Machado, Paulo Roberto L; Schriefer, Albert

    2018-02-01

    Antimony is the first line drug for treating American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. In this country, Leishmania braziliensis causes at least three distinct forms of disease: localized cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). All forms can be found in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. ML and DL respond poorly to antimony, in contrast to CL. The L. braziliensis population causing ATL in Corte de Pedra is genetically very diverse, with strains of the parasite associating with the clinical form of leishmaniasis. We tested the hypotheses that antimony refractoriness is associated with L. braziliensis genotypes, and that parasites from ML and DL present greater in vitro resistance to antimony than L. braziliensis from CL. Comparison of geographic coordinates of living sites between antimony responders and non-responders by Cusick and Edward́s test showed that refractoriness and responsiveness to the drug were similarly wide spread in the region (p>0.05). Parasites were then genotyped by sequencing a locus starting at position 425,451 on chromosome 28, which is polymorphic among L. braziliensis of Corte de Pedra. Haplotype CC- in CHR28/425,451 was associated with risk of treatment failure among CL patients (Fisheŕs exact test, p=0.03, odds ratio=4.65). This haplotype could not be found among parasites from ML or DL. Finally, sensitivity to antimony was evaluated exposing L. braziliensis promastigotes to increasing concentrations of meglumine antimoniate in vitro. Parasites from ML and DL were more resistant to antimony at doses of 2mg/100μL and beyond than those isolated from CL (Fisher's exact test, p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively). The intrinsically lower susceptibility of L. brazliensis from ML and DL to antimony parallels what is observed for patients' responsiveness in the field. This finding reinforces that ML and DL patients would benefit from initiating treatment with drugs currently considered as second line, like

  4. Increased biliary excretion of glutathione is generated by the glutathione-dependent hepatobiliary transport of antimony and bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurasics, A; Koszorús, L; Varga, F; Gregus, Z

    1992-10-06

    We have recently demonstrated that the hepatobiliary transport of arsenic is glutathione-dependent and is associated with a profound increase in biliary excretion of glutathione (GSH), hepatic GSH depletion and diminished GSH conjugation (Gyurasics A, Varga F and Gregus Z, Biochem Pharmacol 41: 937-944 and Gyurasics A, Varga F and Gregus Z, Biochem Pharmacol 42: 465-468, 1991). The present studies in rats aimed to determine whether antimony and bismuth, other metalloids in group Va of the periodic table, also possess similar properties. Antimony potassium tartrate (25-100 mumol/kg, i.v.) and bismuth ammonium citrate (50-200 mumol/kg, i.v.) increased up to 50- and 4-fold, respectively, the biliary excretion of non-protein thiols (NPSH). This resulted mainly from increased hepatobiliary transport of GSH as suggested by a close parallelism in the biliary excretion of NPSH and GSH after antimony or bismuth administration. Within 2 hr, rats excreted into bile 55 and 3% of the dose of antimony (50 mumol/kg, i.v.) and bismuth (150 mumol/kg, i.v.), respectively. The time courses of the biliary excretion of these metalloids and NPSH or GSH were strikingly similar suggesting co-ordinate hepatobiliary transport of the metalloids and GSH. However, at the peak of their excretion, each molecule of antimony or bismuth resulted in a co-transport of approximately three molecules of GSH. Diethyl maleate, indocyanine green and sulfobromophthalein (BSP), which decreased biliary excretion of GSH, significantly diminished excretion of antimony and bismuth into bile indicating that hepatobiliary transport of these metalloids is GSH-dependent. Administration of antimony, but not bismuth, decreased hepatic GSH level by 30% and reduced the GSH conjugation and biliary excretion of BSP. These studies demonstrate that the hepatobiliary transport of trivalent antimony and bismuth is GSH-dependent similarly to the hepatobiliary transport of trivalent arsenic. Proportionally to their biliary

  5. Antimony doped barium strontium ferrite perovskites as novel cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yihan, E-mail: lyhyy@mail.ustc.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, 221116 (China); Lu, Xiaoyong [China Anhui Key Laboratory of Low Temperature Co-fired Materials, Department of Chemistry, Huainan Normal University, Huainan, Anhui, 232001 (China); Niu, Jinan; Chen, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, 221116 (China); Ding, Yanzhi [China Anhui Key Laboratory of Low Temperature Co-fired Materials, Department of Chemistry, Huainan Normal University, Huainan, Anhui, 232001 (China); Ou, Xuemei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, 221116 (China); Zhao, Ling [Department of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Antimony was doped to barium strontium ferrite to produce ferrite-based perovskites with a composition of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 3−δ} (x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1) as novel cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The perovskite properties including oxygen nonstoichiometry (δ), mean valence of B-site, tolerance factors, thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and electrical conductivity (σ) are explored as a function of antimony content. By defect chemistry analysis, the TECs decrease since the variable oxygen vacancy concentration is decreased by Sb doping, and σ decreases with x due to the reduced charge concentration of Fe{sup 4+} content. Consequently, the electrochemical performance was substantially improved and the interfacial polarization resistance was reduced from 0.213 to 0.120 Ωcm{sup 2} at 700 °C with Sb doping. The perovskite with x = 1.0 is suggested as the most promising composition as SOFC cathode material. - Highlights: • Antimony is doped to barium strontium ferrite to produce novel cathodes. • δ, TECs and σ are evaluated as a function of antimony content. • The electrochemical performance is substantially improved with antimony doping.

  6. Species-Specific Antimonial Sensitivity in Leishmania Is Driven by Post-Transcriptional Regulation of AQP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Goutam; Mandal, Srotoswati; Sharma, Mansi; Charret, Karen Santos; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Mukhopadhyay, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania is a digenetic protozoan parasite causing leishmaniasis in humans. The different clinical forms of leishmaniasis are caused by more than twenty species of Leishmania that are transmitted by nearly thirty species of phlebotomine sand flies. Pentavalent antimonials (such as Pentostam or Glucantime) are the first line drugs for treating leishmaniasis. Recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony (Sb(V)) acts as a pro-drug, which is converted to the more active trivalent form (Sb(III)). However, sensitivity to trivalent antimony varies among different Leishmania species. In general, Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are more sensitive to Sb(III) than the species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Leishmania aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) facilitates the adventitious passage of antimonite down a concentration gradient. In this study, we show that Leishmania species causing CL accumulate more antimonite, and therefore exhibit higher sensitivity to antimonials, than the species responsible for VL. This species-specific differential sensitivity to antimonite is directly proportional to the expression levels of AQP1 mRNA. We show that the stability of AQP1 mRNA in different Leishmania species is regulated by their respective 3’-untranslated regions. The differential regulation of AQP1 mRNA explains the distinct antimonial sensitivity of each species. PMID:25714343

  7. Theoretical and experimental studies for selective removal of antimony from zircaloy using thiourea grafted polystyrene adsorbent. Contributed Paper MS-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Jyotsna S.; Gaikar, Vilas G.

    2014-01-01

    During the dissolution step in nuclear fuel reprocessing, hulls consisting of essentially zircaloy clad are produced as high active solid waste. For recovery and reuse of zircaloy from this solid waste, 58 Co and 125 Sb which are present as the activation products of cobalt and tin in zircaloy tubes need to be separated. The present work involves selective sorption of antimony on thiourea grafted polymeric adsorbent in the presence of cobalt and zirconium. The effect of pH for the optimum uptake of antimony ions was studied. Since the variation in pH influences the antimony species formed in the solution, density functional theoretical (DFT) studies were performed in order to understand the complexation of the metal species with the grafted adsorbent at the molecular level. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the adsorbent which is located on S atom of loaded thiourea interacts with lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of Sb(V). The grafted adsorbent exhibits higher interaction with antimony species as compared to cobalt and zirconium. The metal-S bond distances are in good agreement with the XRD values for similar systems. Including the effect of solvation model helps in validation of simulation results with experimental adsorption data suggesting the application of thiourea grafted adsorbent for antimony separation. (author)

