Sample records for antimony 137

  1. Antimony: a flame fighter (United States)

    Wintzer, Niki E.; Guberman, David E.


    Antimony is a brittle, silvery-white semimetal that conducts heat poorly. The chemical compound antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) is widely used in plastics, rubbers, paints, and textiles, including industrial safety suits and some children’s clothing, to make them resistant to the spread of flames. Also, sodium antimonate (NaSbO3) is used during manufacturing of high-quality glass, which is found in cellular phones.

  2. Oligosilanylated Antimony Compounds (United States)


    By reactions of magnesium oligosilanides with SbCl3, a number of oligosilanylated antimony compounds were obtained. When oligosilanyl dianions were used, either the expected cyclic disilylated halostibine was obtained or alternatively the formation of a distibine was observed. Deliberate formation of the distibine from the disilylated halostibine was achieved by reductive coupling with C8K. Computational studies of Sb–Sb bond energies, barriers of pyramidal inversion at Sb, and the conformational behavior of distibines provided insight for the understanding of the spectroscopic properties. PMID:25937691

  3. Synthesis of nanoscale antimony particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, L.; Dailly, A. [Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, UMR 7555 CNRS (France); Schneider, R. [Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Laboratoire de Synthese organometallique et Reactivite, UMR 7565 CNRS (France); Billaud, D., E-mail: [Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, UMR 7555 CNRS (France); Willmann, P. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales, (France); Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.-C. [Universite Montpellier, Laboratoire des Agregats Moleculaires et Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR 5072 CNRS (France)


    For the search of new negative electrodes of Li-ion batteries, a low-temperature method has been developed for the preparation of nanoscale antimony particles which uses an alkoxide-activated sodium hydride as reducing agent of antimony pentachloride. X-ray diffraction and TEM studies confirm the obtaining of amorphous Sb nanoparticles dispersed in an organic matrix. {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy gives evidence for the occurrence of interactions between antimony and the matrix. These interactions are modified by the washing treatments.

  4. On-line lab-in-syringe cloud point extraction for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony. (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor


    Most of the procedures for antimony determination require time-consuming sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents), which are harmful to the environment. Because of the high antimony toxicity, a rapid, sensitive and greener procedure for its determination becomes necessary. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical procedure exploiting for the first time the cloud point extraction on a lab-in-syringe flow system aiming at the spectrophotometric determination of antimony. The procedure was based on formation of an ion-pair between the antimony-iodide complex and H(+) followed by extraction with Triton X-114. The factorial design showed that the concentrations of ascorbic acid, H2SO4 and Triton X-114, as well as second and third order interactions were significant at the 95% confidence level. A Box-Behnken design was applied to obtain the response surfaces and to identify the critical values. System is robust at the 95% confidence level. A linear response was observed from 5 to 50 µg L(-1), described by the equation A=0.137+0.050C(Sb) (r=0.998). The detection limit (99.7% confidence level), the coefficient of variation (n=5; 15 µg L(-1)) and the sampling rate was estimated at 1.8 µg L(-1), 1.6% and 16 h(-1), respectively. The procedure allows quantification of antimony in the concentrations established by environmental legislation (6 µg L(-1)) and it was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in freshwater samples and antileishmanial drugs, yielding results in agreement with those obtained by HGFAAS at the 95% confidence level.


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    Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pentavalent antimonials are the first drug of choice in the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Data on ototoxicity related with such drugs is scarcely available in literature, leading us to develop a study on cochleovestibular functions. Case Report: A case of a tegumentary leishmaniasis patient, a 78-year-old man who presented a substantial increase in auditory threshold with tinnitus and severe rotatory dizziness during the treatment with meglumine antimoniate, is reported. These symptoms worsened in two weeks after treatment was interrupted. Conclusion: Dizziness and tinnitus had already been related to meglumine antimoniate. However, this is the first well documented case of cochlear-vestibular toxicity related to meglumine antimoniate.

  6. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing


    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  7. 21 CFR 862.3110 - Antimony test system. (United States)


    ... antimony, a heavy metal, in urine, blood, vomitus, and stomach contents. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of antimony poisoning. (b) Classification. Class I....

  8. Infrared surface polaritons on antimony. (United States)

    Cleary, Justin W; Medhi, Gautam; Shahzad, Monas; Rezadad, Imen; Maukonen, Doug; Peale, Robert E; Boreman, Glenn D; Wentzell, Sandy; Buchwald, Walter R


    The semimetal antimony, with a plasma frequency ~80 times less than that of gold, is potentially useful as a host for infrared surface polaritons (SPs). Relevant IR SP properties, including the frequency-dependent propagation length and penetration depths for fields into the media on either side of the interface, were determined from optical constants measured on optically-thick thermally-evaporated Sb films over the wavelength range 1 to 40 μm. Plasma and carrier relaxation frequencies were determined from Drude-model fits to these data. The real part of the permittivity is negative for wavelengths beyond 11 μm. Distinct resonant decreases in specular reflected intensity were observed for Sb lamellar gratings in the wavelength range of 6 to 11 μm, where the real part of the permittivity is positive. Both resonance angles and the angular reflectance spectral line shapes are in agreement with theory for excitation of bound surface electromagnetic waves (SPs). Finite element method (FEM) electrodynamic simulations indicate the existence of SP modes under conditions matching the experiments. FEM results also show that such waves depend on having a significant imaginary part of the permittivity, as has been noted earlier for the case of surface exciton polaritons.

  9. Perspectives of antimony compounds in oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj SHARMA; Diego PEREZ; Armando CABRERA; Nee ROSAS; Jose Luis ARIAS


    Antimony, a natural element that has been used as a drug for over more than 100 years, has remarkable therapeutic efficacy in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. This review focuses on recent advances in developing antimony anti- cancer agents with an emphasis on antimony coordination complexes, Sb (Ⅲ) and Sb (V). These complexes, which include many organometallic complexes, may provide a broader spectrum of antitumoral activity. They were compared with classical platinum anticancer drugs. The review covers the literature data pub- lished up to 2007. A number of antimonials with different antitumoral activities are known and have diverse applications, even though little research has been done on their possibilities. It might be feasible to develop more specific and effective inhibitors for phosphatase-targeted, anticancer therapeutics through the screen- ing of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and potassium antimonyltartrate-related compounds, which are comprised of antimony conjugated to different organic moieties. For example, SSG appears to be a better inhibitor than suramin which is a compound known for its antineoplastic activity against several types of cancers.

  10. Novel methods for the encapsulation of meglumine antimoniate into liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Frézard


    Full Text Available The antimonial drug, meglumine antimoniate, was successfully encapsulated in dehydration-rehydration vesicles and in freeze-dried empty liposomes (FDELs. High encapsulation efficiencies (from 28 to 58% and low weight ratios of lipids to encapsulated antimony (from 1:0.15 to 1:0.3 were achieved. These formulations, contrary to those obtained by conventional methods, can be stored as intermediate lyophilized forms and reconstituted just before use. The efficacy of FDEL-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate was evaluated in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania chagasi. A significant reduction of liver parasite burdens was observed in animals treated with this preparation, when compared to control animals treated with empty liposomes. In contrast, free meglumine antimoniate was found to be inefficient when administered at a comparable dose of antimony. This novel liposome-based meglumine antimoniate formulation appears to be promising as a pharmaceutical product for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

  11. Microbial antimony biogeochemistry: Enzymes, regulation, and related metabolic pathways (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Qian Wang,; Oremland, Ronald S.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao


    Antimony (Sb) is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago. This portends the possibility of future discoveries with regard to the ability of microorganisms to conserve energy for their growth from antimony redox reactions and the isolation of new species of “antimonotrophs.”

  12. Arsenic and antimony transporters in eukaryotes. (United States)

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert


    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.

  13. In vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

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    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail:; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail:; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo (IMT-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia].


    Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes {sup 122} Sb and {sup 124} Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology. (author)

  14. Resistance mechanisms to arsenicals and antimonials. (United States)

    Rosen, B P


    Salts and organic derivatives of arsenic and antimony are quite toxic. Living organisms have adapted to this toxicity by the evolution of resistance mechanisms. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells develop resistance when exposed to arsenicals or antimonials. In the case of bacteria resistance is conferred by plasmid-encoded arsenical resistance (ars) operons. The genes and gene products of the ars operon of the clinically-isolated conjugative R-factor R773 have been identified and their mechanism of action elucidated. The operon encodes an ATP-driven pump that extrudes arsenite and antimonite from the cells. The lowering of their intracellular concentration results in resistance. Arsenate resistance results from the action of the plasmid-encoded arsenate reductase that reduces arsenate to arsenite, which is then pumped out of the cell.

  15. Cobalt and antimony: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. (United States)

    De Boeck, Marlies; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Lison, Dominique


    The purpose of this review is to summarise the data concerning genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Co and Sb. Both metals have multiple industrial and/or therapeutical applications, depending on the considered species. Cobalt is used for the production of alloys and hard metal (cemented carbide), diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues. Antimony trioxide is primarily used as a flame retardant in rubber, plastics, pigments, adhesives, textiles, and paper. Antimony potassium tartrate has been used worldwide as an anti-shistosomal drug. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC. Both trivalent and pentavalent antimony compounds are generally negative in non-mammalian genotoxicity tests, while mammalian test systems usually give positive results for Sb(III) and negative results for Sb(V) compounds. Assessment of the in vivo potential of Sb2O3 to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) gave conflicting results. Animal carcinogenicity data were concluded sufficient for Sb2O3 by IARC. Human carcinogenicity data is difficult to evaluate given the frequent co-exposure to arsenic. Possible mechanisms of action, including potential to produce active oxygen species and to interfere with

  16. The heat capacity of solid antimony selenide (United States)

    Pashinkin, A. S.; Malkova, A. S.; Mikhailova, M. S.


    The literature data on the heat capacity of solid antimony selenide over the temperature range 53 K- T m were analyzed. The heat capacity of Sb2Se3 was measured from 350 to 600 K on a DSM-2M calorimeter. The experimental data were used to calculate the dependence C p = a + bT + cT -2 and the thermodynamic functions of solid Sb2Se3 over the temperature range 298.15 700 K.

  17. Thermodynamics of congruently subliming cerium-antimony

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    Schiffman, R.A.; Franzen, H.F.


    Congruently vaporizing cerium-antimony has been investigated by vapor pressure measurementa using a simultaneous weight-loss mass-spectrometric Knudsen effusion technique. The melting point of the 1:1 stoichiometry was determined to be 2179 +/- 10 K. The heat of formation at 298 K of CeSb was found to be -128.9 kJ/g-at from thermodynamic measurements in the temperature range 1985-2172 K.

  18. The exposure to and health effects of antimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul


    of the eyes, skin, and lungs. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant...... death syndrome, current findings suggest no link. Antimony trioxide exposure is predominant in smelters. Mining and exposure via glass working, soldering, and brazing are also important. Conclusion: Antimony has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being and measures need...



  20. 137例内脏利什曼病患者临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 137 Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芹; 刘焱斌; 钟册俊; 吕晓菊


    目的 分析近十几年四川地区内脏利什曼病住院患者临床和流行病学特征.方法 收集2000年1月至2012年4月四川大学华西医院收治的内脏利什曼病患者137例的资料,回顾性分析流行病学、临床特点、治疗和转归.结果 137例患者中,64.2% (88/137)居住在四川及周边内脏利什曼病流行区,35.8% (49/137)有流行区逗留史.137例中,农村占84.7% (116/137),城镇占15.3% (21/137).临床表现以发热,肝、脾及淋巴结肿大,全血细胞减少和球蛋白明显增高为主.137例患者利什曼原虫rk39抗体试纸条检测均为阳性.诊断明确者用葡萄糖酸锑钠治疗.治愈118例(86.1%),脾切除4例(2.9%),复发9例(6.6%).137例中首诊疑诊为内脏利什曼病者105例,误诊率为23.4% (32/137).结论 关注流行病学史、检测rk39抗体,以及尽早骨髓涂片或组织活检有助于早期诊治,葡萄糖酸锑钠疗效较好.%Objective To analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of visceral leishmaniasis cases in Sichuan. Methods The medical records of 137 patients with visceral leishmaniasis were reviewed between January 2000 and April 2012 in West China Hospital. The epidemiological data, clinical manifestations, laboratory features, diagnosis, therapeutic procedures and outcome of the patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results Eighty-eight(64.2%) out of 137 cases were the residents in the endemic area of Sichuan Province and adjacent areas, and 49 (35.8%) were non-endemic area residents with a history of visiting endemic area. Patients living in rural areas accounted for 84.7%(116/137), in town for 15.3% (21/137). Visceral leishmaniasis should be strongly suspected in a patient with prolonged fever, marked hepatosplenomegaly, Iymphadenectasis, cytopenia and hypergammaglobulinemia. All patients showed positive in rk39 dipstick test, and were treated with antimony sodium gluconate. Among these patients, 86.1% (118/137) were cured by

  1. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal. (United States)

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto


    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation.

  2. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mails:;; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail:; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail:


    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb{sup +5}) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony

  3. Antimony quantification in Leishmania by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Roberts, W L; Rainey, P M


    Tri- and pentavalent antimony were quantified in Leishmania mexicana pifanoi amastigotes and promastigotes by atomic absorption spectroscopy with electrothermal atomization. Leishmania grown in axenic culture were treated with either potassium antimony tartrate [Sb(III)] or sodium stibogluconate [Sb(V)]. The parasites were collected, digested with nitric acid, and subjected to atomic absorption spectroscopy. The method was linear from 0 to 7 ng of antimony. The interassay coefficients of variation were 9.6 and 5.7% (N = 5) for 0.52 and 3.7-ng samples of leishmanial antimony, respectively. The limit of detection was 95 pg of antimony. The assay was used to characterize Sb(III) and Sb(V) influx and efflux kinetics. Influx rates were determined at antimony concentrations that produced a 50% inhibition of growth (IC50). The influx rates of Sb(V) into amastigotes and promastigotes were 4.8 and 12 pg/million cells/h, respectively, at 200 micrograms antimony/ml. The influx rate of Sb(III) into amastigotes was 41 pg/million cells/h at 20 micrograms antimony/ml. Influx of Sb(III) into promastigotes at 1 microgram antimony/ml was rapid and reached a plateau of 175 pg/million cells in 2 h. Efflux of Sb(III) and Sb(V) from amastigotes and promastigotes exhibited biphasic kinetics. The initial (alpha) half-life of Sb(V) efflux was less than 4 min and that of Sb(III) was 1-2 h. The apparent terminal (beta) half-lives ranged from 7 to 14 h.

  4. Structural and electrical characterization of zinc oxide doped with antimony

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    G. Juárez Díaz


    Full Text Available In this work we report the results of structural and electrical characterization realized on zinc oxide single crystal samples with (001 orientation, which were doped with antimony. Doping was carried out by antimony thermal diffusion at 1000 °C for periods of 1 and 2 hours under nitrogen environment from a solid source formed by antimony oxide. Electrical characterization by I-V curves and Hall effect shown an increase in acceptor concentration which demonstrates that doping is effective and create holes in zinc oxide samples.

  5. Deposition of rod-shaped antimony sulfide thin films from single-source antimony thiosemicarbazone precursors

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    Biswal, Jasmine B.; Sawant, Narayan V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400 098 (India); Garje, Shivram S., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400 098 (India)


    Antimony sulfide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition technique using single source precursors, namely, antimony(III) thiosemicarbazones, SbCl{sub 3}(L) (L = thiosemicarbazones of thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde (1) and cinnamaldehyde (2)). The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and UV-visible spectroscopy in order to identify their phases, morphologies, compositions and optical properties respectively. These characterizations revealed that the films were comprised of rod-shaped particles of orthorhombic stibnite (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) with a Sb:S stoichiometry of {approx} 1:1.3. The calculated optical band gap from UV-vis absorption spectrum is found to be 3.48 eV.

  6. Decorporation of cesium-137; Decorporation du cesium-137

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    Le Fleche, Ph.; Destombe, C.; Grasseau, A.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.; Mestries, J.C. [GMR, Direction des Recherches, Etudes et Techniques, 94 - Arcueil (France)


    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, {sup 137}Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe {beta}, {gamma}irradiations and contaminations. {sup 137}Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the {sup 137}Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  7. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials

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    Jiang Xiuming; Wen Shengping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, South Song Shan Road No. 140, Zhengzhou City 450001 (China); Xiang Guoqiang, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, South Song Shan Road No. 140, Zhengzhou City 450001 (China)


    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1 M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by L-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3{sigma}) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL{sup -1} for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c = 1.0 ng mL{sup -1}, n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results.

  8. Antimony Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films: Co Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Joshi


    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 serves as an important base material in a variety of resistive type gas sensors. The widespread applicability of this semicoducting oxide is related both to its range of conductance variability and to the fact that it responds to both oxidising and reducing gases. The antimony doped tin-oxide films were prepared by spray pyrolysis method. The as-deposited films are blackish in colour. Addition of antimony impurity showed little increase in the thickness. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows characteristic tin oxide peaks with tetragonal structure. As the doping concentration of antimony was increased, new peak corresponding to Sb was observed. The intensity of this peak found to be increased when the Sb concentration was increased from 0.01 % to the 1 % which indicates the antimony was incorporated into the tin oxide. For gas sensing studies ohmic contacts were preferred to ensure the changes in resistance of sensor is due to only adsorption of gas molecule. The graph of I-V shows a straight line in nature which indicates the ohmic contact. The sensitivity of the sensor for CO gas was tested. The sensitivity of antimony doped tin oxide found to be increased with increasing Sb concentration. The maximum sensitivity was observed for Sb = 1 % at a working temperature of 250 °C.

  9. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. (United States)


    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  10. Possible Links between Sickle Cell Crisis and Pentavalent Antimony (United States)

    Garcerant, Daniel; Rubiano, Luisa; Blanco, Victor; Martinez, Javier; Baker, Nancy C.; Craft, Noah


    For over 60 years, pentavalent antimony (Sbv) has been the first-line treatment of leishmaniasis. Sickle cell anemia is a disease caused by a defect in red blood cells, which among other things can cause vasooclusive crisis. We report the case of a 6-year-old child with leishmaniasis who during treatment with meglumine antimoniate developed a sickle cell crisis (SCC). No previous reports describing the relationship between antimonial drugs and sickle cell disease were found. Reviews of both the pathophysiology of SCC and the mechanism of action of Sbv revealed that a common pathway (glutathione) may have resulted in the SCC. ChemoText, a novel database created to predict chemical-protein-disease interactions, was used to perform a more expansive and systematic review that was able to support the association between glutathione, Sbv, and SCC. Although suggestive evidence to support the hypothesis, additional research at the bench would be needed to prove Sbv caused the SCC. PMID:22665619

  11. Antimony Resistance in Leishmania, Focusing on Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Jeddi


    Full Text Available Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that spread in many countries with a prevalence of 12 million cases. There are few available treatments and antimonials are still of major importance in the therapeutic strategies used in most endemic regions. However, resistance toward these compounds has recently emerged in areas where the replacement of these drugs is mainly limited by the cost of alternative molecules. In this paper, we reviewed the studies carried out on antimonial resistance in Leishmania. Several common limitations of these works are presented before prevalent approaches to evidence antimonial resistance are related. Afterwards, phenotypic determination of resistance is described, then confronted to clinical outcome. Finally, we detail molecular mechanisms and targets involved in resistance and already identified in vitro within selected mutant strains or in clinical isolates.

  12. Antimony Based III-V Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CA Wang


    Antimony-based III-V thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells are attractive converters for systems with low radiator temperature around 1100 to 1700 K, since these cells potentially can be spectrally matched to the thermal source. Cells under development include GaSb and the lattice-matched GaInAsSb/GaSb and InPAsSb/InAs quaternary systems. GaSb cell technology is the most mature, owing in part to the relative ease in preparation of the binary alloy compared to quaternary GaInAsSb and InPAsSb alloys. Device performance of 0.7-eV GaSb cells exceeds 90% of the practical limit. GaInAsSb TPV cells have been the primary focus of recent research, and cells with energy gap E{sub g} ranging from {approx}0.6 to 0.49 eV have been demonstrated. Quantum efficiency and fill factor approach theoretical limits. Open-circuit voltage factor is as high as 87% of the practical limit for the higher-E{sub g} cells, but degrades to below 80% with decreasing E{sub g} of the alloy, which might be due to Auger recombination. InPAsSb cells are the least studied, and a cell with E{sub g} = 0.45-eV has extended spectral response out to 4.3 {micro}m. This paper briefly reviews the main contributions that have been made for antimonide-based TPV cells, and suggests additional studies for further performance enhancements.

  13. Heat-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcellino, Sebastien [Universite de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5180, bat CPE, 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Attar, Hossein [Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences Separatives, CNRS UMR 7178, ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France); Lievremont, Didier; Lett, Marie-Claire [Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Genetique et Microbiologie, CNRS UMR 7156, 28 rue Goethe, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Barbier, Frederique [CNRS USR 59, Service Central d' Analyse, 59 Chemin du Canal BP22 69390 Vernaison (France); Lagarde, Florence [Universite de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5180, bat CPE, 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences Separatives, CNRS UMR 7178, ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail:


    An analytical method was developed for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples. The method is based on the selective retention of Sb(III) by modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of Sb(V). Heat, caustic and solvent pretreatments of the biomass were investigated to improve the kinetics and thermodynamics of Sb(III) uptake process at room temperature. Heating for 30 min at 80 deg. C was defined as the optimal treatment. Antimony accumulation by the cells was independent of pH (5-10) and ionic strength (0.01-0.1 mol L{sup -1}). 140 mg of yeast and 2 h of contact were necessary to ensure quantitative sequestration of Sb(III) up to 750 {mu}g L{sup -1}. In these conditions, Sb(V) was not retained. Sb(V) was quantified in sorption supernatant by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Sb(III) was determined after elution with 40 mmol L{sup -1} thioglycolic acid at pH 10. A preconcentration factor close to nine was achieved for Sb(III) when 100 mL of sample was processed. After preconcentration, the detection limits for Sb(III) and Sb(V) were 2 and 5 ng L{sup -1}, respectively, using ICP-MS, 7 and 0.9 {mu}g L{sup -1} using ICP-OES. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in spiked river and mineral water samples. The relative standard deviations (n = 3) were in the 2-5% range at the tenth {mu}g L{sup -1} level and less than 10% at the lowest Sb(III) and Sb(V) tested concentration (0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Corrected recoveries were in all cases close to 100%.

  14. Voltammetric determination of copper(II) using antimony film electrodes


    Ashrafi, Amir Mansoor; Husáková, Lenka; Vytřas, Karel


    Possibility of determination of Cu(II) at antimony modified carbon paste electrode and its application in determination of trace amount of copper in real sample has been investigated. According to obtained results, it was found that SbF-CPE can be used for these purposes successfully. Both detection limit of 1.45 ppb (evaluated as 3σ) and RSD 4.8 (for 10 ppb Cu and 10 different measurements) were also evaluated. Antimony-based electrodes are environmentally friendly which is their most import...

  15. On line automated system for the determination of Sb(V), Sb(III), thrimethyl antimony(v) and total antimony in soil employing multisyringe flow injection analysis coupled to HG-AFS. (United States)

    Silva Junior, Mario M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Serra, Antonio M; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Victor; Ferreira, Sergio L C


    This paper proposes the use of a multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) system for inorganic antimony speciation analysis, trimethyl antimony(V) and determination of total antimony in soil samples using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Total antimony has been determined after reduction of antimony(V) to antimony(III) using potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. For determination of total inorganic antimony the sample is percolated in a mini-column containing the Dowex 50W-X8 resin for retention of the organic species of antimony. Antimony(III) is quantified in presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline as masking agent for antimony(V) after an extraction step of the organic antimony species using the also same mini-column. The trimethyl antimony(V) content is found by difference between total antimony and total inorganic antimony. By other hand, antimony(V) is quantified by difference between total inorganic antimony and antimony(III). The analytical determinations were performed using sodium tetrahydroborate as reducing agent. The optimization step was performed using two-level full factorial design and Doehlert matrix involving the factors: hydrochloric acid and sodium tetrahydroborate concentrations and sample flow rate. The optimized experimental conditions allow the antimony determination utilizing the external calibration technique with limits of detection and quantification of 0.9 and 3.1ngg(-1), respectively, and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation of 3.2% for an antimony solution of 5.0µgL(-1). The method accuracy was confirmed by analysis of the soil certified reference material furnished from Sigma-Aldrich RTC. Additionally, addition/recovery tests were performed employing synthetic solutions prepared using trimethyl antimony(V), antimony(III), antimony(V) and five soil samples. The antimony extraction step was performed in a closed system using hydrochloric acid, ultrasonic radiation and controlled temperature. The

  16. Cesium-137, a drama recounted; Cesio-137, um drama recontado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Suzane de Alencar


    The radiological accident with Cesium-137, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. Cesium-137, a drama recounted is a textual experimentation based on real events and characters picked out from statements reported in various narratives about the radiological accident. (author)

  17. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  18. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  19. 14 CFR 125.137 - Oil valves. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil valves. 125.137 Section 125.137....137 Oil valves. (a) Each oil valve must— (1) Comply with § 125.155; (2) Have positive stops or... the valve. (b) The closing of an oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller,...

  20. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches,...

  1. 49 CFR 176.137 - Portable magazine. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine. 176.137 Section 176.137... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.137 Portable magazine. (a) Each portable magazine... wood, a portable magazine must be framed of nominal 5 cm × 10 cm (2×4 inch) lumber, and sheathed...

  2. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over...

  3. 42 CFR 137.10 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 137.10 Section 137.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Definitions § 137.10 Definitions. Unless...

  4. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  5. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  6. 46 CFR 45.137 - Cargo ports. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo ports. 45.137 Section 45.137 Shipping COAST GUARD....137 Cargo ports. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Commandant, the lower edge of any opening for cargo, personnel, machinery access, or similar opening in the side of a ship must be above a line...

  7. 29 CFR 452.137 - Effective dates. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 452.137 Section 452.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... OF 1959 Dates and Scope of Application § 452.137 Effective dates. (a) Section 404 states when...

  8. 25 CFR 137.6 - Power development. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Power development. 137.6 Section 137.6 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.6 Power development. The cost of the power development at... power development shall be disposed of as required by the terms and conditions of the act of March...

  9. BioGeochemistry of antimony, Sources, Transfers, Impacts and Assessment (United States)

    Le Roux, Gael; Pinelli, Eric; Hedde, Mickael; Guiresse, Maritxu; De Vleeschouwer, François; Silvestre, Jérôme; Enrico, Maxime; Gandois, Laure; Monna, Fabrice; Gers, Charles; Probst, Anne


    BioGeoSTIB is a project funded by ADEME (French Environmental Protection Agency). Its aim is to provide a better understanding of biogeochemical cycle disturbances of antimony by man. Specifically, it is focused on the atmosphere-soil-organism interfaces. Based on a multi-scale approach, the impact of antimony on organisms and organism communities and the factors of Sb dispersion in the environment aim to better characterized. This report gives the main results of 2 and 1 -2 years of research. Using peat bogs as environmental archives, we show that Sb contamination in soils date back to the beginning of the metallurgy. Atmospheric deposition of Sb largely increased by 100 times during the Industrial Revolution compared to natural levels (~0,001-0,01 mg m-2 an-1) estimated in the deepest peat layers. This disturbance in the antimony geochemical cycle modified its concentrations in soils. One main source of present Sb contamination is automotive traffic due to Sb in braking lines. This emerging contamination was characterized close to a roundabout. This additional source of Sb does not seem to impact soil fauna but Sb concentrations in soil solutions exceed 1 μg L-1. Genotoxicity tests have been performed on the model plant Vicia faba and show that antimony is genotoxic at its lowest concentrations and that there is a synergistic effect lead, a trace metal frequently found in association with antimony in the environment. It is a main issue to determine Sb critical loads in the environment but main identified lacks are thermodynamic data, which are not available yet, to model the behavior of Sb in soil solutions and the fact the antimony is always associated with other anthropogenic trace metals like lead. Critical thresholds of Sb have been determined for the first time based on genotoxicity experiment. Simulations show that these thresholds can be exceeded in the future, whereas present limits for invertebrates (US-EPA) are and will not be reached. However

  10. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the western Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Cutter, Lynda S.; Featherstone, Alison M.; Lohrenz, Steven E.

    The subtropical to equatorial Atlantic Ocean provides a unique regime in which one can examine the biogeochemical cycles of antimony and arsenic. In particular, this region is strongly affected by inputs from the Amazon River and dust from North Africa at the surface, and horizontal transport at depth from high-latitude northern (e.g., North Atlantic Deep Water) and southern waters (e.g., Antarctic Bottom and Intermediate Waters). As a part of the 1996 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's Contaminant Baseline Survey, data for dissolved As(III+V), As(III), mono- and dimethyl arsenic, Sb(III+V), Sb(III), and monomethyl antimony were obtained at six vertical profile stations and 44 sites along the 11,000 km transect from Montevideo, Uruguay, to Bridgetown, Barbados. The arsenic results were similar to those in other oceans, with moderate surface depletion, deep-water enrichment, a predominance of arsenate (>85% As(V)), and methylated arsenic species and As(III) in surface waters that are likely a result of phytoplankton conversions to mitigate arsenate "stress" (toxicity). Perhaps the most significant discovery in the arsenic results was the extremely low concentrations in the Amazon Plume (as low as 9.8 nmol/l) that appear to extend for considerable distances offshore in the equatorial region. The very low concentration of inorganic arsenic in the Amazon River (2.8 nmol/l; about half those in most rivers) is probably the result of intense iron oxyhydroxide scavenging. Dissolved antimony was also primarily in the pentavalent state (>95% antimonate), but Sb(III) and monomethyl antimony were only detected in surface waters and displayed no correlations with biotic tracers such as nutrients and chlorophyll a. Unlike As(III+V)'s nutrient-type vertical profiles, Sb(III+V) displayed surface maxima and decreased into the deep waters, exhibiting the behavior of a scavenged element with a strong atmospheric input. While surface water Sb had a slight correlation with

  11. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema


    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® , is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology.Os antimoniais pentavalentes, como o antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® ou estibogluconato de sódio (Pentostam® , são o principal tratamento para a leishmaniose, um complexo de doenças causadas pelo protozoário parasita Leishmania, uma doença endêmica e negligenciada no Brasil. Apesar do seu uso clínico por mais de meio século, seu mecanismo de ação, toxicidade e dados de farmacocinética permanecem desconhecidos. Os métodos analíticos para determinação de antimônio em sistemas biológicos são complexos e apresentam baixa sensibilidade. Estudos utilizando radiotraçadores têm papel potencial no desenvolvimento farmacológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um radiotraçador de antimônio, com propriedades físicas e biológicas adequadas. O antimoniato de meglumina foi irradiado por nêutrons no reator nuclear IEA-R1, produzindo dois radioisótopos: 122

  12. Pattern formation during electrodeposition of copper-antimony alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil S. Kostov


    Full Text Available Aim of the present study is to establish the conditions of the electrolysis for the preparation of structured and unstressed purple-pink coatings of copper-antimony alloys, including their phase characterization. Also the task of the present investigation is, by changing drastically the metal content in the methanesulfonic electrolyte to find out the conditions of electrolysis where the self-organization of the different phases is expressed by higher-order structures - not only waves but also spirals and targets. The possibility to obtain copper-antimony alloy with up to 80 wt. % Sb from methanesulfonic acid is shown. The deposition rate, morphology and the phase composition of the obtained coatings are established. The phenomena of formation of spatio-temporal structures in this alloy are described.It is determined that the observed structures consist of Cu2Sb and Cu11Sb3 intermetallic phases.

  13. Distribution of liposome-encapsulated antimony in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Schettini


    Full Text Available The achievement of complete cure in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis is currently a great challenge, since dogs are the main reservoir for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis to humans and they respond poorly to conventional treatment with pentavalent antimonials. In order to improve the efficacy of treatment, we developed a novel formulation for meglumine antimoniate based on the encapsulation of this drug in freeze-dried liposomes (LMA. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biodistribution of antimony (Sb in dogs following a single intravenous bolus injection of LMA. Four healthy male mongrel dogs received LMA at 3.8 mg Sb/kg body weight and were sacrificed 3, 48 and 96 h and 7 days later. Antimony was determined in the blood, liver, spleen and bone marrow. In the bone marrow, the highest Sb concentration was observed at 3 h (2.8 µg/g wet weight whereas in the liver and spleen it was demonstrated at 48 h (43.6 and 102.4 µg/g, respectively. In these organs, Sb concentrations decreased gradually and reached levels of 19.1 µg/g (liver, 28.1 µg/g (spleen and 0.2 µg/g (bone marrow after 7 days. Our data suggest that the critical organ for the treatment with LMA could be the bone marrow, since it has low Sb levels and, presumably, high rates of Sb elimination. A multiple dose treatment with LMA seems to be necessary for complete elimination of parasites from bone marrow in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

  14. 无机锑系阻燃剂%Inorganic Antimony Series Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    无机锑系阻燃剂主要包括三氧化二锑、五氧化二锑溶胶和锑酸钠等。介绍了它们的性质、生产工艺、产品标准、阻燃用途和研发方向等。%Inorganic antimony series fire retardants include antimony trioxide, antimony pentoxide sol and sodium antimonate, etc. The properties, production process, production standard and uses of several inorganic antimony series fire retardants are introduced.

  15. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mamun


    Full Text Available CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  16. Correlation of CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A., E-mail:; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)


    CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  17. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Hernandez-Garcia, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA


    CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  18. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  19. Synthesis and tribological properties of antimony N, N-diethanoldithiocarbamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 黄可龙; 瞿龙; 舒万艮


    Antimony N, N-diethanoldithiocarbamate was synthesized with diethanolamine, antimony trioxide and carbon disulfide. The influences of temperature, reaction time, solvents and their dosages were investigated, and the optimum synthesis conditions were: reaction temperature 15~20 ℃, reaction time 2.5 h, 250 mL CH3OH as solvent and the hot CH3OH as recrystallization solvent. Element analysis, IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectra were used to study its chemical composition and molecular structure. Antimony N, N-diethanol-dithiocarbamate was added in the base oil, and its properties of wear resistance and extreme pressure were studied by FB, FD and WSD. The synthesis product behaves per fectly as wear resistance and extreme pressure additive and its extreme pressure property is superior to its wear resistance property. The mechanism of tribological action was discussed by using XPS and AES spectra, and the reason of good wear resistance and extreme pressure properties is that the synthesis product decompose element C, S and N.

  20. Mars at Ls 137o (United States)


    13 November 2006 These images capture what Mars typically looks like in mid-afternoon at Ls 137o. In other words, with the exception of occasional differences in weather and polar frost patterns, this is what the red planet looks like this month (November 2006). Six views are shown, including the two polar regions. These are composites of 24-26 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global mapping images acquired at red and blue wavelengths. The 'hole' over the south pole is an area where no images were obtained, because this polar region is enveloped in wintertime darkness. Presently, it is summer in the northern hemisphere and winter in the southern hemisphere. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Northern summer/southern winter begins at Ls 90o, northern autumn/southern spring start at Ls 180o, and northern winter/southern summer begin at Ls 270o. Ls 137o occurs in the middle of this month (November 2006). The pictures show how Mars appeared to the MOC wide angle cameras at a previous Ls 137o in March 2001. The six views are centered on the Tharsis region (upper left), Acidalia and Mare Eyrthraeum (upper right), Syrtis Major and Hellas (middle left), Elysium and Mare Cimmeria (middle right), the north pole (lower left), and the south pole (lower right).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Klykova


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the results of an experimental study of luminescence excitation spectra and luminescence of silicate glasses containing cerium ions and antimony. The aim of this work was to study the features of the luminescence and the effect of UV irradiation and heat treatment on luminescence and the state of cerium ions and antimony in glass. We investigated glass system Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2-NaF-NaBr with additives CeO2 and Sb2O3. Synthesis was carried out in platinum crucibles in the air at 14500C. The samples were polished glass plates with a thickness of 0.5-1 mm. UV irradiation was carried out with a mercury lamp having a wide range of radiation in the spectral range 240-390 nm. It was conducted in a Nabertherm muffle furnaces. Luminescence spectra and excitation spectra were measured using a spectrofluorimeter MPF-44A (PerkinElmer at the room temperature. Measured luminescence spectra were corrected in view of the spectral sensitivity of the photodetector for spectrofluorimeter. Adjustment of the excitation spectra for the spectral dependence of the intensity of the excitation source was not carried out. During the experiments it was found that in silicate glasses Sb3+ ions can exist in two energy states, which corresponds to a different environment with oxygen ions. Heat treatment of these glasses in an oxidizing atmosphere leads to an increase in ion concentration of Sb3+ ions with a greater amount of oxygen in the environment. In glasses containing antimony and cerium ions, ultraviolet irradiation causes a change in the valence of cerium ions and antimony, which is accompanied by luminescence quenching. Subsequent heat treatment of glass leads to the inverse processes and restore luminescence excitation spectra. The study of fluorescent properties of silicate glasses with cerium and antimony ions led to the conclusion of the practical significance of this work. Promising multifunctional materials can be created on the basis of

  2. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood. (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela


    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  3. Dicty_cDB: SLA137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLA137 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16449-1 SLA137Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLA137Z 491 - - - - Show SLA137 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLA137 (Link Representative seq. ID SLA13...7Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLA137 (SLA137Q) /CSM/SL/SLA1-B/SLA137Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...ATAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA sequence update 1997. 5. 8 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---AWVDENGGGTMIPVSVSFEKALLDLSSD

  4. Dicty_cDB: VSI137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSI137 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - VSI137P (Link to Original site) VSI137F 60 VSI...dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL Representative seq. ID VSI137P (Link to Original si...flsnhfkkk--- ---ymq Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSI137 (VSI...137Z 12 VSI137P 72 - - Show VSI137 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSI137 (Link to

  5. Research on Percolation Network and Physical Properties of Graphite/Antimony Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ya-fei; HE Min; WANG Qi-li


    The microstructure, friction and wear behaviour of graphite preform and graphite/antimony composites are analysed based on the percolation theory of hydrodynamics to investigate the relationship between the percolation network and physical properties of graphite/antimony composites. The result shows that there are two important factors to enhance friction and wear behaviour of graphite/antimony composites at high temperature: 1) the formation of the pore network in the preform, which is called the first percolation and 2) the optimization of infiltration method in the process of infiltrating antimony, which is called the second percolation. By adding some pyrolysate and controlling the roasting process, perfect net pores and sub-micron percolation microstructure may be formed in the graphite preform. By controlling the infiltration process, the saturation of molten antimony infiltrating into perfect pores can be optimized.

  6. Alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory Au-Ag ore for improved cyanidation (United States)

    Alp, Ibrahim; Celep, Oktay; Deveci, Haci


    This paper presents the alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory gold and silver ore. In the ore, gold occurs mainly as gold-silver alloys and as associated with quartz and framboidal pyrite grains, and, to a small extent, as the inclusions within antimonial sulfides. Silver is present extensively as antimonial sulfides such as andorite. Alkaline sulfide pretreatment was shown to allow the decomposition of the antimonial sulfide minerals (up to 98% Sb removal) and to remarkably improve the amenability of gold (e.g., from silver (e.g., from leaching. An increase in reagent concentration (1-4 mol/L Na2S or NaOH) and temperature (20-80°C), and a decrease in particle size seem to produce an enhancing effect on metal extraction. These findings suggest that alkaline sulfide leaching can be suitably used as a chemical pretreatment method prior to the conventional cyanidation for antimonial refractory gold and silver ores.

  7. The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessinger, Brad; Apps, John A.


    A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were used to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur

  8. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail:; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)


    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  9. 7 CFR 4279.137 - Financial statements. (United States)


    ... § 4279.137 Financial statements. (a) The lender will determine the type and frequency of submission of financial statements by the borrower. At a minimum, annual financial statements prepared by an accountant in... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 4279.137 Section...

  10. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour. (United States)


    ... riboflavin, 24 milligrams of niacin, 0.7 milligrams of folic acid, and 20 milligrams of iron. (b) It may... calcium or wheat germ is excluded in calculating ash content. (f) All ingredients from which the food is... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched flour. 137.165 Section 137.165 Food...

  11. Dicty_cDB: SLE137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLE137 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15038-1 SLE137Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLE137Z 528 - - - - Show SLE137 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLE137 (Link Representative seq. ID SLE13...7Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLE137 (SLE137Q) /CSM/SL/SLE1-B/SLE137Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...40 (VSA140Q) /CSM/VS/VSA1-B/VSA140Q.Seq.d/ 1001 0.0 SLE137 (SLE137Q) /CSM/SL/SLE1-B/SLE137Q.Seq.d/ 1001 0.0

  12. Dicty_cDB: VSD137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSD137 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12366-1 VSD137P (Link to Original site) VSD1...37F 304 VSD137Z 282 VSD137P 586 - - Show VSD137 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSD1... URL Representative seq. ID VSD1...37P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSD137 (VSD137Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1-B/VSD1...-151 VSE776 (VSE776Q) /CSM/VS/VSE7-D/VSE776Q.Seq.d/ 535 e-151 VSD137 (VSD137Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1-B/VSD137Q.Seq.d/

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHS137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS137 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16475-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS13...7Z 598 - - - - Show CHS137 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS137 (Link to Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS137 (CHS137Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS137Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXATGTGTA... wall 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: plasma membrane >> prediction for CHS137 is cyt

  14. Antimony contamination and its effect on Trifolium plants (United States)

    Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan; Bech, Jaume; Poschenrieder, Charlotte


    Antimony is not an essential element and soil Sb contents usually are low.However, soil contamination by Sb has increased in the last years due to the human activities (combustion of fossil fuels, mining, waste incineration, smelting, shooting and road traffic). The main objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of antimony (KSb(OH)6) in order to evaluate the effect on growth and Sb uptake on Trifolium pratense cv. Milvus and Trifolium repens. Our results show that Sb accumulated both in roots and shoots of clover without any negative effect on root growth, cellular viability and lipid peroxidation. This absence of toxicity sympthoms in clover plants could be very dangerous because Sb can be inadvertedly incorporated into the trophic chain causing toxic effects both in animals and humans. The absence of toxic effects on plants does not seem to be due to detoxification by phytochelatins because the use of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine (BSO) did not enhance Sb toxicity to plants. (Supported by the Spanish MICINN project BFU2010-14873)

  15. Antimony removal from the polyethylene terephthalate manufacture wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Vengris


    Full Text Available In this study, antimony removal by coagulation from polyethylene terephthalate resin production wastewater of „Orion Global PET“ factory in Klaipėda city was investigated, with regard to the dependence of coagulant type and dosage, pH and presence of organics. FeCl3 ∙6H2O, FeSO4 ∙7H2O, AlCl3∙6H2O and TiCl4 salts were used as coagulants. Ti(IV and Fe(III revealed oneself to be the most effective coagulants. Antimony removal effectiveness is moderate and low using FeSO4 ∙7H2O and AlCl3∙6H2O coagulants, respectively. The addition of 10 mg dm-3 Ti(IV and 30 mg dm-3 Fe(III reduces by ~98% of the Sb, when the initial amount of Sb in wastewater is about 1200 mkg/l. The action of Fe(III is practically independent in the pH range 4-9, and that of Ti(IV slightly decreases in the same pH interval. The Sb amount in wastewater can be reduced to 13-20 mkg dm-3, while the initial Sb concentration is 1200 mkg dm-3. The presence of organic compounds in wastewater determines the reduction of Sb removal by coagulation.

  16. Segregation of antimony in InP in MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeke, Stefan


    In this work the segregation of antimony in indium phosphide in metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)was systematically investigated. Therefore phosphine stabilized InP surfaces were treated with tri-methyl-antimony (TMSb) in MOVPE. An antimony rich Sb/InP surface was established, showing a typical spectra for the antimonides observed in reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS).Adsorption and desorption of antimony are investigated, as well as the incorporation of Sb during overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface with InP. Therefore the growth parameters temperature, TMSb partial pressure and treatment time are varied and their influence investigated. The experiments are monitored in-situ with RAS, the achieved data is correlated with ex-situ characterisation such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It is shown that under treatment with TMSb a stable Sb/InP surface is formed within seconds, which does not change under further TMSb treatment. This process is rarely influenced by the TMSb partial pressure. On the contrary, the desorption of Sb is a very slow process. Two main processes can be distinguished: The desorption of excess Sb from the surface and the formation of the MOVPE prepared InP (2 x 1) surface. The reaction velocity of adsorption and desorption increases with temperature. Above a critical value the increase of TMSb partial pressure has no influence on the time for desorption. During overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface the opposite temperature dependence is observed: with increasing growth temperature the typical spectra for antimonides is observed longer. An analysis of the grown samples with XRD and SIMS showed the formation of an InPSb double quantum well. One layer is formed at the interface, the second one 50 nm-120 nm deep in the InP. The location of the 2nd InPSb layer can be correlated with the vanishing of the Sb signature in RAS. The distance between the quantum wells increases with growth temperature, until it

  17. Leaching Mechanism of Complicated Antimony-Lead Concentrate and Sulfur Formation in Slurry Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangChengyan; QiuDingfan; JiangPeihai


    Anodic reaction mechanism of complicated antimony-lead concentrate in slurry electrolysis was investigated by the anodic polarization curves determined under various conditions. The main reactions on the anode are the oxidations of FeCln(2-n) . Though the oxidation of jamesonite particle on the anode can occur during the whole process, it is less. With the help of mineralogy studies and relevant tests, the leaching reaction mechanism of jameson[to and gudmundite during slurry electrolysis was ascertained. Because of the oxidation reaction of FeCl3 produced by antimony-lead concentrate itself, the non-oxidation complex acid dissolution of jameson[re, the oxidation complex acid dissolution of gudmundite, and the oxidation of air carried by stirring, the leaching ratio of antimony reaches about 35% when HCl-NH4Cl solution is used to leach antimony-lead concentrate directly. So when the theoretical electric quantity is given to oxidation of antimony in slurry electrolysis, all of antimony, lead and iron containing in antimony-lead concentrate, are leached. The formation of sulfur is through the directly redox reaction of Fe3+ and jameson[re. The S2- in jamesonite is oxidized into S0 , and forms the crystals of sulfur again on the spot. The redox reaction of Fe3+ and H2S formed by non-oxidative acid dissolution of jamesonite is less.

  18. Immobilization of antimony waste slag by applying geopolymerization and stabilization/solidification technologies. (United States)

    Salihoglu, Güray


    During the processing of antimony ore by pyrometallurgical methods, a considerable amount of slag is formed. This antimony waste slag is listed by the European Union as absolutely hazardous waste with a European Waste Catalogue code of 10 08 08. Since the levels of antimony and arsenic in the leachate of the antimony waste slag are generally higher than the landfilling limits, it is necessary to treat the slag before landfilling. In this study, stabilization/solidification and geopolymerization technologies were both applied in order to limit the leaching potential of antimony and arsenic. Different combinations ofpastes by using Portland cement, fly ash, clay, gypsum, and blast furnace slag were prepared as stabilization/solidification or geopoljymer matrixes. Sodium silicate-sodium hydroxide solution and sodium hydroxide solution at 8 M were used as activators for geopolymer samples. Efficiencies of the combinations were evaluated in terms of leaching and unconfined compressive strength. None of the geopolymer samples prepared with the activators yielded arsenic and antimony leaching below the regulatory limit at the same time, although they yielded high unconfined compressive strength levels. On the other hand, the stabilization/solidification samples prepared by using water showed low leaching results meeting the landfilling criteria. Use of gypsum as an additive was found to be successful in immobilizing the arsenic and antimony.

  19. BSA activated CdTe quantum dot nanosensor for antimony ion detection. (United States)

    Ge, Shenguang; Zhang, Congcong; Zhu, Yuanna; Yu, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuangshuang


    A novel fluorescent nanosensor for Sb(3+) determination was reported based on thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles. It was the first antimony ion sensor using QD nanoparticles in a receptor-fluorophore system. The water-soluable TGA-capped CdTe QDs were prepared through a hydrothermal route, NaHTe was used as the Te precursor for CdTe QDs synthesis. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated to TGA-capped CdTe via an amide link interacting with carboxyl of the TGA-capped CdTe. When antimony ion enters the BSA, the lone pair electrons of the nitrogen and oxygen atom become involved in the coordination, switching off the QD emission and a dramatic quenching of the fluorescence intensity results, allowing the detection of low concentrations of antimony ions. Using the operating principle, the antimony ion sensor based on QD nanoparticles showed a very good linearity in the range 0.10-22.0 microg L(-1), with the detection limit lower than 2.94 x 10(-8) g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) 2.54% (n = 6). In a study of interferences, the antimony-sensitive TGA-QD-BSA sensor showed good selectivity. Therefore, a simple, fast, sensitive, and highly selective assay for antimony has been built. The presented method has been applied successfully to the determination of antimony in real water samples (n = 6) with satisfactory results.

  20. In Vitro Antiparasitic and Apoptotic Effects of Antimony Sulfide Nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Soflaei


    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important sever diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. In the present study the effects of antimony sulfide nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum in vitro were evaluated. Antimony sulfide NPs (Sb2S5 were synthesized by biological method from Serratia marcescens bacteria. Then the cytotoxicity effects of different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of this nanoparticle were assessed on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. infantum. MTT method was used for verification results of promastigote assay. Finally, the percentages of apoptotic, necrotic, and viable cells were determined by flow cytometry. The results indicated the positive effectiveness of antimony sulfide NPs on proliferation of promastigote form. The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration of antimony sulfide NPs on promastigotes was calculated 50 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity effect was dose-dependent means by increasing the concentration of antimony sulfide NPs, the cytotoxicity curve was raised and the viability curve of the parasite dropped simultaneously. Moreover, the IC50 of antimony sulfide NPs on amastigote stage was calculated 25 μg/mL. On the other hand, however, antimony sulfide NPs have a low cytotoxicity effect on uninfected macrophages but it can induce apoptosis in promastigote stage at 3 of 4 concentrations.

  1. Removal of cobalt from zinc sulphate solution using rude antimony trioxide as additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴军; 王德全; 姜澜; 金曼


    The process of cobalt removal from zinc sulphate solution using rude antimony trioxide as an additive was investigated. The rude antimony trioxide was produced in treatment of copper and lead anode mud and its main components are antimony trioxide, antimony arsenate and lead antimonate. Using the rude antimony trioxide as the additive of cobalt removal can not only decrease operation cost of purification but also find out a new way for utilization of the rude antimony trioxide. The effects of temperature, dosage of zinc dust, the rude antimony trioxide, copper ion and solution pH on removal of cobalt were studied. And experimental data using the rude Sb2O3 as additive were compared with those using Sb2O3. The results indicate that using rude Sb2O3 as additive, cobalt concentration in solution could be decreased from 24mg/L to below 1mg/L under about the same conditions as using Sb2O3.

  2. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.


    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  3. Behaviour of antimony during thermal treatment of Sb-rich halogenated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J. [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Dorge, S., E-mail: [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Trouve, G. [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Venditti, D.; Durecu, S. [TREDI Departement de Recherche, Technopole de Nancy-Brabois, 9 avenue de la Foret de Haye, BP 184, 54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)


    Antimony compounds have a wide range of industrial applications, particularly as additives in flame retardants. To ensure environmentally friendly waste incineration of Sb-rich wastes, it is essential to strengthen the knowledge about the fate of antimony and the potential formation of harmful species. Investigations should be conducted particularly in relation with the main operational parameters controlling the process, chiefly temperature, residence time and air supply in the oven and in the post-combustion zone, prior final adapted cleaning of the flue-gas stream. Experimental studies focusing on antimony behaviour were undertaken through laboratory-scale thermal treatment at 850 deg. C and 1100 deg. C of a Sb-rich halogenated waste, originating from the sector of flame retardants formulation. The configuration of our laboratory experimental device allowed to achieve only low oxidative conditions in the waste bed, but high oxidative strength coupled with high temperature and sufficient gas residence time in the post-combustion zone, as prescribed during the incineration of hazardous wastes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to assess the partition of antimony in the different compartments of the process. The oxidation degree of antimony in the gas-phase was determined by the use of electrochemical techniques, namely polarography coupled with anodic stripping voltamperometry. The partition of antimony between the residual ash and the gas-phase under moderate oxidative conditions in the waste bed was constant, whatever the temperature: the volatilization rate for antimony was {approx}64%, while a {approx}36% fraction remained in the residual bottom ashes. But interestingly, while at 850 {sup o}C, antimony was mainly present in the gas-phase at a +III oxidation degree, an increase in temperature of 250 {sup o}C favoured the presence of antimony to its highest oxidation degree +V in the flue-gas stream, a valence known to be involved in less toxic species.

  4. Study of the 137Cs Stabilizer Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Yan;WANG Yan-ling;XU Zhi-jian;XU Liang;REN Chun-xia;TAN Xiao-ming;CUI Hong-qi


    Full Text Available The attenuation laws of the Cesium -137 γ-ray penetrating the ceramic core、stainless steel and tungsten steel were studied. The radioactivity of the 137Cs stabilizer source was determined through the surface dose rate of 137Cs stabilizer sources. In addition, the adsorption properties of the ceramic core were studied to improve the stability of the output rate, and established a production line. The application results showed that the output rate of ray source was accurate and was of a good consistency. At present, the source had been used in logging lithology, and achieved the realization of domestic product.

  5. Separation and Concentration of Indium from Leaching Solution Containing Indium, Antimony and Iron Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Processing conditions of effectively separating indium from the leaching solution of a smelting antimony slag were studied. For the leaching solution containing indium and antimony and iron ions, indium was separated by extracting with HDEHP-kerosine solution, washing antimony and iron ions with oxalic acid solution and stripping indium with a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. InCl3 solution with purity above 90% is obtained. Indium can be enriched through a circulation of stripping with a dilute HCl solution. The concentration of InCl3 solution is about 25~30 g/L.

  6. Varicella zoster virus reactivation during or immediately following treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis with antimony compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barbieri Barros


    Full Text Available Antimony compounds are the cornerstone treatments for tegumentary leishmaniasis. The reactivation of herpes virus is a side effect described in few reports. We conducted an observational study to describe the incidence of herpes zoster reactivation during treatment with antimony compounds. The global incidence of herpes zoster is approximately 2.5 cases per 1,000 persons per month (or 30 cases per 1,000 persons per year. The estimated incidence of herpes zoster in patients undergoing antimony therapy is higher than previously reported.

