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Sample records for antimony 134

  1. Antimony: a flame fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Niki E.; Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a brittle, silvery-white semimetal that conducts heat poorly. The chemical compound antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) is widely used in plastics, rubbers, paints, and textiles, including industrial safety suits and some children’s clothing, to make them resistant to the spread of flames. Also, sodium antimonate (NaSbO3) is used during manufacturing of high-quality glass, which is found in cellular phones.

  2. Weiyou 134

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Weiyou 134 is a late rice with medium maturity bred from Indica-Jaya intersubspecific hybridization. The hybrid's male parent resourced from Ce 48×Jaya rice variety US 121 from USA. The hybrid was released in January,2000 approved by HCVRC.

  3. Oligosilanylated Antimony Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    By reactions of magnesium oligosilanides with SbCl3, a number of oligosilanylated antimony compounds were obtained. When oligosilanyl dianions were used, either the expected cyclic disilylated halostibine was obtained or alternatively the formation of a distibine was observed. Deliberate formation of the distibine from the disilylated halostibine was achieved by reductive coupling with C8K. Computational studies of Sb–Sb bond energies, barriers of pyramidal inversion at Sb, and the conformational behavior of distibines provided insight for the understanding of the spectroscopic properties. PMID:25937691

  4. Synthesis of nanoscale antimony particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, L.; Dailly, A. [Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, UMR 7555 CNRS (France); Schneider, R. [Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Laboratoire de Synthese organometallique et Reactivite, UMR 7565 CNRS (France); Billaud, D., E-mail: Denis.Billaud@lcsm.uhp-nancy.fr [Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, UMR 7555 CNRS (France); Willmann, P. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales, (France); Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.-C. [Universite Montpellier, Laboratoire des Agregats Moleculaires et Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR 5072 CNRS (France)

    2005-09-15

    For the search of new negative electrodes of Li-ion batteries, a low-temperature method has been developed for the preparation of nanoscale antimony particles which uses an alkoxide-activated sodium hydride as reducing agent of antimony pentachloride. X-ray diffraction and TEM studies confirm the obtaining of amorphous Sb nanoparticles dispersed in an organic matrix. {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy gives evidence for the occurrence of interactions between antimony and the matrix. These interactions are modified by the washing treatments.

  5. FIRST REPORT ON OTOTOXICITY OF MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pentavalent antimonials are the first drug of choice in the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Data on ototoxicity related with such drugs is scarcely available in literature, leading us to develop a study on cochleovestibular functions. Case Report: A case of a tegumentary leishmaniasis patient, a 78-year-old man who presented a substantial increase in auditory threshold with tinnitus and severe rotatory dizziness during the treatment with meglumine antimoniate, is reported. These symptoms worsened in two weeks after treatment was interrupted. Conclusion: Dizziness and tinnitus had already been related to meglumine antimoniate. However, this is the first well documented case of cochlear-vestibular toxicity related to meglumine antimoniate.

  6. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  7. 21 CFR 862.3110 - Antimony test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... antimony, a heavy metal, in urine, blood, vomitus, and stomach contents. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of antimony poisoning. (b) Classification. Class I....

  8. Infrared surface polaritons on antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Justin W; Medhi, Gautam; Shahzad, Monas; Rezadad, Imen; Maukonen, Doug; Peale, Robert E; Boreman, Glenn D; Wentzell, Sandy; Buchwald, Walter R

    2012-01-30

    The semimetal antimony, with a plasma frequency ~80 times less than that of gold, is potentially useful as a host for infrared surface polaritons (SPs). Relevant IR SP properties, including the frequency-dependent propagation length and penetration depths for fields into the media on either side of the interface, were determined from optical constants measured on optically-thick thermally-evaporated Sb films over the wavelength range 1 to 40 μm. Plasma and carrier relaxation frequencies were determined from Drude-model fits to these data. The real part of the permittivity is negative for wavelengths beyond 11 μm. Distinct resonant decreases in specular reflected intensity were observed for Sb lamellar gratings in the wavelength range of 6 to 11 μm, where the real part of the permittivity is positive. Both resonance angles and the angular reflectance spectral line shapes are in agreement with theory for excitation of bound surface electromagnetic waves (SPs). Finite element method (FEM) electrodynamic simulations indicate the existence of SP modes under conditions matching the experiments. FEM results also show that such waves depend on having a significant imaginary part of the permittivity, as has been noted earlier for the case of surface exciton polaritons.

  9. Perspectives of antimony compounds in oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj SHARMA; Diego PEREZ; Armando CABRERA; Nee ROSAS; Jose Luis ARIAS

    2008-01-01

    Antimony, a natural element that has been used as a drug for over more than 100 years, has remarkable therapeutic efficacy in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. This review focuses on recent advances in developing antimony anti- cancer agents with an emphasis on antimony coordination complexes, Sb (Ⅲ) and Sb (V). These complexes, which include many organometallic complexes, may provide a broader spectrum of antitumoral activity. They were compared with classical platinum anticancer drugs. The review covers the literature data pub- lished up to 2007. A number of antimonials with different antitumoral activities are known and have diverse applications, even though little research has been done on their possibilities. It might be feasible to develop more specific and effective inhibitors for phosphatase-targeted, anticancer therapeutics through the screen- ing of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and potassium antimonyltartrate-related compounds, which are comprised of antimony conjugated to different organic moieties. For example, SSG appears to be a better inhibitor than suramin which is a compound known for its antineoplastic activity against several types of cancers.

  10. Novel methods for the encapsulation of meglumine antimoniate into liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Frézard

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The antimonial drug, meglumine antimoniate, was successfully encapsulated in dehydration-rehydration vesicles and in freeze-dried empty liposomes (FDELs. High encapsulation efficiencies (from 28 to 58% and low weight ratios of lipids to encapsulated antimony (from 1:0.15 to 1:0.3 were achieved. These formulations, contrary to those obtained by conventional methods, can be stored as intermediate lyophilized forms and reconstituted just before use. The efficacy of FDEL-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate was evaluated in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania chagasi. A significant reduction of liver parasite burdens was observed in animals treated with this preparation, when compared to control animals treated with empty liposomes. In contrast, free meglumine antimoniate was found to be inefficient when administered at a comparable dose of antimony. This novel liposome-based meglumine antimoniate formulation appears to be promising as a pharmaceutical product for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

  11. Microbial antimony biogeochemistry: Enzymes, regulation, and related metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Qian Wang,; Oremland, Ronald S.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago. This portends the possibility of future discoveries with regard to the ability of microorganisms to conserve energy for their growth from antimony redox reactions and the isolation of new species of “antimonotrophs.”

  12. Arsenic and antimony transporters in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.

  13. In vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: samanta@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo (IMT-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia]. E-mail:hfandrad@usp.br

    2005-10-15

    Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes {sup 122} Sb and {sup 124} Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology. (author)

  14. Resistance mechanisms to arsenicals and antimonials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, B P

    1995-01-01

    Salts and organic derivatives of arsenic and antimony are quite toxic. Living organisms have adapted to this toxicity by the evolution of resistance mechanisms. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells develop resistance when exposed to arsenicals or antimonials. In the case of bacteria resistance is conferred by plasmid-encoded arsenical resistance (ars) operons. The genes and gene products of the ars operon of the clinically-isolated conjugative R-factor R773 have been identified and their mechanism of action elucidated. The operon encodes an ATP-driven pump that extrudes arsenite and antimonite from the cells. The lowering of their intracellular concentration results in resistance. Arsenate resistance results from the action of the plasmid-encoded arsenate reductase that reduces arsenate to arsenite, which is then pumped out of the cell.

  15. Cobalt and antimony: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, Marlies; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Lison, Dominique

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the data concerning genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Co and Sb. Both metals have multiple industrial and/or therapeutical applications, depending on the considered species. Cobalt is used for the production of alloys and hard metal (cemented carbide), diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues. Antimony trioxide is primarily used as a flame retardant in rubber, plastics, pigments, adhesives, textiles, and paper. Antimony potassium tartrate has been used worldwide as an anti-shistosomal drug. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC. Both trivalent and pentavalent antimony compounds are generally negative in non-mammalian genotoxicity tests, while mammalian test systems usually give positive results for Sb(III) and negative results for Sb(V) compounds. Assessment of the in vivo potential of Sb2O3 to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) gave conflicting results. Animal carcinogenicity data were concluded sufficient for Sb2O3 by IARC. Human carcinogenicity data is difficult to evaluate given the frequent co-exposure to arsenic. Possible mechanisms of action, including potential to produce active oxygen species and to interfere with

  16. The heat capacity of solid antimony selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashinkin, A. S.; Malkova, A. S.; Mikhailova, M. S.

    2008-06-01

    The literature data on the heat capacity of solid antimony selenide over the temperature range 53 K- T m were analyzed. The heat capacity of Sb2Se3 was measured from 350 to 600 K on a DSM-2M calorimeter. The experimental data were used to calculate the dependence C p = a + bT + cT -2 and the thermodynamic functions of solid Sb2Se3 over the temperature range 298.15 700 K.

  17. Thermodynamics of congruently subliming cerium-antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, R.A.; Franzen, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    Congruently vaporizing cerium-antimony has been investigated by vapor pressure measurementa using a simultaneous weight-loss mass-spectrometric Knudsen effusion technique. The melting point of the 1:1 stoichiometry was determined to be 2179 +/- 10 K. The heat of formation at 298 K of CeSb was found to be -128.9 kJ/g-at from thermodynamic measurements in the temperature range 1985-2172 K.

  18. The exposure to and health effects of antimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    of the eyes, skin, and lungs. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant...... death syndrome, current findings suggest no link. Antimony trioxide exposure is predominant in smelters. Mining and exposure via glass working, soldering, and brazing are also important. Conclusion: Antimony has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being and measures need...

  19. THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF ANTIMONY (III) SULFOBROMIDE, SBSBR,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS, *SULFUR COMPOUNDS, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE , CRYSTAL STRUCTURE , BROMIDES, SYMMETRY(CRYSTALLOGRAPHY), FOURIER ANALYSIS, MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, CRYSTAL LATTICES, CHEMICAL BONDS, X RAY DIFFRACTION.

  20. ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT R-134A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim KARABACAK

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the big damages on the ozone layer given by the refrigerants cloroflorocarbons that has been used up to now, new alternative gases should be developped and product at once. In this study, some informations about alternative to presently used CFCs, R-134A refrigerant's characteristics and its suitability to cooling systems is given. As it would be understood from these informations there is no objection on using alternative R-134A refrigerant

  1. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2003-10-01

    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation.

  2. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mails: samanta@usp.br; nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb{sup +5}) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony

  3. Antimony quantification in Leishmania by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W L; Rainey, P M

    1993-05-15

    Tri- and pentavalent antimony were quantified in Leishmania mexicana pifanoi amastigotes and promastigotes by atomic absorption spectroscopy with electrothermal atomization. Leishmania grown in axenic culture were treated with either potassium antimony tartrate [Sb(III)] or sodium stibogluconate [Sb(V)]. The parasites were collected, digested with nitric acid, and subjected to atomic absorption spectroscopy. The method was linear from 0 to 7 ng of antimony. The interassay coefficients of variation were 9.6 and 5.7% (N = 5) for 0.52 and 3.7-ng samples of leishmanial antimony, respectively. The limit of detection was 95 pg of antimony. The assay was used to characterize Sb(III) and Sb(V) influx and efflux kinetics. Influx rates were determined at antimony concentrations that produced a 50% inhibition of growth (IC50). The influx rates of Sb(V) into amastigotes and promastigotes were 4.8 and 12 pg/million cells/h, respectively, at 200 micrograms antimony/ml. The influx rate of Sb(III) into amastigotes was 41 pg/million cells/h at 20 micrograms antimony/ml. Influx of Sb(III) into promastigotes at 1 microgram antimony/ml was rapid and reached a plateau of 175 pg/million cells in 2 h. Efflux of Sb(III) and Sb(V) from amastigotes and promastigotes exhibited biphasic kinetics. The initial (alpha) half-life of Sb(V) efflux was less than 4 min and that of Sb(III) was 1-2 h. The apparent terminal (beta) half-lives ranged from 7 to 14 h.

  4. Structural and electrical characterization of zinc oxide doped with antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Juárez Díaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the results of structural and electrical characterization realized on zinc oxide single crystal samples with (001 orientation, which were doped with antimony. Doping was carried out by antimony thermal diffusion at 1000 °C for periods of 1 and 2 hours under nitrogen environment from a solid source formed by antimony oxide. Electrical characterization by I-V curves and Hall effect shown an increase in acceptor concentration which demonstrates that doping is effective and create holes in zinc oxide samples.

  5. Deposition of rod-shaped antimony sulfide thin films from single-source antimony thiosemicarbazone precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, Jasmine B.; Sawant, Narayan V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400 098 (India); Garje, Shivram S., E-mail: ssgarje@chem.mu.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400 098 (India)

    2010-04-02

    Antimony sulfide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition technique using single source precursors, namely, antimony(III) thiosemicarbazones, SbCl{sub 3}(L) (L = thiosemicarbazones of thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde (1) and cinnamaldehyde (2)). The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and UV-visible spectroscopy in order to identify their phases, morphologies, compositions and optical properties respectively. These characterizations revealed that the films were comprised of rod-shaped particles of orthorhombic stibnite (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) with a Sb:S stoichiometry of {approx} 1:1.3. The calculated optical band gap from UV-vis absorption spectrum is found to be 3.48 eV.

  6. 19 CFR 134.0 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 134.0 Section 134.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING § 134.0 Scope. This part sets forth regulations implementing the country of origin...

  7. 49 CFR 176.134 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicles. 176.134 Section 176.134 Transportation... Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.134 Vehicles. Closed vehicles may be used to transport Class... requirements relating to the transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicles....

  8. 46 CFR 134.170 - Operating manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating manual. 134.170 Section 134.170 Shipping COAST... LIFTBOATS § 134.170 Operating manual. (a) Each liftboat must have aboard an operating manual approved by the Coast Guard as complying with this section. (b) The operating manual must be available to, and...

  9. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xiuming; Wen Shengping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, South Song Shan Road No. 140, Zhengzhou City 450001 (China); Xiang Guoqiang, E-mail: xianggq@haut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, South Song Shan Road No. 140, Zhengzhou City 450001 (China)

    2010-03-15

    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1 M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by L-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3{sigma}) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL{sup -1} for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c = 1.0 ng mL{sup -1}, n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results.

  10. Antimony Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films: Co Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 serves as an important base material in a variety of resistive type gas sensors. The widespread applicability of this semicoducting oxide is related both to its range of conductance variability and to the fact that it responds to both oxidising and reducing gases. The antimony doped tin-oxide films were prepared by spray pyrolysis method. The as-deposited films are blackish in colour. Addition of antimony impurity showed little increase in the thickness. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows characteristic tin oxide peaks with tetragonal structure. As the doping concentration of antimony was increased, new peak corresponding to Sb was observed. The intensity of this peak found to be increased when the Sb concentration was increased from 0.01 % to the 1 % which indicates the antimony was incorporated into the tin oxide. For gas sensing studies ohmic contacts were preferred to ensure the changes in resistance of sensor is due to only adsorption of gas molecule. The graph of I-V shows a straight line in nature which indicates the ohmic contact. The sensitivity of the sensor for CO gas was tested. The sensitivity of antimony doped tin oxide found to be increased with increasing Sb concentration. The maximum sensitivity was observed for Sb = 1 % at a working temperature of 250 °C.

  11. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  12. Possible Links between Sickle Cell Crisis and Pentavalent Antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcerant, Daniel; Rubiano, Luisa; Blanco, Victor; Martinez, Javier; Baker, Nancy C.; Craft, Noah

    2012-01-01

    For over 60 years, pentavalent antimony (Sbv) has been the first-line treatment of leishmaniasis. Sickle cell anemia is a disease caused by a defect in red blood cells, which among other things can cause vasooclusive crisis. We report the case of a 6-year-old child with leishmaniasis who during treatment with meglumine antimoniate developed a sickle cell crisis (SCC). No previous reports describing the relationship between antimonial drugs and sickle cell disease were found. Reviews of both the pathophysiology of SCC and the mechanism of action of Sbv revealed that a common pathway (glutathione) may have resulted in the SCC. ChemoText, a novel database created to predict chemical-protein-disease interactions, was used to perform a more expansive and systematic review that was able to support the association between glutathione, Sbv, and SCC. Although suggestive evidence to support the hypothesis, additional research at the bench would be needed to prove Sbv caused the SCC. PMID:22665619

  13. Antimony Resistance in Leishmania, Focusing on Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Jeddi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that spread in many countries with a prevalence of 12 million cases. There are few available treatments and antimonials are still of major importance in the therapeutic strategies used in most endemic regions. However, resistance toward these compounds has recently emerged in areas where the replacement of these drugs is mainly limited by the cost of alternative molecules. In this paper, we reviewed the studies carried out on antimonial resistance in Leishmania. Several common limitations of these works are presented before prevalent approaches to evidence antimonial resistance are related. Afterwards, phenotypic determination of resistance is described, then confronted to clinical outcome. Finally, we detail molecular mechanisms and targets involved in resistance and already identified in vitro within selected mutant strains or in clinical isolates.

  14. Antimony Based III-V Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CA Wang

    2004-06-09

    Antimony-based III-V thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells are attractive converters for systems with low radiator temperature around 1100 to 1700 K, since these cells potentially can be spectrally matched to the thermal source. Cells under development include GaSb and the lattice-matched GaInAsSb/GaSb and InPAsSb/InAs quaternary systems. GaSb cell technology is the most mature, owing in part to the relative ease in preparation of the binary alloy compared to quaternary GaInAsSb and InPAsSb alloys. Device performance of 0.7-eV GaSb cells exceeds 90% of the practical limit. GaInAsSb TPV cells have been the primary focus of recent research, and cells with energy gap E{sub g} ranging from {approx}0.6 to 0.49 eV have been demonstrated. Quantum efficiency and fill factor approach theoretical limits. Open-circuit voltage factor is as high as 87% of the practical limit for the higher-E{sub g} cells, but degrades to below 80% with decreasing E{sub g} of the alloy, which might be due to Auger recombination. InPAsSb cells are the least studied, and a cell with E{sub g} = 0.45-eV has extended spectral response out to 4.3 {micro}m. This paper briefly reviews the main contributions that have been made for antimonide-based TPV cells, and suggests additional studies for further performance enhancements.

  15. Heat-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcellino, Sebastien [Universite de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5180, bat CPE, 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Attar, Hossein [Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences Separatives, CNRS UMR 7178, ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France); Lievremont, Didier; Lett, Marie-Claire [Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Genetique et Microbiologie, CNRS UMR 7156, 28 rue Goethe, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Barbier, Frederique [CNRS USR 59, Service Central d' Analyse, 59 Chemin du Canal BP22 69390 Vernaison (France); Lagarde, Florence [Universite de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5180, bat CPE, 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences Separatives, CNRS UMR 7178, ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: florence.lagarde@univ-lyon1.fr

    2008-11-23

    An analytical method was developed for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples. The method is based on the selective retention of Sb(III) by modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of Sb(V). Heat, caustic and solvent pretreatments of the biomass were investigated to improve the kinetics and thermodynamics of Sb(III) uptake process at room temperature. Heating for 30 min at 80 deg. C was defined as the optimal treatment. Antimony accumulation by the cells was independent of pH (5-10) and ionic strength (0.01-0.1 mol L{sup -1}). 140 mg of yeast and 2 h of contact were necessary to ensure quantitative sequestration of Sb(III) up to 750 {mu}g L{sup -1}. In these conditions, Sb(V) was not retained. Sb(V) was quantified in sorption supernatant by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Sb(III) was determined after elution with 40 mmol L{sup -1} thioglycolic acid at pH 10. A preconcentration factor close to nine was achieved for Sb(III) when 100 mL of sample was processed. After preconcentration, the detection limits for Sb(III) and Sb(V) were 2 and 5 ng L{sup -1}, respectively, using ICP-MS, 7 and 0.9 {mu}g L{sup -1} using ICP-OES. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in spiked river and mineral water samples. The relative standard deviations (n = 3) were in the 2-5% range at the tenth {mu}g L{sup -1} level and less than 10% at the lowest Sb(III) and Sb(V) tested concentration (0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Corrected recoveries were in all cases close to 100%.

  16. Voltammetric determination of copper(II) using antimony film electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Amir Mansoor; Husáková, Lenka; Vytřas, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Possibility of determination of Cu(II) at antimony modified carbon paste electrode and its application in determination of trace amount of copper in real sample has been investigated. According to obtained results, it was found that SbF-CPE can be used for these purposes successfully. Both detection limit of 1.45 ppb (evaluated as 3σ) and RSD 4.8 (for 10 ppb Cu and 10 different measurements) were also evaluated. Antimony-based electrodes are environmentally friendly which is their most import...

  17. 13 CFR 134.402 - Appeal petition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeal petition. 134.402 Section 134.402 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING... why the determination is alleged to be arbitrary, capricious or contrary to law. This section does...

  18. On line automated system for the determination of Sb(V), Sb(III), thrimethyl antimony(v) and total antimony in soil employing multisyringe flow injection analysis coupled to HG-AFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Junior, Mario M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Serra, Antonio M; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Victor; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2017-04-01

    This paper proposes the use of a multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) system for inorganic antimony speciation analysis, trimethyl antimony(V) and determination of total antimony in soil samples using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Total antimony has been determined after reduction of antimony(V) to antimony(III) using potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. For determination of total inorganic antimony the sample is percolated in a mini-column containing the Dowex 50W-X8 resin for retention of the organic species of antimony. Antimony(III) is quantified in presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline as masking agent for antimony(V) after an extraction step of the organic antimony species using the also same mini-column. The trimethyl antimony(V) content is found by difference between total antimony and total inorganic antimony. By other hand, antimony(V) is quantified by difference between total inorganic antimony and antimony(III). The analytical determinations were performed using sodium tetrahydroborate as reducing agent. The optimization step was performed using two-level full factorial design and Doehlert matrix involving the factors: hydrochloric acid and sodium tetrahydroborate concentrations and sample flow rate. The optimized experimental conditions allow the antimony determination utilizing the external calibration technique with limits of detection and quantification of 0.9 and 3.1ngg(-1), respectively, and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation of 3.2% for an antimony solution of 5.0µgL(-1). The method accuracy was confirmed by analysis of the soil certified reference material furnished from Sigma-Aldrich RTC. Additionally, addition/recovery tests were performed employing synthetic solutions prepared using trimethyl antimony(V), antimony(III), antimony(V) and five soil samples. The antimony extraction step was performed in a closed system using hydrochloric acid, ultrasonic radiation and controlled temperature. The

  19. Dicty_cDB: SLB134 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLB134 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16455-1 SLB134E (Link to Original site) SLB...134F 638 SLB134Z 233 SLB134P 871 SLB134E 654 Show SLB134 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLB...nal site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLB1-B/SLB134Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLB...134E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLB134 (SLB134Q) /CSM/SL/SLB1-B/SLB...ology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLB134 (SLB134Q) /CSM/SL/SLB1-B/SLB

  20. Dicty_cDB: AFM134 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFM134 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - AFM134P (Link to Original site) AFM134F 542 AFM...134Z 759 AFM134P 1281 - - Show AFM134 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFM134 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFM...1-B/AFM134Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID AFM134P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFM134 (AFM134Q) /CSM/AF/AFM1-B/AFM134Q.Seq.d/ AATTTTATTTTTAATC

  1. BioGeochemistry of antimony, Sources, Transfers, Impacts and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Gael; Pinelli, Eric; Hedde, Mickael; Guiresse, Maritxu; De Vleeschouwer, François; Silvestre, Jérôme; Enrico, Maxime; Gandois, Laure; Monna, Fabrice; Gers, Charles; Probst, Anne

    2013-04-01

    BioGeoSTIB is a project funded by ADEME (French Environmental Protection Agency). Its aim is to provide a better understanding of biogeochemical cycle disturbances of antimony by man. Specifically, it is focused on the atmosphere-soil-organism interfaces. Based on a multi-scale approach, the impact of antimony on organisms and organism communities and the factors of Sb dispersion in the environment aim to better characterized. This report gives the main results of 2 and 1 -2 years of research. Using peat bogs as environmental archives, we show that Sb contamination in soils date back to the beginning of the metallurgy. Atmospheric deposition of Sb largely increased by 100 times during the Industrial Revolution compared to natural levels (~0,001-0,01 mg m-2 an-1) estimated in the deepest peat layers. This disturbance in the antimony geochemical cycle modified its concentrations in soils. One main source of present Sb contamination is automotive traffic due to Sb in braking lines. This emerging contamination was characterized close to a roundabout. This additional source of Sb does not seem to impact soil fauna but Sb concentrations in soil solutions exceed 1 μg L-1. Genotoxicity tests have been performed on the model plant Vicia faba and show that antimony is genotoxic at its lowest concentrations and that there is a synergistic effect lead, a trace metal frequently found in association with antimony in the environment. It is a main issue to determine Sb critical loads in the environment but main identified lacks are thermodynamic data, which are not available yet, to model the behavior of Sb in soil solutions and the fact the antimony is always associated with other anthropogenic trace metals like lead. Critical thresholds of Sb have been determined for the first time based on genotoxicity experiment. Simulations show that these thresholds can be exceeded in the future, whereas present limits for invertebrates (US-EPA) are and will not be reached. However

  2. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the western Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Cutter, Lynda S.; Featherstone, Alison M.; Lohrenz, Steven E.

    The subtropical to equatorial Atlantic Ocean provides a unique regime in which one can examine the biogeochemical cycles of antimony and arsenic. In particular, this region is strongly affected by inputs from the Amazon River and dust from North Africa at the surface, and horizontal transport at depth from high-latitude northern (e.g., North Atlantic Deep Water) and southern waters (e.g., Antarctic Bottom and Intermediate Waters). As a part of the 1996 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's Contaminant Baseline Survey, data for dissolved As(III+V), As(III), mono- and dimethyl arsenic, Sb(III+V), Sb(III), and monomethyl antimony were obtained at six vertical profile stations and 44 sites along the 11,000 km transect from Montevideo, Uruguay, to Bridgetown, Barbados. The arsenic results were similar to those in other oceans, with moderate surface depletion, deep-water enrichment, a predominance of arsenate (>85% As(V)), and methylated arsenic species and As(III) in surface waters that are likely a result of phytoplankton conversions to mitigate arsenate "stress" (toxicity). Perhaps the most significant discovery in the arsenic results was the extremely low concentrations in the Amazon Plume (as low as 9.8 nmol/l) that appear to extend for considerable distances offshore in the equatorial region. The very low concentration of inorganic arsenic in the Amazon River (2.8 nmol/l; about half those in most rivers) is probably the result of intense iron oxyhydroxide scavenging. Dissolved antimony was also primarily in the pentavalent state (>95% antimonate), but Sb(III) and monomethyl antimony were only detected in surface waters and displayed no correlations with biotic tracers such as nutrients and chlorophyll a. Unlike As(III+V)'s nutrient-type vertical profiles, Sb(III+V) displayed surface maxima and decreased into the deep waters, exhibiting the behavior of a scavenged element with a strong atmospheric input. While surface water Sb had a slight correlation with

  3. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® , is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology.Os antimoniais pentavalentes, como o antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® ou estibogluconato de sódio (Pentostam® , são o principal tratamento para a leishmaniose, um complexo de doenças causadas pelo protozoário parasita Leishmania, uma doença endêmica e negligenciada no Brasil. Apesar do seu uso clínico por mais de meio século, seu mecanismo de ação, toxicidade e dados de farmacocinética permanecem desconhecidos. Os métodos analíticos para determinação de antimônio em sistemas biológicos são complexos e apresentam baixa sensibilidade. Estudos utilizando radiotraçadores têm papel potencial no desenvolvimento farmacológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um radiotraçador de antimônio, com propriedades físicas e biológicas adequadas. O antimoniato de meglumina foi irradiado por nêutrons no reator nuclear IEA-R1, produzindo dois radioisótopos: 122

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHS134 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS134 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15930-1 CHS134P (Link to Original site) CHS13...4F 649 CHS134Z 693 CHS134P 1322 - - Show CHS134 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS13...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS134Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS13...4P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS134 (CHS134Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS13...TIATQEGNTNNQ*in Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS134 (CHS13

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHR134 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHR134 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16510-1 | Contig-U16524-1 CHR...134P (Link to Original site) CHR134F 181 CHR134Z 304 CHR134P 465 - - Show CHR134 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHR...10-1 | Contig-U16524-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHR1-B/CHR...134Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHR134P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHR134 (CHR...134Q) /CSM/CH/CHR1-B/CHR134Q.Seq.d/ ATTCAACTCAGTAATAATAATAATAAAAATAATAACAATAATAAGGAATTATAATCAAAT

  6. Pattern formation during electrodeposition of copper-antimony alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil S. Kostov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study is to establish the conditions of the electrolysis for the preparation of structured and unstressed purple-pink coatings of copper-antimony alloys, including their phase characterization. Also the task of the present investigation is, by changing drastically the metal content in the methanesulfonic electrolyte to find out the conditions of electrolysis where the self-organization of the different phases is expressed by higher-order structures - not only waves but also spirals and targets. The possibility to obtain copper-antimony alloy with up to 80 wt. % Sb from methanesulfonic acid is shown. The deposition rate, morphology and the phase composition of the obtained coatings are established. The phenomena of formation of spatio-temporal structures in this alloy are described.It is determined that the observed structures consist of Cu2Sb and Cu11Sb3 intermetallic phases.