  8. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) inhibits in vivo iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in rat thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, S.M.; Alexander, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    Decreased serum concentrations of T3 and T4 occur in patients treated with the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine (CBZ), but with rare exception, these patients remain euthyroid. The mechanism that accounts for diminished hormone levels is unknown, and our objective was to study the direct effect of CBZ on iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in thyroid glands of CBZ-treated and pair-fed control rats. Chronic ingestion (per os) of CBZ in male rats reduced the four hour thyroid 131I-iodide uptake by approximately 60%. This inhibition occurred after the animals had received sufficient CBZ to attain plasma CBZ concentrations of 0.8 microgram/ml. Continued treatment with CBZ ranging from 560 to 800 mg/kg/day for 14 days did not result in further inhibition of iodide uptake even though the plasma CBZ concentrations had increased 6-20 fold. No inhibition of iodide uptake was apparent when the animals initially received CBZ ranging from 40 to 152 mg/kg body weight for 22 days when there were no detectable levels of plasma CBZ. Overall growth rates of CBZ-treated rats were slightly (6-10%) less than the pair-fed control animals. Plasma T4 concentrations were reduced by 18% (p less than 0.05) in the CBZ-fed animals, while T3 concentrations were diminished by 53% (p less than 0.01). CBZ appeared to alter thyroidal iodide transport because the thyroid:plasma iodide ratios were decreased by 26% in the drug-treated rats. The distribution of radioiodine in thyroidal iodoamino acids was essentially the same in both groups of rats but the absolute quantities of radioiodine were more than 2.5 times greater in the control rats. CBZ failed to inhibit peroxidase-catalyzed iodide and guaiacol oxidation in vitro

  9. Influence of antimony on the elctrochemical behaviour and the structure of the lead dioxide active mass of lead/acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D. (Central Lab. of Electrochemical Power Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)); Dakhouche, A. (Central Lab. of Electrochemical Power Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)); Rogachev, T. (Central Lab. of Electrochemical Power Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1993-01-29

    The effect of antimony on the formation of the skeleton structure of tubular electrodes filled with lead dioxide active mass (PAM) is investigated. Antimony is added as ions to the solution, as Sb[sub 2]O[sub 3] or Sb[sub 2]O[sub 5] to PAM, or as an additive to the electrode spine alloy. The effect of antimony on the crystallinity of PAM particles and agglomerates is examined. It is established that antimony increases the capacity of tubular powder electrodes when added either to the alloy or as antimony oxide to the PAM. It accelerates the processes of formation of the PAM skeleton structure and decreases the crystallinity of PAM particles and agglomerates. These effects of antimony are explained based on the concept of a gel-crystal structure for the PAM. Antimony improves the electron conductivity of gel zones. Its effect depends on the type and valency of the antimony ions, and on the density of the PAM. (orig.)

  10. The method of determination of micro quantities of labelled iodide in Na125 I carrier free solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholbaev, A.Kh.; Shilin, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    The analytical method was elaborated with the purpose to increase detection limit and radiation safety of labelled iodide determination. The method includes oxidation of iodide by iodate in diluted sulphur acid solution with molar concentration 0,03-0,04/moles/litre at molar ratio of iodide to iodate I - :IO - 3 1:12,5. The extraction of I 2 produced is done by toluene. (author)

  11. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The

  12. Study on the Electrochemical Behavior of Iodide at Platinum Electrode in Potassium Chlorate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sang Hyuk; Yeon, Jei Won; Song, Kyu Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Radioactive iodine-131, is one of the most hazardous fission products which could be released from fuels of nuclear reactors during the severe accident of nuclear power plants. Due to its high radioactivity, high fission yield (2.8%) and hazardous biological effects, the behavior of iodine has been taken interests in many research groups. Iodine is known to be released from the fuels as a cesium iodide form, CsI. And, as nuclear fuels are mostly placed in the water pool, it is easily dissolved in the water after released from the fuels. In water, iodide anion could be oxidized into molecular iodine. As the molecular iodine is a volatile species and the oxidizing rate is affected by many environmental facts such as pH, radiolysis products and temperature, the oxidation reaction of the iodide ion has been considered as an important chemical reaction related to the severe accident of nuclear power plants In present work, the electrochemical behavior of iodide anion was observed by using cyclic voltammetric technique in potassium chlorate solutions. We observed two different oxidation waves in the oxidation potential region. From the comparison with the previous reported results, one is regarded as the oxidation of iodide into molecular iodine. The other is evaluated to be the formation of high-valent iodine-containing compounds

  13. Estradiol decreases iodide uptake by rat thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlanetto T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has well-known indirect effects on the thyroid. A direct effect of estradiol on thyroid follicular cells, increasing cell growth and reducing the expression of the sodium-iodide symporter gene, has been recently reported. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of estradiol on iodide uptake by thyroid follicular cells, using FRTL-5 cells as a model. Estradiol decreased basal iodide uptake by FRTL-5 cells from control levels of 2.490 ± 0.370 to 2.085 ± 0.364 pmol I-/µg DNA at 1 ng/ml (P<0.02, to 1.970 ± 0.302 pmol I-/µg DNA at 10 ng/ml (P<0.003, and to 2.038 ± 0.389 pmol I-/µg DNA at 100 ng/ml (P<0.02. In addition, 4 ng/ml estradiol decreased iodide uptake induced by 0.02 mIU/ml thyrotropin from 8.678 ± 0.408 to 7.312 ± 0.506 pmol I-/µg DNA (P<0.02. A decrease in iodide uptake by thyroid cells caused by estradiol has not been described previously and may have a role in goiter pathogenesis.

  14. Monitoring of fluoride and iodide levels in drinking water using ion selective electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Viqar-Un-Nisa; Hussain, M.; Tanwir, R.; Qureshi, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Fluoride and iodide, the most important constituents of drinking water are essential as well as toxic depending on their levels. For their analysis in water mostly ion-selective electrodes, spectrophotometry, titrimetry and coulometry etc; have been used and literature has been briefly reviewed. Ion-selective electrodes offer an efficient method for the measurement of the two halides and were mostly used during this work. Fabrication of these electrodes is briefly described. Comparison of results obtained by ion selective electrode and coulometry is given. Recoveries of the added fluoride ions from the samples were good. A large number of water samples from Rawalpindi-Islamabad area were analyzed for fluoride and iodide. Levels of fluoride and iodide from two main water reservoirs of Rawalpindi and Islamabad are reported before and after treatment. Both surface and ground water samples were analyzed and results are compared and discussed. Some samples from northern areas were also analyzed for iodide and fluoride and compared. Intake of fluoride and iodide from water of different areas is also compared. Water samples, which caused bone deformation in certain areas in Punjab due to excess fluoride, were also analyzed for fluoride and results are presented. (author)

  15. Processes of adsorption/desorption of iodides and cadmium cations onto/from Ag(111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR D. JOVIĆ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the adsorption/desorption processes of iodides and cadmium cations in the presence of iodides onto/from Ag(111 were investigated. It was shown that both processes were complex, characterized by several peaks on the cyclic voltammograms (CVs. By PeakFit analysis of the recorded CVs and subsequent fitting of the obtained peaks by the Frumkin adsorption isotherm, the interaction parameter (f and the Gibbs energy of adsorption (DGads for each adsorbed phase were determined. In the case of iodide adsorption, four peaks were characterized by negative values of f, indicating attractive lateral interaction between the adsorbed anions, while two of them possessed value of f < –4, indicating phase transition processes. The adsorption/desorption processes of cadmium cations (underpotential deposition – UPD of cadmium in the presence of iodide anions was characterized by two main peaks, each of them being composed of two or three peaks with negative values of f. By the analysis of charge vs. potential dependences obtained either from the CVs or current transients on potentiostatic pulses, it was concluded that adsorbed iodides did not undergo desorption during the process of Cd UPD, but became replaced by Cd ad-atoms and remained adsorbed on top of a Cd layer and/or in between Cd the ad-atoms.

  16. Alpha-lipoic acid induces sodium iodide symporter expression in TPC-1 thyroid cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun-Jeung; Kim, Tae Yong; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Jeon, Min Ji; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with metastatic thyroid cancers that do not uptake iodine need effective therapeutic option. Differentiation-inducing agents have been tried to restore functional expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) without success. Our objective was to assess the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), known as potential antioxidant, on expression of sodium iodide symporter in thyroid cancer cells. Methods: Human thyroid cancer-derived cell lines, TPC-1, were treated with ALA, and changes in NIS mRNA and protein expression were measured. ALA's effect on NIS gene promoter was evaluated, and functional NIS expression was assessed by iodide uptake assay. Results: Treatment with ALA increased NIS mRNA expression up to ten folds of control dose-dependently after 24 h of exposure. ALA increased NIS promoter activity, and increased iodide uptake by 1.6 fold. ALA induced expression of NIS protein, but had no significant effect on the plasma membrane trafficking. ALA increased phosphorylation of CREB and nuclear translocation of pCREB, and co-treatment of ALA and trichostatin A increased iodide uptake by three folds in TPC-1 cells. Conclusions: ALA is a potential agent to increase NIS transcription in TPC-1. It could be used as an adjunctive agent to increase efficacy of radioiodine therapy if combined with a strategy to increase NIS protein trafficking to cell membrane.