  7. Coordination- and Redox-Noninnocent Behavior of Ambiphilic Ligands Containing Antimony. (United States)

    Jones, J Stuart; Gabbaï, François P


    Stimulated by applications in catalysis, the chemistry of ambiphilic ligands featuring both donor and acceptor functionalities has experienced substantial growth in the past several years. The unique opportunities in catalysis offered by ambiphilic ligands stem from the ability of their acceptor functionalities to play key roles via metal-ligand cooperation or modulation of the reactivity of the metal center. Ligands featuring group 13 centers, most notably boranes, as their acceptor functionalities have undoubtedly spearheaded these developments, with remarkable results having been achieved in catalytic hydrogenation and hydrosilylation. Motivated by these developments as well as by our fundamental interest in the chemistry of heavy group 15 elements, we became fascinated by the possibility of employing antimony centers as Lewis acids within ambiphilic ligands. The chemistry of antimony-based ligands, most often encountered as trivalent stibines, has historically been considered to mirror that of their lighter phosphorus-based congeners. There is growing evidence, however, that antimony-based ligands may display unique coordination behavior and reactivity. Additionally, despite the diverse Lewis acid and redox chemistry that antimony exhibits, there have been only limited efforts to explore this chemistry within the coordination sphere of a transition metal. By incorporation of antimony into the framework of polydentate ligands in order to enforce the main group metal-transition metal interaction, the effect of redox and coordination events at the antimony center on the structure, electronics, and reactivity of the metal complex may be investigated. This Account describes our group's continuing efforts to probe the coordination behavior, reactivity, and application of ambiphilic ligands incorporating antimony centers. Structural and theoretical studies have established that both Sb(III) and Sb(V) centers in polydentate ligands may act as Z-type ligands toward late

  8. Biogeochemistry of Antimony(V) in Microcosms under Sulfidogenic Conditions (United States)

    O'Loughlin, E. J.; Johnson, C. R.; Antonopoulos, D. A.; Boyanov, M.; Flynn, T. M.; Koval, J. C.; Kemner, K. M.


    As the mining and use of antimony continues to increase, environmental concerns involving the element have grown. Antimony(V) and (III) are the two most environmentally-relevant oxidation states, but little is known about the redox transitions between the two in natural systems. To better understand the behavior of antimony in anoxic environments, we examined the transformations of Sb(V) under Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions in aqueous suspensions that contained 2 mM KSb(OH)6, 50 mM Fe(III) (as ferrihydrite), 10 mM sulfate, and 10 mM lactate, and were inoculated with sediment from a wetland on the campus of Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. Samples were collected over time to track changes in the concentrations of Sb, Fe(II), sulfate, and lactate, as well as the composition of the microbial community as determined by 16S rRNA gene inventories. We also examined the interaction of Sb(V) with pure Fe(II) mineral phases in aqueous suspensions containing 2 mM KSb(OH)6 and 50 mM Fe(II) as either magnetite, sideritre, vivianite, green rust, or mackinawite. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy was used to determine the valence state of Sb and its chemical speciation. Lactate was rapidly fermented to acetate and propionate concomittant with a bloom of Veillonellaceae. Utilization of propionate for dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) was accompanied by an increase in Desulfobulbaceae. Sb K-edge X-Ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) within 4 weeks, concurrent with DSR and the formation of FeS. We observed variable responses in the ability of specific Fe(II) minerals to reduce Sb(V). No reduction was observed with magnetite, siderite, vivianite, or green rust. In the presence of mackinawite (FeS), however, Sb(V) was reduced to Sb(III) sulfide. These results suggest that the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) is not likely under solely Fe(III)-reducing conditions, but is expected in sulfidogenic

  9. Anthropogenic impacts on the biogeochemistry and cycling of antimony. (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael; Chen, Bin


    Antimony is a potentially toxic trace element with no known biological function. Antimony is commonly enriched in coals, and fossil fuel combustion appears to be the largest single source of anthropogenic Sb to the global atmosphere. Abundant in sulfide minerals, its emission to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities is linked to the mining and metallurgy of non-ferrous metals, especially Pb, Cu, and Zn. In particular, the geochemical and mineralogical association of Sb with Pb minerals implies that, like Pb, Sb has been emitted to the environment for thousands of years because of Pb mining, smelting, and refining. In the US alone, there are more than 400 former secondary lead smelting operations and worldwide there are 133 Pb-Zn smelters in operation today. Antimony is used in creating and improving dozens of industrial and commercial materials including various alloys, ceramics, glasses, plastics, and synthetic fabrics, making waste incineration another important source of Sb to the environment. Enrichments of Sb in atmospheric aerosols, plants, soils, sediments, as well as alpine and polar snow and ice suggest that Sb contamination is extensive, but there are very few quantitative studies of the geographic extent, intensity, and chronology of this contamination. There is an urgent need to quantify the extent of human impacts and how these have changed with time. The decreasing inventories of anthropogenic Sb with time in peat cores from Switzerland and Scotland suggest that the atmospheric Sb flux may be declining, but there have been too few studies to make any general conclusions. In fact, some studies of sediments and biomonitors in central Europe show little decline in Sb concentrations during the past decades. There is an obvious need for reliable data from well dated archives such as polar snow and ice, peat bogs, and sediments. The air concentrations, extent of enrichment, particle size distribution, and rate of deposition of Sb in urban areas is

  10. Synthesis and characterisation of nano-pore antimony imprinted polymer and its use in the extraction and determination of antimony in water and fruit juice samples. (United States)

    Shakerian, Farid; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Nili Ahmad Abadi, Maryam


    A solid phase extraction method using antimony ion imprinted polymer (IIP) sorbent combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for the extraction and speciation of antimony. The sorbent has been synthesised in the presence of Sb(III) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) using styrene as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross linker. The imprinted Sb(III) ions were removed by leaching with HCl (50%v/v) and the polymer was characterised by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of the IIP for Sb(III) ions was found to be 6.7 mg g(-1). With preconcentration of 60 mL of sample, an enhancement factor of 232 and detection limit of 3.9 ng L(-1) was obtained. Total antimony was determined after the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). The method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony species in water samples and total antimony in fruit juices.

  11. Standardization of 137mCs+137mBa by Liquid Scintillation; Calibracion de 137Cs+137mBa por Centelleo Liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Grau, A.


    A procedure for the preparation of a stable, homogeneous solution of 137Cs+''137mBa, for use in liquid scintillation measurements, is described. Its count rate stability and spectral time evolution has been followed for several weeks. The solution has been standardised by the CIEMAT/NIST method in both Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel, to a combined uncertainty lower than 0,51 % (k=l). (Author) 5 refs.

  12. Dicty_cDB: SLD137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLD137 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16379-1 SLD137E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SLD137E 288 Show SLD137 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLD137 (Link Representative seq. ID SLD13...7E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLD137 (SLD137Q) /CSM/SL/SLD1-B/SLD137Q.Seq.d/ AAAAA...ology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLD137 (SLD1

  13. Atomistic mechanisms governing structural stability change of zinc antimony thermoelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaolong [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); Lin, Jianping, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Qiao, Guanjun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Zhao, E-mail: [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)


    The structural stability of thermoelectric materials is a subject of growing importance for their energy harvesting applications. Here, we study the microscopic mechanisms governing the structural stability change of zinc antimony at its working temperature, using molecular dynamics combined with experimental measurements of the electrical and thermal conductivity. Our results show that the temperature-dependence of the thermal and electrical transport coefficients is strongly correlated with a structural transition. This is found to be associated with a relaxation process, in which a group of Zn atoms migrates between interstitial sites. This atom migration gradually leads to a stabilizing structural transition of the entire crystal framework, and then results in a more stable crystal structure of β–Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} at high temperature.

  14. Coherent and Incoherent Structural Dynamics in Laser-Excited Antimony

    CERN Document Server

    Waldecker, Lutz; Bertoni, Roman; Vasileiadis, Thomas; Garcia, Martin E; Zijlstra, Eeuwe S; Ernstorfer, Ralph


    We investigate the excitation of phonons in photoexcited antimony and demonstrate that the entire electron-lattice interactions, in particular coherent and incoherent electron-phonon coupling, can be probed simultaneously. Using femtosecond electron diffraction (FED) with high temporal resolution, we observe the coherent excitation of the fully symmetric \\Ag\\ optical phonon mode via the shift of the minimum of the atomic potential energy surface. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to quantify the change in lattice potential and the associated real-space amplitude of the coherent atomic oscillations. In addition, our experimental configuration allows observing the energy transfer from electrons to phonons via incoherent electron-lattice scattering events. Applying a modified two-temperature model, the electron-phonon coupling is determined from the data as a function of electronic temperature.

  15. Antimony Accumulation Risk in Lettuce Grown in Brazilian Urban Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mancarella


    Full Text Available More than 80% of the Brazilian population inhabits urban areas. Diffused poverty and the lack of fresh vegetables have generated malnutrition and unbalanced diets. Thus, the interest in growing food locally, in urban allotments and community gardens, has increased. However, urban agriculture may present some risks caused by the urban pollution. Road traffic is considered the biggest source of heavy metals in urban areas. Hence, the objective of the study was the assessment of the accumulation of heavy metals in an urban garden in the city of Recife, at different distances from a road with high traffic burden. The results showed that the distance from the street decreased the accumulation of many potentially toxic elements. Furthermore, the human health risk was estimated, revealing that greater danger was associated with the accumulation of antimony. Concentration of other elements in the leaf tissues were within previously reported thresholds.

  16. Magnesium-antimony liquid metal battery for stationary energy storage. (United States)

    Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Sirk, Aislinn H C; Sadoway, Donald R


    Batteries are an attractive option for grid-scale energy storage applications because of their small footprint and flexible siting. A high-temperature (700 °C) magnesium-antimony (Mg||Sb) liquid metal battery comprising a negative electrode of Mg, a molten salt electrolyte (MgCl(2)-KCl-NaCl), and a positive electrode of Sb is proposed and characterized. Because of the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases, they stratify by density into three distinct layers. Cells were cycled at rates ranging from 50 to 200 mA/cm(2) and demonstrated up to 69% DC-DC energy efficiency. The self-segregating nature of the battery components and the use of low-cost materials results in a promising technology for stationary energy storage applications.

  17. Effect of filler on the self-lubrication performance of graphite antimony composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-li; HU Ya-fei; HE Min


    Graphite antimony composites were prepared using a mechanical pressure infiltration method to force molten antimony into graphite preforms having a percolation micro-structure and a hop-pocket power filler. The micro-structural and macroscopic properties of the graphite antimony composites were analysed. Observations included metallographic analysis, physical properties and friction and wear behaviour. The results show that the wear loss is decreased by 12.24% and that the friction coefficient is re-duced by 32.61% after hop-pocket power was used. The research indicates that the hop-pocket power method gives a useful way to reduce friction coefficients and wear loss, and to increase service life and self-lubrication properties, of the graphite antimony seal-ing material as compared to carbon black.

  18. Geochemical Studies on Dachang Antimony Ore Deposit in Qinglong,Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Dachang antimony deposit in Qinglong,Guizhou Province,is strictly controlled by the “Dachang Layer” which is a complex altered rock occurring at unconformity between the Permian Emeishan basalt and the Maokou limestone.Based on the studies of the hanging-and foot-wall rocks,the trace elements and REE contents of the rocks and ores and heavy placer minerals in the basalt,this paper is focused on the relations between these data and the “Dachang Layer”and its hanging- and oot-wall rocks.The author pointed out that the “Dachang Layer” and basalt are the source-beds of antimony;ilmenite and magnetite are the major mineral carriers of antimony.In the processes of halmyrosis and burial metamorphism of the “Dachang Layer” an basalt,antimony was mobilized along with the mobilization of iron and was preliminarily concentrated in the“ Dachang Layer”.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Five new S2- adducts with SbIII and SbV halides have been synthesized and studied by infrared. Discrete structures have been suggested, the environment around the antimony being tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  20. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is...

  1. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films and Their Applications in CdTe Solar Cells


    Zhouling Wang; Yu Hu; Wei Li; Guanggen Zeng; Lianghuan Feng; Jingquan Zhang; Lili Wu; Jingjing Gao


    Antimony telluride alloy thin films were deposited at room temperature by using the vacuum coevaporation method. The films were annealed at different temperatures in N2 ambient, and then the compositional, structural, and electrical properties of antimony telluride thin films were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Hall measurements. The results indicate that single phase antimony telluride existed when the annealing temperature was high...

  2. Distribution of cesium-137 in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Rissanen


    Full Text Available The influence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 on the Finnish reindeer herding area was much smaller than the effects of the nuclear bomb tests in the 1960s. Only in one small area somewhat more Cs-137 was deposited than in the rest of the reindeer herding area. From that area 20 reindeer were chosen for investigation of the distribution of Cs-137. All tissues, organs, the skeleton, digestive tract, hide, head and hooves were sampled quantitatively. Three reindeer were pregnant and also the foetuses were studied. The Cs-137 amounts were determined by gammaspectrometric measurements. The results showed that the differences in the Cs-137 concentrations between muscle tissue from different parts of an individual reindeer were not more than 10 percent. Thus it is not essential from which part of the reindeer meat samples for surveillance purposes are taken. The concentration of Cs-137 in edible tissues other than muscle was lower except in the kidneys and scapula cartilage.

  3. Simulation of antimony adsorption on nano-zero valent iron and kaolinite and analyzing the influencing parameters. (United States)

    Saeidnia, Setareh; Asadollahfardi, Gholamreza; Darban, Ahmad Khodadadi; Mohseni, Mehdi


    Antimony is one of the most toxic pollutants in industrial and mineral wastewaters threatening the life of humans and other creatures. We simulated the adsorption of antimony in the presence of nano-zero valent iron (nZVI) adsorbent, on kaolinite and in the presence of nZVI coated on kaolinite from mineral wastewater using VISUAL MINTEQ 3.1 software. Our aim was to determine the factors affecting the adsorption of antimony by applying simulation. The simulation was performed using an adsorption model of a diffuse layer model. The results of the simulation indicated that the nZVI concentration, initial concentrations of antimony and pH factor are effective on the adsorption of antimony. In the conducted stimulation, the optimum pH was 2-5 and the highest adsorption occurred in an acidic state. With increasing initial concentrations of antimony in the simulation, we concluded that nZVI had absorbed various concentrations above 90% and, by increasing the concentration of nZVI, antimony adsorption rate increased. The increased surface area of nZVI and the expansion of more interchangeable surfaces available for reaction with antimony ions causes more antimony ions to be adsorbed. In all cases, the coefficient of determination between the laboratory results and the model predictions that was obtained was more than 0.9.

  4. Arsenic and Antimony Content in Soil and Plants from Baia Mare Area, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Oprea


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to evaluate the degree of soil contamination with arsenic and antimony in Baia Mare, a nonferrous mining and metallurgical center located in the North West region of Romania. The soil in the area is affected by the emissions of powders containing metals from metallurgical factories. Previous studies indicated the soil contamination with copper, zinc, cadmium and lead, but there is few data about the actual level of soil pollution with arsenic and antimony. Approach: The soil samples were collected from 2 districts of Baia Mare: Ferneziu, which is located in the proximity of a lead smelter and Săsar district which is located along the Sasar River in the preferential direction of the wind over a metallurgical factory producing lead. As reference was considered Dura area located in a less polluted hilly area, in the west part of the town. Samples of soil and plants from the residential area of Ferneziu, Săsar and Dura districts were collected. The arsenic determination was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and the antimony determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: In Ferneziu area, the concentration of arsenic in soil ranged between 0.25 and 255 mg kg-1. In Săsar district the arsenic concentration in the soil ranged between 5.5 and 295 mg kg-1. Regarding antimony, in Ferneziu area the concentration ranged between 5.3 and 40.6 mg kg-1; while in Săsar, antimony soils concentrations vary in the range: 0.9-18.4. Arsenic and antimony concentrations in plants were low for almost of the samples, both in Ferneziu and Săsar area indicating a low mobility of these elements in the studied soils. Conclusion: This study indicated the soil pollution with arsenic both in Ferneziu district and in Săsar district. The soil pollution with antimony was found especially in Ferneziu district.

  5. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. Murciego [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Sanchez, A. Garcia [IRNA-CSIC, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Aptdo. 257, Salamanca (Spain); Gonzalez, M.A. Rodriguez [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gil, E. Pinilla [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail:; Gordillo, C. Toro [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Fernandez, J. Cabezas [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Triguero, T. Buyolo [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)


    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas.

  6. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China. (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng


    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  7. Psalm 137 en die beryming van wraakpsalms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. van Rooy


    Full Text Available Psalm 137 and metrical versions of imprecatory psalms This article discusses seven metrical versions of the im- precatory section of Psalm 137, two in Dutch (1773 and 1968, two in English (in the “Psalter hymnal” of the Christian Re- formed Church and in “Sing psalms” of the Free Church of Scotland and three Afrikaans versions (J.D. du Toit, T.T. Cloete and Lina Spies, looking at the way in which these versions treated this section. This is done in the light of recent research on Psalm 137, and especially the imprecatory section. In the literature questions are asked about the singing of this kind of psalm in the church, but also about the omission or softening of this part of Psalm 137 in the versions of Cloete and Spies. The choice of melody, the number of strophes used and the division of the contents of the psalm in strophes play an important role in determining most of the omissions or alle- viations in the metrical versions. All seven the versions dis- cussed took the imprecatory section seriously. The problems raised against these versions can be ascribed to these choices, and not to a deliberate attempt to circumvent the problem of such an imprecatory section. The version of Spies is the only exception, with the omission of the last line of the psalm.

  8. 7 CFR 1150.137 - Procedure. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order National Dairy Promotion and Research Board § 1150.137 Procedure. (a) A majority of the...

  9. 42 CFR 137.280 - Construction Definitions. (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Construction Definitions § 137... environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement is required. Any procedures under this section... environmental effect. CEQ means Council on Environmental Quality in the Office of the President....

  10. Determination of antimony by using tungsten trap atomic absorption spectrometry (United States)

    Titretir, Serap; Kendüzler, Erdal; Arslan, Yasin; Kula, İbrahim; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Ataman, O. Yavuz.


    An electrically heated tungsten coil was used as a trap in the determination of antimony. The technique consists of three steps. Initially, SbH 3 is formed by hydride generation procedure; then the analyte species in vapor form are transported to W-coil trap heated at 370 °C. Following the preconcentration step, the trap is heated to 895 °C; analyte species are revolatilized and transported to the flame-heated quartz atom cell where atomization and the formation of signal take place. The experimental parameters were optimized both for trap and no-trap studies. The most important experimental parameters are concentrations of HCl and NaBH 4 solutions, H 2 and Ar gas flow rates, and collection and revolatilization temperatures of W-coil. Accuracy was tested using a certified reference material, waste water EU-L-1. Limit of detection for the system is 16 ng l - 1 using a sample of 36 ml collected in 4.0 min. Enhancement factor in sensitivity was 17.

  11. Determination of antimony by using tungsten trap atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titretir, Serap [Department of Chemistry, Inoenue University, 44065 Malatya (Turkey); Kenduezler, Erdal [Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Ahi Evran University, 40100 Kirsehir (Turkey); Arslan, Yasin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kula, Ibrahim [Department of Chemistry, Mugla University, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Bakirdere, Sezgin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey); Ataman, O. Yavuz. [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail:


    An electrically heated tungsten coil was used as a trap in the determination of antimony. The technique consists of three steps. Initially, SbH{sub 3} is formed by hydride generation procedure; then the analyte species in vapor form are transported to W-coil trap heated at 370 deg. C. Following the preconcentration step, the trap is heated to 895 deg. C; analyte species are revolatilized and transported to the flame-heated quartz atom cell where atomization and the formation of signal take place. The experimental parameters were optimized both for trap and no-trap studies. The most important experimental parameters are concentrations of HCl and NaBH{sub 4} solutions, H{sub 2} and Ar gas flow rates, and collection and revolatilization temperatures of W-coil. Accuracy was tested using a certified reference material, waste water EU-L-1. Limit of detection for the system is 16 ng l{sup -1} using a sample of 36 ml collected in 4.0 min. Enhancement factor in sensitivity was 17.

  12. Antimony bioavailability: knowledge and research perspectives for sustainable agricultures. (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille


    The increasing interest in urban agriculture highlights the crucial question of crop quality. The main objectives for environmental sustainability are a decrease in chemical inputs, a reduction in the level of pollutants, and an improvement in the soil's biological activity. Among inorganic pollutants emitted by vehicle traffic and some industrial processes in urban areas, antimony (Sb) is observed on a global scale. While this metalloid is known to be potentially toxic, it can transfer from the soil or the atmosphere to plants, and accumulate in their edible parts. Urban agriculture is developing worldwide, and could therefore increasingly expose populations to Sb. The objective of this review was in consequences to gather and interpret actual knowledge of Sb uptake and bioaccumulation by crops, to reveal investigative fields on which to focus. While there is still no legal maximal value for Sb in plants and soils, light has to be shed on its accumulation and the factors affecting it. A relative absence of data exists about the role of soil flora and fauna in the transfer, speciation and compartmentation of Sb in vegetables. Moreover, little information exists on Sb ecotoxicity for terrestrial ecosystems. A human risk assessment has finally been reviewed, with particular focus on Sb bioaccessibility.

  13. Mitochondrial Proteomics of Antimony and Miltefosine Resistant Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Vincent


    Full Text Available Antimony (SbIII and miltefosine (MIL are important drugs for the treatment of Leishmania parasite infections. The mitochondrion is likely to play a central role in SbIII and MIL induced cell death in this parasite. Enriched mitochondrial samples from Leishmania promastigotes selected step by step for in vitro resistance to SbIII and MIL were subjected to differential proteomic analysis. A shared decrease in both mutants in the levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase was observed, as well as a differential abundance in two calcium-binding proteins and the unique dynamin-1-like protein of the parasite. Both mutants presented a shared increase in the succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase and the abundance of numerous hypothetical proteins was also altered in both mutants. In general, the proteomic changes observed in the MIL mutant were less pronounced than in the SbIII mutant, probably due to the early appearance of a mutation in the miltefosine transporter abrogating the need for a strong mitochondrial adaptation. This study is the first analysis of the Leishmania mitochondrial proteome and offers powerful insights into the adaptations to this organelle during SbIII and MIL drug resistance.

  14. Arsenic and antimony removal from drinking water by adsorption on granular ferric oxide. (United States)

    Sazakli, Eleni; Zouvelou, Stavroula V; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Leotsinidis, Michalis


    Arsenic and antimony occur in drinking water due to natural weathering or anthropogenic activities. There has been growing concern about their impact on health. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of a granular ferric oxide adsorbent medium to remove arsenic and antimony from drinking water via rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs). Three different water matrices - deionized, raw water treated with a reverse osmosis domestic device and raw water - were spiked with arsenic and/or antimony to a concentration of 100 μg L⁻¹. Both elements were successfully adsorbed onto the medium. The loadings until the guideline value was exceeded in the effluent were found to be 0.35-1.63 mg g⁻¹ for arsenic and 0.12-2.11 mg g⁻¹ for antimony, depending on the water matrix. Adsorption of one element was not substantially affected by the presence of the other. Aeration did not affect significantly the adsorption capacity. Granular ferric oxide could be employed for the simultaneous removal of arsenic and antimony from drinking water, whereas full-scale systems should be assessed via laboratory tests before their implementation.

  15. New fluorescent polymeric nanocomposites synthesized by antimony dodecyl-mercaptide thermolysis in polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In this work, the formation of semiconductive Sb2S3 nanoparticles inside amorphous polystyrene has been achieved by thermal degradation of the corresponding antimony dodecyl-mercaptide, Sb(SC12H253. The thermolysis of the dodecyl-mercaptide precursor was studied as both pure phase and mercaptide solution in polystyrene. The thermal decomposition of the antimony mercaptide precursor at 350°C, under vacuum, showed the formation of a mixture of antimony trisulfide (stibnite, Sb2S3 and zero-valent antimony (Sb phase. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD and Rietveld analysis carried out on the obtained nanostructured powder confirmed the presence of Sb and Sb2S3 phases in 10.4 wt% and 89.6 wt% amount, respectively. The same pyrolysis reaction was carried out in the polymer and the resulting nanocomposite material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanocomposite structural characterization indicated the presence of well-dispersed nanoclusters of antimony and stibnite (15–30 nm in size inside the amorphous polymeric phase. Optical measurements on the obtained nanocomposite films showed a strong emission at 432 nm upon excitation at 371 nm, probably related to the presence of Sb2S3 nanoclusters.

  16. Predictors of an unsatisfactory response to pentavalent antimony in the treatment of American visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Mácia A.


    Full Text Available Although treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimony is usually successful, some patients require second-line drug therapy, most commonly with amphotericin B. To identify the clinical characteristics that predict an inadequate response to pentavalent antimony, a case-control study was undertaken in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. Over a two-year period, there were 19 cases of VL in which the staff physicians of a hospital prescribed second-line therapy with amphotericin B after determining that treatment with pentavalent antimony had failed. The control group consisted of 97 patients that were successfully treated with pentavalent antimony. A chart review using univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. The cure rate was 90% with amphotericin B. The odds ratio for the prescription of amphotericin B was 10.2 for children less than one year old, compared with individuals aged over 10 years. Patients who presented coinfection had an OR of 7.1 while those on antibiotics had an OR of 2.8. These data support either undertaking a longer course of therapy with pentavalent antimony for children or using amphotericin B as a first-line agent for children and individuals with coinfections. It also suggests that chemoprophylaxis directed toward bacterial coinfection in small children with VL may be indicated.

  17. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia resistant to meglumine antimonial treatment. (United States)

    Vélez, Iván Darío; Colmenares, Lina María; Muñoz, Carlos Aguirre


    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects over 500,000 people worldwide each year. The disease occurs in the Mediterranean basin, Central and South America and is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn L. chagasi). VL is an endemic disease in Colombia, particularly along the Caribbean coast and the Magdalena River Valley and 90% of VL cases occur in children under the age of five. The first line of treatment is chemotherapy with pentavalent antimonial compounds, including sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime). These compounds are the ones most used in Colombia, at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Nevertheless resistance of L. infantum to pentavalent antimonials is becoming an important problem. No cases of VL resistant to pentavalent antimonial compounds have previously been reported from Colombia. This report describes the two cases of VL resistance to antimonial compounds in a girl and a boy who did not respond to previous treatment with Pentacarinat and Glucantime regimens but were treated successfully with liposomal amphotericin B. Based on our findings, we recommend liposomal amphotericin B as the first line of treatment for VL due to its low toxicity, shorter administration period and the low price obtained by WHO.

  18. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention. (United States)

    Krumhansl, J L; Brady, P V; Anderson, H L


    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.3 x 10(6) years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (approximately 0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers.

  19. Mixed Antimony(V Complexes with Different Sugars to Modulate the Oral Bioavailability of Pentavalent Antimonial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weverson A. Ferreira


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the association of the drug meglumine antimoniate (MA with β-cyclodextrin can improve its bioavailability by the oral route. In this work, ribose and maltose were investigated for their ability to form mixed or association complexes with MA, release MA and modulate the serum levels of Sb after oral administration in mice. Analysis of the MA/ribose composition by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF revealed the presence of mixed meglumine-Sb-ribose and Sb-ribose complexes. Analysis of the MA/maltose composition suggested the formation of MA-maltose association compounds. Circular dichroism characterization of these compositions following dilution in water at 37 °C suggested a partial and slow dissociation of the association compounds. When the MA/ribose composition was administered orally and compared to MA, the serum concentration of Sb was significantly lower after 1 h and greater after 3 h. On the other hand, the MA/maltose composition showed similar serum Sb concentration after 1 h and higher level of Sb after 3 h, when compared to MA. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated the formation of mixed or association complexes of MA with sugars, such as maltose and ribose, which promoted sustained serum level of Sb after oral administration.

  20. Preparation of highly dispersed antimony-doped tin oxide nanopowders by azeotropic drying with isoamyl acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fen; ZHANG Xue-jun; WU Xu; TIAN Fang; GAN Fu-xing


    Antimony-doped tin hydroxide colloid precipitates were prepared by hydrolysis of SnCl4-5H2O and SbCl3 ethanol solutions. Isoamyl acetate was selected as azeotropic drying solvent and was compared with the most commonly used n-butanol solvent on treating precipitate for low hard agglomeration precursor powders. The FT-IR, BET, XRD, and TEM results of the precursor powders and calcinated antimony-doped tin oxide powders were recorded. The results demonstrate that isoamyl acetate is an excellent azeotropic drying solvent that can effectively prevent the agglomeration of particles and greatly improve the fluffiness of the obtained dried powders. After these precursor powders are calcined, antimony-doped tin oxide nanopowders with tetragonal rutile structure and high dispersivity can be obtained.

  1. Synthesis of barium mercaptides and application of antimony/barium mercaptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿龙; 张露露; 舒万艮


    Mercaptoacetic acid, isooctyl thioglycolate and barium hydroxide used as start materials, barium bis (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Ba(2EHTG)2), barium thioglycolate (Ba(TG)) and barium bisthioglycolate (Ba(TG)2) were synthesized. Their optimum synthetic techniques were discussed, and some physicochemical data were reported. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods were used to identify the structures. They were put into PVC plastic products together with antimony tris (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Sb(2EHTG)3) under the suitable compounding, and their heat stability to PVC was studied. It is shown that these barium mercaptides have remarkable synergisms with antimony mercaptides and the long-term stabilizing effect of organoantimony stabilizer can be effectively improved, reducing the amount of antimony compounds so as to avoid the decrease of its stabilizing effect.

  2. Concentration transient analysis of antimony surface segregation during Si(100) molecular beam epitaxy (United States)

    Markert, L. C.; Greene, J. E.; Ni, W.-X.; Hansson, G. V.; Sundgren, J.-E.


    Antimony surface segregation during Si(100) molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was investigated at temperatures T(sub s) = 515 - 800 C using concentration transient analysis (CTA). The dopant surface coverage Theta, bulk fraction gamma, and incorporation probability sigma during MBE were determined from secondary-ion mass spectrometry depth profiles of modulation-doped films. Programmed T(sub s) changes during growth were used to trap the surface-segregated dopant overlayer, producing concentration spikes whose integrated area corresponds to Theta. Thermal antimony doping by coevaporation was found to result in segregation strongly dependent on T(sub s) with Theta(sub Sb) values up to 0.9 monolayers (ML): in films doped with Sb(+) ions accelerated by 100 V, Theta(sub Sb) was less than or equal to 4 x 10(exp -3) ML. Surface segregation of coevaporated antimony was kinematically limited for the film growth conditions in these experiments.

  3. Geothermal and fluid flowing simulation of ore-forming antimony deposits in Xikuangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ruiyan; MA; Dongsheng; BAO; Zhengyu; PAN; Jiayong; CAO; Shuanglin


    The Xikuangshan Antimony Deposit located in the Mid-Hunan Basin, China, is the largest antimony deposit in the world. Based on the hydrogeological and geochemical data collected from four sections, Xikuangshan-Dajienao (AO), Xikuangshan-Dashengshan (BO), Xikuangshan-Longshan (CO) and Dafengshan (DO) in the Basin, an advanced metallogenic model related to deep-cyclic meteoric water of Xikuangshan Antimony Deposit is put forward in this paper using a model of heat-gravity-driving fluid flow transportation. The simulation results show that the ore-forming fluid of the deposit mainly comes from the Dashengshan and Longshan areas where BO and CO sections are located if the overall basin keeps a constant atmospheric precipitation and infiltration rate during mineralization, and that the average transportation speed of the ore-forming fluids is about 0.2-0.4 m/a.

  4. Co-doping with antimony to control phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.


    In germanium, phosphorous and antimony diffuse quickly and as such their transport must be controlled in order to design efficient n-typed doped regions. Here, density functional theory based calculations are used to predict the influence of double donor co-doping on the migration activation energies of vacancy-mediated diffusion processes. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous and antimony were found to be increased significantly when larger clusters involving two donor atoms and a vacancy were formed. These clusters are energetically stable and can lead to the formation of even larger clusters involving a number of donor atoms around a vacancy, thereby affecting the properties of devices.

  5. Antimony trifluoride-modified carbon paste electrode for electrochemical stripping analysis of selected heavy metals


    Stočes, Matěj; Hočevar, Samo B.; Švancara, Ivan


    In this article, a new typ of non-mercury metal-based electrode, antimony trifluoridebulk- modified carbon paste electrode (SbF3-CPE) is for the first time reported and examined for electrochemical stripping analysis of selected heavy metal ions at their trace concentration level. In the role of bulk modifier and a source of antimony film generated in state nascenti, SbF3 in a content of 3% (w/w) in the carbon paste mixture was the ultimate choice. All important experimental parameters hav...

  6. 29 CFR 102.137 - Public observation of Board meetings. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public observation of Board meetings. 102.137 Section 102.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Open Meetings § 102.137 Public observation of Board meetings. Every portion of every meeting of...

  7. 7 CFR 4280.137 - Repurchase from holder. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repurchase from holder. 4280.137 Section 4280.137... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.137 Repurchase from holder. Any repurchase from a holder must be in accordance with § 4279.78 of this chapter....

  8. Quantitative Model for Estimating Soil Erosion Rates Using 137Cs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A quantitative model was developed to relate the amount of 137Cs loss from the soil profile to the rate of soil erosion,According th mass balance model,the depth distribution pattern of 137Cs in the soil profile ,the radioactive decay of 137Cs,sampling year and the difference of 137Cs fallout amount among years were taken into consideration.By introducing typical depth distribution functions of 137Cs into the model ,detailed equations for the model were got for different soil,The model shows that the rate of soil erosion is mainly controlled by the depth distrbution pattern of 137Cs ,the year of sampling,and the percentage reduction in total 137Cs,The relationship between the rate of soil loss and 137Cs depletion i neither linear nor logarithmic,The depth distribution pattern of 137Cs is a major factor for estimating the rate of soil loss,Soil erosion rate is directly related with the fraction of 137Cs content near the soil surface. The influences of the radioactive decay of 137Cs,sampling year and 137Cs input fraction are not large compared with others.

  9. 25 CFR 137.2 - Availability of water. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of water. 137.2 Section 137.2 Indians BUREAU... COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.2 Availability of water. Pursuant to section... notice to announce when water is actually available for lands in private ownership under the project...

  10. Influence of cooling rate and antimony addition content on graphite morphology and mechanical properties of a ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhe


    Full Text Available Cooling rate and inoculation practice can greatly affect the graphite morphology of ductile irons. In the present research, the effects of the cooling rate and antimony addition on the graphite morphology and mechanical properties of ductile irons have been studied. Three ductile iron castings were prepared through solidification under cooling conditions S (slow, M (medium and F (fast. The cooling rates around the equilibrium eutectic temperature (1,150 ℃ for these cooling conditions (S, M and F were set at 0.21 ℃·min-1, 0.32 ℃·min-1 and 0.37 ℃·min-1, respectively. In addition, four ductile iron castings were prepared by adding 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04% (by weight antimony, respectively under the slow cooling condition. The results show that the nodularity index, tensile strength and hardness of the ductile iron castings without antimony addition are all improved with the increase of cooling rate, while the ductile iron casting solidified under the medium cooling rate possesses the largest number of graphite nodules. Furthermore, for the four antimony containing castings, the graphite morphology and tensile strength are also improved by the antimony additions, and the effect of antimony addition is intensified when the addition increases from 0.01% to 0.03%. Moreover, the rare earth elements (REE/antimony ratio of 2 appears to be the most effective for fine nodular graphite formation in ductile iron.

  11. Plutonium, (137)Cs and uranium isotopes in Mongolian surface soils. (United States)

    Hirose, K; Kikawada, Y; Igarashi, Y; Fujiwara, H; Jugder, D; Matsumoto, Y; Oi, T; Nomura, M


    Plutonium ((238)Pu and (239,240)Pu), (137)Cs and plutonium activity ratios ((238)Pu/(239,240)Pu) as did uranium isotope ratio ((235)U/(238)U) were measured in surface soil samples collected in southeast Mongolia. The (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs concentrations in Mongolian surface soils (surface soils (0.013-0.06) coincided with that of global fallout. The (235)U/(238)U atom ratios in the surface soil show the natural one. There was a good correlation between the (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs concentrations in the surface soils. We introduce the migration depth to have better understanding of migration behaviors of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil. We found a difference of the migration behavior between (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs from (137)Cs/(239,240)Pu - (137)Cs plots for the Mongolian and Tsukuba surface soils; plutonium in surface soil is migrated easier than (137)Cs.

  12. Mechanisms of antimony adsorption onto soybean stover-derived biochar in aqueous solutions (United States)

    Limited mechanistic knowledge is available to understand how biochar interacts with trace elements that exist predominantly as oxoanions, such as antimony (Sb). Soybean stover biochars were produced at 300 degrees C (SBC300) and 700 degrees C (SBC700), and were characterized by BET, Boehm titration,...

  13. 78 FR 59679 - Antimony Trioxide TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity To... (United States)


    ... Scientific Consulting Group (SCG), Inc., has identified a panel of scientific experts to conduct a peer... Chemical Risk Assessment for Antimony Trioxide.'' EPA will hold three peer review meetings by web connect... speakers providing oral comments during any or all of the peer review meetings as discussed in this...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Eight new SbF3, SbCl5 and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br amine adducts have been synthesized and their infrared study carried out. Discrete structures have been suggested on the basis of elemental analysis and infrared data, the coordination number of antimony varying from five to nine, while the environment around Hg is tetrahedral.

  15. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Transformation, Fixation, and Mobilization of Arsenic and Antimony in Contaminated Sediments. (United States)


    ANTIMONY IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS Final report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(.) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) James M. Brannon 9...additional Sb when leached with saline water. Long-term (six months) releases of Sb were mucl higher from Sb amended sediments than from sediments

  16. Dismantling and chemical characterization of spent Peltier thermoelectric devices for antimony, bismuth and tellurium recovery. (United States)

    Balva, Maxime; Legeai, Sophie; Garoux, Laetitia; Leclerc, Nathalie; Meux, Eric


    Major uses of thermoelectricity concern refrigeration purposes, using Peltier devices, mainly composed of antimony, bismuth and tellurium. Antimony was identified as a critical raw material by EU and resources of bismuth and tellurium are not inexhaustible, so it is necessary to imagine the recycling of thermoelectric devices. That for, a complete characterization is needed, which is the aim of this work. Peltier devices were manually dismantled in three parts: the thermoelectric legs, the alumina plates on which remain the electrical contacts and the silicone paste used to connect the plates. The characterization was performed using five Peltier devices. It includes mass balances of the components, X-ray diffraction analysis of the thermoelectric legs and elemental analysis of each part of the device. It appears that alumina represents 45% of a Peltier device in weight. The electrical contacts are mainly composed of copper and tin, and the thermoelectric legs of bismuth, tellurium and antimony. Thermoelectric legs appear to be Se-doped Bi2Te3 and (Bi0,5Sb1,5)Te3 for n type and p type semiconductors, respectively. This work shows that Peltier devices can be considered as a copper ore and that thermoelectric legs contain high amounts of bismuth, tellurium and antimony compared to their traditional resources.

  17. Synthesis of antimony tris(mercaptoethyl carboxylates) as thermal stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒万艮; 刘又年; 陈启元


    A novel type of thermal stabilizers-antimony tris(mercaptoethyl carboxylates) (Sb(SCH2CH2OOCR) 3), was synthesized from carboxylic acid, antimony trioxide and 2-mercaptoethanol in two steps. The experimental results show that the molar ratio of carboxylic acid to antimony tris(2-hydroxyethyl mercaptide) is 1.2, when adding 0.6% tetra-n-butyl titanate as catalyst and xylene as isotropic solvent, heating and refluxing for about 2~4h. The thermal stability was measured by heat-aging oven test. The thermal stability time is about 8~40min(at 200℃) when adding 2% tetra-n-butyl titanate in polyvinyl chloride(PVC). Among these stabilizers, antimony tris(mercaptoethyl stearate) has best thermal stability. Its thermal stability is better than that of Ca-Zn complex and basic lead stabilizers, and equal to that of organotin. In addition, the stabilization mechanism of this kind of stabilizers for PVC was discussed briefly.

  18. Commerce Ministry Announced the Export Quotas for Zinc,Antimony,Tungsten,Tin and Silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正> The Ministry of Commerce recently announcedits decision on the export quotas for zinc,anti-mony,tungsten,tin and silver in 2004.Accord-ing to the data released,all the export quotasare reduced except for silver.Relevant peoplesay that the raw materials shortage is a majorissue for the production of antimony and tin,

  19. Thermodynamics for arsenic and antimony in copper matte converting—computer simulation (United States)

    Chaubal, P. C.; Nagamori, M.


    Thermodynamic data for arsenic and antimony and their sulfide and oxide gases have been critically reviewed and compiled. The entropy values for AsS(g), SbS(g), and BiS(g) have been recalculated based on a statistical thermodynamic method. The standard heat of formation and entropy of As2O3(g) have been newly assessed to be △H{298/0} = -81,500 cal/mole and S{298/0} = 81.5 cal/deg/mole. Copper matte converting has been mathematically described using the stepwise equilibrium simulation technique together with quadratic approximations of oxygen and magnetite solubilities in molten mattes. A differential equation for the volatilization of arsenic and antimony has been derived and solved for successive reaction microsteps, whereby the volatilization, slagging, and alloying of the minor elements in copper matte converting have been examined as functions of reaction time and other process variables. Only the first (slag-making) stage of converting is responsible for the elimination of arsenic and antimony by volatilization. Arsenic volatilizes mainly as AsS(g) and AsO(g), with As2(g) also contributing when initial mattes are unusually rich in arsenic (above 0.5 pct arsenic). Antimony volatilizes chiefly as SbS(g), and the contributions of other gases such as SbO(g) and Sb(g) always remain negligibly low. The results of the stepwise equilibrium simulation compare favorably with the industrial operating data.

  20. Investigation on the thermal radiation properties of antimony doped tin oxide particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Cheng-Wu; Zhang Shuan-Qin; Chen Ming-Qing


    This paper reports the preparation of antimony doped tin oxide crystalline powders by chemical coprecipitation method. The influence of sintering temperature and the sintering retention time on the thermal infrared emissivity is analysed. The thermal infrared reflectivity is measured and the optimum doping concentration is proposed.

  1. Morphology and photoresponse of crystalline antimony film grown on mica by physical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafa Muhammad


    Full Text Available Antimony is a promising material for the fabrication of photodetectors. This study deals with the growth of a photosensitive thin film by the physical vapor deposition (PVD of antimony onto mica surface in a furnace tube. The geometry of the grown structures was studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and elemental diffraction analysis. XRD peaks of the antimony film grown on mica mostly matched with JCPDF Card. The formation of rhombohedral crystal structures in the film was further confirmed by SEM micrographs and chemical composition analysis. The Hall measurements revealed good electrical conductivity of the film with bulk carrier concentration of the order of 1022 Ω·cm-3 and mobility of 9.034 cm2/Vs. The grown film was successfully tested for radiation detection. The photoresponse of the film was evaluated using its current-voltage characteristics. These investigations revealed that the photosensitivity of the antimony film was 20 times higher than that of crystalline germanium.

  2. Polymorphisms in MIR137HG and microRNA-137-regulated genes influence gray matter structure in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Wright, C; Gupta, C N; Chen, J; Patel, V; Calhoun, V D; Ehrlich, S; Wang, L; Bustillo, J R; Perrone-Bizzozero, N I; Turner, J A


    Evidence suggests that microRNA-137 (miR-137) is involved in the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Risk variants within the miR-137 host gene (MIR137HG) influence structural and functional brain-imaging measures, and miR-137 itself is predicted to regulate hundreds of genes. We evaluated the influence of a MIR137HG risk variant (rs1625579) in combination with variants in miR-137-regulated genes TCF4, PTGS2, MAPK1 and MAPK3 on gray matter concentration (GMC). These genes were selected based on our previous work assessing schizophrenia risk within possible miR-137-regulated gene sets using the same cohort of subjects. A genetic risk score (GRS) was determined based on genotypes of these four schizophrenia risk-associated genes in 221 Caucasian subjects (89 schizophrenia patients and 132 controls). The effects of the rs1625579 genotype with the GRS of miR-137-regulated genes in a three-way interaction with diagnosis on GMC patterns were assessed using a multivariate analysis. We found that schizophrenia subjects homozygous for the MIR137HG risk allele show significant decreases in occipital, parietal and temporal lobe GMC with increasing miR-137-regulated GRS, whereas those carrying the protective minor allele show significant increases in GMC with GRS. No correlations of GMC and GRS were found in control subjects. Variants within or upstream of genes regulated by miR-137 in combination with the MIR137HG risk variant may influence GMC in schizophrenia-related regions in patients. Given that the genes evaluated here are involved in protein kinase A signaling, dysregulation of this pathway through alterations in miR-137 biogenesis may underlie the gray matter loss seen in the disease.

  3. Rationale for anti-CD137 cancer immunotherapy. (United States)

    Makkouk, Amani; Chester, Cariad; Kohrt, Holbrook E


    The consideration of the complex interplay between the tumour microenvironment (TME) and the immune response is the key for designing effective immunotherapies. Therapeutic strategies that harness co-stimulatory receptors have recently gained momentum in the clinic. One such strategy with promising clinical applications is the targeting of CD137, a member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily. Its expression on both innate and adaptive immune cells, coupled with its unique ability to potentiate antitumour responses through modulating the TME and to ameliorate autoimmune responses, has established it as an appealing target. In this review, we will discuss the various CD137-targeted immunotherapeutics that have reached clinical development, with a focus on recent advances and novel modalities such as CD137 chimeric antigen receptors and CD137 bispecific antibodies. We will also highlight the effect of CD137 targeting on the TME and discuss the importance of probing TME changes for predicting and testing the efficacy of CD137-mediated immunotherapy.

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFK137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFK137 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13893-1 AFK137E (Link... Clone ID AFK137 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U13893-1 Original site URL http://dict...DIFKSDQTFTLVQRLRSNVIKAGLKKLNTAYSR ISFNDICTKLKFDGTTQDIMFIIAKTIKDGVIDATXNYEGGYLQSRENIDAYSTQEPLHA FSNRIDICLKIHN...fissygdcsi*hknyslsiiiknflll*fil*ndk*ss*s*iniiists ysnikt***rssnny*fiieklfri*fi*tsr*iigqytipricikqsictlfllsr*...LNSSHKQLEKHHKTLLVVSEELFINFYPIVQLLMGEIPERNTFSQKQLKIA LKPYFHLTEAVRVGDLGSFNQALEQNSDIFKSDQTFTLVQRLRSNVIKAGLKKLNTAYSR ISFNDICT

  5. Different cesium-137 transfers to forest and stream ecosystems. (United States)

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N; Iwamoto, Aimu; Okada, Kengo


    Understanding the mechanisms of (137)Cs movement across different ecosystems is crucial for projecting the environmental impact and management of nuclear contamination events. Here, we report differential movement of (137)Cs in adjacent forest and stream ecosystems. The food webs of the forest and stream ecosystems in our study were similar, in that they were both dominated by detrital-based food webs and the basal energy source was terrestrial litter. However, the concentration of (137)Cs in stream litter was significantly lower than in forest litter, the result of (137)Cs leaching from litter in stream water. The difference in (137)Cs concentrations between the two types of litter was reflected in the (137)Cs concentrations in the animal community. While the importance of (137)Cs fallout and the associated transfer to food webs has been well studied, research has been primarily limited to cases in a single ecosystem. Our results indicate that there are differences in the flow of (137)Cs through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and that (137)Cs concentrations are reduced in both basal food resources and higher trophic animals in aquatic systems, where primary production is subsidized by a neighboring terrestrial ecosystem.

  6. Overexpression of ubiquitin and amino acid permease genes in association with antimony resistance in Leishmania tropica field isolates. (United States)

    Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khadem-Erfan, Mohammad Bagher; Hajjaran, Homa; Hadighi, Ramtin; Khamesipour, Ali; Rezaie, Sassan; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza; Heidari, Mansour


    The mainstay therapy against leishmaniasis is still pentavalent antimonial drugs; however, the rate of antimony resistance is increasing in endemic regions such as Iran. Understanding the molecular basis of resistance to antimonials could be helpful to improve treatment strategies. This study aimed to recognize genes involved in antimony resistance of Leishmania tropica field isolates. Sensitive and resistant L. tropica parasites were isolated from anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis patients and drug susceptibility of parasites to meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) was confirmed using in vitro assay. Then, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) approaches were utilized on mRNAs from resistant and sensitive L. tropica isolates. We identified 2 known genes, ubiquitin implicated in protein degradation and amino acid permease (AAP3) involved in arginine uptake. Also, we identified 1 gene encoding hypothetical protein. Real-time RT-PCR revealed a significant upregulation of ubiquitin (2.54-fold), and AAP3 (2.86-fold) (P<0.05) in a resistant isolate compared to a sensitive one. Our results suggest that overexpression of ubiquitin and AAP3 could potentially implicated in natural antimony resistance.

  7. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria. (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi


    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  8. Deciphering lead and cadmium stripping peaks for porous antimony deposited electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Aqeel Ahmad


    Full Text Available Cadmium and lead are generally taken as model heavy metal ions in water to scale the detection limit of various electrode sensors, using electrochemical sensing techniques. These ions interact with the electrochemically deposited antimony electrodes depending on the diffusion limitations. The phenomenon acts differently for the in-situ and ex-situ deposition as well as for porous and non-porous electrodes. A method has been adopted in this study to discourage the stripping and deposition of the working ions (antimony to understand the principle of heavy metal ion detection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS technique was used to establish the interaction between the working and dissolved ions. In addition to the distinct peaks for each analyte, researchers also observed a shoulder peak. A possible reason for the presence of this peak was provided. Different electrochemical tests were performed to ascertain the theory on the basis of the experimental observations.

  9. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.


    Herein, we report a safe, low cost and reproducible approach for the synthesis of antimony (Sb) nanostructures with most of them having prism like morphology and having well defined faces in the range of ∼70210 nm. The organics free approach is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free is economical, fast and free of pollution, which will make it suitable for large scale production. Furthermore, it is well expected that such a technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. The prospects of the process are bright and promising. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (United States)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L. V.; Loredo, S. L.; Krishnan, B.; Aguilar Martinez, J. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Avellaneda, D. A.


    Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb2S3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb2S3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  11. Sandwich heterostructures of antimony trioxide and bismuth trioxide films: Structural, morphological and optical analysis (United States)

    Condurache-Bota, Simona; Praisler, Mirela; Gavrila, Raluca; Tigau, Nicolae


    Thin film heterostructures can be advantageous since they either exhibit novel or a combination of the properties of their components. Here we propose sandwich-type of heterostructures made of antimony trioxide and bismuth trioxide thin films, which were deposited on glass substrates by thermal vacuum deposition at three substrate temperatures, 50° Celsius apart. Their morphology and optical properties are studied as compared to the corresponding monolayers. It was found that even small substrate temperature changes strongly influence their morphology, increasing their roughness, while the optical transmittance shows a slight decrease as compared with the individual layers. The corresponding absorption coefficient exhibits intermediate values as compared to the component oxides, while the energy bandgaps for the indirect allowed transitions move towards the Infrared when overlapping the antimony and bismuth trioxides.

  12. [Physico-chemical characteristics of meglumine antimoniate in different storage conditions]. (United States)

    Romero, G A; de Oliveira, M R; Correia, D; Marsden, P D


    During the period October 1992 to July 1995 we measured the osmolarity and pH of ampoules of meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) from lot 9206L-004 (manufactured by Rhodia Farma Ltd, of São Paulo, SP, Brazil) maintained in three temperature conditions namely 4 degrees C, 37 degrees C and ambiental. Although we observed statistically significant differences in osmolarity between samples, the limited number of measurements and the variation of this property in ampoules maintained at the same temperature were obstacles to obtain definitive conclusions. Such a variation was not found with pH. Assuming these parameters could reflect structural changes in the pentavalent antimony molecule, clearly further better controlled experiments are indicated.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of lead antimony borate glasses doped with erbium ions (United States)

    Reddy, M. Chandra Shekhar; Goud, K. Krishna Murthy; Dharmaiah, P.; Rao, B. Appa


    Antimony borate glasses of the composition 30PbO-25Sb2O3-(45-x)B2O3-xEr2O3 with x = 0 to 1.0 in steps of 0.2 were prepared by the melt-quenching method. Various physical parameters. radiative parameters, transition probability A, branching ratio β and the radiative life time τ for different emission levels of Er3+ ions, have been evaluated.

  14. Chemically deposited thin films of sulfides and selenides of antimony and bismuth as solar energy materials (United States)

    Nair, M. T. S.; Nair, Padmanabhan K.; Garcia, Victor M.; Pena, Y.; Arenas, O. L.; Garcia, J. C.; Gomez-Daza, O.


    Chemical bath deposition techniques for bismuth sulfide, bismuth selenide, antimony sulfide, and antimony selenide thin films of about 0.20 - 0.25 micrometer thickness are reported. All these materials may be considered as solar absorber films: strong optical absorption edges, with absorption coefficient, (alpha) , greater than 104 cm-1, are located at 1.31 eV for Bi2Se3, 1.33 eV for Bi2S3, 1.8 eV for Sb2S3, and 1.35 eV for Sb2Se3. As deposited, all the films are nearly amorphous. However, well defined crystalline peaks matching bismuthinite (JCPDS 17- 0320), paraguanajuatite (JCPDS 33-0214), and stibnite (JCPDS 6-0474) and antimony selenide (JCPDS 15-0861) for Bi2S3, Bi2Se3, Sb2S3 and Sb2Se3 respectively, are observed when the films are annealed in nitrogen at 300 degrees Celsius. This is accompanied by a substantial modification of the electrical conductivity in the films: from 10-7 (Omega) -1 cm-1 (in as prepared films) to 10 (Omega) -1 cm-1 in the case of bismuth sulfide and selenide films, and enhancement of photosensitivity in the case of antimony sulfide films. The chemical deposition of a CuS/CuxSe film on these Vx- VIy films and subsequent annealing at 300 degrees Celsius for 1 h at 1 torr of nitrogen leads to the formation of p-type films (conductivity of 1 - 100 (Omega) -1 cm-1) of multinary composition. Among these, the formation of Cu3BiS3 (JCPDS 9-0488) and Cu3SbS4 (JCPDS 35- 0581), CuSbS2 (JCPDS 35-0413) have been clearly detected. Solar energy applications of these films are suggested.

  15. The heat capacity of solid antimony telluride Sb2Te3 (United States)

    Pashinkin, A. S.; Malkova, A. S.; Mikhailova, M. S.


    The literature data on the heat capacity of solid antimony telluride over the range 53 895 K were analyzed. The heat capacity of Sb2Te3 was measured over the range 350 700 K on a DSM-2M calorimeter. The equation for the temperature dependence was suggested. The thermodynamic functions of Sb2Te3 were calculated over the range 298.15 700 K.

  16. Thermo EMF and Hall effect behaviour of thin films of antimony-tellurium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhiren Singh, N. (Dept. of Physics, Manipur Univ., Imphal (India)); Sarma, H.N.K. (Dept. of Physics, Manipur Univ., Imphal (India))


    This note presents the results of measurements of thermo emf and Hall effect of Sb[sub 40]Te[sub 60] alloy thin films. The alloy was prepared by taking a stoichiometric mixture (2:3) of high purity elements antimony and tellurium each of purity 99.999 (Koch-Light Laboratories Ltd., England) in a vacuum sealed quartz tube and heating in a furnace to a temperature of about 1070 K for 12 h. (orig.)