  7. Distribution of liposome-encapsulated antimony in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Schettini

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of complete cure in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis is currently a great challenge, since dogs are the main reservoir for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis to humans and they respond poorly to conventional treatment with pentavalent antimonials. In order to improve the efficacy of treatment, we developed a novel formulation for meglumine antimoniate based on the encapsulation of this drug in freeze-dried liposomes (LMA. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biodistribution of antimony (Sb in dogs following a single intravenous bolus injection of LMA. Four healthy male mongrel dogs received LMA at 3.8 mg Sb/kg body weight and were sacrificed 3, 48 and 96 h and 7 days later. Antimony was determined in the blood, liver, spleen and bone marrow. In the bone marrow, the highest Sb concentration was observed at 3 h (2.8 µg/g wet weight whereas in the liver and spleen it was demonstrated at 48 h (43.6 and 102.4 µg/g, respectively. In these organs, Sb concentrations decreased gradually and reached levels of 19.1 µg/g (liver, 28.1 µg/g (spleen and 0.2 µg/g (bone marrow after 7 days. Our data suggest that the critical organ for the treatment with LMA could be the bone marrow, since it has low Sb levels and, presumably, high rates of Sb elimination. A multiple dose treatment with LMA seems to be necessary for complete elimination of parasites from bone marrow in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

  8. 无机锑系阻燃剂%Inorganic Antimony Series Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亨

    2012-01-01

    无机锑系阻燃剂主要包括三氧化二锑、五氧化二锑溶胶和锑酸钠等。介绍了它们的性质、生产工艺、产品标准、阻燃用途和研发方向等。%Inorganic antimony series fire retardants include antimony trioxide, antimony pentoxide sol and sodium antimonate, etc. The properties, production process, production standard and uses of several inorganic antimony series fire retardants are introduced.

  9. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mamun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  10. Correlation of CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A., E-mail: mmamu001@odu.edu; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  11. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Hernandez-Garcia, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA

    2015-06-01

    CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  12. Synthesis and tribological properties of antimony N, N-diethanoldithiocarbamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 黄可龙; 瞿龙; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Antimony N, N-diethanoldithiocarbamate was synthesized with diethanolamine, antimony trioxide and carbon disulfide. The influences of temperature, reaction time, solvents and their dosages were investigated, and the optimum synthesis conditions were: reaction temperature 15~20 ℃, reaction time 2.5 h, 250 mL CH3OH as solvent and the hot CH3OH as recrystallization solvent. Element analysis, IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectra were used to study its chemical composition and molecular structure. Antimony N, N-diethanol-dithiocarbamate was added in the base oil, and its properties of wear resistance and extreme pressure were studied by FB, FD and WSD. The synthesis product behaves per fectly as wear resistance and extreme pressure additive and its extreme pressure property is superior to its wear resistance property. The mechanism of tribological action was discussed by using XPS and AES spectra, and the reason of good wear resistance and extreme pressure properties is that the synthesis product decompose element C, S and N.

  13. 19 CFR 134.34 - Certain repacked articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain repacked articles. 134.34 Section 134.34... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.34 Certain repacked articles. (a) Exception for repacked articles. An exception under § 134.32(d) may be authorized in...

  14. LUMINESCENT PROPERTIES OF SILICATE GLASSES WITH CERIUM IONS AND ANTIMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Klykova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the results of an experimental study of luminescence excitation spectra and luminescence of silicate glasses containing cerium ions and antimony. The aim of this work was to study the features of the luminescence and the effect of UV irradiation and heat treatment on luminescence and the state of cerium ions and antimony in glass. We investigated glass system Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2-NaF-NaBr with additives CeO2 and Sb2O3. Synthesis was carried out in platinum crucibles in the air at 14500C. The samples were polished glass plates with a thickness of 0.5-1 mm. UV irradiation was carried out with a mercury lamp having a wide range of radiation in the spectral range 240-390 nm. It was conducted in a Nabertherm muffle furnaces. Luminescence spectra and excitation spectra were measured using a spectrofluorimeter MPF-44A (PerkinElmer at the room temperature. Measured luminescence spectra were corrected in view of the spectral sensitivity of the photodetector for spectrofluorimeter. Adjustment of the excitation spectra for the spectral dependence of the intensity of the excitation source was not carried out. During the experiments it was found that in silicate glasses Sb3+ ions can exist in two energy states, which corresponds to a different environment with oxygen ions. Heat treatment of these glasses in an oxidizing atmosphere leads to an increase in ion concentration of Sb3+ ions with a greater amount of oxygen in the environment. In glasses containing antimony and cerium ions, ultraviolet irradiation causes a change in the valence of cerium ions and antimony, which is accompanied by luminescence quenching. Subsequent heat treatment of glass leads to the inverse processes and restore luminescence excitation spectra. The study of fluorescent properties of silicate glasses with cerium and antimony ions led to the conclusion of the practical significance of this work. Promising multifunctional materials can be created on the basis of

  15. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela

    2009-05-01

    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  16. Reference: 134 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 134 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u15539473i Colangelo ...loop-helix protein FIT1 is required for the iron deficiency response. 12 3400-12 15539473 2004 Dec The Plant cell Colangelo Elizabeth P|Guerinot Mary Lou

  17. 42 CFR 410.134 - Provider qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical Nutrition Therapy § 410.134 Provider qualifications. For Medicare Part B coverage of MNT, only a registered dietitian or nutrition professional...

  18. Research on Percolation Network and Physical Properties of Graphite/Antimony Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ya-fei; HE Min; WANG Qi-li

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure, friction and wear behaviour of graphite preform and graphite/antimony composites are analysed based on the percolation theory of hydrodynamics to investigate the relationship between the percolation network and physical properties of graphite/antimony composites. The result shows that there are two important factors to enhance friction and wear behaviour of graphite/antimony composites at high temperature: 1) the formation of the pore network in the preform, which is called the first percolation and 2) the optimization of infiltration method in the process of infiltrating antimony, which is called the second percolation. By adding some pyrolysate and controlling the roasting process, perfect net pores and sub-micron percolation microstructure may be formed in the graphite preform. By controlling the infiltration process, the saturation of molten antimony infiltrating into perfect pores can be optimized.

  19. Alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory Au-Ag ore for improved cyanidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Ibrahim; Celep, Oktay; Deveci, Haci

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents the alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory gold and silver ore. In the ore, gold occurs mainly as gold-silver alloys and as associated with quartz and framboidal pyrite grains, and, to a small extent, as the inclusions within antimonial sulfides. Silver is present extensively as antimonial sulfides such as andorite. Alkaline sulfide pretreatment was shown to allow the decomposition of the antimonial sulfide minerals (up to 98% Sb removal) and to remarkably improve the amenability of gold (e.g., from silver (e.g., from leaching. An increase in reagent concentration (1-4 mol/L Na2S or NaOH) and temperature (20-80°C), and a decrease in particle size seem to produce an enhancing effect on metal extraction. These findings suggest that alkaline sulfide leaching can be suitably used as a chemical pretreatment method prior to the conventional cyanidation for antimonial refractory gold and silver ores.

  20. The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessinger, Brad; Apps, John A.

    2003-03-23

    A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were used to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur

  1. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  2. Antimony contamination and its effect on Trifolium plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan; Bech, Jaume; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Antimony is not an essential element and soil Sb contents usually are low.However, soil contamination by Sb has increased in the last years due to the human activities (combustion of fossil fuels, mining, waste incineration, smelting, shooting and road traffic). The main objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of antimony (KSb(OH)6) in order to evaluate the effect on growth and Sb uptake on Trifolium pratense cv. Milvus and Trifolium repens. Our results show that Sb accumulated both in roots and shoots of clover without any negative effect on root growth, cellular viability and lipid peroxidation. This absence of toxicity sympthoms in clover plants could be very dangerous because Sb can be inadvertedly incorporated into the trophic chain causing toxic effects both in animals and humans. The absence of toxic effects on plants does not seem to be due to detoxification by phytochelatins because the use of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine (BSO) did not enhance Sb toxicity to plants. (Supported by the Spanish MICINN project BFU2010-14873)

  3. Antimony removal from the polyethylene terephthalate manufacture wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Vengris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antimony removal by coagulation from polyethylene terephthalate resin production wastewater of „Orion Global PET“ factory in Klaipėda city was investigated, with regard to the dependence of coagulant type and dosage, pH and presence of organics. FeCl3 ∙6H2O, FeSO4 ∙7H2O, AlCl3∙6H2O and TiCl4 salts were used as coagulants. Ti(IV and Fe(III revealed oneself to be the most effective coagulants. Antimony removal effectiveness is moderate and low using FeSO4 ∙7H2O and AlCl3∙6H2O coagulants, respectively. The addition of 10 mg dm-3 Ti(IV and 30 mg dm-3 Fe(III reduces by ~98% of the Sb, when the initial amount of Sb in wastewater is about 1200 mkg/l. The action of Fe(III is practically independent in the pH range 4-9, and that of Ti(IV slightly decreases in the same pH interval. The Sb amount in wastewater can be reduced to 13-20 mkg dm-3, while the initial Sb concentration is 1200 mkg dm-3. The presence of organic compounds in wastewater determines the reduction of Sb removal by coagulation.

  4. Segregation of antimony in InP in MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeke, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    In this work the segregation of antimony in indium phosphide in metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)was systematically investigated. Therefore phosphine stabilized InP surfaces were treated with tri-methyl-antimony (TMSb) in MOVPE. An antimony rich Sb/InP surface was established, showing a typical spectra for the antimonides observed in reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS).Adsorption and desorption of antimony are investigated, as well as the incorporation of Sb during overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface with InP. Therefore the growth parameters temperature, TMSb partial pressure and treatment time are varied and their influence investigated. The experiments are monitored in-situ with RAS, the achieved data is correlated with ex-situ characterisation such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It is shown that under treatment with TMSb a stable Sb/InP surface is formed within seconds, which does not change under further TMSb treatment. This process is rarely influenced by the TMSb partial pressure. On the contrary, the desorption of Sb is a very slow process. Two main processes can be distinguished: The desorption of excess Sb from the surface and the formation of the MOVPE prepared InP (2 x 1) surface. The reaction velocity of adsorption and desorption increases with temperature. Above a critical value the increase of TMSb partial pressure has no influence on the time for desorption. During overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface the opposite temperature dependence is observed: with increasing growth temperature the typical spectra for antimonides is observed longer. An analysis of the grown samples with XRD and SIMS showed the formation of an InPSb double quantum well. One layer is formed at the interface, the second one 50 nm-120 nm deep in the InP. The location of the 2nd InPSb layer can be correlated with the vanishing of the Sb signature in RAS. The distance between the quantum wells increases with growth temperature, until it

  5. Leaching Mechanism of Complicated Antimony-Lead Concentrate and Sulfur Formation in Slurry Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangChengyan; QiuDingfan; JiangPeihai

    2004-01-01

    Anodic reaction mechanism of complicated antimony-lead concentrate in slurry electrolysis was investigated by the anodic polarization curves determined under various conditions. The main reactions on the anode are the oxidations of FeCln(2-n) . Though the oxidation of jamesonite particle on the anode can occur during the whole process, it is less. With the help of mineralogy studies and relevant tests, the leaching reaction mechanism of jameson[to and gudmundite during slurry electrolysis was ascertained. Because of the oxidation reaction of FeCl3 produced by antimony-lead concentrate itself, the non-oxidation complex acid dissolution of jameson[re, the oxidation complex acid dissolution of gudmundite, and the oxidation of air carried by stirring, the leaching ratio of antimony reaches about 35% when HCl-NH4Cl solution is used to leach antimony-lead concentrate directly. So when the theoretical electric quantity is given to oxidation of antimony in slurry electrolysis, all of antimony, lead and iron containing in antimony-lead concentrate, are leached. The formation of sulfur is through the directly redox reaction of Fe3+ and jameson[re. The S2- in jamesonite is oxidized into S0 , and forms the crystals of sulfur again on the spot. The redox reaction of Fe3+ and H2S formed by non-oxidative acid dissolution of jamesonite is less.

  6. Immobilization of antimony waste slag by applying geopolymerization and stabilization/solidification technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Güray

    2014-11-01

    During the processing of antimony ore by pyrometallurgical methods, a considerable amount of slag is formed. This antimony waste slag is listed by the European Union as absolutely hazardous waste with a European Waste Catalogue code of 10 08 08. Since the levels of antimony and arsenic in the leachate of the antimony waste slag are generally higher than the landfilling limits, it is necessary to treat the slag before landfilling. In this study, stabilization/solidification and geopolymerization technologies were both applied in order to limit the leaching potential of antimony and arsenic. Different combinations ofpastes by using Portland cement, fly ash, clay, gypsum, and blast furnace slag were prepared as stabilization/solidification or geopoljymer matrixes. Sodium silicate-sodium hydroxide solution and sodium hydroxide solution at 8 M were used as activators for geopolymer samples. Efficiencies of the combinations were evaluated in terms of leaching and unconfined compressive strength. None of the geopolymer samples prepared with the activators yielded arsenic and antimony leaching below the regulatory limit at the same time, although they yielded high unconfined compressive strength levels. On the other hand, the stabilization/solidification samples prepared by using water showed low leaching results meeting the landfilling criteria. Use of gypsum as an additive was found to be successful in immobilizing the arsenic and antimony.

  7. BSA activated CdTe quantum dot nanosensor for antimony ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shenguang; Zhang, Congcong; Zhu, Yuanna; Yu, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuangshuang

    2010-01-01

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor for Sb(3+) determination was reported based on thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles. It was the first antimony ion sensor using QD nanoparticles in a receptor-fluorophore system. The water-soluable TGA-capped CdTe QDs were prepared through a hydrothermal route, NaHTe was used as the Te precursor for CdTe QDs synthesis. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated to TGA-capped CdTe via an amide link interacting with carboxyl of the TGA-capped CdTe. When antimony ion enters the BSA, the lone pair electrons of the nitrogen and oxygen atom become involved in the coordination, switching off the QD emission and a dramatic quenching of the fluorescence intensity results, allowing the detection of low concentrations of antimony ions. Using the operating principle, the antimony ion sensor based on QD nanoparticles showed a very good linearity in the range 0.10-22.0 microg L(-1), with the detection limit lower than 2.94 x 10(-8) g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) 2.54% (n = 6). In a study of interferences, the antimony-sensitive TGA-QD-BSA sensor showed good selectivity. Therefore, a simple, fast, sensitive, and highly selective assay for antimony has been built. The presented method has been applied successfully to the determination of antimony in real water samples (n = 6) with satisfactory results.

  8. In Vitro Antiparasitic and Apoptotic Effects of Antimony Sulfide Nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Soflaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important sever diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. In the present study the effects of antimony sulfide nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum in vitro were evaluated. Antimony sulfide NPs (Sb2S5 were synthesized by biological method from Serratia marcescens bacteria. Then the cytotoxicity effects of different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of this nanoparticle were assessed on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. infantum. MTT method was used for verification results of promastigote assay. Finally, the percentages of apoptotic, necrotic, and viable cells were determined by flow cytometry. The results indicated the positive effectiveness of antimony sulfide NPs on proliferation of promastigote form. The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration of antimony sulfide NPs on promastigotes was calculated 50 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity effect was dose-dependent means by increasing the concentration of antimony sulfide NPs, the cytotoxicity curve was raised and the viability curve of the parasite dropped simultaneously. Moreover, the IC50 of antimony sulfide NPs on amastigote stage was calculated 25 μg/mL. On the other hand, however, antimony sulfide NPs have a low cytotoxicity effect on uninfected macrophages but it can induce apoptosis in promastigote stage at 3 of 4 concentrations.

  9. Removal of cobalt from zinc sulphate solution using rude antimony trioxide as additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴军; 王德全; 姜澜; 金曼

    2002-01-01

    The process of cobalt removal from zinc sulphate solution using rude antimony trioxide as an additive was investigated. The rude antimony trioxide was produced in treatment of copper and lead anode mud and its main components are antimony trioxide, antimony arsenate and lead antimonate. Using the rude antimony trioxide as the additive of cobalt removal can not only decrease operation cost of purification but also find out a new way for utilization of the rude antimony trioxide. The effects of temperature, dosage of zinc dust, the rude antimony trioxide, copper ion and solution pH on removal of cobalt were studied. And experimental data using the rude Sb2O3 as additive were compared with those using Sb2O3. The results indicate that using rude Sb2O3 as additive, cobalt concentration in solution could be decreased from 24mg/L to below 1mg/L under about the same conditions as using Sb2O3.

  10. Behaviour of antimony during thermal treatment of Sb-rich halogenated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J. [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Dorge, S., E-mail: sophie.dorge@uha.fr [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Trouve, G. [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Venditti, D.; Durecu, S. [TREDI Departement de Recherche, Technopole de Nancy-Brabois, 9 avenue de la Foret de Haye, BP 184, 54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2009-07-30

    Antimony compounds have a wide range of industrial applications, particularly as additives in flame retardants. To ensure environmentally friendly waste incineration of Sb-rich wastes, it is essential to strengthen the knowledge about the fate of antimony and the potential formation of harmful species. Investigations should be conducted particularly in relation with the main operational parameters controlling the process, chiefly temperature, residence time and air supply in the oven and in the post-combustion zone, prior final adapted cleaning of the flue-gas stream. Experimental studies focusing on antimony behaviour were undertaken through laboratory-scale thermal treatment at 850 deg. C and 1100 deg. C of a Sb-rich halogenated waste, originating from the sector of flame retardants formulation. The configuration of our laboratory experimental device allowed to achieve only low oxidative conditions in the waste bed, but high oxidative strength coupled with high temperature and sufficient gas residence time in the post-combustion zone, as prescribed during the incineration of hazardous wastes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to assess the partition of antimony in the different compartments of the process. The oxidation degree of antimony in the gas-phase was determined by the use of electrochemical techniques, namely polarography coupled with anodic stripping voltamperometry. The partition of antimony between the residual ash and the gas-phase under moderate oxidative conditions in the waste bed was constant, whatever the temperature: the volatilization rate for antimony was {approx}64%, while a {approx}36% fraction remained in the residual bottom ashes. But interestingly, while at 850 {sup o}C, antimony was mainly present in the gas-phase at a +III oxidation degree, an increase in temperature of 250 {sup o}C favoured the presence of antimony to its highest oxidation degree +V in the flue-gas stream, a valence known to be involved in less toxic species.

  11. 37 CFR 1.34 - Acting in a representative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... capacity. 1.34 Section 1.34 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of Application and Appointment of Attorney Or Agent § 1.34 Acting in a representative capacity. When a patent practitioner acting in a representative capacity appears in person or signs a paper...

  12. 49 CFR 195.134 - CPM leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CPM leak detection. 195.134 Section 195.134... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.134 CPM leak detection. This section applies to each hazardous liquid... computational pipeline monitoring (CPM) leak detection system and each replaced component of an existing...

  13. 19 CFR 134.14 - Articles usually combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles usually combined. 134.14 Section 134.14... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.14 Articles usually combined. (a) Articles combined before delivery to purchaser. When an imported article is of a kind which is...

  14. 13 CFR 134.409 - Decision on appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision on appeal. 134.409 Section 134.409 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING... § 134.409 Decision on appeal. (a) A decision of the Administrative Law Judge under this subpart is...

  15. 13 CFR 134.404 - Decision by Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision by Administrative Law Judge. 134.404 Section 134.404 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF... 8(a) Program § 134.404 Decision by Administrative Law Judge. Appeal proceedings brought under...

  16. 29 CFR 784.134 - “Canning.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCanning.â 784.134 Section 784.134 Labor Regulations... First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section 13(a)(5) § 784.134 “Canning.” The term “canning” was defined in the legislative history of the 1949 amendments (House (Conference)...

  17. Separation and Concentration of Indium from Leaching Solution Containing Indium, Antimony and Iron Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Processing conditions of effectively separating indium from the leaching solution of a smelting antimony slag were studied. For the leaching solution containing indium and antimony and iron ions, indium was separated by extracting with HDEHP-kerosine solution, washing antimony and iron ions with oxalic acid solution and stripping indium with a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. InCl3 solution with purity above 90% is obtained. Indium can be enriched through a circulation of stripping with a dilute HCl solution. The concentration of InCl3 solution is about 25~30 g/L.

  18. Varicella zoster virus reactivation during or immediately following treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis with antimony compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barbieri Barros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimony compounds are the cornerstone treatments for tegumentary leishmaniasis. The reactivation of herpes virus is a side effect described in few reports. We conducted an observational study to describe the incidence of herpes zoster reactivation during treatment with antimony compounds. The global incidence of herpes zoster is approximately 2.5 cases per 1,000 persons per month (or 30 cases per 1,000 persons per year. The estimated incidence of herpes zoster in patients undergoing antimony therapy is higher than previously reported.

  19. Coordination- and Redox-Noninnocent Behavior of Ambiphilic Ligands Containing Antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J Stuart; Gabbaï, François P

    2016-05-17

    Stimulated by applications in catalysis, the chemistry of ambiphilic ligands featuring both donor and acceptor functionalities has experienced substantial growth in the past several years. The unique opportunities in catalysis offered by ambiphilic ligands stem from the ability of their acceptor functionalities to play key roles via metal-ligand cooperation or modulation of the reactivity of the metal center. Ligands featuring group 13 centers, most notably boranes, as their acceptor functionalities have undoubtedly spearheaded these developments, with remarkable results having been achieved in catalytic hydrogenation and hydrosilylation. Motivated by these developments as well as by our fundamental interest in the chemistry of heavy group 15 elements, we became fascinated by the possibility of employing antimony centers as Lewis acids within ambiphilic ligands. The chemistry of antimony-based ligands, most often encountered as trivalent stibines, has historically been considered to mirror that of their lighter phosphorus-based congeners. There is growing evidence, however, that antimony-based ligands may display unique coordination behavior and reactivity. Additionally, despite the diverse Lewis acid and redox chemistry that antimony exhibits, there have been only limited efforts to explore this chemistry within the coordination sphere of a transition metal. By incorporation of antimony into the framework of polydentate ligands in order to enforce the main group metal-transition metal interaction, the effect of redox and coordination events at the antimony center on the structure, electronics, and reactivity of the metal complex may be investigated. This Account describes our group's continuing efforts to probe the coordination behavior, reactivity, and application of ambiphilic ligands incorporating antimony centers. Structural and theoretical studies have established that both Sb(III) and Sb(V) centers in polydentate ligands may act as Z-type ligands toward late

  20. Biogeochemistry of Antimony(V) in Microcosms under Sulfidogenic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, E. J.; Johnson, C. R.; Antonopoulos, D. A.; Boyanov, M.; Flynn, T. M.; Koval, J. C.; Kemner, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the mining and use of antimony continues to increase, environmental concerns involving the element have grown. Antimony(V) and (III) are the two most environmentally-relevant oxidation states, but little is known about the redox transitions between the two in natural systems. To better understand the behavior of antimony in anoxic environments, we examined the transformations of Sb(V) under Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions in aqueous suspensions that contained 2 mM KSb(OH)6, 50 mM Fe(III) (as ferrihydrite), 10 mM sulfate, and 10 mM lactate, and were inoculated with sediment from a wetland on the campus of Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. Samples were collected over time to track changes in the concentrations of Sb, Fe(II), sulfate, and lactate, as well as the composition of the microbial community as determined by 16S rRNA gene inventories. We also examined the interaction of Sb(V) with pure Fe(II) mineral phases in aqueous suspensions containing 2 mM KSb(OH)6 and 50 mM Fe(II) as either magnetite, sideritre, vivianite, green rust, or mackinawite. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy was used to determine the valence state of Sb and its chemical speciation. Lactate was rapidly fermented to acetate and propionate concomittant with a bloom of Veillonellaceae. Utilization of propionate for dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) was accompanied by an increase in Desulfobulbaceae. Sb K-edge X-Ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) within 4 weeks, concurrent with DSR and the formation of FeS. We observed variable responses in the ability of specific Fe(II) minerals to reduce Sb(V). No reduction was observed with magnetite, siderite, vivianite, or green rust. In the presence of mackinawite (FeS), however, Sb(V) was reduced to Sb(III) sulfide. These results suggest that the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) is not likely under solely Fe(III)-reducing conditions, but is expected in sulfidogenic

  1. Anthropogenic impacts on the biogeochemistry and cycling of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael; Chen, Bin

    2005-01-01

    Antimony is a potentially toxic trace element with no known biological function. Antimony is commonly enriched in coals, and fossil fuel combustion appears to be the largest single source of anthropogenic Sb to the global atmosphere. Abundant in sulfide minerals, its emission to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities is linked to the mining and metallurgy of non-ferrous metals, especially Pb, Cu, and Zn. In particular, the geochemical and mineralogical association of Sb with Pb minerals implies that, like Pb, Sb has been emitted to the environment for thousands of years because of Pb mining, smelting, and refining. In the US alone, there are more than 400 former secondary lead smelting operations and worldwide there are 133 Pb-Zn smelters in operation today. Antimony is used in creating and improving dozens of industrial and commercial materials including various alloys, ceramics, glasses, plastics, and synthetic fabrics, making waste incineration another important source of Sb to the environment. Enrichments of Sb in atmospheric aerosols, plants, soils, sediments, as well as alpine and polar snow and ice suggest that Sb contamination is extensive, but there are very few quantitative studies of the geographic extent, intensity, and chronology of this contamination. There is an urgent need to quantify the extent of human impacts and how these have changed with time. The decreasing inventories of anthropogenic Sb with time in peat cores from Switzerland and Scotland suggest that the atmospheric Sb flux may be declining, but there have been too few studies to make any general conclusions. In fact, some studies of sediments and biomonitors in central Europe show little decline in Sb concentrations during the past decades. There is an obvious need for reliable data from well dated archives such as polar snow and ice, peat bogs, and sediments. The air concentrations, extent of enrichment, particle size distribution, and rate of deposition of Sb in urban areas is

  2. Synthesis and characterisation of nano-pore antimony imprinted polymer and its use in the extraction and determination of antimony in water and fruit juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerian, Farid; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Nili Ahmad Abadi, Maryam

    2014-02-15

    A solid phase extraction method using antimony ion imprinted polymer (IIP) sorbent combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for the extraction and speciation of antimony. The sorbent has been synthesised in the presence of Sb(III) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) using styrene as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross linker. The imprinted Sb(III) ions were removed by leaching with HCl (50%v/v) and the polymer was characterised by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of the IIP for Sb(III) ions was found to be 6.7 mg g(-1). With preconcentration of 60 mL of sample, an enhancement factor of 232 and detection limit of 3.9 ng L(-1) was obtained. Total antimony was determined after the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). The method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony species in water samples and total antimony in fruit juices.

  3. Atomistic mechanisms governing structural stability change of zinc antimony thermoelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaolong [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); Lin, Jianping, E-mail: jaredlin@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Qiao, Guanjun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Zhao, E-mail: zwangzhao@gmail.com [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-01-05

    The structural stability of thermoelectric materials is a subject of growing importance for their energy harvesting applications. Here, we study the microscopic mechanisms governing the structural stability change of zinc antimony at its working temperature, using molecular dynamics combined with experimental measurements of the electrical and thermal conductivity. Our results show that the temperature-dependence of the thermal and electrical transport coefficients is strongly correlated with a structural transition. This is found to be associated with a relaxation process, in which a group of Zn atoms migrates between interstitial sites. This atom migration gradually leads to a stabilizing structural transition of the entire crystal framework, and then results in a more stable crystal structure of β–Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} at high temperature.

  4. Coherent and Incoherent Structural Dynamics in Laser-Excited Antimony

    CERN Document Server

    Waldecker, Lutz; Bertoni, Roman; Vasileiadis, Thomas; Garcia, Martin E; Zijlstra, Eeuwe S; Ernstorfer, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the excitation of phonons in photoexcited antimony and demonstrate that the entire electron-lattice interactions, in particular coherent and incoherent electron-phonon coupling, can be probed simultaneously. Using femtosecond electron diffraction (FED) with high temporal resolution, we observe the coherent excitation of the fully symmetric \\Ag\\ optical phonon mode via the shift of the minimum of the atomic potential energy surface. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to quantify the change in lattice potential and the associated real-space amplitude of the coherent atomic oscillations. In addition, our experimental configuration allows observing the energy transfer from electrons to phonons via incoherent electron-lattice scattering events. Applying a modified two-temperature model, the electron-phonon coupling is determined from the data as a function of electronic temperature.