  17. Capture of organic iodides from nuclear waste by metal-organic framework-based molecular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baiyan; Dong, Xinglong; Wang, Hao; Ma, Dingxuan; Tan, Kui; Jensen, Stephanie; Deibert, Benjamin J; Butler, Joseph; Cure, Jeremy; Shi, Zhan; Thonhauser, Timo; Chabal, Yves J; Han, Yu; Li, Jing

    2017-09-07

    Effective capture of radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste remains a significant challenge due to the drawbacks of current adsorbents such as low uptake capacity, high cost, and non-recyclability. We report here a general approach to overcome this challenge by creating radioactive organic iodide molecular traps through functionalization of metal-organic framework materials with tertiary amine-binding sites. The molecular trap exhibits a high CH 3 I saturation uptake capacity of 71 wt% at 150 °C, which is more than 340% higher than the industrial adsorbent Ag 0 @MOR under identical conditions. These functionalized metal-organic frameworks also serve as good adsorbents at low temperatures. Furthermore, the resulting adsorbent can be recycled multiple times without loss of capacity, making recyclability a reality. In combination with its chemical and thermal stability, high capture efficiency and low cost, the adsorbent demonstrates promise for industrial radioactive organic iodides capture from nuclear waste. The capture mechanism was investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.Capturing radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste is important for safe nuclear energy usage, but remains a significant challenge. Here, Li and co-workers fabricate a stable metal-organic framework functionalized with tertiary amine groups that exhibits high capacities for radioactive organic iodides uptake.

  18. An investigation of sodium iodide solubility in sodium-stainless steel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Norihiko; Tashiro, Suguru

    1996-01-01

    Sodium iodide and major constituents of stainless steel in sodium are determined by using the steel capsules to obtain a better understanding on contribution of the constituents to the apparent iodide solubility in sodium. The capsule loaded with 20 g sodium and 0.1 - 0.3 g powder of sodium iodide is heated at its upper part in a furnace and cooled at its bottom on brass plates to establish a large temperature gradient along the capsule tube. After a given period of equilibration, the iodide and constituents are fixed in solidified sodium by quick quenching of the capsules. Sodium samples are taken from the sectioned capsule tube and submitted to sodium dissolution by vaporized water for determination of the iodine and to vacuum distillation for determination of the metal elements. Iron and nickel concentrations are observed to be lower in the samples at higher iodine concentrations. Chromium and manganese concentrations are seen to be insensitive to the iodine concentrations. The observations can be interpreted by a model that sodium oxide combines with metal iodide in sodium to form a complex compound and with consideration that the compound will fall and deposit onto the bottom of the capsule by thermal diffusion. (author)

  19. Capture of organic iodides from nuclear waste by metal-organic framework-based molecular traps

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan

    2017-09-01

    Effective capture of radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste remains a significant challenge due to the drawbacks of current adsorbents such as low uptake capacity, high cost, and non-recyclability. We report here a general approach to overcome this challenge by creating radioactive organic iodide molecular traps through functionalization of metal-organic framework materials with tertiary amine-binding sites. The molecular trap exhibits a high CH3I saturation uptake capacity of 71 wt% at 150 °C, which is more than 340% higher than the industrial adsorbent Ag0@MOR under identical conditions. These functionalized metal-organic frameworks also serve as good adsorbents at low temperatures. Furthermore, the resulting adsorbent can be recycled multiple times without loss of capacity, making recyclability a reality. In combination with its chemical and thermal stability, high capture efficiency and low cost, the adsorbent demonstrates promise for industrial radioactive organic iodides capture from nuclear waste. The capture mechanism was investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.Capturing radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste is important for safe nuclear energy usage, but remains a significant challenge. Here, Li and co-workers fabricate a stable metal-organic framework functionalized with tertiary amine groups that exhibits high capacities for radioactive organic iodides uptake.

  20. The value of iodide as a parameter in the chemical characterisation of groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J. W.; Howard, K. W. F.; Pacey, N. R.; Tellam, J. H.

    1982-06-01

    Brackish and saline groundwaters can severely constrain the use of fresh groundwaters. Their chemical characterisation is important in understanding the hydraulic conditions controlling their presence in an aquifer. Major ions are frequently of limited value but minor ions can be used. Iodide in groundwater is particularly significant in many environments due to the presence of soluble iodine in aquifer matrix materials. Iodide is found in groundwaters in parts of the English Chalk aquifer in concentrations higher than are present in modern seawater. Its presence is considered as a indication of groundwater residence and is of use in the characterisation of fresh as well as saline waters. Under certain circumstances modern seawater intrusion into aquifers along English estuaries produces groundwaters which are easily identified due to iodide enrichment from estuarine muds. In other environments iodide concentrations are of value in distinguishing between groundwaters in limestones and shaly gypsiferous rocks as shown by a study in Qatar, while in an alluvial aquifer study in Peru iodide has been used to identify groundwaters entering the aquifer from adjacent granodiorites.

  1. Stable iodide doping induced by photonic curing for carbon nanotube transparent conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachi, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Zhou, Ying; Azumi, Reiko

    2018-06-01

    Doping has become crucial for achieving stable and high-performance conductive transparent carbon nanotube (CNT) films. In this study, we systematically investigate the doping effects of a few materials including alkali metal iodides, nonmetal iodide, and metals. We demonstrate that photonic curing can enhance the doping effects, and correspondingly improve the conductivity of CNT films, and that such iodides have better doping effects than metals. In particular, doping with a nonmetal compound (NH4I) shows the largest potential to improve the conductivity of CNT films. Typically, doping with metal iodides reduces the sheet resistance (R S) of CNT films with 70–80% optical transmittances at λ = 550 nm from 600–2400 to 250–440 Ω/square, whereas doping with NH4I reduces R S to 57 and 84 Ω/square at 74 and 84% optical transmittances, respectively. Interestingly, such a doped CNT film exhibits only a slight increase in sheet resistance under an extreme environment of high temperature (85 °C) and high relative humidity (85%) for 350 h. The results suggest that photonic-curing-induced iodide doping is a promising approach to producing high-performance conductive transparent CNT films.