  17. Electrodeposition Mechanism of Trivalent Antimony%三价锑的电沉积机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艳; 谢刚; 杨大锦


    The reduction mechanism of Sb3+ in H2SO4-NH4F-SbF3 electrolyte system was studied by means of electrochemical methods, including chronopotentiometry and alternating current impedance.Analysis of potential-time transients clearly shows that antimony (Ⅲ) could be reduced to antimony metal via two-steps irreversible electron transfer process in H2SO4-NH4F-SbF3 system.The relationship between iτ1/2 and i calculated by chronopotentiometry indicates that the trivalent antimony complex undergoes chemical transformation reaction before its reduction in the cathode.The impedance results confirm the above conclusion and indicate that the adsorption states which are the middle product of trivalent antimony have different influences on two electron transfer steps.%采用恒电流阶跃法及交流阻抗法等电化学方法,研究了H2SO4-NH4F-SbF3体系中三价锑的阴极还原机理.电势~时间暂态曲线出现二步反应特征,表明Sb"还原分两步进行.由恒电流阶跃曲线中iτ1/2~i关系可知Sb3+阴极还原存在前置化学转化.Sb3+阴极还原的交流阻抗测定结果进一步验证Sb3+还原是存在化学前置转化步骤的二步反应,且电活性中间产物吸附在电极表面,吸附反应对两步电子转移步骤的影响不同.

  18. Total Absorption Spectroscopy of the 137Xe, 137I, and 92Rb β-Decays (United States)

    Rasco, B. C.; Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Goetz, K. C.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gross, C. J.; Miernik, K.; Stracener, D.


    The NaI(Tl) based Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) was constructed to measure improved β-decay feeding patterns from neutron-rich nuclei. It is difficult to measure β-decay feeding intensities with high precision γ-ray measurements due to the low efficiency of high precision detectors. There are several important applications of improved measurements of β-decay feeding patterns by total absorption spectroscopy; improve understanding of elemental abundances in the universe, help with stockpile stewardship, contribute to understanding of underlying nuclear structure, and improve β-decay feeding measurements to calculate accurately the νe spectra needed to evaluate precisely reactor neutrino measurements. We present β-decay feeding results for two ``priority one'' measurements, 137Xe and 137I, and for 92Rb, which is a large individual contributor to the νe uncertainty of the reactor anomaly. In addition to β- γ decays, 137I has a β-neutron decay channel which is measurable in MTAS. We will demonstrate techniques for analyzing MTAS γ-decay data. We will also describe β and neutron spectroscopy in MTAS. This work was supported by the US DOE by Award No. DE-FG02- 96ER40978 and by US DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics.

  19. Antimony in the Contaminated Site of El Triunfo, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez A. J.


    Full Text Available Antimony has properties similar to arsenic with some of its compounds toxic to humans. Therefore it is necessary to control the wastes accumulated by anthropogenic activities, such as mining, where it is in tailings to be released to the environment. According to the Environment Protection Agency, the maximum value in sediments is 11.2 mg Sb kg–1 and the Earth’s crust average is 0.2 mg Sb kg–1. In this semiarid area, the drainage basin El Carrizal is impacted with wastes of an abandoned gold mine at the Mining District El Triunfo (MD – ET which have tailings with 17,600 mg kg–1 of antimony. In the main dry river (arroyo, the Sb content is between 0.6 and 122 mg kg–1. This element is transported from the source throughout the fluvial basin to discharge into the Pacific Ocean. In the arroyo mouth we collected one sedimentary core and the sediment from dunes (28.6 – 45.7 and 6.43 – 7.74 mg Sb kg–1. This research concluded the antimony is enriched in this semiarid system, with Normalized Enrichment Factors severely enriched mainly in arroyo sediments close to the MD-ET

  20. Altering the dewetting characteristics of ultrathin gold and silver films using a sacrificial antimony layer. (United States)

    Farzinpour, P; Sundar, A; Gilroy, K D; Eskin, Z E; Hughes, R A; Neretina, S


    Solid state dewetting of ultrathin films is the most straightforward means of fabricating substrate-supported noble metal nanostructures. This assembly process is, however, quite inflexible, yielding either densely packed smaller structures or widely spaced larger structures. Here, we demonstrate the utility of introducing a sacrificial antimony layer between the substrate and noble metal overlayer. We observe an agglomeration process which is radically altered by the concurrent sublimation of antimony. In stark contrast with conventional dewetting, where the thickness of the deposited metal film determines the characteristic length scales of the assembly process, it is the thickness of the sacrificial antimony layer which dictates both the nanoparticle size and interparticle spacing. The result is a far more flexible self-assembly process where the nanoparticle size and areal density can be varied widely. Demonstrations show nanoparticle areal densities which are varied over four orders of magnitude assembled from the identical gold layer thickness, where the accompanying changes to nanostructure size see a systematic shift in the wavelength of the localized surface plasmon resonance. As a pliable self-assembly process, it offers the opportunity to tailor the properties of an ensemble of nanostructures to meet the needs of specific applications.

  1. Separation of Arsenic from the Antimony-Bearing Dust through Selective Oxidation Using CuO (United States)

    Zhong, Da-Peng; Li, Lei; Tan, Cheng


    A pyrometallurgical process of selective oxidation roasting of the antimony-bearing dust using CuO is put forward, in which the antimony component is oxidized to Sb2O4 staying in the roasted residue, and arsenic is volatilized in the form of As2O3. The addition of CuO has an active effect on the arsenic volatilization, because structures of some complicated As-Sb phases in the dust are destroyed after the "Sb" component in them is oxidized to Sb2O4, and this part of arsenic might be transformed to As2O3, which continues to volatilize. However, the arsenic volatilization rate decreases with the CuO amount in a certain range, which is attributed to the greater formation of Cu3 (AsO4)2 and Cu3As. Under the conditions of roasting temperature of 673 K (400 °C), roasting time of 100 minutes, CuO amount of 34.54 mass pct, and N2 flow rate of 30 mL/min, 91.50 pct arsenic and only 8.63 pct antimony go into the smoke.

  2. pH-regulated antimony oxychloride nanoparticle formation on titanium oxide nanostructures: a photocatalytically active heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Buchholcz, Balázs


    Improving the catalytic activity of heterogeneous photocatalysts has become a hot topic recently. To this end, considerable progress has been made in the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers by e.g. the realization of heterojunction photocatalysts. V-VI-VII compound semiconductors, namely, bismuth oxyhalides, are popular photocatalysts. However, results on antimony oxyhalides [SbOX (X = Br, Cl, I)], the very promising alternatives to the well-known BiOX photomodifiers, are scarce. Here, we report the successful decoration of titanium oxide nanostructures with 8-11 nm diameter SbOX nanoparticles for the first time ever. The product size and stoichiometry could be controlled by the pH of the reactant mixture, while subsequent calcination could transform the structure of the titanate nanotube (TiONT) support and the prepared antimony oxychloride particles. In contrast to the ease of composite formation in the SbOX/TiONT case, anatase TiO could not facilitate the formation of antimony oxychloride nanoparticles on its surface. The titanate nanotube-based composites showed activity in a generally accepted quasi-standard photocatalytic test reaction (methyl orange dye decolorization). We found that the SbOCl/TiONT synthesized at pH = 1 is the most active sample in a broad temperature range.

  3. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  4. 14 CFR 21.137 - Location of manufacturing facilities. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.137 Section 21.137 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... manufacturing facilities. The Administrator does not issue a production certificate if the...

  5. Distribution and behavior of {sup 137}Cs in undisturbed soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satta, Naoya [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.


    The depth distribution of {sup 137}Cs in soils which has not been artificially disturbed for 100 years was compared to fallout history. The model of {sup 137}Cs distribution rate was established to estimate fallout history from soil samples. (J.P.N.)

  6. Identification of 137Cs Reference Sites in Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiang-Yu; YANG Hao; DU Ming-Yuan; ZHAO Qi-Guo; LI Ren-Ying


    The 137Cs vertical distributions in uncultivated and cultivated soils, developed from Quaternary red clay, granite,argillaceous shale, and red sandstone, were studied to develop reliable guidelines for selecting reference sites in southeastern China, which is dominated by strong acidic and/or clay-textured soils, and examine their reliability by comparing them to the reported 137Cs reference inventory data to see whether they agreed with the global distribution pattern. It was observed that a relatively high proportion of 137Cs was concentrated in the surface layers of soils with relatively high clay content. In the paddy soils developed from granite more 137Cs penetrated to depths below the plow layer (about 45.3%),when compared to those from the other three parent materials. The relatively low soil 137Cs inventories on crests excluded using the crest as the 137Cs reference site; instead the paddy field on the hillock plain was selected. Furthermore, within a specific county characterized by great systematic spatial variations of rainfall and topography across the landscape,a significant (P < 0.01) and positive linear relationship (r2 = 0.81) between local 137Cs inventory and corresponding local annual rainfall was observed. Thus, for areas with large variations in rainfall, a single uniform value of local 137Cs reference inventory should be used with caution.

  7. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR..., except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  8. 10 CFR 26.137 - Quality assurance and quality control. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality assurance and quality control. 26.137 Section 26....137 Quality assurance and quality control. (a) Quality assurance program. Each licensee testing... metabolites. (b) Performance testing and quality control requirements for validity screening tests....

  9. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a...

  10. The Multifarious Hippocampal Functions of MicroRNA-137

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, A.; Aschrafi, A.; Nadif Kasri, N.


    MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as a powerful class of endogenous noncoding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene expression regulation. miR-137 has repeatedly been associated with schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Recent studies describe the mechanisms of miR-137 in mediating basic synap

  11. 49 CFR 37.137 - Paratransit plan development. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paratransit plan development. 37.137 Section 37... WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.137 Paratransit plan... the plan to identify any person or entity (public or private) which provides a paratransit or...

  12. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these air... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is...

  13. Accumulation and distribution 137Сs in predators’ organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gulakov


    Full Text Available Data of the long-term research of accumulation and distribution 137Cs radionuclide in organisms of predatory wild animals from the alienation zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power station are presented. Essential fluctuations of the 137Cs contents in muscular tissue are noted. The results have large practical value for management of the hunting facilities on the radioactively polluted territories.

  14. Parto prematuro após uso de antimonial pentavalente: relato de um caso Premature birth after the use of pentavalent antimonial: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Pinheiro Silveira


    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma mulher de 19 anos, na 24ª semana de gravidez e com leishmaniose visceral. Tratada com antimonial pentavalente na posologia de 850mg/dia por 20 dias, ocorreu parto prematuro no quinto dia de tratamento e óbito da criança um dia após nascimento. Considerando a importância da protozoose no nosso meio e a raridade da associação com a gestação, julgamos de interesse a publicação do caso.A case is reported of a 19-year-old woman, at week 24 of gestation, with visceral leishmaniosis. She was treated with meglumine antimoniate at a dose of 850mg/day for 20 days. There occurred premature birth on day five of treatment and the neonate died one day after birth. Considering the importance of protozoiasis in our population and the rarity of the association with pregnancy, we resolved to publish the case.

  15. The behaviour of sup 137 Cs in some edible fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, L.; Quaggia, S.; Pompei, F.; Fratarcangeli, S. (ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia)


    The aim of this research was to study the behaviour of {sup 137}Cs in fruit-bearing plants following the Chernobyl accident. Samples of hazel-nuts were collected over a period of three years after the accident. The {sup 137}Cs content of the fruit shows an exponential decrease with time. Evaluation of the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratios in samples of atmospheric particulates, soils and fruit suggests that foliar translocation is the main pathway for {sup 137}Cs migration to the fruit. In addition, estimates of the effective half-times of {sup 137}Cs in hazel-nuts, walnuts, olives and apples and of the 'translocation factors' for hazel-nuts, walnuts, olives, apples and chestnuts have been made. (author).

  16. Sediment environmental capacity of 137Cs in Daya Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junli; CHEN Jiajun; XU Jialin; LI Yuanxin; HUANG Naiming


    Sediment environmental capacity of pollutants is very important for marine environmental management.Based on the methodology of a study on water,soil environmental capacity,and mass conservation theory in a system,the concept and model on sediment environmental capacity for 137Cs in Daya Bay were developed.The static capacity for 137Cs in the upper sediment near the shore at a shallow area was calculated,and the annual dynamic capacity and total dynamic capacity were also calculated through determination of the typical biomass in the sediment.The results showed that the estimated environmental capacity for 137Cs in sediments was approximately equal to the current input of 137Cs into the sediments.Controlling the input of 137Cs in the sediments within the environmental capacity guarantees the sustainability of the current situation of the Daya Bay ecosystem and avoidance of a significant degradation of the system.

  17. Leishmania panamensis infection and antimonial drugs modulate expression of macrophage drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes: impact on intracellular parasite survival (United States)

    Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Navas, Adriana; Márquez, Ricardo; Rojas, Laura Jimena; Vargas, Deninson Alejandro; Blanco, Victor Manuel; Koren, Roni; Zilberstein, Dan; Saravia, Nancy Gore


    Objectives Treatment failure is multifactorial. Despite the importance of host cell drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the accumulation, distribution and metabolism of drugs targeting intracellular pathogens, their impact on the efficacy of antileishmanials is unknown. We examined the contribution of pharmacologically relevant determinants in human macrophages in the antimony-mediated killing of intracellular Leishmania panamensis and its relationship with the outcome of treatment with meglumine antimoniate. Methods Patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis who failed (n = 8) or responded (n = 8) to treatment were recruited. Gene expression profiling of pharmacological determinants in primary macrophages was evaluated by quantitative RT–PCR and correlated to the drug-mediated intracellular parasite killing. Functional validation was conducted through short hairpin RNA gene knockdown. Results Survival of L. panamensis after exposure to antimonials was significantly higher in macrophages from patients who failed treatment. Sixteen macrophage drug-response genes were modulated by infection and exposure to meglumine antimoniate. Correlation analyses of gene expression and intracellular parasite survival revealed the involvement of host cell metallothionein-2A and ABCB6 in the survival of Leishmania during exposure to antimonials. ABCB6 was functionally validated as a transporter of antimonial compounds localized in both the cell and phagolysosomal membranes of macrophages, revealing a novel mechanism of host cell-mediated regulation of intracellular drug exposure and parasite survival within phagocytes. Conclusions These results provide insight into host cell mechanisms regulating the intracellular exposure of Leishmania to antimonials and variations among individuals that impact parasite survival. Understanding of host cell determinants of intracellular pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics opens new avenues to improved drug efficacy for intracellular

  18. Biodistribution of meglumine antimoniate in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi-infected BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema


    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimonials such as meglumine antimoniate (MA are the primary treatments for leishmaniasis, a complex disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania . Despite over 70 years of clinical use, their mechanisms of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetics have not been fully elucidated. Radiotracer studies performed on animals have the potential to play a major role in pharmaceutical development. The aims of this study were to prepare an antimony radiotracer by neutron irradiation of MA and to determine the biodistribution of MA in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi-infected mice. MA (Glucantime(r was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes, 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This irradiated compound presented anti-leishmanial activity similar to that of non-irradiated MA in both in vitro and in vivo evaluations. In the biodistribution studies, healthy mice showed higher uptake of antimony in the liver than infected mice and elimination occurred primarily through biliary excretion, with a small proportion of the drug excreted by the kidneys. The serum kinetic curve was bi-exponential, with two compartments: the central compartment and another compartment associated with drug excretion. Radiotracers, which can be easily produced by neutron irradiation, were demonstrated to be an interesting tool for answering several questions regarding antimonial pharmacokinetics and chemotherapy.

  19. Species-specific antimonial sensitivity in Leishmania is driven by post-transcriptional regulation of AQP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Mandal


    Full Text Available Leishmania is a digenetic protozoan parasite causing leishmaniasis in humans. The different clinical forms of leishmaniasis are caused by more than twenty species of Leishmania that are transmitted by nearly thirty species of phlebotomine sand flies. Pentavalent antimonials (such as Pentostam or Glucantime are the first line drugs for treating leishmaniasis. Recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony (Sb(V acts as a pro-drug, which is converted to the more active trivalent form (Sb(III. However, sensitivity to trivalent antimony varies among different Leishmania species. In general, Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL are more sensitive to Sb(III than the species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Leishmania aquaglyceroporin (AQP1 facilitates the adventitious passage of antimonite down a concentration gradient. In this study, we show that Leishmania species causing CL accumulate more antimonite, and therefore exhibit higher sensitivity to antimonials, than the species responsible for VL. This species-specific differential sensitivity to antimonite is directly proportional to the expression levels of AQP1 mRNA. We show that the stability of AQP1 mRNA in different Leishmania species is regulated by their respective 3'-untranslated regions. The differential regulation of AQP1 mRNA explains the distinct antimonial sensitivity of each species.

  20. Species-Specific Antimonial Sensitivity in Leishmania Is Driven by Post-Transcriptional Regulation of AQP1 (United States)

    Mandal, Goutam; Mandal, Srotoswati; Sharma, Mansi; Charret, Karen Santos; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Mukhopadhyay, Rita


    Leishmania is a digenetic protozoan parasite causing leishmaniasis in humans. The different clinical forms of leishmaniasis are caused by more than twenty species of Leishmania that are transmitted by nearly thirty species of phlebotomine sand flies. Pentavalent antimonials (such as Pentostam or Glucantime) are the first line drugs for treating leishmaniasis. Recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony (Sb(V)) acts as a pro-drug, which is converted to the more active trivalent form (Sb(III)). However, sensitivity to trivalent antimony varies among different Leishmania species. In general, Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are more sensitive to Sb(III) than the species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Leishmania aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) facilitates the adventitious passage of antimonite down a concentration gradient. In this study, we show that Leishmania species causing CL accumulate more antimonite, and therefore exhibit higher sensitivity to antimonials, than the species responsible for VL. This species-specific differential sensitivity to antimonite is directly proportional to the expression levels of AQP1 mRNA. We show that the stability of AQP1 mRNA in different Leishmania species is regulated by their respective 3’-untranslated regions. The differential regulation of AQP1 mRNA explains the distinct antimonial sensitivity of each species. PMID:25714343

  1. Development of an analytical method for antimony speciation in vegetables by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. (United States)

    Olivares, David; Bravo, Manuel; Feldmann, Jorg; Raab, Andrea; Neaman, Alexander; Quiroz, Waldo


    A new method for antimony speciation in terrestrial edible vegetables (spinach, onions, and carrots) was developed using HPLC with hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Mechanical agitation and ultrasound were tested as extraction techniques. Different extraction reagents were evaluated and optimal conditions were determined using experimental design methodology, where EDTA (10 mmol/L, pH 2.5) was selected because this chelate solution produced the highest extraction yield and exhibited the best compatibility with the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that EDTA prevents oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) and maintains the stability of antimony species during the entire analytical process. The LOD and precision (RSD values obtained) for Sb(V), Sb(III), and trimethyl Sb(V) were 0.08, 0.07, and 0.9 microg/L and 5.0, 5.2, and 4.7%, respectively, for a 100 microL sample volume. The application of this method to real samples allowed extraction of 50% of total antimony content from spinach, while antimony extracted from carrots and onion samples ranged between 50 and 60 and 54 and 70%, respectively. Only Sb(V) was detected in three roots (onion and spinach) that represented 60-70% of the total antimony in the extracts.

  2. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others


    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Highly active and stable Pt electrocatalysts promoted by antimony-doped SnO2 supports for oxygen reduction reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Min; Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng;


    Alternative composite supports for platinum catalysts were synthesized from antimony doped tin dioxide (ATO) nanoparticles. In the range of the antimony content from 0 to 11mol%, the highest electrical conductivity of 1.1Scm-1 at 130°C was obtained for the 5mol% Sb ATO, from which composite...

  4. Leishmaniose cutânea com desfecho fatal durante tratamento com antimonial pentavalente American cutaneous leishmaniasis with fatal outcome during pentavalent antimoniate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiri Vanderlei Nogueira de Lima


    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de paciente de 58 anos, hipertensa e diabética, com diagnóstico de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, tratada com antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina (15mg SbV/kg/dia, acompanhada pelo serviço de atenção básica em saúde e que evoluiu para óbito no 18º dia de tratamento.The authors report a case of a 58 years-old, hypertensive, diabetic female patient, with the diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, undergoing treatment with Nmethyl glucamine antimoniate (15mg SbV/Kg/day. She was followed up by the basic health care service, but has died on the 18th treatment day.

  5. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)


    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The

  6. Evaluation of antimony efficiency on nickel passivation in PETROBRAS refineries; Avaliacao da efetividade do antimonio para passivacao de niquel nas refinarias da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Henrique Soares; Pimenta, Ricardo Drolhe M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Engenharia de Abastecimento]. E-mail:; Baugis, Guintar Luciano; Tan, Mauricio Hoansan [PETROBRAS, Maua, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Capuava (RECAP)


    In the present paper, a brief review concerning the use of antimony as nickel passivator is presented. X-ray fluorescence analysis of equilibrium catalysts from several fluid catalytic cracking units in Petrobras refineries indicates that the Sb/ Ni ratio currently in use is very low (approx. 0.1) and that neither the coke nor the gas factor obtained in laboratory tests (MAT) are correlated with eh Sb/Ni ratio. An experiment in the cyclic deactivation unit doping the feedstock (GOP cabiunas) with Ni, V naphthenates as well as antimony, aiming at simulating the levels found in PETROBRAS refineries, showed that under those conditions the antimony does not deposit significantly over the catalyst. Analysis of antimony content in the catalyst fines and decanted oil from one FCC unit confirms the non-retention of antimony under the applied industrial conditions. (author)

  7. Effect of Antimony, Phosphorous and Salinity on Growth, Root Membrane Permeability and Root Antimony, Iron and Zinc Concentration of Corn in Hydroponic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Barangizi


    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb pollution has increased in recent years because of human activities and extensive usage of antimony compounds. To date, only a few researches have been conducted in this field in Iran. The purpose of this research is to determine fresh and dry weight, root permeability percentage and root concentration of Sb, Fe and Zn in the corn. This greenhouse research was performed in hydroponics. A factorial experiment (3 × 2 × 3 with three Sb concentrations (0, 6, 18 mgL-1, with and without P (0, 3 mgL-1, and three concentrations of NaCl (0, 60, 120 mM in three replications was conducted. After 40 days, plants were harvested and the roots and shoots were separated. Increasing Sb concentrations, significantly reduced shoot weight. In the presence of Sb, shoot wet and dry matter increased with phosphorous addition because of the positive effect of phosphorous. Increasing Sb concentration with the same level of phosphorous produced plants with less fresh matter. Roots with lower phosphorous level had higher permeability, and increasing phosphorous concentration had a significant effect on root permeability. The highest and lowest root permeability was related to blank Sb level and 6 mg L-1 level of Sb, respectively. Increasing Sb concentration in nutrient solution first reduced and then significantly increased the root permeability. Root permeability also increased significantly by increasing salinity level in nutrient solution. Root Fe concentration of blank phosphorous level was about 13 percent higher than 3 mg L-1 of phosphorous but there was no significant difference in root Fe concentration between species in nutrient solutions with different levels of Sb and NaCl concentrations. The addition of Sb decreased root Zn concentration.

  8. Selective liquid-liquid extraction of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media by N-n-octylaniline in xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ANUSE


    Full Text Available N-n-Octylaniline in xylene was used for the extraction separation of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media. Antimony(III was extracted quantitatively with 10 mL 4 % N-n-octylaniline in xylene. It was stripped from the organic phase with 0.5 M ammonia and estimated photometrically by the iodide method. The effect of metal ion, acid, reagent concentration and various foreign ions was investigated. The method affords binary and ternary separation of antimony(III from tellurium(IV, selenium(IV, lead(II, bismuth(III, tin(IV, germanium(IV, copper(II, gold(III, iron(III and zinc(II. The method is applicable for the analysis of synthetic mixtures, alloys and semiconductor thin films. It is fast, accurate and precise.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and single crystal X-ray analysis of chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.S. Chauhan


    Full Text Available The title compound chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III has been prepared in distilled acetonitrile and characterized by physicochemical [melting point and molecular weight determination, elemental analysis (C, H, N, S & Sb], spectral [FT–IR, far IR, NMR (1H & 13C] studies. The crystal and molecular structure was further confirmed using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which features a five-coordinate geometry for antimony(III within a ClS4 donor set. The distortion in the co-planarity of ClSbS3 evidences the stereochemical influence exerts by the lone pair of electrons on antimony(III. Two centrosymmetrically related molecule held together via C–H···Cl secondary interaction result in molecular aggregation of the compound.

  10. 33 CFR 137.1 - Purpose and applicability. (United States)


    ... ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES UNDER THE INNOCENT LAND-OWNER DEFENSE Introduction § 137.1 Purpose and... their functions as sovereigns under 33 U.S.C. 2703(d)(2)(B). Involuntary acquisition of properties...

  11. Nanoscaled hydrated antimony (V oxide as a new approach to first-line antileishmanial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco AMR


    Full Text Available Antonia MR Franco,1 Iryna Grafova,2 Fabiane V Soares,1,3 Gennaro Gentile,4 Claudia DC Wyrepkowski,1,3 Marcos A Bolson,5 Ézio Sargentini Jr,5 Cosimo Carfagna,4 Markku Leskelä,2 Andriy Grafov2 1Laboratory of Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease, National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 2Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Multi-Institutional Post-Graduate Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 4Institute for Polymers, Composites, and Biomaterials, National Research Council, Pozzuoli, Naples Province, Italy; 5Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Background: Coordination compounds of pentavalent antimony have been, and remain, the first-line drugs in leishmaniasis treatment for >70 years. Molecular forms of Sb (V complexes are commercialized as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® and meglumine antimoniate (MA (Glucantime®. Ever-increasing drug resistance in the parasites limits the use of antimonials, due to the low drug concentrations being administered against high parasitic counts. Sb5+ toxicity provokes severe side effects during treatment. To enhance therapeutic potency and to increase Sb (V concentration within the target cells, we decided to try a new active substance form, a hydrosol of Sb2O5⋅nH2O nanoparticles (NPs, instead of molecular drugs. Methodology/principal findings: Sb2O5⋅nH2O NPs were synthesized by controlled SbCl5 hydrolysis in a great excess of water. Sb2O5⋅nH2O phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The surface of Sb (V NPs was treated with ligands with a high affinity for target cell membrane receptors. The mean particle size determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy was ~35–45 nm. In vitro tests demonstrated a 2.5–3 times higher antiparasitic activity of Sb (V nanohybrid hydrosols

  12. Characteristics of 137Cs deposition in steppe area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Soil wind erosion in the semiarid steppe area was studied using the 137Cs tracing technique. Comparisons of 137Cs deposition characteristics between different soil profiles indicated that slight aeolian activities occurred on sandy grasslands and semi-fixed dunes with erosion/deposition rates of less than 0.108 cm/a, whereas they were intense on semi-shifting dunes with erosion/deposition rates of higher than 1.35 cm/a.

  13. Obsah Cs-137 v houbách


    ČADOVÁ, Michaela


    The aim of this work is to compare the presence of Cs-137 in different kinds of mushrooms in selected locations using semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometry. Research question was determined: Does Cs-137 content amount vary depending on the fungal species? The first part deals with basic knowledge of ionizing radiation, which is important for the complex understanding of thematic problems. This concerns basic radiobiological terms such as radioactivity, ionizing radiation, its biological effect...

  14. Field-portable-XRF reveals the ubiquity of antimony in plastic consumer products. (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat


    Very little systematic information exists on the occurrence and concentrations of antimony (Sb) in consumer products. In this study, a Niton XL3t field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer was deployed in situ and in the laboratory to provide quantitative information on Sb dissipated in plastic items and fixtures (including rubber, textile and foamed materials) from the domestic, school, vehicular and office settings. The metalloid was detected in 18% of over 800 measurements performed, with concentrations ranging from about 60 to 60,000μgg(-1). The highest concentrations were encountered in white, electronic casings and in association with similar concentrations of Br, consistent with the use of antimony oxides (e.g. Sb2O3) as synergistic flame retardants. Concentrations above 1000μgg(-1), and with or without Br, were also encountered in paints, piping and hosing, adhesives, whiteboards, Christmas decorations, Lego blocks, document carriers, garden furniture, upholstered products and interior panels of private motor vehicles. Lower concentrations of Sb were encountered in a wide variety of items but its presence (without Br) in food tray packaging, single-use drinks bottles, straws and small toys were of greatest concern from a human health perspective. While the latter observations are consistent with the use of antimony compounds as catalysts in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, co-association of Sb and Br in many products not requiring flame retardancy suggests that electronic casings are widely recycled. Further research is required into the mobility of Sb when dissipated in new, recycled and aged polymeric materials.

  15. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.


    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  16. Antimony film sensor for sensitive rare earth metal analysis in environmental samples. (United States)

    Makombe, Martin; van der Horst, Charlton; Silwana, Bongiwe; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Somerset, Vernon


    A sensor for the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of rare earth elements has been developed. The electrochemical procedure is based on the oxidation of the rare earth elements complexed with alizarin complexone at a glassy carbon electrode that was in situ modified with an antimony film, during an anodic scan from -0.2 V to 1.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and deposition potential of -0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The factors influencing the adsorptive stripping capability were optimised, including the complexing agent concentration, plating concentration of antimony and deposition time. The detection of rare earth elements (La, Ce and Pr) were realised in 0.08 M sodium acetate (pH = 5.8) solution as supporting electrolyte, with 2 × 10(-6) M alizarin complexone and 1.0 mg L(-1) antimony solution. Under the optimised conditions, a deposition time of 360 s was obtained and a linear response was observed between 1 and 25 µg L(-1). The reproducibility of the voltammetric measurements was found to be within 5.0% RSD for 12 replicate measurements of cerium(III) concentration of 5 µg L(-1) using the same electrode surface. The detection limits obtained using stripping analysis was 0.06, 0.42 and 0.71 μg L(-1) for Ce(III), La(III) and Pr(III), respectively. The developed sensor has been successfully applied for the determination of cerium, lanthanum and praseodymium in municipal tap water samples.

  17. Sm-Nd isotope dating of hydrothermal calcites from the Xikuangshan antimony deposit, Central Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The research on Samarium-Neodymium isotope systematics of hydrothermal calcites from the Xikuangshan antimony deposit, Central Hunan, places precise timing constraints on the Sb mineralization in this area. It is revealed that the Xikuangshan deposit formed during the late Jurassic-early Cretaceous Period, the early- and late- stage mineralization took place at (155.5 ± 1.1) Ma and (124.1 ± 3.7) Ma, respectively. The accurate age determination of mineralization is very crucial for revealing the super-enrichment mechanism of the element Sb at the Xikuangshan mine, and lays some foundations for the further understandings of its ore genesis and mineralization mechanism.

  18. Photodegradation of Naphthol green B in the presence of semiconducting antimony trisulphide - SHORT COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Different methods of wastewater treatment are being used for the removal of dyes from their solution, but in most of the cases, either homogeneous catalysts or different adsorbents are used. These methods have their own merits and demerits. In the present work, antimony trisulphide was used as a heterogeneous catalyst. The effects of different parameters on the rate of the reaction were observed, such as pH, concentration of dye, amount of semiconductor and light intensity. A tentative mechanism is proposed in which the role of hydroxyl radical as an active oxidizing species is shown for degradation of Naphthol green B.

  19. Influence of arsenic,antimony and cobalt impurities on the cathodic process in zinc electrowinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    By means of an electrochemical study,the influence of arsenic,antimony and cobalt on cathodic polarization in the zinc electrowinning process,the associated kinetic equations and parameters,and the polarization mechanism have been studied.The results show that the experimental values of the kinetic parameters are in accord with the theoretical values in the ZnSO4/H2SO4 solution with a single impurity is added.In contrast,the charge transfer coefficient α is smaller than the theoretical value in the ZnSO4/H2SO4 solution when the three impurities are added together.

  20. Determination of antimony in rain water at the nanogram level with surfactant and brilliant green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, A.N.; Patel, K.S. [School of Studies in Chemistry, Pt. Ravishankar University, Raipur (India)


    A new, simple, selective and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony in rain water is described. It includes preconcentrating Sb with surfactants (i.e. cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and Triton X-100 (TX-100)) into toluene and allowing the extract to react with a dye, i.e. brilliant green (BG). The value of apparent molar absorptivity is 5.55 x 10{sup 5} L-mol{sup -1} . cm{sup -1} at {lambda}{sub max} = 620 nm; the detection limit is 3 ng/mL Sb in rain water at 3-fold preconcentration. (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 7 refs.

  1. Temperature dependent electrical resistivity of gallium and antimony in a liquid form (United States)

    Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.


    Present paper deals with the effects of temperature variation on the electrical resistivity (Ω) of liquid Gallium (Ga), and Antimony (Sb). We have used a new parameter free pseudopotential with a Zeeman formula for finding it. To see the effects of screening Farid et al local field correction function is used with the Charged Hard Sphere (CHS) reference system. Analysis and comparison between the plotted graphs, based on present computed data and other experimental data defines and conclude that our newly constructed model potential is an effective one to produce the data for the temperature dependent electrical resistivity of some liquid semiconductors.

  2. Stripping voltammetric determination of mercury(II) at antimony-coated carbon paste electrode. (United States)

    Ashrafi, Amir M; Vytřas, Karel


    A new procedure was elaborated to determine mercury(II) using an anodic stripping square-wave voltammetry at the antimony film carbon paste electrode (SbF-CPE). In highly acidic medium of 1M hydrochloric acid, voltammetric measurements can be realized in a wide potential window. Presence of cadmium(II) allows to separate peaks of Hg(II) and Sb(III) and apparently catalyses reoxidation of electrolytically accumulated mercury, thus allowing its determination at ppb levels. Calibration dependence was linear up to 100 ppb Hg with a detection limit of 1.3 ppb. Applicability of the method was tested on the real river water sample.

  3. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmund Michalski


    Full Text Available Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemical cycles of chemical compounds, determination of toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products, control of medicines and pharmaceutical products, technological process control, research on the impact of technological installation on the environment, examination of occupational exposure, and clinical analysis. Conventional methods are usually labor intensive, time consuming, and susceptible to interferences. The hyphenated techniques, in which separation method is coupled with multidimensional detectors, have become useful alternatives. The main advantages of those techniques consist in extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant interference, influence as well as high precision and repeatability of the determinations. In view of their importance, the present work overviews and discusses different hyphenated techniques used for arsenic, antimony, and thallium species analysis, in different clinical, environmental and food matrices.

  4. Effect of indium and antimony doping in SnS single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, Sunil H., E-mail:; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M.P.


    Highlights: • Single crystals growth of pure SnS, indium doped SnS and antimony doped SnS by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. • Doping of In and Sb occurred in SnS single crystals by cation replacement. • The replacement mechanism ascertained by EDAX, XRD and substantiated by Raman spectra analysis. • Dopants concentration affects the optical energy bandgap. • Doping influences electrical transport properties. - Abstract: Single crystals of pure SnS, indium (In) doped SnS and antimony (Sb) doped SnS were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. Two doping concentrations of 5% and 15% each were employed for both In and Sb dopants. Thus in total five samples were studied viz., pure SnS (S1), 5% In doped SnS (S2), 15% In doped SnS (S3), 5% Sb doped SnS (S4) and 15% Sb doped SnS (S5). The grown single crystal samples were characterized by evaluating their surface microstructure, stoichiometric composition, crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy, optical and electrical transport properties using appropriate techniques. The d.c. electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power variations with temperature showed semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The room temperature Hall Effect measurements further substantiated the semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The obtained results are deliberated in detail.

  5. Determination of Trace Antimony (III by Adsorption Voltammetry at Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongyue He


    Full Text Available This work presents a sensitive method for the determination of trace antimonybased on the antimony-pyrogallol red (PGR adsorption at a carbon paste electrode (CPE.The optimal conditions were to use an electrode containing 25% paraffin oil and 75%high purity graphite powder as working electrode, a 0.10 mol/L HCl solution containing3.0×10-5 mol/L PGR as accumulation medium and a 0.20 mol/L HCl solution aselectrolyte with an accumulation time of 150 s and a reduction time of 60 s at -0.50 Vfollowed with a sweep from -0.50 V to 0.20 V. The mechanism of the electrode reactionwas discussed. Interferences of other metal ions were studied as well. The detection limitwas 1×10-9 mol/L. The linear range was from 2.0×10-9 mol/L to 5.0×10-7 mol/L.Application of the proposed method to the determination of antimony in water andhuman hair samples gave good results.

  6. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: comparison of in vitro leishmanicidal activity of marbofloxacin, meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate. (United States)

    Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Rougier, Sandrine; Dugas, Bernard; Pino, Paco; Mazier, Dominique; Woehrlé, Frédérique


    The control of canine leishmaniasis largely depends on the success of treatment. Drugs currently available to treat this disease are toxic and partially effective. The curative effect of marbofloxacin, a third-generation fluoroquinolone developed for veterinarian individual treatment, was evaluated in vitro in the presence of Leishmania infantum promastigotes and dog-monocyte-derived macrophages; meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate were used as comparative treatments. We observed that the killing of Leishmania promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes by marbofloxacin was dose-dependent. We demonstrated that successful treatment of canine infected macrophages for 48 h was possible with 500 microg/ml of marbofloxacin. Leishmanicidal activity acted through a TNF-alpha and nitric oxide pathway and correlated with the generation of nitric oxide (NO(2)) production by monocytes derived macrophages from infected (23+/-5 microM) or healthy (21+/-6 microM) dogs, in comparison with NO(2) concentration in infected/non-treated macrophages (Marbofloxacin was shown to be non-toxic at 500 microg/ml in vitro and no cell apoptosis was observed. The molecule was able to induce a parasitic process after significant elimination of amastigotes in leishmania-infected dog macrophages. We propose that marbofloxacin, compared to standard chemotherapeutic agents (meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate), could be an effective and pragmatic oral route alternative to treat canine leishmaniasis.

  7. A Black Phosphate Conversion Coating on Steel Surface Using Antimony(III)-Tartrate as an Additive (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Guiping


    A novel black phosphate conversion coating was formed on steel surface through a Zn-Mn phosphating bath containing mainly ZnO, H3PO4, Mn(H2PO4)2, and Ca(NO3)2, where antimony(III)-tartrate was used as the blackening agent of phosphatization. The surface morphology and composition of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Corrosion resistance of the coating was studied by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The pH value of the solution had significant influence on the formation and corrosion resistance of the coating. The experimental results indicated that the Sb plays a vital role in the blackening of phosphate conversion coating. The optimal concentration of antimony(III)-tartrate in the phosphating bath used in this experiment was 1.0 g L-1, as higher values reduced the corrosion resistance of the coating. In addition, by saponification and oil seals, the corrosion duration of the black phosphate coating in a copper sulfate spot test can be as long as 20 min.

  8. Effect of antimony incorporation on structural properties of CuInS{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rabeh, M., E-mail: mohamedbenrabeh@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaglabou, N., E-mail: nadia_chaglabou@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Kanzari, M., E-mail: Mounir.Kanzari@ipeit.rnu.t [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)


    CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) single crystals doped with 1, 2, 3 and 4 atomic percent (at.%) of antimony (Sb) were grown by the horizontal Bridgman method. The effect of Sb doping on the structural properties of CIS crystal was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL measurements. X-ray diffraction data suggests that the doping of Sb in the CIS single crystals does not affect the tetragonal (chalcopyrite) crystal structure and exhibited a (1 1 2) preferred orientation. In addition, with increasing Sb concentration, the X-ray diffraction analysis show that Sb doped CIS crystals are more crystallized and the diffraction peaks of the CuInS{sub 2} phase were more pronounced in particular the (1 1 2) plane. EDAX study revealed that Sb atoms can occupy the indium site and/or occupying the sulfur site to make an acceptor. PL spectra of undoped and Sb doped CIS crystals show two emission peaks at 1.52 and 1.62 eV, respectively which decreased with increasing atomic percent antimony. Sb doped CIS crystals show p-type conductivity.

  9. Food crop accumulation and bioavailability assessment for antimony (Sb) compared with arsenic (As) in contaminated soils. (United States)

    Wilson, Susan C; Tighe, Matthew; Paterson, Ewan; Ashley, Paul M


    Field samples and a 9-week glasshouse growth trial were used to investigate the accumulation of mining derived arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in vegetable crops growing on the Macleay River Floodplain in Northern New South Wales, Australia. The soils were also extracted using EDTA to assess the potential for this extractant to be used as a predictor of As and Sb uptake in vegetables, and a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) to understand potential for uptake in the human gut with soil ingestion. Metalloids were not detected in any field vegetables sampled. Antimony was not detected in the growth trial vegetable crops over the 9-week greenhouse trial. Arsenic accumulation in edible vegetable parts was risk of exposure through short-term vegetable crops is low. The data also demonstrate that uptake pathways for Sb and As in the vegetables were different with uptake strongly impacted by soil properties. A fraction of soil-borne metalloid was soluble in the different soils resulting in Sb soil solution concentration (10.75 ± 0.52 μg L(-1)) that could present concern for contamination of water resources. EDTA proved a poor predictor of As and Sb phytoavailability. Oral bioaccessibility, as measured by SBET, was risk from soil borne As and Sb in the floodplain environment.

  10. Evaluation of antimony microparticles supported on biochar for application in the voltammetric determination of paraquat. (United States)

    Gevaerd, Ava; de Oliveira, Paulo R; Mangrich, Antonio S; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H


    This work describes the construction and application of carbon paste electrodes modified with biochar and antimony microparticles (SbBCPE) for voltammetric determination of paraquat using a simple and sensitive procedure based on voltammetric stripping analysis. Some parameters such as amount of biochar and antimony used in the composition of the carbon paste and instrumental parameters were examined in detail. Under optimized conditions, an analytical curve was obtained for paraquat determination employing SbBCPE, which showed a linear response ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 μmol L(-1), with limit of detection and quantification of 34 nmol L(-1) and 113 nmol L(-1), respectively, after paraquat pre-concentration of 120 s. The repeatability study presented a RSD=2.0% for 10 consecutive measurements using the same electrode surface and the reproducibility study showed a RSD=2.7% for measurements with 10 different electrode surfaces. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for paraquat determination in tap water and citric fruit juice spiked samples and good recoveries were obtained without any sample pre-treatment, showing its promising analytical performance.

  11. Growth of antimony doped P-type zinc oxide nanowires for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Pradel, Ken


    In a method of growing p-type nanowires, a nanowire growth solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO.sub.3).sub.2), hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and polyethylenemine (800 M.sub.w PEI) is prepared. A dopant solution to the growth solution, the dopant solution including an equal molar ration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), glycolic acid (C.sub.2H.sub.4O.sub.3) and antimony acetate (Sb(CH.sub.3COO).sub.3) in water is prepared. The dopant solution and the growth solution combine to generate a resulting solution that includes antimony to zinc in a ratio of between 0.2% molar to 2.0% molar, the resulting solution having a top surface. An ammonia solution is added to the resulting solution. A ZnO seed layer is applied to a substrate and the substrate is placed into the top surface of the resulting solution with the ZnO seed layer facing downwardly for a predetermined time until Sb-doped ZnO nanowires having a length of at least 5 .mu.m have grown from the ZnO seed layer.

  12. Organically complexed iron enhances bioavailability of antimony to maize (Zea mays) seedlings in organic soils. (United States)

    Ptak, Corey; McBride, Murray


    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Chemical similarities between arsenic (As) and Sb produce concerns about potential health effects of Sb and enrichment in the environment. Antimony is found in oxic environments predominately as an oxyanionic species, antimonite (Sb[OH](6-)). As a result of its net negative charge, Sb[OH](6-) was not initially predicted to have strong interactions with natural organic matter. Oxyanionic species could bind the negatively charged organic matter via a ternary complexation mechanism, in which cationic metals mediate the strong association between organic matter functional groups and oxyanions. However, these interactions are poorly understood in how they influence the bioavailability of oxyanionic contaminants to plants. Iron (Fe) additions to organic soils have been found to increase the number of organically complexed Fe sites suitable for Sb exchange, resulting in a reduced bioavailable fraction of Sb. The bioavailability of Sb to maize seedlings as a function of organically complexed Fe was examined using a greenhouse study. A significant increase in plant tissue Sb was observed as organically complexed Fe increased, which was not predicted by methods commonly used to assess bioavailable Sb. Extraction of soils with organic acids common to the maize rhizosphere suggested that organic acid exudation can readily mobilize Sb bound by organic Fe complexes.

  13. Fabrication of cesium-137 brachytherapy sources using vitrification technology. (United States)

    Dash, Ashutosh; Varma, R N; Ram, Ramu; Saxena, S K; Mathakar, A R; Avhad, B G; Sastry, K V S; Sangurdekar, P R; Venkatesh, Meera


    137Cs source in solid matrix encapsulated in stainless-steel at MBq (mCi) levels are widely used as brachytherapy sources for the treatment of carcinoma of cervix uteri. This article describes the large-scale preparation of such sources. The process of fabrication includes vitrification of 137Cs-sodium borosilicate glass, its transformation into spheres of 5-6 mm diameter, casting of glass spheres into a cylinder of 1.5 mm (varphi) x 80 mm (l) in a platinum mould, cutting of the moulds into 5-mm-long pieces, silver coating on the sources, and finally, encapsulation in stainless steel capsules. Development of safety precautions used to trap 137Cs escaping during borosilicate glass preparation is also described. The leach rates of the radioactive sources prepared by the above technology were within permissible limits, and the sources could be used for encapsulation in stainless steel capsules and supplied for brachytherapy applications. This development was aimed at promoting the potential utility of 137Cs-brachytherapy sources in the country and reducing the user's reliance on imported sources. Since its development, more than 1000 such sources have been made by using 4.66 TBq(126 Ci) of 137Cs.

  14. Modelling turnover of Cs-137 in two subarctic salmonid ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlinder, S.; Bergstroem, U. (Studsvik AB, Ecosafe, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Hammar, J. (Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm (Sweden) Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology); Notter, M. (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden))


    The turnover of cesium-137 was simulated in two categories of subarctic, alpine lake ecosystems - a natural lake with Gammarus lacustris as major fish prey and a lake reservoir with introduced Mysis relicta as a new fish-food organism. The resulting concentrations of Cs-137 in two salmonid species - Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) - were calculated using a multi-compartment model. Observed data were taken from a major case study evaluating the distribution, pathways and major transport mechanisms of Chernobyl cesium through northern lake ecosystems in 1986-90. The aim of this study was to design a specific conceptual model for calculation of the levels of Cs-137 in fish from simple lake ecosystems, which could be adopted for other more complex types of lakes. A multi-compartment model of the ecosystem was designed and the equations were solved with the BIOPATH-code. The uncertainty of the results due to the uncertainty of input values was examined using the PRISM-system. The model gave good correlations to measured data for Cs-137 in water, zooplankton, macro invertebrates and fish in both lakes. The predicted levels in sediments were, however, considerably lower than the observed values. The inflow of Cs-137 from the drainage area to the two lakes was identified as the main contributor to the uncertainty of the long-term prognoses. 33 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  15. {sup 137} Cs as a tracer of the Catalan current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Molero, J.; Merino, J.; Pujol, L. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Mitchell, P.I. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Physics


    A number of nuclear power installations located in the north-western Mediterranean (NWM) area are known to enhance {sup 137}Cs levels in various marine compartments. The nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Marcoule (France) has been reported to originate a significant increase of {sup 137}Cs in Rhone river waters and sediments because of the discharge of low-level liquid radioactive waste. This radionuclide may be used as a tracer of oceanographic processes in the NWM; in fact, {sup 137}Cs of Rhone river origin has been detected in the Gulf of Lions by several authors. The results reported in this work correspond to various transect experiments in waters of the Catalan Sea and show that: (i) surface salinity measurements confirmed the presence of the Catalan current in the Cap de Creus area; (ii) the 1991 Cap de Creus transect showed clearly the presence of {sup 137}Cs above a baseline level of 4.3 {+-} 0.2 Bq.m{sup -3}; (iii) the Cap de Salou transect showed elevated levels towards the coast; (iv) the 1992 Cap de Creus transect showed no structure at all. Therefore, it was concluded that traces of {sup 137}Cs from the Marcoule nuclear fuel reprocessing plant were transported by the Catalan current and were detectable in the Catalan Sea with a complex spatio-temporal structure. (authors). 25 refs., 4 figs.

  16. 从含锑烟灰中湿法提取立方晶型三氧化二锑%Extraction of Cubic Crystal Antimony Trioxide from Dusts Containing Antimony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣良; 史宝良; 史爱波; 鞠洪博; 姜大伟; 王伟; 颜平


    以含锑烟尘为原料,采用HCI浸出-锑粉还原-Na2CO3中和-氨水添加EDTA水解工艺回收立方晶型Sb2O3产品.对回收工艺过程和条件进行了研究.重点探讨了浸出温度、浸出时间、HCI摩尔浓度、浸出液固比对Sb浸出率的影响,以及不同的SbCl3与EDTA摩尔比对产品Sb2O3晶型的影响.结果表明,采用该工艺Sb的浸出率为98.50%,Sb的回收率为90.35%,产品为纯的立方晶型Sb2O3.%With dusts containing antimony as raw material, the cubic crystal antimony trioxide was recovered by the processes including leaching in hydrochloric acid, antimony powder reduction, sodium carbonate-neutralization, and hydrolysis with EDTA as an additive in ammonia.The influences of leaching temperature, leaching time, hydrochloric acid concentrate, and ratio of liquid to solid on the leaching rate of Sb, and the molar ratio of SbCl3 to EDTA on the crystal of the antimony trioxide product were investigated.The results indicated that the leaching rate of Sb was 98.50%, the recovery of Sb was 90.35%, and the purity of product with cubic crystal antimony trioxide was 99.5%.

  17. Progress of Antimony-containing Wastewater Treatment%含锑废水处理技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹鑫; 周广柱; 王翠珍; 王世豪; 彭刚; 何双


    在锑矿的开采及冶炼加工过程中,排出了大量含锑废水,这种重金属废水对环境和人体健康构成严重威胁。本文总结了重金属锑元素的物理化学性质、毒性特点,归纳了含锑废水的处理方法,分析了含锑废水处理技术的优势和缺点,提出了工艺联合应用等高效处理含锑废水的相关建议。%A large amount of wastewater containing antimony discharged in the process of antimony ore mining,smelting and processing,which pose a serious threat to the environment and human health. In this paper we summarized the characteristics of physical and chemical properties, toxicity of antimony, and the antimony wastewater treatment. Advantages and disadvantages of these treatment crafts were compared in a table,the recommendations given out for more efficiently processing via crafts combination.

  18. Identification of antimony resistance markers in Leishmania tropica field isolates through a cDNA-AFLP approach. (United States)

    Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khadem-Erfan, Mohammad Bagher; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza; Hajjaran, Homa; Hadighi, Ramtin; Khamesipour, Ali; Rezaie, Sassan; Abedkhojasteh, Hoda; Heidari, Mansour


    Pentavalent antimonial compounds have been the first line therapy for leishmaniasis; unfortunately the rate of treatment failure of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is increasing due to emerging of drug resistance. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms operating in antimony resistance is critical for development of new strategies for treatment. Here, we used a cDNA-AFLP approach to identify gene(s) which are differentially expressed in resistant and sensitive Leishmania tropica field isolates. We identified five genes, aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) acts in drug uptake, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (MRPA) involved in sequestration of drug, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) implicated in glycolysis metabolism, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) responsible for phosphorylation pathway. The results were confirmed using real time RT-PCR which revealed an upregulation of MRPA, PTP and PGK genes and downregulation of AQP1 and MAPK genes in resistant isolate. To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of PTP and PGK genes potentially implicated in resistance to antimonials. Our findings support the idea that distinct biomolecules might be involved in antimony resistance in L. tropica field isolates.

  19. POLICY China’s Ministry of Commerce Set the Rules for Antimony and Tungsten Export in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正> China’s ministry of commerce recently re-leased the rules and application procedures forthe export of antimony and tungsten productsin 2005 by the domestic producers.Based on the rules set by the ministry,China’santimony and tungsten producers providingtheir products for export must be those enter-prises authorized by the related State authori-ties.

  20. Comparative phytotoxicity of methylated and inorganic arsenic- and antimony species to Lemna minor, Wolffia arrhiza and Selenastrum capricornutum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Duester; H.G. van der Geest; S. Moelleken; A.V. Hirner; K. Kueppers


    The alkylation of metalloids through the transfer of methyl groups is an important factor in the biogeochemical cycling of elements like arsenic and antimony. In the environment, many different organic and inorganic forms of these elements can therefore be found in soils, sediments or organisms. Stu

  1. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films and Their Applications in CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang


    Full Text Available Antimony telluride alloy thin films were deposited at room temperature by using the vacuum coevaporation method. The films were annealed at different temperatures in N2 ambient, and then the compositional, structural, and electrical properties of antimony telluride thin films were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Hall measurements. The results indicate that single phase antimony telluride existed when the annealing temperature was higher than 488 K. All thin films exhibited p-type conductivity with high carrier concentrations. Cell performance was greatly improved when the antimony telluride thin films were used as the back contact layer for CdTe thin film solar cells. The dark current voltage and capacitance voltage measurements were performed to investigate the formation of the back contacts for the cells with or without Sb2Te3 buffer layers. CdTe solar cells with the buffer layers can reduce the series resistance and eliminate the reverse junction between CdTe and metal electrodes.

  2. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report. (United States)

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira


    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  3. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel


    Full Text Available This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  4. Household methods to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, Helsinki (Finland)


    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the {sup 137}Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times.

  5. Nuclear structure and high-spin states of 137Pr (United States)

    Dragulescu, E.; Ivascu, M.; Petrache, C.; Popescu, D.; Semenescu, G.; Gurgu, I.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Pascovici, G.; Meyer, R. A.; Lopac, V.; Brant, S.; Paar, V.; Vorkapić, D.; Vretenar, D.


    Levels in 137Pr were populated in the 126Te( 14N, 3n) and 122Sn( 19F, 4n) reactions and the subsequent radiation was studied using in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy methods including γ-ray excitation-function, angular-distribution, γγ( t) coincidence and γ( t) measurements. A level scheme with new states up to spin {35}/{2} belonging to 137Pr is given. The lifetime of the {11}/{21} state at 563.4 keV has been determined as T {1}/{2} = 2.66±0.07 μ s. The calculation of low-lying levels in 137Pr performed in IBFM has been compared to experimental data.

  6. Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137 (United States)

    Rember, W. C.; Erdman, T. W.; Hoffmann, M. L.; Chamberlain, V. E.; Sprenke, K. F.


    For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s.