  5. Antimony Accumulation Risk in Lettuce Grown in Brazilian Urban Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mancarella

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of the Brazilian population inhabits urban areas. Diffused poverty and the lack of fresh vegetables have generated malnutrition and unbalanced diets. Thus, the interest in growing food locally, in urban allotments and community gardens, has increased. However, urban agriculture may present some risks caused by the urban pollution. Road traffic is considered the biggest source of heavy metals in urban areas. Hence, the objective of the study was the assessment of the accumulation of heavy metals in an urban garden in the city of Recife, at different distances from a road with high traffic burden. The results showed that the distance from the street decreased the accumulation of many potentially toxic elements. Furthermore, the human health risk was estimated, revealing that greater danger was associated with the accumulation of antimony. Concentration of other elements in the leaf tissues were within previously reported thresholds.

  6. Magnesium-antimony liquid metal battery for stationary energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Sirk, Aislinn H C; Sadoway, Donald R

    2012-02-01

    Batteries are an attractive option for grid-scale energy storage applications because of their small footprint and flexible siting. A high-temperature (700 °C) magnesium-antimony (Mg||Sb) liquid metal battery comprising a negative electrode of Mg, a molten salt electrolyte (MgCl(2)-KCl-NaCl), and a positive electrode of Sb is proposed and characterized. Because of the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases, they stratify by density into three distinct layers. Cells were cycled at rates ranging from 50 to 200 mA/cm(2) and demonstrated up to 69% DC-DC energy efficiency. The self-segregating nature of the battery components and the use of low-cost materials results in a promising technology for stationary energy storage applications.

  7. Effect of filler on the self-lubrication performance of graphite antimony composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-li; HU Ya-fei; HE Min

    2008-01-01

    Graphite antimony composites were prepared using a mechanical pressure infiltration method to force molten antimony into graphite preforms having a percolation micro-structure and a hop-pocket power filler. The micro-structural and macroscopic properties of the graphite antimony composites were analysed. Observations included metallographic analysis, physical properties and friction and wear behaviour. The results show that the wear loss is decreased by 12.24% and that the friction coefficient is re-duced by 32.61% after hop-pocket power was used. The research indicates that the hop-pocket power method gives a useful way to reduce friction coefficients and wear loss, and to increase service life and self-lubrication properties, of the graphite antimony seal-ing material as compared to carbon black.

  8. Geochemical Studies on Dachang Antimony Ore Deposit in Qinglong,Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启厚

    1999-01-01

    The Dachang antimony deposit in Qinglong,Guizhou Province,is strictly controlled by the “Dachang Layer” which is a complex altered rock occurring at unconformity between the Permian Emeishan basalt and the Maokou limestone.Based on the studies of the hanging-and foot-wall rocks,the trace elements and REE contents of the rocks and ores and heavy placer minerals in the basalt,this paper is focused on the relations between these data and the “Dachang Layer”and its hanging- and oot-wall rocks.The author pointed out that the “Dachang Layer” and basalt are the source-beds of antimony;ilmenite and magnetite are the major mineral carriers of antimony.In the processes of halmyrosis and burial metamorphism of the “Dachang Layer” an basalt,antimony was mobilized along with the mobilization of iron and was preliminarily concentrated in the“ Dachang Layer”.

  9. NEW THIO S2- ADDUCTS WITH ANTIMONY (III AND V HALIDE: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ALLOUCH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new S2- adducts with SbIII and SbV halides have been synthesized and studied by infrared. Discrete structures have been suggested, the environment around the antimony being tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  10. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films and Their Applications in CdTe Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhouling Wang; Yu Hu; Wei Li; Guanggen Zeng; Lianghuan Feng; Jingquan Zhang; Lili Wu; Jingjing Gao

    2014-01-01

    Antimony telluride alloy thin films were deposited at room temperature by using the vacuum coevaporation method. The films were annealed at different temperatures in N2 ambient, and then the compositional, structural, and electrical properties of antimony telluride thin films were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Hall measurements. The results indicate that single phase antimony telluride existed when the annealing temperature was high...

  11. Simulation of antimony adsorption on nano-zero valent iron and kaolinite and analyzing the influencing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidnia, Setareh; Asadollahfardi, Gholamreza; Darban, Ahmad Khodadadi; Mohseni, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Antimony is one of the most toxic pollutants in industrial and mineral wastewaters threatening the life of humans and other creatures. We simulated the adsorption of antimony in the presence of nano-zero valent iron (nZVI) adsorbent, on kaolinite and in the presence of nZVI coated on kaolinite from mineral wastewater using VISUAL MINTEQ 3.1 software. Our aim was to determine the factors affecting the adsorption of antimony by applying simulation. The simulation was performed using an adsorption model of a diffuse layer model. The results of the simulation indicated that the nZVI concentration, initial concentrations of antimony and pH factor are effective on the adsorption of antimony. In the conducted stimulation, the optimum pH was 2-5 and the highest adsorption occurred in an acidic state. With increasing initial concentrations of antimony in the simulation, we concluded that nZVI had absorbed various concentrations above 90% and, by increasing the concentration of nZVI, antimony adsorption rate increased. The increased surface area of nZVI and the expansion of more interchangeable surfaces available for reaction with antimony ions causes more antimony ions to be adsorbed. In all cases, the coefficient of determination between the laboratory results and the model predictions that was obtained was more than 0.9.

  12. Arsenic and Antimony Content in Soil and Plants from Baia Mare Area, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Oprea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to evaluate the degree of soil contamination with arsenic and antimony in Baia Mare, a nonferrous mining and metallurgical center located in the North West region of Romania. The soil in the area is affected by the emissions of powders containing metals from metallurgical factories. Previous studies indicated the soil contamination with copper, zinc, cadmium and lead, but there is few data about the actual level of soil pollution with arsenic and antimony. Approach: The soil samples were collected from 2 districts of Baia Mare: Ferneziu, which is located in the proximity of a lead smelter and Săsar district which is located along the Sasar River in the preferential direction of the wind over a metallurgical factory producing lead. As reference was considered Dura area located in a less polluted hilly area, in the west part of the town. Samples of soil and plants from the residential area of Ferneziu, Săsar and Dura districts were collected. The arsenic determination was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and the antimony determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: In Ferneziu area, the concentration of arsenic in soil ranged between 0.25 and 255 mg kg-1. In Săsar district the arsenic concentration in the soil ranged between 5.5 and 295 mg kg-1. Regarding antimony, in Ferneziu area the concentration ranged between 5.3 and 40.6 mg kg-1; while in Săsar, antimony soils concentrations vary in the range: 0.9-18.4. Arsenic and antimony concentrations in plants were low for almost of the samples, both in Ferneziu and Săsar area indicating a low mobility of these elements in the studied soils. Conclusion: This study indicated the soil pollution with arsenic both in Ferneziu district and in Săsar district. The soil pollution with antimony was found especially in Ferneziu district.

  13. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. Murciego [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Sanchez, A. Garcia [IRNA-CSIC, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Aptdo. 257, Salamanca (Spain); Gonzalez, M.A. Rodriguez [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gil, E. Pinilla [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: epinilla@unex.es; Gordillo, C. Toro [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Fernandez, J. Cabezas [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Triguero, T. Buyolo [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas.

  14. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  15. Determination of antimony by using tungsten trap atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titretir, Serap; Kendüzler, Erdal; Arslan, Yasin; Kula, İbrahim; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Ataman, O. Yavuz.

    2008-08-01

    An electrically heated tungsten coil was used as a trap in the determination of antimony. The technique consists of three steps. Initially, SbH 3 is formed by hydride generation procedure; then the analyte species in vapor form are transported to W-coil trap heated at 370 °C. Following the preconcentration step, the trap is heated to 895 °C; analyte species are revolatilized and transported to the flame-heated quartz atom cell where atomization and the formation of signal take place. The experimental parameters were optimized both for trap and no-trap studies. The most important experimental parameters are concentrations of HCl and NaBH 4 solutions, H 2 and Ar gas flow rates, and collection and revolatilization temperatures of W-coil. Accuracy was tested using a certified reference material, waste water EU-L-1. Limit of detection for the system is 16 ng l - 1 using a sample of 36 ml collected in 4.0 min. Enhancement factor in sensitivity was 17.

  16. Determination of antimony by using tungsten trap atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titretir, Serap [Department of Chemistry, Inoenue University, 44065 Malatya (Turkey); Kenduezler, Erdal [Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Ahi Evran University, 40100 Kirsehir (Turkey); Arslan, Yasin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kula, Ibrahim [Department of Chemistry, Mugla University, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Bakirdere, Sezgin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey); Ataman, O. Yavuz. [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ataman@metu.edu.tr

    2008-08-15

    An electrically heated tungsten coil was used as a trap in the determination of antimony. The technique consists of three steps. Initially, SbH{sub 3} is formed by hydride generation procedure; then the analyte species in vapor form are transported to W-coil trap heated at 370 deg. C. Following the preconcentration step, the trap is heated to 895 deg. C; analyte species are revolatilized and transported to the flame-heated quartz atom cell where atomization and the formation of signal take place. The experimental parameters were optimized both for trap and no-trap studies. The most important experimental parameters are concentrations of HCl and NaBH{sub 4} solutions, H{sub 2} and Ar gas flow rates, and collection and revolatilization temperatures of W-coil. Accuracy was tested using a certified reference material, waste water EU-L-1. Limit of detection for the system is 16 ng l{sup -1} using a sample of 36 ml collected in 4.0 min. Enhancement factor in sensitivity was 17.

  17. Antimony bioavailability: knowledge and research perspectives for sustainable agricultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2015-05-30

    The increasing interest in urban agriculture highlights the crucial question of crop quality. The main objectives for environmental sustainability are a decrease in chemical inputs, a reduction in the level of pollutants, and an improvement in the soil's biological activity. Among inorganic pollutants emitted by vehicle traffic and some industrial processes in urban areas, antimony (Sb) is observed on a global scale. While this metalloid is known to be potentially toxic, it can transfer from the soil or the atmosphere to plants, and accumulate in their edible parts. Urban agriculture is developing worldwide, and could therefore increasingly expose populations to Sb. The objective of this review was in consequences to gather and interpret actual knowledge of Sb uptake and bioaccumulation by crops, to reveal investigative fields on which to focus. While there is still no legal maximal value for Sb in plants and soils, light has to be shed on its accumulation and the factors affecting it. A relative absence of data exists about the role of soil flora and fauna in the transfer, speciation and compartmentation of Sb in vegetables. Moreover, little information exists on Sb ecotoxicity for terrestrial ecosystems. A human risk assessment has finally been reviewed, with particular focus on Sb bioaccessibility.

  18. Mitochondrial Proteomics of Antimony and Miltefosine Resistant Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimony (SbIII and miltefosine (MIL are important drugs for the treatment of Leishmania parasite infections. The mitochondrion is likely to play a central role in SbIII and MIL induced cell death in this parasite. Enriched mitochondrial samples from Leishmania promastigotes selected step by step for in vitro resistance to SbIII and MIL were subjected to differential proteomic analysis. A shared decrease in both mutants in the levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase was observed, as well as a differential abundance in two calcium-binding proteins and the unique dynamin-1-like protein of the parasite. Both mutants presented a shared increase in the succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase and the abundance of numerous hypothetical proteins was also altered in both mutants. In general, the proteomic changes observed in the MIL mutant were less pronounced than in the SbIII mutant, probably due to the early appearance of a mutation in the miltefosine transporter abrogating the need for a strong mitochondrial adaptation. This study is the first analysis of the Leishmania mitochondrial proteome and offers powerful insights into the adaptations to this organelle during SbIII and MIL drug resistance.

  19. Arsenic and antimony removal from drinking water by adsorption on granular ferric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazakli, Eleni; Zouvelou, Stavroula V; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Leotsinidis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony occur in drinking water due to natural weathering or anthropogenic activities. There has been growing concern about their impact on health. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of a granular ferric oxide adsorbent medium to remove arsenic and antimony from drinking water via rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs). Three different water matrices - deionized, raw water treated with a reverse osmosis domestic device and raw water - were spiked with arsenic and/or antimony to a concentration of 100 μg L⁻¹. Both elements were successfully adsorbed onto the medium. The loadings until the guideline value was exceeded in the effluent were found to be 0.35-1.63 mg g⁻¹ for arsenic and 0.12-2.11 mg g⁻¹ for antimony, depending on the water matrix. Adsorption of one element was not substantially affected by the presence of the other. Aeration did not affect significantly the adsorption capacity. Granular ferric oxide could be employed for the simultaneous removal of arsenic and antimony from drinking water, whereas full-scale systems should be assessed via laboratory tests before their implementation.

  20. New fluorescent polymeric nanocomposites synthesized by antimony dodecyl-mercaptide thermolysis in polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the formation of semiconductive Sb2S3 nanoparticles inside amorphous polystyrene has been achieved by thermal degradation of the corresponding antimony dodecyl-mercaptide, Sb(SC12H253. The thermolysis of the dodecyl-mercaptide precursor was studied as both pure phase and mercaptide solution in polystyrene. The thermal decomposition of the antimony mercaptide precursor at 350°C, under vacuum, showed the formation of a mixture of antimony trisulfide (stibnite, Sb2S3 and zero-valent antimony (Sb phase. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD and Rietveld analysis carried out on the obtained nanostructured powder confirmed the presence of Sb and Sb2S3 phases in 10.4 wt% and 89.6 wt% amount, respectively. The same pyrolysis reaction was carried out in the polymer and the resulting nanocomposite material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanocomposite structural characterization indicated the presence of well-dispersed nanoclusters of antimony and stibnite (15–30 nm in size inside the amorphous polymeric phase. Optical measurements on the obtained nanocomposite films showed a strong emission at 432 nm upon excitation at 371 nm, probably related to the presence of Sb2S3 nanoclusters.

  1. Predictors of an unsatisfactory response to pentavalent antimony in the treatment of American visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Mácia A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimony is usually successful, some patients require second-line drug therapy, most commonly with amphotericin B. To identify the clinical characteristics that predict an inadequate response to pentavalent antimony, a case-control study was undertaken in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. Over a two-year period, there were 19 cases of VL in which the staff physicians of a hospital prescribed second-line therapy with amphotericin B after determining that treatment with pentavalent antimony had failed. The control group consisted of 97 patients that were successfully treated with pentavalent antimony. A chart review using univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. The cure rate was 90% with amphotericin B. The odds ratio for the prescription of amphotericin B was 10.2 for children less than one year old, compared with individuals aged over 10 years. Patients who presented coinfection had an OR of 7.1 while those on antibiotics had an OR of 2.8. These data support either undertaking a longer course of therapy with pentavalent antimony for children or using amphotericin B as a first-line agent for children and individuals with coinfections. It also suggests that chemoprophylaxis directed toward bacterial coinfection in small children with VL may be indicated.

  2. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia resistant to meglumine antimonial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Iván Darío; Colmenares, Lina María; Muñoz, Carlos Aguirre

    2009-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects over 500,000 people worldwide each year. The disease occurs in the Mediterranean basin, Central and South America and is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn L. chagasi). VL is an endemic disease in Colombia, particularly along the Caribbean coast and the Magdalena River Valley and 90% of VL cases occur in children under the age of five. The first line of treatment is chemotherapy with pentavalent antimonial compounds, including sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime). These compounds are the ones most used in Colombia, at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Nevertheless resistance of L. infantum to pentavalent antimonials is becoming an important problem. No cases of VL resistant to pentavalent antimonial compounds have previously been reported from Colombia. This report describes the two cases of VL resistance to antimonial compounds in a girl and a boy who did not respond to previous treatment with Pentacarinat and Glucantime regimens but were treated successfully with liposomal amphotericin B. Based on our findings, we recommend liposomal amphotericin B as the first line of treatment for VL due to its low toxicity, shorter administration period and the low price obtained by WHO.

  3. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133... Cheese and Related Products § 133.134 Cream cheese with other foods. (a) Description. Cream cheese with other foods is the class of foods prepared by mixing, with or without the aid of heat, cream cheese...

  4. 22 CFR 134.4 - Eligibility of applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility of applicants. 134.4 Section 134.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT; IMPLEMENTATION General... tax-exempt organization described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C....

  5. 19 CFR 134.11 - Country of origin marking required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Country of origin marking required. 134.11 Section... OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.11 Country of origin... English name of the country of origin of the article, at the time of importation into the...

  6. 40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

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    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running loss test. 86.134-96 Section... Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.134-96 Running loss test. (a) Overview. Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles are to be tested for running loss emissions during simulated high-temperature...

  7. 13 CFR 134.220 - Prohibition against ex parte communications.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against ex parte communications. 134.220 Section 134.220 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF... concerning any fact, question of law, or SBA policy relevant to the merits of a case before that Judge...

  8. 19 CFR 134.54 - Articles released from Customs custody.

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    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles released from Customs custody. 134.54 Section 134.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... released from Customs custody. (a) Demand for liquidated damages. If within 30 days from the date of...

  9. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

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    2010-04-01

    ... processor in the United States who converts or combines the imported article into the different article will... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35...

  10. 12 CFR 13.4 - Recommendations to customers.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendations to customers. 13.4 Section 13.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GOVERNMENT SECURITIES SALES... of a government security, a bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall...

  11. 13 CFR 134.702 - Who may appeal?

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    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may appeal? 134.702 Section 134.702 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING CASES BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Appeals From Women-Owned...

  12. 13 CFR 134.713 - When is the record closed?

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    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When is the record closed? 134.713 Section 134.713 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING CASES BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Appeals From Women-Owned...

  13. 42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

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    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped... commercial designation of the respirator it contains, and all appropriate approval labels....

  14. 13 CFR 134.209 - Requirement of signature.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement of signature. 134.209 Section 134.209 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING... of signature. Every written submission to OHA, other than evidence, must be signed by the...

  15. 13 CFR 134.228 - Review of initial decisions.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of initial decisions. 134.228 Section 134.228 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE... of initial decisions. (a) Request for review. Within 30 days after the service of an initial...

  16. 13 CFR 134.227 - Finality of decisions.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finality of decisions. 134.227 Section 134.227 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING... decisions. (a) Initial decisions. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a...

  17. Mixed Antimony(V Complexes with Different Sugars to Modulate the Oral Bioavailability of Pentavalent Antimonial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weverson A. Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the association of the drug meglumine antimoniate (MA with β-cyclodextrin can improve its bioavailability by the oral route. In this work, ribose and maltose were investigated for their ability to form mixed or association complexes with MA, release MA and modulate the serum levels of Sb after oral administration in mice. Analysis of the MA/ribose composition by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF revealed the presence of mixed meglumine-Sb-ribose and Sb-ribose complexes. Analysis of the MA/maltose composition suggested the formation of MA-maltose association compounds. Circular dichroism characterization of these compositions following dilution in water at 37 °C suggested a partial and slow dissociation of the association compounds. When the MA/ribose composition was administered orally and compared to MA, the serum concentration of Sb was significantly lower after 1 h and greater after 3 h. On the other hand, the MA/maltose composition showed similar serum Sb concentration after 1 h and higher level of Sb after 3 h, when compared to MA. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated the formation of mixed or association complexes of MA with sugars, such as maltose and ribose, which promoted sustained serum level of Sb after oral administration.

  18. Preparation of highly dispersed antimony-doped tin oxide nanopowders by azeotropic drying with isoamyl acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fen; ZHANG Xue-jun; WU Xu; TIAN Fang; GAN Fu-xing

    2007-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin hydroxide colloid precipitates were prepared by hydrolysis of SnCl4-5H2O and SbCl3 ethanol solutions. Isoamyl acetate was selected as azeotropic drying solvent and was compared with the most commonly used n-butanol solvent on treating precipitate for low hard agglomeration precursor powders. The FT-IR, BET, XRD, and TEM results of the precursor powders and calcinated antimony-doped tin oxide powders were recorded. The results demonstrate that isoamyl acetate is an excellent azeotropic drying solvent that can effectively prevent the agglomeration of particles and greatly improve the fluffiness of the obtained dried powders. After these precursor powders are calcined, antimony-doped tin oxide nanopowders with tetragonal rutile structure and high dispersivity can be obtained.

  19. Synthesis of barium mercaptides and application of antimony/barium mercaptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿龙; 张露露; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Mercaptoacetic acid, isooctyl thioglycolate and barium hydroxide used as start materials, barium bis (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Ba(2EHTG)2), barium thioglycolate (Ba(TG)) and barium bisthioglycolate (Ba(TG)2) were synthesized. Their optimum synthetic techniques were discussed, and some physicochemical data were reported. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods were used to identify the structures. They were put into PVC plastic products together with antimony tris (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Sb(2EHTG)3) under the suitable compounding, and their heat stability to PVC was studied. It is shown that these barium mercaptides have remarkable synergisms with antimony mercaptides and the long-term stabilizing effect of organoantimony stabilizer can be effectively improved, reducing the amount of antimony compounds so as to avoid the decrease of its stabilizing effect.

  20. Concentration transient analysis of antimony surface segregation during Si(100) molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, L. C.; Greene, J. E.; Ni, W.-X.; Hansson, G. V.; Sundgren, J.-E.

    1991-01-01

    Antimony surface segregation during Si(100) molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was investigated at temperatures T(sub s) = 515 - 800 C using concentration transient analysis (CTA). The dopant surface coverage Theta, bulk fraction gamma, and incorporation probability sigma during MBE were determined from secondary-ion mass spectrometry depth profiles of modulation-doped films. Programmed T(sub s) changes during growth were used to trap the surface-segregated dopant overlayer, producing concentration spikes whose integrated area corresponds to Theta. Thermal antimony doping by coevaporation was found to result in segregation strongly dependent on T(sub s) with Theta(sub Sb) values up to 0.9 monolayers (ML): in films doped with Sb(+) ions accelerated by 100 V, Theta(sub Sb) was less than or equal to 4 x 10(exp -3) ML. Surface segregation of coevaporated antimony was kinematically limited for the film growth conditions in these experiments.

  1. Geothermal and fluid flowing simulation of ore-forming antimony deposits in Xikuangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ruiyan; MA; Dongsheng; BAO; Zhengyu; PAN; Jiayong; CAO; Shuanglin

    2006-01-01

    The Xikuangshan Antimony Deposit located in the Mid-Hunan Basin, China, is the largest antimony deposit in the world. Based on the hydrogeological and geochemical data collected from four sections, Xikuangshan-Dajienao (AO), Xikuangshan-Dashengshan (BO), Xikuangshan-Longshan (CO) and Dafengshan (DO) in the Basin, an advanced metallogenic model related to deep-cyclic meteoric water of Xikuangshan Antimony Deposit is put forward in this paper using a model of heat-gravity-driving fluid flow transportation. The simulation results show that the ore-forming fluid of the deposit mainly comes from the Dashengshan and Longshan areas where BO and CO sections are located if the overall basin keeps a constant atmospheric precipitation and infiltration rate during mineralization, and that the average transportation speed of the ore-forming fluids is about 0.2-0.4 m/a.

  2. On-line lab-in-syringe cloud point extraction for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Most of the procedures for antimony determination require time-consuming sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents), which are harmful to the environment. Because of the high antimony toxicity, a rapid, sensitive and greener procedure for its determination becomes necessary. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical procedure exploiting for the first time the cloud point extraction on a lab-in-syringe flow system aiming at the spectrophotometric determination of antimony. The procedure was based on formation of an ion-pair between the antimony-iodide complex and H(+) followed by extraction with Triton X-114. The factorial design showed that the concentrations of ascorbic acid, H2SO4 and Triton X-114, as well as second and third order interactions were significant at the 95% confidence level. A Box-Behnken design was applied to obtain the response surfaces and to identify the critical values. System is robust at the 95% confidence level. A linear response was observed from 5 to 50 µg L(-1), described by the equation A=0.137+0.050C(Sb) (r=0.998). The detection limit (99.7% confidence level), the coefficient of variation (n=5; 15 µg L(-1)) and the sampling rate was estimated at 1.8 µg L(-1), 1.6% and 16 h(-1), respectively. The procedure allows quantification of antimony in the concentrations established by environmental legislation (6 µg L(-1)) and it was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in freshwater samples and antileishmanial drugs, yielding results in agreement with those obtained by HGFAAS at the 95% confidence level.

  3. Co-doping with antimony to control phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-02-15

    In germanium, phosphorous and antimony diffuse quickly and as such their transport must be controlled in order to design efficient n-typed doped regions. Here, density functional theory based calculations are used to predict the influence of double donor co-doping on the migration activation energies of vacancy-mediated diffusion processes. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous and antimony were found to be increased significantly when larger clusters involving two donor atoms and a vacancy were formed. These clusters are energetically stable and can lead to the formation of even larger clusters involving a number of donor atoms around a vacancy, thereby affecting the properties of devices.

  4. Antimony trifluoride-modified carbon paste electrode for electrochemical stripping analysis of selected heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Stočes, Matěj; Hočevar, Samo B.; Švancara, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a new typ of non-mercury metal-based electrode, antimony trifluoridebulk- modified carbon paste electrode (SbF3-CPE) is for the first time reported and examined for electrochemical stripping analysis of selected heavy metal ions at their trace concentration level. In the role of bulk modifier and a source of antimony film generated in state nascenti, SbF3 in a content of 3% (w/w) in the carbon paste mixture was the ultimate choice. All important experimental parameters hav...

  5. Influence of cooling rate and antimony addition content on graphite morphology and mechanical properties of a ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling rate and inoculation practice can greatly affect the graphite morphology of ductile irons. In the present research, the effects of the cooling rate and antimony addition on the graphite morphology and mechanical properties of ductile irons have been studied. Three ductile iron castings were prepared through solidification under cooling conditions S (slow, M (medium and F (fast. The cooling rates around the equilibrium eutectic temperature (1,150 ℃ for these cooling conditions (S, M and F were set at 0.21 ℃·min-1, 0.32 ℃·min-1 and 0.37 ℃·min-1, respectively. In addition, four ductile iron castings were prepared by adding 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04% (by weight antimony, respectively under the slow cooling condition. The results show that the nodularity index, tensile strength and hardness of the ductile iron castings without antimony addition are all improved with the increase of cooling rate, while the ductile iron casting solidified under the medium cooling rate possesses the largest number of graphite nodules. Furthermore, for the four antimony containing castings, the graphite morphology and tensile strength are also improved by the antimony additions, and the effect of antimony addition is intensified when the addition increases from 0.01% to 0.03%. Moreover, the rare earth elements (REE/antimony ratio of 2 appears to be the most effective for fine nodular graphite formation in ductile iron.

  6. A frozen spin polarized target for S134

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The CERN-ETH, Zurich-Helsinki-Imperial College-Southampton Collaboration used a frozen spin polarized target together with the ETH spectrometer magnet to study spin effects (S134). Beam was d31 in South Hall

  7. 13 CFR 134.618 - How are awards paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CASES BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Implementation of the Equal Access to Justice Act § 134... the adversary adjudication, or of the award, to the following address: Chief Financial Officer,...

  8. Mechanisms of antimony adsorption onto soybean stover-derived biochar in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited mechanistic knowledge is available to understand how biochar interacts with trace elements that exist predominantly as oxoanions, such as antimony (Sb). Soybean stover biochars were produced at 300 degrees C (SBC300) and 700 degrees C (SBC700), and were characterized by BET, Boehm titration,...

  9. 78 FR 59679 - Antimony Trioxide TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Scientific Consulting Group (SCG), Inc., has identified a panel of scientific experts to conduct a peer... Chemical Risk Assessment for Antimony Trioxide.'' EPA will hold three peer review meetings by web connect... speakers providing oral comments during any or all of the peer review meetings as discussed in this...

  10. ANTIMONY HALIDES AND HgX2 (X = Cl, Br AMINE ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NDONGO GUEYE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight new SbF3, SbCl5 and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br amine adducts have been synthesized and their infrared study carried out. Discrete structures have been suggested on the basis of elemental analysis and infrared data, the coordination number of antimony varying from five to nine, while the environment around Hg is tetrahedral.

  11. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Transformation, Fixation, and Mobilization of Arsenic and Antimony in Contaminated Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    ANTIMONY IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS Final report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(.) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) James M. Brannon 9...additional Sb when leached with saline water. Long-term (six months) releases of Sb were mucl higher from Sb amended sediments than from sediments

  12. Dismantling and chemical characterization of spent Peltier thermoelectric devices for antimony, bismuth and tellurium recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balva, Maxime; Legeai, Sophie; Garoux, Laetitia; Leclerc, Nathalie; Meux, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Major uses of thermoelectricity concern refrigeration purposes, using Peltier devices, mainly composed of antimony, bismuth and tellurium. Antimony was identified as a critical raw material by EU and resources of bismuth and tellurium are not inexhaustible, so it is necessary to imagine the recycling of thermoelectric devices. That for, a complete characterization is needed, which is the aim of this work. Peltier devices were manually dismantled in three parts: the thermoelectric legs, the alumina plates on which remain the electrical contacts and the silicone paste used to connect the plates. The characterization was performed using five Peltier devices. It includes mass balances of the components, X-ray diffraction analysis of the thermoelectric legs and elemental analysis of each part of the device. It appears that alumina represents 45% of a Peltier device in weight. The electrical contacts are mainly composed of copper and tin, and the thermoelectric legs of bismuth, tellurium and antimony. Thermoelectric legs appear to be Se-doped Bi2Te3 and (Bi0,5Sb1,5)Te3 for n type and p type semiconductors, respectively. This work shows that Peltier devices can be considered as a copper ore and that thermoelectric legs contain high amounts of bismuth, tellurium and antimony compared to their traditional resources.