  2. Trapping radiodine, in the form of methyl iodide, on nuclear carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacapricha, D. [Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Taylor, C. [John Moores Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Studies have been performed on potassium-iodide-impregnated charcoals of the type used in the nuclear industry for trapping radioiodine released during nuclear fission. The effects of various parameters on the trapping efficiency of methyl iodide have been investigated. A variation in particle size within a bulk charcoal caused poor precision in K value measurements because of differences in surface area, pore volume, and bed density, leading to differences in the deposition of the impregnant. Precision is improved by sieving the charcoal to a narrower size because smaller particles have a higher porosity. This finding is supported by surface area and pore measurements. Two methods of impregnation are compared by measuring K values and the deposition of potassium iodide. Charcoal impregnated by rotary evaporation exhibits both higher K values and higher potassium iodide contents than sprayed charcoal. Two designs of spraying drum are compared: a drum with helical vanes allows more efficient deposition and more uniform distribution of impregnant than a drum with axial vanes. A decrease in the K value with increasing humidity correlates with the available surface area. A similar correlation exists between water content and available pore volume. Aging of potassium-iodide-impregnated charcoal, caused by the formation of oxygen complexes on the surface, is associated with significant falls in K value. K values of charcoals also can be restored to at least their original values by heat treatment in the absence of air. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Functional activity of human sodium/iodide symporter in tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrich, T.; Knapp, W.H.; Poetter, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) actively transports iodide into thyrocytes. Thus, NIS represents a key protein for diagnosis and radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer. Additionally, in the future the NIS gene may be used for cancer gene therapy of non-thyroid-derived malignancies. In this study we evaluated the functionality of NIS with respect to iodide uptake in a panel of tumor cell lines and compared this to gene transfer efficiency. Methods: A human NIS-containing expression vector and reporter-gene vectors encoding and beta;-Galactosidase- or EGFP were used for transient transfection of 13 tumor cell lines. Following transfection measurements of NIS-mediated radioiodide uptake using Na 125 I and of transfection efficiency were performed. The latter included β;-Galactosidase activity measurements using a commercial kit and observation by fluorescence microscopy for EGFP expression. Results: In contrast to respective parental cells, most NIS-transfected cell lines displayed high, perchlorate-sensitive radioiodide uptake. Differences in radioiodide uptake between cell lines apparently corresponded to transfection efficiencies, as judged from reporter-gene assays. Conclusion: With respect to iodide uptake we provide evidence that NIS is functional in different cellular context. As iodide uptake capacity appears to be well correlated to gene transfer efficiency, cell type-specific actions on NIS (e. g. post-translational modification such as glycosylation) are not inhibitory to NIS function. Our data support the promising role of NIS in cancer gene therapy strategies. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis, characterization and single crystal X-ray analysis of chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.S. Chauhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III has been prepared in distilled acetonitrile and characterized by physicochemical [melting point and molecular weight determination, elemental analysis (C, H, N, S & Sb], spectral [FT–IR, far IR, NMR (1H & 13C] studies. The crystal and molecular structure was further confirmed using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which features a five-coordinate geometry for antimony(III within a ClS4 donor set. The distortion in the co-planarity of ClSbS3 evidences the stereochemical influence exerts by the lone pair of electrons on antimony(III. Two centrosymmetrically related molecule held together via C–H···Cl secondary interaction result in molecular aggregation of the compound.

  5. Growth and characterisation of lead iodide single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Justus

    2012-01-01

    The work in hand deals with the growth and characterisation of lead iodide (PbI 2 ) single crystals. PbI 2 is regarded as a promising candidate for low-noise X- and gamma ray detection at room temperature. Its benefits if compared to conventional materials like HgI 2 , CdTe, Si, or GaAs lie in a band gap energy of 2.32 eV, an excellent ability to absorb radiation, and a high electrical resistivity. For an application of PbI 2 as detector material the growth and characterisation of crystals with high chemical and structural quality is extremely challenging. In light of this, the effectiveness of zone purification of the PbI 2 used for crystal growth was confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, technological aspects during processing of purified PbI 2 were investigated. With the help of thermal analysis, a correlation was found between the degree of exposing the source material to oxygen from the air and the structural quality of the resulting crystals. A hydrogen treatment was applied to PbI 2 as an effective method for the removal of oxidic pollutions, which resulted in a significant reduction of structural defects like polytypic growth and stress-induced cracking. The growth of PbI 2 single crystals was, among others, carried out by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method. In this context, much effort was put on the investigation of influences resulting from the design and preparation of ampoules. For the first time, crystal growth of PbI 2 was also carried out by the Czochralski method. If compared to the Bridgman-Stockbarger method, the Czochralski technique allowed a significantly faster growth of nearly crack-free crystals with a reproducible predetermination of crystallographic orientation. By an optimised sample preparation of PbI 2 , surface orientations perpendicular to the usually cleaved (0001) plane were realised. It is now possible to determine the material properties along directions which were so far not accessible. Thus, for example, the ratio of

  6. Antimony Adsorption from Zarshouran Gold Mineral Processing Plant Wastewater by Nano Zero Valent Iron Coated on Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nader nosrati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effluent from Zarshouran gold mineral processing plant contains high quantities of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and bismuth. These metals and metalloids are soluble in water and very toxic when they enter the environment. Their solubility in water causes the polluted area to extend beyond their point of origin. In this article, different methods of antimony removal from water and wastewater were reviewed and the zero-valent iron nanoparticles coated on Bentonite were selected as an effective and low cost material for removing antimony from wastewater. For the purposes of this study, zero-valent iron nanoparticles of 40-100 nanometers in size were synthesized by dropwise addition of sodium borohydride solution to an Iron (III aqueous solution at  ambient temperature and mixed with nitrogen gas. To avoid particle agglomeration and to enhance the product’s environmentally safe application, the  nanoparticles were coated on Bentonite and characterized by SEM/EDAX and BET. The experiments were carried out by intense mixing of the adsorbent with 10ml of real/synthtic wastewater samples in 20ml bottles.  The effects of pH, contact time, temperature, and adsorbent dosage on antimony removal efficiency were investigated under intense mixing using a magnetic mixer. Finally, the effluents were filtered upon completion of the experiments and used for atomic adsorption analysis. The results of the experiments showed that the adsorption isotherms of the synthesized nanoparticles obeyed the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The experiments carried out on real samples showed that antimony adsorption capacity for B-nZVI was 2.6 mg/g of the adsorbent and that the highest antimony removal efficiency was 99.56%.

  7. One-Step Extraction of Antimony in Low Temperature from Stibnite Concentrate Using Iron Oxide as Sulfur-Fixing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new process for one-step extraction of antimony in low temperature from stibnite concentrate by reductive sulfur-fixation smelting in sodium molten salt, using iron oxide as sulfur-fixing agent, was presented. The influences of molten salt addition and composition, ferric oxide dosage, smelting temperature and duration on extraction efficiency of antimony were investigated in details, respectively. The optimum conditions were determined as follows: 1.0 time stoichiometric requirement (α of mixed sodium salt (αsalt = 1.0, WNaCl:Wsalt = 40%, αFe2O3 = 1.0, Wcoke:Wstibnite = 40%, where W represents weight, smelting at 850 °C (1123 K for 60 min. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of antimony can reach 91.48%, and crude antimony with a purity of 96.00% has been achieved. 95.31% of sulfur is fixed in form of FeS in the presence of iron oxide. Meanwhile, precious metals contained in stibnite concentrate are enriched and recovered comprehensively in crude antimony. In comparison to traditional antimony pyrometallurgical process, the smelting temperature of present process is reduced from 1150–1200 °C (1423–1473 K to 850–900 °C (1123–1173 K. Sulfur obtained in stibnite is fixed in FeS which avoids SO2 emission owing to the sulfur-fixing agent. Sodium salt can be regenerated and recycled in smelting system when the molten slag is operated to filter solid residue. The solid residue is subjected to mineral dressing operation to obtain iron sulfide concentrate which can be sold directly or roasted to regenerate into iron oxide.

  8. Nanoscaled hydrated antimony (V oxide as a new approach to first-line antileishmanial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco AMR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antonia MR Franco,1 Iryna Grafova,2 Fabiane V Soares,1,3 Gennaro Gentile,4 Claudia DC Wyrepkowski,1,3 Marcos A Bolson,5 Ézio Sargentini Jr,5 Cosimo Carfagna,4 Markku Leskelä,2 Andriy Grafov2 1Laboratory of Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease, National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 2Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Multi-Institutional Post-Graduate Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 4Institute for Polymers, Composites, and Biomaterials, National Research Council, Pozzuoli, Naples Province, Italy; 5Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Background: Coordination compounds of pentavalent antimony have been, and remain, the first-line drugs in leishmaniasis treatment for >70 years. Molecular forms of Sb (V complexes are commercialized as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® and meglumine antimoniate (MA (Glucantime®. Ever-increasing drug resistance in the parasites limits the use of antimonials, due to the low drug concentrations being administered against high parasitic counts. Sb5+ toxicity provokes severe side effects during treatment. To enhance therapeutic potency and to increase Sb (V concentration within the target cells, we decided to try a new active substance form, a hydrosol of Sb2O5⋅nH2O nanoparticles (NPs, instead of molecular drugs. Methodology/principal findings: Sb2O5⋅nH2O NPs were synthesized by controlled SbCl5 hydrolysis in a great excess of water. Sb2O5⋅nH2O phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The surface of Sb (V NPs was treated with ligands with a high affinity for target cell membrane receptors. The mean particle size determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy was ~35–45 nm. In vitro tests demonstrated a 2.5–3 times higher antiparasitic activity of Sb (V nanohybrid hydrosols