  7. Radiochemical determination of {sup 137}Cs in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, Geraldo F.; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Monteiro, Roberto P.G., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    A determination of radionuclides in food samples is important in commodities in order to attend to regulatory requirements for international trade. As a long-lived radioisotope of cesium, {sup 137}Cs is produced as a result of human nuclear activities and than its contamination level evaluation among others radionuclides in foods is necessary. A methodology for the determination of {sup 137}Cs in foods, pork and fish, is described. The procedures covered homogenization and freeze-drying of the samples. The {sup 137}Cs was measured by gamma spectrometry using Canberra 50% HPGe detector. The counting was carried out with Monte Carlo software for detection conditions optimization including geometry and chemical data information. A certified sample, SRM IAEA-375, was analyzed in order to evaluate the reliability of the method, and the results showed good agreement between the measured and certified values. (author)

  8. Dosimetry of a Cesium 137 source; Dosimetria de una fuente de Cesio 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres R, J.G.; Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad de Zacatecas (Mexico)


    It was carried out a dosimetric study of a source of Cesium 137 used in investigations of Radiobiology. This radionuclide has a half life of 30.07 years and it emits photons of 661.657 keV with a probability of 85.2%. The source has been used in a series of experiments trending to observe the cellular response before the gamma rays, as well as for the calibration of equipment of radiological protection. For such reason it is important to determine the dosimetric properties. In this work it was determined the absorbed dose that this source takes when being placed in the center from a methylmethacrylate badge to three distances, 5, 10 and 15 cm. The dose was measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters and it was calculated by means of Monte Carlo method, also was derived an expression that allows to determine the dose starting from the information of the activity of the source and of the distance regarding the same one. (Author)

  9. Transport processes of Cs-137 in lake environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, J.; Carrick, T.R.; Lishman, J.P.; Rigg, E. [Inst. of Freshwater Ecology, Windermere (United Kingdom); Davison, W.; Kelly, M.; Hamilton-Taylor, J. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Biological Sciences


    Radiocesium levels in the waters of the Lake District dropped after the initial deposition following the Chernobyl reactor accident. However they continued to be measurable several years after the event. Caesium 137 concentrations were measured in the sediments of Esthwaite water and Windermere to determine the input of caesium 137 from the catchment area to the lakes. Experiments were conducted to ascertain the chemical conditions such as pH value, adsorption, competing ions which might contribute to maintaining caesium levels in the lakes. (U.K.).

  10. Spin dynamics of complex oxides, bismuth-antimony alloys, and bismuth chalcogenides (United States)

    Sahin, Cuneyt

    The emerging field of spintronics relies on the manipulation of electron spin in order to use it in spin-based electronics. Such a paradigm change has to tackle several challenges including finding materials with sufficiently long spin lifetimes and materials which are efficient in generating pure spin currents. This thesis predicts that two types of material families could be a solution to the aforementioned challenges: complex oxides and bismuth based materials. We derived a general approach for constructing an effective spin-orbit Hamiltonian which is applicable to all nonmagnetic materials. This formalism is useful for calculating spin-dependent properties near an arbitrary point in momentum space. We also verified this formalism through comparisons with other approaches for III-V semiconductors, and its general applicability is illustrated by deriving the spin-orbit interaction and predicting spin lifetimes for strained strontium titanate (STO) and a two-dimensional electron gas in STO (such as at the LAO/STO interface). Our results suggest robust spin coherence and spin transport properties in STO related materials even at room temperature. In the second part of the study we calculated intrinsic spin Hall conductivities for bismuth-antimony (BISb) semimetals with strong spin-orbit couplings, from the Kubo formula and using Berry curvatures evaluated throughout the Brillouin zone from a tight-binding Hamiltonian. Nearly crossing bands with strong spin-orbit interaction generate giant spin Hall conductivities in these materials, ranging from 474 ((h/e)O--1cm--1) for bismuth to 96((h/e)O--1cm --1) for antimony; the value for bismuth is more than twice that of platinum. The large spin Hall conductivities persist for alloy compositions corresponding to a three-dimensional topological insulator state, such as Bi0.83Sb0.17. The spin Hall conductivity could be changed by a factor of 5 for doped Bi, or for Bi0.83Sb0.17, by changing the chemical potential by 0.5 e

  11. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage. (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J; Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R


    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this

  12. 134Cs: 137Cs and 106Ru: 137Cs ratios in intertidal sediments from the Cumbria and Lancashire coasts England (United States)

    Stanners, D. A.; Aston, S. R.


    The distributions of 134Cs, 137Cs and 106Ru in intertidal surface sediments from the coasts of Cumbria and Lancashire, north-west England, are reported. The ratios of 134Cs: 137Cs and 106Ru: 137Cs activities have been used together with the isotopic composition of the Windscale radioactive effluents to examine the contamination history of sediments. Distinct differences between the activities and time of contamination of muds, silts and sands are found, and the apparent lag times of transport of radioactive wastes to different sediment localities are estimated. The relatively high activities in fine sediments reflect recent discharges indicating a rapid response to discharge, while the sands contain low levels of older contamination. Apparent lag times of up to 6 years are estimated for the study area; the transport to the south is generally more rapid than to the north. These results have consequences for the operation and interpretation of radiological monitoring in coastal areas.

  13. A New Process of Diaphragm Electrowinning for Recovery of Antimony From Antimony-Gold Concentrate%锑金精矿隔膜电积预处理新工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宗强; 彭思尧; 杨建英; 张绪亮; 李焌源; 雷杰; 杨建广


    针对现行锑金精矿冶炼工艺存在能耗高、污染重、效率低等问题,研究了用锑隔膜电积技术处理复杂锑金精矿,考察了锑隔膜电积技术对多类复杂锑金精矿处理的适应性和经济技术指标。结果表明:锑隔膜电积技术适用于处理多类锑金精矿;经该工艺处理后的锑金精矿中锑浸出率达99%以上,97%以上的金富集在浸出渣中;浸出液中的锑通过净化—电积处理后可得到99.5%以上的电积锑,而原料中以氧化砷形式存在的砷基本被浸入到溶液中,其他形式的砷则留在浸出渣中;浸出液中的砷通过次亚磷酸钠还原可以深度脱除到3 mg/L 以下,实现砷与锑的高效分离,最终电积锑中的砷可以降到痕量。%In view of the problems of high energy consumption ,heavy pollution ,low efficiency in the current gold‐antimony concentrate smelting process ,a diaphragm electrowinning process was applied to process the complex antimony‐gold concentrate .Experiment results show that the diaphragm electrowinning process is well suitable for treating the antimony ‐gold concentrates .The leaching efficiency of antimony can reach 99% ,and more than 97% of the gold is enriched in the leached residue .Antimony in the leached solution can be extracted through purification‐electrowinning process in the form of 99 .5% electrowinning antimony plate .All arsenic trioxide embracing in the antimony‐gold concentrates can be leached into solution ,while other forms of arsenic can remain in the leached residue .By sodium hypophosphite reduction ,the leached arsenic can be deeply precipitated from the leached solution to the extent of below 3 mg/L ,and the arsenic content in the subsequent electrowinning antimony can be reduced to trace .

  14. Novel antimony doped tin oxide/carbon aerogel as efficient electrocatalytic filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimeng Liu


    Full Text Available A facile method was developed to prepare antimony doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO2/carbon aerogel (CA for use as an electrocatalytic filtration membrane. The preparation process included synthesis of a precursor sol, impregnation, and thermal decomposition. The Sb-SnO2, which was tetragonal in phase with an average crystallite size of 10.8 nm, was uniformly distributed on the CA surface and firmly attached via carbon-oxygen-tin chemical bonds. Preliminary filtration tests indicated that the Sb-SnO2/CA membrane had a high rate of total organic carbon removal for aqueous tetracycline owing to its high current efficiency and electrode stability.

  15. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Tin-Antimony Nanocomposites as Anode Materials for Advanced Sodium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Ji, Liwen; Zhou, Weidong; Chabot, Victor; Yu, Aiping; Xiao, Xingcheng


    Reduced graphene oxides loaded with tin-antimony alloy (RGO-SnSb) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent thermal reduction treatments. Transmission electron microscope images confirm that SnSb nanoparticles with an average size of about 20-30 nm are uniformly dispersed on the RGO surfaces. When they were used as anodes for rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries, these as-synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposite anodes delivered a high initial reversible capacity of 407 mAh g(-1), stable cyclic retention for more than 80 cycles and excellent cycle stability at ultra high charge/discharge rates up to 30C. The significantly improved performance of the synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposites as Na-ion battery anodes can be attributed to the synergetic effects of RGO-based flexible framework and the nanoscale dimension of the SnSb alloy particles (batteries.

  16. Microbial diversity and community structure in an antimony-rich tailings dump. (United States)

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Qingxiang; Sun, Weimin


    To assess the impact of antimony (Sb) on microbial community structure, 12 samples were taken from an Sb tailings pile in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. All 12 samples exhibited elevated Sb concentrations, but the mobile and bioaccessible fractions were small in comparison to total Sb concentrations. Besides the geochemical analyses, microbial communities inhabiting the tailing samples were characterized to investigate the interplay between the microorganisms and environmental factors in mine tailings. In all samples, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most dominant phyla. At the genus level, Thiobacillus, Limnobacter, Nocardioides, Lysobacter, Phormidium, and Kaistobacter demonstrated relatively high abundances. The two most abundant genera, Thiobacillus and Limnobacter, are characterized as sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, respectively, while the genus Lysobacter contains arsenic (As)-resistant bacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicates that TOC and the sulfate to sulfide ratio strongly shaped the microbial communities, suggesting the influence of the environmental factors in the indigenous microbial communities.

  17. Thermoelectric transport in surface- and antimony-doped bismuth telluride nanoplates (United States)

    Pettes, Michael Thompson; Kim, Jaehyun; Wu, Wei; Bustillo, Karen C.; Shi, Li


    We report the in-plane thermoelectric properties of suspended (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 nanoplates with x ranging from 0.07 to 0.95 and thicknesses ranging from 9 to 42 nm. The results presented here reveal a trend of increasing p-type behavior with increasing antimony concentration, and a maximum Seebeck coefficient and thermoelectric figure of merit at x ˜ 0.5. We additionally tuned extrinsic doping of the surface using a tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) coating. The lattice thermal conductivity is found to be below that for undoped ultrathin Bi2Te3 nanoplates of comparable thickness and in the range of 0.2-0.7 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature.

  18. Spectroscopic properties of Eu-doped antimony-germanate glass and glass-ceramics (United States)

    Zmojda, J.; Kochanowicz, M.; Miluski, P.; Ragin, T.; Dorosz, D.; ZajÄ c, A.


    In our work we focused on possibility of obtaining phosphate nano-phase structures in antimony-germanate glasses doped with europium ions. The glasses with molar composition of 50(Sb2O3 - GeO2) - 50(SiO2 - Al2O3 - Na2O) doped with 0.5mol% Eu2O3 were prepared by standard melt-quenching method. In order to optimize glass-ceramic system the influence of phosphate concentration (up to 10mol%) on spectroscopic properties have been investigated. The symmetry nature of molecular structure around europium ions have been determined from the intensity ratio between (5D0 →7F2)/(5D0 →7F1) transitions. The effect of prominent Stark splitting of luminescence band at 612 nm characterised as "hypersensitive transition" into 3 sub-wavelength was observed in glasses with 1mol% and 3mol% of P2O5.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of copper antimony tin sulphide thin films for solar cell applications (United States)

    Ali, N.; Hussain, A.; Ahmed, R.; Wan Shamsuri, W. N.; Fu, Y. Q.


    Low price thin film modules based on Copper antimony tin sulphide (CATS) are introduced for solar harvesting to compete for the already developed compound semiconductors. Here, CATS thin films were deposited on soda lime glass by thermal evaporation technique followed by a rapid thermal annealing in an argon atmosphere. From Our XRD analysis, it was revealed that the annealed samples were poly-crystalline and their crystallinity was improved with increasing annealing temperature. The constituent elements and their corresponding chemical states were identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained optical band gap of 1.4 eV for CATS thin film is found nearly equal to GaAs - one of the highly efficient thin film material for solar cell technology. Furthermore, our observed good optical absorbance and low transmittance for the annealed CATS thin films in the visible region of light spectrum assured the aptness of the CATS thin films for solar cell applications.

  20. Effects of Antimony Doping in Polycrystalline CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells (United States)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Ikeda, Shigeyuki; Nagatsuka, Satsuki; Hayashi, Ryoji; Yoshino, Kaoru; Kanda, Yohei; Noda, Akira; Hirano, Ryuichi


    The effects of antimony (Sb) doping of the CdTe layer in the CdTe solar cells were investigated using Sb-doped CdTe powders as source materials for CdTe deposition by the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) method. Conversion efficiency increased with increasing Sb concentration below 1×1018 cm-3, mainly owing to the improvement of the fill factor. Secondary ion microprobe mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile revealed that the Sb impurities at a concentration of approximately 1×1016 cm-3 were incorporated into the CdTe layer when using the Sb-doped CdTe source of 1×1018 cm-3. The observation of surface morphology showed that the grain sizes were improved by Sb addition. Therefore, the improved performance upon Sb addition to CdTe solar cells was probably due to the improvements in crystallinity, such as increased grain size.

  1. Preparation and characterization of conductive antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, conductive antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) composite particles is prepared by hydroxylation method of metal alcoxides. This method has many advantages such as little pollution, low cost, simple sheet and equipment. The synthesis processing and the ATO nanoparticles are characterized by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and BET. The results show that the ATO nanoparticles is tetragonal rutile crystal structure. TEM show that the particles are monodispersed with weak aggromation. The size of the particles calcinated at 700 is about 8nm. The specific areas are 153 m2 · g-1. In addition to, ATO nanop articles have good electric properties

  2. Supermolecular template route to fabrication of well crystallized hollow antimony microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Li; CHEN Shu-da; WEI Xiao-yan


    Hollow spheres of elemental antimony (Sb) with good crystallinity, high contrast and thin wall were prepared in the solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and oleic acid(OA) associations at the refluxed temperature. The complexes of Sb3+ with tartaric acid were used as precursors, which can avoid the hydrolysis of SbCl3 and the resulting impurity of products. The average diameter and thickness of the as-prepared hollow sphere are about 300 nm and less than 20 nm, respectively. The formation of hollow spheres depends on the template function of PEG and OA associations, which can be confirmed through the theoretical analysis and results of control experiments. The specific surface area reaches 34.669 m2/g.

  3. Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) for monitoring of antimony in samples of vegetation from a mining area. (United States)

    Toro Gordillo, M C; Pinilla Gil, E; Rodríguez González, M A; Murciego Murciego, A; Ostapczuk, P


    A potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) method has been developed and checked for the fast and reliable determination of antimony in vegetation samples of Cistus ladanifer from a mining area in Badajoz, Southwest Spain. The method, modified from previous PSA methods for Sb in environmental samples, is based on dry ashing of the homogenized leaves, dissolution in hydrochloric acid, and PSA analysis on a mercury film plated on to a glassy carbon disk electrode. The influence of experimental variables such as the deposition potential, the deposition time, the signal stability and the calibration parameters, has been investigated. The method has been compared with an independent technique (instrumental neutron activation analysis) by analysis of standards and reference materials and comparison of the results. As a result of automation of the PSA equipment, the proposed method enables unattended analysis of 20 digested samples in a total time of 2 h, thus providing a useful tool for Sb monitoring of a large number of samples.

  4. Antimony uptake by Zea mays (L.) and Helianthus annuus (L.) from nutrient solution. (United States)

    Tschan, Martin; Robinson, Brett; Schulin, Rainer


    We investigated the extent of Sb uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) from nutrient solutions containing concentrations from 3 to 24 mg/L of potassium antimonate, with the aim of determining the potential of Sb to enter the food chain. The maximum shoot Sb concentrations in Z. mays and H. annuus were 41 mg/kg and 77 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. There was no significant difference in Sb uptake between species. The average bioaccumulation coefficients (the plant/solution concentration quotients) were 1.02 and 1.93 for Z. mays and H. annuus, respectively. Phosphate addition did not affect plant growth or Sb uptake. Antimony uptake by both Z. mays and H. annuus is unlikely to pose a health risk to animals and humans.

  5. Phytoavailability of antimony and heavy metals in arid regions: the case of the Wadley Sb district (San Luis, Potosí, Mexico). (United States)

    Levresse, G; Lopez, G; Tritlla, J; López, E Cardellach; Chavez, A Carrillo; Salvador, E Mascuñano; Soler, A; Corbella, M; Sandoval, L G Hernández; Corona-Esquivel, R


    This paper presents original results on the Sb and heavy metals contents in sediments and waste tailings, plants and water from the giant Wadley antimony mine district (San Luis Potosí State, Mexico). The dominant antimony phases in mining wastes are stibiconite, montroydite and minor hermimorphite. The waste tailings contain high concentrations of metals and metalloids (antimony, iron, zinc, arsenic, copper, and mercury). Manganese, copper, zinc, and antimony contents exceed the quality guidelines values for groundwater, plants and for waste tailings. Results indicate that peak accumulation is seasonal due to the concentration by high metabolism plants as Solanaceae Nicotiana. The metal phytoavailability in waste tailings is highly dependant on the metal speciation, its capability to be transported in water and, more particularly, the plant metabolism efficiency.

  6. First-Principles Study of Antimony Doping Effects on the Iron-Based Superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2 (United States)

    Nagai, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko; Kuroki, Kazuhiko


    We study antimony doping effects on the iron-based superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2 by using the first-principles calculation. The calculations reveal that the substitution of a doped antimony atom into As of the chainlike As layers is more stable than that into FeAs layers. This prediction can be checked by experiments. Our results suggest that doping homologous elements into the chainlike As layers, which only exist in the novel 112 system, is responsible for rising up the critical temperature. We discuss antimony doping effects on the electronic structure. It is found that the calculated band structures with and without the antimony doping are similar to each other within our framework.

  7. Phenotype abnormality: 137 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 137 decreased effic...iency during process named unidimensional cell growth ... decreased efficiency ... unidimensional cell growth ...

  8. 14 CFR 137.51 - Operation over congested areas: General. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation over congested areas: General... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.51 Operation over congested areas: General. (a) Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, an aircraft may be operated over a congested area at altitudes...

  9. 49 CFR 572.137 - Test conditions and instrumentation. (United States)


    ... Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female Test Dummy, Alpha Version § 572.137 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a) The test probe for thoracic impacts, except for attachments, shall be of rigid metallic...-sec2) in yaw and pitch about the CG of the probe. One-third (1/3) of the weight of suspension...

  10. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs. (United States)


    ... environmental impact statements, in relation to proposed legislation and reports on legislation. The Office... Section 1.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION... program manager for five major programs that include: (1) The review of other agency environmental...

  11. Cesium-137 Levels Detected in Otters from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutleb A.C.


    Full Text Available Pollution seems to be one of the most important causes for the decline of the European otter (Lutra lutra. The accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant added another aspect to environmental pollution. Few data on cesium-137 contents in otters are available, so levels were measured in 3 otters from Austria. All levels found were very low.

  12. Successful treatment of feline leishmaniosis using a combination of allopurinol and N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Basso


    Full Text Available Case summary This work describes the diagnosis and successful treatment of a 2-year-old domestic cat infected with Leishmania species and presenting fever, and ulcerative and nodular skin lesions after being treated for pyodermatitis for 1 year without clinical improvement. After anamnesis the cat was submitted to a complete clinical examination. Blood was collected for determination of haematological and biochemical parameters, detection of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, feline coronavirus (FCoV and Leishmania amastigotes. Fine-needle aspiration puncture from the skin nodules was also performed. After definitive diagnosis the animal was treated and followed up over a 2 year period. The animal tested negative for FIV-specific antibodies, FeLV antigen and feline coronavirus RNA. Leishmania amastigotes in the skin nodules were confirmed by cytology and molecular diagnosis. Treatment was initiated with allopurinol, resulting in a slight clinical improvement. Thus, N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate was added and administered for 30 days, with complete closure of the ulcerative lesions in the hindlimbs requiring a surgical approach. Close monitoring of the patient in the following 24 months indicated that combined therapy was safe and clinical cure was achieved without further relapses or side effects. Relevance and novel information Considering the increasing number of feline leishmaniosis cases and the inconsistent results of most therapeutic protocols described in the literature, the use of new approaches, especially in refractory cases, is essential. Although the use of allopurinol and N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate is off-label in cats, in this case the combination treatment was followed by an extensive analytical monitoring, supporting their safety and effectiveness.

  13. Optical characterization of antimony-based bismuth-doped thin films with different annealing temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinmiao Lu; Yiqun Wu; Yang Wang; Jinsong Wei


    Antimony-b ased bismuth-doped thin film,a new kind of super-resolution mask layer,is prepared by magnetron sputtering.The structures and optical constants of the thin films before and after annealing are examined in detail.The as-deposited film is mainly in an amorphous state.After annealing at 170-370℃,it is converted to the rhombohedral-type of structure.The extent of crystallization increased with the annealing temperature.When the thin film is annealed,its refractive index decreased in the most visible region,whereas the extinction coefficient and reflectivity are markedly increased.The results indicate that the optical parameters of the film strongly depend on its microstructure and the bonding of the atoms.As demand for ultrahigh-density information storage continues to grow the recording mark size in optical memory is reduced to the nanometer scale [1- 4].Exceeding the optical diffraction limit with traditional optical storage technology has become a challenge[5-6].%Antimony-based bismuth-doped thin film, a new kind of super-resolution mask layer, is prepared by magnetron sputtering. The structures and optical constants of the thin films before and after annealing are examined in detail. The as-deposited film is mainly in an amorphous state. After annealing at 170-370℃, it is converted to the rhombohedral-type of structure. The extent of crystallization increased with the annealing temperature. When the thin film is annealed, its refractive index decreased in the most visible region, whereas the extinction coefficient and reflectivity are markedly increased. The results indicate that the optical parameters of the film strongly depend on its microstructure and the bonding of the atoms.

  14. The burden of cesium 137 in forest clerks; Die Belastung mit Caesium 137 bei Beschaeftigten der Forstverwaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechotowski, I.; Jaroni, J. [Landesgesundheitsamt Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany); Link, B. [Arbeits- und Sozialministerium des Landes Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany); Groezinger, O. [Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Verkehr des Landes Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)


    In 47 forest clerks from the regions Ortenau and Oberschwaben in south-west Germany the incorporation of cesium 137 and potassium 40 was measured in autumn 1994. Soil burden as well as burden of nutrition with cesium 137 are different in these regions for geological reasons and as a result of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl. Caused by low content of clay in Oberschwaben, the transfer of cesium to plants is assisted. Heavy rainfall after the nuclear accident led to an additional increase of burden. The median of the concentration of cesium 137 was 1.4 Bq/kg body weight. The median for potassium 40 was 58 Bq/kg body weight. For cesium 137 regional differences were observed. For persons from Oberschwaben the median for cesium 137 was with 2.8 Bq/kg body weight clearly higher than for persons from Ortenau with 0,6 Bq/kg body weight. Concerning nutrition habits, the clearest difference was found comparing persons who had ate a minimum of four portions of deer from the surroundings within the last four weeks with persons who had ate less than four portions of deer from the surroundings within the last four weeks. The difference was greater in Oberschwaben than in Ortenau. The effective dose of cesium 137 calculated on the basis of the incorporation is very low compared to natural radiation. This is also valid for persons from Oberschwaben. (orig.) [German] Im Herbst 1994 wurde bei insgesamt 47 Bediensteten der Forstverwaltung aus den Regionen Ortenaukreis und Oberschwaben die Inkorportation an Caesium 137 und Kalium 40 gemessen. Sowohl die Bodenbelastung als auch die Belastung von Nahrungsmitteln mit Caesium 137 unterscheiden sich in diesen Gebieten bedingt durch geologische Besonderheiten und in Folge des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl. Aufgrund eines geringen Anteils an Tonerden wird in Oberschwaben der Caesiumtransfer in Pflanzen beguenstigt, eine zusaetzliche Erhoehung der Belastung erfolgte durch starke Niederschlaege nach dem Reaktorunfall. Die Konzentration fuer

  15. 锑环境健康效应的研究进展%Environmental Health Effect of Antimony: a Review of Recent Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈兆凤; 韦朝阳


    随着锑的开采及含锑产品的广泛应用,锑所带来的污染问题已越来越严重,锑对环境与健康的危害也受到了更多的关注.该文总结了锑环境健康效应的研究进展,从医学、环境毒理学和生态毒理学的角度分别分析了锑对人、动物以及植物与土壤生物的健康效应.提示今后还需加强锑的致癌性及基因毒性研究,并需从微观与宏观尺度揭示锑的毒性效应,以期为锑的环境健康风险评估提供科学依据.%The antimony mining and widely use of antimony products have resulted in serious antimony contamination,causing hazards to both the environment and human health. The present paper summarized the research progresses on the environmental health effect of antimony. The health effects of antimony on human, animals, and plants as well as soil organisms are introduced and discussed in the view of medical science, environmental toxicology and ecological toxicology, respectively. It is suggested that more researches should be conducted on antimony earcinogenieity and genotoxicity, and the toxic effects of antimony should be explored from micro and macroscopic scales in order to provide the scientific basis for risk assessment of antimony.

  16. A Study of the r-Process Path Nuclides,$^{137,138,139}$Sb using the Enhanced Selectivity of Resonance Ionization Laser Ionization

    CERN Multimedia

    Walters, W


    The particular features of the r-process abundances with 100 < A < 150 have demonstrated the close connection between knowledge of nuclear structure and decay along the r-process path and the astrophysical environement in which these elements are produced. Key to this connection has been the measurement of data for nuclides (mostly even-N nuclides) that lie in the actual r-process path. Such data are of direct use in r-process calculations and they also serve to refine and test the predictive power of nuclear models where little or no data now exist. In this experiment we seek to use the newly developed ionization scheme for the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) to achieve selective ionization of neutron-rich antimony isotopes in order to measure the decay properties of r-process path nuclides $^{137,138,139}$Sb. These properties include the half-lives, delayed neutron branches, and daughter $\\gamma$-rays. The new nuclear structure data for the daughter Te nuclides is also of considerable in...

  17. 锑合金化在镁合金中的应用%Application of Antimony Alloying in Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛孟启; 刘劲松; 李子全; 闫明阳; 孙颖迪; 黄敏; 陈可; 刘亚妮


    The latest research progress in magnesium alloys containing antimony in recent years is discussed Effects of antimony additions on the cast-ability, microstructure, tensile properties, creep behavior, damping properties and corrosion resistance of Mg-Al and Mg-Zn based alloys are summarized. Finally, some further research orientations of magnesium alloys containing Sb in the present study are suggested.%综述了近年来含锑镁合金的研究进展,总结了锑元素对Mg-Al和Mg-Zn系镁合金铸造性能、金相组织、力学性能、蠕变性能、阻尼性能、耐蚀性能6方面的影响.最后,展望了含锑镁合金的研究方向.

  18. The effect of verapamil on in vitro susceptibility of promastigote and amastigote stages of Leishmania tropica to meglumine antimoniate. (United States)

    Shokri, Azar; Sharifi, Iraj; Khamesipour, Ali; Nakhaee, Nozar; Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Nosratabadi, Jafar; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Barati, Mohammad


    Pentavalent antimonials are the standard treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with low efficacy and resistance is emerging. CL is increased significantly in respect to incidence rate and expanding to new foci. In the present study, the effect of verapamil on in vitro susceptibility of promastigote and amastigote stages of Leishmania tropica to meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime) was evaluated using colorimetric assay (MTT) and in a macrophage model, respectively. Verapamil, as a calcium channel blocker, affects drug uptake by preventing of drug efflux from the cells. In promastigote form, several concentrations of MA with or without verapamil showed significant decrease (P tropica to MA. Further works are required to evaluate this synergistic effect on animal model or volunteer human subjects.

  19. Determination of Antimony (III) in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode. (United States)

    Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Gómez González, M Jesús; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia


    This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD), the repeatability (3.81 %) and the reproducibility (5.07 %) of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III) was calculated at a value of 1.27×10(-8) M. The linear range obtained was between 0.99 × 10(-8) - 8.26 × 10(-8) M. An analysis of possible effects due to the presence of foreign ions in the solution was performed and the procedure was successfully applied to the determination of antimony levels in pharmaceutical preparations and sea water samples.

  20. Contribution of Asian dust to atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs). (United States)

    Fukuyama, Taijiro; Fujiwara, Hideshi


    Both Asian dust (kosa) transported from the East Asian continent and locally suspended dust near monitoring sites contribute to the observed atmospheric deposition of (137)Cs in Japan. To estimate the relative contribution of these dust phenomena to the total (137)Cs deposition, we monitored weekly deposition of mineral particles and (137)Cs in spring. Deposition of (137)Cs from a single Asian dust event was 62.3 mBq m(-2) and accounted for 67% of the total (137)Cs deposition during the entire monitoring period. Furthermore, we found high (137)Cs specific activity in the Asian dust deposition sample. Although local dust events contributed to (137)Cs deposition, their contribution was considerably smaller than that of Asian dust. We conclude that the primary source of atmospheric (137)Cs in Japan is dust transported from the East Asian continent.

  1. Distribution of 137Cs Radionuclide in Industrial Wastes Effluents of Gresik, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs was measured from industrial waste effluent of Gresik to Gresik Sea in east Java, Indonesia. The activity of 37Cs detected at all stations was much lower than in northeast Japan both before and after NPP Fukushima accident. This indicated that in Gresik industrials waste did not consist of 137Cs. The lowest activity 137Cs occurred at the station nearest to the industrial waste effluent that contained some particle ions that were able to scavenge 137Cs and then precipate this radionuclide. Furthermore, the greatest 137Cs occured at the station that has high current speeds that stirred up sediment to release 137Cs in seawater as a secondary source. The lowest salinity did not effect on the activity of 137Cs even though the lowest salinity and activity 137Cs occured at the same station

  2. Miltefosine and Antimonial Drug Susceptibility of Leishmania Viannia Species and Populations in Regions of High Transmission in Colombia (United States)

    Fernández, Olga Lucía; Diaz-Toro, Yira; Muvdi, Sandra; Rodríguez, Isabel; Gomez, María Adelaida; Saravia, Nancy Gore


    Background Pentavalent antimonials have been the first line treatment for dermal leishmaniasis in Colombia for over 30 years. Miltefosine is administered as second line treatment since 2005. The susceptibility of circulating populations of Leishmania to these drugs is unknown despite clinical evidence supporting the emergence of resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro susceptibility was determined for intracellular amastigotes of 245 clinical strains of the most prevalent Leishmania Viannia species in Colombia to miltefosine (HePC) and/or meglumine antimoniate (SbV); 163, (80%) were evaluated for both drugs. Additionally, susceptibility to SbV was examined in two cohorts of 85 L. V. panamensis strains isolated between 1980–1989 and 2000–2009 in the municipality of Tumaco. Susceptibility to each drug differed among strains of the same species and between species. Whereas 68% of L. V. braziliensis strains presented in vitro resistance to HePC, 69% were sensitive to SbV. Resistance to HePC and SbV occurred respectively, in 20% y 21% of L. panamensis strains. Only 3% of L. V. guyanensis were resistant to HePC, and none to SbV. Drug susceptibility differed between geographic regions and time periods. Subpopulations having disparate susceptibility to SbV were discerned among L. V. panamensis strains isolated during 1980–1990 in Tumaco where resistant strains belonged to zymodeme 2.3, and sensitive strains to zymodeme 2.2. Conclusions/Significance Large scale evaluation of clinical strains of Leishmania Viannia species demonstrated species, population, geographic, and epidemiologic differences in susceptibility to meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine, and provided baseline information for monitoring susceptibility to these drugs. Sensitive and resistant clinical strains within each species, and zymodeme as a proxy marker of antimony susceptibility for L. V. panamensis, will be useful in deciphering factors involved in susceptibility and the distribution

  3. Potentiometric stripping analysis of antimony based on carbon paste electrode modified with hexathia crown ether and rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadhari, Nayan S.; Sanghavi, Bankim J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India); Srivastava, Ashwini K., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India)


    Highlights: {yields} Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employed for the determination of antimony. {yields} Hexathia-18C6 and rice husk modified carbon paste electrode developed for the analysis. {yields} Lowest detection limit obtained for the determination of Sb(III) using PSA. {yields} Analysis of Sb in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, blood serum, urine and sea water. {yields} Rice husk used as a modifier for the first time in electrochemistry. - Abstract: An electrochemical method based on potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employing a hexathia 18C6 (HT18C6) and rice husk (RH) modified carbon paste electrode (HT18C6-RH-CPE) has been proposed for the subnanomolar determination of antimony. The characterization of the electrode surface has been carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronocoulometry. By employing HT18C6-RH-CPE, a 12-fold enhancement in the PSA signal (dt/dE) was observed as compared to plain carbon paste electrode (PCPE). Under the optimized conditions, dt/dE (s V{sup -1}) was proportional to the Sb(III) concentration in the range of 1.42 x 10{sup -8} to 6.89 x 10{sup -11} M (r = 0.9944) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 2.11 x 10{sup -11} M. The practical analytical utilities of the modified electrode were demonstrated by the determination of antimony in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, sea water, urine and blood serum samples. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages, such as simple preparation method, high sensitivity, very low detection limit and excellent reproducibility. Moreover, the results obtained for antimony analysis in commercial and real samples using HT18C6-RH-CPE and those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  4. Determination of Antimony (III) in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode


    Olga Domínguez-Renedo; M. Julia Arcos-Martínez; M. Jesús Gómez González


    This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD), the repeatability (3.81 %) and the reproducibility (5.07 %) of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III) was calculated ...

  5. Miltefosine and antimonial drug susceptibility of Leishmania Viannia species and populations in regions of high transmission in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucía Fernández


    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimonials have been the first line treatment for dermal leishmaniasis in Colombia for over 30 years. Miltefosine is administered as second line treatment since 2005. The susceptibility of circulating populations of Leishmania to these drugs is unknown despite clinical evidence supporting the emergence of resistance.In vitro susceptibility was determined for intracellular amastigotes of 245 clinical strains of the most prevalent Leishmania Viannia species in Colombia to miltefosine (HePC and/or meglumine antimoniate (Sb(V; 163, (80% were evaluated for both drugs. Additionally, susceptibility to Sb(V was examined in two cohorts of 85 L. V. panamensis strains isolated between 1980-1989 and 2000-2009 in the municipality of Tumaco. Susceptibility to each drug differed among strains of the same species and between species. Whereas 68% of L. V. braziliensis strains presented in vitro resistance to HePC, 69% were sensitive to Sb(V. Resistance to HePC and Sb(V occurred respectively, in 20% y 21% of L. panamensis strains. Only 3% of L. V. guyanensis were resistant to HePC, and none to Sb(V. Drug susceptibility differed between geographic regions and time periods. Subpopulations having disparate susceptibility to Sb(V were discerned among L. V. panamensis strains isolated during 1980-1990 in Tumaco where resistant strains belonged to zymodeme 2.3, and sensitive strains to zymodeme 2.2.Large scale evaluation of clinical strains of Leishmania Viannia species demonstrated species, population, geographic, and epidemiologic differences in susceptibility to meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine, and provided baseline information for monitoring susceptibility to these drugs. Sensitive and resistant clinical strains within each species, and zymodeme as a proxy marker of antimony susceptibility for L. V. panamensis, will be useful in deciphering factors involved in susceptibility and the distribution of sensitive and resistant populations.

  6. Migration of antimony from PET bottles into beverages: determination of the activation energy of diffusion and migration modelling compared with literature data. (United States)

    Welle, F; Franz, R


    Plastics bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are increasingly used for soft drinks, mineral water, juices and beer. In this study a literature review is presented concerning antimony levels found both in PET materials as well as in foods and food simulants. On the other hand, 67 PET samples from the European bottle market were investigated for their residual antimony concentrations. A mean value of 224 ± 32 mg kg(-1) was found, the median was 220 mg kg(-1). Diffusion coefficients for antimony in PET bottle materials were experimentally determined at different temperature between 105 and 150°C. From these data, the activation energy of diffusion for antimony species from the PET bottle wall into beverages and food simulants was calculated. The obtained value of 189 kJ mol(-1) was found to be in good agreement with published data on PET microwave trays (184 kJ mol(-1)). Based on these results, the migration of antimony into beverages was predicted by mathematical migration modelling for different surface/volume ratios and antimony bottle wall concentrations. The results were compared with literature data as well as international legal limits and guidelines values for drinking water and the migration limit set from food packaging legislation. It was concluded that antimony levels in beverages due to migration from PET bottles manufactured according to the state of the art can never reach or exceed the European-specific migration limit of 40 microg kg(-1). Maximum migration levels caused by room-temperature storage even after 3 years will never be essentially higher than 2.5 microg kg(-1) and in any case will be below the European limit of 5 microg kg(-1) for drinking water. The results of this study confirm that the exposure of the consumer by antimony migration from PET bottles into beverages and even into edible oils reaches approximately 1% of the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by World Health Organisation (WHO). Having

  7. Body concentration of caesium-137 in patients from Western Isles of Scotland.


    Isles, C G; Robertson, I.; MacLeod, J A; Preston, T; East, B W; Hole, D J; Lever, A. F.


    OBJECTIVES--To compare caesium-137 concentrations in patients from the Western Isles Health Board, Glasgow area, and other parts of the Scottish mainland, and to investigate the source of 137Cs in patients from the Western Isles. DESIGN--Study of hypertensive patients having electrolyte concentrations measured, including 137Cs. Interview by questionnaire of island subjects about intake of foods likely to contain radiocaesium and the source of these foods. Measurement of 137Cs and 134Cs in foo...

  8. Separation of Lead from Crude Antimony by Pyro-Refining Process with NaPO3 Addition (United States)

    Ye, Longgang; Hu, Yuejie; Xia, Zhimei; Chen, Yongming


    The main purpose of this study was to separate lead from crude antimony through an oxidation pyro-refining process and by using sodium metaphosphate as a lead elimination reagent. The process parameters that will affect the refining results were optimized experimentally under controlled conditions, such as the sodium metaphosphate charging dosage, the refining temperature and duration, and the air flow rate, to determine their effect on the lead content in refined antimony and the lead removal rate. A minimum lead content of 0.0522 wt.% and a 98.6% lead removal rate were obtained under the following optimal conditions: W_{{{NaPO}_{{3}} }} = 15% W Sb (where W represents weight), a refining temperature of 800°C, a refining time of 30 min, and an air flow rate of 3 L/min. X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy showed that high-purity antimony was obtained. The smelting operation is free from smoke or ammonia pollution when using monobasic sodium phosphate or ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as the lead elimination reagent. However, this refining process can also remove a certain amount of sulfur, cobalt, and silicon simultaneously, and smelting results also suggest that sodium metaphosphate can be used as a potential lead elimination reagent for bismuth and copper refining.

  9. Evaluation of potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in some common Nigerian beverages: A look at antimony, tin and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Roberts


    Full Text Available There is currently little information on the composition of heavy metals in beverages imported and locally produced in Nigeria. The study quantitatively determined the composition of antimony (Sb, tin (Sn and mercury (Hg in 50 different beverage samples and evaluated the extent of violation of guideline values. Analysis of the beverage samples for the presence of Sb, Sn, and Hg was carried out using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS 929. The mean values detected for mercury, tin and antimony (±SE in fruit juices and soft drinks were 2.39±0.25, 3.66±0.22 and 0.49±0.048 μg/l; 2.93±0.34, 3.60±0.46 and 0.49±0.10 μg/l in dairy drinks and 0.94±0.02, 4.34±0.48 and 0.48±0.05 μg/l in bottled water samples respectively. While antimony detected in all products was below guideline values, mercury and tin were above the acceptable levels established by the World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency and European Union in most samples tested.


    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PASSOS, Sonia Regina Lambert; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; BEDOYA-PACHECO, Sandro Javier; VALETE-ROSALINO, Cláudia Maria; VASCONCELLOS, Erica Camargo Ferreira; ANTONIO, Liliane Fatima; SAHEKI, Mauricio Naoto; SALGUEIRO, Mariza Mattos; SANTOS, Ginelza Peres Lima; RIBEIRO, Madelon Noato; CONCEIÇÃO-SILVA, Fatima; MADEIRA, Maria Fatima; SILVA, Jorge Luiz Nunes; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando Oliveria


    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although doses are controversial. In a clinical trial for CL we investigated the occurrence of pancreatic toxicity with different schedules of treatment with meglumine antimoniate (MA). Seventy-two patients were allocated in two different therapeutic groups: 20 or 5 mg of pentavalent antimony (Sb5+)/kg/day for 20 or 30 days, respectively. Looking for adverse effects, patients were asked about abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia in each medical visit. We performed physical examinations and collected blood to evaluate serum amylase and lipase in the pre-treatment period, and every 10 days during treatment and one month post-treatment. Hyperlipasemia occurred in 54.8% and hyperamylasemia in 19.4% patients. Patients treated with MA 20 mg Sb5+ presented a higher risk of hyperlipasemia (p = 0.023). Besides, higher MA doses were associated with a 2.05 higher risk ratio (p = 0.003) of developing more serious (moderate to severe) hyperlipasemia. The attributable fraction was 51% in this group. Thirty-six patients presented abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia but only 47.2% of those had hyperlipasemia and/ or hyperamylasemia. These findings suggest the importance of the search for less toxic therapeutic regimens for the treatment of CL. PMID:27680173

  11. Antimony speciation analysis in sediment reference materials using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potin-Gautier, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, BioInorganique et Environnement LCABIE (UMR CNRS 3054), Universite de Pau et des pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France); Pannier, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, BioInorganique et Environnement LCABIE (UMR CNRS 3054), Universite de Pau et des pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France)]. E-mail:; Quiroz, W. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, BioInorganique et Environnement LCABIE (UMR CNRS 3054), Universite de Pau et des pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France); Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad catolica de Valparaiso (Chile); Pinochet, H. [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad catolica de Valparaiso (Chile); Gregori, I. de [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad catolica de Valparaiso (Chile)


    This work presents the development of suitable methodologies for determination of the speciation of antimony in sediment reference samples. Liquid chromatography with a post-column photo-oxidation step and hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry as detection system is applied to the separation and determination of Sb(III), Sb(V) and trimethylantimony species. Post-column decomposition and hydride generation steps were studied for sensitive detection with the AFS detector. This method was applied to investigate the conditions under which speciation analysis of antimony in sediment samples can be carried out. Stability studies of Sb species during the extraction processes of solid matrices, using different reagents solutions, were performed. Results demonstrate that for the extraction yield and the stability of Sb species in different marine sediment extracts, citric acid in ascorbic acid medium was the best extracting solution for antimony speciation analysis in this matrix (between 55% and 65% of total Sb was recovered from CRMs, Sb(III) being the predominant species). The developed method allows the separation of the three compounds within 6 min with detection limits of 30 ng g{sup -1} for Sb(III) and TMSbCl2 and 40 ng g{sup -1} for Sb(V) in sediment samples.

  12. Bioaccumulation of Cs-137 and Co-57 by marine phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, H.E. [Inst. of Marine Research, Bergen (Norway); Stupakoff, I.; Fisher, N.S. [State Univ. of New York, Marine Sciences Research Center, Stone Brook, NY (United States)


    Under controlled laboratory conditions we have examined the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 and Co-57 in three prymnesiophytes, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and the non-calcareous species Isochrysis galbana and Phaeocystis globosa, and two diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. We measured uptake in growing and non-growing cells, and determined concentration factors on both volume and dry weight basis. For Co-57 uptake in non-growing cells, volume concentration factors (VCF) at equilibrium ranged from 0.2{sup *}10{sup 3} for Emiliana huxleyi to 4{sup *}10{sup 3} for the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. For Cs-137 uptake in non-growing cells the VCFs were close to zero. The results suggest that, in contrast to Co, the cycling and bioaccumulation in animals of Cs in marine systems is unlikely to be affected by primary producers. (au)

  13. 锑矿土壤中As和Sb的分布、形态及生物可利用性%Distribution, speciation and bio-availability of arsenic(As) and antimony (Sb) in soils of antimony mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋平; 胥思勤; 安艳玲; 陈洁薇; 吴贞术


    HG-AFS was applied to the determination of arsenic( As) and antimony ( Sb) in the soils near Qinglong antimony mine area with microwave assisted sample digestion. Tessier sequential extraction was used to investigate the distribution,speciation and bio-availability of As and Sb in the soils. Results showed that total arsenic content ( 17. 98-127. 85 mg·kg-1 ) and total antimony concentration (171.93-601.59 mg·kg-1) substantially exceeded their background level in Guizhou Province. The speciation of antimony and arsenic in the soils has the following distribution order:residual phase> Fe/Mn hydrous oxides, orgnic phase, carbonate fraction>cation exchangeable. The concentration of easily bioavailable antimony was 0. 60-3. 91 mg·kg-1 and the percentage was 0�33%-1.72%, while 0.15-0.48 mg·kg-1 and 0.09%-0.57% for arsenic.%采用微波消解-氢化物发生-原子荧光光谱法测定了晴隆锑矿区土壤中总砷和总锑,利用Tessier连续提取法分析土壤中不同形态砷和锑.结果表明,各采样点土壤 As、Sb 含量分别为17.98-127.85 mg·kg-1、171�93-601.59 mg·kg-1,远高于贵州省背景值;土壤中砷和锑的存在形态均以残渣态为主,其次是有机结合态、铁锰氧化物结合态和碳酸盐结合态,可交换态很少;土壤中生物可利用态锑占总和0.33%-1.72%,其含量为0.60-3.91 mg·kg-1,而土壤中生物可利用态砷占总和0.09%-0.57%,其含量为0.15-0.48 mg·kg-1.

  14. Marine dispersion of caesium 137 released from Sellafield and Chernobyl (United States)

    Prandle, D.; Beechey, J.


    This modelling study examines the dispersion within the shelf seas surrounding the UK, of 137Cs discharged from Sellafield between 1969 and 1988 together with the atmospheric deposition following Chernobyl (April 1986). The close agreement obtained between computed and observed distributions lends confidence to estimates of flushing times-fundamental parameters in determining pollutant concentrations. Moreover, this study confirms, to first-order, the estimates of Chernobyl fall-out provided by atmospheric dispersion models.

  15. Study on accumulation of 137Cs in aquatic organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengDing-Hua; CheungT


    The organisms were cultivated for 7d in well water contaminated with 137Cs,The experimental results show that the accumulation level of tissues of carassius auratus had the order of gill>viscera>epidermis(including scales)>bone(including head and tail)>flesh.The concentration capability of them had the order of shrimp>carassius auratus>ophiocephalus argus,The concentration factors(CF) of shrimp was 12.6 times of that of ophiocephalus argus.

  16. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run,...

  17. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS....137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  18. 47 CFR 13.7 - Classification of operator licenses and endorsements. (United States)


    ... endorsements. 13.7 Section 13.7 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.7 Classification of operator licenses and endorsements. (a) Commercial radio operator... are eleven types of commercial radio operator licenses, certificates and permits (licenses)....

  19. 33 CFR 137.60 - Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records. (United States)


    ..., and local government records. 137.60 Section 137.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... DEFENSE Standards and Practices § 137.60 Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records. (a) Federal, State, tribal, and local government records or databases of government records of...

  20. 42 CFR 137.32 - Is a compact required to participate in self-governance? (United States)


    ...-governance? 137.32 Section 137.32 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Self-Governance compact § 137.32 Is a compact required to participate in self-governance? Yes, Tribes must have...

  1. Estimating Cs-137 fallout inventories in Iceland from precipitation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E.; Sigurgeirsson, M.A.; Gudnason, K. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst., Reykjavik (Iceland); Arnalds, O. [Agricultural Research Inst., Reykjavik (Iceland); Howard, B.J.; Wright, S.M. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Merlewood, Cumbria, (United Kingdom); Palsdottir, I. [Iceland Meteorological Office, Reykjavik (Iceland)


    Iceland was identified in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) as one of the Arctic areas which received the most global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, due to relatively high precipitation rates compared with much of the Arctic and sub arctic. Cs-137 in the Icelandic terrestrial ecosystem almost entirely originates from the nuclear weapons tests carried out in the atmosphere until the early sixties. Fallout was greatest in mid nineteen sixties. Additional fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was relatively small. The study gave preliminary information on the spatial variation in {sup 137} Cs deposition in Iceland, especially in areas used for agriculture. The objectives of the study were (1) to measure the spatial variation of radiocaesium inventories in soils in Iceland and (2) to compare the results with different approaches to predicting {sup 137} Cs contents in soil. This quantification is a necessary first step in an evaluation of vulnerability to radiocaesium deposition in Iceland. It is anticipated that Icelandic soils could be highly vulnerable to radiocaesium due to their volcanic nature and consequent lack of illitic minerals, as has been suggested by initial chemical studies on the properties of soils in the Nordic countries. (ln)

  2. Cs-137 fallout in Iceland, model predictions and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E.; Sigurgeirsson, M.A.; Gudnason, K. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland); Arnalds, O.; Karlsdottir, I.A. [Agricultural Research Inst. (Iceland); Palsdottir, P. [Icelandic Meteorological Office (Iceland)


    Basically all the fallout Cs-137 in Iceland came from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the late fifties and early sixties, the addition from the accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was relatively very small. Measurements of fallout from nuclear weapons tests started in Iceland over 40 years ago and samples of soil, vegetation and agricultural products have been collected from various places and measured during this period. Considerable variability has been seen in the results, even between places close to each other. This is understandable due to the mountainous terrain, changing strong winds and high levels of precipitation. This variability has been especially noticeable in the case of soil samples. The important role of uncultivated rangelands in Icelandic agriculture (e.g. for sheep farming) makes it necessary to estimate deposition for many remote areas. It has thus proven difficult to get a good overview of the distribution of the deposition and its subsequent transfer into agricultural products. Over a year ago an attempt was made to assess the distribution of Cs-137 fallout in Iceland. The approach is based on a model predicting deposition using precipitation data, in a similar manner as that used previously within the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). 1999). One station close to Reykjavik has a time series of Cs-137 deposition data and precipitation data from 1960 onwards. The AMAP deposition model was calibrated for Iceland by using deposition and precipitation data from this station. (au)

  3. Bioremoval of Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wasters by bacterial consortiums; Biorremocao de Am-241 e Cs-137 de rejeitos radioativos liquidos por consorcios bacterianos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Lima, Josenilson B. de; Gomes, Mirella C.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Sakata, Solange Kazumi, E-mail: rpadua@ipen.b, E-mail: sksakata@ipen.b, E-mail: jblima@ipen.b, E-mail: mbmarumo@ipen.b, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    This paper evaluates the capacity of two bacterial consortiums of impacted areas in removing the Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wastes.The experiments indicated that the two study consortiums were able to remove 100% of the Cs-137 and Am-241 presents in the waste from 4 days of contact. These results suggest that the bio removal with the selected consortiums, can be a viable technique for the treatment of radioactive wastes containing Am-241 and Cs-137

  4. Pharmacokinetic and parasitological evaluation of the bone marrow of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis submitted to multiple dose treatment with liposome-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Schettini


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a multiple dose regimen of a liposomal formulation of meglumine antimoniate (LMA on the pharmacokinetics of antimony in the bone marrow of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis and on the ability of LMA to eliminate parasites from this tissue. Dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi received 4 intravenous doses of either LMA (6.5 mg antimony/kg body weight, N = 9, or empty liposomes (at the same lipid dose as LMA, N = 9 at 4-day intervals. A third group of animals was untreated (N = 8. Before each administration and at different times after treatment, bone marrow was obtained and analyzed for antimony level (LMA group by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, and for the presence of Leishmania parasites (all groups. There was a significant increase of antimony concentration from 0.76 µg/kg wet organ (4 days after the first dose to 2.07 µg/kg (4 days after the fourth dose and a half-life of 4 days for antimony elimination from the bone marrow. Treatment with LMA significantly reduced the number of dogs positive for parasites (with at least one amastigote per 1000 host cells compared to controls (positive dogs 30 days after treatment: 0 of 9 in the LMA group, 3 of 9 in the group treated with empty liposomes and 3 of 8 in the untreated group. However, complete elimination of parasites was not achieved. In conclusion, the present study showed that multiple dose treatment with LMA was effective in improving antimony levels in the bone marrow of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis and in reducing the number of positive animals, even though it was not sufficient to achieve complete elimination of parasites.

  5. Preparation of antimony sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ren-De, E-mail: [Research & Development Institute, High Performance Plastics Company, Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd. 2-1 Hyakuyama, Shimamoto-Cho, Mishima-Gun, Osaka, 618-0021 (Japan); Tsuji, Takeshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-Cho, Matsue, 690-8504 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Pulsed laser ablation in liquid (LAL) was applied to prepare antimony sulfide nanoparticles (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs). • Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs with a stoichiometric composition were successfully prepared by LAL in water without using any surfactants or capping agents. • Thus-prepared Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs showed low-temperature crystallization and melting at a temperature low as 200 °C. • The NPs-coated Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film showed comparable semiconductor properties (carrier mobility and carrier density) to the vacuum deposited one. • Byproducts such as CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO were detected by GC-MS analysis when LAL was performed in organic solvent. • The LAL-induced decomposition mechanism of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and organic solvents was discussed based on the GC-MS results. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the synthesis of antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) semiconductor nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid without using any surfactants or capping agents. Different results were obtained in water and organic solvents. In the case of water, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles with chemical compositions of stoichiometry were successfully prepared when laser irradiation was performed under the condition with the dissolved oxygen removed by argon gas bubbling. It was shown that thus-obtained Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibit features of not only low-temperature crystallization but also low-temperature melting at a temperature as low as 200 °C. Nanoparticle-coated Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were found to show good visible light absorption and satisfying semiconductor properties (i.e., carrier mobility and density), which are essential for photovoltaic application. On the other hand, in the case of organic solvents (e.g., acetone, ethanol), such unexpected byproducts as CS{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} were detected from the reaction system by GC-MS analysis, which suggests that both Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and organic

  6. The electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series: Prospects for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, John J.; Allen, Jeremy P. [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Scanlon, David O. [University College London, Kathleen Lonsdale Materials Chemistry, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Watson, Graeme W., E-mail: [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)


    In this study, density functional theory is used to evaluate the electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series. Analysis of the electronic density of states and charge density shows that asymmetric density, or ‘lone pairs’, forms on the Sb{sup III} cations in the distorted oxide, sulphide and selenide materials. The asymmetric density progressively weakens down the series, due to the increase in energy of valence p states from O to Te, and is absent for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The fundamental and optical band gaps were calculated and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} have indirect band gaps, while Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} was calculated to have a direct band gap at Γ. The band gaps are also seen to reduce from Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The optical band gap for Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} makes it a candidate as a transparent conducting oxide, while Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} have suitable band gaps for thin film solar cell absorbers. - Graphical abstract: A schematic illustrating the interaction between the Sb{sup III} cations and the chalcogenide anions and the change in their respective energy levels down the series. - Highlights: • The electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series is modelled using DFT. • Asymmetric density is present on distorted systems and absent on the symmetric telluride system. • Asymmetric density is formed from the mixing of Sb 5s and anion p states, where the anti-bonding combination is stabilised by the Sb 5p states. • The asymmetric density weakens down the series due to the increase in energy of chalcogenide p states. • The increase in energy of the anion p states reduces the fundamental and optical band gaps.

  7. Local bonding structure of tellurium and antimony in the phase change chalcogenides germanium-antimony-tellurium: A nuclear magnetic resonance study (United States)

    Bobela, David C.