  13. Synthesis of antimony tris(mercaptoethyl carboxylates) as thermal stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒万艮; 刘又年; 陈启元

    2002-01-01

    A novel type of thermal stabilizers-antimony tris(mercaptoethyl carboxylates) (Sb(SCH2CH2OOCR) 3), was synthesized from carboxylic acid, antimony trioxide and 2-mercaptoethanol in two steps. The experimental results show that the molar ratio of carboxylic acid to antimony tris(2-hydroxyethyl mercaptide) is 1.2, when adding 0.6% tetra-n-butyl titanate as catalyst and xylene as isotropic solvent, heating and refluxing for about 2~4h. The thermal stability was measured by heat-aging oven test. The thermal stability time is about 8~40min(at 200℃) when adding 2% tetra-n-butyl titanate in polyvinyl chloride(PVC). Among these stabilizers, antimony tris(mercaptoethyl stearate) has best thermal stability. Its thermal stability is better than that of Ca-Zn complex and basic lead stabilizers, and equal to that of organotin. In addition, the stabilization mechanism of this kind of stabilizers for PVC was discussed briefly.

  14. Commerce Ministry Announced the Export Quotas for Zinc,Antimony,Tungsten,Tin and Silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The Ministry of Commerce recently announcedits decision on the export quotas for zinc,anti-mony,tungsten,tin and silver in 2004.Accord-ing to the data released,all the export quotasare reduced except for silver.Relevant peoplesay that the raw materials shortage is a majorissue for the production of antimony and tin,

  15. Thermodynamics for arsenic and antimony in copper matte converting—computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubal, P. C.; Nagamori, M.

    1988-08-01

    Thermodynamic data for arsenic and antimony and their sulfide and oxide gases have been critically reviewed and compiled. The entropy values for AsS(g), SbS(g), and BiS(g) have been recalculated based on a statistical thermodynamic method. The standard heat of formation and entropy of As2O3(g) have been newly assessed to be △H{298/0} = -81,500 cal/mole and S{298/0} = 81.5 cal/deg/mole. Copper matte converting has been mathematically described using the stepwise equilibrium simulation technique together with quadratic approximations of oxygen and magnetite solubilities in molten mattes. A differential equation for the volatilization of arsenic and antimony has been derived and solved for successive reaction microsteps, whereby the volatilization, slagging, and alloying of the minor elements in copper matte converting have been examined as functions of reaction time and other process variables. Only the first (slag-making) stage of converting is responsible for the elimination of arsenic and antimony by volatilization. Arsenic volatilizes mainly as AsS(g) and AsO(g), with As2(g) also contributing when initial mattes are unusually rich in arsenic (above 0.5 pct arsenic). Antimony volatilizes chiefly as SbS(g), and the contributions of other gases such as SbO(g) and Sb(g) always remain negligibly low. The results of the stepwise equilibrium simulation compare favorably with the industrial operating data.

  16. Investigation on the thermal radiation properties of antimony doped tin oxide particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Cheng-Wu; Zhang Shuan-Qin; Chen Ming-Qing

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of antimony doped tin oxide crystalline powders by chemical coprecipitation method. The influence of sintering temperature and the sintering retention time on the thermal infrared emissivity is analysed. The thermal infrared reflectivity is measured and the optimum doping concentration is proposed.

  17. Morphology and photoresponse of crystalline antimony film grown on mica by physical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafa Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimony is a promising material for the fabrication of photodetectors. This study deals with the growth of a photosensitive thin film by the physical vapor deposition (PVD of antimony onto mica surface in a furnace tube. The geometry of the grown structures was studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and elemental diffraction analysis. XRD peaks of the antimony film grown on mica mostly matched with JCPDF Card. The formation of rhombohedral crystal structures in the film was further confirmed by SEM micrographs and chemical composition analysis. The Hall measurements revealed good electrical conductivity of the film with bulk carrier concentration of the order of 1022 Ω·cm-3 and mobility of 9.034 cm2/Vs. The grown film was successfully tested for radiation detection. The photoresponse of the film was evaluated using its current-voltage characteristics. These investigations revealed that the photosensitivity of the antimony film was 20 times higher than that of crystalline germanium.

  18. Lubricants for HFC-134a Compatible Rotary Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaichi, Kenji; Sakai, Hisakazu

    In replacing CFC-12 with HFC-134a for refrigerator compressors, the compatibility with lubricating oil, and lubrication in general, are of major concern. HFC-134a dose not have adequate solubility with current lubricating oils because of its molecular structure. Current oils also do not provide enough lubricating action when using HFC-134a. A new oil and new materials have to be utilized in order to use HFC-134a. Developing a new lubricating oil involved numerous tests of different combinations of many polyolester synthetic oils and additives. One of the pre-evaluated methods was pursued via sealed tube tests. Lubricated parts were selected by studies involving a plane-on-roller type of wear test machine and by analyzing the traces of acid material commonly created during the lubricating action. The matrices of new lubricating oils and new lubricated materials were estimated based on durability tests conducted on compressors and refrigerators. Results showed that polyolester synthetic oils having a low total acid value and including certain quantities of additives did not break down into a tar-like substance and they did not produce composite particles in the operating compressors and refrigerators. The study also found that ceramics and anti-corrosion alloy steel possessed good adrasion-reducing qualities. Based on our evaluation, we will implement compressor reliability tests and apply HFC-134a to rotary compressors for refrigerators.

  19. Radiogenotoxicological effect of signal nuclide 134Cs on somatic and germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuShou-Peng; XiaFen; 等

    1997-01-01

    Chromosome at aberation rates in bone marrow cells and micronucleus formation in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes both rise with increase in radioactivities of 134Cs,and can be fitted to power functions of radioactivities of 134Cs.In spermatogonia 134Cs mainly induced chromatid breakage,and abnormalities in sperm can also be experessed as power functions of radioactivities of 134 Cs.

  20. Overexpression of ubiquitin and amino acid permease genes in association with antimony resistance in Leishmania tropica field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khadem-Erfan, Mohammad Bagher; Hajjaran, Homa; Hadighi, Ramtin; Khamesipour, Ali; Rezaie, Sassan; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza; Heidari, Mansour

    2013-08-01

    The mainstay therapy against leishmaniasis is still pentavalent antimonial drugs; however, the rate of antimony resistance is increasing in endemic regions such as Iran. Understanding the molecular basis of resistance to antimonials could be helpful to improve treatment strategies. This study aimed to recognize genes involved in antimony resistance of Leishmania tropica field isolates. Sensitive and resistant L. tropica parasites were isolated from anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis patients and drug susceptibility of parasites to meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) was confirmed using in vitro assay. Then, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) approaches were utilized on mRNAs from resistant and sensitive L. tropica isolates. We identified 2 known genes, ubiquitin implicated in protein degradation and amino acid permease (AAP3) involved in arginine uptake. Also, we identified 1 gene encoding hypothetical protein. Real-time RT-PCR revealed a significant upregulation of ubiquitin (2.54-fold), and AAP3 (2.86-fold) (P<0.05) in a resistant isolate compared to a sensitive one. Our results suggest that overexpression of ubiquitin and AAP3 could potentially implicated in natural antimony resistance.

  1. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  2. Transverse wobbling motion in $^{134}$Ce and $^{136}$Nd

    CERN Document Server

    Petrache, C M

    2016-01-01

    The existence of one-phonon and possible two-phonon transverse wobbling bands is proposed for the first time in two even-even nuclei, $^{134}$Ce and $^{136}$Nd. The predominant $E2$ character of the $\\Delta I = 1$ transitions connecting the one-phonon wobbling band in $^{134}$Ce to the two-quasiparticle yrast band supports the wobbling interpretation. The extracted wobbling frequencies decrease with increasing spin, indicating the transverse character of the wobbling motion, with the angular momenta of the two quasiparticles aligned perpendicular to the axis of collective rotation. A candidate for two-phonon wobbling motion is also proposed in $^{136}$Nd. The wobbling frequencies calculated in the harmonic frozen approximation are in good agreement with the experimental ones for both the$^{134}$Ce and $^{136}$Nd nuclei.

  3. Experimental Study on Vapor Pressure of HFC—134a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-ShanZhu; Yi-DongFu; 等

    1992-01-01

    As part of the study on thermophysical properties of HFC-134a,this paper concerns itself with vapor pressure of HFC-134a in the temperature range of 279.15K to 365.15K,A total of 43 measurement data were measured during the experiment which was conducted on a high precision pVTx test apparatus designed by the authors with slight modifications,Uncertainties of temperature was ±10mK and of pressure was±500Pa,purity of sample was either 99.95wt%,or 99.98wt%,Data resulting from this experiment matched closely with the newest data published internationalyy,Compared to our porposed equation for calculating vapor pressure of HFC-134a,the RMS deviation cfexperimental data was only 0.0531%,showing relatively high precision.

  4. Gas phase production of NHD2 in L134N

    CERN Document Server

    Rodgers, S D

    2001-01-01

    We show analytically that large abundances of NH2D and NHD2 can be produced by gas phase chemistry in the interiors of cold dense clouds. The calculated fractionation ratios are in good agreement with the values that have been previously determined in L134N and suggest that triply-deuterated ammonia could be detectable in dark clouds. Grain surface reactions may lead to similar NH2D and NHD2 enhancements but, we argue, are unlikely to contribute to the deuteration observed in L134N.

  5. Deciphering lead and cadmium stripping peaks for porous antimony deposited electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Aqeel Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and lead are generally taken as model heavy metal ions in water to scale the detection limit of various electrode sensors, using electrochemical sensing techniques. These ions interact with the electrochemically deposited antimony electrodes depending on the diffusion limitations. The phenomenon acts differently for the in-situ and ex-situ deposition as well as for porous and non-porous electrodes. A method has been adopted in this study to discourage the stripping and deposition of the working ions (antimony to understand the principle of heavy metal ion detection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS technique was used to establish the interaction between the working and dissolved ions. In addition to the distinct peaks for each analyte, researchers also observed a shoulder peak. A possible reason for the presence of this peak was provided. Different electrochemical tests were performed to ascertain the theory on the basis of the experimental observations.

  6. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Herein, we report a safe, low cost and reproducible approach for the synthesis of antimony (Sb) nanostructures with most of them having prism like morphology and having well defined faces in the range of ∼70210 nm. The organics free approach is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free is economical, fast and free of pollution, which will make it suitable for large scale production. Furthermore, it is well expected that such a technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. The prospects of the process are bright and promising. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L. V.; Loredo, S. L.; Krishnan, B.; Aguilar Martinez, J. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Avellaneda, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb2S3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb2S3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  8. Sandwich heterostructures of antimony trioxide and bismuth trioxide films: Structural, morphological and optical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condurache-Bota, Simona; Praisler, Mirela; Gavrila, Raluca; Tigau, Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    Thin film heterostructures can be advantageous since they either exhibit novel or a combination of the properties of their components. Here we propose sandwich-type of heterostructures made of antimony trioxide and bismuth trioxide thin films, which were deposited on glass substrates by thermal vacuum deposition at three substrate temperatures, 50° Celsius apart. Their morphology and optical properties are studied as compared to the corresponding monolayers. It was found that even small substrate temperature changes strongly influence their morphology, increasing their roughness, while the optical transmittance shows a slight decrease as compared with the individual layers. The corresponding absorption coefficient exhibits intermediate values as compared to the component oxides, while the energy bandgaps for the indirect allowed transitions move towards the Infrared when overlapping the antimony and bismuth trioxides.

  9. [Physico-chemical characteristics of meglumine antimoniate in different storage conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G A; de Oliveira, M R; Correia, D; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    During the period October 1992 to July 1995 we measured the osmolarity and pH of ampoules of meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) from lot 9206L-004 (manufactured by Rhodia Farma Ltd, of São Paulo, SP, Brazil) maintained in three temperature conditions namely 4 degrees C, 37 degrees C and ambiental. Although we observed statistically significant differences in osmolarity between samples, the limited number of measurements and the variation of this property in ampoules maintained at the same temperature were obstacles to obtain definitive conclusions. Such a variation was not found with pH. Assuming these parameters could reflect structural changes in the pentavalent antimony molecule, clearly further better controlled experiments are indicated.

  10. Spectroscopic studies of lead antimony borate glasses doped with erbium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Chandra Shekhar; Goud, K. Krishna Murthy; Dharmaiah, P.; Rao, B. Appa

    2013-06-01

    Antimony borate glasses of the composition 30PbO-25Sb2O3-(45-x)B2O3-xEr2O3 with x = 0 to 1.0 in steps of 0.2 were prepared by the melt-quenching method. Various physical parameters. radiative parameters, transition probability A, branching ratio β and the radiative life time τ for different emission levels of Er3+ ions, have been evaluated.

  11. Chemically deposited thin films of sulfides and selenides of antimony and bismuth as solar energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M. T. S.; Nair, Padmanabhan K.; Garcia, Victor M.; Pena, Y.; Arenas, O. L.; Garcia, J. C.; Gomez-Daza, O.

    1997-10-01

    Chemical bath deposition techniques for bismuth sulfide, bismuth selenide, antimony sulfide, and antimony selenide thin films of about 0.20 - 0.25 micrometer thickness are reported. All these materials may be considered as solar absorber films: strong optical absorption edges, with absorption coefficient, (alpha) , greater than 104 cm-1, are located at 1.31 eV for Bi2Se3, 1.33 eV for Bi2S3, 1.8 eV for Sb2S3, and 1.35 eV for Sb2Se3. As deposited, all the films are nearly amorphous. However, well defined crystalline peaks matching bismuthinite (JCPDS 17- 0320), paraguanajuatite (JCPDS 33-0214), and stibnite (JCPDS 6-0474) and antimony selenide (JCPDS 15-0861) for Bi2S3, Bi2Se3, Sb2S3 and Sb2Se3 respectively, are observed when the films are annealed in nitrogen at 300 degrees Celsius. This is accompanied by a substantial modification of the electrical conductivity in the films: from 10-7 (Omega) -1 cm-1 (in as prepared films) to 10 (Omega) -1 cm-1 in the case of bismuth sulfide and selenide films, and enhancement of photosensitivity in the case of antimony sulfide films. The chemical deposition of a CuS/CuxSe film on these Vx- VIy films and subsequent annealing at 300 degrees Celsius for 1 h at 1 torr of nitrogen leads to the formation of p-type films (conductivity of 1 - 100 (Omega) -1 cm-1) of multinary composition. Among these, the formation of Cu3BiS3 (JCPDS 9-0488) and Cu3SbS4 (JCPDS 35- 0581), CuSbS2 (JCPDS 35-0413) have been clearly detected. Solar energy applications of these films are suggested.

  12. The heat capacity of solid antimony telluride Sb2Te3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashinkin, A. S.; Malkova, A. S.; Mikhailova, M. S.

    2008-05-01

    The literature data on the heat capacity of solid antimony telluride over the range 53 895 K were analyzed. The heat capacity of Sb2Te3 was measured over the range 350 700 K on a DSM-2M calorimeter. The equation for the temperature dependence was suggested. The thermodynamic functions of Sb2Te3 were calculated over the range 298.15 700 K.

  13. Thermo EMF and Hall effect behaviour of thin films of antimony-tellurium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhiren Singh, N. (Dept. of Physics, Manipur Univ., Imphal (India)); Sarma, H.N.K. (Dept. of Physics, Manipur Univ., Imphal (India))

    1994-04-16

    This note presents the results of measurements of thermo emf and Hall effect of Sb[sub 40]Te[sub 60] alloy thin films. The alloy was prepared by taking a stoichiometric mixture (2:3) of high purity elements antimony and tellurium each of purity 99.999 (Koch-Light Laboratories Ltd., England) in a vacuum sealed quartz tube and heating in a furnace to a temperature of about 1070 K for 12 h. (orig.)

  14. Electrodeposition Mechanism of Trivalent Antimony%三价锑的电沉积机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艳; 谢刚; 杨大锦

    2011-01-01

    The reduction mechanism of Sb3+ in H2SO4-NH4F-SbF3 electrolyte system was studied by means of electrochemical methods, including chronopotentiometry and alternating current impedance.Analysis of potential-time transients clearly shows that antimony (Ⅲ) could be reduced to antimony metal via two-steps irreversible electron transfer process in H2SO4-NH4F-SbF3 system.The relationship between iτ1/2 and i calculated by chronopotentiometry indicates that the trivalent antimony complex undergoes chemical transformation reaction before its reduction in the cathode.The impedance results confirm the above conclusion and indicate that the adsorption states which are the middle product of trivalent antimony have different influences on two electron transfer steps.%采用恒电流阶跃法及交流阻抗法等电化学方法,研究了H2SO4-NH4F-SbF3体系中三价锑的阴极还原机理.电势~时间暂态曲线出现二步反应特征,表明Sb"还原分两步进行.由恒电流阶跃曲线中iτ1/2~i关系可知Sb3+阴极还原存在前置化学转化.Sb3+阴极还原的交流阻抗测定结果进一步验证Sb3+还原是存在化学前置转化步骤的二步反应,且电活性中间产物吸附在电极表面,吸附反应对两步电子转移步骤的影响不同.

  15. Antimony in the Contaminated Site of El Triunfo, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez A. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimony has properties similar to arsenic with some of its compounds toxic to humans. Therefore it is necessary to control the wastes accumulated by anthropogenic activities, such as mining, where it is in tailings to be released to the environment. According to the Environment Protection Agency, the maximum value in sediments is 11.2 mg Sb kg–1 and the Earth’s crust average is 0.2 mg Sb kg–1. In this semiarid area, the drainage basin El Carrizal is impacted with wastes of an abandoned gold mine at the Mining District El Triunfo (MD – ET which have tailings with 17,600 mg kg–1 of antimony. In the main dry river (arroyo, the Sb content is between 0.6 and 122 mg kg–1. This element is transported from the source throughout the fluvial basin to discharge into the Pacific Ocean. In the arroyo mouth we collected one sedimentary core and the sediment from dunes (28.6 – 45.7 and 6.43 – 7.74 mg Sb kg–1. This research concluded the antimony is enriched in this semiarid system, with Normalized Enrichment Factors severely enriched mainly in arroyo sediments close to the MD-ET

  16. Altering the dewetting characteristics of ultrathin gold and silver films using a sacrificial antimony layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzinpour, P; Sundar, A; Gilroy, K D; Eskin, Z E; Hughes, R A; Neretina, S

    2012-12-14

    Solid state dewetting of ultrathin films is the most straightforward means of fabricating substrate-supported noble metal nanostructures. This assembly process is, however, quite inflexible, yielding either densely packed smaller structures or widely spaced larger structures. Here, we demonstrate the utility of introducing a sacrificial antimony layer between the substrate and noble metal overlayer. We observe an agglomeration process which is radically altered by the concurrent sublimation of antimony. In stark contrast with conventional dewetting, where the thickness of the deposited metal film determines the characteristic length scales of the assembly process, it is the thickness of the sacrificial antimony layer which dictates both the nanoparticle size and interparticle spacing. The result is a far more flexible self-assembly process where the nanoparticle size and areal density can be varied widely. Demonstrations show nanoparticle areal densities which are varied over four orders of magnitude assembled from the identical gold layer thickness, where the accompanying changes to nanostructure size see a systematic shift in the wavelength of the localized surface plasmon resonance. As a pliable self-assembly process, it offers the opportunity to tailor the properties of an ensemble of nanostructures to meet the needs of specific applications.

  17. Separation of Arsenic from the Antimony-Bearing Dust through Selective Oxidation Using CuO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Da-Peng; Li, Lei; Tan, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    A pyrometallurgical process of selective oxidation roasting of the antimony-bearing dust using CuO is put forward, in which the antimony component is oxidized to Sb2O4 staying in the roasted residue, and arsenic is volatilized in the form of As2O3. The addition of CuO has an active effect on the arsenic volatilization, because structures of some complicated As-Sb phases in the dust are destroyed after the "Sb" component in them is oxidized to Sb2O4, and this part of arsenic might be transformed to As2O3, which continues to volatilize. However, the arsenic volatilization rate decreases with the CuO amount in a certain range, which is attributed to the greater formation of Cu3 (AsO4)2 and Cu3As. Under the conditions of roasting temperature of 673 K (400 °C), roasting time of 100 minutes, CuO amount of 34.54 mass pct, and N2 flow rate of 30 mL/min, 91.50 pct arsenic and only 8.63 pct antimony go into the smoke.

  18. pH-regulated antimony oxychloride nanoparticle formation on titanium oxide nanostructures: a photocatalytically active heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Buchholcz, Balázs

    2017-02-06

    Improving the catalytic activity of heterogeneous photocatalysts has become a hot topic recently. To this end, considerable progress has been made in the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers by e.g. the realization of heterojunction photocatalysts. V-VI-VII compound semiconductors, namely, bismuth oxyhalides, are popular photocatalysts. However, results on antimony oxyhalides [SbOX (X = Br, Cl, I)], the very promising alternatives to the well-known BiOX photomodifiers, are scarce. Here, we report the successful decoration of titanium oxide nanostructures with 8-11 nm diameter SbOX nanoparticles for the first time ever. The product size and stoichiometry could be controlled by the pH of the reactant mixture, while subsequent calcination could transform the structure of the titanate nanotube (TiONT) support and the prepared antimony oxychloride particles. In contrast to the ease of composite formation in the SbOX/TiONT case, anatase TiO could not facilitate the formation of antimony oxychloride nanoparticles on its surface. The titanate nanotube-based composites showed activity in a generally accepted quasi-standard photocatalytic test reaction (methyl orange dye decolorization). We found that the SbOCl/TiONT synthesized at pH = 1 is the most active sample in a broad temperature range.

  19. Parto prematuro após uso de antimonial pentavalente: relato de um caso Premature birth after the use of pentavalent antimonial: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Pinheiro Silveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma mulher de 19 anos, na 24ª semana de gravidez e com leishmaniose visceral. Tratada com antimonial pentavalente na posologia de 850mg/dia por 20 dias, ocorreu parto prematuro no quinto dia de tratamento e óbito da criança um dia após nascimento. Considerando a importância da protozoose no nosso meio e a raridade da associação com a gestação, julgamos de interesse a publicação do caso.A case is reported of a 19-year-old woman, at week 24 of gestation, with visceral leishmaniosis. She was treated with meglumine antimoniate at a dose of 850mg/day for 20 days. There occurred premature birth on day five of treatment and the neonate died one day after birth. Considering the importance of protozoiasis in our population and the rarity of the association with pregnancy, we resolved to publish the case.

  20. HFC-134a Export Expansion in Great Urgency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lizhe

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC- 134a) is a new refrigerant. It has the features of no toxicity, no odor, no color, no inflammability, no explosion, good thermal stability and stable chemical property. Its ODP (ozone depletion potential) is zero. It has a refrigerating ability similar to F12.

  1. 38 CFR 21.134 - Limitation on flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on flight.... Chapter 31 Educational and Vocational Training Services § 21.134 Limitation on flight training. Flight... that include required flight training. This type of training is otherwise subject to the...

  2. 19 CFR 134.43 - Methods of marking specific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134... Tariff Act of 1930. Except for goods of a NAFTA country, articles of a class or kind listed below shall..., cleavers, clippers, shears, scissors, safety razors, blades for safety razors, surgical instruments,...

  3. 49 CFR 572.134 - Thorax assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... completely assembled dummy (drawing 880105-000) is impacted by a test probe conforming to section 572.137(a... Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female Test Dummy, Alpha Version § 572.134 Thorax assembly and test procedure...). Within this specified compression corridor, the peak force, measured by the impact probe as defined...

  4. 19 CFR 134.45 - Approved markings of country name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.45 Approved markings of country name. (a) Language. (1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the markings required by this part shall include the full English name of the country...

  5. 7 CFR 1150.134 - Nominee's agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order National Dairy Promotion and Research Board § 1150.134 Nominee's agreement to serve. Any...

  6. 18 CFR 367.1340 - Account 134, Other special deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1340 Account 134, Other... special deposits. 367.1340 Section 367.1340 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  7. Leishmania panamensis infection and antimonial drugs modulate expression of macrophage drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes: impact on intracellular parasite survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Navas, Adriana; Márquez, Ricardo; Rojas, Laura Jimena; Vargas, Deninson Alejandro; Blanco, Victor Manuel; Koren, Roni; Zilberstein, Dan; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Treatment failure is multifactorial. Despite the importance of host cell drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the accumulation, distribution and metabolism of drugs targeting intracellular pathogens, their impact on the efficacy of antileishmanials is unknown. We examined the contribution of pharmacologically relevant determinants in human macrophages in the antimony-mediated killing of intracellular Leishmania panamensis and its relationship with the outcome of treatment with meglumine antimoniate. Methods Patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis who failed (n = 8) or responded (n = 8) to treatment were recruited. Gene expression profiling of pharmacological determinants in primary macrophages was evaluated by quantitative RT–PCR and correlated to the drug-mediated intracellular parasite killing. Functional validation was conducted through short hairpin RNA gene knockdown. Results Survival of L. panamensis after exposure to antimonials was significantly higher in macrophages from patients who failed treatment. Sixteen macrophage drug-response genes were modulated by infection and exposure to meglumine antimoniate. Correlation analyses of gene expression and intracellular parasite survival revealed the involvement of host cell metallothionein-2A and ABCB6 in the survival of Leishmania during exposure to antimonials. ABCB6 was functionally validated as a transporter of antimonial compounds localized in both the cell and phagolysosomal membranes of macrophages, revealing a novel mechanism of host cell-mediated regulation of intracellular drug exposure and parasite survival within phagocytes. Conclusions These results provide insight into host cell mechanisms regulating the intracellular exposure of Leishmania to antimonials and variations among individuals that impact parasite survival. Understanding of host cell determinants of intracellular pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics opens new avenues to improved drug efficacy for intracellular

  8. Synthesis of Novel 2,5-Disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazoles Clubbed 1,2,4-Triazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and/or Schiff Base as Potential Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjet Rezki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new series of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazole tethered 1,2,4-triazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and Schiff base derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. All compounds were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiproliferative activity. Some of the synthesized derivatives have displayed promising biological activity.

  9. Biodistribution of meglumine antimoniate in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi-infected BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimonials such as meglumine antimoniate (MA are the primary treatments for leishmaniasis, a complex disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania . Despite over 70 years of clinical use, their mechanisms of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetics have not been fully elucidated. Radiotracer studies performed on animals have the potential to play a major role in pharmaceutical development. The aims of this study were to prepare an antimony radiotracer by neutron irradiation of MA and to determine the biodistribution of MA in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi-infected mice. MA (Glucantime(r was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes, 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This irradiated compound presented anti-leishmanial activity similar to that of non-irradiated MA in both in vitro and in vivo evaluations. In the biodistribution studies, healthy mice showed higher uptake of antimony in the liver than infected mice and elimination occurred primarily through biliary excretion, with a small proportion of the drug excreted by the kidneys. The serum kinetic curve was bi-exponential, with two compartments: the central compartment and another compartment associated with drug excretion. Radiotracers, which can be easily produced by neutron irradiation, were demonstrated to be an interesting tool for answering several questions regarding antimonial pharmacokinetics and chemotherapy.

  10. Species-specific antimonial sensitivity in Leishmania is driven by post-transcriptional regulation of AQP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Mandal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania is a digenetic protozoan parasite causing leishmaniasis in humans. The different clinical forms of leishmaniasis are caused by more than twenty species of Leishmania that are transmitted by nearly thirty species of phlebotomine sand flies. Pentavalent antimonials (such as Pentostam or Glucantime are the first line drugs for treating leishmaniasis. Recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony (Sb(V acts as a pro-drug, which is converted to the more active trivalent form (Sb(III. However, sensitivity to trivalent antimony varies among different Leishmania species. In general, Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL are more sensitive to Sb(III than the species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Leishmania aquaglyceroporin (AQP1 facilitates the adventitious passage of antimonite down a concentration gradient. In this study, we show that Leishmania species causing CL accumulate more antimonite, and therefore exhibit higher sensitivity to antimonials, than the species responsible for VL. This species-specific differential sensitivity to antimonite is directly proportional to the expression levels of AQP1 mRNA. We show that the stability of AQP1 mRNA in different Leishmania species is regulated by their respective 3'-untranslated regions. The differential regulation of AQP1 mRNA explains the distinct antimonial sensitivity of each species.