  9. Role of efflux pumps and intracellular thiols in natural antimony resistant isolates of Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Rai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In view of the recent upsurge in the phenomenon of therapeutic failure, drug resistance in Leishmania, developed under natural field conditions, has become a great concern yet little understood. Accordingly, the study of determinants of antimony resistance is urgently warranted. Efflux transporters have been reported in Leishmania but their role in clinical resistance is still unknown. The present study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of natural antimony resistance in L. donovani field isolates by analyzing the functionality of efflux pump(s and expression profiles of known genes involved in transport and thiol based redox metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 7 clinical isolates (2 sensitive and 5 resistant in addition to laboratory sensitive reference and SbIII resistant mutant strains for the present study. Functional characterization using flow cytometry identified efflux pumps that transported substrates of both P-gp and MRPA and were inhibited by the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine. For the first time, verapamil sensitive efflux pumps for rhodamine 123 were observed in L. donovani that were differentially active in resistant isolates. RT-PCR confirmed the over-expression of MRPA in isolates with high resistance index only. Resistant isolates also exhibited consistent down regulation of AQP1 and elevated intracellular thiol levels which were accompanied with increased expression of ODC and TR genes. Interestingly, γ-GCS is not implicated in clinical resistance in L. donovani isolates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we demonstrate for the first time, the role of P-gp type plasma membrane efflux transporter(s in antimony resistance in L. donovani field isolates. Further, decreased levels of AQP1 and elevated thiols levels have emerged as biomarkers for clinical resistance.

  10. Development and pharmacokinetic of antimony encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine using radioisotopes in experimental leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis are a complex of parasitic diseases caused by intra macrophage protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and is fatal if left untreated. Pentavalent antimonials, though toxic and their mechanism of action being unclear, remain the first-line drugs for treatment. Effective therapy could be achieved by delivering antileishmanial drugs to these sites of infection. Liposomes are phospholipid vesicles that promote improvement in the efficacy and action of drugs in target cell. Liposomes are taken up by the cells of mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). The purpose of this study was to develop a preparation of meglumine antimonate encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine and to study its pharmacokinetic in healthy mice to establish its metabolism and distribution. Quantitative analysis of antimony from liposomes demonstrated that Neutron Activation Analysis was the most sensitive technique with almost 100 % of accuracy. All liposome formulations presented a mean diameter size of 150 nm. The determination of IC 50 in infected macrophage showed that liposome formulations were between 10 - 63 fold more effective than the free drug, indicating higher selectivity index. By fluorescence microscopy, an increased uptake of fluorescent-liposomes was seen in infected macrophages during short times of incubation compared with non-infected macrophages. Biodistribution studies showed that meglumine antimonate irradiated encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine promoted a targeting of antimony for MPS tissues and maintained high doses in organs for a prolonged period. In conclusion, these data suggest that meglumine antimonate encapsulated in liposomes showed higher effectiveness than the non-liposomal drug against Leishmania infection. The development of liposome formulations should be a new alternative for the chemotherapy of infection diseases, especially Leishmaniasis, as they are used to sustain and target pharmaceuticals to the local of infection. (author)

  11. Silver and Nitrate Oppositely Modulate Antimony Susceptibility through Aquaglyceroporin 1 in Leishmania (Viannia) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juvana M; Baba, Elio H; Machado-de-Avila, Ricardo A; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Demicheli, Cynthia P; Frézard, Frédéric; Monte-Neto, Rubens L; Murta, Silvane M F

    2016-08-01

    Antimony (Sb) resistance in leishmaniasis chemotherapy has become one of the major challenges to the control of this spreading worldwide public health problem. Since the plasma membrane pore-forming protein aquaglyceroporin 1 (AQP1) is the major route of Sb uptake in Leishmania, functional studies are relevant to characterize drug transport pathways in the parasite. We generated AQP1-overexpressing Leishmania guyanensis and L. braziliensis mutants and investigated their susceptibility to the trivalent form of Sb (Sb(III)) in the presence of silver and nitrate salts. Both AQP1-overexpressing lines presented 3- to 4-fold increased AQP1 expression levels compared with those of their untransfected counterparts, leading to an increased Sb(III) susceptibility of about 2-fold. Competition assays using silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine, or silver acetate prior to Sb(III) exposure increased parasite growth, especially in AQP1-overexpressing mutants. Surprisingly, Sb(III)-sodium nitrate or Sb(III)-potassium nitrate combinations showed significantly enhanced antileishmanial activities compared to those of Sb(III) alone, especially against AQP1-overexpressing mutants, suggesting a putative nitrate-dependent modulation of AQP1 activity. The intracellular level of antimony quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed that the concomitant exposure to Sb(III) and nitrate favors antimony accumulation in the parasite, increasing the toxicity of the drug and culminating with parasite death. This is the first report showing evidence of AQP1-mediated Sb(III) susceptibility modulation by silver in Leishmania and suggests the potential antileishmanial activity of the combination of nitrate salts and Sb(III). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Field-portable-XRF reveals the ubiquity of antimony in plastic consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat

    2017-04-15

    Very little systematic information exists on the occurrence and concentrations of antimony (Sb) in consumer products. In this study, a Niton XL3t field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer was deployed in situ and in the laboratory to provide quantitative information on Sb dissipated in plastic items and fixtures (including rubber, textile and foamed materials) from the domestic, school, vehicular and office settings. The metalloid was detected in 18% of over 800 measurements performed, with concentrations ranging from about 60 to 60,000μgg -1 . The highest concentrations were encountered in white, electronic casings and in association with similar concentrations of Br, consistent with the use of antimony oxides (e.g. Sb 2 O 3 ) as synergistic flame retardants. Concentrations above 1000μgg -1 , and with or without Br, were also encountered in paints, piping and hosing, adhesives, whiteboards, Christmas decorations, Lego blocks, document carriers, garden furniture, upholstered products and interior panels of private motor vehicles. Lower concentrations of Sb were encountered in a wide variety of items but its presence (without Br) in food tray packaging, single-use drinks bottles, straws and small toys were of greatest concern from a human health perspective. While the latter observations are consistent with the use of antimony compounds as catalysts in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, co-association of Sb and Br in many products not requiring flame retardancy suggests that electronic casings are widely recycled. Further research is required into the mobility of Sb when dissipated in new, recycled and aged polymeric materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dual mode antimony electrode for simultaneous measurements of PO2 and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, F; Nilsson, G

    2000-01-01

    In biomedical research and clinical medicine there is a demand for potent sensors to measure the components that make up blood gas analyses. Today, as when the electrochemical PO2, PCO2 and pH electrodes were first introduced, these measurements are usually made with the same type of sensor technology. The aims of the present study were, firstly, to find out whether the platinum cathode in the Clark electrode can be replaced by antimony for oxygen measurements (amperometry (A)); secondly, whether, during oxygen measurements, the inherent corrosion potential of the antimony metal can be used for measurement of pH in the same measurement area (potentiometry (P)). An electrode of purified, crystallographically orientated monocrystalline antimony (COMA) connected to a reference electrode (silver-silver chloride) was used for the P measurements. Measurements of A (at -900 mV) and P were made in an aqueous environment regulated for oxygen, pH, and temperature. Reproducible oxygen sensitivities of 0.925 nA/% oxygen (2% CV (coefficient of variation)) (A), 10.7 mV/% (P), and 0.7 mV/% (P) were found in the oxygen range: 0-21%, <5%, and above 5%, respectively. The pH sensitivity was 57 mV/pH unit (P). Oxygen and pH measurements were less accurate at oxygen concentrations close to 0%. Both the oxygen and pH part of the composite electrode signal can be identified by this dual mode technique (A and P). The sensor seems to be promising as it provides measurements of two separate variables (oxygen and pH) and also has the desirable characteristics of a solid state sensor.

  14. Influence of nanosized inclusions on the room temperature thermoelectrical properties of a p-type bismuth–tellurium–antimony alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Granger, Guillaume; Addad, Ahmed; Navone, Christelle; Soulier, Mathieu; Simon, Julia; Szkutnik, Pierre-David

    2012-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy observations and thermoelectrical property measurements (electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity) at room temperature have been completed on two fully dense polycrystalline p-type bismuth–tellurium–antimony alloy samples. It is shown that the presence of antimony oxide-based nanosized inclusions (controlled as to volume fraction and size distribution), homogeneously dispersed in the surrounding matrix leads to a dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of ∼1.3 at room temperature. For comparison, when such inclusions are missing the ZT value is only 0.6.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performances of new antimony-containing graphite compounds used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailly, A.; Willmann, P.; Billaud, D.