    Recent technological applications of some chalcogenide materials, compounds containing a group VI atom, have prompted studies of the local atomic structure of the amorphous phase. In the case of Ge2Sb2Te 5, metastability in the local bonding structure is responsible for its usefulness as a phase-change memory material. There is no consensus on the exact phase-change mechanism, which is partly due to the inadequacy of standard scattering techniques to probe the structure of the amorphous phase. Nuclear magnetic resonance methods, on the other hand, are well suited to study local structural order even in the absence of a periodic lattice. In this technique, structural information is encoded as an oscillating voltage caused by the nuclear spin. For the tellurium isotope, 125Te (spin = 1/2 in the ground state), the dominant interaction comes from the core and valence electrons that carry angular momentum. This interaction is helpful in identifying Te sites of different local coordination since the number of neighboring atoms should markedly change the local electronic structure. The antimony isotope 125Sb has a spin = 5/2 in the ground state and possesses an asymmetric nuclear charge. This quadrupole moment will interact with an electric field gradient at the nuclear site, which is provided by an asymmetric electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. The frequency-space spectra will reflect the strength of the interaction as well as the symmetry of the local electronic environment. This work investigates the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of 125Te and 125Sb in the crystalline and amorphous forms of several GexSbyTe 1-x-y compounds where 0 arranged such that the constituent elements have enough bonds, on average, to satisfy their valence requirement. The implications of the NMR data on theoretical modeling data are immediate. Theoretical models of these systems must possess some aspect of the "8-n" mentality. With this idea as a foundation for physically realistic

  8. Experimental contamination of pink shrimps by caesium 137; Contamination experimentale de crevettes roses par le cesium 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancellin, J.; Michon, G.; Vilquin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The authors describe first of all the technique used for the determination of cesium 137 concentration factors in the pink shrimp (Leander Serratus Pennant). Experiments over three months have shown that the specific activity of the shrimps becomes stable between the thirtieth and the fortieth day. The concentration factors then have values between 30 and 40. These results are similar to those obtained by other authors. (authors) [French] Les auteurs decrivent tout d'abord la technique utilisee pour la determination des facteurs de concentration du Cesium 137 chez la crevette rose (Leander Serratus Pennant). Le resultat des experimentations menees pendant trois mois montre que l'activite specifique des crevettes se stabilise entre le trentieme et le quarantieme jour. Les facteurs de concentration se situent alors entre 30 et 40, Ces donnees sont comparables a celles obtenues par d'autres auteurs. (auteur)

  9. Divergence of Cs-137 sources fluence used in brachytherapy; Divergencia da fluencia de fontes de Cs-137 usadas em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianello, E.A.; Almeida, C.E. de [Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas- LCR-DBB (UERJ). R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524- Pav. HLC, sala 136 terreo- CEP 20.550- 013. Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    In this work the experimental determination of correction factor for fluence divergence (kln) of linear Cs-137 sources CDCS J4, with Farmer ionization chamber model 2571 in a central and perpendicular plan to source axis, for distances range from 1 to 7 cm., has been presented. The experimental results were compared to calculating by Kondo and Randolph (1960) isotropic theory and Bielajew (1990) anisotropic theory. (Author)

  10. Bioaccumulation of cesium-137 in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned nuclear reactor reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCreedy, C.D.; Glickman, L.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Pathobiology; Jagoe, C.H.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.


    Bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs was investigated in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned reactor reservoir, Pond B, Savannah River Site, Barnwell Co., South Carolina. The authors collected fish by trap-netting, and determined ages from pectoral spines. Muscle and other tissues were assayed for {sup 137}Cs by NaI-scintillation. Music {sup 137}Cs was unrelated to sex or mass of fish, but was related to age. Examination of least-squares means suggested that {sup 137}Cs in muscle increased up to about age 3, but did not increase with greater age. A modified Richards model showed equilibrium {sup 137}Cs concentration in muscle was acquired in approximately 2.4 years. Growth differed between sexes and the time to asymptotic body mass was longer than the time to attain equilibrium {sup 137}Cs concentration. Males attained an asymptotic mass of 577 g in approximately 6.3 years; females attained an asymptotic mass of 438 g in approximately 5.9 years. The cumulative {sup 137}Cs burden of the population was 4.9 {times} 10{sup 6} Bq, representing <0.001% of the {sup 137}Cs inventory of the reservoir. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs varied among tissues with gill and muscle the lowest and highest. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in ovaries declined with increasing ovary mass. Until equilibrium is attained in these fish, {sup 137}Cs concentration is directly related to increasing age rather than size.

  11. Spark Plasma Sintering and Densification Mechanisms of Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Nanoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyan Wu


    Full Text Available Densification of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO ceramics without sintering aids is very difficult, due to the volatilization of SnO2, formation of deleterious phases above 1000°C, and poor sintering ability of ATO particles. In this paper, monodispersed ATO nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel method, and then ATO nanoceramics with high density were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS technology using the as-synthesized ATO nanoparticles without the addition of sintering aids. The effect of Sb doping content on the densification was investigated, and the densification mechanisms were explored. The results suggest that ATO nanoparticles derived from sol-gel method show good crystallinity with a crystal size of 5–20 nm and Sb is incorporated into the SnO2 crystal structure. When the SPS sintering temperature is 1000°C and the Sb doping content is 5 at.%, the density of ATO nanoceramics reaches a maximum value of 99.2%. Densification mechanisms are explored in detail.

  12. Effect of antimony addition on the optical behaviour of germanium selenide thin films (United States)

    Sharma, Parikshit; Rangra, V. S.; Sharma, Pankaj; Katyal, S. C.


    This paper reports the influence of antimony (Sb) addition on the optical properties (optical energy gap and refractive index) of thin solid films of the chalcogenide glassy Ge0.17Se0.83-xSbx(x = 0, 0.03, 0.09, 0.12, 0.15) system. This has been done by analysing the transmittance (T) and reflectance (R) spectra in the spectral region 400-2000 nm. It was found that the optical energy gap decreases with increasing Sb content from 1.92 to 1.63 eV with an uncertainty of ± 0.01 eV. The results were interpreted in terms of bond energies and on the basis of the concept of electronegativity. The refractive index has been found to increase with increasing Sb content. The increase in the refractive index has been explained on the basis of polarizability. Dispersion of refractive index has been analysed using the Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. The static refractive index increased from 2.45 to 2.91 for the studied compositions. An estimate of the energy gap has also been taken theoretically and it has been found that both the optical energy gap (measured from T and R spectra) and the theoretical energy gap follow similar trends.

  13. Effect of antimony addition on the optical behaviour of germanium selenide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Parikshit; Rangra, V S [Department of Physics, H. P. University, Summer Hill, Shimla (171005) (India); Sharma, Pankaj; Katyal, S C [Department of Physics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, H.P. (173215) (India)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    This paper reports the influence of antimony (Sb) addition on the optical properties (optical energy gap and refractive index) of thin solid films of the chalcogenide glassy Ge{sub 0.17}Se{sub 0.83-x}Sb{sub x}(x = 0, 0.03, 0.09, 0.12, 0.15) system. This has been done by analysing the transmittance (T) and reflectance (R) spectra in the spectral region 400-2000 nm. It was found that the optical energy gap decreases with increasing Sb content from 1.92 to 1.63 eV with an uncertainty of {+-} 0.01 eV. The results were interpreted in terms of bond energies and on the basis of the concept of electronegativity. The refractive index has been found to increase with increasing Sb content. The increase in the refractive index has been explained on the basis of polarizability. Dispersion of refractive index has been analysed using the Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. The static refractive index increased from 2.45 to 2.91 for the studied compositions. An estimate of the energy gap has also been taken theoretically and it has been found that both the optical energy gap (measured from T and R spectra) and the theoretical energy gap follow similar trends.

  14. Leaching of Antimony (Sb)from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Inga


    The mobility of antimony (Sb) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues often exceeds the limit values stipulated by the European Union. As an ash treatment by washing is conceivable, this work investigated the Sb release from Swedish bottom ash and fly ash when mixed with water. The leaching experiments revealed the factors significantly (a = 0.05) affecting Sb release from the ashes. The following factors were investigated: Liquid to solid ratio (L/S), time, pH, carbonation (treatment with CO{sub 2}), ultrasonics and temperature. The data were evaluated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The impact of the factors could be quantified. The maximum Sb release calculated was 13 mg/kg DM for bottom ash and 51 mg/kg DM for fly ash. The derived models explained the observed data well. Nevertheless, the calculated values were subject to a high uncertainty. For bottom ash, a lowering of the Sb total content of approximately 22% could be achieved. If this also involves a sufficient lowering of the Sb mobility to meet EU limit values could not yet be assessed. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to explain the empirical results. However, no solid phases controlling Sb release from the ashes could be identified.

  15. Synthesis of Copper-Antimony-Sulfide Nanocrystals for Solution-Processed Solar Cells. (United States)

    Suehiro, Satoshi; Horita, Keisuke; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Tooru; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Ishiwata, Yoichi; Shimanoe, Kengo; Kida, Tetsuya


    The p-type nanocrystals (NCs) of copper-based chalcogenides, such as CuInSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have attracted increasing attention in photovoltaic applications due to their potential to produce cheap solution-processed solar cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of copper-antimony-sulfide (CAS) NCs with different crystal phases including CuSbS2, Cu3SbS4, and Cu12Sb4S13. In addition, their morphology, crystal phase, and optical properties were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy, and photoemission yield spectroscopy. The morphology, crystal phase, and electronic structure were significantly dependent on the chemical composition in the CAS system. Devices were fabricated using particulate films consisting of CAS NCs prepared by spin coating without a high-temperature treatment. The CAS NC-based devices exhibited a diode-like current-voltage characteristic when coupled with an n-type CdS layer. In particular, the CuSbS2 NC devices exhibited photovoltaic responses under simulated sunlight, demonstrating its applicability for use in solution-processed solar cells.

  16. Partitioning geochemistry of arsenic and antimony, El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, J.T. [Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Bennett, P.C., E-mail: [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Engel, A.S. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Alsina, M.A.; Pasten, P.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Milliken, K. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States)


    The abundance of As and Sb in aqueous, mineral and biological reservoirs was examined at El Tatio Geyser Field, a unique hydrothermal basin located in the Atacama Desert region of Chile. Here the concentration of total As and Sb in hydrothermal springs and discharge streams are the highest reported for a natural surface water, and the geyser basin represents a significant source of toxic elements for downstream users across Region II, Chile. The geyser waters are near neutral Na:Cl type with {approx}0.45 and 0.021 mmol L{sup -1} total As and Sb, respectively, primarily in the reduced (III) redox state at the discharge with progressive oxidation downstream. The ferric oxyhydroxides associated with the microbial mats and some mineral precipitates accumulate substantial As that was identified as arsenate by XAS analysis (>10 wt% in the mats). This As is easily mobilized by anion exchange or mild dissolution of the HFO, and the ubiquitous microbial mats represent a significant reservoir of As in this system. Antimony, in contrast, is not associated with the mineral ferric oxides or the biomats, but is substantially enriched in the silica matrix of the geyserite precipitates, up to 2 wt% as Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Understanding the mobility and partitioning behavior of these metalloids is critical for understanding their eventual impact on regional water management.

  17. Adsorption behavior of antimony(III) oxyanions on magnetite surface in aqueous organic acid environment (United States)

    Mittal, Vinit K.; Bera, Santanu; Narasimhan, S. V.; Velmurugan, S.


    Antimony(III) adsorption is observed on magnetite (Fe3O4) surface under acidic and reducing condition through surface hydroxyl (SOH) groups bonding on Fe3O4 surface. Desorption of adsorbed Sb(III) is observed from Fe3O4 surface along with iron release in organic acid at 85 °C after 5 h of experiment. Tartaric acid (TA) shows minimum Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4 among the organic acid studied. The reason is TA having two sets of adjacent functional groups viz. Odbnd Csbnd OH and Csbnd OH which are responsible for the formation of five-membered bidendate chelate with Sb(III). Other oxyanions, cations or complexing agents along with TA influences the Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4. The surface of magnetite is modified by the addition of fatty acids viz. Lauric acid, benzoic acid to bind the Ssbnd OH groups present on the surface. This results in delaying the process of adsorption without changing the quantity of saturation adsorption of Sb(III) on Fe3O4 surface.

  18. DFT Study on the Carrier Concentration and Temperature-Dependent Thermoelectric Properties of Antimony Selenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Jayaraman


    Full Text Available We present the thermoelectric properties of Antimony Selenide (Sb2Se3 obtained using first principles calculations. We investigated the electronic band structure using the FP-LAPW method within the sphere of the density functional theory. Thermoelectric properties were calculated using BoltzTrap code using the constant relaxation time (τ approximation at three different temperatures 300 K, 600 K, and 800 K. Seebeck coefficient (S was found to decrease with increasing temperature, electrical conductivity (σ/τ was almost constant in the entire temperature range, and electronic thermal conductivity (κ/τ increased with increasing temperature. With increase in temperature S decreased from 1870 μV/K (at 300 K to 719 μV/K (at 800 K, electronic thermal conductivity increased from 1.56 × 1015 W/m K s (at 300 K to 3.92 × 1015 W/m K s (at 800 K, and electrical conductivity decreased from 22 × 1019/Ω m s (at 300 K to 20 × 1019/Ω m s (at 800 K. The thermoelectric properties were also calculated for different hole concentrations and the optimum concentration for a good thermoelectric performance over a large range of temperatures (from 300 K to 1000 K was found for hole concentration around 1019 cm−3.

  19. Semiconductor nanocrystals functionalized with antimony telluride zintl ions for nanostructured thermoelectrics. (United States)

    Kovalenko, Maksym V; Spokoyny, Boris; Lee, Jong-Soo; Scheele, Marcus; Weber, Andrew; Perera, Susanthri; Landry, Daniel; Talapin, Dmitri V


    The energy efficiency of heat engines could be improved by the partial recovery of waste heat using thermoelectric (TE) generators. We show the possibility of designing nanostructured TE materials using colloidal inorganic nanocrystals functionalized with molecular antimony telluride complexes belonging to the family of Zintl ions. The unique advantage of using Zintl ions as the nanocrystal surface ligands is the possibility to convert them into crystalline metal chalcogenides, thus linking individual nanobuilding blocks into a macroscopic assembly of electronically coupled functional modules. This approach allows preserving the benefits of nanostructuring and quantum confinement while enabling facile charge transport through the interparticle boundaries. A developed methodology was applied for solution-based fabrication of nanostructured n- and p-type Bi(2-x)Sb(x)Te(3) alloys with tunable composition and PbTe-Sb(2)Te(3) nanocomposites with controlled grain size. Characterization of the TE properties of these materials showed that their Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal conductivities, and ZT values compared favorably with those of previously reported solution-processed TE materials.

  20. Comparison of arsenic and antimony biogeochemical behavior in water, soil and tailings from Xikuangshan, China. (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyou; Wu, Fengchang; Mo, Changli; Deng, Qiujing; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P


    Although similar geochemical behaviors of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in the environment has been assumed and widely reported, growing evidence suggests the two elements cannot, under some conditions, be assumed to behave similarly. In this four-year study (samples collected in each year), comparative investigation of the biogeochemistry of As and Sb in water/fish, soil/vegetable, tailings/plant samples were carried out at the world's largest active Sb mine area (Xikuangshan, China). Depending on duration the tailings had been stacked, significant differences in spatial distributions between As and Sb were found, and these were associated with change in pH over time. Bio-accumulation factors (BAFs) of As were approximately 10-fold greater than those of Sb in fish/water, plant/tailing, and vegetable/soil systems. Sb had higher BAF in non-fatty tissues such as gills of fishes and shells of crabs. BAFs of Sb in vegetable/soil exhibited insignificantly, but different from As, positive correlation with pH in soil.

  1. A new method for antimony speciation in plant biomass and nutrient media using anion exchange cartridge. (United States)

    Tisarum, Rujira; Ren, Jing-Hua; Dong, Xiaoling; Chen, Hao; Lessl, Jason T; Ma, Lena Q


    A selective separation method based on anion exchange cartridge was developed to determine antimony (Sb) speciation in biological matrices by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). The selectivity of the cartridge towards antimonite [Sb(III)] and antimonate [Sb(V)] reversed in the presence of deionized (DI) water and 2mM citric acid. While Sb(V) was retained by the cartridge in DI water, Sb(III) was retained in citric acid media. At pH 6, Sb(III) and Sb(V) formed Sb(III)- and Sb(V)-citrate complexes, but the cartridge had higher affinity towards the Sb(III)-citrate complex. Separation of Sb(III) was tested at various concentrations in fresh and spent growth media and plant tissues. Our results showed that cartridge-based Sb speciation was successful in plant tissues, which was confirmed by HPLC-ICP-MS. The cartridge retained Sb(III) and showed 92-104% Sb(V) recovery from arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata roots treated with Sb(III) and Sb(V). The cartridge procedure is an effective alternative for Sb speciation, offering low cost, reproducible results, and simple Sb analysis using GFAAS.

  2. Stepwise mechanism of oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over gallium-antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, Z.G.; Sokolovskii, V.D.


    The stepwise mechanism of oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over gallium-antimony oxide catalysts GaSb/sub 19/O/sub x/, GaSb/sub 3/Ni/sub 1.5/0/sub x/, and GaSb/sub 2.5/Ni/sub 1.5/PW/sub 0//sub 0.25/O/sub x/ was studied at 450/sup 0/ and 550/sup 0/C by introducing alternating pulses of 0.5Vertical Bar3< propane/0.6Vertical Bar3< ammonia/helium (to reduce the steady-state catalytic surface) and 0.5Vertical Bar3< propane/0.6Vertical Bar3< ammonia/1.86Vertical Bar3< oxygen/helium mixtures into a fluidized-bed catalytic reactor. Over all the catalysts studied, the rates of acrylonitrile formation during the two types of pulses were very similar, but carbon dioxide was formed much faster during the reducing pulses, particularly at 450/sup 0/C. These findings suggested that acrylonitrile is formed by a stepwise redox mechanism involving consecutive interaction of propane and ammonia with the surface oxygen of the catalysts and oxidation of the reduced catalyst surface by gas-phase oxygen. The formation of carbon dioxide proceeds by both stepwise and associative mechanisms, the latter being more important at higher temperatures. The results are similar to published results for ammoxidation of propylene and olefins.

  3. A density-functional study on the electronic and vibrational properties of layered antimony telluride (United States)

    Stoffel, Ralf P.; Deringer, Volker L.; Simon, Ronnie E.; Hermann, Raphaël P.; Dronskowski, Richard


    We present a comprehensive survey of electronic and lattice-dynamical properties of crystalline antimony telluride (Sb2Te3). In a first step, the electronic structure and chemical bonding have been investigated, followed by calculations of the atomic force constants, phonon dispersion relationships and densities of states. Then, (macroscopic) physical properties of Sb2Te3 have been computed, namely, the atomic thermal displacement parameters, the Grüneisen parameter γ, the volume expansion of the lattice, and finally the bulk modulus B. We compare theoretical results from three popular and economic density-functional theory (DFT) approaches: the local density approximation (LDA), the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and a posteriori dispersion corrections to the latter. Despite its simplicity, the LDA shows excellent performance for all properties investigated—including the Grüneisen parameter, which only the LDA is able to recover with confidence. In the absence of computationally more demanding hybrid DFT methods, the LDA seems to be a good choice for further lattice dynamical studies of Sb2Te3 and related layered telluride materials.

  4. Evaluating gully erosion using {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 137}Cs ratio in a reservoir catchment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. [Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development, CAAS, Beijing (China) and Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, CAAS, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: and; Poesen, J. [Laboratory for Experimental Geomorphology, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Yang, J.C.; Zhang, J.H. [Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development, CAAS, Beijing (China); Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, CAAS, Beijing (China); Fu, B. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)


    Water erosion in the hilly areas of west China is the main process contributing to the overall sediment of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. The impact of gully erosion in total sediment output has been mostly neglected. Our objective was to assess the sediment production and sediment sources at both the hillslope and catchment scales in the Yangjuangou reservoir catchment of the Chinese Loess Plateau, northwest China. Distribution patterns in sediment production caused by water erosion on hills and gully slopes under different land use types were assessed using the fallout {sup 137}Cs technique. The total sediment production from the catchment was estimated by using the sediment record in a reservoir. Sediment sources and dominant water erosion processes were determined by comparing {sup 137}Cs activities and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 137}Cs ratios in surface soils and sub-surface soils with those of sediment deposits from the reservoir at the outlet of the catchment. Results indicated that landscape location had the most significant impact on sediment production for cultivated hillslopes, followed by the terraced hillslope, and the least for the vegetated hillslope. Sediment production increased in the following order: top>upper>lower>middle for the cultivated hillslope, and top>lower>upper>middle for the terraced hillslope. The mean value of sediment production declined by 49% for the terraced hillslope and by 80% for the vegetated hillslope compared with the cultivated hillslope. Vegetated gully slope reduced the sediment production by 38% compared with the cultivated gully slope. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of terracing and perennial vegetation cover in controlling sediment delivery at a hillslope scale. Averaged {sup 137}Cs activities and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 137}Cs ratios in the 0-5 cm surface soil (2.22-4.70 Bq kg{sup -1} and 20.70-22.07, respectively) and in the 5-30 cm subsoil (2.60 Bq kg{sup -1} and 28.57, respectively) on the cultivated hills and

  5. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis. (United States)

    Perry, Meghan R; Wyllie, Susan; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Fairlamb, Alan H


    The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg · mL(-1) Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg · mL(-1)) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is.

  6. Fukushima 137Cs at the base of planktonic food webs off Japan (United States)

    Baumann, Z.; Fisher, N. S.; Gobler, C. J.; Buesseler, K. O.; George, J. A.; Breier, C. F.; Nishikawa, J.


    The potential bioaccumulation of 137Cs in marine food webs off Japan became a concern following the release of radioactive contaminants from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant into the coastal ocean. Previous studies suggest that 137Cs activities increase with trophic level in pelagic food webs, however, the bioaccumulation of 137Cs from seawater to primary producers, to zooplankton has not been evaluated in the field. Since phytoplankton are frequently the largest component of suspended particulate matter (SPM) we used SPM concentrations and particle-associated 137Cs to understand bioaccumulation of 137Cs in through trophic pathways in the field. We determined particle-associated 137Cs for samples collected at 20 m depth from six stations off Japan three months after the initial release from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At 20 m SPM ranged from 0.65 to 1.60 mg L-1 and rapidly declined with depth. The ratios of particulate organic carbon to chlorophyll a suggested that phytoplankton comprised much of the SPM in these samples. 137Cs activities on particles accounted for on average 0.04% of the total 137Cs in seawater samples, and measured concentration factors of 137Cs on small suspended particles were comparatively low (∼102). However, when 137Cs in crustacean zooplankton was derived based only on modeling dietary 137Cs uptake, we found predicted and measured 137Cs concentrations in good agreement. We therefore postulate the possibility that the dietary route of 137Cs bioaccumulation (i.e., phytoplankton ingestion) could be largely responsible for the measured levels in the copepod-dominated (%) zooplankton assemblages in Japanese coastal waters. Finally, our data did not support the notion that zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton results in a biomagnification of 137Cs.

  7. 青海共和盆地土壤风蚀的137Cs法研究(Ⅱ)--137Cs背景值与风蚀速率测定%Application of Caesium-137 Technique on Wind Erosion in Gonghe Basin, Qinghai Province (Ⅱ)-137Cs Reference Inventory and 137Cs Model for Wind Erosion Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严平; 董光荣; 张信宝; 邹学勇


    通过对高寒草原背景值样点(RS7)的分析,将共和盆地的137Cs背景值含量确定为(2 691.78±196.08) Bq*m-2,基本接近北半球137Cs背景值的平均水平,其137Cs剖面满足尖峰分布函数,与公认的理论分布(即负指数分布)相比,呈现出峰值下移和曲线趋平的现象,可能与近几十年来137Cs的稳定下渗有关.应用137Cs背景值剖面分布函数,建立了风蚀速率的137Cs估算模型,估算出四个样方的土壤风蚀速率,并由此转化为区域风蚀速率,计算出共和盆地区域土壤风蚀速率为12.556 t*hm-2*a-1,通过蚀积平衡检验,其误差水平小于10%.并分析了风蚀物的输出途径及其所占比例.

  8. 33 CFR 137.70 - Specialized knowledge or experience on the part of persons specified in § 137.1(a). (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized knowledge or... INNOCENT LAND-OWNER DEFENSE Standards and Practices § 137.70 Specialized knowledge or experience on the... located, persons specified in § 137.1(a) must take into account their own specialized knowledge of...

  9. Comparison of modification with strontium and the refining with antimony in A 356 aluminium alloys; Comparacao entre a modificacao com estroncio e o refino com antimonio em ligas de aluminio a 356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuoco, Ricardo; Correa, Edison Roberto; Correa, Alzira V.O.; Bocalini Junior, Mario


    Strontium and Antimony treated A356 aluminium alloy samples were metallographically characterized in the as cast and solution and aged conditions. Antimony treated alloy has shown slower spheroidizing kinetics of the Silicon particles during solution treatment, lower porosity level and higher tensile strength and elongation than Strontium treated one. (author) 26 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Gold and Antimony Mixed Flotation on a Micrite Gold Antimony ore in Guizhou%贵州某泥晶灰岩型含锑金矿金锑混浮试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石贵明; 周意超


    贵州某泥晶灰岩型含锑金矿石为块状构造,金属矿物主要为黄铁矿、针铁矿,含量小于1%,非金属矿物以方解石为主,另有少量石英、有机质等;金含量为6.04 g/t,显微镜下未见自然金粒,74.34%的金赋存在硫化矿中,游离金仅占总金的7.14%;硅酸盐、碳酸盐包裹金分别占11.96%和6.56%;锑主要以辉锑矿的形式存在。为高效、低成本回收矿石中的金、锑,对混合浮选工艺进行了试验研究。结果表明,在一段磨矿细度为-0.074 mm占71%的情况下1粗2扫混浮、尾矿再磨细度为-0.074 mm占92.7%的情况下再1粗2扫混浮、两粗精矿合并后3次精选、中矿顺序返回流程处理,最终获得了金品位为47.60 g/t、锑品位为9.81%、金回收率为76.68%、锑回收率为85.22%的金锑混合精矿,金锑混浮效果较理想。尾矿中金的回收及金锑分离工艺研究将另文介绍。%The micrite type antimony-containing gold ore in Guizhou is in blocky construction. Its metallic minerals are mainly pyrite and goethite,with content of less than 1%. Non-metallic minerals are calcite,and few of quartz,organic matter, etc. It contains gold of 6. 04 g/t,and natural gold grains were not seen in microscope,74. 34% of the gold occurred in sulfide ore,free gold accounted for only 7. 14%,wrapped gold in silicate and carbonate accounted for 11. 96% and 6. 56% respective-ly. Antimony mainly existed in the form of stibnite. Bulk flotation process was studied to make high efficient recovery of gold and antimony at low costs. The results indicated that,at the grinding fineness of 71% passing 0. 074 mm,through one roughing and two scavenging bulk flotation,one roughing and two scavenging bulk flotation after regrinding the tailings to 92. 7% passing 0. 074 mm,three cleaning flotation for the two mixed rough concentrate,and then middles back to the flow-sheet in turn,rough gold-antimony concentrate with gold grade of 47. 60 g

  11. 8 GHz Tunable Gunn Oscillator in WR-137 Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Rakshit


    Full Text Available The conventional technique of realising waveguide resonators for Gunn diode oscillators to operate at the band edge of the waveguide fails owing to the excitation of a coaxial mode resonance formed by the post and the side walls of the waveguide. One of the solutions to the problem is to mount the diode in a ridged waveguide resonator. This has been demonstrated by constructing an 8 GHz Gunn oscillator using a single ridge in WR-137 waveguide.The steps in designing the oscillator system are also presented.

  12. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination;Cesium 137: proprietes et effets biologiques apres contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of {sup 137}Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, {sup 137}Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of {sup 137}Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, {sup 137}Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested {sup 137}Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested {sup 137}Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that {sup 137}Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  13. Quantitative HPLC-ICP-MS analysis of antimony redox speciation in complex sample matrices: new insights into the Sb-chemistry causing poor chromatographic recoveries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus; Schmidt, Bjørn; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt;


    In solution antimony exists either in the pentavalent or trivalent oxidation state. As Sb(III) is more toxic than Sb(V), it is important to be able to perform a quantitative speciation analysis of Sb’s oxidation state. The most commonly applied chromatographic methods used for this redox speciation...... analysis do, however, often show a low chromatographic Sb recovery when samples of environmental or biological origin are analysed. In this study we explored basal chemistry of antimony and found that formation of macromolecules, presumably oligomeric and polymeric Sb(V) species, is the primary cause...... of low chromatographic recoveries. A combination of HPLC-ICP-MS, AFFF-ICP-MS and spinfiltration was applied for analysis of model compounds and biological samples. Quantitative chromatographic Sb redox speciation analysis was possible by acidic hydrolysis of the antimony polymers prior to analysis...

  14. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry (United States)

    Brown, G.E.; McLain, B.J.


    The analysis of natural-water samples for antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Samples are prepared for analysis by addition of potassium and hydrochloric acid followed by an autoclave digestion. After the digestion, potassium iodide and sodium borohydride are added automatically. Antimony hydride (stibine) gas is generated, then swept into a heated quartz cell for determination of antimony by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Precision and accuracy data are presented. Results obtained on standard reference water samples agree with means established by interlaboratory studies. Spike recoveries for actual samples range from 90 to 114 percent. Replicate analyses of water samples of varying matrices give relative standard deviations from 3 to 10 percent.

  15. {sup 137}Cs applicability to soil erosion assessment: theoretical and empirical model; Aplicabilidade do {sup 137}Cs para medir erosao do solo: modelos teoricos e empiricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova


    The soil erosion processes acceleration and the increase of soil erosion rates due to anthropogenic perturbation in soil-weather-vegetation equilibrium has influenced in the soil quality and environment. So, the possibility to assess the amplitude and severity of soil erosion impact on the productivity and quality of soil is important so local scale as regional and global scale. Several models have been developed to assess the soil erosion so qualitative as quantitatively. {sup 137}Cs, an anthropogenic radionuclide, have been very used to assess the superficial soil erosion process Empirical and theoretical models were developed on the basis of {sup 137} Cs redistribution as indicative of soil movement by erosive process These models incorporate many parameters that can influence in the soil erosion rates quantification by {sup 137} Cs redistribution. Statistical analysis was realized on the models recommended by IAEA to determinate the influence that each parameter generates in results of the soil redistribution. It was verified that the most important parameter is the {sup 137} Cs redistribution, indicating the necessity of a good determination in the {sup 137} Cs inventory values with a minimum deviation associated with these values. After this, it was associated a 10% deviation in the reference value of {sup 137} Cs inventory and the 5% in the {sup 137} Cs inventory of the sample and was determinate the deviation in results of the soil redistribution calculated by models. The results of soil redistribution was compared to verify if there was difference between the models, but there was not difference in the results determinate by models, unless above 70% of {sup 137} Cs loss. Analyzing three native forests and an area of the undisturbed pasture in the Londrina region, can be verified that the {sup 137} Cs spatial variability in local scale was 15%. Comparing the {sup 137} Cs inventory values determinate in the three native forest with the {sup 137} Cs inventory

  16. 137Ba Double Gamma Decay Measurement with GAMMASPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchán E.


    Full Text Available The study of the electromagnetic moments (EM, and decay probability, provides detailed information about nuclear wave functions. The well-know properties of EM interactions are good for extracting information about the motion of nucleons. Higher order EM processes always occur, but are usually too weak to be measured. In the case of a 0+ → 0+ transitions [1, 2], where a single gamma transition is forbidden, the simultaneous emission of two γ-rays has been studied. An interesting opportunity to further investigate 2-photon emission phenomena is by using a standard 137Cs source populating, via β-decay, the Jπ = 11/2− isomeric state at 662 keV in 137Ba. In this case, two photon process can have contributions from quadrupole-quadrupole or dipole-octupole multipolarities in direct competition with the high multipolarity M4 decay. Since the yield of the double gamma decay is around six orders of magnitude less than the first order transition, very good statistics are needed in order to observe the phenomena and great care must be taken to suppress the first-order decay. The Gammasphere array is ideal since its configuration allows a good coverage of the angular distribution and the Compton events can be suppressed. Nevertheless the process to understand and eliminate the Compton background is a challenge. Geant4 simulations were carried out to help understand and correct for those factors.

  17. First-line therapy for human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru using the TLR7 agonist imiquimod in combination with pentavalent antimony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Miranda-Verastegui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current therapies for cutaneous leishmaniasis are limited by poor efficacy, long-term course of treatment, and the development of resistance. We evaluated if pentavalent antimony (an anti-parasitic drug combined with imiquimod (an immunomodulator was more effective than pentavalent antimony alone in patients who had not previously been treated. METHODS: A randomized double-blind clinical trial involving 80 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was conducted in Peru. The study subjects were recruited in Lima and Cusco (20 experimental and 20 control subjects at each site. Experimental arm: Standard dose of pentavalent antimony plus 5% imiquimod cream applied to each lesion three times per week for 20 days. Control arm: Standard dose of pentavalent antimony plus placebo (vehicle cream applied as above. The primary outcome was cure defined as complete re-epithelization with no inflammation assessed during the 12 months post-treatment period. RESULTS: Of the 80 subjects enrolled, 75 completed the study. The overall cure rate at the 12-month follow-up for the intention-to-treat analysis was 75% (30/40 in the experimental arm and 58% (23/40 in the control arm (p = 0.098. Subgroup analyses suggested that combination treatment benefits were most often observed at the Cusco site, where L. braziliensis is the prevalent species. Over the study period, only one adverse event (rash was recorded, in the experimental arm. CONCLUSION: The combination treatment of imiquimod plus pentavalent antimony performed better than placebo plus pentavalent antimony, but the difference was not statistically significant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical NCT00257530.

  18. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo E Perez-Franco


    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antimonial derivatives as treatment for ACL show a healing rate of about 75% and reasons for treatment failure are not well known.In order to characterise the clinical and parasitological features of patients with ACL that did not respond to Glucantime, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a cohort of 43 patients recruited in three of the Colombian Army National reference centers for complicated ACL. Clinical and paraclinical examination, and epidemiological and geographic information were recorded for each patient. Parasitological, histopathological and PCR infection confirmation were performed. Glucantime IC50 and in vitro infectivity for the isolated parasites were estimated.Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (95.4% and 35% of the parasites isolated showed a significant decrease in in vitro Glucanatime susceptibility associated with previous administration of the medicament. Lesion size and in vitro infectivity of the parasite are negatively correlated with decline in Glucantime susceptibility (Spearman: r = (-0,548 and r = (-0,726; respectively.A negative correlation between lesion size and parasite resistance is documented. L. braziliensis was found as the main parasite species associated to lesion of patients that underwent treatment failure or relapse. The indication of a second round of treatment in therapeutic failure of ACL, produced by L. braziliensis, with pentavalent antimonial derivatives is discussable.

  19. Minerogenetic Mechanism of the Songxi Silver—Antimony Deposit of Northeastern Guangdong—Ore—Controlling Role of Organic Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凯; 肖振宇; 等


    Organic geochemistry and comparisons of characteristics of the organic matter in wall rocks of the ore-controlling strata and ores of the Lower Jurassic Songling black shale formation and the related Songxi silver-antimony deposit of northeastern Guangdong have been studied in this paper.The results show that the Lower Jurassic Songling shale formation is a suite of biologic-rich and organic-rich ore-bearing marine sedimentary rocks.Micro-components of the organic matter in the Songling black shale formation consists primarily of algae,amorphous marine kerogen,solid bitument,and pyrobitument.The thermal evolution of organic matter is at the over-maturity stage.There is a general positive correlation between total organic carbon(CO)and metallogenetic elements such as Ag and Sb in the black shale formation.Organic matter in the host rocks in the Songxi ore deposit played a role in controlling the silver-antimony depositing environment during the forming process of the black shale ore-bearing formation.In the absence of vitrinite,the relative level of thermal maturity calculated by solid bitument reflectance indicates that the ore-forming temperatute of the Songxi silver-antimony deposit was about 150-170℃,which was considered as an epithermally reworked ore deposit.The roles of organic matter in the formation of the Sonxi ore deposit are a primitive accumulation of the metallogenetic elements(Ag,Sb) in the sea-water cycle system for ore source and a concentration of metals by ion exchange of chelation as well as reductionn of the oxidzed metals.

  20. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate (United States)

    Robayo, Marta L.; Lopez, Myriam C.; Daza, Carlos D.; Bedoya, Angela; Mariño, Maria L.; Saavedra, Carlos H.


    Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate) under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antimonial derivatives as treatment for ACL show a healing rate of about 75% and reasons for treatment failure are not well known. Methods In order to characterise the clinical and parasitological features of patients with ACL that did not respond to Glucantime, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a cohort of 43 patients recruited in three of the Colombian Army National reference centers for complicated ACL. Clinical and paraclinical examination, and epidemiological and geographic information were recorded for each patient. Parasitological, histopathological and PCR infection confirmation were performed. Glucantime IC50 and in vitro infectivity for the isolated parasites were estimated. Results Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (95.4%) and 35% of the parasites isolated showed a significant decrease in in vitro Glucanatime susceptibility associated with previous administration of the medicament. Lesion size and in vitro infectivity of the parasite are negatively correlated with decline in Glucantime susceptibility (Spearman: r = (-)0,548 and r = (-)0,726; respectively). Conclusion A negative correlation between lesion size and parasite resistance is documented. L. braziliensis was found as the main parasite species associated to lesion of patients that underwent treatment failure or relapse. The indication of a second round of treatment in therapeutic failure of ACL, produced by L. braziliensis, with pentavalent antimonial

  1. Co-leaching of brominated compounds and antimony from bottled water. (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Shine, James P; Lu, Chensheng


    A fast-growing bottled water market is occasionally challenged by reports calling for contaminant leaching from water-contact materials (plastics). Our focus was on leaching of antimony (Sb) and brominated compounds expressed by total soluble bromine (Br) measurements, including those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Studies are lacking on concomitant leaching of two or more inorganic plastic constituents from the same bottle. A market-representative basket survey of bottled water was initiated in Boston, USA supermarkets. Bottled water classes sampled were: i) non-carbonated (NCR), ii) carbonated (CR), and iii) non-carbonated and enriched (NCRE). Plastic bottle materials sampled were: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), and polycarbonate (PC). Storage conditions for the 31 bottled water samples were: 23°C temperature, no-shaking and 12h/12h light/dark for 60days of equilibration. Average Br and Sb concentrations after 60-days of storage followed the order of NCR

  2. Uptake, translocation and transformation of antimony in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. (United States)

    Cai, Fei; Ren, Jinghua; Tao, Shu; Wang, Xilong


    Antimony (Sb), as a toxic metalloid, has been gaining increasing research concerns due mainly to its severe pollution in many places. Rice has been identified to be the dominant intake route of Sb by residents close to the Sb mining areas. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the difference in uptake, translocation and transformation of Sb in rice seedlings of four cultivars exposed to 0.2 or 1.0 mg/L of Sb(V). The results showed that mass concentration of iron plaque (mg/kg FW) formed at the root surfaces of cultivar N was the highest among all tested cultivars at both low and high exposure levels of Sb(V). The accumulated Sb concentration in iron plaque significantly increased with an increase in mass concentration of iron plaque formed at the rice root. The total amount of iron plaque (mg/pot) at rice root generally increased with increasing exposed Sb(V) concentration, which was closely associated with the increasing lipid peroxidation in roots. Concentration percentage of Sb in rice root significantly reduced as the corresponding value in the iron plaque increased, suggesting that iron plaque formation strongly suppressed uptake of Sb by rice root. Sb concentration in rice tissues followed an order: root > stem, leaf. The japonica rice (cultivars N and Z) exhibited a stronger translocation tendency of Sb from root to stem than indica hybrid rice (cultivars F and G). Translocation of Sb from root of cultivar F to its stem and leaf was sharply enhanced with increasing Sb exposure concentration. Sb(V) could be reduced to Sb(III) in rice tissues, especially in stems (10-26% of the total Sb). For the sake of food safety, the difference in uptake, translocation and transformation of Sb in rice species planted in Sb-contaminated soils should be taken into consideration.

  3. Records of anthropogenic antimony in the glacial snow from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Pengfei; Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Yajun; Gao, Tanguang; Guo, Junming; Sillanpää, Mika


    Antimony (Sb) is a ubiquitous element in the environment that is potentially toxic at very low concentrations. In this study, surface snow/ice and snowpit samples were collected from four glaciers in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in June 2015. The concentrations of Sb and other elements were measured in these samples. The results showed that the average concentration of Sb was approximately 2.58 pg g-1 with a range of 1.64-9.20 pg g-1. The average Sb concentration in the study area was comparable to that recorded in a Mt. Everest ice core and higher than that in Arctic and Antarctic snow/ice but much lower than that in Tien Shan and Alps ice cores. Sb presented different variations with other toxic elements (Pb and Cr) and a crustal element (Al) in the three snowpits, which indicated the impact of a different source or post-deposition processes. The enrichment factor of Sb was larger than 10, suggesting that anthropogenic sources provided important contributions to Sb deposition in the glaciers. The Sb in the glacial snow was mainly loaded in the fourth component in principal component analysis, exhibiting discrepancies with crustal elements (Fe and Ca) and other toxic metals (Pb). Backward trajectories revealed that the air mass arriving at the southeastern Tibetan Plateau mostly originated from the Bay of Bengal and the South Asia in June. Thus, pollutants from the South Asia could play an important role in Sb deposition in the studied region. The released Sb from glacier meltwater in the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas might pose a risk to the livelihoods and well-being of those in downstream regions.

  4. Antimony (Sb) contaminated shooting range soil: Sb mobility and immobilization by soil amendments. (United States)

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Amstätter, Katja; Lassen Bue, Helga; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Henriksen, Thomas; Mulder, Jan


    Antimony (Sb) in lead bullets poses a major environmental risk in shooting range soils. Here we studied the effect of iron (Fe)-based amendments on the mobility of Sb in contaminated soil from shooting ranges in Norway. Untreated soil showed high Sb concentrations in water extracts from batch tests (0.22-1.59 mg L(-1)) and soil leachate from column tests (0.3-0.7 mg L(-1)), occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Sorption of Sb to different iron-based sorbents was well described by the Freundlich equation (Fe2(SO4)3, log KF = 6.35, n = 1.51; CFH-12 (Fe oxyhydroxide), log KF = 4.16-4.32, n = 0.75-0.76); Fe(0) grit, log KF = 3.26, n = 0.47). These sorbents mixed with soil (0.5 and 2% w/w), showed significant sorption of Sb in batch tests (46-92%). However, for Fe2(SO4)3 and CFH-12 liming was also necessary to prevent mobilization of lead, copper, and zinc. Column tests showed significant retention of Sb (89-98%) in soil amended with CFH-12 (2%) mixed with limestone (1%) compared to unamended soil. The sorption capacity of soils amended with Fe(0) (2%) increased steadily up to 72% over the duration period of the column test (64 days), most likely due to the gradual oxidation of Fe(0) to Fe oxyhydroxides. Based on the experimental results, CFH-12 and oxidized Fe(0) are effective amendments for the stabilization of Sb in shooting range soils.

  5. Studies of antimony telluride and copper telluride films electrodeposition from choline chloride containing ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catrangiu, Adriana-Simona; Sin, Ion [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Prioteasa, Paula [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Splaiul Unirii 313, Bucharest (Romania); Cotarta, Adina [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Cojocaru, Anca, E-mail: [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Anicai, Liana [Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest (Romania); Visan, Teodor [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania)


    Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the deposition of antimony telluride or copper telluride from ionic liquid consisting in mixture of choline chloride with oxalic acid. In addition, the cathodic process during copper telluride formation was studied in the mixture of choline chloride with ethylene glycol. The results indicate that the Pt electrode is first covered with a Te layer, and then the more negative polarisation leads to the deposition of Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} or Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} semiconductor compounds. Thin films were deposited on copper and carbon steel at 60–70 °C and were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, energy X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their stoichiometry depends on the bath composition and applied potential. EDS and XRD patterns indicate the possible synthesis of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase and Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, and Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases, respectively, by controlling the ratio of ion concentrations in ionic liquid electrolytes and deposition potential. - Highlights: • Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} and Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} films electrodeposited from choline-chloride-based ionic liquids. • The stoichiometry of film depends on the bath composition and deposition potential. • Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases were identified in X-ray diffraction patterns.

  6. Metagenomic approach reveals variation of microbes with arsenic and antimony metabolism genes from highly contaminated soil. (United States)

    Luo, Jinming; Bai, Yaohui; Liang, Jinsong; Qu, Jiuhui


    Microbes have great potential for arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) bioremediation in heavily contaminated soil because they have the ability to biotransform As and Sb to species that have less toxicity or are more easily removed. In this study, we integrated a metagenomic method with physicochemical characterization to elucidate the composition of microbial community and functional genes (related to As and Sb) in a high As (range from 34.11 to 821.23 mg kg-1) and Sb (range from 226.67 to 3923.07 mg kg-1) contaminated mine field. Metagenomic analysis revealed that microbes from 18 phyla were present in the 5 samples of soil contaminated with high As and Sb. Moreover, redundancy analysis (RDA) of the relationship between the 18 phyla and the concentration of As and Sb demonstrated that 5 phyla of microbes, i.e. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Tenericutes and Gemmatimonadetes were positively correlated with As and Sb concentration. The distribution, diversity and abundance of functional genes (including arsC, arrA, aioA, arsB and ACR3) were much higher for the samples containing higher As and Sb concentrations. Based on correlation analysis, the results showed a positive relationship between arsC-like (R2 = 0.871) and aioA-like (R2 = 0.675) gene abundance and As concentration, and indicated that intracellular As(V) reduction and As(III) oxidation could be the dominant As detoxification mechanism enabling the microbes to survive in the environment. This study provides a direct and reliable reference on the diversity of microbial community and functional genes in an extremely high concentration As- and Sb-contaminated environment.

  7. TiO2 crystal facet-dependent antimony adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation. (United States)

    Song, Jiaying; Yan, Li; Duan, Jinming; Jing, Chuanyong


    Anatase TiO2 crystal facets are garnering increasing attention due to their unique surface property. However, no specific linear relationship had been derived between the facet exposed on TiO2 and the surface adsorption capacity as well as photocatalytic performance. This study systematically explored the facet effects on antimony (Sb) adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation using high-index {201} and low-index {101}, {001}, and {100} TiO2. The results suggest that high-index {201} TiO2 exhibits the best Sb(III) adsorption and photocatalytic activity compared to the low-index TiO2. Both the Sb(III) adsorption density and the amount of OH and O2(-) generated in solution were correlated to the magnitude of surface energy on TiO2 facets. Photocatalytically generated OH and O2(-) were responsible for Sb(III) photooxidation as evidenced by radical-trapping experiments. The great contribution of OH was observed only on {201}, not on low-index TiO2. This phenomenon was found to be attributable to the high surface energy on {201}, which enables the generation of a large amount of photogeneration OH to compensate for the fast rate of OH dissipation. Therefore, the predominant participation of OH in Sb(III) photooxidation was only possible on high-index {201} TiO2, which resulted in an enhanced photocatalytic rate. On the other hand, O2(-) dominated the Sb(III) photocatalytic oxidation on low-index TiO2. The intrinsic facet-dependent adsorption and photocatalytic mechanism obtained from this study would be useful for developing TiO2-based environmental technologies.

  8. Effect of external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics of antimony and bismuth powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikram V Dabhade; Rama Mohan R Tallapragada; Mahendra Kumar Trivedi


    Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy on the powders of antimony and bismuth. The characteristics of powders treated by external energy are compared with the as received powders (control). The average particle sizes, 50 and 99, the sizes below which 99% of the particles are present showed significant increase and decrease indicating that the energy had caused deformation and fracture as if the powders have been subjected to high energy milling. To be able to understand the reasons for these changes the powders are characterized by techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area determination (BET), thermal analytical techniques such as DTA–DTG, DSC–TGA and SDTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The treated powder samples exhibited remarkable changes in the powder characteristics at all structural levels starting from polycrystalline particles, through single crystal to atoms. The external energy had changed the lattice parameters of the unit cell which in turn changed the crystallite size and density. The lattice parameters are then used to compute the weight and effective nuclear charge of the atom which showed significant variation. It is speculated that the external energy is acting on the nucleus through some reversible weak interaction of larger cross section causing changes in the proton to neutron ratios. Thus the effect is felt by all the atoms, and hence the unit cell, single crystal grain and grain boundaries. The stresses generated in turn may have caused deformation or fracture of the weak interfaces such as the crystallite and grain boundaries.

  9. Deposition efficiency in the preparation of ozone-producing nickel and antimony doped tin oxide anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Sandin


    Full Text Available The influence of precursor salts in the synthesis of nickel and antimony doped tin oxide (NATO electrodes using thermal decomposition from dissolved chloride salts was investigated. The salts investigated were SnCl4×5H2O, SnCl2×2H2O, SbCl3 and NiCl2×6H2O. It was shown that the use of SnCl4×5H20 in the preparation process leads to a tin loss of more than 85 %. The loss of Sb can be as high as 90 % while no indications of Ni loss was observed. As a consequence, the concentration of Ni in the NATO coating will be much higher than in the precursor solution. This high and uncontrolled loss of precursors during the preparation process will lead to an unpredictable composition in the NATO coating and will have negative economic and environmental effects. It was found that using SnCl2×2H20 instead of SnCl4×5H2O can reduce the tin loss to less than 50 %. This tin loss occurs at higher temperatures than when using SnCl4×5H2O where the tin loss occurs from 56 – 147 °C causing the composition to change both during the drying (80 – 110 °C and calcination (460 -550 °C steps of the preparation process. Electrodes coated with NATO based on the two different tin salts were investigated for morphology, composition, structure, and ozone electrocatalytic properties.

  10. Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (United States)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo


    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of

  11. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on 137Cs uptake by plants grown on different soils. (United States)

    Vinichuk, M; Mårtensson, A; Ericsson, T; Rosén, K


    The potential use of mycorrhiza as a bioremediation agent for soils contaminated by radiocesium was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The uptake of (137)Cs by cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower after inoculation with a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) product in soils contaminated with (137)Cs was investigated, with non-mycorrhizal quinoa included as a "reference" plant. The effect of cucumber and ryegrass inoculation with AM fungi on (137)Cs uptake was inconsistent. The effect of AM fungi was most pronounced in sunflower: both plant biomass and (137)Cs uptake increased on loamy sand and loamy soils. The total (137)Cs activity accumulated within AM host sunflower on loamy sand and loamy soils was 2.4 and 3.2-fold higher than in non-inoculated plants. Although the enhanced uptake of (137)Cs by quinoa plants on loamy soil inoculated by the AM fungi was observed, the infection of the fungi to the plants was not confirmed.

  12. MicroRNA-137 promoter methylation in oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Jun; Bian, Yong-qian; Sun, Jian-yong


    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common oral mucosal disease, which is generally considered a potentially malignant lesion. To identify efficiently prognostic biomarker, we investigated the microRNA-137 (miR-137) promoter methylation in OLP and compared with the samples from healthy volunteers...... and patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). A total of 20 OLP and 12 patients with OSCC as well as 10 healthy subjects were subjected to miR-137 promoter methylation analysis using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). To address the malignancy prediction potential from miR-137 promoter methylation status...... between miR-137 and p16 methylation levels were statistically significant between healthy controls and patients. Methylation levels of the two promoters were also influenced by age, gender, and lesion duration. Interestingly, aberrant promoter methylation of the p16 and miR-137 genes was only found...

  13. Role of CD137 signaling in dengue virus-mediated apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagila, Amar [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Netsawang, Janjuree [Faculty of Medical Technology, Rangsit University, Bangkok (Thailand); Srisawat, Chatchawan [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Noisakran, Sansanee [Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Research Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok (Thailand); Morchang, Atthapan; Yasamut, Umpa [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Puttikhunt, Chunya [Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Research Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok (Thailand); Kasinrerk, Watchara [Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Biomedical Technology Research Center, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); and others


    Highlights: {yields} For the first time the role of CD137 in dengue virus (DENV) infection. {yields} Induction of DENV-mediated apoptosis by CD137 signaling. {yields} Sensitization to CD137-mediated apoptosis by dengue virus capsid protein (DENV C). {yields} Nuclear localization of DENV C is required for CD137-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic dysfunction is a well recognized feature of dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, molecular mechanisms of hepatic injury are still poorly understood. A complex interaction between DENV and the host immune response contributes to DENV-mediated tissue injury. DENV capsid protein (DENV C) physically interacts with the human death domain-associated protein Daxx. A double substitution mutation in DENV C (R85A/K86A) abrogates Daxx interaction, nuclear localization and apoptosis. Therefore we compared the expression of cell death genes between HepG2 cells expressing DENV C and DENV C (R85A/K86A) using a real-time PCR array. Expression of CD137, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, increased significantly in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C compared to HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In addition, CD137-mediated apoptotic activity in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C was significantly increased by anti-CD137 antibody compared to that of HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In DENV-infected HepG2 cells, CD137 mRNA and CD137 positive cells significantly increased and CD137-mediated apoptotic activity was increased by anti-CD137 antibody. This work is the first to demonstrate the contribution of CD137 signaling to DENV-mediated apoptosis.

  14. The spatial distribution of caesium-137 over Northern Ireland from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident


    Rawlins, B. G.; Scheib, C.; Tyler, A.N.; Jones, D.; Webster, R; Young, M. E.


    The spatial distribution of caesium-137 (137Cs) across the land is of much interest because it can tell us about the redistribution of the radionuclide as a result of soil erosion, differential migration through the soil—or its complement, differential retention in the soil. Any such inferences from survey measurements depend on the assumption of a broadly even distribution from weapons testing fallout, and the substantial deposition of 137Cs in rain following the Chernobyl accide...

  15. Caesium 137 in meat from reindeer and grouses from Svaldbard 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjos-Hanssen, B.; Rennesund, J.S. (Forsvarets Forskningsinstitutt, Kjeller (Norway))


    Concentration of Caesium 137 in meat from Spitsbergen (Svalbard) and mainland Norway reindeer has been measured. It appears that the concentration values for Spitsbergen are of the order of 1 per cent of corresponding values for the mainland. It is suggested that low precipitation rates and a different reindeer diet contributes to the low Cs 137 concentration values in Svaldbard. The concentration of Cs 137 in Svaldbard grouse did not exceed the detection limit of the measurements (approximately 10 pCi/kg).

  16. (Caesium 137 in meat from reindeer and grouse from Svalbard 1980 (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjos-Hanssen, B.; Rennesund, J.S.

    Concentration of Caesium 137 in meat from Spitsbergen (Svalbard) and mainland Norway reindeer has been measured. It appears that the concentration values for Spitsbergen are of the order of 1 per cent of corresponding values for the mainland. It is suggested that low precipitation rates and a different reindeer diet contributes to the low Cs 137 concentration values in Svalbard. The concentration of Cs 137 in Svalbard grouse did not exceed the detection limit of the measurements (infinity 10 pCi/kg).