  11. Species-Specific Antimonial Sensitivity in Leishmania Is Driven by Post-Transcriptional Regulation of AQP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Goutam; Mandal, Srotoswati; Sharma, Mansi; Charret, Karen Santos; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Mukhopadhyay, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania is a digenetic protozoan parasite causing leishmaniasis in humans. The different clinical forms of leishmaniasis are caused by more than twenty species of Leishmania that are transmitted by nearly thirty species of phlebotomine sand flies. Pentavalent antimonials (such as Pentostam or Glucantime) are the first line drugs for treating leishmaniasis. Recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony (Sb(V)) acts as a pro-drug, which is converted to the more active trivalent form (Sb(III)). However, sensitivity to trivalent antimony varies among different Leishmania species. In general, Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are more sensitive to Sb(III) than the species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Leishmania aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) facilitates the adventitious passage of antimonite down a concentration gradient. In this study, we show that Leishmania species causing CL accumulate more antimonite, and therefore exhibit higher sensitivity to antimonials, than the species responsible for VL. This species-specific differential sensitivity to antimonite is directly proportional to the expression levels of AQP1 mRNA. We show that the stability of AQP1 mRNA in different Leishmania species is regulated by their respective 3’-untranslated regions. The differential regulation of AQP1 mRNA explains the distinct antimonial sensitivity of each species. PMID:25714343

  12. Development of an analytical method for antimony speciation in vegetables by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, David; Bravo, Manuel; Feldmann, Jorg; Raab, Andrea; Neaman, Alexander; Quiroz, Waldo

    2012-01-01

    A new method for antimony speciation in terrestrial edible vegetables (spinach, onions, and carrots) was developed using HPLC with hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Mechanical agitation and ultrasound were tested as extraction techniques. Different extraction reagents were evaluated and optimal conditions were determined using experimental design methodology, where EDTA (10 mmol/L, pH 2.5) was selected because this chelate solution produced the highest extraction yield and exhibited the best compatibility with the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that EDTA prevents oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) and maintains the stability of antimony species during the entire analytical process. The LOD and precision (RSD values obtained) for Sb(V), Sb(III), and trimethyl Sb(V) were 0.08, 0.07, and 0.9 microg/L and 5.0, 5.2, and 4.7%, respectively, for a 100 microL sample volume. The application of this method to real samples allowed extraction of 50% of total antimony content from spinach, while antimony extracted from carrots and onion samples ranged between 50 and 60 and 54 and 70%, respectively. Only Sb(V) was detected in three roots (onion and spinach) that represented 60-70% of the total antimony in the extracts.

  13. Highly active and stable Pt electrocatalysts promoted by antimony-doped SnO2 supports for oxygen reduction reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Min; Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng;

    2014-01-01

    Alternative composite supports for platinum catalysts were synthesized from antimony doped tin dioxide (ATO) nanoparticles. In the range of the antimony content from 0 to 11mol%, the highest electrical conductivity of 1.1Scm-1 at 130°C was obtained for the 5mol% Sb ATO, from which composite...

  14. Innovative computational intelligence a rough guide to 134 clever algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The present book Innovative Computational Intelligence: A Rough Guide to 134 Clever Algorithms is compilation of recent trends in computational intelligence (CI) research using inspiration from various sources such as biology, physics, chemistry, and mathematics. Innovative CI, unlike its counterparts, i.e., highly developed and refined traditional CI, is a new CI category introduced in the present book. The major notable feature of this book is its innovation and comprehensiveness: 134 new paradigms of CI are covered and most of them are usually spread over a number of unrelated publishing directions. This book is useful to multidisciplinary students including such as aeronautic engineering, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, chemical engineering, computer science, applied mathematics, physics, economy, biology, and social science, particularly those pursuing postgraduate studies in advanced subjects. Moreover, the algorithms introduced in this book can mot...

  15. Calibration of the SH134-20 Standard Gain Horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    This report documents the measurement of the linearly polarized SH134-20 Standard Gain Horn. The measurement comprises on-axis gain, on-axis polarization characteristics, and reflection coefficient at 111 frequencies in the frequency range from 22-33 GHz. The measurement was carried out at the DT......-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in December 2012 for SE Laboratories, Santa Clara, CA, USA....

  16. Research Laboratory of Electronics Progress Report Number 134

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-31

    collaboration with the Dutch group headed by between two subband levels, and the other is the Profesor Horst Rogalla, which is the leading confinement of...m - ... ... ....... .. ...... . Profesor SYIVAI T. Cayer 132 ftLE Progrees Report Number 134 Chapter 3. Chemical Reaction Dynamics at Surfaces Chapter...Herbelot Janet L. Pan Claudio L. Cesar Lori K. Herold Gregory E. Penn Hwa-Ping Chang Bruce N. Ingle Brian M. Perreault Michael S. Chapman Steven H. Isabella

  17. Leishmaniose cutânea com desfecho fatal durante tratamento com antimonial pentavalente American cutaneous leishmaniasis with fatal outcome during pentavalent antimoniate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiri Vanderlei Nogueira de Lima

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de paciente de 58 anos, hipertensa e diabética, com diagnóstico de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, tratada com antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina (15mg SbV/kg/dia, acompanhada pelo serviço de atenção básica em saúde e que evoluiu para óbito no 18º dia de tratamento.The authors report a case of a 58 years-old, hypertensive, diabetic female patient, with the diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, undergoing treatment with Nmethyl glucamine antimoniate (15mg SbV/Kg/day. She was followed up by the basic health care service, but has died on the 18th treatment day.

  18. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The

  19. Evaluation of antimony efficiency on nickel passivation in PETROBRAS refineries; Avaliacao da efetividade do antimonio para passivacao de niquel nas refinarias da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Henrique Soares; Pimenta, Ricardo Drolhe M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Engenharia de Abastecimento]. E-mail: henriquecerqueira@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Baugis, Guintar Luciano; Tan, Mauricio Hoansan [PETROBRAS, Maua, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Capuava (RECAP)

    2001-12-01

    In the present paper, a brief review concerning the use of antimony as nickel passivator is presented. X-ray fluorescence analysis of equilibrium catalysts from several fluid catalytic cracking units in Petrobras refineries indicates that the Sb/ Ni ratio currently in use is very low (approx. 0.1) and that neither the coke nor the gas factor obtained in laboratory tests (MAT) are correlated with eh Sb/Ni ratio. An experiment in the cyclic deactivation unit doping the feedstock (GOP cabiunas) with Ni, V naphthenates as well as antimony, aiming at simulating the levels found in PETROBRAS refineries, showed that under those conditions the antimony does not deposit significantly over the catalyst. Analysis of antimony content in the catalyst fines and decanted oil from one FCC unit confirms the non-retention of antimony under the applied industrial conditions. (author)

  20. Effect of Antimony, Phosphorous and Salinity on Growth, Root Membrane Permeability and Root Antimony, Iron and Zinc Concentration of Corn in Hydroponic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Barangizi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb pollution has increased in recent years because of human activities and extensive usage of antimony compounds. To date, only a few researches have been conducted in this field in Iran. The purpose of this research is to determine fresh and dry weight, root permeability percentage and root concentration of Sb, Fe and Zn in the corn. This greenhouse research was performed in hydroponics. A factorial experiment (3 × 2 × 3 with three Sb concentrations (0, 6, 18 mgL-1, with and without P (0, 3 mgL-1, and three concentrations of NaCl (0, 60, 120 mM in three replications was conducted. After 40 days, plants were harvested and the roots and shoots were separated. Increasing Sb concentrations, significantly reduced shoot weight. In the presence of Sb, shoot wet and dry matter increased with phosphorous addition because of the positive effect of phosphorous. Increasing Sb concentration with the same level of phosphorous produced plants with less fresh matter. Roots with lower phosphorous level had higher permeability, and increasing phosphorous concentration had a significant effect on root permeability. The highest and lowest root permeability was related to blank Sb level and 6 mg L-1 level of Sb, respectively. Increasing Sb concentration in nutrient solution first reduced and then significantly increased the root permeability. Root permeability also increased significantly by increasing salinity level in nutrient solution. Root Fe concentration of blank phosphorous level was about 13 percent higher than 3 mg L-1 of phosphorous but there was no significant difference in root Fe concentration between species in nutrient solutions with different levels of Sb and NaCl concentrations. The addition of Sb decreased root Zn concentration.

  1. Selective liquid-liquid extraction of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media by N-n-octylaniline in xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ANUSE

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available N-n-Octylaniline in xylene was used for the extraction separation of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media. Antimony(III was extracted quantitatively with 10 mL 4 % N-n-octylaniline in xylene. It was stripped from the organic phase with 0.5 M ammonia and estimated photometrically by the iodide method. The effect of metal ion, acid, reagent concentration and various foreign ions was investigated. The method affords binary and ternary separation of antimony(III from tellurium(IV, selenium(IV, lead(II, bismuth(III, tin(IV, germanium(IV, copper(II, gold(III, iron(III and zinc(II. The method is applicable for the analysis of synthetic mixtures, alloys and semiconductor thin films. It is fast, accurate and precise.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and single crystal X-ray analysis of chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.S. Chauhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III has been prepared in distilled acetonitrile and characterized by physicochemical [melting point and molecular weight determination, elemental analysis (C, H, N, S & Sb], spectral [FT–IR, far IR, NMR (1H & 13C] studies. The crystal and molecular structure was further confirmed using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which features a five-coordinate geometry for antimony(III within a ClS4 donor set. The distortion in the co-planarity of ClSbS3 evidences the stereochemical influence exerts by the lone pair of electrons on antimony(III. Two centrosymmetrically related molecule held together via C–H···Cl secondary interaction result in molecular aggregation of the compound.

  3. Nanoscaled hydrated antimony (V oxide as a new approach to first-line antileishmanial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco AMR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antonia MR Franco,1 Iryna Grafova,2 Fabiane V Soares,1,3 Gennaro Gentile,4 Claudia DC Wyrepkowski,1,3 Marcos A Bolson,5 Ézio Sargentini Jr,5 Cosimo Carfagna,4 Markku Leskelä,2 Andriy Grafov2 1Laboratory of Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease, National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 2Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Multi-Institutional Post-Graduate Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 4Institute for Polymers, Composites, and Biomaterials, National Research Council, Pozzuoli, Naples Province, Italy; 5Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Background: Coordination compounds of pentavalent antimony have been, and remain, the first-line drugs in leishmaniasis treatment for >70 years. Molecular forms of Sb (V complexes are commercialized as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® and meglumine antimoniate (MA (Glucantime®. Ever-increasing drug resistance in the parasites limits the use of antimonials, due to the low drug concentrations being administered against high parasitic counts. Sb5+ toxicity provokes severe side effects during treatment. To enhance therapeutic potency and to increase Sb (V concentration within the target cells, we decided to try a new active substance form, a hydrosol of Sb2O5⋅nH2O nanoparticles (NPs, instead of molecular drugs. Methodology/principal findings: Sb2O5⋅nH2O NPs were synthesized by controlled SbCl5 hydrolysis in a great excess of water. Sb2O5⋅nH2O phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The surface of Sb (V NPs was treated with ligands with a high affinity for target cell membrane receptors. The mean particle size determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy was ~35–45 nm. In vitro tests demonstrated a 2.5–3 times higher antiparasitic activity of Sb (V nanohybrid hydrosols

  4. 19 CFR 134.36 - Inapplicability of marking exception for articles processed by importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... processed by importer. 134.36 Section 134.36 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... Requirements § 134.36 Inapplicability of marking exception for articles processed by importer. An article which is to be processed in the United States by the importer or for his account shall not be considered...

  5. 46 CFR 134.180 - Piping for fire-main suction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for fire-main suction. 134.180 Section 134.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.180 Piping for fire-main suction. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of...

  6. Field-portable-XRF reveals the ubiquity of antimony in plastic consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat

    2017-02-09

    Very little systematic information exists on the occurrence and concentrations of antimony (Sb) in consumer products. In this study, a Niton XL3t field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer was deployed in situ and in the laboratory to provide quantitative information on Sb dissipated in plastic items and fixtures (including rubber, textile and foamed materials) from the domestic, school, vehicular and office settings. The metalloid was detected in 18% of over 800 measurements performed, with concentrations ranging from about 60 to 60,000μgg(-1). The highest concentrations were encountered in white, electronic casings and in association with similar concentrations of Br, consistent with the use of antimony oxides (e.g. Sb2O3) as synergistic flame retardants. Concentrations above 1000μgg(-1), and with or without Br, were also encountered in paints, piping and hosing, adhesives, whiteboards, Christmas decorations, Lego blocks, document carriers, garden furniture, upholstered products and interior panels of private motor vehicles. Lower concentrations of Sb were encountered in a wide variety of items but its presence (without Br) in food tray packaging, single-use drinks bottles, straws and small toys were of greatest concern from a human health perspective. While the latter observations are consistent with the use of antimony compounds as catalysts in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, co-association of Sb and Br in many products not requiring flame retardancy suggests that electronic casings are widely recycled. Further research is required into the mobility of Sb when dissipated in new, recycled and aged polymeric materials.

  7. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2014-10-01

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  8. Antimony film sensor for sensitive rare earth metal analysis in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makombe, Martin; van der Horst, Charlton; Silwana, Bongiwe; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-07-02

    A sensor for the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of rare earth elements has been developed. The electrochemical procedure is based on the oxidation of the rare earth elements complexed with alizarin complexone at a glassy carbon electrode that was in situ modified with an antimony film, during an anodic scan from -0.2 V to 1.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and deposition potential of -0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The factors influencing the adsorptive stripping capability were optimised, including the complexing agent concentration, plating concentration of antimony and deposition time. The detection of rare earth elements (La, Ce and Pr) were realised in 0.08 M sodium acetate (pH = 5.8) solution as supporting electrolyte, with 2 × 10(-6) M alizarin complexone and 1.0 mg L(-1) antimony solution. Under the optimised conditions, a deposition time of 360 s was obtained and a linear response was observed between 1 and 25 µg L(-1). The reproducibility of the voltammetric measurements was found to be within 5.0% RSD for 12 replicate measurements of cerium(III) concentration of 5 µg L(-1) using the same electrode surface. The detection limits obtained using stripping analysis was 0.06, 0.42 and 0.71 μg L(-1) for Ce(III), La(III) and Pr(III), respectively. The developed sensor has been successfully applied for the determination of cerium, lanthanum and praseodymium in municipal tap water samples.

  9. Sm-Nd isotope dating of hydrothermal calcites from the Xikuangshan antimony deposit, Central Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The research on Samarium-Neodymium isotope systematics of hydrothermal calcites from the Xikuangshan antimony deposit, Central Hunan, places precise timing constraints on the Sb mineralization in this area. It is revealed that the Xikuangshan deposit formed during the late Jurassic-early Cretaceous Period, the early- and late- stage mineralization took place at (155.5 ± 1.1) Ma and (124.1 ± 3.7) Ma, respectively. The accurate age determination of mineralization is very crucial for revealing the super-enrichment mechanism of the element Sb at the Xikuangshan mine, and lays some foundations for the further understandings of its ore genesis and mineralization mechanism.

  10. Photodegradation of Naphthol green B in the presence of semiconducting antimony trisulphide - SHORT COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAKSHIT AMETA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of wastewater treatment are being used for the removal of dyes from their solution, but in most of the cases, either homogeneous catalysts or different adsorbents are used. These methods have their own merits and demerits. In the present work, antimony trisulphide was used as a heterogeneous catalyst. The effects of different parameters on the rate of the reaction were observed, such as pH, concentration of dye, amount of semiconductor and light intensity. A tentative mechanism is proposed in which the role of hydroxyl radical as an active oxidizing species is shown for degradation of Naphthol green B.

  11. Influence of arsenic,antimony and cobalt impurities on the cathodic process in zinc electrowinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By means of an electrochemical study,the influence of arsenic,antimony and cobalt on cathodic polarization in the zinc electrowinning process,the associated kinetic equations and parameters,and the polarization mechanism have been studied.The results show that the experimental values of the kinetic parameters are in accord with the theoretical values in the ZnSO4/H2SO4 solution with a single impurity is added.In contrast,the charge transfer coefficient α is smaller than the theoretical value in the ZnSO4/H2SO4 solution when the three impurities are added together.

  12. Determination of antimony in rain water at the nanogram level with surfactant and brilliant green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, A.N.; Patel, K.S. [School of Studies in Chemistry, Pt. Ravishankar University, Raipur (India)

    1998-01-01

    A new, simple, selective and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony in rain water is described. It includes preconcentrating Sb with surfactants (i.e. cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and Triton X-100 (TX-100)) into toluene and allowing the extract to react with a dye, i.e. brilliant green (BG). The value of apparent molar absorptivity is 5.55 x 10{sup 5} L-mol{sup -1} . cm{sup -1} at {lambda}{sub max} = 620 nm; the detection limit is 3 ng/mL Sb in rain water at 3-fold preconcentration. (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 7 refs.

  13. Temperature dependent electrical resistivity of gallium and antimony in a liquid form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.

    2016-05-01

    Present paper deals with the effects of temperature variation on the electrical resistivity (Ω) of liquid Gallium (Ga), and Antimony (Sb). We have used a new parameter free pseudopotential with a Zeeman formula for finding it. To see the effects of screening Farid et al local field correction function is used with the Charged Hard Sphere (CHS) reference system. Analysis and comparison between the plotted graphs, based on present computed data and other experimental data defines and conclude that our newly constructed model potential is an effective one to produce the data for the temperature dependent electrical resistivity of some liquid semiconductors.

  14. Stripping voltammetric determination of mercury(II) at antimony-coated carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Amir M; Vytřas, Karel

    2011-10-15

    A new procedure was elaborated to determine mercury(II) using an anodic stripping square-wave voltammetry at the antimony film carbon paste electrode (SbF-CPE). In highly acidic medium of 1M hydrochloric acid, voltammetric measurements can be realized in a wide potential window. Presence of cadmium(II) allows to separate peaks of Hg(II) and Sb(III) and apparently catalyses reoxidation of electrolytically accumulated mercury, thus allowing its determination at ppb levels. Calibration dependence was linear up to 100 ppb Hg with a detection limit of 1.3 ppb. Applicability of the method was tested on the real river water sample.

  15. Performance and heat transfer characteristics of HFC-134a and CFC-12 in a water chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, S.; Parande, M.G.; Patwardhan, V.R. [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India)

    1998-07-01

    A water chiller with an open reciprocating compressor has been used to comparatively assess the performance of HFC-134a with reference to CFC-12 under as close to identical conditions as possible. Performance characteristics of the chiller under retrofit conditions show that HFC-134a offers better cooling load and coefficients of performance vis-a-vis CFC-12 for identical operating conditions. Further heat transfer analysis of data for the condenser shows that the condensing heat transfer coefficients for HFC-134a are superior to CFC-12. The better performance of HFC-134a may be ascribed to the better heat transfer coefficient of HFC-134a over CFC-12. (Author)

  16. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmund Michalski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemical cycles of chemical compounds, determination of toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products, control of medicines and pharmaceutical products, technological process control, research on the impact of technological installation on the environment, examination of occupational exposure, and clinical analysis. Conventional methods are usually labor intensive, time consuming, and susceptible to interferences. The hyphenated techniques, in which separation method is coupled with multidimensional detectors, have become useful alternatives. The main advantages of those techniques consist in extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant interference, influence as well as high precision and repeatability of the determinations. In view of their importance, the present work overviews and discusses different hyphenated techniques used for arsenic, antimony, and thallium species analysis, in different clinical, environmental and food matrices.

  17. Effect of indium and antimony doping in SnS single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, Sunil H., E-mail: sunilchaki@yahoo.co.in; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M.P.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Single crystals growth of pure SnS, indium doped SnS and antimony doped SnS by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. • Doping of In and Sb occurred in SnS single crystals by cation replacement. • The replacement mechanism ascertained by EDAX, XRD and substantiated by Raman spectra analysis. • Dopants concentration affects the optical energy bandgap. • Doping influences electrical transport properties. - Abstract: Single crystals of pure SnS, indium (In) doped SnS and antimony (Sb) doped SnS were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. Two doping concentrations of 5% and 15% each were employed for both In and Sb dopants. Thus in total five samples were studied viz., pure SnS (S1), 5% In doped SnS (S2), 15% In doped SnS (S3), 5% Sb doped SnS (S4) and 15% Sb doped SnS (S5). The grown single crystal samples were characterized by evaluating their surface microstructure, stoichiometric composition, crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy, optical and electrical transport properties using appropriate techniques. The d.c. electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power variations with temperature showed semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The room temperature Hall Effect measurements further substantiated the semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The obtained results are deliberated in detail.

  18. Determination of Trace Antimony (III by Adsorption Voltammetry at Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongyue He

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a sensitive method for the determination of trace antimonybased on the antimony-pyrogallol red (PGR adsorption at a carbon paste electrode (CPE.The optimal conditions were to use an electrode containing 25% paraffin oil and 75%high purity graphite powder as working electrode, a 0.10 mol/L HCl solution containing3.0×10-5 mol/L PGR as accumulation medium and a 0.20 mol/L HCl solution aselectrolyte with an accumulation time of 150 s and a reduction time of 60 s at -0.50 Vfollowed with a sweep from -0.50 V to 0.20 V. The mechanism of the electrode reactionwas discussed. Interferences of other metal ions were studied as well. The detection limitwas 1×10-9 mol/L. The linear range was from 2.0×10-9 mol/L to 5.0×10-7 mol/L.Application of the proposed method to the determination of antimony in water andhuman hair samples gave good results.

  19. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: comparison of in vitro leishmanicidal activity of marbofloxacin, meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Rougier, Sandrine; Dugas, Bernard; Pino, Paco; Mazier, Dominique; Woehrlé, Frédérique

    2006-01-30

    The control of canine leishmaniasis largely depends on the success of treatment. Drugs currently available to treat this disease are toxic and partially effective. The curative effect of marbofloxacin, a third-generation fluoroquinolone developed for veterinarian individual treatment, was evaluated in vitro in the presence of Leishmania infantum promastigotes and dog-monocyte-derived macrophages; meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate were used as comparative treatments. We observed that the killing of Leishmania promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes by marbofloxacin was dose-dependent. We demonstrated that successful treatment of canine infected macrophages for 48 h was possible with 500 microg/ml of marbofloxacin. Leishmanicidal activity acted through a TNF-alpha and nitric oxide pathway and correlated with the generation of nitric oxide (NO(2)) production by monocytes derived macrophages from infected (23+/-5 microM) or healthy (21+/-6 microM) dogs, in comparison with NO(2) concentration in infected/non-treated macrophages (Marbofloxacin was shown to be non-toxic at 500 microg/ml in vitro and no cell apoptosis was observed. The molecule was able to induce a parasitic process after significant elimination of amastigotes in leishmania-infected dog macrophages. We propose that marbofloxacin, compared to standard chemotherapeutic agents (meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate), could be an effective and pragmatic oral route alternative to treat canine leishmaniasis.

  20. A Black Phosphate Conversion Coating on Steel Surface Using Antimony(III)-Tartrate as an Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Guiping

    2016-05-01

    A novel black phosphate conversion coating was formed on steel surface through a Zn-Mn phosphating bath containing mainly ZnO, H3PO4, Mn(H2PO4)2, and Ca(NO3)2, where antimony(III)-tartrate was used as the blackening agent of phosphatization. The surface morphology and composition of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Corrosion resistance of the coating was studied by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The pH value of the solution had significant influence on the formation and corrosion resistance of the coating. The experimental results indicated that the Sb plays a vital role in the blackening of phosphate conversion coating. The optimal concentration of antimony(III)-tartrate in the phosphating bath used in this experiment was 1.0 g L-1, as higher values reduced the corrosion resistance of the coating. In addition, by saponification and oil seals, the corrosion duration of the black phosphate coating in a copper sulfate spot test can be as long as 20 min.

  1. Effect of antimony incorporation on structural properties of CuInS{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rabeh, M., E-mail: mohamedbenrabeh@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaglabou, N., E-mail: nadia_chaglabou@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Kanzari, M., E-mail: Mounir.Kanzari@ipeit.rnu.t [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) single crystals doped with 1, 2, 3 and 4 atomic percent (at.%) of antimony (Sb) were grown by the horizontal Bridgman method. The effect of Sb doping on the structural properties of CIS crystal was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL measurements. X-ray diffraction data suggests that the doping of Sb in the CIS single crystals does not affect the tetragonal (chalcopyrite) crystal structure and exhibited a (1 1 2) preferred orientation. In addition, with increasing Sb concentration, the X-ray diffraction analysis show that Sb doped CIS crystals are more crystallized and the diffraction peaks of the CuInS{sub 2} phase were more pronounced in particular the (1 1 2) plane. EDAX study revealed that Sb atoms can occupy the indium site and/or occupying the sulfur site to make an acceptor. PL spectra of undoped and Sb doped CIS crystals show two emission peaks at 1.52 and 1.62 eV, respectively which decreased with increasing atomic percent antimony. Sb doped CIS crystals show p-type conductivity.

  2. Food crop accumulation and bioavailability assessment for antimony (Sb) compared with arsenic (As) in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Susan C; Tighe, Matthew; Paterson, Ewan; Ashley, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Field samples and a 9-week glasshouse growth trial were used to investigate the accumulation of mining derived arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in vegetable crops growing on the Macleay River Floodplain in Northern New South Wales, Australia. The soils were also extracted using EDTA to assess the potential for this extractant to be used as a predictor of As and Sb uptake in vegetables, and a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) to understand potential for uptake in the human gut with soil ingestion. Metalloids were not detected in any field vegetables sampled. Antimony was not detected in the growth trial vegetable crops over the 9-week greenhouse trial. Arsenic accumulation in edible vegetable parts was risk of exposure through short-term vegetable crops is low. The data also demonstrate that uptake pathways for Sb and As in the vegetables were different with uptake strongly impacted by soil properties. A fraction of soil-borne metalloid was soluble in the different soils resulting in Sb soil solution concentration (10.75 ± 0.52 μg L(-1)) that could present concern for contamination of water resources. EDTA proved a poor predictor of As and Sb phytoavailability. Oral bioaccessibility, as measured by SBET, was risk from soil borne As and Sb in the floodplain environment.

  3. Evaluation of antimony microparticles supported on biochar for application in the voltammetric determination of paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaerd, Ava; de Oliveira, Paulo R; Mangrich, Antonio S; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the construction and application of carbon paste electrodes modified with biochar and antimony microparticles (SbBCPE) for voltammetric determination of paraquat using a simple and sensitive procedure based on voltammetric stripping analysis. Some parameters such as amount of biochar and antimony used in the composition of the carbon paste and instrumental parameters were examined in detail. Under optimized conditions, an analytical curve was obtained for paraquat determination employing SbBCPE, which showed a linear response ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 μmol L(-1), with limit of detection and quantification of 34 nmol L(-1) and 113 nmol L(-1), respectively, after paraquat pre-concentration of 120 s. The repeatability study presented a RSD=2.0% for 10 consecutive measurements using the same electrode surface and the reproducibility study showed a RSD=2.7% for measurements with 10 different electrode surfaces. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for paraquat determination in tap water and citric fruit juice spiked samples and good recoveries were obtained without any sample pre-treatment, showing its promising analytical performance.

  4. Growth of antimony doped P-type zinc oxide nanowires for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Pradel, Ken

    2016-09-27

    In a method of growing p-type nanowires, a nanowire growth solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO.sub.3).sub.2), hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and polyethylenemine (800 M.sub.w PEI) is prepared. A dopant solution to the growth solution, the dopant solution including an equal molar ration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), glycolic acid (C.sub.2H.sub.4O.sub.3) and antimony acetate (Sb(CH.sub.3COO).sub.3) in water is prepared. The dopant solution and the growth solution combine to generate a resulting solution that includes antimony to zinc in a ratio of between 0.2% molar to 2.0% molar, the resulting solution having a top surface. An ammonia solution is added to the resulting solution. A ZnO seed layer is applied to a substrate and the substrate is placed into the top surface of the resulting solution with the ZnO seed layer facing downwardly for a predetermined time until Sb-doped ZnO nanowires having a length of at least 5 .mu.m have grown from the ZnO seed layer.

  5. Organically complexed iron enhances bioavailability of antimony to maize (Zea mays) seedlings in organic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Corey; McBride, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Chemical similarities between arsenic (As) and Sb produce concerns about potential health effects of Sb and enrichment in the environment. Antimony is found in oxic environments predominately as an oxyanionic species, antimonite (Sb[OH](6-)). As a result of its net negative charge, Sb[OH](6-) was not initially predicted to have strong interactions with natural organic matter. Oxyanionic species could bind the negatively charged organic matter via a ternary complexation mechanism, in which cationic metals mediate the strong association between organic matter functional groups and oxyanions. However, these interactions are poorly understood in how they influence the bioavailability of oxyanionic contaminants to plants. Iron (Fe) additions to organic soils have been found to increase the number of organically complexed Fe sites suitable for Sb exchange, resulting in a reduced bioavailable fraction of Sb. The bioavailability of Sb to maize seedlings as a function of organically complexed Fe was examined using a greenhouse study. A significant increase in plant tissue Sb was observed as organically complexed Fe increased, which was not predicted by methods commonly used to assess bioavailable Sb. Extraction of soils with organic acids common to the maize rhizosphere suggested that organic acid exudation can readily mobilize Sb bound by organic Fe complexes.

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE : A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachwani Mukesh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole is a highly privileged structure the derivatives of which exhibit a wide range of biological activities including antibacterial, antitubercular, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer and ulcerogenic activities. Resistance to number of antimicrobial agents among a variety of clinically significant species of bacteria is becoming increasingly important global problem. The search for new antimicrobial agents will consequently always remain as an important and challenging task for medicinal chemists. This Review has basic information about 1,3,4-oxadiazole and its antimicrobial activity work for further development in this field.