    2002-01-01

    Graphite intercalation intercalated with metal alloys able to alloy reversibly lithium constitute a large set of new anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries of significantly improved reversible capacities. Especially, graphite intercalated with cesium-antimony alloys can be used as materials for anodes in lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical insertion of lithium in such chemically modified precursors shows that lithium both intercalates in the empty van der Waals spaces of graphite and alloys reversibly with antimony. The total electrochemical reversible capacities, measured between 0 and 2 V vs Li + /Li, close to 700 mAh g -1 have been currently obtained

  16. Effect of iodide on glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids stimulated by different agents in dog thyroid slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, F.Y.; Rani, C.S.; Field, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Since iodide (I-) inhibits TSH stimulation of cAMP formation, which mediates most of the effects of the hormone, it has been assumed that this accounts for the inhibitory action of iodide on the thyroid. However, TSH stimulation of 32P incorporation into phospholipids and stimulation of thyroid metabolism by other agonists, such as carbachol, phorbol esters, and ionophore A23187, is not cAMP mediated. The present studies examined the effect of iodide on stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by TSH and other agonists to determine if the inhibition of cAMP formation was responsible for the action of iodide. Preincubation of dog thyroid slices for 1 h with iodide (10(-4) M) inhibited TSH-, (Bu)2cAMP-, carbachol-, methylene blue-, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-, ionophore A23187-, prostaglandin E1-, and cholera toxin-stimulated glucose oxidation. I- also inhibited the stimulation by TSH, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, carbachol, and ionophore A23187 of 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The inhibition was similar whether iodide was added 2 h before or simultaneously with the agonist. I- itself sometimes stimulated basal glucose oxidation, but had no effect on basal 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The effects of iodide on basal and agonist-stimulated thyroid metabolism were blocked by methimazole (10(-3) M). When dog thyroid slices were preloaded with 32PO4 or [1-14C]glucose, the iodide inhibition of agonist stimulation disappeared, suggesting that the effect of iodide involves the transport process. In conclusion, I- inhibited stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by all agonists, indicating that the effect is independent of the cAMP system and that iodide autoregulation does not only involve this system. Oxidation and organification of iodide are necessary for the inhibition

  17. New Microporous Polymer Electrolyte Based on Polysiloxane Grafted with Imidazolium Iodide Moieties for DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of polysiloxane grafted with different ratio of imidazolium iodide moieties (IL-SiO2 have been synthesized to develop a micro-porous polymer electrolyte for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. The samples were characterized by 1HNMR, FT-IR spectrum, XRD, TEM and SEM, respectively. Moreover, the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes was measured by electrochemical workstation. Nanostructured polysiloxane containing imidazolium iodide showed excellent compatibility with organic solvent and polymer matrix for its ionic liquid characteristics. Increasing the proportion of imidazolium iodide moieties in polysiloxane improved the electrochemical behavior of the gel polymer electrolyte. A dye-sensitized solar cell with gel polymer electrolyte yielded an open-circuit voltage of 0.70 V, short-circuit current of 11.19 mA cm−2, and the conversion efficiency of 3.61% at 1 sun illumination.

  18. The distribution of radioiodine administrated to pregnant mice and the effect of non radioactive iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okui, Toyo; Kobayashi, Satoshi

    1987-01-01

    Radioiodine, 131 I, which has a high fission yield in the nuclear reactor, is easily taken into the human body, accumilating in the thyroid gland, when released to the environment. 131 I was administrated orally to pregnant mice, and its transportation to the tissues, particularly the fetus, was examined closely. And further, the non-radioactive iodide, i.e., KI, was administrated to see its radiation protection effect. The transportation of 131 I to the fetus is the second highest, following the thyroid gland in the mother mouse. This transportation to the fetus becomes the higher, the larger the gestation period at which the 131 I administration is made. The administration of the non-radioactive iodide has large radiation protection effect in the thyroid gland of the mother mouse and of the fetus. But, depending on its concentration, the non-radioactive iodide may conversely increase overall exposure of the fetus. (Mori, K.)

  19. Simultaneous detection of iodine and iodide on boron doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Stéphane; Comninellis, Christos; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-01-15

    Individual and simultaneous electrochemical detection of iodide and iodine has been performed via cyclic voltammetry on boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in a 1M NaClO(4) (pH 8) solution, representative of typical environmental water conditions. It is feasible to compute accurate calibration curve for both compounds using cyclic voltammetry measurements by determining the peak current intensities as a function of the concentration. A lower detection limit of about 20 μM was obtained for iodide and 10 μM for iodine. Based on the comparison between the peak current intensities reported during the oxidation of KI, it is probable that iodide (I(-)) is first oxidized in a single step to yield iodine (I(2)). The latter is further oxidized to obtain IO(3)(-). This technique, however, did not allow for a reasonably accurate detection of iodate (IO(3)(-)) on a BDD electrode. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of arsenic, selenium and antimony by neutron activation analysis. Application to hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Nieuwendijk, B.J.T.; Sloot, H.A. van der; Teunissen, G.J.A.; Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1983-04-01

    A fast rabbit system for instrumental activation analysis with reactor neutrons is described. Its use in the determination of selenium in hair is discussed. A survey is given of the correction factors which are inherent to the use of short-lived radionuclides. An alternative to INAA is NAA based on the separation of arsenic, selenium and antimony by hydride evaporation and adsorption to active carbon. Data for some Standard Reference Materials are given. This work was done under research contract 2440/RI/RB with the IAEA

  1. Some organoperoxo complexes of antimony, niobium and tantalum and their oxidation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarafder, M.T.H.

    1999-05-01

    Several novel organoperoxo complexes of Nb(V), Ta(V) and Sb(V) have been synthesized and characterized. The complexes have the compositions [M(O 2 ) 2 L Cl] and [M(O 2 ) 2 L'] [L = monodentate and bidentate, neutral ligand; L' = bidentate, uninegative ligand]. These complexes are very reactive to both organic and inorganic substrates. Niobium and tantalum complexes were found to oxidize phosphines and arsines to their oxides. These also oxidize olefins to epoxides under stoichiometric conditions while under catalytic conditions, ring opening of the epoxides occur producing α-hydroxyketone when the substrate is trans-stilbene. The antimony complexes are decidedly inert towards oxidation. (author)

  2. 78 FR 59679 - Antimony Trioxide TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ...EPA's contractor, The Scientific Consulting Group (SCG), Inc., has identified a panel of scientific experts to conduct a peer review of EPA's draft Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) chemical risk assessment, ``TSCA Workplan Chemical Risk Assessment for Antimony Trioxide.'' EPA will hold three peer review meetings by web connect and teleconference. EPA invites the public to register to attend the meetings as observers and/or speakers providing oral comments during any or all of the peer review meetings as discussed in this notice. The public may also provide comment on whether they believe the appearance of conflict of interest exists for any proposed peer review panel expert.

  3. Polymorphism and properties of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} doped with pentavalent antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharitonova, E.P.; Belov, D.A. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gagor, A.B.; Pietraszko, A.P. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland); Alekseeva, O.A. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronkova, V.I., E-mail: voronk@polly.phys.msu.ru [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-05

    Highlights: • The limit of Bi{sub 2}W{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 6−y} solid solutions is at x = 0.05. • Bi{sub 2}W{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 6−y} does not fully transform into high-temperature monoclinic phase. • Sb{sup 5+} has a weak effect on the temperatures of the ferroelectric transitions. • γ→γ{sup ‴} transition near 650 °C was observed as strong permittivity peak at 0.01–8 Hz. • The conductivity of Bi{sub 2}W{sub 0.96}Sb{sub 0.04}O{sub 6−y} at 800 °C reaches 0.02 S/cm. -- Abstract: Antimony-containing solid solutions isostructural with bismuth tungstate, Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, have been prepared in air as polycrystalline samples by solid-state reactions and as single crystals by unseeded flux growth. The antimony in the solid solutions is in a pentavalent state and substitutes for tungsten in the structure of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The Bi{sub 2}W{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 6−y} solid solutions have been shown to exist in the composition range 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.05. We have examined the effect of Sb{sup 5+} doping on the polymorphism and properties of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. In contrast to undoped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, antimony-substituted bismuth tungstate does not completely transform into its high-temperature, monoclinic phase at 960 °C and remains two-phase up to temperatures approaching its melting point. Antimony substitution for tungsten has a weak effect on the temperatures of the ferroelectric phase transitions. Heterovalent substitution of Sb{sup 5+} for W{sup 6+} is accompanied by the formation of extra oxygen vacancies and an increase in the electrical conductivity of the solid solutions by one to two orders of magnitude relative to undoped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}.