  17. a Biokinetic Model for CESIUM-137 in the Fetus (United States)

    Jones, Karen Lynn


    Previously, there was no method to determine the dose to the embryo, fetus, fetal organs or placenta from radionuclides within the embryo, fetus, or placenta. In the past, the dose to the fetus was assumed to be equivalent to the dose to the uterus. Watson estimated specific absorbed fractions from various maternal organs to the uterine contents which included the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid and Sikov estimated the absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus after assuming 1 uCi of radioactivity was made available to the maternal blood.^{1,2} However, this method did not allow for the calculation of a dose to individual fetal organs or the placenta. The radiation dose to the embryo or fetus from Cs-137 in the fetus and placenta due to a chronic ingestion by the mother was determined. The fraction of Cs-137 in the maternal plasma crossing the placenta to the fetal plasma was estimated. The absorbed dose from Cs-137 in each modelled fetal organ was estimated. Since there has been more research regarding potassium in the human body, and particularly in the pregnant woman, a biokinetic model for potassium was developed first and used as a basis and confirmation of the cesium model. Available pertinent information in physiology, embryology, biokinetics, and radiation dosimetry was utilized. Due to the rapid growth of the fetus and placenta, the pregnancy was divided into four gestational periods. The numerous physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy were considered and an appropriate biokinetic model was developed for each of the gestational periods. The amount of cesium in the placenta, embryo, and fetus was estimated for each period. The dose to the fetus from cesium deposited in the embryo or fetus and in the placenta was determined for each period using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodology. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to account for the variability of the parameters in the biokinetic model based on the experimental data

  18. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees. (United States)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki


    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mediated uptake of {sup 137}Cs in leek and ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Klas; Weiliang, Zhong; Maertensson, Anna [Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)


    In a first experiment of soil contaminated with {sup 137}Cs, inoculation with a mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizae enhanced the uptake of {sup 137}Cs by leek under greenhouse conditions, while no effect on the uptake by ryegrass was observed. The mycorrhizal infection frequency in leek was independent of whether the {sup 137}Cs-contaminated soil was inoculated with mycorrhizal spores or not. The lack of mycorrhizae-mediated uptake of {sup 137}Cs in ryegrass could be due to the high root density, which was about four times that of leek, or due to a less well functioning mycorrhizal symbiosis than of leek. In a second experiment, ryegrass was grown for a period of four cuts. Additions of fungi enhanced {sup 137}Cs uptake of all harvests, improved dry weight production in the first cut, and also improved the mycorrhizal infection frequencies in the roots. No differences were obtained between the two fungal inoculums investigated with respect to biomass production or {sup 137}Cs uptake, but root colonization differed. We conclude that, under certain circumstances, mycorrhizae affect plant uptake of {sup 137}Cs. There may be a potential for selecting fungal strains that stimulate {sup 137}Cs accumulation in crops. The use of ryegrass seems to be rather ineffective for remediation of {sup 137}Cs-contaminated soil.

  20. The fate of caesium-137 in a soil environment controlled by immobilization on clay minerals


    NAKAO, Atsushi; Funakawa, Shinya; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Kosaki, Takashi


    Caesium-137 (137Cs), with its high release rate and long half life, is the most important longterm contributor to environmental contamination of all the radionuclides released by the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. There have been many surveys of the fate of 137Cs in terrestrial environments, especially after the atmospheric nuclear tests of the 1950s and 60s and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Previous surveys revealed that most of the 137Cs deposited on...

  1. The 137Cs activity and its geographical significance in terrestrial ecosystem of Great Wall Station, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The radioactive isotope——137 Cs is one of the important tracers for studying the physical processes and the human impacts on the environment. Based on the investigation results of the terrestrial ecosystem of Great Wall Station, Antarctica, it was shown that there are some artificial radioactive elements——137Cs in Antarctic terrestrial ecosystem. The sequence of 137Cs specific activities is as follows: crustaceous lichen>fruticose lichen>surface-moss>surface soil, and the crustaceous lichen is one of the most sensitive ways in monitoring the impact of the long-term diffusion of 137Cs on the environment.

  2. Species difference of CD137 ligand signaling in human and murine monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqiao Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stimulation of CD137 ligand on human monocytes has been shown to induce DC differentiation, and these CD137L-DCs are more potent than classical DCs, in stimulating T cell responses in vitro. To allow an in vivo evaluation of the potency of CD137L-DCs in murine models we aimed at generating murine CD137L-DCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When stimulated through CD137 ligand murine monocytes responded just as human monocytes with an increased adherence, morphological changes, proliferation and an increase in viable cell numbers. But CD137 ligand signaling did not induce expression of inflammatory cytokines and costimulatory molecules in murine monocytes and these cells had no T cell stimulatory activity. Murine monocytes did not differentiate to inflammatory DCs upon CD137 ligand signaling. Furthermore, while CD137 ligand signaling induces maturation of human immature classical DCs it failed to do so with murine immature classical DCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that both human and murine monocytes become activated by CD137 ligand signaling but only human and not murine monocytes differentiate to inflammatory DCs.

  3. Oxidation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine by hypochlorite ion (United States)

    Kheidorov, V. P.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Chalyi, G. Yu.; Titorovich, O. V.


    The kinetics of the oxidative conversion of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine upon treatment with hypochlorite ions (OCl-) in aqueous medium at 283-298 K and pH 8.2 was studied. The reaction order with respect to each component was determined and proved to be 1. It was established that the temperature dependence of the reaction rate follows the Arrhenius equation. The activation parameters of the reaction were measured: E a = 33.58 kJ/mol, Δ H ≠ = 31.12 kJ/mol, Δ S ≠ = -170.02 J/(K mol), Δ G ≠ = 81.45 kJ/mol. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied, and the chemistry of the oxidative conversion of caffeine treated with OCl- is discussed.

  4. Uptake of {sup 137}Cs by fresh water fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, C.K.; Kwok, Y.H


    The uptake and discharge rates of {sup 137}Cs by fresh water fish at different radionuclide concentrations have been studied. A dual compartment model was used to fit the experimental data. The discharge rates have been found to be negligible for the duration of the experiment of 10 days. The uptake rates were independent of radionuclide concentrations for a particular type of fresh water fish and were different for different types of fish. The uptake rates of carp, tilapia and snakehead were 1.58, 1.66 and 2.23, in unit of 10{sup -6} h{sup -1}, respectively. It was also estimated that the consumption of fresh water fish, even if the water were contaminated as much as that in the Chernobyl accident, leads to negligible latent cancer fatality to the Hong Kong population.

  5. Mercury and cesium-137 in urban gray squirrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, J.H. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens); Davis, A.H.; Bigler, W.J.; Hoff, G.L.


    Recent emphasis upon the revitalization of major cities has underscored a need for urban wildlife management. Intensive management of the wildlife populations indigenous to metropolitan areas will enhance our quality of life in many ways. One important benefit is that certain species can serve as sensitive indicators of environmental change. The gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) is usually abundant in cities and they are often subject to a variety of destructive environmental factors. In an attempt to evaluate the gray squirrel as an indicator of zoonoses and pollutants, the Health Program Office of the Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services conducted a multifaceted study in Jacksonvlle, Florida during 1974. This report presents baseline measurements of body burdens of mercury and cesium-137.

  6. Observation of a Collective Oblate Band in 137Ce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Sheng-Jiang; Jon Myang-Gil; WEN Shu-Xian; WU Xiao-Guang; LIU Xiang-An; ZHU Ling-Yan; LI Ming; GAN Cui-Yun; M. Sakhaee; YANG Li-Ming; ZHANG Zheng; JIANG Zhuo; LONG Gui-Lu


    High spin states in 137 Ce have been studied by using the heavy-ion induced reaction 124Sn(18 O, 5n) carried out at China Institute of Atomic Energy. Partial level scheme with spin up to (43/2-), including a high spin collective rotational band observed for the first time, has been established. The collective band shows the properties similar to those oblate bands with γ ~-60° in neighboring nuclei and probably originates from the five quasi-particle configuration νs1/2 [vh11/2]2 π97/2 πh11/2. The characteristics of this oblate band have been discussed.

  7. Dosimetry of IRIDIUM-192 and CESIUM-137 Seed Sources. (United States)

    Thomason, Cynthia

    The use of ^{192}Ir in brachytherapy implants both alone and in conjunction with other modalities for the treatment of various types of cancer has greatly increased in recent years. This increased usage has led to a greater need for detailed information concerning the dose distribution surrounding commerically available ^{192} Ir seed sources. This is especially truce since improvements in computer technology along with their increased availability and utilization have enabled more precise calculation of dose distributions. The radiation does distribution in water was measured using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters for an ^{192}Ir seed source with platinum encapsulation, for an ^{192}Ir seed source with stainless steel encapsulation and for a ^{137}Cs seed source intended as a substitute for ^{192 }Ir. The Electron-Gamma-Shower (EGS) computer code, which is a package for doing Monte Carlo simulation of the transport of photons and electrons in any medium or geometry specified by the user, also was used to study the dose distribution around these seed sources. In addition, the exposure rate constant, exposure rate at 1 meter, transmission through the source capsule, f-factor, and energy distribution exiting the source capsule were evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation of these three sources. Good agreement was seen between the measured data and the Monte Carlo generated data. In addition to producing valuable dosimetric data, this study has demonstrated that Monte Carlo modeling of ^{192} Ir and ^{137}Cs seed sources using the EGS Monte Carlo code can provide an accurate means of evaluating these data.

  8. Detection of pathogenic bacteria in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer: reluctant response to antimonial treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac-Márquez Angélica Patricia


    Full Text Available We investigated the bacterial flora present in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer from the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico using conventional culture methods (11 patients, and an immunocolorimetric detection of pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes (15 patients. Prevalence of bacteria isolated by culture methods was 90.9% (10/11. We cultured, from chiclero's ulcers (60%, pathogenic bacterial such as Staphylococcus aureus (20%, S. pyogenes (1.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.6%, Morganella morganii (1.6%, and opportunist pathogenic bacteria such as Klebsiella spp. (20.0%, Enterobacter spp. (20%, and Enterococcus spp. (20%. We also cultured coagulase-negative staphylococci in 40% (4/10 of the remaining patients. Micrococcus spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci constituted the bacterial genuses more frequently isolated in the normal skin of patients with chiclero's ulcer and healthy individuals used as controls. We also undertook another study to find out the presence of S. pyogenes by an immunocolorimetric assay. This study indicated that 60% (9/15 of the ulcerated lesions, but not normal controls, were contaminated with S. pyogenes. Importantly, individuals with purulent secretion and holding concomitant infections with S. pyogenes, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. morganii, and E. durans took longer to heal Leishmania (L. mexicana infections treated with antimonial drugs. Our results suggest the need to eliminate bacterial purulent infections, by antibiotic treatment, before starting antimonial administration to patients with chiclero's ulcer.

  9. Treatment of air pollution control residues with iron rich waste sulfuric acid: does it work for antimony (Sb)? (United States)

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breedveld, Gijs D; Kirkeng, Terje; Lægreid, Marit; Mæhlum, Trond; Mulder, Jan


    Antimony (Sb) in air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration has gained increased focus due to strict Sb leaching limits set by the EU landfill directive. Here we study the chemical speciation and solubility of Sb at the APC treatment facility NOAH Langøya (Norway), where iron (Fe)-rich sulfuric acid (∼3.6M, 2.3% Fe(II)), a waste product from the industrial extraction of ilmenite, is used for neutralization. Antimony in water extracts of untreated APC residues occurred exclusively as pentavalent antimonate, even at low pH and Eh values. The Sb solubility increased substantially at pHSb in porewater, occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Concentrations of Sb decreased from 87-918μgL(-1) (day 3) to 18-69μgL(-1) (day 600). We hypothesize that an initial sorption of Sb to Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rust) and eventually precipitation of Ca- and Fe-antimonates (tripuhyite; FeSbO4) occurred. We conclude that Fe-rich, sulfuric acid waste is efficient to immobilize Sb in APC residues from waste incineration.

  10. Complement activation-related pseudoallergy in dogs following intravenous administration of a liposomal formulation of meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul R. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The increasing use of nanotechnologies in advanced therapies has allowed the observation of specific adverse reactions related to nanostructures. The toxicity of a novel liposome formulation of meglumine antimoniate in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis after single dose has been investigated. Groups of 12 animals received by the intravenous route a single dose of liposomal meglumine antimoniate (group I [GI], 6.5 mg Sb/kg, empty liposomes (GII or isotonic saline (GIII. Evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters showed no significant changes 4 days after administration. No undesired effects were registered in the GIII. However, adverse reactions were observed in 67.7% of dogs from both groups that received liposomal formulations. The side effects began moments after bolus administration and disappeared during the first 15 minutes after treatment. Prostation, sialorrhea and defecation were the most frequent clinical signs, registered in 33.3% and 41.6 % of animals from the groups GI and GII, respectively. Tachypnea, mydriasis, miosis, vomiting and cyanosis were also registered in both groups. The adverse reactions observed in this study were attributed to the activation of the complement system by lipid vesicles in a phenomenon known as Complement Activation-Related Pseudoallergy (CARPA. The influence of the physical-chemical characteristics of liposomal formulation in the triggering of CARPA is discussed.

  11. Arsenic, Antimony, Chromium, and Thallium Speciation in Water and Sediment Samples with the LC-ICP-MS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jabłońska-Czapla


    Full Text Available Chemical speciation is a very important subject in the environmental protection, toxicology, and chemical analytics due to the fact that toxicity, availability, and reactivity of trace elements depend on the chemical forms in which these elements occur. Research on low analyte levels, particularly in complex matrix samples, requires more and more advanced and sophisticated analytical methods and techniques. The latest trends in this field concern the so-called hyphenated techniques. Arsenic, antimony, chromium, and (underestimated thallium attract the closest attention of toxicologists and analysts. The properties of those elements depend on the oxidation state in which they occur. The aim of the following paper is to answer the question why the speciation analytics is so important. The paper also provides numerous examples of the hyphenated technique usage (e.g., the LC-ICP-MS application in the speciation analysis of chromium, antimony, arsenic, or thallium in water and bottom sediment samples. An important issue addressed is the preparation of environmental samples for speciation analysis.

  12. Determination of Antimony (III in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Domínguez-Renedo


    Full Text Available This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD, the repeatability (3.81 % and the reproducibility (5.07 % of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III was calculated at a value of 1.27×10–8 M. The linear range obtained was between 0.99 × 10–8 – 8.26 × 10–8 M. An analysis of possible effects due to the presence of foreign ions in the solution was performed and the procedure was successfully applied to the determination of antimony levels in pharmaceutical preparations and sea water samples.

  13. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzman-Rivero


    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  14. {sup 137}Cs in marine sediments of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo Alves de Lima [Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo (IO-USP), Pça. do Oceanográfico, 191, Butantã, SP, 05508 900 (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza Portella, E-mail: [Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo (IO-USP), Pça. do Oceanográfico, 191, Butantã, SP, 05508 900 (Brazil); Mestrado de Gestão Ambiental e Sustentabilidade, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Avenida Francisco Matarazzo, 612, prédio C, andar térreo, Água Branca, São Paulo, SP, 05001 100 (Brazil); Nascimento, Mylene Giseli do; Martins, Cesar de Castro [Centro de Estudos do Mar, Universidade Federal do Paraná (CEM-UFPR), Av. Beira-mar, no number, Balneário Pontal do Sul, Pontal do Paraná, PR, 83255 971 (Brazil); Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch de; Montone, Rosalinda Carmelo; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes [Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo (IO-USP), Pça. do Oceanográfico, 191, Butantã, SP, 05508 900 (Brazil)


    The radionuclide cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is produced exclusively by anthropogenic processes and primarily by nuclear explosions. This study determined the reference inventory that is {sup 137}Cs associated with the element's original input, and utilized the levels of activity of this radionuclide previously measured in five sediment profiles collected from Admiralty Bay, Antarctica, to investigate the mobility of this element in the environment. {sup 137}Cs has a half-life of 30 years. Because of this, it is environmentally persistent and has been shown to accumulate in marine organisms. The mean reference inventory of this radionuclide in Admiralty Bay sediments, determined using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry, was 20.23 ± 8.94 Bq m{sup −2}, and within the ambient {sup 137}Cs activity range. A model of {sup 137}Cs diffusion–convection was applied to data collected from 1 cm intervals in sediment cores with the aim of providing insights with respect to this element's behavior in sediments. Model results showed a significant correlation between measured and modeled values using the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, and estimated input into the system from the global fallout of past nuclear tests and expected values based on local sedimentation rates. Results highlight the importance of accounting for the vertical diffusion of {sup 137}Cs in marine sediments when used as a tracer for environmental processes and for assessing potential bioavailability. - Highlights: ► Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is produced exclusively by anthropogenic processes. ► A model of diffusion–convection simulated {sup 137}Cs environmental behavior. ► This is important for assessing the bioavailability of this toxic element. ► In Antarctica ice cover influenced the input to the sediments.

  15. Growth, photosynthesis, and defense mechanism of antimony (Sb)-contaminated Boehmeria nivea L. (United States)

    Chai, Li-Yuan; Mubarak, Hussani; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Yong, Wang; Tang, Chong-Jian; Mirza, Nosheen


    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is the oldest cash fiber crop in China and is widely grown in antimony (Sb) mining areas. To evaluate the extent of Sb resistance and tolerance, the growth, tolerance index (TI), Sb content in plant parts and in Hoagland solution, bioaccumulation factor (BF), photosynthesis, and physiological changes in Sb-contaminated B. nivea (20, 40, 80, and 200 mg L(-1) Sb) grown hydroponically were investigated. The Sb tolerance and resistance of ramie were clearly revealed by growth inhibition, a TI between 13 and 99 %, non-significant changes in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem (F v /F m ), energy-harvesting efficiency (photosystem II (PSII)) and single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) value, a significant increase in Sb in plant parts, BF >1, and an increase in catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) at 200 mg L(-1) Sb. Under increasing Sb stress, nearly the same non-significant decline in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem (F v /F m ), energy-harvesting efficiency (PSII), relative quantum yield of photosystem II (φPSII), and photochemical quenching (qP), except for F v /F m at 20 mg L(-1) Sb, were recorded. SPAD values for chlorophyll under Sb stress showed an increasing trend, except for a slight decrease, i.e., Sb. With a continuous increase in MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and CAT activities were suppressed under Sb addition up to 40 mg L(-1) Sb and the addition of Sb enhanced enzyme production at 80 and 200 mg L(-1) Sb. A continuous decrease in SOD, POD, and CAT up to 40 mg L(-1) Sb and enhancements at ≥80 mg L(-1), along with the continuous enhancement of MDA activity and inhibited biomass production, clearly reveal the roles of these enzymes in detoxifying Sb stress and the defense mechanism of ramie at 80 mg L(-1) Sb. Thus, B. nivea constitutes a promising candidate for Sb phytoremediation at mining sites.

  16. Correlation models between environmental factors and bacterial resistance to antimony and copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunji Shi

    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb and copper (Cu are toxic heavy metals that are associated with a wide variety of minerals. Sb(III-oxidizing bacteria that convert the toxic Sb(III to the less toxic Sb(V are potentially useful for environmental Sb bioremediation. A total of 125 culturable Sb(III/Cu(II-resistant bacteria from 11 different types of mining soils were isolated. Four strains identified as Arthrobacter, Acinetobacter and Janibacter exhibited notably high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Sb(III (>10 mM,making them the most highly Sb(III-resistant bacteria to date. Thirty-six strains were able to oxidize Sb(III, including Pseudomonas-, Comamonas-, Acinetobacter-, Sphingopyxis-, Paracoccus- Aminobacter-, Arthrobacter-, Bacillus-, Janibacter- and Variovorax-like isolates. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that the soil concentrations of Sb and Cu were the most obvious environmental factors affecting the culturable bacterial population structures. Stepwise linear regression was used to create two predictive models for the correlation between soil characteristics and the bacterial Sb(III or Cu(II resistance. The concentrations of Sb and Cu in the soil was the significant factors affecting the bacterial Sb(III resistance, whereas the concentrations of S and P in the soil greatly affected the bacterial Cu(II resistance. The two stepwise linear regression models that we derived are as follows: MIC(Sb(III=606.605+0.14533 x C(Sb+0.4128 x C(Cu and MIC((Cu(II=58.3844+0.02119 x C(S+0.00199 x CP [where the MIC(Sb(III and MIC(Cu(II represent the average bacterial MIC for the metal of each soil (μM, and the C(Sb, C(Cu, C(S and C(P represent concentrations for Sb, Cu, S and P (mg/kg in soil, respectively, p<0.01]. The stepwise linear regression models we developed suggest that metals as well as other soil physicochemical parameters can contribute to bacterial resistance to metals.

  17. Determination of antimony in concentrates, ores and non-ferrous materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry after iron-lanthanum collection, or by the iodide method after further xanthate extraction. (United States)

    Donaldson, E M


    Methods for determining trace and moderate amounts of antimony in copper, nickel, molybdenum, lead and zinc concentrates and in ores are described. Following sample decomposition, antimony is oxidized to antimony(V) with aqua regia, then reduced to antimony(III) with sodium metabisulphite in 6M hydrochloric acid medium and separated from most of the matrix elements by co-precipitation with hydrous ferric and lanthanum oxides. Antimony (>/= 100 mug/g) can subsequently be determined by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry, at 217.6 nm after dissolution of the precipitate in 3M hydrochloric acid. Alternatively, for the determination of antimony at levels of 1 mug/g or more, the precipitate is dissolved in 5M hydrochloric acid containing stannous chloride as a reluctant for iron(III) and thiourea as a complexing agent for copper. Then tin is complexed with hydrofluoric acid, and antimony is separated from iron, tin, lead and other co-precipitated elements, including lanthanum, by chloroform extraction of its xanthate. It is then determined spectrophotometrically, at 331 or 425 nm as the iodide. Interference from co-extracted bismuth is eliminated by washing the extract with hydrochloric acid of the same acid concentration as the medium used for extraction. Interference from co-extracted molybdenum, which causes high results at 331 nm, is avoided by measuring the absorbance at 425 nm. The proposed methods are also applicable to high-purity copper metal and copper- and lead-base alloys. In the spectrophotometric iodide method, the importance of the preliminary oxidation of all of the antimony to antimony(V), to avoid the formation of an unreactive species, is shown.

  18. Upward mobilization of 137Cs in surface soils of Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc. (hinoki) plantation in Japan. (United States)

    Fukuyama, Taijiro; Takenaka, Chisato


    The use of 137Cs has recently been adopted to estimate erosion in hinoki plantations in Japan. However, there have been several reports of the upward mobilization of 137Cs in forest humus layers. In this study, the vertical distribution of 137Cs within the soil profile was measured in a hinoki plantation. In order to confirm the upward migration of 137Cs from mineral soil to fresh surface litter and to identify mechanisms of the transfer, changes in 137Cs specific activity in the contents of litterbags were examined in a hinoki plantation. A controlled laboratory experiment was also conducted to assess the effect of microbial activity on the upward migration of 137Cs. As a result, the higher 137Cs activities in the surface organic layer of a hinoki plantation than in fresh litter and the increasing 137Cs total content of litterbags with time demonstrated the upward mobilization of 137Cs from mineral soil to the surface organic layer. Physical movement of soil particles by raindrop splash was considered an important process in 137Cs upward migration. The results of our laboratory experiment indicate an influence from soil microbial activity on the upward mobilization of 137Cs. Thus, upward migration of 137Cs and constant litter removal by runoff may induce 137Cs loss from steep forested catchments and underestimation of the 137Cs inventory leading to the overestimation of soil redistribution rates.

  19. BRS 137: cultivar de soja para cultivo no Sul do Brasil BRS 137: soybean cultivar for southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emídio Rizzo Bonato


    Full Text Available A liberação de cultivares de elevado potencial produtivo e com resistência a doenças é fundamental para continuar agregando rendimento na produção brasileira de soja. A cultivar BRS 137 é resultado do programa de melhoramento de soja desenvolvido pela Embrapa. A cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos 2% superior ao da cultivar IAS 5, em 24 ambientes, no Rio Grande do Sul. É resistente à pústula-bacteriana (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, ao cancro-da-haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, à podridão-parda-da-haste (Phialophora gregata, à mancha-olho-de-rã (Cercospora sojina e ao oídio (Microsphaera diffusa. É indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul, em semeaduras realizadas a partir de meados de outubro até fim de novembro, com população máxima de 300.000 plantas/ha.The goals of the soybean breeding program for the release of a new cultivar include high yield potential and resistance to diseases in order to improve Brazilian production. The cultivar BRS 137 is a result of the soybean breeding program of Embrapa (Brazil. Prior to its release, the cultivar had shown a mean grain yield potential 2% higher than the cultivar IAS 5 in 24 environments in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Moreover, it is resistant to bacterial pustule (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, soybean stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, brown stem rot (Phialophora gregata, frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora sojina, and powdery mildew (Microsphaera diffusa. The cultivar is being indicated to be cropped in the Rio Grande do Sul state for sowing from mid October to the end of November with a maximum population of 300,000 plants/ha.

  20. Monitoring of copper, arsenic and antimony levels in agricultural soils impacted and non-impacted by mining activities, from three regions in Chile. (United States)

    De Gregori, Ida; Fuentes, Edwar; Rojas, Mariela; Pinochet, Hugo; Potin-Gautier, Martine


    This paper reports a comparative study of the concentration of three important environmental elements that are often found together in mineral deposits and then associated with mining activities; copper, arsenic and antimony. These elements were determined in 26 different agricultural soils from regions I, II and V in Chile, zones where the most important and biggest copper industries of this country are located. As background levels of these elements in soils have not been well established, in this study, both, impacted and non-impacted agricultural soils from different regions were considered. The relationships between the concentrations of these elements in soils were also examined. The concentration ranges for copper, arsenic and antimony were 11-530; 2.7-202 and 0.42-11 mg kg(-1) respectively. The copper concentrations in non-polluted soils from the north and central zone of Chile were similar. However, three sites from the north region have copper concentration as higher as 100 mg kg(-1), values that exceed the critical concentration for copper in soils. The concentration of arsenic and antimony in the north soils were higher than in non-impacted ones and, in the case of arsenic, greatly exceeded the world average concentration reported for this element in soils. The highest arsenic and antimony concentrations were found in Calama and Quillagua soils, two different sites in the Loa valley. The arsenic/antimony concentration ratio was higher in Quillagua soil. The high concentrations of three elements determined in impacted soils from region V (Puchuncaví and Catemu valleys) clearly shows the impact produced in this zone by the industrial and mining activities developed in their proximities. At Puchuncaví valley a clear decrease was observed in copper, arsenic and antimony concentrations in soils on the function of the distance from the industrial complex "Las Ventanas", and all concentrations exceeded the reported critical values for this matrix. Instead at

  1. miR-137, a new target for post-stroke depression?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Zhao; Huazi Li; Ruiyou Guo; Teng Ma; Rongyao Hou; Xiaowei Ma; Yifeng Du


    Expression of miR-137 is downregulated in brain tissue from patients with depression and suicidal behavior, and is also downregulated in peripheral blood from stroke patients. However, it is not yet known if miR-137 acts as a bridge between stroke and depression. To test this, we used middle cerebral artery occlusion and chronic mild stress to establish a post-stroke depression model in rats. Compared with controls, we found significantly lower miR-137 levels in the brain and peripheral blood from post-stroke depression rats. Injection of a miR-137 antagonist into the brain ventricles upregulated miR-137 levels, and improved behavioral changes in post-stroke depression rats. Lu-ciferase assays showed miR-137 bound to the 3′UTR of Grin2A, regulating Grin2A expression in a neuronal cel line. Grin2A gene overexpression in the brain of post-stroke depression rats, noticea-bly suppressed the inhibitory effect of miR-137 on post-stroke depression. Overal , our results show that miR-137 suppresses Grin2A protein expression through binding to Grin2A mRNA, thereby ex-erting an inhibitory effect on post-stroke depression. Our results offer a new therapeutic direction for post-stroke depression.

  2. 46 CFR 201.137 - Rights of parties as to presentation of evidence. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights of parties as to presentation of evidence. 201.137 Section 201.137 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE... presentation of evidence. Every party shall have the right to present his case or defense by oral...

  3. 21 CFR 516.137 - Notification of decision regarding eligibility for indexing. (United States)


    ... indexing. 516.137 Section 516.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Notification of decision regarding eligibility for indexing. (a) Within 90 days after the filing of a request for a determination of eligibility for indexing based on § 516.129(c)(7)(i), or 180 days for a...

  4. 42 CFR 137.25 - Are planning and negotiation grants available? (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are planning and negotiation grants available? 137... for Participation in Self-Governance Planning Phase § 137.25 Are planning and negotiation grants... planning and negotiation grants available, an explanation of the application process for such grants,...

  5. 10 CFR 1.37 - Office of Small Business and Civil Rights. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Small Business and Civil Rights. 1.37 Section 1... Headquarters Staff Offices § 1.37 Office of Small Business and Civil Rights. The Office of Small Business and Civil Rights— (a) Develops and implements an effective small and disadvantaged business program...

  6. Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 in Chernobyl contaminated soil and their chemical fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Fogh, C.L.; Kucera, J.


    Soil samples from areas in Belarus, Russia and Sweden contaminated by the Chernobyl accident were analysed for I-129 by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, as well as for Cs-137 by gamma-spectrometry. The atomic ratio of I-129/(CS)-C-137 in the upper layer of the examined soil cores ranged...

  7. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YFR015C, YJL137C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y into stationary phase Rows with this bait as bait (3) Rows with this bait as prey (1) YJL137C GLG2 Self-gl...s bait as prey (1) Prey ORF YJL137C Prey gene name GLG2 Prey description Self-glu

  8. 14 CFR 91.137 - Temporary flight restrictions in the vicinity of disaster/hazard areas. (United States)


    ... vicinity of disaster/hazard areas. 91.137 Section 91.137 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... disaster/hazard areas. (a) The Administrator will issue a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) designating an area within which temporary flight restrictions apply and specifying the hazard or condition requiring...

  9. 42 CFR 137.20 - What is required during the planning phase? (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is required during the planning phase? 137.20... Participation in Self-Governance Planning Phase § 137.20 What is required during the planning phase? The planning phase must be conducted to the satisfaction of the Indian Tribe and must include: (a) legal...

  10. 42 CFR 137.30 - What is a self-governance compact? (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a self-governance compact? 137.30 Section... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Self-Governance compact § 137.30 What is a self-governance compact? A self-governance compact is a legally binding and...

  11. 42 CFR 137.35 - What is the term of a self-governance compact? (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the term of a self-governance compact? 137... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Self-Governance compact § 137.35 What is the term of a self-governance compact? Upon approval and execution of a...

  12. 42 CFR 137.15 - Who may participate in Tribal Self-Governance? (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may participate in Tribal Self-Governance? 137... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.15 Who may participate in Tribal Self-Governance?...

  13. 46 CFR 56.97-30 - Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4). (United States)


    ...) Examination for leakage after application of pressure. Following the application of the hydrostatic test... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4). 56.97-30 Section 56... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests § 56.97-30 Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4). (a) Provision...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Prokof'ev


    Full Text Available The purpose of work is to estimate the possible decreasing of the density of  137 Cs sediment in the soil influenced by the horizontal flowing basing on the analysis of on location observations on the density of  137 Cs sediment in the soil after the Chernobyl accident.

  15. 42 CFR 137.308 - Does the Secretary have any enforcement authority for Federal environmental responsibilities... (United States)


    ... for Federal environmental responsibilities assumed by Tribes under section 509 of the Act ? 137.308... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.308 Does the Secretary have any enforcement authority for Federal environmental...

  16. 原子荧光法测透析用水中砷硒锑汞%Atomic fluorescence measuring dialysis water arsenic selenium antimony and mercury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆胜超; 李皓


    目的:建立透析用水中砷、硒、锑、汞四种微量元素的原子荧光分析法.方法:水中砷和锑加还原剂后同时测定;硒经硝酸高氯酸氧化后,再经盐酸还原后测定;汞直接加硝酸使酸度为5%后测定.结果:汞的检出限为0.024μg/L;硒的检出限为0.044μg/L;砷的检出限为0.011 μg/L;锑的检出限为0.015μg/L.结论:本法用来测定透析用水中极其微量的砷、硒、锑、汞简便快速,且在双道原子荧光法仪中可同时进行砷和锑的检测.%Objective: To establish a method for detection of hemodialysis water arsenic, selenium,antimony and mercury.Methods: Arsenic and antimony in water were detectioned after added reductant, Selenium was detectioned by nitric acid and high chlorine acid oxidationed, Mercury was directly detectioned by adding acidity to 5%. Results:The detect limit for Mercury was 0.024 muon g/L, the detect limit for Selenium was 0. 044 muon g/L, Arsenic detect limit for 0.011 muon g/L, Antimony detect limit to. 015 muon g/L. Conclusion: This method wad simple and rapid for using to determine dialysis water in extremely trace of arsenic and selenium, antimony, mercury, and in double ways for atomic fluorescence analyzer can simultaneously arsenic and antimony detection

  17. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others


    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  18. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration in marine sediments at Amvrakikos Gulf, western of Greece. (United States)

    Tsabaris, C; Patiris, D L; Fillis-Tsirakis, E; Kapsimalis, V; Pilakouta, M; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R


    The aim of the present work is the study of (137)Cs migration in sediment column taking into account the sedimentation rate in the Amvrakikos Gulf, at the western part of Greece. Marine core sediments were collected and the measurements were performed using the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method. The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration, as part of anthropogenic marine radioactivity, provided averaged sedimentation rate by identifying the depths of activity concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident and the nuclear tests signals. Furthermore, (137)Cs measurements were reproduced using the proposed one-dimensional diffusion-advection model which provides mainly as an output, the sedimentation rate and the average diffusivity of (137)Cs in the sediment column. The proposed model estimates the temporal variation of (137)Cs activity concentration from 1987 (one year after the Chernobyl accident) till today (2014).

  19. Anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies and adoptive T cell therapy: a perfect marriage? (United States)

    Weigelin, Bettina; Bolaños, Elixabet; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria E; Martinez-Forero, Ivan; Friedl, Peter; Melero, Ignacio


    CD137(4-1BB) costimulation and adoptive T cell therapy strongly synergize in terms of achieving maximal efficacy against experimental cancers. These costimulatory biological functions of CD137 have been exploited by means of introducing the CD137 signaling domain in clinically successful chimeric antigen receptors and to more efficiently expand T cells in culture. In addition, immunomagnetic sorting of CD137-positive T cells among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes selects for the fittest antitumor T lymphocytes for subsequent cultures. In mouse models, co-infusion of both agonist antibodies and T cells attains marked synergistic effects that result from more focused and intense cytolytic activity visualized under in vivo microscopy and from more efficient entrance of T cells into the tumor through the vasculature. These several levels of dynamic interaction between adoptive T cell therapy and CD137 offer much opportunity to raise the efficacy of current cancer immunotherapies.

  20. Extraction of Cs-137 by alcohol-water solvents from plants containing cardiac glycosides

    CERN Document Server

    Dzyubak, S N; Dzyubak, O P; Sorokin, P V; Popov, V F; Orlov, A A; Krasnov, V P; Gubin, Yu.I.


    As a result of nuclear power plant accidents, large areas receive radioactive inputs of Cs-137. This cesium accumulates in herbs growing in such territories. The problem is whether the herbs contaminated by radiocesium may be used as a raw material for medicine. The answer depends on the amount of Cs-137 transfered from the contaminated raw material to the medicine. We have presented new results of the transfer of Cs-137 from contaminated Digitalis grandiflora Mill. and Convallaria majalis L. to medicine. We found that the extraction of Cs-137 depends strongly on the hydrophilicity of the solvent. For example 96.5%(vol.) ethyl alcohol extracts less Cs-137 (11.6%) than 40%(vol.) ethyl alcohol or pure water (66.2%). The solubility of the cardiac glycosides is inverse to the solubility of cesium, which may be of use in the technological processes for manufacturing ecologically pure herbal medicine.

  1. Using 137Cs Tracer Technique to Evaluate Erosion and Deposition of Black Soil in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Soil and water losses through erosion have been serious in the black soil region of Northeast China. Therefore, a sloping cultivated land in Songnen Plain was selected as a case study to: 1) determine the 137Cs reference inventory in the study area; 2) calculate erosion and deposition rates of black soil on different slope locations; 3) conduct a sensitivity analysis of some model parameters; and 4) compare overall outputs using four different models. Three transects were set in the field with five slope locations for each transect, including summit, shoulder-slope, back-slope, foot-slope, and toe-slope. Field measurements and model simulation were used to estimate a bomb-derived 137Cs reference inventory in the study area.Soil erosion and deposition rates were estimated using four 137Cs models and percentage of 137Cs loss/gain. The 137Cs reference value in the study area was 2 232.8 Bq m-2 with 137Cs showing a clear topographic pattern, decreasing from the summit to shoulder-slope, then increasing again at the foot-slope and reaching a maximum at the toe-slope. Predicted soil redistribution rates for different slope locations varied. Among models, the Yang Model (YANG-M) overestimated erosion loss but underestimated deposition. However, the standard mass balance model (MBM1) gave predictions similar to a mass balance model incorporating soil movement by tillage (MBM2). Sensitivity analysis of the proportion factor γand distribution pattern of 137Cs in the surface layer demonstrated the impact of 137Cs enrichment on calculation of the soil erosion rate. Factors influencing the redistribution of fallout 137Cs in landscape should be fully considered as calculating soil redistribution rate using 137Cs technique.

  2. Fallout volume and litter type affect (137)Cs concentration difference in litter between forest and stream environments. (United States)

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N


    It is important to understand the changes in the (137)Cs concentration in litter through leaching when considering that (137)Cs is transferred from basal food resources to animals in forested streams. We found that the difference of (137)Cs activity concentration in litter between forest and stream was associated with both litter type and (137)Cs fallout volume around Fukushima, Japan. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in the litter of evergreen conifers tended to be greater than those in the litter of broad-leaved deciduous trees because of the absence of deciduous leaves during the fallout period in March 2011. Moreover, (137)Cs activity concentrations in forest litter were greater with respect to the (137)Cs fallout volume. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in stream litter were much lower than those in forest litter when those in forest litter were higher. The (137)Cs leaching patterns indicated that the differences in (137)Cs activity concentration between forest and stream litter could change with changes in both fallout volume and litter type. Because litter is an important basal food resource in the food webs of both forests and streams, the (137)Cs concentration gradient reflects to possible (137)Cs transfer from lower to higher trophic animals. Our findings will improve our understanding of the spatial heterogeneity and variability of (137)Cs concentrations in animals resident to the contaminated landscape.

  3. 137Cs vertical migration in a deciduous forest soil following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko


    The large amount of (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident represents a major potential long-term source for mobile (137)Cs. To investigate (137)Cs mobility in forest soils, we investigated the vertical migration of (137)Cs through seepage water, using a lysimetric method. The study was conducted in a deciduous forest soil over a period spanning 2 month to 2 y after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Our observations demonstrated that the major part of (137)Cs in the litter layer moved into the mineral soil within one year after the accident. On the other hand, the topsoil prevented migration of (137)Cs, and only 2% of (137)Cs in the leachate from litter and humus layer penetrated below a 10 cm depth. The annual migration below a 10 cm depth accounted for 0.1% of the total (137)Cs inventory. Therefore, the migration of (137)Cs by seepage water comprised only a very small part of the total (137)Cs inventory in the mineral soil, which was undetectable from the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in the soil profile. In the present and immediate future, most of the (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor will probably remain in the topsoil successively, although a small but certain amount of bioavailable (137)Cs exists in forest surface soil.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, A.; Abbott, H.


    Amersham owns a former Caesium-137 sealed source production facility. They commissioned RWE NUKEM to carry out an Option Study to determine a strategy for the management of this facility and then the subsequent decommissioning of it. The decommissioning was carried out in two sequential phases. Firstly robotic decommissioning followed by a phase of manual decommissioning. This paper describes the remote equipment designed built and operated, the robotic and manual decommissioning operations performed, the Safety Management arrangements and summarizes the lessons learned. Using the equipment described the facility was dismantled and decontaminated robotically. Some 2300kg of Intermediate Level Waste containing in the order of 4000Ci were removed robotically from the facility. Ambient dose rates were reduced from 100's of R per hour {gamma} to 100's of mR per hour {gamma}. The Telerobotic System was then removed to allow man access to complete the decommissioning. Manual decommissioning reduced ambient dose rates further to less than 1mR per hour {gamma} and loose contamination levels to less than 0.25Bq/cm2. This allowed access to the facility without respiratory protection.

  5. Upgrade Procedure for the Delingha 13.7-m Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Xi Zuo; Ji Yang; Sheng-Cai Shi; Shan-Huai Chen; Li-Ben Pei; Qi-Jun Yao; Jin-Jiang Sun; Zhen-Hui Lin


    The 13.7-m millimeter-wave radio telescope of Purple Mountain Observatory operates at 3200-m above the sea level near Delingha,Qinghai Province,China.Equipped with a superconducting SIS receiver,the telescope is used in the millimeter-wave band ranging from 85 to 115 GHz.An upgrade procedure is reported here which includes a superconducting SIS receiver,a new phase-locked local oscillator,a dedicated multi-line backend system,and a new control system based on industrial computer with PCI bus.With the dedicated multi-line backend system,the CO and isotopic lines around 110 GHz are obtained simultaneously.In recent years,scientific activities with this telescope have been focused on studies of Galactic molecular clouds and star formation regions,including surveys of molecular lines from IRAS sources and large-scale map of molecular clouds.Other programs include studies of the circumstellar envelope of late-type stars and interaction of Galactic supernova remnants with dense molecular gas.

  6. Metabolism of {sup 137}cesium, {sup 137}barium in the rat. Therapeutics of the contamination; Metabolisme du {sup 137}cesium, {sup 137}baryum chez le rat. Therapeutique de la contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, J.; Philippon, A.; Lafuma, J.; Walter, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de la Protection Sanitaire, Laboratoire de Radiopathologie


    The authors carry out research into the distribution kinetics, the metabolism and the excretion of {sup 137}Cs - {sup 137}Ba in the rat. They show that these phenomena are independent of the method of applying a single dose. The distribution tends to adopt in all cases a typical shape which remains the same depending on the body burden. Biological analysis of the state of the cesium in the biological media shows that it is transported in the free and ionised form. Considering the problem of the method of penetration of the cesium ion in the intracellular medium, and in particular by the in vivo and in vitro kinetic study of the plasma - red cell system, the authors make the assumption that an active transport of cesium occurs by the cell membrane. They thus arrive at an overall picture of the cesium distribution in the organism which is essentially characterized by a dynamic distribution equilibrium between two compartments: 99 per cent of the cesium accumulates in the intracellular pool, 1 per cent in the extracellular liquids. This latter compartment is open to the emunctories. Because, of the active transport by the cell membranes, the intracellular pool is filled rapidly but discharge is slow. This phenomenon is the limiting factor in the decrease of the body burden. From this representation, the authors deduce the reasons for the relative failure of the various therapeutic methods examined up till now by themselves or by other authors. The stimulation of the natural emunctories in the case of diuretics for example, can only improve the purification of the extracellular compartment. Now this latter contains only 1 per cent of the body burden and recharging is slow. Furthermore the methods designed to counteract or inhibit the active transport of cesium by the cell membrane are still at the present time incompatible with the survival of the cell. (authors) [French] Les auteurs etudient experimentalement la cinetique de distribution, le metabolisme et l

  7. Karakterisasi ekstrak kasar lipase Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumiarsih


    Full Text Available There is an increasing commercial interest in enzymatic production of biologically active component, because there are a number of well-known advantages compared to chemical synthesis. One of the most valuable synthetic features of enzyme is their ability to discriminate between enantiomers of racemic substrates. Lipase have become of great interest to the chemical industries wing their usefulness in both hydrolytic and synthesis reactions. The aim of this work was to study the production of lipase by Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137, and determine the crude lipase preparation characteristics. The lipolytic activity was determined by titrimetric method toward oil-arabic gum emultion as a substrate. The strain produced lipase at appreciable lipolytic when cultivated for 72 hours in medium containing 3% glucose and 1% olive oil. Our data suggest that the strain produced lipase since the exponential phase of its growth. Lipase with optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at late stationary phase. The optimum condition for lipolytic activity measurement were pH of 7.5 and temperature 37oC, the crude enzyme had a specific activity 20.2 unit/ mg protein, the Vmax was 15.1 mol/ min and KM was 12.5 mg/ ml. The crude enzyme retained 79.9%, 68.0% and 52.6% of its lipolytic activity, when incubated for 90 minutes at temperature of 40, 50, and 60oC respectively.

  8. Inferring the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring {sup 137}Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu, E-mail: [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takenaka, Chisato [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sugiura, Yuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 765-1 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan)


    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the {sup 137}Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ({sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}), and the amount of {sup 137}Cs in the initial fallout itself ({sup 137}Cs{sub fallout}) was determined ({sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout}) at 66 sites. In addition, the {sup 137}Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ({sup 137}Cs{sub male} {sub cone}) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ({sup 137}Cs{sub 2011N}) was determined at 82 sites ({sup 137}Cs{sub male} {sub cone}/{sup 137} Cs{sub 2011N}). Most of the sites with lower {sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout} ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower {sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accidentN}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout} and higher {sup 137}Cs{sub malecone}/{sup 137}Cs{sub 2011N} were found to be associated with higher proportions of {sup 137}Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. - Highlights: • Study of spatial variation of ionic and stable {sup 137}Cs in the initial

  9. 青海共和盆地土壤风蚀的137Cs法研究(Ⅰ)--137Cs分布特征%Application of Caesium-137 Technique on Wind Erosion in Gonghe Basin, Qinghai Province (Ⅰ)-137Cs Distribution Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严平; 董光荣; 张信宝; 邹学勇



  10. Alterations in Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions by the Use of Meglumine Antimoniate in American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Patients (United States)

    de Oliveira Bezerra, Débora Cristina; Oliveira de Barcelos, Renata; Carvalho de Castro, Ellen; Jardim Duarte, Claudia Cristina; de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes Oliveira, Raquel; Salgado de Sousa Torraca, Tania; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Pereira Bom Braga, Frederico; Ramos Ferreira Terceiro, Benivaldo; do Nascimento Brahim Paes, Lúcia Regina; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando


    Introduction Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL) is a neglected, non-contagious, infectious disease, caused by different protozoa species of the Leishmania genus that affects skin and mucous membranes. Meglumine Antimoniate (MA), the first drug of choice for TL treatment in Brazil, has already been associated with cochlear toxicity, which is defined as damages of the cochlea caused by exposure to chemical substances, resulting in reversible or irreversible hearing loss. Auditory monitoring for cochlear toxicity aims at the early detection of auditory disorders, enabling, when possible, hearing to be preserved or an early auditory rehabilitation. Although otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are used in this monitoring, there is no consensus on the criteria that define cochlear toxicity by this examination. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of the OAEs in cochlear toxicity monitoring in TL patients using MA. Methods Prospective and longitudinal study of auditory monitoring of 35 patients with parasitological diagnosis of TL, with liminal tonal audiometry, high frequency audiometry, immitanciometry, distortion product evoked otoacoustic emissions (DPEOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) before treatment, at the end of treatment, one month after the end of treatment and two months after the end of treatment. Results 80% male, with median age of 44 years (IIQ: 22–59). In the pre-treatment evaluation: 11.4% complained of hearing loss and 20% of tinnitus, 48.6% presented auditory alterations in liminal tonal audiometry (LTA, 65.2% in high frequency audiometry (HFA), 26.6% in DPEOAE and 51.4% in TEOAE. No association was verified between genre and alterations in the EOAE examinations. We observed that patients that presented disorders in DPEOAE examinations were 17 years older than those without alterations and that patients that showed disorders in TEOAEO examinations were 34 years older than those without disorders. The presence

  11. Source Identification Of Airborne Antimony On The Basis Of The Field Monitoring And The Source Profiling (United States)

    Iijima, A.; Sato, K.; Fujitani, Y.; Fujimori, E.; Tanabe, K.; Ohara, T.; Shimoda, M.; Kozawa, K.; Furuta, N.


    The results of the long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (APM) in Tokyo indicated that APM have been extremely enriched with antimony (Sb) compared to crustal composition. This observation suggests that the airborne Sb is distinctly derived from human activities. According to the material flow analysis, automotive brake abrasion dust and fly ash from waste incinerator were suspected as the significant Sb sources. To clarify the emission sources of the airborne Sb, elemental composition, particle size distribution, and morphological profiles of dust particles collected from two possible emission sources were characterized and compared to the field observation data. Brake abrasion dust samples were generated by using a brake dynamometer. During the abrasion test, particle size distribution was measured by an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer. Concurrently, size- classified dust particles were collected by an Andersen type air sampler. Fly ash samples were collected from several municipal waste incinerators, and the bulk ash samples were re-dispersed into an enclosed chamber. The measurement of particle size distribution and the collection of size-classified ash particles were conducted by the same methodologies as described previously. Field observations of APM were performed at a roadside site and a residential site by using an Andersen type air sampler. Chemical analyses of metallic elements were performed by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometr. Morphological profiling of the individual particle was conducted by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. High concentration of Sb was detected from both of two possible sources. Particularly, Sb concentrations in a brake abrasion dust were extremely high compared to that in an ambient APM, suggesting that airborne Sb observed at the roadside might have been largely derived from

  12. [Effects of natural zeolite-clinoptilollite on processes of removal of Cs-137 from the rat body]. (United States)

    Krasnopërova, A P; Lonin, A Iu


    The selectivity of natural and synthetic zeolites to 137Cs in experiments in vitro has been investigated. The influence of natural zeolite-clinoptilolite on the dynamics of withdrawal of 137Cs from rats' organism was estimated.

  13. Depression of alveolar macrophage hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion release by mineral dusts: correlation with antimony, lead, and arsenic contents. (United States)

    Gulyas, H; Labedzka, M; Gercken, G


    Activated rabbit alveolar macrophages were incubated with airborne dusts from four West German sites (1 to 200 micrograms/10(6) cells) and waste incinerator fly ash fractions (50 to 500 micrograms/10(6) cells). Quartz dust DQ 12 (5 to 200 micrograms/10(6) cells) and Fe2O3 (0.05 to 50 micrograms/10(6) cells) were used as control dusts. The zymosan-stimulated hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion release of the macrophages were not affected significantly by Fe2O3. All other investigated dusts decreased the two cell functions which were correlated negatively with surfaces, particle numbers, and antimony, lead, and arsenic contents of the dusts. The influence of heavy metal antagonisms and dust surfaces on dust toxicity against alveolar macrophages is discussed.

  14. Construction of spongy antimony-doped tin oxide/graphene nanocomposites using commercially available products and its excellent electrochemical performance (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Jiwei; Gong, Chunhong; Gu, Xiufang; Ma, Zhihua; Zhou, Jingfang; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Zhijun


    We construct successfully a porous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)/nitrogen-doped graphene 3-dimensional (3D) frameworks (denoted as ATO/NG/TEPA; TEPA refers to tetraethylenepentamine) by a one-pot hydrothermal process, with which TEPA aqueous solution is adopted to easily re-disperse commercial ATO precursor forming a transparent hydrosol. The results show that TEPA plays a key role in the construction of ATO/NG/TEPA, not only acting as a peptization reagent to re-disperse ATO precursor nanoparticles, and as a linker to combine ATO with graphene sheets. The as-fabricated ATO/NG/TEPA hybrid as the negative electrode of lithium ion batteries exhibits excellent lithium storage capacity and cycling stability. With the advantage of easily re-dispersing commercial ATO, the present synthetic route may be put into use for the large-scale production of the titled nanocomposites as the anode material of lithium ion batteries.

  15. Comparative proteomics study on meglumine antimoniate sensitive and resistant Leishmania tropica isolated from Iranian anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. (United States)

    Hajjaran, H; Azarian, B; Mohebali, M; Hadighi, R; Assareh, A; Vaziri, B


    In order to define the protein expressional changes related to the process of meglumine antimoniate resistance in anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), we performed a comparative proteomics analysis on sensitive and resistant strains of Leishmania tropica isolated from Iranian CL patients. Cell proteins were analysed with 2-dimensional electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Image analysis of the matched maps identified 7 proteins that were either over- or down-expressed: activated protein kinase c receptor(LACK), alpha tubulin (x2), prostaglandin f2-alpha synthase, protein disulfide isomerase, vesicular transport protein and a hypothetical protein. The study shows the usefulness of proteomics in identifying proteins that may express differences between sensitive and resistant L. tropica isolates.

  16. Antimony-doped tin oxide nanorods as a transparent conducting electrode for enhancing photoelectrochemical oxidation of water by hematite. (United States)

    Sun, Yiqing; Chemelewski, William D; Berglund, Sean P; Li, Chun; He, Huichao; Shi, Gaoquan; Mullins, C Buddie


    We report the growth of well-defined antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanorods as a conductive scaffold to improve hematite's photoelectrochemical water oxidation performance. The hematite grown on ATO exhibits greatly improved performance for photoelectrochemical water oxidation compared to hematite grown on flat fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). The optimized photocurrent density of hematite on ATO is 0.67 mA/cm(2) (0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl), which is much larger than the photocurrent density of hematite on flat FTO (0.03 mA/cm(2)). Using H2O2 as a hole scavenger, it is shown that the ATO nanorods indeed act as a useful scaffold and enhanced the bulk charge separation efficiency of hematite from 2.5% to 18% at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl.

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Omics Technologies Used to Study Antimonial, Amphotericin B, and Pentamidine Resistance in Leishmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur


    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a serious threat in developing countries due to its endemic nature and debilitating symptoms. Extensive research and investigations have been carried out to learn about the mechanism of drug resistance in Leishmania but results obtained in the laboratory are not in agreement with those obtained from the field. Also the lack of knowledge about the mode of action for a number of drugs makes the study of drug resistance more complex. A major concern in recent times has been regarding the role of parasitic virulence in drug resistance for Leishmania. Researchers have employed various techniques to unravel the facts about resistance and virulence in Leishmania. With advent of advanced and more specific means of detection, further hints about probable mechanisms of conferring resistance are expected. This review aims to provide a consolidated picture along with a comparative account of the work done so far to study the mechanism of antimony, amphotericin B, and pentamidine resistance using various techniques.

  18. Removal of antimony (Sb(V)) from Sb mine drainage: biological sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation-precipitation. (United States)

    Wang, Huawei; Chen, Fulong; Mu, Shuyong; Zhang, Daoyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu


    Antimony (Sb(V)) in Sb mine drainage has adverse effects on the receiving water environments. This study for the first time demonstrated the feasibility of using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to convert sulfate ions in SMD into sulfides that reduce Sb(V) to Sb(III) and to form complex with Sb(III) as precipitate. The principal compound in the precipitate was stibnite (Sb2S3) at pH 7 and pH 9. The Sb(V) removal mechanism is sulfate-reduction and sulfide oxidization-precipitation, different from the conventional SRB-precipitation processes for heavy metals. The Sb(V)/sulfate ratio is noted an essential parameter affecting the Sb removal efficiency from SMD.

  19. Premature capacity loss in lead/acid batteries: a discussion of the antimony-free effect and related phenomena (United States)

    Hollenkamp, A. F.

    Instances of severe capacity loss in apparently healthy lead/acid batteries have been reported over a period of many years, and are still common today. In most cases, these phenomena are linked to the use of antimony-free positive grids and are invoked by repetitive deep-discharge duties. This situation represents probably the greatest barrier to the expansion of markets for lead/acid batteries. To date, research has focused on several possible explanations for capacity loss; notably, degradation of the positive active mass (e.g., relaxable insufficient mass utilization) and the development of electrical barriers around the grid. Although much of the evidence gathered is circumstantial, it does point to the key issues that must be addressed in future work.