  7. Simplicius on Aristotle on the heavens 1-3-4

    CERN Document Server

    Simplicius

    2013-01-01

    This is the first English translation of Simplicius responses to Philoponus Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World. The commentary is published in two volumes: Ian Muellers previous book in the series, Simplicius: On Aristotle On the Heavens 1.2-3, and this book on 1.3-4. Philoponus, the Christian, had argued that Aristotles arguments do not succeed. For all they show to the contrary, Christianity may be right that the heavens were brought into existence by the only divine being and one moment in time, and will cease to exist at some future moment. Simplicius upholds the pagan view tha

  8. Shape change and shape coexistence in134Pr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrache, C. M.; de Angelis, G.; Bucurescu, D.; Ivascu, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Lunardi, S.

    1992-06-01

    The band structure of doubly odd nucleus134Pr has been studied by means of the reaction119Sn(19F,4n) at 87 MeV bombarding energy. Rotational bands built on πh11/2⊗vh11/2 and πh7/2⊗vh11/2 configurations has been observed. A band consisting of quadrupole transitions, probably involving the vi13/2[600]1/2+ orbital was also weakly populated.

  9. Shape change and shape coexistence in [sup 134]Pr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrache, C.M. (INFN, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali de Legnaro Inst. of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)); De Angelis, G. (INFN, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro); Bucurescu, D.; Ivascu, M.; Lunardi, S. (Inst. of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)); Bazzacco, D. (INFN, Padua (Italy) Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)

    1992-12-01

    The band structure of doubly odd nucleus [sup 134]Pr has been studied by means of the reaction [sup 119]Sn([sup 19]F, 4n) at 87 MeV bombarding energy. Rotational bands built on [pi]h[sub 11]x[nu]h[sub 11/2] and [pi]g[sub 7/2]x[nu]h[sub 11/2] configurations has been observed. A band consisting of quadrupole transitions, probably involving the [nu]i[sub 13/2][600]1/2[sup +] orbital was also weakly populated. (orig.).

  10. 40 CFR 421.134 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... achieve the following new source performance standards: (a) Subpart M—Battery Cracking. NSPS Pollutant or... lead scrap produced Antimony 1.299 .579 Arsenic .936 .384 Lead .189 .087 Zinc .687 .283 Ammonia (as N.... (b) Subpart M—Blast, Reverberatory, or Rotary Furnace Wet Air Pollution Control. NSPS Pollutant...

  11. 从含锑烟灰中湿法提取立方晶型三氧化二锑%Extraction of Cubic Crystal Antimony Trioxide from Dusts Containing Antimony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣良; 史宝良; 史爱波; 鞠洪博; 姜大伟; 王伟; 颜平

    2011-01-01

    以含锑烟尘为原料,采用HCI浸出-锑粉还原-Na2CO3中和-氨水添加EDTA水解工艺回收立方晶型Sb2O3产品.对回收工艺过程和条件进行了研究.重点探讨了浸出温度、浸出时间、HCI摩尔浓度、浸出液固比对Sb浸出率的影响,以及不同的SbCl3与EDTA摩尔比对产品Sb2O3晶型的影响.结果表明,采用该工艺Sb的浸出率为98.50%,Sb的回收率为90.35%,产品为纯的立方晶型Sb2O3.%With dusts containing antimony as raw material, the cubic crystal antimony trioxide was recovered by the processes including leaching in hydrochloric acid, antimony powder reduction, sodium carbonate-neutralization, and hydrolysis with EDTA as an additive in ammonia.The influences of leaching temperature, leaching time, hydrochloric acid concentrate, and ratio of liquid to solid on the leaching rate of Sb, and the molar ratio of SbCl3 to EDTA on the crystal of the antimony trioxide product were investigated.The results indicated that the leaching rate of Sb was 98.50%, the recovery of Sb was 90.35%, and the purity of product with cubic crystal antimony trioxide was 99.5%.

  12. Progress of Antimony-containing Wastewater Treatment%含锑废水处理技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹鑫; 周广柱; 王翠珍; 王世豪; 彭刚; 何双

    2014-01-01

    在锑矿的开采及冶炼加工过程中,排出了大量含锑废水,这种重金属废水对环境和人体健康构成严重威胁。本文总结了重金属锑元素的物理化学性质、毒性特点,归纳了含锑废水的处理方法,分析了含锑废水处理技术的优势和缺点,提出了工艺联合应用等高效处理含锑废水的相关建议。%A large amount of wastewater containing antimony discharged in the process of antimony ore mining,smelting and processing,which pose a serious threat to the environment and human health. In this paper we summarized the characteristics of physical and chemical properties, toxicity of antimony, and the antimony wastewater treatment. Advantages and disadvantages of these treatment crafts were compared in a table,the recommendations given out for more efficiently processing via crafts combination.

  13. Identification of antimony resistance markers in Leishmania tropica field isolates through a cDNA-AFLP approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khadem-Erfan, Mohammad Bagher; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza; Hajjaran, Homa; Hadighi, Ramtin; Khamesipour, Ali; Rezaie, Sassan; Abedkhojasteh, Hoda; Heidari, Mansour

    2013-10-01

    Pentavalent antimonial compounds have been the first line therapy for leishmaniasis; unfortunately the rate of treatment failure of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is increasing due to emerging of drug resistance. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms operating in antimony resistance is critical for development of new strategies for treatment. Here, we used a cDNA-AFLP approach to identify gene(s) which are differentially expressed in resistant and sensitive Leishmania tropica field isolates. We identified five genes, aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) acts in drug uptake, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (MRPA) involved in sequestration of drug, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) implicated in glycolysis metabolism, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) responsible for phosphorylation pathway. The results were confirmed using real time RT-PCR which revealed an upregulation of MRPA, PTP and PGK genes and downregulation of AQP1 and MAPK genes in resistant isolate. To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of PTP and PGK genes potentially implicated in resistance to antimonials. Our findings support the idea that distinct biomolecules might be involved in antimony resistance in L. tropica field isolates.

  14. POLICY China’s Ministry of Commerce Set the Rules for Antimony and Tungsten Export in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> China’s ministry of commerce recently re-leased the rules and application procedures forthe export of antimony and tungsten productsin 2005 by the domestic producers.Based on the rules set by the ministry,China’santimony and tungsten producers providingtheir products for export must be those enter-prises authorized by the related State authori-ties.

  15. Comparative phytotoxicity of methylated and inorganic arsenic- and antimony species to Lemna minor, Wolffia arrhiza and Selenastrum capricornutum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Duester; H.G. van der Geest; S. Moelleken; A.V. Hirner; K. Kueppers

    2011-01-01

    The alkylation of metalloids through the transfer of methyl groups is an important factor in the biogeochemical cycling of elements like arsenic and antimony. In the environment, many different organic and inorganic forms of these elements can therefore be found in soils, sediments or organisms. Stu

  16. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films and Their Applications in CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony telluride alloy thin films were deposited at room temperature by using the vacuum coevaporation method. The films were annealed at different temperatures in N2 ambient, and then the compositional, structural, and electrical properties of antimony telluride thin films were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Hall measurements. The results indicate that single phase antimony telluride existed when the annealing temperature was higher than 488 K. All thin films exhibited p-type conductivity with high carrier concentrations. Cell performance was greatly improved when the antimony telluride thin films were used as the back contact layer for CdTe thin film solar cells. The dark current voltage and capacitance voltage measurements were performed to investigate the formation of the back contacts for the cells with or without Sb2Te3 buffer layers. CdTe solar cells with the buffer layers can reduce the series resistance and eliminate the reverse junction between CdTe and metal electrodes.

  17. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  18. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  19. Spin dynamics of complex oxides, bismuth-antimony alloys, and bismuth chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cuneyt

    The emerging field of spintronics relies on the manipulation of electron spin in order to use it in spin-based electronics. Such a paradigm change has to tackle several challenges including finding materials with sufficiently long spin lifetimes and materials which are efficient in generating pure spin currents. This thesis predicts that two types of material families could be a solution to the aforementioned challenges: complex oxides and bismuth based materials. We derived a general approach for constructing an effective spin-orbit Hamiltonian which is applicable to all nonmagnetic materials. This formalism is useful for calculating spin-dependent properties near an arbitrary point in momentum space. We also verified this formalism through comparisons with other approaches for III-V semiconductors, and its general applicability is illustrated by deriving the spin-orbit interaction and predicting spin lifetimes for strained strontium titanate (STO) and a two-dimensional electron gas in STO (such as at the LAO/STO interface). Our results suggest robust spin coherence and spin transport properties in STO related materials even at room temperature. In the second part of the study we calculated intrinsic spin Hall conductivities for bismuth-antimony (BISb) semimetals with strong spin-orbit couplings, from the Kubo formula and using Berry curvatures evaluated throughout the Brillouin zone from a tight-binding Hamiltonian. Nearly crossing bands with strong spin-orbit interaction generate giant spin Hall conductivities in these materials, ranging from 474 ((h/e)O--1cm--1) for bismuth to 96((h/e)O--1cm --1) for antimony; the value for bismuth is more than twice that of platinum. The large spin Hall conductivities persist for alloy compositions corresponding to a three-dimensional topological insulator state, such as Bi0.83Sb0.17. The spin Hall conductivity could be changed by a factor of 5 for doped Bi, or for Bi0.83Sb0.17, by changing the chemical potential by 0.5 e

  20. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J; Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R

    2014-10-16

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this

  1. ZHANG Heng's Seismometer and Longxi earthquake in AD 134

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Rui; YU Yan-xiang

    2006-01-01

    Longxi earthquake was the only earthquake example, which ZHANG Heng's Seismometer had detected. Therefore this event attracted the attention of the academic circle and also served as crucial evidence to examine the rationality of the reconstructed model of the seismometer. But for a long time, owing to the fact that the Jincheng-Longxi earthquake on February 28, AD 138 was mistaken as the event went against the historical records, it was refuted by the researches of both in China and abroad. By making careful textual research of historical records, especially by analyzing the description of Longxi earthquake of Houhan Shu, by studying the historical background exposed by historical literatures at that time, ZHANG Heng's biography, his poems and place names of Han Dynasty, by comparing five earthquakes occurred in Qing Dynasty and their attenuation of seismic intensity, the conclusion can be drawn that the Longxi earthquake should take place on December 13, AD 134 (the third year of Yangjia reign). As a rough assessment, the epicenter was in Tianshui area and the magnitude was about 7. Due to the political corruption and inability to scientifically explain earthquake phenomenon at the end of Eastern Han Dynasty, a tragedy occurred during the later years of ZHANG Heng's life that had direct relations with the earthquake successively occurred in AD 133 and AD 134 after invention of seismometer in AD 132. In order to analyze the ground motion at Lingtai caused by the event in AD 134, the digital broad-band seismic records of three Longxi earthquakes in recent years recorded by Luoyang seismic station are used. The numerical modelings are made from three aspects of seismic magnitude definition, digital broad-band seismograms and empirical Green's function method. The results have shown that the maximum horizontal displacement at Lingtai is between 6~8 mm, and the maximum acceleration is less than 10-2 rn/s2. These results have played an important role in quantitative

  2. A New Process of Diaphragm Electrowinning for Recovery of Antimony From Antimony-Gold Concentrate%锑金精矿隔膜电积预处理新工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宗强; 彭思尧; 杨建英; 张绪亮; 李焌源; 雷杰; 杨建广

    2015-01-01

    针对现行锑金精矿冶炼工艺存在能耗高、污染重、效率低等问题,研究了用锑隔膜电积技术处理复杂锑金精矿,考察了锑隔膜电积技术对多类复杂锑金精矿处理的适应性和经济技术指标。结果表明:锑隔膜电积技术适用于处理多类锑金精矿;经该工艺处理后的锑金精矿中锑浸出率达99%以上,97%以上的金富集在浸出渣中;浸出液中的锑通过净化—电积处理后可得到99.5%以上的电积锑,而原料中以氧化砷形式存在的砷基本被浸入到溶液中,其他形式的砷则留在浸出渣中;浸出液中的砷通过次亚磷酸钠还原可以深度脱除到3 mg/L 以下,实现砷与锑的高效分离,最终电积锑中的砷可以降到痕量。%In view of the problems of high energy consumption ,heavy pollution ,low efficiency in the current gold‐antimony concentrate smelting process ,a diaphragm electrowinning process was applied to process the complex antimony‐gold concentrate .Experiment results show that the diaphragm electrowinning process is well suitable for treating the antimony ‐gold concentrates .The leaching efficiency of antimony can reach 99% ,and more than 97% of the gold is enriched in the leached residue .Antimony in the leached solution can be extracted through purification‐electrowinning process in the form of 99 .5% electrowinning antimony plate .All arsenic trioxide embracing in the antimony‐gold concentrates can be leached into solution ,while other forms of arsenic can remain in the leached residue .By sodium hypophosphite reduction ,the leached arsenic can be deeply precipitated from the leached solution to the extent of below 3 mg/L ,and the arsenic content in the subsequent electrowinning antimony can be reduced to trace .

  3. Novel antimony doped tin oxide/carbon aerogel as efficient electrocatalytic filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimeng Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile method was developed to prepare antimony doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO2/carbon aerogel (CA for use as an electrocatalytic filtration membrane. The preparation process included synthesis of a precursor sol, impregnation, and thermal decomposition. The Sb-SnO2, which was tetragonal in phase with an average crystallite size of 10.8 nm, was uniformly distributed on the CA surface and firmly attached via carbon-oxygen-tin chemical bonds. Preliminary filtration tests indicated that the Sb-SnO2/CA membrane had a high rate of total organic carbon removal for aqueous tetracycline owing to its high current efficiency and electrode stability.

  4. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Tin-Antimony Nanocomposites as Anode Materials for Advanced Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liwen; Zhou, Weidong; Chabot, Victor; Yu, Aiping; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-11-11

    Reduced graphene oxides loaded with tin-antimony alloy (RGO-SnSb) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent thermal reduction treatments. Transmission electron microscope images confirm that SnSb nanoparticles with an average size of about 20-30 nm are uniformly dispersed on the RGO surfaces. When they were used as anodes for rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries, these as-synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposite anodes delivered a high initial reversible capacity of 407 mAh g(-1), stable cyclic retention for more than 80 cycles and excellent cycle stability at ultra high charge/discharge rates up to 30C. The significantly improved performance of the synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposites as Na-ion battery anodes can be attributed to the synergetic effects of RGO-based flexible framework and the nanoscale dimension of the SnSb alloy particles (batteries.

  5. Microbial diversity and community structure in an antimony-rich tailings dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Qingxiang; Sun, Weimin

    2016-09-01

    To assess the impact of antimony (Sb) on microbial community structure, 12 samples were taken from an Sb tailings pile in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. All 12 samples exhibited elevated Sb concentrations, but the mobile and bioaccessible fractions were small in comparison to total Sb concentrations. Besides the geochemical analyses, microbial communities inhabiting the tailing samples were characterized to investigate the interplay between the microorganisms and environmental factors in mine tailings. In all samples, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most dominant phyla. At the genus level, Thiobacillus, Limnobacter, Nocardioides, Lysobacter, Phormidium, and Kaistobacter demonstrated relatively high abundances. The two most abundant genera, Thiobacillus and Limnobacter, are characterized as sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, respectively, while the genus Lysobacter contains arsenic (As)-resistant bacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicates that TOC and the sulfate to sulfide ratio strongly shaped the microbial communities, suggesting the influence of the environmental factors in the indigenous microbial communities.

  6. Thermoelectric transport in surface- and antimony-doped bismuth telluride nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettes, Michael Thompson; Kim, Jaehyun; Wu, Wei; Bustillo, Karen C.; Shi, Li

    2016-10-01

    We report the in-plane thermoelectric properties of suspended (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 nanoplates with x ranging from 0.07 to 0.95 and thicknesses ranging from 9 to 42 nm. The results presented here reveal a trend of increasing p-type behavior with increasing antimony concentration, and a maximum Seebeck coefficient and thermoelectric figure of merit at x ˜ 0.5. We additionally tuned extrinsic doping of the surface using a tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) coating. The lattice thermal conductivity is found to be below that for undoped ultrathin Bi2Te3 nanoplates of comparable thickness and in the range of 0.2-0.7 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature.

  7. Spectroscopic properties of Eu-doped antimony-germanate glass and glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmojda, J.; Kochanowicz, M.; Miluski, P.; Ragin, T.; Dorosz, D.; ZajÄ c, A.

    2016-09-01

    In our work we focused on possibility of obtaining phosphate nano-phase structures in antimony-germanate glasses doped with europium ions. The glasses with molar composition of 50(Sb2O3 - GeO2) - 50(SiO2 - Al2O3 - Na2O) doped with 0.5mol% Eu2O3 were prepared by standard melt-quenching method. In order to optimize glass-ceramic system the influence of phosphate concentration (up to 10mol%) on spectroscopic properties have been investigated. The symmetry nature of molecular structure around europium ions have been determined from the intensity ratio between (5D0 →7F2)/(5D0 →7F1) transitions. The effect of prominent Stark splitting of luminescence band at 612 nm characterised as "hypersensitive transition" into 3 sub-wavelength was observed in glasses with 1mol% and 3mol% of P2O5.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of copper antimony tin sulphide thin films for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N.; Hussain, A.; Ahmed, R.; Wan Shamsuri, W. N.; Fu, Y. Q.

    2016-12-01

    Low price thin film modules based on Copper antimony tin sulphide (CATS) are introduced for solar harvesting to compete for the already developed compound semiconductors. Here, CATS thin films were deposited on soda lime glass by thermal evaporation technique followed by a rapid thermal annealing in an argon atmosphere. From Our XRD analysis, it was revealed that the annealed samples were poly-crystalline and their crystallinity was improved with increasing annealing temperature. The constituent elements and their corresponding chemical states were identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained optical band gap of 1.4 eV for CATS thin film is found nearly equal to GaAs - one of the highly efficient thin film material for solar cell technology. Furthermore, our observed good optical absorbance and low transmittance for the annealed CATS thin films in the visible region of light spectrum assured the aptness of the CATS thin films for solar cell applications.

  9. Effects of Antimony Doping in Polycrystalline CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Ikeda, Shigeyuki; Nagatsuka, Satsuki; Hayashi, Ryoji; Yoshino, Kaoru; Kanda, Yohei; Noda, Akira; Hirano, Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    The effects of antimony (Sb) doping of the CdTe layer in the CdTe solar cells were investigated using Sb-doped CdTe powders as source materials for CdTe deposition by the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) method. Conversion efficiency increased with increasing Sb concentration below 1×1018 cm-3, mainly owing to the improvement of the fill factor. Secondary ion microprobe mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile revealed that the Sb impurities at a concentration of approximately 1×1016 cm-3 were incorporated into the CdTe layer when using the Sb-doped CdTe source of 1×1018 cm-3. The observation of surface morphology showed that the grain sizes were improved by Sb addition. Therefore, the improved performance upon Sb addition to CdTe solar cells was probably due to the improvements in crystallinity, such as increased grain size.

  10. Preparation and characterization of conductive antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, conductive antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) composite particles is prepared by hydroxylation method of metal alcoxides. This method has many advantages such as little pollution, low cost, simple sheet and equipment. The synthesis processing and the ATO nanoparticles are characterized by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and BET. The results show that the ATO nanoparticles is tetragonal rutile crystal structure. TEM show that the particles are monodispersed with weak aggromation. The size of the particles calcinated at 700 is about 8nm. The specific areas are 153 m2 · g-1. In addition to, ATO nanop articles have good electric properties

  11. Supermolecular template route to fabrication of well crystallized hollow antimony microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Li; CHEN Shu-da; WEI Xiao-yan

    2006-01-01

    Hollow spheres of elemental antimony (Sb) with good crystallinity, high contrast and thin wall were prepared in the solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and oleic acid(OA) associations at the refluxed temperature. The complexes of Sb3+ with tartaric acid were used as precursors, which can avoid the hydrolysis of SbCl3 and the resulting impurity of products. The average diameter and thickness of the as-prepared hollow sphere are about 300 nm and less than 20 nm, respectively. The formation of hollow spheres depends on the template function of PEG and OA associations, which can be confirmed through the theoretical analysis and results of control experiments. The specific surface area reaches 34.669 m2/g.

  12. Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) for monitoring of antimony in samples of vegetation from a mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Gordillo, M C; Pinilla Gil, E; Rodríguez González, M A; Murciego Murciego, A; Ostapczuk, P

    2001-06-01

    A potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) method has been developed and checked for the fast and reliable determination of antimony in vegetation samples of Cistus ladanifer from a mining area in Badajoz, Southwest Spain. The method, modified from previous PSA methods for Sb in environmental samples, is based on dry ashing of the homogenized leaves, dissolution in hydrochloric acid, and PSA analysis on a mercury film plated on to a glassy carbon disk electrode. The influence of experimental variables such as the deposition potential, the deposition time, the signal stability and the calibration parameters, has been investigated. The method has been compared with an independent technique (instrumental neutron activation analysis) by analysis of standards and reference materials and comparison of the results. As a result of automation of the PSA equipment, the proposed method enables unattended analysis of 20 digested samples in a total time of 2 h, thus providing a useful tool for Sb monitoring of a large number of samples.

  13. Antimony uptake by Zea mays (L.) and Helianthus annuus (L.) from nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschan, Martin; Robinson, Brett; Schulin, Rainer

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the extent of Sb uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) from nutrient solutions containing concentrations from 3 to 24 mg/L of potassium antimonate, with the aim of determining the potential of Sb to enter the food chain. The maximum shoot Sb concentrations in Z. mays and H. annuus were 41 mg/kg and 77 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. There was no significant difference in Sb uptake between species. The average bioaccumulation coefficients (the plant/solution concentration quotients) were 1.02 and 1.93 for Z. mays and H. annuus, respectively. Phosphate addition did not affect plant growth or Sb uptake. Antimony uptake by both Z. mays and H. annuus is unlikely to pose a health risk to animals and humans.

  14. Discurso y ejemplaridad en Ovidio, Ars 1.101-134

    OpenAIRE

    Schniebs, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Sur la base d’une analyse concernant l’intertextualité, l’intratextualité ainsi que lês rapports avec d’autres discours symboliques du contexte de production, le travail se propose d’étudier l’excursus de l’enlèvement des Sabines chez Ovide Ars 1.101- 134. Cette étude a pour but de déterminer la construction du lien exemplaire Romulus-Auguste impliqué dans le texte et sa relation avec cette même exemplaritélà dans le régime du principat. Mots-clés: exemplarité, Ovide, Ars amatoria, Rom...

  15. Phytoavailability of antimony and heavy metals in arid regions: the case of the Wadley Sb district (San Luis, Potosí, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levresse, G; Lopez, G; Tritlla, J; López, E Cardellach; Chavez, A Carrillo; Salvador, E Mascuñano; Soler, A; Corbella, M; Sandoval, L G Hernández; Corona-Esquivel, R

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents original results on the Sb and heavy metals contents in sediments and waste tailings, plants and water from the giant Wadley antimony mine district (San Luis Potosí State, Mexico). The dominant antimony phases in mining wastes are stibiconite, montroydite and minor hermimorphite. The waste tailings contain high concentrations of metals and metalloids (antimony, iron, zinc, arsenic, copper, and mercury). Manganese, copper, zinc, and antimony contents exceed the quality guidelines values for groundwater, plants and for waste tailings. Results indicate that peak accumulation is seasonal due to the concentration by high metabolism plants as Solanaceae Nicotiana. The metal phytoavailability in waste tailings is highly dependant on the metal speciation, its capability to be transported in water and, more particularly, the plant metabolism efficiency.

  16. First-Principles Study of Antimony Doping Effects on the Iron-Based Superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-01

    We study antimony doping effects on the iron-based superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2 by using the first-principles calculation. The calculations reveal that the substitution of a doped antimony atom into As of the chainlike As layers is more stable than that into FeAs layers. This prediction can be checked by experiments. Our results suggest that doping homologous elements into the chainlike As layers, which only exist in the novel 112 system, is responsible for rising up the critical temperature. We discuss antimony doping effects on the electronic structure. It is found that the calculated band structures with and without the antimony doping are similar to each other within our framework.

  17. Successful treatment of feline leishmaniosis using a combination of allopurinol and N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Basso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This work describes the diagnosis and successful treatment of a 2-year-old domestic cat infected with Leishmania species and presenting fever, and ulcerative and nodular skin lesions after being treated for pyodermatitis for 1 year without clinical improvement. After anamnesis the cat was submitted to a complete clinical examination. Blood was collected for determination of haematological and biochemical parameters, detection of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, feline coronavirus (FCoV and Leishmania amastigotes. Fine-needle aspiration puncture from the skin nodules was also performed. After definitive diagnosis the animal was treated and followed up over a 2 year period. The animal tested negative for FIV-specific antibodies, FeLV antigen and feline coronavirus RNA. Leishmania amastigotes in the skin nodules were confirmed by cytology and molecular diagnosis. Treatment was initiated with allopurinol, resulting in a slight clinical improvement. Thus, N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate was added and administered for 30 days, with complete closure of the ulcerative lesions in the hindlimbs requiring a surgical approach. Close monitoring of the patient in the following 24 months indicated that combined therapy was safe and clinical cure was achieved without further relapses or side effects. Relevance and novel information Considering the increasing number of feline leishmaniosis cases and the inconsistent results of most therapeutic protocols described in the literature, the use of new approaches, especially in refractory cases, is essential. Although the use of allopurinol and N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate is off-label in cats, in this case the combination treatment was followed by an extensive analytical monitoring, supporting their safety and effectiveness.

  18. Optical characterization of antimony-based bismuth-doped thin films with different annealing temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinmiao Lu; Yiqun Wu; Yang Wang; Jinsong Wei

    2011-01-01

    Antimony-b ased bismuth-doped thin film,a new kind of super-resolution mask layer,is prepared by magnetron sputtering.The structures and optical constants of the thin films before and after annealing are examined in detail.The as-deposited film is mainly in an amorphous state.After annealing at 170-370℃,it is converted to the rhombohedral-type of structure.The extent of crystallization increased with the annealing temperature.When the thin film is annealed,its refractive index decreased in the most visible region,whereas the extinction coefficient and reflectivity are markedly increased.The results indicate that the optical parameters of the film strongly depend on its microstructure and the bonding of the atoms.As demand for ultrahigh-density information storage continues to grow the recording mark size in optical memory is reduced to the nanometer scale [1- 4].Exceeding the optical diffraction limit with traditional optical storage technology has become a challenge[5-6].%Antimony-based bismuth-doped thin film, a new kind of super-resolution mask layer, is prepared by magnetron sputtering. The structures and optical constants of the thin films before and after annealing are examined in detail. The as-deposited film is mainly in an amorphous state. After annealing at 170-370℃, it is converted to the rhombohedral-type of structure. The extent of crystallization increased with the annealing temperature. When the thin film is annealed, its refractive index decreased in the most visible region, whereas the extinction coefficient and reflectivity are markedly increased. The results indicate that the optical parameters of the film strongly depend on its microstructure and the bonding of the atoms.

  19. Preservation of Renal Blood Flow by the Antioxidant EUK-134 in LPS-Treated Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Magder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS, however, the precise role of ROS in the septic process remains unknown. We hypothesized that treatment with EUK-134 (manganese-3-methoxy N,N'-bis(salicyclideneethylene-diamine chloride, a compound with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, attenuates the vascular manifestations of sepsis in vivo. Pigs were instrumented to measure cardiac output and blood flow in renal, superior mesenteric and femoral arteries, and portal vein. Animals were treated with saline (control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg·kg−1·h−1, EUK-134, or EUK-134 plus LPS. Results show that an LPS-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP as well as a trend towards lower blood pressure (BP were both attenuated by EUK-134. Renal blood flow decreased with LPS whereas superior mesenteric, portal and femoral flows did not change. Importantly, EUK-134 decreased the LPS-induced fall in renal blood flow and this was associated with a corresponding decrease in LPS-induced protein nitrotyrosinylation in the kidney. PO2, pH, base excess and systemic vascular resistance fell with LPS and were unaltered by EUK-134. EUK-134 also had no effect on LPS-associated increase in CO. Interestingly, EUK-134 alone resulted in higher CO, BP, PAP, mean circulatory filling pressure, and portal flow than controls. Taken together, these data support a protective role for EUK-134 in the renal circulation in sepsis.

  20. Preservation of renal blood flow by the antioxidant EUK-134 in LPS-treated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magder, Sheldon; Parthenis, Dimitrios G; Ghouleh, Imad Al

    2015-03-25

    Sepsis is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, the precise role of ROS in the septic process remains unknown. We hypothesized that treatment with EUK-134 (manganese-3-methoxy N,N'-bis(salicyclidene)ethylene-diamine chloride), a compound with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, attenuates the vascular manifestations of sepsis in vivo. Pigs were instrumented to measure cardiac output and blood flow in renal, superior mesenteric and femoral arteries, and portal vein. Animals were treated with saline (control), lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg·kg-1·h-1), EUK-134, or EUK-134 plus LPS. Results show that an LPS-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) as well as a trend towards lower blood pressure (BP) were both attenuated by EUK-134. Renal blood flow decreased with LPS whereas superior mesenteric, portal and femoral flows did not change. Importantly, EUK-134 decreased the LPS-induced fall in renal blood flow and this was associated with a corresponding decrease in LPS-induced protein nitrotyrosinylation in the kidney. PO2, pH, base excess and systemic vascular resistance fell with LPS and were unaltered by EUK-134. EUK-134 also had no effect on LPS-associated increase in CO. Interestingly, EUK-134 alone resulted in higher CO, BP, PAP, mean circulatory filling pressure, and portal flow than controls. Taken together, these data support a protective role for EUK-134 in the renal circulation in sepsis.