  4. Separation of antimony from synthetic cloth. Application in forensic science using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Swain, K.K.; Kayasth, S.R.; Mukherjee, T.

    2005-01-01

    A simple ion-exchange separation procedure was developed for selective removal of antimony from synthetic cloth to facilitate determination of several trace elements frequently used to identify gunshot residues by neutron activation analysis. Radiotracers of Sb, Ba, Cu, Co, As, Zn, Hg and Ag were employed to optimize the developed procedure. The method involves the quantitative retention of the above elements, except of Sb, from 0.2M ammonium carbonate solution using Chelex 100 resin and subsequent quantitative elution of the elements of interest with 2M nitric acid for gamma-ray spectrometry. The procedure was tested by simulated gunshot residues. (author)

  5. Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene with Carbon Dioxide as Soft Oxidant over Supported Vanadium-Antimony Oxide Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Do Young; Vislovskiy, Vladislav P.; Yoo, Jin S.; Chang, Jong San [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Eon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Min Seok [Mongolia International University, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2005-11-15

    This work presents that carbon dioxide, which is a main contributor to the global warming effect, could be utilized as a selective oxidant in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene over alumina-supported vanadium-antimony oxide catalyst has been studied under different atmospheres such as inert nitrogen, steam, oxygen or carbon dioxide as diluent or oxidant. Among them, the addition of carbon dioxide gave the highest styrene yield (up to 82%) and styrene selectivity (up to 97%) along with stable activity. Carbon dioxide could play a beneficial role of a selective oxidant in the improvement of the catalytic behavior through the oxidative pathway.

  6. Potentiometric sensing of iodide using polymeric membranes of microwave stabilized β-AgI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Dhanya; Rao, T. Prasada

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stable β-phase was obtained by post MW irradiation of AgI precipitate. ► Constructed ISEby dispersing stable β-AgI crystals in polyvinyl chloride. ► Designed iodide ISE exhibited wide linear range and fast response. ► Highly selective with selectivity factors less than 10 −6 . ► Successfully applied to natural waters, table salt and human urine samples. - Abstract: A polymer based heterogeneous ion selective electrode (ISE) membrane was fabricated for the potentiometric sensing of iodide. The sensing element used for the preparation of the ISE membrane was microwave stabilized β-AgI. Because microwave energy was found to be beneficial for causing hysteresis at the phase transition temperature of AgI, an attempt has been made to prepare stable and conductive β-AgI crystals by post microwave irradiation under high pressure. A conventionally precipitated AgI based ISE was also fabricated for comparative studies. The β-AgI based ISE could respond to a wide range of iodide concentrations (1 × 10 −8 to 1 M) within 60 s with a detection limit of 10 nM. The ISE gave stable response to iodide ions in a pH range of 2.0–8.0 and was highly selective in the presence of various interfering ions. The performance of the proposed iodide ISE in the analysis of natural and seawater samples was encouraging, and the determination of iodide in table salt and human urine samples was explained using the developed sensor.

  7. Efficient photoreductive decomposition of N-nitrosodimethylamine by UV/iodide process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhuyu; Zhang, Chaojie; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Chen, Jing; Zhou, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was effectively decomposed by UV/iodide process. • NDMA was completely converted to nontoxic end products by UV/iodide process. • The photoreductive process was mainly attributed to the attack of hydrated electrons on the photoexcited NDMA. • The elimination of toxic intermediates was greatly enhanced as pH increased, but its effect on NDMA removal was negligible. - Abstract: N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) has aroused extensive concern as a disinfection byproduct due to its high toxicity and elevated concentration levels in water sources. This study investigates the photoreductive decomposition of NDMA by UV/iodide process. The results showed that this process is an effective strategy for the treatment of NDMA with 99.2% NDMA removed within 10 min. The depletion of NDMA by UV/iodide process obeyed pseudo-first-order kinetics with a rate constant (k_1) of 0.60 ± 0.03 min"−"1. Hydrated electrons (e_a_q"−) generated by the UV irradiation of iodide were proven to play a critical role. Dimethylamine (DMA) and nitrite (NO_2"−) were formed as the main intermediate products, which completely converted to formate (HCOO"−), ammonium (NH_4"+) and nitrogen (N_2). Therefore, not only the high efficiencies in NDMA destruction, but the elimination of toxic intermediates make UV/iodide process advantageous. A photoreduction mechanism was proposed: NDMA initially absorbed photons to a photoexcited state, and underwent a cleavage of N−NO bond under the attack of e_a_q"−. The solution pH had little impact on NDMA removal. However, alkaline conditions were more favorable for the elimination of DMA and NO_2"−, thus effectively reducing the secondary pollution.

  8. Efficient photoreductive decomposition of N-nitrosodimethylamine by UV/iodide process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhuyu; Zhang, Chaojie, E-mail: myrazh@tongji.edu.cn; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Chen, Jing; Zhou, Qi

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was effectively decomposed by UV/iodide process. • NDMA was completely converted to nontoxic end products by UV/iodide process. • The photoreductive process was mainly attributed to the attack of hydrated electrons on the photoexcited NDMA. • The elimination of toxic intermediates was greatly enhanced as pH increased, but its effect on NDMA removal was negligible. - Abstract: N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) has aroused extensive concern as a disinfection byproduct due to its high toxicity and elevated concentration levels in water sources. This study investigates the photoreductive decomposition of NDMA by UV/iodide process. The results showed that this process is an effective strategy for the treatment of NDMA with 99.2% NDMA removed within 10 min. The depletion of NDMA by UV/iodide process obeyed pseudo-first-order kinetics with a rate constant (k{sub 1}) of 0.60 ± 0.03 min{sup −1}. Hydrated electrons (e{sub aq}{sup −}) generated by the UV irradiation of iodide were proven to play a critical role. Dimethylamine (DMA) and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) were formed as the main intermediate products, which completely converted to formate (HCOO{sup −}), ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}). Therefore, not only the high efficiencies in NDMA destruction, but the elimination of toxic intermediates make UV/iodide process advantageous. A photoreduction mechanism was proposed: NDMA initially absorbed photons to a photoexcited state, and underwent a cleavage of N−NO bond under the attack of e{sub aq}{sup −}. The solution pH had little impact on NDMA removal. However, alkaline conditions were more favorable for the elimination of DMA and NO{sub 2}{sup −}, thus effectively reducing the secondary pollution.

  9. Multicompartmental model for iodide, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine metabolism in normal and spontaneously hyperthyroid cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, M.T.; Broome, M.R.; Turrel, J.M.

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive multicompartmental kinetic model was developed to account for the distribution and metabolism of simultaneously injected radioactive iodide (iodide*), T3 (T3*), and T4 (T4*) in six normal and seven spontaneously hyperthyroid cats. Data from plasma samples (analyzed by HPLC), urine, feces, and thyroid accumulation were incorporated into the model. The submodels for iodide*, T3*, and T4* all included both a fast and a slow exchange compartment connecting with the plasma compartment. The best-fit iodide* model also included a delay compartment, presumed to be pooling of gastrosalivary secretions. This delay was 62% longer in the hyperthyroid cats than in the euthyroid cats. Unexpectedly, all of the exchange parameters for both T4 and T3 were significantly slowed in hyperthyroidism, possibly because the hyperthyroid cats were older. None of the plasma equivalent volumes of the exchange compartments of iodide*, T3*, or T4* was significantly different in the hyperthyroid cats, although the plasma equivalent volume of the fast T4 exchange compartments were reduced. Secretion of recycled T4* from the thyroid into the plasma T4* compartment was essential to model fit, but its quantity could not be uniquely identified in the absence of multiple thyroid data points. Thyroid secretion of T3* was not detectable. Comparing the fast and slow compartments, there was a shift of T4* deiodination into the fast exchange compartment in hyperthyroidism. Total body mean residence times (MRTs) of iodide* and T3* were not affected by hyperthyroidism, but mean T4* MRT was decreased 23%. Total fractional T4 to T3 conversion was unchanged in hyperthyroidism, although the amount of T3 produced by this route was increased nearly 5-fold because of higher concentrations of donor stable T4.