  20. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander


    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  1. Enhanced Removal of Arsenic and Antimony in the Mining Site by Calcined γ-Fe2O3/Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Choi, Heechul; Kim, Kyoung-Woong


    Arsenic (As) and Antimony (Sb) have been recognized as harmful contaminants in aquatic environment due to its high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Especially, the contamination of arsenic in the mining areas is considered as a serious emerging environmental issue in Korea. Due to the hazardous effect of arsenic, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulated maximum contamination level of arsenic to 10 μg/L in drinking water. The harmful effect on human health by excessive intake of antimony was also reported by previous studies, and severe contamination level (100 - 7,000 μg/L) of antimony reported in surface and groundwater of abandoned mining area in China and Slovakia. Therefore, US EPA regulated maximum contaminants level of antimony in drinking water to 6 μg/L. In order to remove anionic contaminants in drinking water, various type of nanomaterials have been developed. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is the artificial anionic clay that is based on the layered structure of positively charged brucite-like layers with interlayers of anions. The LDH is one of the promising nanomaterials for the removal of anionic contaminants because it has high selectivity for arsenic, phosphate, chromium and antimony. However, the biggest problem of LDH for wastewater treatment is that the particles cannot be easily separated after the removal of contaminants. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3) supported LDH nanocomposite (γ-Fe2O3/LDH) was investigated to enhance magnetic particle recovery and removal efficiency for arsenic and antimony. The calcined γ-Fe2O3/LDH nanocomposites synthesized by co-precipitation method, and the crystallographic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and layered structure of LDH were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The nano-sized γ-Fe2O3 (30 to 50 nm) was stably attached on the surface of LDH (100 to 150 nm) and O1s spectrum by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) explained that there are both physical and

  2. Research advances in microbial mechanism of antimony%微生物对锑的代谢机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明顺; 李洁; 王革娇


    锑(Sb)是一种自然界普遍存在的剧毒重金属,随着工业生产的日趋发展,我国部分地区土壤、水体及农产品受到严重的锑污染.作为环境污染物,锑中毒会导致人类心肌衰竭,肝坏死等疾病.自然界中的某些生物,特别是微生物却可以在极高锑浓度下生长,甚至可以利用这种元素作为能源物质,因此,微生物在锑的地球物质循环中起着重要的作用.研究生物对锑的代谢机制,对于保护环境与人体健康具有重要的现实意义.本文对锑在环境中的分布、污染状况、微生物对锑的代谢以及生物修复等方面的研究现状进行了综述.同时建议今后应加强以下三方面的研究:(1)筛选更多抗锑微生物或氧化锑的微生物;(2)发掘更多锑抗性基因或氧化基因;(3)开发锑污染土壤及水体的微生物修复技术.%Antimony (Sb) is a highly toxic heavy metal which widespreadly exists in nature.With the increasing development of industry,the soil,water and agricultural products are severely polluted by antimony in some regions of our country.As an environmental pollutant,antimony poisoning can lead to heart failure,human diseases such as liver necrosis.Some organisms in nature,especially the microorganisms can grow in the high concentration of antimony,and can even use the element as an energy material,so the microorganisms play an important role in the cycle of earth's materials.Study on metabolic mechanism of antimony has important practical significance to protect environment and human health.This study reviewed the researches of Sb distribution in the environment,the pollution status,microbial metabolism of antimony and bioremediation.At the same time it suggests that future researches should strengthen the following three aspects:(1) isolating more antimony resistance or antimony oxidizing microorganisms; (2) identifying more antimony resistant or oxidizing genes; (3) exploring microbial techniques to remediate

  3. Lake sediments as a long-term secondary source of {sup 137}Cs in Swedish fish; Seesedimente als langfristige Sekundaerquelle von {sup 137}Cs in schwedischen Fischen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meili, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences; Konitzer, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences; Braf, L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Baines, S.B. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Limnological Research Centre; Andersson, T. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography


    Thousands of Swedish lakes were heavily affected by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. The initially high concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in small fish have declined since 1987, but this decline has slowed down since 1989. The recovery of the lakes is probably delayed by substantial mixing and resuspension of bottom sediments, which usually contain >90% of a lake`s {sup 137}Cs. Primarily in shallow near-shore sediments, mixing processes carry buried contaminated particles back to the surface, where they are frequently resuspended. Subsequently, they are distributed in the whole water mass and settle at random. This has resulted in a pronounced focusing of {sup 137}Cs towards deeper lake areas. The significance of resuspension is supported by comparisons of {sup 137}Cs concentrations in vertical sediment profiles, in surficial sediments, and in settling matter. Resuspended a well as deposited particles are taken up by planktonic or benthic invertebrates transferring {sup 137}Cs to the fish community. The observed slow burial of contaminated particles thus suggests that the effects of the Chernobyl accident will remain a major problem in Swedish lakes for several decades. (orig.)

  4. 借助137Cs估算滇池沉积量%Sediment accumulation of Dianchi Lake determined by 137Cs dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 高翔; 钟振宇; 陈捷; 彭补拙


    The water quality of Dianchi Lake declines quickly and the eutrophication is getting serious. To identify the internal pollution load of Dianchi Lake it is necessary to evaluate its sediment accumulation. Sedimentation rates of Dianchi Lake are determined by 137Cs dating. However, 137Cs vertical distribution in sediment cores of Dianchi Lake has special character-istics because Dianchi Lake is located on the southeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Kunming quasi-stationary front is over the borders of Yunnan and Guizhou where the specific precipitation is distributed. Besides 1954, 1963 and 1986 137Cs marks can be determined in sediment cores, a 137Cs mark of 1976 representing the major period of 137Cs released from China unclear test can be determined and used for an auxiliary dating mark. Meanwhile Di-anchi Lake is divided into seven sections based on the water depth, basin topography, hy-drological features and supplies of silt and the lakebed area of each section is calculated. The mean annual sedimentation rates for seven sections are 0.0810, 0.1352, 0.1457, 0.1333, 0.0904, 0.1267 and 0.1023 g/cm2 a in 1963-2003, respectively. The gross sediment accu-mulation of the lake is 26.18×104 t/a in recent 17 years and 39.86×104 t/a in recent 50 years.

  5. Estimation of radioactive 137-cesium transportation by litterfall, stemflow and throughfall in the forests of Fukushima. (United States)

    Endo, Izuki; Ohte, Nobuhito; Iseda, Kohei; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Murakami, Masashi; Tokuchi, Naoko; Ohashi, Mizue


    Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, large areas of the forests around Fukushima have become highly contaminated by radioactive nuclides. To predict the future dynamics of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) in the forest catchment, it is important to measure each component of its movement within the forest. Two years after the accident, we estimated the annual transportation of (137)Cs from the forest canopy to the floor by litterfall, throughfall and stemflow. Seasonal variations in (137)Cs transportation and differences between forests types were also determined. The total amount of (137)Cs transported from the canopy to the floor in two deciduous and cedar plantation forests ranged between 3.9 and 11.0 kBq m(-2) year(-1). We also observed that (137)Cs transportation with litterfall increased in the defoliation period, simply because of the increased amount of litterfall. (137)Cs transportation with throughfall and stemflow increased in the rainy season, and (137)Cs flux by litterfall was higher in cedar plantation compared with that of mixed deciduous forest, while the opposite result was obtained for stemflow.

  6. {sup 137}Cs inventory in sedimentary columns from continental shelf of Sao Paulo state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Cordero, Luisa M.; Mahiques, Michel M. de; Tessler, Moyses G., E-mail: rfigueira@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Fisica, Quimica e Geologica; Cruz, Jacson L.S. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    {sup 137}Cs is an artificial radioactive isotope produced by {sup 235}U fission. This radionuclide has a high fission yield and a half-life of 30 years. It has been detected in the environment since 1945 and its principal contamination source has been nuclear tests in the atmosphere. There are other sources of {sup 137}Cs contamination in the environment, such as: release from nuclear and reprocessing plants, radioactive dumping and nuclear accidents (Chernobyl, for example). This paper presents an inventory of {sup 137}Cs on the Continental Shelf of Sao Paulo State, a region located between Cabo de Santa Marta Grande (Santa Catarina state) and Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro state). In this area, 9 cores were collected by the Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo University Institute of Oceanography). The cores were sliced at every 2 cm; sub-samples were lyophilized, grinded and stored in plastic containers. {sup 137}Cs was determined by 661 keV photopeak using a gamma spectrometry detector (Ge hyperpure). The analysis was performed by efficiency and background in different counting times. {sup 137}Cs concentration activities varied from 0.3 to 3.6 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 1.2+-0.6 Bq kg{sup -1}. The inventory of {sup 137}Cs in this area was 13+-7 Bq m-2. Values obtained are in agreement with the Southern Hemisphere, a region contaminated by atmospheric fallout due to past nuclear explosions. (author)

  7. Computational modeling of 137Cs contaminant transfer associated with sediment transport in Abukuma River. (United States)

    Iwasaki, T; Nabi, M; Shimizu, Y; Kimura, I


    A numerical model capable of simulating the transfer of (137)Cs in rivers associated with transport of fine sediment is presented. The accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) released radionuclides into the atmosphere, and after fallout several radionuclides in them, such as radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) and radioiodine ((131)I) were adsorbed on surface soil particles around FDNPP and transported by surface water. To understand the transport and deposition of the radioactive contaminant along with surface soil particles and its flux to the ocean, we modeled the transport of the (137)Cs contaminant by computing the water flow and the associated washload and suspended load transport. We have developed a two-dimensional model to simulate the plane flow structure, sediment transport and associated (137)Cs contaminant transport in rivers by combining a shallow water flow model and an advection-diffusion equation for the transport of sediment. The proposed model has been applied to the lower reach of Abukuma River, which is the main river in the highly contaminated area around FDNPP. The numerical results indicate that most (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river reach with washload would directly reach to Pacific Ocean. In contrast, washload-oriented (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river basin has a limited role in the radioactive contamination in the river. The results also suggest that the proposed framework of computational model can be a potential tool for understanding the sediment-oriented (137)Cs behavior in rivers.

  8. A direct molecular link between the autism candidate gene RORa and the schizophrenia candidate MIR137 (United States)

    Devanna, Paolo; Vernes, Sonja C.


    Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha gene (RORa) and the microRNA MIR137 have both recently been identified as novel candidate genes for neuropsychiatric disorders. RORa encodes a ligand-dependent orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcriptional regulator and miR-137 is a brain enriched small non-coding RNA that interacts with gene transcripts to control protein levels. Given the mounting evidence for RORa in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and MIR137 in schizophrenia and ASD, we investigated if there was a functional biological relationship between these two genes. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-137 targets the 3'UTR of RORa in a site specific manner. We also provide further support for MIR137 as an autism candidate by showing that a large number of previously implicated autism genes are also putatively targeted by miR-137. This work supports the role of MIR137 as an ASD candidate and demonstrates a direct biological link between these previously unrelated autism candidate genes.

  9. Long-term transport and dispersion of 137Cs released into ocean off Fukushima nuclear accident (United States)

    Zhao, Chang; Qiao, Fangli; Wang, Guansuo; Xia, Changshui; Jung, KyungTae


    In the following days after the Fukushima nuclear accident which happened in 11th March 2011, significant amounts of radioactive materials (131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) had been leaking into the terrestrial and marine environments. The radionuclides model was used to study the distribution of the 137Cs in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean released from the Fukushima accident. The simulation on the distribution of 137Cs agrees well with the the observed profiles in the 9th November 2011, which proved the validaty of the model. In the first year of our model run, the 137Cs is carried eastward by the Kuroshio and its extension, spreading southward and northword meanwhile. Four or five years after the accident, the 137Cs reaches the US coast with the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean; its concentration is no higher than 3 Bq/m3. Ten years after the accident, all the North Pacific Ocean is labeled with the 137Cs from the Fukushima. The concentration is less than 1 Bq/m3 at that time. Thirty years after the accident, the concentration of 137Cs in both the Pacific and the Indian Ocean is below 0.1 Bq/m3. Since the spreading path of 137Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident is just the migration route of the Pacific tuna, a kind of fish inhabit the western and eastern North Pacific, it may cause radioactive contamination to the fish. In the offshore seas of China, the 137Cs from Fukushima nuclear accident is very low (<0.2 Bq/m3) .

  10. 42 CFR 137.68 - May funds from a statutorily mandated grant added to a funding agreement be reallocated? (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May funds from a statutorily mandated grant added to a funding agreement be reallocated? 137.68 Section 137.68 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.68 May funds from a statutorily mandated grant...

  11. 42 CFR 137.16 - What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance? (United States)


    ... participate in self-governance? 137.16 Section 137.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.16 What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance? The first Indian Tribes who apply and...

  12. 42 CFR 137.299 - Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out... (United States)


    ... Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental responsibilities? 137.299 Section 137.299 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.299 Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental...

  13. /sup 137/Cs and /sup 40/K levels in marine species caught in Malaysian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, G.; Ng, C.E. (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Physics)


    Activity levels of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 40/K in a variety of marine species caught in the Indian Ocean and S. China Seas, between Jan. 1980 - Sept. 1981, have been monitored, using gamma spectroscopy. Samples were dried to constant weight, powdered, and a constant volume used for gamma spectroscopy. Radioactivity levels and concentration factors for /sup 40/K and /sup 137/Cs are presented. /sup 137/Cs concentration factors are found to vary greatly between species caught in the same area, possibly due to different feeding patterns and levels.

  14. Atmospheric deposition of {sup 137}Cs between 1994 and 2002 at Cienfuegos, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Hernandez, C.M. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba)]. E-mail:; Cartas-Aguila, H. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Diaz-Asencio, M. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Munoz-Caravaca, A. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Martin-Perez, J. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sibello-Hernandez, R. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba)


    Levels of {sup 137}Cs in total atmospheric deposition have been measured in the Cienfuegos region (Cuba) between 1994 and 2002. Samples were collected every three months, evaporated to dryness to obtain residual samples, and measured by gamma spectrometry. The {sup 137}Cs mean concentration in total deposition was 0.24 Bq m{sup -2} and data ranged between <0.05 and 0.62 Bq m{sup -2}. Precipitation rates and raintime have proved to be the most important factors controlling the concentration and depositional flux of {sup 137}Cs in the atmosphere over Cienfuegos, showing a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.93)

  15. The utilization of caesium 137 in studying soil degradation; L`utilisation du cesium 137 pour la connaissance de la degradation des sols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicherek, S.; Veyret, Y. [Centre de Biogeographie-Ecologie, 92 - Saint -Cloud (France); Bernard, C. [Ministere de l`Agriculture, des Pecheries et de l`Alimentation, Quebec (Canada)


    The caesium 137 isotope is distributed in the atmosphere during nuclear explosions, and is absorbed in the upper horizons of the soil on reaching the ground. When it is incorporated in the fine fraction of the soil, caesium 137 measurement allows movements affecting cultivated lands (mass movements, runoff effects, wind action) and rate of soil degradation over half a century to be evaluated. Vegetal cover and techniques of soil utilization must be considered; this method has been tested on a watershed in the Parisian Basin. 5 figs., 26 refs.

  16. CD137分子及其肿瘤免疫治疗近况%Research progress of CD137 and tumor immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李加涛; 张洪涛


    CD137 (4-1 BB),a member of the TNF receptor superfamily,is an activation-induced T-cell co-stimulatory molecule.Upon ligand binding,CD137 up-regulates survival genes,enhances cell division,induces cytokine production,and prevents activation-induced cell death in T cells.Growing evidence indicates that agonist anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibodies possess strong antitumor properties,and combination therapy of anti-4-1 BB with other anticancer agents has robust tumor-regressing abilities against non-immunogenic or poorly immunogenic tumors.In addition,targeting of tumors with variants of 4-1BBL directed against 4-1BB also have potent antitumor effects.In this review,we discuss the basis of the therapeutic potential of targeting the 4-1BB-4-1 BBL pathway in cancer treatment.%CD137(4-1BB,ILA,TNFRSF9)分子是介导T细胞活化的协同刺激信号,经由CD137/CD137L信号通路增强免疫反应成为肿瘤免疫治疗的潜在靶点.CD137主要表达在活化的T细胞、自然杀伤细胞和树突状细胞(DC)等肿瘤免疫相关细胞,研究发现CD137配体或活化型CD137单抗介导的共刺激信号可促进T细胞等免疫细胞的增殖、诱导细胞因子的分泌以及减少活化诱导的细胞死亡(AICD),维持CD8+T细胞存活状态、增强NK活性.大量动物抗肿瘤尤其是低免疫源性肿瘤临床前实验,单独或者联合其它免疫调节分子作用于4-1BB/4-1BBL途径,已取得良好效果,为临床治疗研究奠定了基础.

  17. Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs by pike Esox lucius in the Yenisei River. (United States)

    Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Dementyev, D V; Bolsunovsky, A Ya


    Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs in the muscles and bodies of the pike Esox lucius (aged two to seven years) inhabiting a section of the Yenisei River polluted with artificial radionuclides has been studied. The content of (137)Cs in muscles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 Bq/kg of fresh weight. The maximum content of the radionuclide has been found in juveniles. The content of (137)Cs in pike muscles and body decreased considerably with age. The high content of (137)Cs in the muscles of juveniles is probably a consequence of their higher intensity of feeding as compared to older individuals, which is due to the intense growth of juveniles.

  18. Crustaceous lichens sensitive monitor of caesium-137 radiation level in terrestrial environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Chunguang; Zhao Ye; Zhang Jing; Xu Cuihua


    The activity of caesium-137 (Bq/kg) in the crustaceous lichens and other samples was determined to prove the feasibility that crustaceous lichens work as a sensitive biology monitor to record the caesium-137 (Bq/kg) radiation levels of terrestrial environment. The measurements were performed with GEM series HPGe (high-purity Germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM -100) made by EC & GORTEC Company in USA. It was found that the activity of caesium-137 (Bq/kg) in the crustaceous lichens was one order of magnitude higher than that found in surface soil,and was over three orders of magnitude higher than those found in the familiar biological samples. These results proved that crustaceous lichens may be one of the most sensitive biological monitors about the remote transmission and environmental radiation levels of caesium-137.

  19. The Jet from MWC 137 Points at a Supergiant B[e] Star in a Binary (United States)

    Mehner, A.; de Wit, W. J.; Groh, J. H.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Baade, D.; Rivinius, Th.; Selman, F.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Martayan, C.


    The Galactic B[e] star MWC 137 is a prime example of an object with an uncertain evolutionary classification. Previous work has suggested that is either a pre- or a post-main sequence object. Integral field spectrograph observations with the Very Large Telescope Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT MUSE) of the host cluster SH 2-266 are used to provide a reliable evolutionary classification. The MUSE data also allowed the discovery of a large collimated outflow, geometrically centered on MWC 137. A color-magnitude diagram analysis of the cluster promotes strongly a post-main sequence stage for MWC 137, while the existence of a jet implies the presence of an accretion disk. A SWIFT X-ray source, which may be associated with MWC 137, hints at the possibility of a neutron star companion.

  20. Chitosan-ferrocyanide sorbent for Cs-137 removal from mineralized alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorin, Andrei [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ozyorsk Technical Institute MEPHI, Ozersk (Russian Federation); Tokar, Eduard [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zemskova, Larisa [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)


    An organomineral sorbent based on mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide and chitosan to be used in removal of Cs-137 radionuclide from highly mineralized media with high pH has been fabricated. The synthesized sorbent was applied to remove Cs-137 from model solutions under static and dynamic conditions. The effects of contact time, pH, and presence of sodium ions and complexing agents in the process of Cs-137 removal have been investigated. The sorbent is distinguished by increased stability to the impact of alkaline media containing complexing agents, whereas the sorbent capacity in solutions with pH 11 exceeds 1000 bed volumes with the Cs-137 removal efficiency higher than 95%.

  1. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, R.C.


    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental {sup 137}Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage {sup 137}Cs concentrations. The study`s objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation {sup 137}Cs concentrations are statistically the same.

  2. 全膀胱切除137例临床分析%A report on cystectomy in 137 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 陈刚; 张尧; 何云锋; 吴小候; 陈在贤; 苟欣; 唐伟; 王明; 刘朝东; 王德林; 尹志康


    Objective To summarize 137 cases of radical cystectomy cases from 2006 to 2011 in our department. Methods The clinical data were retrospectively analysed on 137 cases of radical cystectomy. In this group, 117 male patient,20 female. Age;36 to 88 years,average 65. 2 years old. 101 cases by laparoscopic surgery(9 patients were changed to open surgery) ,36 cases by traditio nal open surgical procedures. Urinary diversion method:The most commonly used method was orthotopic ileal neobladder,86 cases (62. 8%) ,orthotopic sigmoid neobladder in 12 cases(8. 8%) ;ileal neobladder in 20 cases(14. 6%) , ureter sigmoid anastomosis in 9 cases(6. 6%) , ureter skin ostomy in 8 cases(5. 8%) ,gastric neobladder in 2 casesd. 5%). Results All operations were successful, the operative time was 4-8 hours,blood loss was 400-1 600 mL,The follow-up was 3-60 months, early complications were wound infection, urine leakage and intestinal obstruction,serious complications was intestinal fistula in 3 cases, perioperative death occurred in 3 cases because of respiratory and circulatory system diseases. Late main postoperative complications were urinary tract stones, u-rinary tract infections. In 51 follow-up cases of orthotopic neobladder, 48 patients(94.1l%)were continent at daytime and 43(84. 3%)were continent nocturnally,In the 67 male cases followed-up,penile erection occurred in 41 cases. There was no long-term incontinence, Urethra tumors was not found. Conclusion The risk of radical cystectomy is higher,preoperative indications should be fully assessed;orthotopic neobladder is the first choice of urinary diversion;Cystectomy urinary diversion is an ideal way for treating invasive bladder cancer beacause of fewer serious complications,less recurrence and high quality of life.%目的 总结探讨全膀胱切除尿流改道不同术式的临床特点.方法 回顾性分析137例行全膀胱切除术患者的临床资料,其中男117例,女20例;年龄36~88岁,平均65.2

  3. Application of antimony ethylene glycol as a polycondensation catalyst%缩聚催化剂乙二醇锑的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菘; 朱国明; 王玉龙


    The application process of antimony ethylene glycol as a polycondensation catalyst in PET plant was intro duced. The characteristic of compounding and adding of antimony ethylene glycol, its effect on polyester mannfacturing process and polyester product and the effect on spinning afterprocessing properties were discribed.%介绍了聚酯缩聚催化剂乙二醇锑在上海石化涤纶部的试用和推广应用过程,讲述了乙二醇锑的配制和添加的特点,对聚酯生产过程和对聚酯产品的影响,以及乙二醇锑的聚酯产品对纺丝后加工性能的影响。

  4. An improved method for the determination of trace levels of arsenic and antimony in geological materials by automated hydride generation-atomic absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Lichte, F.E.


    An improved, automated method for the determination of arsenic and antimony in geological materials is described. After digestion of the material in sulfuric, nitric, hydrofluoric and perchloric acids, a hydrochloric acid solution of the sample is automatically mixed with reducing agents, acidified with additional hydrochloric acid, and treated with a sodium tetrahydroborate solution to form arsine and stibine. The hydrides are decomposed in a heated quartz tube in the optical path of an atomic absorption spectrometer. The absorbance peak height for arsenic or antimony is measured. Interferences that exist are minimized to the point where most geological materials including coals, soils, coal ashes, rocks and sediments can be analyzed directly without use of standard additions. The relative standard deviation of the digestion and the instrumental procedure is less than 2% at the 50 ??g l-1 As or Sb level. The reagent-blank detection limit is 0.2 ??g l-1 As or Sb. ?? 1982.

  5. Effectiveness of meglumine antimoniate against L. tropica in a recently emerged focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Birjand, eastern Islamic Republic of Iran. (United States)

    Karamian, M; Bojd, M S Faroghi; Salehabadi, A; Hemmati, M; Barati, D A


    With limited options to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, constant monitoring of the rate of resistance to pentavalent antimony-based drugs is needed. This study identified the infecting Leishmania species and evaluated the results of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) therapy in a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Birjand, eastern Islamic Republic of Iran. Smears from 150 patients showed that 141 patients were infected by L. tropica and 9 by L. major. In total, 141 patients with L. tropica infection completed Glucantime® treatment and follow-up; 63.8% were treated intralesionally and 36.2% by intramuscular administration. The overall success rate after one course of therapy with Glucantime® was 96.5% (136/141), and all the failures (5/141) occurred with intramuscular injections. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the failure rates of intramuscular and intralesional injections. Children < 10 years old had a significantly higher failure rate than adults.

  6. The cytotoxicity of organobismuth compounds with certain molecular structures can be diminished by replacing the bismuth atom with an antimony atom in the molecules. (United States)

    Kohri, Kumiko; Yoshida, Eiko; Yasuike, Shuji; Fujie, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Chika; Kaji, Toshiyuki


    Organic-inorganic hybrid molecules, which are composed of an organic structure and metal(s), are indispensable for synthetic chemical reactions; however, their toxicity has been incompletely understood. In the present study, we discovered two cytotoxic organobismuth compounds whose cytotoxicity diminished upon replacement of the intramolecular bismuth atom with an antimony atom. The intracellular accumulation of the organobismuth compounds was much higher than that of the organoantimony compounds with the corresponding organic structures. We also showed that both the organic structure and bismuth atom are required for certain organobismuth compounds to exert their cytotoxic effect, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of such a compound is a result of an interaction between the organic structure and the bismuth atom. The present data suggest that organobismuth compounds with certain molecular structures exhibit cytotoxicity via an interaction between the molecular structure and the bismuth atom, and this cytotoxicity can be diminished by replacing the bismuth atom with an antimony atom, resulting in lower intracellular accumulation.

  7. Detritivores enhance the mobilization of {sup 137}Cs from leaf-litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Masashi; Suzuki, Takahiro [Community Ecology Lab., Biology Course, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)


    A large amount of radioactive material was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest ecosystems, {sup 137}Cs was mostly deposited and accumulated on the land surface of forest. The fate of radioactive materials accumulated on the leaf litters should be conscientiously monitored to understand the future distribution and the spread to the surrounding landscapes. Because the accident took place on 11 March 2011, just before the bud-break of deciduous trees, the {sup 137}Cs are highly accumulated on the surface of leaf litter on the forest floor. This accumulated {sup 137}Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through the detritus food chain. However, on the litter surface, {sup 137}Cs considered to be strongly and immediately fixed and highly immobilized. Decomposition processes in the forest floor can re-mobilise the nutritional elements which are contained within detritus and make them available for the organisms. In the present study, the feeding effect of detritivore soil arthropods on the mobilization of {sup 137}Cs from leaf litter was experimentally examined. Furthermore, the effect of detritivores on the plant uptake of {sup 137}Cs was examined by small-scale nursery experiment. Decomposition experiment in the small microcosms was performed using a larvae of Trypoxylus dichotomus, whichis a detritivores feeding on dead plant materials such as wood debris and leaf litters. Contaminated leaf litters were collected in a forest of the Kami-Oguni River catchment in the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The leaf litters at A0 layers which are highly contaminated by {sup 137}Cs were utilized for the experiment. The contaminated leaf litter was fed to the larvae for ten days. The litter with larvae excreta was washed by 2 M KCl and deionized water. The {sup 137}Cs concentration was measured

  8. Caesium-137 soil sampling and inventory variability in reference locations: A literature survey (United States)

    Sutherland, Ross A.


    Soil sampling design, the number of samples collected and the lateral variation of caesium-137 (137Cs) in uneroded reference locations were extracted from previously published work. The focus was on published work which used 137Cs reference inventory (Bq m-2) for qualitative or quantitative estimation of sediment redistribution (SRD) within the landscape. The objective of this study was to address one of the methodological concerns facing the 137Cs technique - that is, the lack of a rigorous statistical treatment of reference locations. The limited attention paid to the reference location is not justified as true estimates of SRD are based on the assumption of an unbiased, independent, random probability sample estimate, commonly the arithmetic mean. Results from the literature survey indicated that only 11% of the reference locations sampled for 137Cs expressly stated that a probability sampling design was used (transect or systematic-aligned grid). The remaining locations were generally sampled using a non-probability based design, more commonly known as haphazard sampling. Of the 75 reference study areas identified only 40 provided enough information to determine the dispersion around the mean, and from this the coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for all available data. The median CV was 19·3%, with 95% confidence limits of 13·0-23.4%, indicating that approximately 11 random, independent samples would generally be necessary to adequately quantify the reference 137Cs area activity with an allowable error of 10% at 90% confidence. Further analysis indicated that only one-third of the studies sampled a sufficient number of 137Cs reference locations. This value would actually be lower as sampling frameworks were based on non-probability sampling procedures. For 137Cs reference locations it is recommended that a probability sampling design be utilized, preferably the systematic-aligned grid method, and as a minimum first-order estimate about 11 samples

  9. Examination of a relationship between {sup 137}Cs concentrations in soils and plants from alpine pastures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunzl, K. E-mail:; Albers, B.P.; Schimmack, W.; Belli, M.; Ciuffo, L.; Menegon, S


    An essential prerequisite of the soil/plant transfer factor concept is the presence of a statistically significant relationship between the contents of a given radionuclide in the soil and plant. To examine the existence of such an association for a semi-natural environment we determined for two typical alpine pastures in Germany and Italy the concentrations of fallout-{sup 137}Cs in soil and plants. To be able to detect such a relationship sensitively, we selected at the German site 100 plots (area 1 mx1 m) within a 100 mx100 m area and assessed the corresponding plant and soil {sup 137}Cs contents. All frequency distributions of the soil and plant {sup 137}Cs contents at both sites were found to be lognormal. The results showed that increased plant {sup 137}Cs concentrations were not significantly associated with increased soil {sup 137}Cs contents, even though the {sup 137}Cs contents in the soil there varied by one order of magnitude. This result was also supported by the observations at the Italian pasture site, where 24 plots were selected. Possible reasons and consequences of these findings are discussed. To examine also the relation between potassium and radiocesium, {sup 40}K was determined in all samples. These results revealed a very strong but negative correlation between {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in the plants of both pastures, which shows that, when a large variety of different plant species is considered, radiocesium and potassium do not necessarily behave in an analogous way. In addition, a statistically significant, negative relationship between {sup 40}K in the soil and {sup 137}Cs in the plants was found. Possible reasons for this observation are discussed.

  10. Immunotherapy of melanoma with the immune costimulatory monoclonal antibodies targeting CD137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li SY


    Full Text Available Shi-Yan Li, Yizhen Liu Cancer Research Institute, Scott and White Healthcare, Temple, TX, USA Abstract: Knowledge of how the immune system recognizes and attempts to control cancer growth and development has improved dramatically. The advent of immunotherapies for cancer has resulted in robust clinical responses and confirmed that the immune system can significantly inhibit tumor progression. Until recently, metastatic melanoma was a disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. CD137 (also known as 4-1BB a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor superfamily, is an activation-induced T cell costimulator molecule. Growing evidence indicates that anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies possess strong antitumor properties, the result of their powerful capability to activate CD8+ T cells, to produce interferon (IFN-γ, and to induce cytolytic markers. Combination therapy of anti-CD137 with other anticancer agents, such as radiation, has robust tumor-regressing abilities against nonimmunogenic or poorly immunogenic tumors. Of importance, targeting CD137 eliminates established tumors, and the fact that anti-CD137 therapy acts in concert with other anticancer agents and/or radiation therapy to eradicate nonimmunogenic and weakly immunogenic tumors is an additional benefit. Currently, BMS-663513, a humanized anti-CD137 antibody, is in clinical trials in patients with solid tumors, including melanoma, renal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, and B-cell malignancies. In this review, we discuss the basis of the therapeutic potential of targeting CD137 in cancer treatment, focusing in particular, on BMS-663513 as an immune costimulatory monoclonal antibody for melanoma immunotherapy. Keywords: anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies, immune costimulator molecule, BMS-663513

  11. Distribution of global fallouts cesium-137 in taiga and tundra catenae at the Ob River basin (United States)

    Semenkov, I. N.; Usacheva, A. A.; Miroshnikov, A. Yu.


    The classification of soil catenae at the Ob River basin is developed and applied. This classification reflects the diverse geochemical conditions that led to the formation of certain soil bodies, their combinations and the migration fields of chemical elements. The soil and geochemical diversity of the Ob River basin catenae was analyzed. The vertical and lateral distribution of global fallouts cesium-137 was studied using the example of the four most common catenae types in Western Siberia tundra and taiga. In landscapes of dwarf birches and dark coniferous forests on gleysols, cryosols, podzols, and cryic-stagnosols, the highest 137Cs activity density and specific activity are characteristic of the upper soil layer of over 30% ash, while the moss-grass-shrub cover is characterized by low 137Cs activity density and specific activity. In landscapes of dwarf birches and pine woods on podzols, the maximum specific activity of cesium-137 is typical for moss-grass-shrub cover, while the maximum reserves are concentrated in the upper soil layer of over 30% ash. Bog landscapes and moss-grass-shrub cover are characterized by a minimum activity of 137Cs, and its reserves in soil generally decrease exponentially with depth. The cesium-137 penetration depth increases in oligotrophic histosols from northern to middle taiga landscapes from 10-15 to 40 cm. 137Cs is accumulated in oligotrophic histosols for increases in pH from 3.3 to 4.0 and in concretionary interlayers of pisoplinthic-cryic-histic-stagnosols. Cryogenic movement, on the one hand, leads to burying organic layers enriched in 137Cs and, on the other hand, to deducing specific activity when mixed with low-active material from lower soil layers.

  12. Plutonium and {sup 137}Cs in surface water of the South Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, K.; Komura, K. [Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052 (Japan); Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University, Wake, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224 (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052 (Japan); Fukasawa, M. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 2-15, Natsushima, Yokosuka 237-0061 (Japan); Kim, C.S. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daeduk-Danji Daejeon 305-336 (Korea); Povinec, P.P. [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-842 48, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Marine Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC98000 (Monaco)


    The present plutonium and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in South Pacific Ocean surface waters were determined. The water samples were collected in the South Pacific mid-latitude region (32.5 S) during the BEAGLE expedition conducted in 2003-04 by JAMSTEC. {sup 239,240}Pu concentrations in surface seawater of the South Pacific were in the range of 0.5 to 4.1 mBq m{sup -3}, whereas {sup 137}Cs concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.7 Bq m{sup -3}. The observed {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the South Pacific were almost of the same level as those in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The surface {sup 239,240}Pu in the South Pacific subtropical gyre showed larger spatial variations than {sup 137}Cs, as it may be affected by physical and biogeochemical processes. The {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios, which reflect biogeochemical processes in seawater, were generally smaller than that observed in global fallout, except for the most eastern station. The {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios in the South Pacific tend to be higher than that in the North Pacific. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters such as salinity and nutrients were examined. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the western South Pacific (the Tasman Sea) and the eastern South Pacific were negatively correlated with the phosphate concentration, whereas there is no correlation between the {sup 137}Cs and nutrients concentrations in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. The mutual relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of transport processes of anthropogenic radionuclides and their fate in the South Pacific. (author)

  13. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B


    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated.

  14. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran. (United States)

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil


    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran.

  15. The migration of cesium-137 through cement formulations applicable to radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.


    Eighteen portland cement formulations containing three levels of cement/fly ash content (100%/0%, 85%/15%, and 60%/40%), two levels of water to cementitious solids ratio (0.33 and 0.43) and three levels of additive (none, silica fume, and latex polymer) were tested. Each formulation was molded into a solid cement specimen containing a centered well space which served as a reservoir for a {sup 137}Cs solution. After a predetermined time period, the {sup 137}Cs solution was removed and a 2-cm long by 1.27-cm diameter cement core was extracted from the monolith well bottom using a diamond core drill. Each cement core was then cut into successive horizontal slices with a diamond saw blade. The net activity of {sup 137}Cs in each slice was determined with a NaI(T1) detector connected to a single-channel analyzer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression models were used to examine the statistical relationship between different formulations in terms of the {sup 137}Cs activity in the cement slices versus the migration distance as indicated by the respective slice depths. Results indicated that mixes incorporating 5% silica fume at a low w/s ratio are relatively effective in retarding {sup 137}Cs migration when compared to the other formulations tested. Formulations with a w/s ratio of 0.33 consistently demonstrated better containment of the {sup 137}Cs solution compared to those formulations with a w/s ratio of 0.43. However, it was possible to obtain comparable {sup 137}Cs retardation at a higher w/s ratio if large amounts of fly ash were added to 5% EMSAC mixes at w/s = 0.43. The addition of 5% latex polymer did not improve the ability of cements to retard {sup 137}Cs ion migration under the curing conditions used.

  16. Deposition of atmospheric (137)Cs in Japan associated with the Asian dust event of March 2002. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hideshi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Shirato, Yasuhito; Ohkuro, Toshiya; Taniyama, Ichiro; Zhang, Tong-Hui


    Considerable deposition of (137)Cs was observed in the northwestern coastal area of Japan in March 2002. Since there were no nuclear explosions or serious nuclear accidents in the early 2000s, transport of previously contaminated dust appears to be the only plausible explanation for this event. In March 2002, there was a massive sandstorm on the East Asian continent, and the dust raised by the storm was transported across the sea to Japan. This dust originated in Mongolia and northeastern China, in an area distant from the Chinese nuclear test site at Lop Nor or any other known possible sources of (137)Cs. Our radioactivity measurements showed (137)Cs enrichment in the surface layer of grassland soils in the area of the sandstorm, which we attributed to accumulation as a result of past nuclear testing. We suggest that the grassland is a potential source of (137)Cs-bearing soil particles. Since the late 1990s, this area has experienced drought conditions, resulting in a considerable reduction of vegetation cover. We attribute the prodigious release of (137)Cs-bearing soil particles into the atmosphere during the sandstorm and the subsequent deposition of (137)Cs in Japan to this change.

  17. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia. (United States)

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I


    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  18. Influence on the mouse immune system of chronic ingestion of {sup 137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertho, Jean-Marc; Faure, Marie-Cecile; Louiba, Sonia; Tourlonias, Elie; Stefani, Johanna; Siffert, Baptiste; Paquet, Francois; Dublineau, Isabelle, E-mail: [IRSN, Laboratoire de Radiotoxicologie Experimentale, Fontenay aux Roses (France)


    The aim of this work was to determine the possible occurrence of damage to the immune system during the course of chronic ingestion of {sup 137}Cs. BALB/C mice were used, with {sup 137}Cs intake via drinking water at a concentration of 20 kBq l{sup -1}. Adults received {sup 137}Cs before mating and offspring were sacrificed at various ages between birth and 20 weeks. Phenotypic analysis of circulating blood cells and thymocytes did not show any significant modification of immune cell populations in animals ingesting {sup 137}Cs as compared with control animals, with the exception of a slight increase in Treg percentage at the age of 12 weeks. Functional tests, including proliferative response to mitogens such as phytohaemagglutinin, response to alloantigens in mixed lymphocyte reaction and immunoglobulin response to vaccine antigens such as tetanus toxin and keyhole limpet haemocyanin did not show any significant functional modification of the immune system in {sup 137}Cs-ingesting animals as compared with control animals. Overall, our results suggest that chronic ingestion of a low concentration of {sup 137}Cs in drinking water in the long term does not have any biologically relevant effect on the immune system.

  19. Distribution of cesium-137 in Japanese forest soils. Correlation with the contents of organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Chisato; Onda, Yuichi [School of Agricultural Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Hamajima, Yasunori [Department of Chemistry, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa (Japan)


    The spatial and vertical distributions of {sup 137}Cs in surface soils were surveyed and analyzed then correlated with the contents of organic carbon in the hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) plantation forest and secondary forest dominated by red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) in Japan. The spatial variation of {sup 137}Cs activity was observed in the surface soil around the red pine. The average activity of 16 samples around the tree is 42.4 Bq/kg and the standard deviation is 25.9 Bq/kg. This finding indicates the importance in the selection of a sampling site and the number of samples from the surface soils especially around a tree. For the vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs activity, it was found that the concentration in the surface soil is highest, 149 Bq/kg in the hinoki stand and 101 Bq/kg in the red pine stand, and decreases with depth. The relationship between {sup 137}Cs activity and carbon content in the forest soil was investigated in two undisturbed forest stands. The relations were more precisely expressed using an exponential equation than by a linear equation. From the same forest, similar regression equations were obtained. This indicates that the distribution of {sup 137}Cs could be characterized by the organic carbon content in an undisturbed forest. It is also suggested that the coefficient values in the regression equation help to define the movement of {sup 137}Cs accompanying the decomposition of organic matter

  20. Distribution of 137Cs In the Surface Soil of Serpong Nuclear Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubis


    Full Text Available The distribution of 137Cs in the surface soil layer of Serpong Nuclear Site (SNS was investigated by field sampling. The Objectives of the investigation is finding the profile of 137Cs distribution in the surface soil and the Tf value that can be used for estimation of radiation dose from livestock product-man pathways. The results indicates that the 137Cs activity in surface soil of SNS is 0.80 ± 0,29 Bq/kg, much lower than in the Antarctic. The contribution value of 137Cs from the operation of G.A.Siwabessy Reactor until now is undetectable. The Tf of 137Cs from surface soil to Panisetum Purpureum, Setaria Spha Celata and Imperata Cylindrica grasses were 0.71 ± 0.14, 0.84 ± 0.27 and 0.81 ± 0.11 respectively. The results show that value of the transfer factor of 137Cs varies between cultivated and uncultivated soil and also with the soils with thick humus

  1. Assessment of the caesium-137 flux adsorbed to suspended sediment in a reservoir in the contaminated Fukushima region in Japan. (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Golosov, Valentin; Shiiba, Michiharu; Hori, Tomoharu


    We estimated the flux of caesium-137 adsorbed to suspended sediment in the Kusaki Dam reservoir in the Fukushima region of eastern Japan, which was contaminated by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. The amount and rate of reservoir sedimentation and the caesium-137 concentration were validated based on the mixed-particle distribution and a sediment transport equation. The caesium-137 and sediment flux data suggested that wash load, suspended load sediment, and caesium-137 were deposited and the discharge and transport processes generated acute pollution, especially during extreme rainfall-runoff events. Additionally, we qualitatively assessed future changes in caesium-137 and sediment fluxes in the reservoir. The higher deposition and discharge at the start of the projection compared to the 2090s are most likely explained by the radioactive decay of caesium-137 and the effects of reservoir sedimentation. Predictions of the impacts of future climate on sediment and caesium-137 fluxes are crucial for environmental planning and management.

  2. A green analytical procedure for sensitive and selective determination of antimony in environmental and biological samples by ligandless cloud point extraction (United States)

    Rezaei, Vida; Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf


    A very simple, environmental friendly and sensitive method based on the cloud point extraction (CPE) separation and spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the determination of antimony. The method is founded on the color reaction of Sb (III) with iodide in acidic medium and subsequent micelle-mediated extraction of the product using the non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-114, in the absence of any chelating agent. The Effects of reaction and extraction parameters were studied and optimum conditions were established. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.80-95 ng mL-1 of antimony in the initial solution with r = 0.9994 (n = 9). Detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3Sb) was 0.23 ng mL-1 and the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for 10 and 70 ng mL-1 of antimony were 3.32 and 1.85% (n = 8), respectively. The proposed method was compared with other methods and favorably applied to evaluate this metal in some real samples, including seawater, antileishmanial drug (glucantime) and human serum.

  3. A new cloud point extraction procedure for determination of inorganic antimony species in beverages and biological samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan


    A new cloud-point extraction (CPE) for the determination of antimony species in biological and beverages samples has been established with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the fact that formation of the competitive ion-pairing complex of Sb(III) and Sb(V) with Victoria Pure Blue BO (VPB(+)) at pH 10. The antimony species were individually detected by FAAS. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration range for Sb(V) is 1-250 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.25 μg L(-1) and sensitive enhancement factor of 76.3 while the calibration range for Sb(III) is 10-400 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 5.15 μg L(-1) and sensitive enhancement factor of 48.3. The precision as a relative standard deviation is in range of 0.24-2.35%. The method was successfully applied to the speciative determination of antimony species in the samples. The validation was verified by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs).

  4. The use of silver nanoparticles as an effective modifier for the determination of arsenic and antimony by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (United States)

    Gunduz, S.; Akman, S.; Baysal, A.; Kahraman, M.


    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were proposed as a new chemical modifier for the elimination of interferences when determining arsenic and antimony in aqueous NaCl or Na 2SO 4 solutions and in sea-water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. For this purpose, the AgNPs were prepared simply by reducing silver nitrate with sodium citrate. The effects of pyrolysis and atomization temperatures and the amounts of interferents and modifiers on the sensitivities of these elements were investigated. In the presence of the proposed modifier, a pyrolysis temperature of at least 1100 °C for arsenic and 900 °C for antimony could be applied without the loss of analytes, and the interferences were greatly reduced to allow for interference-free determination. The detection limits ( N = 10, 3 σ) for arsenic and antimony were 0.022 ng and 0.046 ng, respectively. AgNPs are cheaper and more available compared to many other modifiers. No background was detected, and the blank values were negligible.

  5. Analysis of arsenic and antimony distribution within plants growing at an old mine site in Ouche (Cantal, France) and identification of species suitable for site revegetation. (United States)

    Jana, Ulrike; Chassany, Vincent; Bertrand, Georges; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse; Aubry, Emmanuel; Boudsocq, Simon; Laffray, Daniel; Repellin, Anne


    One of the objectives of this study was to assess the contamination levels in the tailings of an old antimony mine site located in Ouche (Cantal, France). Throughout the 1.3 ha site, homogenous concentrations of antimony and arsenic, a by-product of the operation, were found along 0-0.5 m-deep profiles. Maximum concentrations for antimony and arsenic were 5780 mg kg(-1) dry tailings and 852 mg kg(-1) dry tailings, respectively. Despite the presence of the contaminants and the low pH and organic matter contents of the tailings, several patches of vegetation were found. Botanical identification determined 12 different genera/species. The largest and most abundant plants were adult pines (Pinus sylvestris), birches (Betula pendula) and the bulrush (Juncus effusus). The distribution of the metalloids within specimens of each genera/species was analysed in order to deduce their concentration and translocation capacities. This was the second goal of this work. All plant specimens were highly contaminated with both metalloids. Most were root accumulators with root to shoot translocation factors <1. Whereas contamination levels were high overall, species with both a low translocation factor and a low root accumulation coefficient were identified as suitable candidates for the complete revegetation of the site. Species combining those characteristics were the perennials P. sylvestris, B. pendula, Cytisus scoparius and the herbaceous Plantago major, and Deschampsia flexuosa.

  6. 原子荧光光谱法测定环境空气中锑%Antimony Determination by Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    采用过氯乙烯滤膜采集环境空气中锑,盐酸-氢氟酸混酸体系微波消解滤膜,原子荧光光谱法测定锑。方法前处理操作过程简单、省时、酸用量少、环境污染小,方法的灵敏度和准确度都有很大的提高。采样体积为300L时,空气中锑的最低检出质量浓度为0.002mg/m3。%Antimony in air was sampled using perchloroethylene filter.The filter was dipped into hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid system and digested by microwave.Atomic fluorescence spectrometry was used to detect anti-mony after.This process is simple and time-saving with easy pretreatment,less amount of acid,and less negative impacts on environment.In addition,the accuracy and precision of the process is better than previous methods. The detection limit of antimony in air is 0.002mg/m3 when the volume of air sample is 300 liters when this process was applied.

  7. High frequency of skin reactions in patients with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals: a comparative approach using historical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Gustavo Adolfo Sierra


    Full Text Available We analyzed data from historical controls treated with meglumine antimoniate to compare the frequency of adverse events observed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with the same dose of meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals in an endemic area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Group A patients were treated in 2000 with the drug produced by Eurofarma Laboratórios Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil (lot A and group B patients were treated in 1996 with the reference drug produced by Rhodia Farma Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil (lot B. We observed an unusual higher frequency of skin reactions in group A patients. However, all type of adverse events observed in group A were also observed in group B. The physico-chemical analysis of these lots revealed that lot A had lower pH and higher concentration of total and trivalent antimony, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Our findings suggest that the skin reactions could be attributed to heavy metal contamination of lot A.

  8. High frequency of skin reactions in patients with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals: a comparative approach using historical controls. (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Flores M, Rico Marlon de Moraes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Macêdo, Vanize de Oliveira


    We analyzed data from historical controls treated with meglumine antimoniate to compare the frequency of adverse events observed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with the same dose of meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals in an endemic area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Group A patients were treated in 2000 with the drug produced by Eurofarma Laborat rios Ltda., S o Paulo, Brazil (lot A) and group B patients were treated in 1996 with the reference drug produced by Rhodia Farma Ltda., S o Paulo, Brazil (lot B). We observed an unusual higher frequency of skin reactions in group A patients. However, all type of adverse events observed in group A were also observed in group B. The physico-chemical analysis of these lots revealed that lot A had lower pH and higher concentration of total and trivalent antimony, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Our findings suggest that the skin reactions could be attributed to heavy metal contamination of lot A.

  9. Flame-retardancy of a Cellulosic Fabric by the Application of Synergistic Effect between Ammonium Bromide and Antimony (Ⅲ)Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOSTASHARI Seyed Morteza; MOAFI Hadi Fallah


    The synergistic effect between ammonium bromide and antimony(Ⅲ) oxide as a nondurable finish on the flammability of 100% woven plain cotton fabric(with a density of 144 g/m2,the number of yarns 21 per 10 mm),has been investigated in this study. The laundered totally-dried, weighed specimens were impregnated with suitable concentration individual aqueous ammonium bromide and/or antimony (Ⅲ)oxide suspension solutions and some sets weIle impregnated with appropriate admixed solutions of the both chemicals.A vertical flame spread test Was then carried-out to characterize the flammability of the samples.An acceptable synergistic effect was then experi.enced by using an admixed bath containing 0.1 molar ammonium bromide and O.05 unit formal antimony trioxide solutions for impartation of flame.retardancy to a cotton fabric.The optimum mass of the mixture required to lm.Dart flame-retardancy was about 3.64 g of anhydrous additives per 100 g of fabric.The results obtained are in favor 0f Wall Effect Theory.Moreover synergistic eflfect indicating dehydration of the treated substrate by using this combination via thermogravimetry could be deduced.

  10. Cobalt-60 and cesium-137 for the sterilization of food. Radiation treatment of food. Mit Kobalt 60 und Caesium 137 gegen Keime in Lebensmitteln. Strahlenbehandlung von Lebensmitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The brief article discusses the reasons justifying in the eyes of the authors the irradiation of food with ionizing readiation, the irradiation technique applied using cobalt-60 and cesium-137 as a radiation source, and the possible secondary effects of the method. (VHE).

  11. Temporal change in the {sup 137}Cs concentration ratio between coarse and fine particles in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitayama, K.; Ohse, K.; Kawatsu, K.; Tsukada, H. [Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima-shi, Fukushima 960-1260 (Japan)


    Many radionuclides were released into the atmosphere by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, which was caused by the tsunami following the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake on March 11, 2011. A major radionuclide released into the environment was radiocesium. Radiocesium has a long lifetime, which allows it to remain in the environment for a prolonged period. Most radiocesium exists in soil particles, and a potential source of radiocesium in coarse particles was resuspended from soil particles. Therefore, the {sup 137}Cs concentration ratios between coarse and fine particles were important for the evaluation of the radiocesium source. In this study, the {sup 137}Cs atmospheric concentrations in coarse and fine particles were measured in Fukushima. Airborne particles were collected from September 2012 to July 2013 at two sites, Fukushima and Date, which are 62 and 55 km, respectively, from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The coarse and fine particles were categorized by a 50% cutoff diameter of 1.1 μm. The sampling filters were exchanged once every half month. The radioactivity of {sup 137}Cs in the samples was measured for 10800-86400 s by the Ge detector. In Fukushima, the total {sup 137}Cs concentration in coarse and fine particles ranged from 20 to 370 μBq m{sup -3}: 7-270 μBq m{sup -3} for coarse particles and 10-170 μBq m{sup -3} for fine particles. In Date, the total concentration ranged from 100 to 310 μBq m{sup -3}: 60-220 μBq m{sup -3} for coarse particles and 10-170 μBq m{sup -3} for fine particles. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations at the two sites were found to be comparable. The average concentration at the two sites for the course and fine particles were 110 and 55 μBq m{sup -3}, respectively, and the total concentration was 166 μBq m{sup -3}. The {sup 137}Cs concentration in coarse particles accounted for 30%-90% of the total concentration, with an average of 67%. On comparing with the ratio before the study, the

  12. Distributions of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the soil of Uljin, South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Wan; Maeng, Seong Jin; Lee, Sang Hoon [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    For the purpose of baseline data collection and enhancement of environmental monitoring the distribution studies of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the soil of Uljin province was performed and the relation between surface soil activities and soil properties (pH, TOC and median of the surface soil) was analyzed. For 14 spots within 10 km from the NPP surface soil samples were collected and soils for depth profile were sampled for 3 spots in April 2011. Using γ-ray spectrometry with HPGe detector, the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs were determined and the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr were measured by counting β-activity of {sup 90}Y (in equilibrium with {sup 90}Sr) in a gas flow proportional counter. The concentration ranges of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were <0.479-39.6 Bq (kg-dry)-1 (avg. 7.51 Bq·(kg-dry)-1) and 0.209-1.85 Bq·(kg-dry)-1 (avg. 0.74 Bq·(kg-dry)-1) which were similar to the reported values from other regions in Korea. The activity ratio of {sup 137}Cs to {sup 90}Sr in surface soils was around 9.67, which is much bigger than the initial value of 1.75 for worldwide fallouts because of faster downward movement of {sup 90}Sr after fall-out than that of {sup 137}Cs. For depth profile studies soils were collected down to 40 cm depth for the locations of Deokgu, Hujeong and Maehwa. The {sup 137}Cs concentration distribution of the first two showed maximum values at top soils and decreased rapidly in exponential manner, while {sup 90}Sr showed two local maximum values for soils near top and about 30 cm depth. Through linear fittings between the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr concentrations of surface soil and pH, TOC and median of the surface soil, the only probable relationship obtained was between {sup 137}Cs and TOC (determination coefficient R2=0.6). The concentration ranges of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in Uljin were similar to the reported values from other regions in Korea. The only probable relationship obtained between activities and soil properties

  13. Proton conductivity in tungsten and antimony-modified titania ceramics prepared by the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichi, Flavio Maron [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof, Lineu Prestes, 748, Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tejedor-Tejedor, Maria Isabel; Anderson, Marc A. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 660 N. Park St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)


    Titania ceramic materials modified with 5% antimony and 5% tungsten were prepared by the sol-gel method. For the antimony-modified material, a treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was also performed, in order to obtain antimonic acid. The electric conductivity of the xerogels was measured at 25 {sup o}C in the relative humidity (RH) range 33-81%. At 25 {sup o}C, the electrical conductivity of the 'as prepared' 5% Sb ceramic varies from 2.02x10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} at 33% RH to 1.12x10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 81% R.H. For the material treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the conductivity varies from 1.56x10{sup -5} to 2.37x10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} for 33% and 81% R.H., respectively. For the tungsten-modified material, the conductivity varies from 1.02x10{sup -5} to 2.66x10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} for 33% and 81% R.H., respectively. The activation energies observed for proton conduction were 23.5 kJ mol{sup -1} for TiO{sub 2}/W 5%, 22.9 kJ mol{sup -1} for TiO{sub 2}/Sb 5% and 20.6 kJ mol{sup -1} for the material treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The highest activation energy was observed for untreated TiO{sub 2}:24.8 kJ mol{sup -1}. The conductivity values for the Sb-modified ceramics are superior to those reported previously for antimonic acid films, and approach the values reported for proton-conducting polymers, such as Nafion(R), making them a potential candidate for application as electrolytes in fuel cell systems.