  1. 锑环境健康效应的研究进展%Environmental Health Effect of Antimony: a Review of Recent Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈兆凤; 韦朝阳

    2011-01-01

    随着锑的开采及含锑产品的广泛应用,锑所带来的污染问题已越来越严重,锑对环境与健康的危害也受到了更多的关注.该文总结了锑环境健康效应的研究进展,从医学、环境毒理学和生态毒理学的角度分别分析了锑对人、动物以及植物与土壤生物的健康效应.提示今后还需加强锑的致癌性及基因毒性研究,并需从微观与宏观尺度揭示锑的毒性效应,以期为锑的环境健康风险评估提供科学依据.%The antimony mining and widely use of antimony products have resulted in serious antimony contamination,causing hazards to both the environment and human health. The present paper summarized the research progresses on the environmental health effect of antimony. The health effects of antimony on human, animals, and plants as well as soil organisms are introduced and discussed in the view of medical science, environmental toxicology and ecological toxicology, respectively. It is suggested that more researches should be conducted on antimony earcinogenieity and genotoxicity, and the toxic effects of antimony should be explored from micro and macroscopic scales in order to provide the scientific basis for risk assessment of antimony.

  2. 锑合金化在镁合金中的应用%Application of Antimony Alloying in Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛孟启; 刘劲松; 李子全; 闫明阳; 孙颖迪; 黄敏; 陈可; 刘亚妮

    2012-01-01

    The latest research progress in magnesium alloys containing antimony in recent years is discussed Effects of antimony additions on the cast-ability, microstructure, tensile properties, creep behavior, damping properties and corrosion resistance of Mg-Al and Mg-Zn based alloys are summarized. Finally, some further research orientations of magnesium alloys containing Sb in the present study are suggested.%综述了近年来含锑镁合金的研究进展,总结了锑元素对Mg-Al和Mg-Zn系镁合金铸造性能、金相组织、力学性能、蠕变性能、阻尼性能、耐蚀性能6方面的影响.最后,展望了含锑镁合金的研究方向.

  3. The effect of verapamil on in vitro susceptibility of promastigote and amastigote stages of Leishmania tropica to meglumine antimoniate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Azar; Sharifi, Iraj; Khamesipour, Ali; Nakhaee, Nozar; Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Nosratabadi, Jafar; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Barati, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Pentavalent antimonials are the standard treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with low efficacy and resistance is emerging. CL is increased significantly in respect to incidence rate and expanding to new foci. In the present study, the effect of verapamil on in vitro susceptibility of promastigote and amastigote stages of Leishmania tropica to meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime) was evaluated using colorimetric assay (MTT) and in a macrophage model, respectively. Verapamil, as a calcium channel blocker, affects drug uptake by preventing of drug efflux from the cells. In promastigote form, several concentrations of MA with or without verapamil showed significant decrease (P tropica to MA. Further works are required to evaluate this synergistic effect on animal model or volunteer human subjects.

  4. Determination of Antimony (III) in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Gómez González, M Jesús; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD), the repeatability (3.81 %) and the reproducibility (5.07 %) of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III) was calculated at a value of 1.27×10(-8) M. The linear range obtained was between 0.99 × 10(-8) - 8.26 × 10(-8) M. An analysis of possible effects due to the presence of foreign ions in the solution was performed and the procedure was successfully applied to the determination of antimony levels in pharmaceutical preparations and sea water samples.

  5. Metabolic peculiarity of 134Cs and its radioimmunotoxicological effect on central and peripheral immune cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱寿彭; 夏芬

    1996-01-01

    A fitted equation with least square method to describe the retention of 134Cs in whole body is obtained by a whole body counter.That is R(t)=18.04exp(-9.3175t)+ 45.13exp(-0.0423t),where R(t) is in %,and t in d.The equationn consists of two half-life components,the fast component is T1/2=0.07d,and the slow is T1/2=16.14d,Study on the localization of 134Cs at cellular level was carried out by freezing microautoradiography.The results indicate of 134Cs at cellular level was carried out by freezing microautoradiography.The results indicate that 134Cs was chiefly in ionizing form accumulated in red as well as white blood cells.In bone marrow cells 134Cs predominantly deposited in young cells and less in mature cells.Distribution of 134Cs penetrated quickly into the tissue cells.The observation of investigating radioimmunotoxicological effect induced by 134Cs shows that the inhibition of thymocytes is higher than bone marrow cells,the spleen T lynmphocytes are more sensitive to 134Cs than B lymphocytes and lymphocytes of peripheral immune cells are more sensitive to radiation than central immune cells.

  6. 13 CFR 134.314 - Standard of review and burden of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard of review and burden of proof. 134.314 Section 134.314 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF... law. The appellant has the burden of proof, by a preponderance of the evidence, in both size and...

  7. 13 CFR 134.407 - Evidence beyond the record and discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence beyond the record and discovery. 134.407 Section 134.407 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF..., the Administrative Law Judge may not admit evidence beyond the written administrative record...

  8. 13 CFR 134.709 - When will a Judge dismiss an appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will a Judge dismiss an appeal? 134.709 Section 134.709 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF...-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB) Protests §...

  9. 13 CFR 134.701 - What is the scope of the rules in this subpart G?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appeals From Women-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB... Government Contracting (D/GC) in connection with a Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) or Economically... this subpart G? 134.701 Section 134.701 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  10. 13 CFR 134.711 - Will the Judge permit discovery and oral hearings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appeals From Women-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the Judge permit discovery and oral hearings? 134.711 Section 134.711 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  11. 13 CFR 134.708 - What is the standard of review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the standard of review? 134.708 Section 134.708 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF...-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB) Protests §...

  12. 13 CFR 134.712 - What are the limitations on new evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the limitations on new evidence? 134.712 Section 134.712 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF...-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB) Protests §...

  13. 13 CFR 134.705 - What are the requirements for an appeal petition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appeals From Women-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB... appeal petition? 134.705 Section 134.705 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... upon each of the following: (1) The D/GC at U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street,...

  14. 13 CFR 134.706 - What are the service and filing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the service and filing requirements? 134.706 Section 134.706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF...-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB) Protests §...

  15. 13 CFR 134.714 - When must the Judge issue his or her decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appeals From Women-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When must the Judge issue his or her decision? 134.714 Section 134.714 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  16. 13 CFR 134.715 - Can a Judge reconsider his decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can a Judge reconsider his decision? 134.715 Section 134.715 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF...-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB) Protests §...

  17. 19 CFR 134.23 - Containers or holders designed for or capable of reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reuse. 134.23 Section 134.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Containers or holders designed for or capable of reuse. (a) Usual and ordinary reusable containers or holders... capable of reuse after the contents have been consumed, whether imported full or empty, must...

  18. 13 CFR 134.201 - Scope of the rules in this subpart B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of the rules in this subpart B. 134.201 Section 134.201 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF... Fraud Civil Remedies Act are set forth, respectively in subpart D of this part and part 142 of...

  19. Miltefosine and Antimonial Drug Susceptibility of Leishmania Viannia Species and Populations in Regions of High Transmission in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Olga Lucía; Diaz-Toro, Yira; Muvdi, Sandra; Rodríguez, Isabel; Gomez, María Adelaida; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2014-01-01

    Background Pentavalent antimonials have been the first line treatment for dermal leishmaniasis in Colombia for over 30 years. Miltefosine is administered as second line treatment since 2005. The susceptibility of circulating populations of Leishmania to these drugs is unknown despite clinical evidence supporting the emergence of resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro susceptibility was determined for intracellular amastigotes of 245 clinical strains of the most prevalent Leishmania Viannia species in Colombia to miltefosine (HePC) and/or meglumine antimoniate (SbV); 163, (80%) were evaluated for both drugs. Additionally, susceptibility to SbV was examined in two cohorts of 85 L. V. panamensis strains isolated between 1980–1989 and 2000–2009 in the municipality of Tumaco. Susceptibility to each drug differed among strains of the same species and between species. Whereas 68% of L. V. braziliensis strains presented in vitro resistance to HePC, 69% were sensitive to SbV. Resistance to HePC and SbV occurred respectively, in 20% y 21% of L. panamensis strains. Only 3% of L. V. guyanensis were resistant to HePC, and none to SbV. Drug susceptibility differed between geographic regions and time periods. Subpopulations having disparate susceptibility to SbV were discerned among L. V. panamensis strains isolated during 1980–1990 in Tumaco where resistant strains belonged to zymodeme 2.3, and sensitive strains to zymodeme 2.2. Conclusions/Significance Large scale evaluation of clinical strains of Leishmania Viannia species demonstrated species, population, geographic, and epidemiologic differences in susceptibility to meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine, and provided baseline information for monitoring susceptibility to these drugs. Sensitive and resistant clinical strains within each species, and zymodeme as a proxy marker of antimony susceptibility for L. V. panamensis, will be useful in deciphering factors involved in susceptibility and the distribution

  20. Potentiometric stripping analysis of antimony based on carbon paste electrode modified with hexathia crown ether and rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadhari, Nayan S.; Sanghavi, Bankim J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India); Srivastava, Ashwini K., E-mail: aksrivastava@chem.mu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employed for the determination of antimony. {yields} Hexathia-18C6 and rice husk modified carbon paste electrode developed for the analysis. {yields} Lowest detection limit obtained for the determination of Sb(III) using PSA. {yields} Analysis of Sb in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, blood serum, urine and sea water. {yields} Rice husk used as a modifier for the first time in electrochemistry. - Abstract: An electrochemical method based on potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employing a hexathia 18C6 (HT18C6) and rice husk (RH) modified carbon paste electrode (HT18C6-RH-CPE) has been proposed for the subnanomolar determination of antimony. The characterization of the electrode surface has been carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronocoulometry. By employing HT18C6-RH-CPE, a 12-fold enhancement in the PSA signal (dt/dE) was observed as compared to plain carbon paste electrode (PCPE). Under the optimized conditions, dt/dE (s V{sup -1}) was proportional to the Sb(III) concentration in the range of 1.42 x 10{sup -8} to 6.89 x 10{sup -11} M (r = 0.9944) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 2.11 x 10{sup -11} M. The practical analytical utilities of the modified electrode were demonstrated by the determination of antimony in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, sea water, urine and blood serum samples. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages, such as simple preparation method, high sensitivity, very low detection limit and excellent reproducibility. Moreover, the results obtained for antimony analysis in commercial and real samples using HT18C6-RH-CPE and those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  1. Determination of Antimony (III) in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Domínguez-Renedo; M. Julia Arcos-Martínez; M. Jesús Gómez González

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD), the repeatability (3.81 %) and the reproducibility (5.07 %) of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III) was calculated ...

  2. Miltefosine and antimonial drug susceptibility of Leishmania Viannia species and populations in regions of high transmission in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucía Fernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimonials have been the first line treatment for dermal leishmaniasis in Colombia for over 30 years. Miltefosine is administered as second line treatment since 2005. The susceptibility of circulating populations of Leishmania to these drugs is unknown despite clinical evidence supporting the emergence of resistance.In vitro susceptibility was determined for intracellular amastigotes of 245 clinical strains of the most prevalent Leishmania Viannia species in Colombia to miltefosine (HePC and/or meglumine antimoniate (Sb(V; 163, (80% were evaluated for both drugs. Additionally, susceptibility to Sb(V was examined in two cohorts of 85 L. V. panamensis strains isolated between 1980-1989 and 2000-2009 in the municipality of Tumaco. Susceptibility to each drug differed among strains of the same species and between species. Whereas 68% of L. V. braziliensis strains presented in vitro resistance to HePC, 69% were sensitive to Sb(V. Resistance to HePC and Sb(V occurred respectively, in 20% y 21% of L. panamensis strains. Only 3% of L. V. guyanensis were resistant to HePC, and none to Sb(V. Drug susceptibility differed between geographic regions and time periods. Subpopulations having disparate susceptibility to Sb(V were discerned among L. V. panamensis strains isolated during 1980-1990 in Tumaco where resistant strains belonged to zymodeme 2.3, and sensitive strains to zymodeme 2.2.Large scale evaluation of clinical strains of Leishmania Viannia species demonstrated species, population, geographic, and epidemiologic differences in susceptibility to meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine, and provided baseline information for monitoring susceptibility to these drugs. Sensitive and resistant clinical strains within each species, and zymodeme as a proxy marker of antimony susceptibility for L. V. panamensis, will be useful in deciphering factors involved in susceptibility and the distribution of sensitive and resistant populations.

  3. Migration of antimony from PET bottles into beverages: determination of the activation energy of diffusion and migration modelling compared with literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, F; Franz, R

    2011-01-01

    Plastics bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are increasingly used for soft drinks, mineral water, juices and beer. In this study a literature review is presented concerning antimony levels found both in PET materials as well as in foods and food simulants. On the other hand, 67 PET samples from the European bottle market were investigated for their residual antimony concentrations. A mean value of 224 ± 32 mg kg(-1) was found, the median was 220 mg kg(-1). Diffusion coefficients for antimony in PET bottle materials were experimentally determined at different temperature between 105 and 150°C. From these data, the activation energy of diffusion for antimony species from the PET bottle wall into beverages and food simulants was calculated. The obtained value of 189 kJ mol(-1) was found to be in good agreement with published data on PET microwave trays (184 kJ mol(-1)). Based on these results, the migration of antimony into beverages was predicted by mathematical migration modelling for different surface/volume ratios and antimony bottle wall concentrations. The results were compared with literature data as well as international legal limits and guidelines values for drinking water and the migration limit set from food packaging legislation. It was concluded that antimony levels in beverages due to migration from PET bottles manufactured according to the state of the art can never reach or exceed the European-specific migration limit of 40 microg kg(-1). Maximum migration levels caused by room-temperature storage even after 3 years will never be essentially higher than 2.5 microg kg(-1) and in any case will be below the European limit of 5 microg kg(-1) for drinking water. The results of this study confirm that the exposure of the consumer by antimony migration from PET bottles into beverages and even into edible oils reaches approximately 1% of the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by World Health Organisation (WHO). Having

  4. Separation of Lead from Crude Antimony by Pyro-Refining Process with NaPO3 Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Longgang; Hu, Yuejie; Xia, Zhimei; Chen, Yongming

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to separate lead from crude antimony through an oxidation pyro-refining process and by using sodium metaphosphate as a lead elimination reagent. The process parameters that will affect the refining results were optimized experimentally under controlled conditions, such as the sodium metaphosphate charging dosage, the refining temperature and duration, and the air flow rate, to determine their effect on the lead content in refined antimony and the lead removal rate. A minimum lead content of 0.0522 wt.% and a 98.6% lead removal rate were obtained under the following optimal conditions: W_{{{NaPO}_{{3}} }} = 15% W Sb (where W represents weight), a refining temperature of 800°C, a refining time of 30 min, and an air flow rate of 3 L/min. X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy showed that high-purity antimony was obtained. The smelting operation is free from smoke or ammonia pollution when using monobasic sodium phosphate or ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as the lead elimination reagent. However, this refining process can also remove a certain amount of sulfur, cobalt, and silicon simultaneously, and smelting results also suggest that sodium metaphosphate can be used as a potential lead elimination reagent for bismuth and copper refining.

  5. Evaluation of potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in some common Nigerian beverages: A look at antimony, tin and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Roberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently little information on the composition of heavy metals in beverages imported and locally produced in Nigeria. The study quantitatively determined the composition of antimony (Sb, tin (Sn and mercury (Hg in 50 different beverage samples and evaluated the extent of violation of guideline values. Analysis of the beverage samples for the presence of Sb, Sn, and Hg was carried out using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS 929. The mean values detected for mercury, tin and antimony (±SE in fruit juices and soft drinks were 2.39±0.25, 3.66±0.22 and 0.49±0.048 μg/l; 2.93±0.34, 3.60±0.46 and 0.49±0.10 μg/l in dairy drinks and 0.94±0.02, 4.34±0.48 and 0.48±0.05 μg/l in bottled water samples respectively. While antimony detected in all products was below guideline values, mercury and tin were above the acceptable levels established by the World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency and European Union in most samples tested.

  6. PANCREATIC TOXICITY AS AN ADVERSE EFFECT INDUCED BY MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE THERAPY IN A CLINICAL TRIAL FOR CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PASSOS, Sonia Regina Lambert; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; BEDOYA-PACHECO, Sandro Javier; VALETE-ROSALINO, Cláudia Maria; VASCONCELLOS, Erica Camargo Ferreira; ANTONIO, Liliane Fatima; SAHEKI, Mauricio Naoto; SALGUEIRO, Mariza Mattos; SANTOS, Ginelza Peres Lima; RIBEIRO, Madelon Noato; CONCEIÇÃO-SILVA, Fatima; MADEIRA, Maria Fatima; SILVA, Jorge Luiz Nunes; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando Oliveria

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although doses are controversial. In a clinical trial for CL we investigated the occurrence of pancreatic toxicity with different schedules of treatment with meglumine antimoniate (MA). Seventy-two patients were allocated in two different therapeutic groups: 20 or 5 mg of pentavalent antimony (Sb5+)/kg/day for 20 or 30 days, respectively. Looking for adverse effects, patients were asked about abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia in each medical visit. We performed physical examinations and collected blood to evaluate serum amylase and lipase in the pre-treatment period, and every 10 days during treatment and one month post-treatment. Hyperlipasemia occurred in 54.8% and hyperamylasemia in 19.4% patients. Patients treated with MA 20 mg Sb5+ presented a higher risk of hyperlipasemia (p = 0.023). Besides, higher MA doses were associated with a 2.05 higher risk ratio (p = 0.003) of developing more serious (moderate to severe) hyperlipasemia. The attributable fraction was 51% in this group. Thirty-six patients presented abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia but only 47.2% of those had hyperlipasemia and/ or hyperamylasemia. These findings suggest the importance of the search for less toxic therapeutic regimens for the treatment of CL. PMID:27680173

  7. Antimony speciation analysis in sediment reference materials using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potin-Gautier, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, BioInorganique et Environnement LCABIE (UMR CNRS 3054), Universite de Pau et des pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France); Pannier, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, BioInorganique et Environnement LCABIE (UMR CNRS 3054), Universite de Pau et des pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France)]. E-mail: Florence.pannier@univ-pau.fr; Quiroz, W. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, BioInorganique et Environnement LCABIE (UMR CNRS 3054), Universite de Pau et des pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France); Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad catolica de Valparaiso (Chile); Pinochet, H. [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad catolica de Valparaiso (Chile); Gregori, I. de [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad catolica de Valparaiso (Chile)

    2005-11-30

    This work presents the development of suitable methodologies for determination of the speciation of antimony in sediment reference samples. Liquid chromatography with a post-column photo-oxidation step and hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry as detection system is applied to the separation and determination of Sb(III), Sb(V) and trimethylantimony species. Post-column decomposition and hydride generation steps were studied for sensitive detection with the AFS detector. This method was applied to investigate the conditions under which speciation analysis of antimony in sediment samples can be carried out. Stability studies of Sb species during the extraction processes of solid matrices, using different reagents solutions, were performed. Results demonstrate that for the extraction yield and the stability of Sb species in different marine sediment extracts, citric acid in ascorbic acid medium was the best extracting solution for antimony speciation analysis in this matrix (between 55% and 65% of total Sb was recovered from CRMs, Sb(III) being the predominant species). The developed method allows the separation of the three compounds within 6 min with detection limits of 30 ng g{sup -1} for Sb(III) and TMSbCl2 and 40 ng g{sup -1} for Sb(V) in sediment samples.

  8. {sup 134}Cs in heather seed plants grown with and without mycorrhiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, M. [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Johansson, M. [Department of Mycology, Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oester Farimagsgade 2D, DK-1353 Copenhagen K. (Denmark)

    1988-08-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine differences between mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized seed plants of heather, Calluna vulgaris(L)Hull, as regards the uptake of {sup 134}Cs. In most treatments heather with mycorrhiza had a significantly higher transfer of {sup 134}Cs to the shoots than heather without mycorrhiza. As an average the concentration of {sup 134}Cs was 18% higher in the mycorrhized plants than in the non-mycorrhized. Application of 10 kg K/ha reduced the concentration of {sup 134}Cs in shoots of heather by 49% as an average. Because of improved growth in the potassium fertilized pots the reduction viewed on the basis of the area was only 33%. Nitrogen application does not significantly influence the concentration of {sup 134}Cs in shoots of heather regardless of mycorrhizal status. (Copyright (c) 1988 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. 锑矿土壤中As和Sb的分布、形态及生物可利用性%Distribution, speciation and bio-availability of arsenic(As) and antimony (Sb) in soils of antimony mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋平; 胥思勤; 安艳玲; 陈洁薇; 吴贞术

    2014-01-01

    HG-AFS was applied to the determination of arsenic( As) and antimony ( Sb) in the soils near Qinglong antimony mine area with microwave assisted sample digestion. Tessier sequential extraction was used to investigate the distribution,speciation and bio-availability of As and Sb in the soils. Results showed that total arsenic content ( 17. 98-127. 85 mg·kg-1 ) and total antimony concentration (171.93-601.59 mg·kg-1) substantially exceeded their background level in Guizhou Province. The speciation of antimony and arsenic in the soils has the following distribution order:residual phase> Fe/Mn hydrous oxides, orgnic phase, carbonate fraction>cation exchangeable. The concentration of easily bioavailable antimony was 0. 60-3. 91 mg·kg-1 and the percentage was 0�33%-1.72%, while 0.15-0.48 mg·kg-1 and 0.09%-0.57% for arsenic.%采用微波消解-氢化物发生-原子荧光光谱法测定了晴隆锑矿区土壤中总砷和总锑,利用Tessier连续提取法分析土壤中不同形态砷和锑.结果表明,各采样点土壤 As、Sb 含量分别为17.98-127.85 mg·kg-1、171�93-601.59 mg·kg-1,远高于贵州省背景值;土壤中砷和锑的存在形态均以残渣态为主,其次是有机结合态、铁锰氧化物结合态和碳酸盐结合态,可交换态很少;土壤中生物可利用态锑占总和0.33%-1.72%,其含量为0.60-3.91 mg·kg-1,而土壤中生物可利用态砷占总和0.09%-0.57%,其含量为0.15-0.48 mg·kg-1.

  10. Coordinated Multiwavelength Observations of PKS 0528+134 in Quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Markus; Palma, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of an intensive multiwavelength campaign on the prominent high-redshift (z = 2.06) gamma-ray bright blazar PKS 0528+134 in September - October 2009. The campaign was centered on four 30 ksec pointings with XMM-Newton, supplemented with ground-based optical (MDM, Perkins) and radio (UMRAO, Medicina, Metsaehovi, Noto, SMA) observations as well as long-term X-ray monitoring with RXTE and gamma-ray monitoring by Fermi. We find significant variability on 1 day time scales in the optical regime, accompanied by a weak redder-when-brighter trend. X-ray variability is found on longer ( 1 week) time scales, while the Fermi light curve shows no evidence for variability, neither in flux nor spectral index. We constructed four simultaneous spectral energy distributions, which can all be fit satisfactorily with a one-zone leptonic jet model. This work was supported by NASA through XMM-Newton Guest Observer Grant NNX09AV45G.

  11. Pharmacokinetic and parasitological evaluation of the bone marrow of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis submitted to multiple dose treatment with liposome-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Schettini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a multiple dose regimen of a liposomal formulation of meglumine antimoniate (LMA on the pharmacokinetics of antimony in the bone marrow of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis and on the ability of LMA to eliminate parasites from this tissue. Dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi received 4 intravenous doses of either LMA (6.5 mg antimony/kg body weight, N = 9, or empty liposomes (at the same lipid dose as LMA, N = 9 at 4-day intervals. A third group of animals was untreated (N = 8. Before each administration and at different times after treatment, bone marrow was obtained and analyzed for antimony level (LMA group by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, and for the presence of Leishmania parasites (all groups. There was a significant increase of antimony concentration from 0.76 µg/kg wet organ (4 days after the first dose to 2.07 µg/kg (4 days after the fourth dose and a half-life of 4 days for antimony elimination from the bone marrow. Treatment with LMA significantly reduced the number of dogs positive for parasites (with at least one amastigote per 1000 host cells compared to controls (positive dogs 30 days after treatment: 0 of 9 in the LMA group, 3 of 9 in the group treated with empty liposomes and 3 of 8 in the untreated group. However, complete elimination of parasites was not achieved. In conclusion, the present study showed that multiple dose treatment with LMA was effective in improving antimony levels in the bone marrow of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis and in reducing the number of positive animals, even though it was not sufficient to achieve complete elimination of parasites.

  12. Preparation of antimony sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ren-De, E-mail: son003@sekisui.com [Research & Development Institute, High Performance Plastics Company, Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd. 2-1 Hyakuyama, Shimamoto-Cho, Mishima-Gun, Osaka, 618-0021 (Japan); Tsuji, Takeshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-Cho, Matsue, 690-8504 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed laser ablation in liquid (LAL) was applied to prepare antimony sulfide nanoparticles (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs). • Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs with a stoichiometric composition were successfully prepared by LAL in water without using any surfactants or capping agents. • Thus-prepared Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs showed low-temperature crystallization and melting at a temperature low as 200 °C. • The NPs-coated Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film showed comparable semiconductor properties (carrier mobility and carrier density) to the vacuum deposited one. • Byproducts such as CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO were detected by GC-MS analysis when LAL was performed in organic solvent. • The LAL-induced decomposition mechanism of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and organic solvents was discussed based on the GC-MS results. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the synthesis of antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) semiconductor nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid without using any surfactants or capping agents. Different results were obtained in water and organic solvents. In the case of water, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles with chemical compositions of stoichiometry were successfully prepared when laser irradiation was performed under the condition with the dissolved oxygen removed by argon gas bubbling. It was shown that thus-obtained Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibit features of not only low-temperature crystallization but also low-temperature melting at a temperature as low as 200 °C. Nanoparticle-coated Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were found to show good visible light absorption and satisfying semiconductor properties (i.e., carrier mobility and density), which are essential for photovoltaic application. On the other hand, in the case of organic solvents (e.g., acetone, ethanol), such unexpected byproducts as CS{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} were detected from the reaction system by GC-MS analysis, which suggests that both Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and organic

  13. The electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series: Prospects for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, John J.; Allen, Jeremy P. [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Scanlon, David O. [University College London, Kathleen Lonsdale Materials Chemistry, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Watson, Graeme W., E-mail: watsong@tcd.ie [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-05-01

    In this study, density functional theory is used to evaluate the electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series. Analysis of the electronic density of states and charge density shows that asymmetric density, or ‘lone pairs’, forms on the Sb{sup III} cations in the distorted oxide, sulphide and selenide materials. The asymmetric density progressively weakens down the series, due to the increase in energy of valence p states from O to Te, and is absent for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The fundamental and optical band gaps were calculated and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} have indirect band gaps, while Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} was calculated to have a direct band gap at Γ. The band gaps are also seen to reduce from Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The optical band gap for Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} makes it a candidate as a transparent conducting oxide, while Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} have suitable band gaps for thin film solar cell absorbers. - Graphical abstract: A schematic illustrating the interaction between the Sb{sup III} cations and the chalcogenide anions and the change in their respective energy levels down the series. - Highlights: • The electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series is modelled using DFT. • Asymmetric density is present on distorted systems and absent on the symmetric telluride system. • Asymmetric density is formed from the mixing of Sb 5s and anion p states, where the anti-bonding combination is stabilised by the Sb 5p states. • The asymmetric density weakens down the series due to the increase in energy of chalcogenide p states. • The increase in energy of the anion p states reduces the fundamental and optical band gaps.

  14. Local bonding structure of tellurium and antimony in the phase change chalcogenides germanium-antimony-tellurium: A nuclear magnetic resonance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobela, David C.