  10. Multicompartmental model for iodide, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine metabolism in normal and spontaneously hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, M.T.; Broome, M.R.; Turrel, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive multicompartmental kinetic model was developed to account for the distribution and metabolism of simultaneously injected radioactive iodide (iodide*), T3 (T3*), and T4 (T4*) in six normal and seven spontaneously hyperthyroid cats. Data from plasma samples (analyzed by HPLC), urine, feces, and thyroid accumulation were incorporated into the model. The submodels for iodide*, T3*, and T4* all included both a fast and a slow exchange compartment connecting with the plasma compartment. The best-fit iodide* model also included a delay compartment, presumed to be pooling of gastrosalivary secretions. This delay was 62% longer in the hyperthyroid cats than in the euthyroid cats. Unexpectedly, all of the exchange parameters for both T4 and T3 were significantly slowed in hyperthyroidism, possibly because the hyperthyroid cats were older. None of the plasma equivalent volumes of the exchange compartments of iodide*, T3*, or T4* was significantly different in the hyperthyroid cats, although the plasma equivalent volume of the fast T4 exchange compartments were reduced. Secretion of recycled T4* from the thyroid into the plasma T4* compartment was essential to model fit, but its quantity could not be uniquely identified in the absence of multiple thyroid data points. Thyroid secretion of T3* was not detectable. Comparing the fast and slow compartments, there was a shift of T4* deiodination into the fast exchange compartment in hyperthyroidism. Total body mean residence times (MRTs) of iodide* and T3* were not affected by hyperthyroidism, but mean T4* MRT was decreased 23%. Total fractional T4 to T3 conversion was unchanged in hyperthyroidism, although the amount of T3 produced by this route was increased nearly 5-fold because of higher concentrations of donor stable T4

  11. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the behaviour of iodine during severe accidents: organic iodide, iodine/silver reaction, iodine/iron reaction. Pt. 4: organic iodide. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, S.; Greger, G.U.; Funke, F.; Bleier, A.; Zeeh, W.

    1995-11-01

    Analysis of the consequences of severe accidents in nuclear power plants requires knowledge of the behaviour of radionuclides relevant from the radiological viewpoint. The role played by radioiodine is particularly important. In the current modelling of iodine behaviour the heterogeneous formation of organic iodide is not adequately taken into consideration owing to a lack of data or insufficient accuracy of data. This project is intended to eliminate some gaps in critical areas. This final report, part 4, describes the tests carried out in the two relevant areas - heterogeneous formation of organic coatings in the gas phase (containment atmosphere) - heterogeneous formation of organic iodide at organic coatings in aqueous phase (containment sump). Moreover, modelling suggestions how to include the resulting knowledge in the iodine accident behaviour code IMPAIR are given. (orig.) [de

  12. One column method to prepare 11C-labelled methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Z.; Priboczki, E.

    1999-01-01

    A new method in which the [ 11 C]methyl iodide is prepared on one alumina column is presented. A high specific surface alumina column, previously impregnated with lithium aluminium hydride solution, was used for direct trapping from the target gas and reduction into radiocomplex. The complex was then reacted on this column with HI to form [ 11 C]methyl iodide. The use of one alumina column, instead of a freezing trap, reaction vessel and separate unit for iodination, simplifies the apparatus, shortens the synthesis time and is well suitable for automation. (K.A.)

  13. Uptake of Iodide From Water in Atlantic Halibut Larvae (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moren, Mari; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Hamre, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    The natural diet of marine fish larvae, copepods, contain 60-350 mg I kg(-1), while live feed used in commercial hatcheries have iodine concentrations in the range of 1 mg kg(-1). Seawater is also considered to be an important source of iodine for marine fish. The question asked in this study is ......M. The uptake was partly blocked by perchlorate (ClO3-) which is a known inhibitor of the sodium iodide symporter. This indicates that the Atlantic halibut larvae accumulate iodide through both specific and non-specific uptake pathways....

  14. Optical power limiting and transmitting properties of cadmium iodide single crystals: Temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2009-09-14

    Optical limiting properties of the single crystals of cadmium iodide are investigated using ns laser pulses. It is found that the transmissions in the crystals increase with increasing temperature. However, they limit the transmissions at high input powers. The limiting power is found to be higher at higher temperature. From the measured transmission data, the photon absorption coefficients are estimated. The temperature dependence of the coefficients shows a decrease in magnitude with increasing temperature. This might be due to the temperature-dependent bandgap shift of the material. The results demonstrate that the cadmium iodide single crystals are promising materials for applications in optical power limiting devices.

  15. Optical power limiting and transmitting properties of cadmium iodide single crystals: Temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    Optical limiting properties of the single crystals of cadmium iodide are investigated using ns laser pulses. It is found that the transmissions in the crystals increase with increasing temperature. However, they limit the transmissions at high input powers. The limiting power is found to be higher at higher temperature. From the measured transmission data, the photon absorption coefficients are estimated. The temperature dependence of the coefficients shows a decrease in magnitude with increasing temperature. This might be due to the temperature-dependent bandgap shift of the material. The results demonstrate that the cadmium iodide single crystals are promising materials for applications in optical power limiting devices.

  16. Study of adsorption properties of impregnated charcoal for airborne iodine and methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi-dong, L.; Sui-yuang, H.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of airborne radioiodine and methyl iodide on impregnated charcoal were investigated. The activated charcoal tested was made from home-made oil-palm shells, and KI and TEDA were used as impregnants. A new technique was used to plot the dynamic partial adsorption isotherm at challenge concentrations (concentration range of iodine: 1-20 ppm v/v). Some adsorption properties of the impregnated charcoal were estimated with the dynamic partial adsorption isotherm. The dependences of the adsorption capacity and penetration behavior for airborne iodine and methyl iodide on the ambient conditions (temperature, relative humidity, and superficial velocity) were studied

  17. Studying the iodine leaching from the compositions based on epoxide resin and lead iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, N.N.; Elizarova, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    When studying iodine leaching, the possibility to use solid compositions, produced by incorporation of dry powdered lead iodide and its aqueous suspension into epoxide resin for long-term immobilization of iodine-129 under conditions of monitored storage, is evaluated. Analysis of the results obtained has shown that leaching rate in the first 4 days has the maximum value and constitutes (4.2 - 2700.0) x 10 -6 cm/day. Then the process of leaching is determined by diffusion mechanism. For samples, prepared by wet lead iodide incorporation the rate of leaching is higher than that of the corresponding samples prepared by dry compound incorporation

  18. Tris(1,2-dimethoxyethane-κ2O,O′iodidocalcium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siou-Wei Ou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CaI(C4H10O23]I, the CaII atom is seven-coordinated by six O atoms from three 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME ligands and one iodide anion in a distorted pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry. The I atom and one of the O atoms from a DME ligand lie in the axial positions while the other O atoms lie in the basal plane. The other iodide anion is outside the complex cation.

  19. 3.2. Antibacterial activity of ethynyl-piperidol polymers and their three-iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalikov, D.Kh.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethynyl-piperidol polymers and their three-iodides was studied. The antibacterial films based on iodine with copolymer N-vinyl pyrrolidone, methylmethacrylate and butyl acrylate were obtained. It was found that samples containing 9-10% of iodine in copolymer have the antiseptic properties. The antibacterial properties of three-iodides grafted nitrogen containing polymers with cellulose fibrous materials were considered. The membrane-active properties of homo- and copolymers of ethynyl piperidol derivatives were considered as well.

  20. Method for removing radioactive iodine and radioactive organic iodides from effluent gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A method and composition for removing radioactive and organic iodides from an 131 I-containing off-gas stream is provided. The composition for removal by adsorption is a ceramic material with a surface area of from about 5 m 2 /g to about 250 m 2 /g impregnated with a metallic salt. The method for removing the iodine or iodide is accomplished by passing the off-gas stream over the ceramic material impregnated with the metallic salt. It finds special application in air filters for nuclear power plants