  14. Pentavalent antimonial nephrotoxicity in the rat Disfunção tubular renal em ratos tratados com antimoniais pentavalentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Paulo R. Veiga


    Full Text Available Aspects of the renal function were assessed in rats treated with the pentavalent antimonials Glucantime (Meglumine Antimoniate, Rhodia or Pentostam (Sodium Stibogluconate, Wellcome. In dose of 30 mg of Sb v (Glucantime or Pentostam by 100 mg of weight by day for 30 days, renal functional changes were observed consisting of disturbances in urine concentrating capacity. Such disturbances were expressed by significantly low values of urine osmolality as compared to the basal values previous to the drugs. The decrease in urine osmolality was associated to a significant increase in urinary flow and in negative free-water clearance. There was no alteration in osmolar clearance and in fractional excretion of sodium. These observations suggest an interference of the drugs in the action of the antidiuretic hormone. The disturbance in urine concentration was reversible after a seven days period without the drugs administration. No significant histopathological alterations were observed in the kidneys of the rats treated with the drugs. On the other hand, the rats treated with a high dose of Pentostam (200 mg/100 grams of weight/day showed the functional and the histopathological alterations of the acute tubular necrosis.Estudou-se a função renal de ratos tratados com Glucantime (Antimoniato de Meglumine, Rhodia e Pentostam (Estibogluconato de Sódio, Wellcome na dose de 30 mg de Sb v por 100 g de peso por dia, durante 30 dias. Observou-se um distúrio na concentração urinária, que foi reversível 7 dias após cessada a administração das drogas. O estudo histopatológico do rim, por meio da microscopia óptica, não evidenciou alterações significativas. Por outro lado, ratos tratados com altas doses dos antimoniais (200 mg de Sb v por 100 g de peso por dia mostraram alterações funcionais e histopatológicas renais compatíveis com necrose tubular aguda.

  15. The Transfer and diffusion of Cesium 137 within forest ecosystem in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Murakami, Masashi [Community Ecology Lab., Biology Course, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)


    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Among the variety of radionuclides released from FDNPP, cesium 137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the most worrying radionuclide in the environment, with a half-life of 30 years. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest, the distribution and transportation of radioactive materials within forest ecosystems should be conscientiously monitored. In Europe, many studies reported that the {sup 137}Cs deposition caused by the Chernobyl accident has still been distributed in the litter and soil layers and has become a source for the soil-to-plant transfer. Most of these studies emphasize the 'stability' of {sup 137}Cs within forest ecosystems, because {sup 137}Cs are considered to be strongly and immediately fixed in clay minerals. Even though there are many studies of the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs in forest after several years of Chernobyl accident, very initial distribution and transfer of {sup 137}Cs in food web within one to two years after the deposition in forest ecosystems have never been examined. The evaluation of the initial dynamics of {sup 137}Cs in forest ecosystems should be quite important because of the increasing stability of {sup 137}Cs after the deposition. The accumulation and transfer of {sup 137}Cs through food web within forest ecosystems were examined by collecting various organisms at forests in Fukushima. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations, natural Cs and K concentrations, and delta {sup 15}N of the specimens were measured to evaluate the occurrence of bioaccumulation or bio-diffusion of {sup 137}Cs through tropic interaction within forest ecosystem. {sup 137}Cs was highly concentrated on leaf litters which had been deposited in autumn 2010, before the accident. This accumulated {sup 137}Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through

  16. Bayesian Approach to Model CD137 Signaling in Human M. tuberculosis In Vitro Responses (United States)

    Fernández Do Porto, Darío A.; Auzmendi, Jerónimo; Peña, Delfina; García, Verónica E.; Moffatt, Luciano


    Immune responses are qualitatively and quantitatively influenced by a complex network of receptor-ligand interactions. Among them, the CD137:CD137L pathway is known to modulate innate and adaptive human responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of this regulation remain unclear. In this work, we developed a Bayesian Computational Model (BCM) of in vitro CD137 signaling, devised to fit previously gathered experimental data. The BCM is fed with the data and the prior distribution of the model parameters and it returns their posterior distribution and the model evidence, which allows comparing alternative signaling mechanisms. The BCM uses a coupled system of non-linear differential equations to describe the dynamics of Antigen Presenting Cells, Natural Killer and T Cells together with the interpheron (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in the media culture. Fast and complete mixing of the media is assumed. The prior distribution of the parameters that describe the dynamics of the immunological response was obtained from the literature and theoretical considerations Our BCM applies successively the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to find the maximum a posteriori likelihood (MAP); the Metropolis Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to approximate the posterior distribution of the parameters and Thermodynamic Integration to calculate the evidence of alternative hypothesis. Bayes factors provided decisive evidence favoring direct CD137 signaling on T cells. Moreover, the posterior distribution of the parameters that describe the CD137 signaling showed that the regulation of IFN-γ levels is based more on T cells survival than on direct induction. Furthermore, the mechanisms that account for the effect of CD137 signaling on TNF-α production were based on a decrease of TNF-α production by APC and, perhaps, on the increase in APC apoptosis. BCM proved to be a useful tool to gain insight on the mechanisms of CD137 signaling

  17. Multi-decadal projections of surface and interior pathways of the Fukushima Cesium-137 radioactive plume (United States)

    Rossi, Vincent; Van Sebille, Erik; Sen Gupta, Alexander; Garçon, Véronique; England, Matthew H.


    Following the March 2011 Fukushima disaster, large amounts of water contaminated with radionuclides, including Cesium-137, were released into the Pacific Ocean. With a half-life of 30.1 years, Cs-137 has the potential to travel large distances within the ocean. Using an ensemble of regional eddy-resolving simulations, this study investigates the long-term ventilation pathways of the leaked Cs-137 in the North Pacific Ocean. The simulations suggest that the contaminated plume would have been rapidly diluted below 10,000 Bq/m3 by the energetic Kuroshio Current and Kurushio Extension by July 2011. Based on our source function of 22 Bq/m3, which sits at the upper range of the published estimates, waters with Cs-137 concentrations >10 Bq/m3 are projected to reach the northwestern American coast and the Hawaiian archipelago by early 2014. Driven by quasi-zonal oceanic jets, shelf waters north of 45°N experience Cs-137 levels of 10-30 Bq/m3 between 2014 and 2020, while the Californian coast is projected to see lower concentrations (10-20 Bq/m3) slightly later (2016-2025). This late but prolonged exposure is related to subsurface pathways of mode waters, where Cs-137 is subducted toward the subtropics before being upwelled from deeper sources along the southern Californian coast. The model suggests that Fukushima-derived Cs-137 will penetrate the interior ocean and spread to other oceanic basins over the next two decades and beyond. The sensitivity of our results to uncertainties in the source function and to inter-annual to multi-decadal variability is discussed.

  18. Depth distribution of cesium-137 in paddy fields across the Fukushima pollution plume in 2013. (United States)

    Lepage, Hugo; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Lefèvre, Irène; Laceby, J Patrick; Ayrault, Sophie


    Large quantities of radiocesium were deposited across a 3000 km(2) area northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant after the March 2011 accident. Although many studies have investigated the fate of (137)Cs in soil in the months following the accident, the depth distribution of this radioactive contaminant in rice paddy fields requires further examination after the typhoons that occurred in this region. Such investigations will help minimize potential human exposure in rice paddy fields. Radionuclide activity concentrations, organic content and particle size were analysed in 10 soil cores sampled from paddy fields in November 2013, 20 km north of the Fukushima power plant. Our results demonstrate limited depth migration of (137)Cs with the majority concentrated in the uppermost layers of soils (accident, between 46.8 and 98.7% of the total (137)Cs inventories was found within the top 5 cm of the soil surface, despite cumulative rainfall totalling 3300 mm. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between (137)Cs depth distribution and the other parameters. We attributed the maximum depth penetration of (137)Cs to grass cutting (73.6-98.5% of (137)Cs in the upper 5 cm) and farming operations (tillage - 46.8-51.6% of (137)Cs in the upper 5 cm). As this area is exposed to erosive events, ongoing decontamination works may increase soil erodibility. We therefore recommend the rapid removal of the uppermost - contaminated - layer of the soil after removing the vegetation to avoid erosion of contaminated material during the subsequent rainfall events. Further analysis is required to thoroughly understand the impacts of erosion on the redistribution of radiocesium throughout the Fukushima Prefecture.

  19. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 9}Sr uptake by sunflower cultivated under hydroponic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Valenova, Sarka [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vavrikova, Zuzana [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail:


    The {sup 9}Sr and {sup 137}Cs uptake by the plant Helianthus annuus L. was studied during cultivation in a hydroponic medium. The accumulation of radioactivity in plants was measured after 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of cultivation. About 12% of {sup 137}Cs and 20% of {sup 9}Sr accumulated during the experiments. We did not find any differences between the uptake of radioactive and stable caesium and strontium isotopes. Radioactivity distribution within the plant was determined by autoradiography. {sup 137}Cs was present mainly in nodal segments, leaf veins and young leaves. High activity of {sup 9}Sr was localized in leaf veins, stem, central root and stomata. The influence of stable elements or analogues on the transfer behaviour was investigated. The percentage of non-active caesium and strontium concentration in plants decreased with the increasing initial concentration of Cs or Sr in the medium. The percentage of {sup 9}Sr activity in plants decreased with increasing initial activity of the nuclide in the medium, but the activity of {sup 137}Cs in plants increased. The influence of K{sup +} and NH{sub 4} {sup +} on the uptake of {sup 137}Cs and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} on the uptake of {sup 9}Sr was tested. The highest accumulation of {sup 137}Cs (24-27% of the initial activity of {sup 137}Cs) was found in the presence of 10 mM potassium and 12 mM ammonium ions. Accumulation of about 22% of initial activity of {sup 9}Sr was determined in plants grown on the medium with 8 mM calcium ions.

  20. Distribution and uptake of {sup 137}Cs in relation to alkali metals in a perhumid montane forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, J.H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:; Chiu, C.Y. [Research Center for Biodiversity, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Lee, H.P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)


    We determined the content of radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) and alkali metals in soils, plants (2 ferns, a shrub and moss) and rainwater collected in an undisturbed forest ecosystem. The {sup 137}Cs activity and the isotopic ratio of {sup 137}Cs/Cs in the samples were used to interpret the distribution and uptake of {sup 137}Cs and the alkali metals in plants. As a whole, the {sup 137}Cs in plants was assimilated together with K but was not dependent on Cs. Different adaptations of fern species collected in ecological niches cause them to have different {sup 137}Cs/Cs ratios. Diplopterygium glaucum is distributed at the edges of the forest; it usually has shallow organic layers, and the root takes up more stable Cs from mineral layers, leading to lower {sup 137}Cs/Cs ratios than that in the understory Plagiogyria formosana and Rhododendron formosanum species. The steady supply of stable Cs through the uptake by D. glaucum from deep soils may gradually dilute the {sup 137}Cs concentration and thus explain the lower {sup 137}Cs/Cs ratio in the fern samples. The {sup 137}Cs is predicted to be proportional to the Cs content across plant species in the biological cycle once isotopic equilibrium is attained.

  1. [137Cs profile distribution character and its implication for soil erosion on Karst slopes of northwest Guangxi]. (United States)

    Feng, Teng; Chen, Hong-song; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Yun-peng; Wang, Ke-lin


    This paper studied the profile distribution characters of 137Cs and soil organic carbon (SOC) on the Karst slopes and in the fissures in typical peak-cluster depression in Northwest Guangxi, aimed to approach the applicability of 137Cs method on Karst slopes and the implication of 37Cs for the characteristics of slope soil erosion. In all test profiles, there was a significant correlation between 137Cs and SOC, indicating that both of them might have the same loss pathway. On the slopes under secondary forests, 137Cs mainly existed within the depth 0-24 cm. On the upper middle and middle slope sites, 137Cs had an exponential decrease with depth, indicating no or slight surface erosion; while on the foot slope site, the distribution pattern of 137Cs indicated severer erosion. On the slopes with cultivated lands, 137Cs distributed uniformly within the plough layer. In the upper middle and middle slopes profiles, 137Cs mainly existed in the depth around 15 cm and far less than the background value, indicating severe soil erosion; while in foot slope profiles, 137Cs was aggraded to the depth 45 cm. A discontinuous distribution of 137Cs in the profiles was detected on the foot slopes under secondary forests, on the upper middle and foot slopes of cultivated lands, and in the fissures, indicating that the soil particles on Karst slopes had a trend of losing with rainwater to the underground, but the loss quantity was negligible, compared with surface erosion.

  2. 渣滓溪锑钨矿区矿化富集规律%Mineralization enrichment regularities in Zhazixi antimony tungsten mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松; 卢志文; 刘大勇


    Ore-bearing strata in Zhazixi antimony tungsten mining area are all in upper Wuqiangxi ,the ore body mainly occurs in the hanging wall of the F 3 ,stibnite veins number a total of 77 ,and the common industrial ore bodies are 47;according to the distance away from F 3 ,Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲvein groups are classified .GroupⅠis the best in ore-bearing potentials,II vein group poorer and group Ⅲore veins poorest.The regularity of mineralization Zhazixi antimony tung-sten mining area is systematically summarized .The results show thatveins distribute in groups and belts ,laterally tren-ding SE on the whole;veins enrich in the intersection ,where inclination angle slows ,and in the tectonic expansions;the enrichment degree of main veins is closely related with F 3;the ore-bearing rock systemtakes on combined features of antimony and tungsten ,and the mineralization relation between antimony and tungsten are reflected by the fact that their respective orebodies occur in fractures of different sequence; the trending of antimony veins and tungsten strata cross each other nearly orthogonally ,indicating a symbiosis deposit of combined antimony and tungsten mineralization . There is symbiosis of antimony and tungsten in upper Zhazixi mining , suggesting great resource development poten-tials.%渣滓溪锑钨矿区赋矿地层均为五强溪上段,矿体主要赋存于F3的上盘,有编号的辉锑矿脉共计有77条,工业矿体47条;按与F3距离分为Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ脉组,以Ⅰ脉组含矿最佳,Ⅱ脉组次之,Ⅲ脉组含矿性较差。系统总结了渣滓溪锑钨矿区矿化富集规律,结果表明,矿脉成组成带分布,整体呈南东侧伏规律;矿脉明显交汇富集,在倾向上倾角变缓及构造膨胀部位富集,主脉富集程度与F3密切相关;赋矿岩系具有锑钨组合特征,锑钨成生关系反映在各自的矿体赋存于不同序次的断裂中;锑矿脉走向与钨矿层走向近于直交,为锑钨叠加成

  3. Individual Radiological Protection Monitoring of Utrok Atoll Residents Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Kehl, S; Brown, T; Martinelli, R; Hickman, D; Jue, T; Tumey, S; Langston, R


    This report contains individual radiological protection surveillance data developed during 2006 for adult members of a select group of families living on Utrok Atoll. These Group I volunteers all underwent a whole-body count to determine levels of internally deposited cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and supplied a bioassay sample for analysis of plutonium isotopes. Measurement data were obtained and the results compared with an equivalent set of measurement data for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes from a second group of adult volunteers (Group II) who were long-term residents of Utrok Atoll. For the purposes of this comparison, Group II volunteers were considered representative of the general population on Utrok Atoll. The general aim of the study was to determine residual systemic burdens of fallout radionuclides in each volunteer group, develop data in response to addressing some specific concerns about the preferential uptake and potential health consequences of residual fallout radionuclides in Group I volunteers, and generally provide some perspective on the significance of radiation doses delivered to volunteers (and the general Utrok Atoll resident population) in terms of radiological protection standards and health risks. Based on dose estimates from measurements of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes, the data and information developed in this report clearly show that neither volunteer group has acquired levels of internally deposited fallout radionuclides specific to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands that are likely to have any consequence on human health. Moreover, the dose estimates are well below radiological protection standards as prescribed by U.S. regulators and international agencies, and are very small when compared to doses from natural sources of radiation in the Marshall Islands and the threshold where radiation health effects could be either medically diagnosed in an individual or epidemiologically discerned in a

  4. 42 CFR 137.211 - How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in... (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in savings as described in § 137.210. 137.211 Section 137.211 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Savings § 137.211 How...

  5. Influence of ammoniumferri(III)hexacyanoferrat(II) on the incorporation and decorporation of radiocesium ( sup 137 Cs). Einfluss von Ammoniumeisen(III)-hexacyanoferrat(II) auf die Inkorporation und Dekorporation von Radiocaesium ( sup 137 Cs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawielitzki, K.; Souffrant, W.B. (Forschungszentrum fuer Tierproduktion, Rostock (Germany, F.R.). Bereich Tierernaehrung)


    Two experiments each with 12 growing rats as model-animals were conducted for studying the diminution of the {sup 137}Cs-absorption from radiocesium-contaminated foods as well as the enhanced excretion of incorporated {sup 137}Cs by food-supple mentation with 400 ppm ammoniumferrihexacyanoferrat (GIESE-salt). The {sup 137}Cs excretion via faeces was in creased due to GIESE-salt, forming an insoluble Cs-complex. The incorporation of radiocesium was reduced. The excretion of {sup 137}Cs already incorporated can also be stimulated by supplementation of the hexacyanocomplex, but not in the same degree for all organs and tissues. The results underline, that ammoniumferrihexacyanoferrat as food supplement is qualified for decreasing of {sup 137}Cs-incorporation and for accelerated excretion of incorporated {sup 137}Cs in animals. (orig.).

  6. Correlating microbial community profiles with geochemical conditions in a watershed heavily contaminated by an antimony tailing pond. (United States)

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Tang, Song; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Lan, Xiaolong; Sun, Weimin


    Mining activities have introduced various pollutants to surrounding aquatic and terrestrial environments, causing adverse impacts to the environment. Indigenous microbial communities are responsible for the biogeochemical cycling of pollutants in diverse environments, indicating the potential for bioremediation of such pollutants. Antimony (Sb) has been extensively mined in China and Sb contamination in mining areas has been frequently encountered. To date, however, the microbial composition and structure in response to Sb contamination has remained overlooked. Sb and As frequently co-occur in sulfide-rich ores, and co-contamination of Sb and As is observed in some mining areas. We characterized, for the first time, the microbial community profiles and their responses to Sb and As pollution from a watershed heavily contaminated by Sb tailing pond in Southwest China. The indigenous microbial communities were profiled by high-throughput sequencing from 16 sediment samples (535,390 valid reads). The comprehensive geochemical data (specifically, physical-chemical properties and different Sb and As extraction fractions) were obtained from river water and sediments at different depths as well. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) demonstrated that a suite of in situ geochemical and physical factors significantly structured the overall microbial community compositions. Further, we found significant correlations between individual phylotypes (bacterial genera) and the geochemical fractions of Sb and As by Spearman rank correlation. A number of taxonomic groups were positively correlated with the Sb and As extractable fractions and various Sb and As species in sediment, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in Sb biogeochemical cycling.

  7. Photocurrent Generation by Photosynthetic Purple Bacterial Reaction Centers Interfaced with a Porous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide (ATO) Electrode. (United States)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Zhang, HaoJie; Mieritz, Daniel; Volosin, Alex; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Yan, Hao; Seo, Dong-Kyun; Lin, Su; Woodbury, Neal W


    The ability to exchange energy and information between biological and electronic materials is critical in the development of hybrid electronic systems in biomedicine, environmental sensing, and energy applications. While sensor technology has been extensively developed to collect detailed molecular information, less work has been done on systems that can specifically modulate the chemistry of the environment with temporal and spatial control. The bacterial photosynthetic reaction center represents an ideal photonic component of such a system in that it is capable of modifying local chemistry via light-driven redox reactions with quantitative control over reaction rates and has inherent spectroscopic probes for monitoring function. Here a well-characterized model system is presented, consisting of a transparent, porous electrode (antimony-doped tin oxide) which is electrochemically coupled to the reaction center via a cytochrome c molecule. Upon illumination, the reaction center performs the 2-step, 2-electron reduction of a ubiquinone derivative which exchanges with oxidized quinone in solution. Electrons from the electrode then move through the cytochrome to reoxidize the reaction center electron donor. The result is a facile platform for performing redox chemistry that can be optically and electronically controlled in time and space.

  8. Quadrupole coupling constants and isomeric Moessbauer shifts for halogen-containing gold, platinum, niobium, tantalum and antimony compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poleshchuk, O. K., E-mail: [Tomsk State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Branchadell, V. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica (Spain); Ritter, R. A.; Fateev, A. V. [Tomsk State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation)


    We have analyzed by means of Density functional theory calculations the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of a range of gold, antimony, platinum, niobium and tantalum compounds. The geometrical parameters and halogen nuclear quadrupole coupling constants obtained by these calculations substantially corresponded to the data of microwave and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy. An analysis of the quality of the calculations that employ pseudo-potentials and all-electron basis sets for the halogen compounds was carried out. The zero order regular approximation (ZORA) method is shown to be a viable alternative for the calculation of halogen coupling constants in molecules. In addition, the ZORA model, in contrast to the pseudo-potential model, leads to realistic values of all metal nuclear quadrupole coupling constants. From Klopman's approach, it follows that the relationship between the electrostatic bonding and covalent depends on the nature of the central atom. The results on Moessbauer chemical shifts are also in a good agreement with the coordination number of the central atom.

  9. Fluorescence studies of Yb{sup 3+} ions in lead antimony borate glass-Influence of crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purnachand, N. [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sri Sarathi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Nuzvid 521 201, A.P. (India); Satyanarayana, T. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University-Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid 521 201, A.P. (India); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technical University of Czesdochowa, Aleja Armii, Krajowej 17/19, PL-42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Physics Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Veeraiah, N., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University-Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid 521 201, A.P. (India)


    PbO-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses doped with different concentrations of Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 (in mol%) have been synthesized and subsequently crystallized. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM and DSC techniques. The optical absorption and luminescence spectra have exhibited bands due to {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} {yields} {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} and {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} {yields} {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} transitions, respectively. Partial spectral overlap between emission and absorption bands has been observed. From these spectra, the absorption and emission cross-sections and fluorescence lifetime of Yb{sup 3+} ions has been evaluated. Following the obtained data, it was established that there is a less radiative trapping and enhanced fluorescence lifetime of Yb{sup 3+} ions in the glass ceramic samples with respect to those of amorphous samples. The reasons for such variations have been discussed in the light of variations in the oxidation states of antimony ions and changes in the structural units in the vicinity of Yb{sup 3+} ions in the glass network.

  10. Therapeutic trial of sodium antimony gluconate alone and in combination with ketoconazole in post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi S


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drugs used in PKDL include parenteral sodium antimony gluconate (SAG, amphotericin-B, pentamidine, and ketoconazole (KTZ. SAG is the most effective one. Given alone, SAG has to be given for a long duration, leading to poor patient compliance and treatment failure. This study was carried out to compare the effectiness of SAG alone and a combination of SAG and KTZ for sixty days. METHODS: Ten patients of PKDL were included in the study. Five patients (Group A were given SAG intravenously, in the dose of 20 mg/kg per day and five (Group B were given SAG (intravenously 20 mg/kg per day and KTZ (200 mg twice daily orally. Both treatment regimens were given for sixty days. RESULTS: In Group A, the nodules and/or plaques showed approximate 80-85% clinical improvement, and macules showed 25-30% improvement. In group B (SAG + KTZ, there was 90-95% clinical improvement in the nodules and/or plaques and 25-30% in macules. CONCLUSION: This study suggests the therapeutic superiority of the combination treatment regimen in a shorter duration but is not conclusive as the number of patients was low. Further trials are recommended.

  11. Profiling microbial community in a watershed heavily contaminated by an active antimony (Sb) mine in Southwest China. (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Dong, Yiran; Tang, Song; Krumins, Valdis; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Xiao, Tangfu


    Located in Southwest China, the Chahe watershed has been severely contaminated by upstream active antimony (Sb) mines. The extremely high concentrations of Sb make the Chahe watershed an excellent model to elucidate the response of indigenous microbial activities within a severe Sb-contaminated environment. In this study, water and surface sediments from six locations in the Chahe watershed with different levels of Sb contamination were analyzed. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed more than 40 phyla from the domain Bacteria and 2 phyla from the domain Archaea. Sequences assigned to the genera Flavobacterium, Sulfuricurvum, Halomonas, Shewanella, Lactobacillus, Acinetobacter, and Geobacter demonstrated high relative abundances in all sequencing libraries. Spearman's rank correlations indicated that a number of microbial phylotypes were positively correlated with different speciation of Sb, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in microbial Sb cycling. Canonical correspondence analysis further demonstrated that geochemical parameters, including water temperature, pH, total Fe, sulfate, aqueous Sb, and Eh, significantly structured the overall microbial community in Chahe watershed samples. Our findings offer a direct and reliable reference to the diversity of microbial communities in the presence of extremely high Sb concentrations, and may have potential implications for in situ bioremediation strategies of Sb contaminated sites.

  12. The Immunology of a Healing Response in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Treated with Localized Heat or Systemic Antimonial Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lakhal-Naouar

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of systemic antimonial (sodium stibogluconate, Pentostam, SSG treatment versus local heat therapy (Thermomed for cutaneous leishmaniasis was studied previously and showed similar healing rates. We hypothesized that different curative immune responses might develop with systemic and local treatment modalities.We studied the peripheral blood immune cells in a cohort of 54 cutaneous Leishmania major subjects treated with SSG or TM. Multiparameter flow cytometry, lymphoproliferative assays and cytokine production were analyzed in order to investigate the differences in the immune responses of subjects before, on and after treatment.Healing cutaneous leishmaniasis lead to a significant decline in circulating T cells and NKT-like cells, accompanied by an expansion in NK cells, regardless of treatment modality. Functional changes involved decreased antigen specific CD4+ T cell proliferation (hyporesponsiveness seen with CD8+ T cell depletion. Moreover, the healing (or healed state was characterized by fewer circulating regulatory T cells, reduced IFN-γ production and an overall contraction in polyfunctional CD4+ T cells.Healing from cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a dynamic process that alters circulating lymphocyte populations and subsets of T, NK and NKT-like cells. Immunology of healing, through local or systemic treatments, culminated in similar changes in frequency, quality, and antigen specific responsiveness with immunomodulation possibly via a CD8+ T cell dependent mechanism. Understanding the evolving immunologic changes during healing of human leishmaniasis informs protective immune mechanisms.

  13. Dual/multiphase MWCNT-antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticle composites: an effective covalent fabrication approach (United States)

    Harel, Yifat; Lellouche, Jean-Paul


    Three innovative preparation pathways for antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)-multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites have been successfully tested. The designed covalent mode of attachment of both phases, i.e., 10-20 nm-sized ATO nanoparticles (NPs) onto 10-50-μm-long oxidized-MWCNTs (Ox-MWCNTs) and onto polythiophene-MWCNTs (PolyTh-MWCNTs) enabled the preparation of biphasic and triphasic composites, respectively. Triphasic composites made use of poly(thiophene-3-yl-acetic acid) or poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene carboxylic acid polymers covalently grown/grafted onto Ox-MWCNTs, disclosing an outer polyCOOH shell available for later chemical manipulations. The whole set of resulting bi/triphasic ATO-decorated MWCNT composites have been fully analyzed for structural and morphology coherency with emphasis on both quantity and distribution of ATO NPs onto the MWCNT surface. In general, connecting polyTh polymeric phases improved ATO NP dissemination within composites. Moreover, the influence of such polyTh phases on the solid phase conductivity of resulting composites before and after heat sintering (350 °C, 3 h) has been readily investigated using an effective Powder Resistivity Measuring System. Such studies and relevant outputs clearly form a serious basis toward the development of various conductivity-relating applications and/or devices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon Novato Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The favorable outcome of the treatment of a disease is influenced by the adherence to therapy. Our objective was to assess factors associated with adherence to treatment of patients included in a clinical trial of equivalence between the standard and alternative treatment schemes with meglumine antimoniate (MA in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Between 2008 and 2011, 57 patients with CL were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect socioeconomic data. The following methods were used for adherence monitoring: counting of vial surplus, monitoring card, Morisky test and modified Morisky test (without the question regarding the schedule; we observed 82.1% (vial return, 86.0% (monitoring card, 66.7% (Morisky test and 86.0% (modified Morisky test adherence. There was a strong correlation between the method of vial counting and the monitoring card and modified Morisky test. A significant association was observed between greater adherence to treatment and low dose of MA, as well as with a lower number of people sleeping in the same room. We recommend the use of the modified Morisky test to assess adherence to treatment of CL with MA, because it is a simple method and with a good performance, when compared to other methods.

  15. A novel voltammetric sensor based on carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles of antimony tin oxide for the determination of ractopamine. (United States)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet


    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanoparticles of antimony tin oxide (ATO). The surface layer was characterized by scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method (EDX) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The proposed electrode was assessed in respect to the electro-oxidation of ractopamine. Compared with a bare GCE and a GCE electrode modified with CNTs, the ATONPs/CNTs/GCE exhibited a great catalytic activity towards the oxidation of ractopamine with a well-defined anodic peak at 600 mV. The current response was linear with the concentration of ractopamine over the range from 10 to 240 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 nM. The proposed electrode enabled the selective determination of ractopamine in the presence of high concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The proposed electrode was successfully applied for the determination of ractopamine in feed and urine samples. The sensitive and selective determination of ractopamine makes the developed method of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use and doping control purposes.

  16. Use of cloud-point preconcentration for spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of antimony in biological and environmental samples. (United States)

    El-Sharjawy, Abdel-Azeem M; Amin, Alaa S


    This work presents a cloud-point extraction process using the micelle-mediated extraction method for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species in biological and environmental samples as a prior preconcentration step to their spectrophotometric determination. The analytical system is based on the selective reaction between Sb(III) and 3-dichloro-6-(3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)quinoxaline (DCHNAQ) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and potassium iodide at pH 4.5. Total Sb concentration was determined after reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in the presence of potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The optimal reaction conditions and extraction were studied, and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limits of detection and quantification, linear range, preconcentration, improvement factors) were obtained. Linearity for Sb(III) was obeyed in the range of 0.2-20 ng ml(-1). The detection and quantification limits for the determination of Sb(III) were 0.055 and 0.185 ng ml(-1), respectively. The method has a lower detection limit and wider linear range, inexpensive instrument, and low cost, and is more sensitive compared with most other methods. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also studied. The method was applied to the determination of Sb(III) in the presence of Sb(V) and total antimony in blood plasma, urine, biological, and water samples.

  17. Quantitative study of the effect of deposition temperature on antimony incorporation in InAs/InAsSb superlattices (United States)

    Haugan, H. J.; Mahalingam, K.; Szmulowicz, F.; Brown, G. J.


    InAs/InAsSb superlattices (SLs) are being actively explored for infrared detector applications owing to their superior carrier lifetimes. However, antimony (Sb) segregation during growth can alter the properties of the grown material. In this study, using X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry, authors quantify the compositional profile of individual layers and establish epitaxial parameters for high-quality InAs/InAsSb SL materials. Epitaxial conditions are determined for a nominal 7.7 nm InAs/3.5 nm InAs0.7Sb0.3 SL structure tailored for an approximately 6 μm response at 150 K. Since the growth of mixed anion alloys is complicated by the potential reaction of As2 with Sb surfaces, authors varied the deposition temperature (Tg) in order to control As2 surface reactions on Sb surfaces. Authors find that Sb incorporation is suppressed by 21%, with the increase of Tg from 395 to 440 °C. This incorporation likely stems from Sb surface segregation during InAsSb layer growth that is driven by the As-Sb exchange mechanism, which can lead to significant compositional and dimensional deviations from the intended design.

  18. Microbial degradation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS), an e-plastic with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide. (United States)

    Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Mohan, Arya J; Nair, Nimisha R; Bhaskar, Thallada; Pandey, Ashok


    Accumulation of electronic waste has increased catastrophically and out of that various plastic resins constitute one of the leading thrown out materials in the electronic machinery. Enrichment medium, containing high impact polystyrene (HIPS) with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide as sole carbon source, was used to isolate microbial cultures. The viability of these cultures in the e-plastic containing mineral medium was further confirmed by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction test. Four cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sedlakii, Alcaligenes sp. and Brevundimonas diminuta. Biodegradation experiments were carried out in flask level and gelatin supplementation (0.1% w/v) along with HIPS had increased the degradation rate to a maximum of 12.4% (w/w) within 30days. This is the first report for this kind of material. The comparison of FTIR, NMR, and TGA analysis of original and degraded e-plastic films revealed structural changes under microbial treatment. Polystyrene degradation intermediates in the culture supernatant were also detected using HPLC analysis. The gravity of biodegradation was validated by morphological changes under scanning electron microscope. All isolates displayed depolymerase activity to substantiate enzymatic degradation of e-plastic.

  19. Determination of {sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in environmental samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, B.C., E-mail: [GAU-Radioanalytical, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phil E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)


    Radionuclides of caesium are environmentally important since they are formed as significant high yield fission products ({sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) and activation products ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 136}Cs) during nuclear fission. They originate from a range of nuclear activities such as weapons testing, nuclear reprocessing and nuclear fuel cycle discharges and nuclear accidents. Whilst {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 136}Cs are routinely measurable at high sensitivity by gamma spectrometry, routine detection of long-lived {sup 135}Cs by radiometric methods is challenging. This measurement is, however, important given its significance in long-term nuclear waste storage and disposal. Furthermore, the {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio varies with reactor, weapon and fuel type, and accurate measurement of this ratio can therefore be used as a forensic tool in identifying the source(s) of nuclear contamination. The shorter-lived activation products {sup 134}Cs and {sup 136}Cs have a limited application but provide useful early information on fuel irradiation history and have importance in health physics. Detection of {sup 135}Cs (and {sup 137}Cs) is achievable by mass spectrometric techniques; most commonly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as thermal ionisation (TIMS), accelerator (AMS) and resonance ionisation (RIMS) techniques. The critical issues affecting the accuracy and detection limits achievable by this technique are effective removal of barium to eliminate isobaric interferences arising from {sup 135}Ba and {sup 137}Ba, and elimination of peak tailing of stable {sup 133}Cs on {sup 135}Cs. Isobaric interferences can be removed by chemical separation, most commonly ion exchange chromatography, and/or instrumental separation using an ICP-MS equipped with a reaction cell. The removal of the peak tailing interference is dependent on the instrument used for final measurement. This review summarizes and compares the analytical procedures

  20. In vivo effects of chronic contamination with 137 cesium on testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignard, Elise; Gueguen, Yann; Grison, Stephane; Gourmelon, Patrick; Souidi, Maamar [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiological Protection and Human Health Division, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Laboratory of Experimental Toxicology, BP no 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A. [UMR Universite Blaise Pascal-CNRS 6547, Physiologie Comparee et Endocrinologie Moleculaire, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d' Auvergne, Aubiere Cedex (France)


    More than 20 years after Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion, radionuclids are still mainly bound to the organic soil layers. The radiation exposure is dominated by the external exposure to gamma-radiation following the decay of {sup 137}Cs and by soil-to-plant-to-human transfer of {sup 137}Cs into the food chain. Because of this persistence of contamination with {sup 137}Cs, questions regarding public health for people living in contaminated areas were raised. We investigated the biological effects of chronic exposure to {sup 137}Cs on testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis metabolisms in rat. Animals were exposed to radionuclide in their drinking water for 9 months at a dose of 6,500 Bq/l (610 Bq/kg/day). Cesium contamination decreases the level of circulating 17{beta}-estradiol, and increases corticosterone level. In testis, several nuclear receptors messenger expression is disrupted; levels of mRNA encoding Liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}) and LXR{beta} are increased, whereas farnesoid X receptor mRNA presents a lower level. Adrenal metabolism presents a paradoxical decrease in cyp11a1 gene expression. In conclusion, our results show for the first time molecular and hormonal modifications in testicular and adrenal steroidogenic metabolism, induced by chronic contamination with low doses of {sup 137}Cs. (orig.)

  1. Spatial variability of 137Cs in the soil of Belgrade region (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković-Mandić Ljiljana J.


    Full Text Available Among radionuclides in the soil deposited after Chernobyl accident, 137Cs poses considerable environmental and radiological problems because of its relatively long half-life (30.17 y, its abundance in the fallout, high mobility and similarity to potassium as the major plant nutrient. In this study the samples of undisturbed surface soil (n=250 were taken from 70 regions in Belgrade, during 2006-2010. The specific activities of 137Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Based on obtained results external effective dose rates were calculated according to the internationally accepted activity to dose rate conversion equations. The specific activities of 137Cs were geographically mapped. The presence of 137Cs has been detected in all soil samples, with high variability of its specific activity, ranging from 3 Bq kg-1 to 87 Bq kg-1. The mean specific activity of 137Cs was 23 Bq kg-1 and the corresponding absorbed dose was 1.5 nSv h-1. The observed range reflects the inhomogeneity of the deposition process following the Chernobyl accident. It could also be attributed to topographic differences and spatial differences in physicochemical and biological soil properties, soil type and vegetation cover. The results of the present study could be valuable database for future estimations of the impact of radioactive pollution.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Sedimentation from soil erosion is a critical reservoir watershed management issue. Due to the difficulty of field investigations, empirical formulas are commonly used to estimate the soil erosion rate. However, these estimations are often far from accurate. An effective alternative to estimating soil erosion is to analyze the spatial variation of 137Cs inventory in the soil. 137Cs can be adsorbed by the soil and is widely assumed to change its distribution only when disturbed by rainfall and human activities. Thus, 137Cs distributed in soils can be a useful environmental tracer to estimate soil erosion. In this study, the net soil loss estimate is 108,346 t/yr and the gross erosion and net erosion rates are 10.1 and 9 t/ha yr respectively. The sediment delivery ratio is therefore estimated to be 0.9 based on the two erosion rates. Because of the steep hillsides in the watershed, only 10% of the sediment yield stayed in the deposition sites and 90% was transported to the river as the sediment output. Soil erosion estimates from spatial variations of the 137Cs activity in the Baishi river watershed showed satisfactory accuracy when compared to sediment yield data. Using soil 137Cs concentrations is therefore a feasible method for estimating soil loss or deposition in Taiwan. Data sampling, analysis and result of this approach are given in this paper.

  3. (137)Cs, (40)K and (210)Po in marine mammals from the southern Baltic Sea. (United States)

    Ciesielski, Tomasz; Góral, Marta; Szefer, Piotr; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Bojanowski, Ryszard


    This study provides information on baseline concentrations of the radionuclides Cesium-137, Potassium-40 and Polonium-210 in sea mammals from the Baltic Sea. The radionuclides were analyzed in the liver, kidney and muscle of harbor porpoises, striped dolphins, and gray and ringed seals from the Polish coast by γ- and α-spectrometry. Median (137)Cs activities were 14.8, 13.2 and 23.2 Bq kg(-1) w.w. in the liver, kidney and muscles, respectively. Activities of (40)K and (210)Po in the respective tissues were found to be 79.1, 79.8 and 111 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K and 58.1, 59.2 and 32.9 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po. The measured (137)Cs concentrations were extraordinarily high in comparison to those reported in sea mammals from other locations. However, dose assessments did not imply health effects from (137)Cs exposure in Baltic Sea mammals. Correlations between (137)Cs tissue activities and reported sea water concentrations highlight the potential use of marine mammals for biomonitoring purposes.

  4. Determination of low (137)Cs concentration in seawater using ammonium 12-molybdophosphate adsorption and chemical separation method. (United States)

    Park, J H; Chang, B U; Kim, Y J; Seo, J S; Choi, S W; Yun, J Y


    A new method has been developed for analyzing (137)Cs in a small volume of seawater. Ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP) was used two times during pretreatment procedure. The first step was to adsorb (137)Cs in seawater samples into AMP in order to reduce sample volume, and the second was to remove (87)Rb, interference nuclide for beta counting. The AMP adsorbing (137)Cs was dissolved by sodium hydroxide solution, and then (137)Cs was finally formed to be cesium chloroplatinate precipitate by adding 10% hexachloroplatinic acid. The beta rays emitted from (137)Cs were measured with a low background gas-proportional alpha/beta counter. This method was applied to several seawater samples taken in the East Sea of Korea. Compared to the routinely used gamma-spectrometry method, this new AMP method was reliable and suitable for analyzing (137)Cs in deep seawater.

  5. Adsorption of Cs-137 and U-238 in semi-arid soils; Adsorcion de Cs-137 y U-238 en suelos semiaridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez T, U. O. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez R, E., E-mail: [Universidad Politecnica del Valle de Toluca, Carretera Toluca-Almoloya de Juarez Km. 5.6, Santiaguito Tlalcilalcali, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Is of great importance to determine the adsorption properties of the soils where radioactive wastes are stored, fundamentally of the radioisotopes contained in these wastes, with the purpose of knowing like will be their behavior in the event of happening radionuclide migration toward the surrounding means. Therefore, in this work the adsorption properties of {sup 137}Cs{sup +} and {sup 238}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in soils coming from the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes are studied. Was studied the effect of the soil type and the particle size of the soil in the adsorption properties of Cs (I) and U (Vi). 13 soil samples and six different particle sizes were analyzed. The adsorption studies were carried out by the radiotracers technique in static way. The results indicate an important adsorption affinity toward the Cs-137 and a very vulnerable affinity for the {sup 238}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. (author)

  6. Levels of 137Cs in muddy sediments on the seabed in the Bay of Cadiz (Spain). Part II. Model of vertical migration of (137)Cs. (United States)

    Ligero, R A; Barrera, M; Casas-Ruiz, M


    This second part of the study reports the development of a model to describe the vertical migration of the artificial radioisotope (137)Cs in the sediment column on the seabed of the Bay of Cadiz. The application of the model provides an overall picture of the process of sedimentation in the Inner Bay of Cadiz. The spatial distribution of the rate of sedimentation enables us to study the sources of sediments and the means by which the sediments have been transported. A method has been derived from the rate of sedimentation to perform the dating of the layers of sediment. The model describes the behaviour of (137)Cs in the area under study, taking into account the time of residence in the zones that are the source of accumulation, the origin of the sedimentary material, together with the diffusion of the radionuclide in the sediment of the seabed.

  7. Deciphering CD137 (4-1BB) signaling in T-cell costimulation for translation into successful cancer immunotherapy. (United States)

    Sanchez-Paulete, Alfonso R; Labiano, Sara; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria E; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Etxeberria, Iñaki; Bolaños, Elixabet; Lang, Valérie; Rodriguez, Manuel; Aznar, M Angela; Jure-Kunkel, Maria; Melero, Ignacio


    CD137 (4-1BB, TNF-receptor superfamily 9) is a surface glycoprotein of the TNFR family which can be induced on a variety of leukocyte subsets. On T and NK cells, CD137 is expressed following activation and, if ligated by its natural ligand (CD137L), conveys polyubiquitination-mediated signals via TNF receptor associated factor 2 that inhibit apoptosis, while enhancing proliferation and effector functions. CD137 thus behaves as a bona fide inducible costimulatory molecule. These functional properties of CD137 can be exploited in cancer immunotherapy by systemic administration of agonist monoclonal antibodies, which increase anticancer CTLs and enhance NK-cell-mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Reportedly, anti-CD137 mAb and adoptive T-cell therapy strongly synergize, since (i) CD137 expression can be used to select the T cells endowed with the best activities against the tumor, (ii) costimulation of the lymphocyte cultures to be used in adoptive T-cell therapy can be done with CD137 agonist antibodies or CD137L, and (iii) synergistic effects upon coadministration of T cells and antibodies are readily observed in mouse models. Furthermore, the signaling cytoplasmic tail of CD137 is a key component of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors that are used to redirect T cells against leukemia and lymphoma in the clinic. Ongoing phase II clinical trials with agonist antibodies and the presence of CD137 sequence in these successful chimeric antigen receptors highlight the importance of CD137 in oncoimmunology.

  8. The effects of using Cesium-137 teletherapy sources as a radiological weapon (dirty bomb)

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, Theodore


    While radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis do not pose a great security risk due to their low level of radioactivity, therapeutic sources are extremely radioactive and can presumably be used as a radiological weapon. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 sources are the most common ones used in radiotherapy with over 10,000 of such sources currently in use worldwide, especially in the developing world, which cannot afford modern accelerators. The present study uses computer simulations to investigate the effects of using Cesium-137 sources from teletherapy devices as a radiological weapon. Assuming a worst-case terrorist attack scenario, we estimate the ensuing cancer mortality, land contamination, evacuation area, as well as the relevant evacuation, decontamination, and health costs in the framework of the linear risk model. The results indicate that an attack with a Cesium-137 dirty bomb in a large metropolitan city (especially one that would involve several teletherapy sources) although would not cause any sta...

  9. Violence and hatred in Psalm 137: The psalm in its ancient social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Steenkamp


    Full Text Available Psalm 137 has become notorious for the brutality and bloodthirstiness that characterise its last verses. In the face of many past criticisms which rejected the Old Testament as a book of violence, both Christians� and� Jews need to take texts such as Psalm 137 seriously and interpret them against the� social� and cultural customs of their time. Before Psalm 137 can be judged against the ethical norms of modern societies, the text must first be understood in its ancient context. The aim of this paper is to show that a better understanding of the socio-cultural background of the Psalm may enhance our understanding of vv. 7-9, as well as of the Psalm as a whole. The hypothesis is that the social values of honour and shame feature so prominently in the Psalm that they form a key to the interpretation of the poem.

  10. Ruthenium-103, iodine-131, tellurium-132, and cesium-137 in air after the Chernobyl event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.K.; Faller, S.H.; Kuroda, P.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.)


    Concentrations of airborne fission products during the month following the Chernobyl event, were analyzed by gamma-ray counting of 283 air filter samples that were collected at 20 different locations in the western United States. While the presence of {sup 103}Ru, {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs was detected in many of the air filter samples, 78.2-hour {sup 132}Te was detected in only 19 samples all from the sampling stations located in the State of Nevada. The results obtained in this study indicate that the release of {sup 131}I from the Chernobyl reactor was roughly 50 percent greater than that of {sup 137}Cs, while the release of {sup 137}Cs was about 8 times that of {sup 103}Ru and 25 percent greater than that of {sup 132}Te. (orig.).

  11. Joint monitoring of hydrosedimentological events and transport of caesium 137 in a small basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preti, F.; Lubello, C.; Becchi, I. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Civil Engineering)


    Research was carried out to analyse the transport of Caesium 137 in a small calcareous watershed (3.6 Km[sup 2]) of the Tuscan Appennines (Central Italy). The presence of the radionuclide 137 Cs, adsorbed by the soil, is due to the nuclear tests in the 1960s-70s and to the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. For representation of the transport dynamics of 137 Cs a distributed parameters model has been developed, in order to consider the variability of the physical characteristics of the area. The results of the simulation, compared with the concentrations of Caesium measured by a devised experimental method in the lake-sediments of a hill catchment placed in the closing section of the basin, showed an excellent agreement. (author).

  12. Patterns of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in conjugated landscape systems (United States)

    Korobova, E.


    The main goal of the study was to reveal spatial patterns of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in soils and plants of conjugated landscapes and to use 137Cs as a tracer for natural migration and accumulation processes in the environment. The studies were based on presumptions that: 1) the environment consisted of interrelated bio- and geochemical fields of hierarchical structure depending on the level and age of factors responsible for spatial distribution of chemical elements; 2)distribution of technogenic radionuclides in natural landscapes depended upon the location and type of the initial source and radionuclide involvement in natural pathways controlled by the state and mobility of the typomorphic elements and water migration. Case studies were undertaken in areas subjected to contamination after the Chernobyl accident and in the estuary zones of the Yenisey and Pechora rivers. First observations in the Chernobyl remote zone in 1987-1989 demonstrated relation between the dose rate, 137Cs, 134Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru, 125Sb in soil cover and the location of the measured plot in landscape toposequence. Later study of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration and speciation confirmed different patterns of their distribution dependent upon the radioisotope, soil features and vegetation cover corresponding to the local landscape and landuse structure. Certain patterns in distribution and migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and local food chain were followed in private farms situated in different landscape position [1]. Detailed study of 137Cs activity in forested site with a pronounced relief 20 and 25 years after the Chernobyl accident showed its stable polycentric structure in soils, mosses and litter which was sensitive to meso- and micro-relief features [2]. Radionuclide contamination of the lower Yenisey and Pechora studied along meridian landscape transects proved both areas be subjected to global 137Cs pollution while the Yenisey floodplain received additional regional contamination

  13. Predicting Sediment and Cesium-137 Transported to Offsite During Extreme Floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Y.


    This paper presents the methods and results of a research project for predicting contaminated sediment transport from Oak Ridge Reservation to offside under potential extreme flood conditions. A computer model, Hydrologic Simulation Program--FORTRANE (HSPF), was calibrated and validated for White Oak Creek watershed using a five-year data. The model was then used to quantify the effects of a potential 100-year flood event in terms of the sediment transport and {sup 137}Cs movement. Results from computer simulation showed that during a 100-year flood event the watershed and channel bed became the major sources of the {sup 137}Cs. A 100-year flood event may result in 3.2 Ci of the total annual release of {sup 137}Cs which is six times of the averaged annual release observed during a five-year time period.

  14. Sedimentological study of a lagoon through natural radioactivity and 137Cs determinations (United States)

    San Miguel, E. G.; Pérez-Moreno, J. P.; Aguado, J. L.; Bolívar, J. P.; García-Tenorio, R.


    Profiles of artificial fallout (such as 137Cs) and natural radioactivity radionuclides in sediment cores are useful tools to study sedimentological properties of different aquatic environments as well as to evaluate average sedimentation rates. In the Portil lagoon, a small natural reservoir located in Huelva province (southwest of Spain), and through the analysis of 210Pb, 226Ra, 137Cs, 238U and 210Po vertical profiles in sediment cores, it is shown how the accumulative or transport character of the collection zones may be inferred. In the accumulation zone of the lagoon the influence of focusing effects has been analysed and an average sedimentation rate has been determined through 210Pb in one sediment core. This 210Pb-sedimentation rate is consistent with sediment dating based on the 137Cs data.

  15. Coulomb excitation of levels in /sup 135/Ba and /sup 137/Ba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragulescu, E.; Ivascu, M.; Popescu, D.; Semenescu, G. (Institutul de Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara, Bucharest (Romania)); Mihu, R. (Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Dept. of Physics); Velenik, A. (Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Farmacetsko-Biokemijski Facultet); Paar, V. (Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Prirodoslovno Matematicki Fakultet)


    The low-lying states of /sup 135/Ba and /sup 137/Ba have been studied by means of Coulomb excitation with /sup 14/N, /sup 16/O and ..cap alpha.. particles. Angular distribution measurements were carried out for some transitions in both nuclei with 11.2 MeV ..cap alpha.. particles. Level energies, decay schemes, branching ratios, B(E2) up values and some spin assignments have been established. For the first time B(E2) up values in /sup 137/Ba have been measured and a new level at 1252.5 MeV with spin 7/2/sup +/ was observed. /sup 137/Ba and /sup 135/Ba have been described theoretically by coupling one and three holes, respectively, to the quadrupole vibrations, and rather good agreement with experiment was obtained.

  16. Nuclear structure and high-spin states of [sup 137]Pr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragulescu, E.; Ivascu, M.; Petrache, C.; Popescu, D.; Semenescu, G.; Gurgu, I.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Pascovici, G. (Inst. of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)); Meyer, R.A. (Montgomery Coll., Takoma Park, MD (United States)); Lopac, V. (Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Technology); Brant, S.; Paar, V.; Vorkapic, D.; Vretenar, D. (Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics)


    Levels in [sup 137]Pr were populated in the [sup 126]Te([sup 14]N, 3n) and [sup 122]Sn([sup 19]F, 4n) reactions and the subsequent radiation was studied using in-beam [gamma]-ray spectroscopy methods including [gamma]-ray excitation-function, angular-distribution, [gamma][gamma](t) coincidence and [gamma](t) measurements. A level scheme with new states up to spin 35/2 belonging to [sup 137]Pr is given. The lifetime of the 11/2[sup -][sub 1] state at 563.4 keV has been determined as T[sub 1/2] = 2.66 [+-] 0.07 [mu]s. The calculation of low-lying levels in [sup 137]Pr performed in IBFM has been compared to experimental data. (orig.).

  17. State of Fukushima nuclear fuel debris tracked by Cs137 in cooling water. (United States)

    Grambow, B; Mostafavi, M


    It is still difficult to assess the risk originating from the radioactivity inventory remaining in the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactors. Here we show that cooling water analyses provide a means to assess source terms for potential future releases. Until now already about 34% of the inventories of (137)Cs of three reactors has been released into water. We found that the release rate of (137)Cs has been constant for 2 years at about 1.8% of the inventory per year indicating ongoing dissolution of the fuel debris. Compared to laboratory studies on spent nuclear fuel behavior in water, (137)Cs release rates are on the higher end, caused by the strong radiation field and oxidant production by water radiolysis and by impacts of accessible grain boundaries. It is concluded that radionuclide analyses in cooling water allow tracking of the conditions of the damaged fuel and the associated risks.

  18. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs Finnish defence forces team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T. [Finnish Defence Forces Research Centre, Lakiala (Finland); Pulakka, M. [Finnish Air Force Depot, Tampere (Finland)


    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for {sup 40}K and fallout maps for {sup 134,137}Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured {sup 137}Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm{sup -2}. (au).

  19. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise `RESUME 95` in August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I.; Arntsing, R. [National Defence Research Establisment, Nuclear Detection Group, Stockholm (Sweden)


    In the exercise called `RESUME 95` the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au).

  20. Analysis of {sup 210} Pb and {sup 137} Cs in diets of university students; Analise de {sup 210} Pb e {sup 137} Cs em dietas de estudantes universitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Roberto T.; Cunha, Ieda I.L.; Maihara, Vera A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica]. E-mail:; Cozzolino, Silvia M.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil)


    In this work, {sup 210} P and {sup 137} Cs were determined in the male students diets (age: 19-25) of Sao Paulo University, by gamma spectrometry. The sampling was made using the duplicate portion methodology, which consists in collecting duplicate portions of all food and beverage consumed during three days of a week. The levels obtained for {sup 210} Pb in these samples varied from the Minimum Detectable Concentration (0.43{sup -1} ) to 1.68{sup -1} . For {sup 137} Cs, the values ranged from the Minimum Detectable Concentration (0.17{sup -1} ) to 0.95{sup -1} . An estimate of the daily ingestion of those radionuclides was made according to the data obtained. The values varied from 78 to 309 mBq.d{sup -1} for {sup 210} Pb, and 53 to 157 mBq.d{sup -1} , for {sup 137} Cs, among the diets analyzed. The data obtained these diets agreed with the data obtained for other authors. (author)