    Recent technological applications of some chalcogenide materials, compounds containing a group VI atom, have prompted studies of the local atomic structure of the amorphous phase. In the case of Ge2Sb2Te 5, metastability in the local bonding structure is responsible for its usefulness as a phase-change memory material. There is no consensus on the exact phase-change mechanism, which is partly due to the inadequacy of standard scattering techniques to probe the structure of the amorphous phase. Nuclear magnetic resonance methods, on the other hand, are well suited to study local structural order even in the absence of a periodic lattice. In this technique, structural information is encoded as an oscillating voltage caused by the nuclear spin. For the tellurium isotope, 125Te (spin = 1/2 in the ground state), the dominant interaction comes from the core and valence electrons that carry angular momentum. This interaction is helpful in identifying Te sites of different local coordination since the number of neighboring atoms should markedly change the local electronic structure. The antimony isotope 125Sb has a spin = 5/2 in the ground state and possesses an asymmetric nuclear charge. This quadrupole moment will interact with an electric field gradient at the nuclear site, which is provided by an asymmetric electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. The frequency-space spectra will reflect the strength of the interaction as well as the symmetry of the local electronic environment. This work investigates the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of 125Te and 125Sb in the crystalline and amorphous forms of several GexSbyTe 1-x-y compounds where 0 arranged such that the constituent elements have enough bonds, on average, to satisfy their valence requirement. The implications of the NMR data on theoretical modeling data are immediate. Theoretical models of these systems must possess some aspect of the "8-n" mentality. With this idea as a foundation for physically realistic

  15. Spark Plasma Sintering and Densification Mechanisms of Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Nanoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Densification of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO ceramics without sintering aids is very difficult, due to the volatilization of SnO2, formation of deleterious phases above 1000°C, and poor sintering ability of ATO particles. In this paper, monodispersed ATO nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel method, and then ATO nanoceramics with high density were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS technology using the as-synthesized ATO nanoparticles without the addition of sintering aids. The effect of Sb doping content on the densification was investigated, and the densification mechanisms were explored. The results suggest that ATO nanoparticles derived from sol-gel method show good crystallinity with a crystal size of 5–20 nm and Sb is incorporated into the SnO2 crystal structure. When the SPS sintering temperature is 1000°C and the Sb doping content is 5 at.%, the density of ATO nanoceramics reaches a maximum value of 99.2%. Densification mechanisms are explored in detail.

  16. Effect of antimony addition on the optical behaviour of germanium selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parikshit; Rangra, V. S.; Sharma, Pankaj; Katyal, S. C.

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports the influence of antimony (Sb) addition on the optical properties (optical energy gap and refractive index) of thin solid films of the chalcogenide glassy Ge0.17Se0.83-xSbx(x = 0, 0.03, 0.09, 0.12, 0.15) system. This has been done by analysing the transmittance (T) and reflectance (R) spectra in the spectral region 400-2000 nm. It was found that the optical energy gap decreases with increasing Sb content from 1.92 to 1.63 eV with an uncertainty of ± 0.01 eV. The results were interpreted in terms of bond energies and on the basis of the concept of electronegativity. The refractive index has been found to increase with increasing Sb content. The increase in the refractive index has been explained on the basis of polarizability. Dispersion of refractive index has been analysed using the Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. The static refractive index increased from 2.45 to 2.91 for the studied compositions. An estimate of the energy gap has also been taken theoretically and it has been found that both the optical energy gap (measured from T and R spectra) and the theoretical energy gap follow similar trends.

  17. Effect of antimony addition on the optical behaviour of germanium selenide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Parikshit; Rangra, V S [Department of Physics, H. P. University, Summer Hill, Shimla (171005) (India); Sharma, Pankaj; Katyal, S C [Department of Physics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, H.P. (173215) (India)], E-mail: pankaj.sharma@juit.ac.in, E-mail: sharma_parikshit@yahoo.com

    2008-11-21

    This paper reports the influence of antimony (Sb) addition on the optical properties (optical energy gap and refractive index) of thin solid films of the chalcogenide glassy Ge{sub 0.17}Se{sub 0.83-x}Sb{sub x}(x = 0, 0.03, 0.09, 0.12, 0.15) system. This has been done by analysing the transmittance (T) and reflectance (R) spectra in the spectral region 400-2000 nm. It was found that the optical energy gap decreases with increasing Sb content from 1.92 to 1.63 eV with an uncertainty of {+-} 0.01 eV. The results were interpreted in terms of bond energies and on the basis of the concept of electronegativity. The refractive index has been found to increase with increasing Sb content. The increase in the refractive index has been explained on the basis of polarizability. Dispersion of refractive index has been analysed using the Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. The static refractive index increased from 2.45 to 2.91 for the studied compositions. An estimate of the energy gap has also been taken theoretically and it has been found that both the optical energy gap (measured from T and R spectra) and the theoretical energy gap follow similar trends.

  18. Leaching of Antimony (Sb)from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Inga

    2004-07-01

    The mobility of antimony (Sb) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues often exceeds the limit values stipulated by the European Union. As an ash treatment by washing is conceivable, this work investigated the Sb release from Swedish bottom ash and fly ash when mixed with water. The leaching experiments revealed the factors significantly (a = 0.05) affecting Sb release from the ashes. The following factors were investigated: Liquid to solid ratio (L/S), time, pH, carbonation (treatment with CO{sub 2}), ultrasonics and temperature. The data were evaluated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The impact of the factors could be quantified. The maximum Sb release calculated was 13 mg/kg DM for bottom ash and 51 mg/kg DM for fly ash. The derived models explained the observed data well. Nevertheless, the calculated values were subject to a high uncertainty. For bottom ash, a lowering of the Sb total content of approximately 22% could be achieved. If this also involves a sufficient lowering of the Sb mobility to meet EU limit values could not yet be assessed. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to explain the empirical results. However, no solid phases controlling Sb release from the ashes could be identified.

  19. Synthesis of Copper-Antimony-Sulfide Nanocrystals for Solution-Processed Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Satoshi; Horita, Keisuke; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Tooru; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Ishiwata, Yoichi; Shimanoe, Kengo; Kida, Tetsuya

    2015-08-17

    The p-type nanocrystals (NCs) of copper-based chalcogenides, such as CuInSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have attracted increasing attention in photovoltaic applications due to their potential to produce cheap solution-processed solar cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of copper-antimony-sulfide (CAS) NCs with different crystal phases including CuSbS2, Cu3SbS4, and Cu12Sb4S13. In addition, their morphology, crystal phase, and optical properties were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy, and photoemission yield spectroscopy. The morphology, crystal phase, and electronic structure were significantly dependent on the chemical composition in the CAS system. Devices were fabricated using particulate films consisting of CAS NCs prepared by spin coating without a high-temperature treatment. The CAS NC-based devices exhibited a diode-like current-voltage characteristic when coupled with an n-type CdS layer. In particular, the CuSbS2 NC devices exhibited photovoltaic responses under simulated sunlight, demonstrating its applicability for use in solution-processed solar cells.

  20. Partitioning geochemistry of arsenic and antimony, El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, J.T. [Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Bennett, P.C., E-mail: pbennett@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Engel, A.S. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Alsina, M.A.; Pasten, P.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Milliken, K. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The abundance of As and Sb in aqueous, mineral and biological reservoirs was examined at El Tatio Geyser Field, a unique hydrothermal basin located in the Atacama Desert region of Chile. Here the concentration of total As and Sb in hydrothermal springs and discharge streams are the highest reported for a natural surface water, and the geyser basin represents a significant source of toxic elements for downstream users across Region II, Chile. The geyser waters are near neutral Na:Cl type with {approx}0.45 and 0.021 mmol L{sup -1} total As and Sb, respectively, primarily in the reduced (III) redox state at the discharge with progressive oxidation downstream. The ferric oxyhydroxides associated with the microbial mats and some mineral precipitates accumulate substantial As that was identified as arsenate by XAS analysis (>10 wt% in the mats). This As is easily mobilized by anion exchange or mild dissolution of the HFO, and the ubiquitous microbial mats represent a significant reservoir of As in this system. Antimony, in contrast, is not associated with the mineral ferric oxides or the biomats, but is substantially enriched in the silica matrix of the geyserite precipitates, up to 2 wt% as Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Understanding the mobility and partitioning behavior of these metalloids is critical for understanding their eventual impact on regional water management.

  1. Adsorption behavior of antimony(III) oxyanions on magnetite surface in aqueous organic acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vinit K.; Bera, Santanu; Narasimhan, S. V.; Velmurugan, S.

    2013-02-01

    Antimony(III) adsorption is observed on magnetite (Fe3O4) surface under acidic and reducing condition through surface hydroxyl (SOH) groups bonding on Fe3O4 surface. Desorption of adsorbed Sb(III) is observed from Fe3O4 surface along with iron release in organic acid at 85 °C after 5 h of experiment. Tartaric acid (TA) shows minimum Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4 among the organic acid studied. The reason is TA having two sets of adjacent functional groups viz. Odbnd Csbnd OH and Csbnd OH which are responsible for the formation of five-membered bidendate chelate with Sb(III). Other oxyanions, cations or complexing agents along with TA influences the Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4. The surface of magnetite is modified by the addition of fatty acids viz. Lauric acid, benzoic acid to bind the Ssbnd OH groups present on the surface. This results in delaying the process of adsorption without changing the quantity of saturation adsorption of Sb(III) on Fe3O4 surface.

  2. DFT Study on the Carrier Concentration and Temperature-Dependent Thermoelectric Properties of Antimony Selenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Jayaraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the thermoelectric properties of Antimony Selenide (Sb2Se3 obtained using first principles calculations. We investigated the electronic band structure using the FP-LAPW method within the sphere of the density functional theory. Thermoelectric properties were calculated using BoltzTrap code using the constant relaxation time (τ approximation at three different temperatures 300 K, 600 K, and 800 K. Seebeck coefficient (S was found to decrease with increasing temperature, electrical conductivity (σ/τ was almost constant in the entire temperature range, and electronic thermal conductivity (κ/τ increased with increasing temperature. With increase in temperature S decreased from 1870 μV/K (at 300 K to 719 μV/K (at 800 K, electronic thermal conductivity increased from 1.56 × 1015 W/m K s (at 300 K to 3.92 × 1015 W/m K s (at 800 K, and electrical conductivity decreased from 22 × 1019/Ω m s (at 300 K to 20 × 1019/Ω m s (at 800 K. The thermoelectric properties were also calculated for different hole concentrations and the optimum concentration for a good thermoelectric performance over a large range of temperatures (from 300 K to 1000 K was found for hole concentration around 1019 cm−3.

  3. Semiconductor nanocrystals functionalized with antimony telluride zintl ions for nanostructured thermoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Maksym V; Spokoyny, Boris; Lee, Jong-Soo; Scheele, Marcus; Weber, Andrew; Perera, Susanthri; Landry, Daniel; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2010-05-19

    The energy efficiency of heat engines could be improved by the partial recovery of waste heat using thermoelectric (TE) generators. We show the possibility of designing nanostructured TE materials using colloidal inorganic nanocrystals functionalized with molecular antimony telluride complexes belonging to the family of Zintl ions. The unique advantage of using Zintl ions as the nanocrystal surface ligands is the possibility to convert them into crystalline metal chalcogenides, thus linking individual nanobuilding blocks into a macroscopic assembly of electronically coupled functional modules. This approach allows preserving the benefits of nanostructuring and quantum confinement while enabling facile charge transport through the interparticle boundaries. A developed methodology was applied for solution-based fabrication of nanostructured n- and p-type Bi(2-x)Sb(x)Te(3) alloys with tunable composition and PbTe-Sb(2)Te(3) nanocomposites with controlled grain size. Characterization of the TE properties of these materials showed that their Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal conductivities, and ZT values compared favorably with those of previously reported solution-processed TE materials.

  4. Comparison of arsenic and antimony biogeochemical behavior in water, soil and tailings from Xikuangshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyou; Wu, Fengchang; Mo, Changli; Deng, Qiujing; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P

    2016-01-01

    Although similar geochemical behaviors of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in the environment has been assumed and widely reported, growing evidence suggests the two elements cannot, under some conditions, be assumed to behave similarly. In this four-year study (samples collected in each year), comparative investigation of the biogeochemistry of As and Sb in water/fish, soil/vegetable, tailings/plant samples were carried out at the world's largest active Sb mine area (Xikuangshan, China). Depending on duration the tailings had been stacked, significant differences in spatial distributions between As and Sb were found, and these were associated with change in pH over time. Bio-accumulation factors (BAFs) of As were approximately 10-fold greater than those of Sb in fish/water, plant/tailing, and vegetable/soil systems. Sb had higher BAF in non-fatty tissues such as gills of fishes and shells of crabs. BAFs of Sb in vegetable/soil exhibited insignificantly, but different from As, positive correlation with pH in soil.

  5. A new method for antimony speciation in plant biomass and nutrient media using anion exchange cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisarum, Rujira; Ren, Jing-Hua; Dong, Xiaoling; Chen, Hao; Lessl, Jason T; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-11-01

    A selective separation method based on anion exchange cartridge was developed to determine antimony (Sb) speciation in biological matrices by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). The selectivity of the cartridge towards antimonite [Sb(III)] and antimonate [Sb(V)] reversed in the presence of deionized (DI) water and 2mM citric acid. While Sb(V) was retained by the cartridge in DI water, Sb(III) was retained in citric acid media. At pH 6, Sb(III) and Sb(V) formed Sb(III)- and Sb(V)-citrate complexes, but the cartridge had higher affinity towards the Sb(III)-citrate complex. Separation of Sb(III) was tested at various concentrations in fresh and spent growth media and plant tissues. Our results showed that cartridge-based Sb speciation was successful in plant tissues, which was confirmed by HPLC-ICP-MS. The cartridge retained Sb(III) and showed 92-104% Sb(V) recovery from arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata roots treated with Sb(III) and Sb(V). The cartridge procedure is an effective alternative for Sb speciation, offering low cost, reproducible results, and simple Sb analysis using GFAAS.

  6. Stepwise mechanism of oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over gallium-antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, Z.G.; Sokolovskii, V.D.

    1979-03-01

    The stepwise mechanism of oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over gallium-antimony oxide catalysts GaSb/sub 19/O/sub x/, GaSb/sub 3/Ni/sub 1.5/0/sub x/, and GaSb/sub 2.5/Ni/sub 1.5/PW/sub 0//sub 0.25/O/sub x/ was studied at 450/sup 0/ and 550/sup 0/C by introducing alternating pulses of 0.5Vertical Bar3< propane/0.6Vertical Bar3< ammonia/helium (to reduce the steady-state catalytic surface) and 0.5Vertical Bar3< propane/0.6Vertical Bar3< ammonia/1.86Vertical Bar3< oxygen/helium mixtures into a fluidized-bed catalytic reactor. Over all the catalysts studied, the rates of acrylonitrile formation during the two types of pulses were very similar, but carbon dioxide was formed much faster during the reducing pulses, particularly at 450/sup 0/C. These findings suggested that acrylonitrile is formed by a stepwise redox mechanism involving consecutive interaction of propane and ammonia with the surface oxygen of the catalysts and oxidation of the reduced catalyst surface by gas-phase oxygen. The formation of carbon dioxide proceeds by both stepwise and associative mechanisms, the latter being more important at higher temperatures. The results are similar to published results for ammoxidation of propylene and olefins.

  7. A density-functional study on the electronic and vibrational properties of layered antimony telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Ralf P.; Deringer, Volker L.; Simon, Ronnie E.; Hermann, Raphaël P.; Dronskowski, Richard

    2015-03-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of electronic and lattice-dynamical properties of crystalline antimony telluride (Sb2Te3). In a first step, the electronic structure and chemical bonding have been investigated, followed by calculations of the atomic force constants, phonon dispersion relationships and densities of states. Then, (macroscopic) physical properties of Sb2Te3 have been computed, namely, the atomic thermal displacement parameters, the Grüneisen parameter γ, the volume expansion of the lattice, and finally the bulk modulus B. We compare theoretical results from three popular and economic density-functional theory (DFT) approaches: the local density approximation (LDA), the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and a posteriori dispersion corrections to the latter. Despite its simplicity, the LDA shows excellent performance for all properties investigated—including the Grüneisen parameter, which only the LDA is able to recover with confidence. In the absence of computationally more demanding hybrid DFT methods, the LDA seems to be a good choice for further lattice dynamical studies of Sb2Te3 and related layered telluride materials.

  8. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Meghan R; Wyllie, Susan; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2013-12-03

    The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg · mL(-1) Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg · mL(-1)) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is.

  9. Film-wise condensation of R134a and R23/R134a mixture on horizontal finned tubes, influence of fin spacing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belghazi, M.; Signe, J.C.; Marvillet, Ch. [CEA/Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique (DTP-GRETh), 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Institut Universitaire de Technologie 1Grenoble I, 38 (France)

    1999-07-01

    The condensation of a pure fluid (R123a) and of a zeotropic mixture (R134a/R123) outside an horizontal bundle of finned tubes have been studied to understand the behaviour of the new refrigerants. Experimental results with pure R134a and several compositions of mixture R134a/R123 have been obtained during condensation on a bundle equipped with finned tubes of three different types: K26 (1024-fpm), K19(748-fpm), K11(433-fpm). The experimental data show the important effect of fin spacing and the different tubes has been made. The experimental data have also been compared to values calculated with the classical Bell and Ghaly model and a good agreement has been noticed. (authors)

  10. 13 CFR 134.503 - When must a person file an appeal from an SDVO SBC protest determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from an SDVO SBC protest determination? 134.503 Section 134.503 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... When must a person file an appeal from an SDVO SBC protest determination? Appeals from an SDVO SBC... after the appellant receives the SDVO SBC protest determination (see § 134.204 for filing and...

  11. Comparison of modification with strontium and the refining with antimony in A 356 aluminium alloys; Comparacao entre a modificacao com estroncio e o refino com antimonio em ligas de aluminio a 356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuoco, Ricardo; Correa, Edison Roberto; Correa, Alzira V.O.; Bocalini Junior, Mario

    1992-12-31

    Strontium and Antimony treated A356 aluminium alloy samples were metallographically characterized in the as cast and solution and aged conditions. Antimony treated alloy has shown slower spheroidizing kinetics of the Silicon particles during solution treatment, lower porosity level and higher tensile strength and elongation than Strontium treated one. (author) 26 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Gold and Antimony Mixed Flotation on a Micrite Gold Antimony ore in Guizhou%贵州某泥晶灰岩型含锑金矿金锑混浮试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石贵明; 周意超

    2015-01-01

    贵州某泥晶灰岩型含锑金矿石为块状构造,金属矿物主要为黄铁矿、针铁矿,含量小于1%,非金属矿物以方解石为主,另有少量石英、有机质等;金含量为6.04 g/t,显微镜下未见自然金粒,74.34%的金赋存在硫化矿中,游离金仅占总金的7.14%;硅酸盐、碳酸盐包裹金分别占11.96%和6.56%;锑主要以辉锑矿的形式存在。为高效、低成本回收矿石中的金、锑,对混合浮选工艺进行了试验研究。结果表明,在一段磨矿细度为-0.074 mm占71%的情况下1粗2扫混浮、尾矿再磨细度为-0.074 mm占92.7%的情况下再1粗2扫混浮、两粗精矿合并后3次精选、中矿顺序返回流程处理,最终获得了金品位为47.60 g/t、锑品位为9.81%、金回收率为76.68%、锑回收率为85.22%的金锑混合精矿,金锑混浮效果较理想。尾矿中金的回收及金锑分离工艺研究将另文介绍。%The micrite type antimony-containing gold ore in Guizhou is in blocky construction. Its metallic minerals are mainly pyrite and goethite,with content of less than 1%. Non-metallic minerals are calcite,and few of quartz,organic matter, etc. It contains gold of 6. 04 g/t,and natural gold grains were not seen in microscope,74. 34% of the gold occurred in sulfide ore,free gold accounted for only 7. 14%,wrapped gold in silicate and carbonate accounted for 11. 96% and 6. 56% respective-ly. Antimony mainly existed in the form of stibnite. Bulk flotation process was studied to make high efficient recovery of gold and antimony at low costs. The results indicated that,at the grinding fineness of 71% passing 0. 074 mm,through one roughing and two scavenging bulk flotation,one roughing and two scavenging bulk flotation after regrinding the tailings to 92. 7% passing 0. 074 mm,three cleaning flotation for the two mixed rough concentrate,and then middles back to the flow-sheet in turn,rough gold-antimony concentrate with gold grade of 47. 60 g

  13. The effect of PTH(1-34) on fracture healing during different loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Maria; Kringelbach, Tina; Syberg, Susanne;

    2013-01-01

    -34) on callus area were seen in neither normally nor unloaded animals. PTH(1-34) increased callus bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) significantly, whereas unloading decreased callus BMD and BMC significantly. PTH(1-34) treatment increased bone volume of the callus in both unloaded......Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH(1-34) have been shown to promote bone healing in several animal studies. It is known that the mechanical environment is important in fracture healing. Furthermore, PTH and mechanical loading has been suggested to have synergistic effects on intact bone. The aim...... of the present study was to investigate whether the effect of PTH(1-34) on fracture healing in rats was influenced by reduced mechanical loading. For this purpose, we used female, 25-week-old ovariectomized rats. Animals were subjected to closed midshaft fracture of the right tibia 10 weeks after ovariectomy...

  14. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YDL134C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y (0) YDL134C PPH21 Catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, functionally red...gene name PPH21 Prey description Catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, functionally redundant with Pp

  15. Quantitative HPLC-ICP-MS analysis of antimony redox speciation in complex sample matrices: new insights into the Sb-chemistry causing poor chromatographic recoveries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus; Schmidt, Bjørn; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt;

    2011-01-01

    In solution antimony exists either in the pentavalent or trivalent oxidation state. As Sb(III) is more toxic than Sb(V), it is important to be able to perform a quantitative speciation analysis of Sb’s oxidation state. The most commonly applied chromatographic methods used for this redox speciation...... analysis do, however, often show a low chromatographic Sb recovery when samples of environmental or biological origin are analysed. In this study we explored basal chemistry of antimony and found that formation of macromolecules, presumably oligomeric and polymeric Sb(V) species, is the primary cause...... of low chromatographic recoveries. A combination of HPLC-ICP-MS, AFFF-ICP-MS and spinfiltration was applied for analysis of model compounds and biological samples. Quantitative chromatographic Sb redox speciation analysis was possible by acidic hydrolysis of the antimony polymers prior to analysis...

  16. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G.E.; McLain, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of natural-water samples for antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Samples are prepared for analysis by addition of potassium and hydrochloric acid followed by an autoclave digestion. After the digestion, potassium iodide and sodium borohydride are added automatically. Antimony hydride (stibine) gas is generated, then swept into a heated quartz cell for determination of antimony by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Precision and accuracy data are presented. Results obtained on standard reference water samples agree with means established by interlaboratory studies. Spike recoveries for actual samples range from 90 to 114 percent. Replicate analyses of water samples of varying matrices give relative standard deviations from 3 to 10 percent.

  17. HFC-134a emissions from mobile air conditioning in China from 1995 to 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shenshen; Fang, Xuekun; Li, Li; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Jianbo; Xu, Weiguang; Hu, Jianxin

    2015-02-01

    Since 1995, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CH2FCF3, HFC-134a) has become the most important substitute of CFC-12 in mobile air conditioning (MAC) in China and MAC sector has dominated all the emissions of HFC-134a. In this study, we developed an accurate, updated and county-level inventory of the HFC-134a emissions from MAC in China for the period of 1995-2030 with an improved bottom-up method. Our estimation indicated that the total HFC-134a emissions kept growing at increase rates of ∼100% per year for 1995-2000 and ∼34% per year for 2001-2010. In 2010, HFC-134a emissions from MAC in China reached 16.7 Gg (10.5-22.7 Gg at 95% confidential interval), equivalent to 21.7 Tg CO2 (CO2-eq). Furthermore, the emissions in China estimated in this study accounted for 9.8% of global HFC-134a emissions and 29.0% of total emissions from Non-Annex_I countries in 2010. Due to the more advanced social-economic conditions and more intensive ownership of automobiles, greater HFC-134a were observed to come from big cities in East China. Under a Business-as-usual (BAU) Scenario, projected emissions will grow to 89.4 (57.9-123.9) Gg (about 75.3-161.1 Tg CO2-eq) in 2030, but under an Alternative Scenario, 88.6% of the projected emissions under BAU scenario could be curbed. Our estimation demonstrates huge emission mitigation potential of HFC-134a in China's MAC sector.

  18. Measurement of the effective thermal cross section of {sup 134}Cs by triple neutron capture reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Katoh, Toshio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hata, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Motoishi, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu

    1998-03-01

    The effective thermal cross section ({sigma}{sub eff}) of the {sup 134}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 135}Cs reaction was measured by the activation method and the {gamma}-ray spectroscopic method in order to obtain fundamental data for research on the transmutation of nuclear wastes. The effective thermal cross section of the reaction {sup 134}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 135}Cs was found to be 140.6{+-}8.5 barns. (author)

  19. HFC-134a refrigerant gas hydrate formation process and RIN model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the macroscopic visualization experiments of HFC-134a refrigerant gas hydrate formation are investigated. According to the macroscopic photos and Mori's microscopic photos of HFC-134a hydrate formation process, the mechanism of gas hydrate formation is analyzed.A random inducement nucleation model is presented to describe the hydrate formation process. The factors affecting the fractal growth dimension in the model, such as step,branch increment and angle, are discussed.``

  20. First-line therapy for human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru using the TLR7 agonist imiquimod in combination with pentavalent antimony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Miranda-Verastegui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current therapies for cutaneous leishmaniasis are limited by poor efficacy, long-term course of treatment, and the development of resistance. We evaluated if pentavalent antimony (an anti-parasitic drug combined with imiquimod (an immunomodulator was more effective than pentavalent antimony alone in patients who had not previously been treated. METHODS: A randomized double-blind clinical trial involving 80 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was conducted in Peru. The study subjects were recruited in Lima and Cusco (20 experimental and 20 control subjects at each site. Experimental arm: Standard dose of pentavalent antimony plus 5% imiquimod cream applied to each lesion three times per week for 20 days. Control arm: Standard dose of pentavalent antimony plus placebo (vehicle cream applied as above. The primary outcome was cure defined as complete re-epithelization with no inflammation assessed during the 12 months post-treatment period. RESULTS: Of the 80 subjects enrolled, 75 completed the study. The overall cure rate at the 12-month follow-up for the intention-to-treat analysis was 75% (30/40 in the experimental arm and 58% (23/40 in the control arm (p = 0.098. Subgroup analyses suggested that combination treatment benefits were most often observed at the Cusco site, where L. braziliensis is the prevalent species. Over the study period, only one adverse event (rash was recorded, in the experimental arm. CONCLUSION: The combination treatment of imiquimod plus pentavalent antimony performed better than placebo plus pentavalent antimony, but the difference was not statistically significant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov NCT00257530.

  1. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo E Perez-Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antimonial derivatives as treatment for ACL show a healing rate of about 75% and reasons for treatment failure are not well known.In order to characterise the clinical and parasitological features of patients with ACL that did not respond to Glucantime, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a cohort of 43 patients recruited in three of the Colombian Army National reference centers for complicated ACL. Clinical and paraclinical examination, and epidemiological and geographic information were recorded for each patient. Parasitological, histopathological and PCR infection confirmation were performed. Glucantime IC50 and in vitro infectivity for the isolated parasites were estimated.Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (95.4% and 35% of the parasites isolated showed a significant decrease in in vitro Glucanatime susceptibility associated with previous administration of the medicament. Lesion size and in vitro infectivity of the parasite are negatively correlated with decline in Glucantime susceptibility (Spearman: r = (-0,548 and r = (-0,726; respectively.A negative correlation between lesion size and parasite resistance is documented. L. braziliensis was found as the main parasite species associated to lesion of patients that underwent treatment failure or relapse. The indication of a second round of treatment in therapeutic failure of ACL, produced by L. braziliensis, with pentavalent antimonial derivatives is discussable.

  2. Minerogenetic Mechanism of the Songxi Silver—Antimony Deposit of Northeastern Guangdong—Ore—Controlling Role of Organic Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凯; 肖振宇; 等

    1999-01-01

    Organic geochemistry and comparisons of characteristics of the organic matter in wall rocks of the ore-controlling strata and ores of the Lower Jurassic Songling black shale formation and the related Songxi silver-antimony deposit of northeastern Guangdong have been studied in this paper.The results show that the Lower Jurassic Songling shale formation is a suite of biologic-rich and organic-rich ore-bearing marine sedimentary rocks.Micro-components of the organic matter in the Songling black shale formation consists primarily of algae,amorphous marine kerogen,solid bitument,and pyrobitument.The thermal evolution of organic matter is at the over-maturity stage.There is a general positive correlation between total organic carbon(CO)and metallogenetic elements such as Ag and Sb in the black shale formation.Organic matter in the host rocks in the Songxi ore deposit played a role in controlling the silver-antimony depositing environment during the forming process of the black shale ore-bearing formation.In the absence of vitrinite,the relative level of thermal maturity calculated by solid bitument reflectance indicates that the ore-forming temperatute of the Songxi silver-antimony deposit was about 150-170℃,which was considered as an epithermally reworked ore deposit.The roles of organic matter in the formation of the Sonxi ore deposit are a primitive accumulation of the metallogenetic elements(Ag,Sb) in the sea-water cycle system for ore source and a concentration of metals by ion exchange of chelation as well as reductionn of the oxidzed metals.

  3. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robayo, Marta L.; Lopez, Myriam C.; Daza, Carlos D.; Bedoya, Angela; Mariño, Maria L.; Saavedra, Carlos H.

    2016-01-01

    Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate) under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antimonial derivatives as treatment for ACL show a healing rate of about 75% and reasons for treatment failure are not well known. Methods In order to characterise the clinical and parasitological features of patients with ACL that did not respond to Glucantime, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a cohort of 43 patients recruited in three of the Colombian Army National reference centers for complicated ACL. Clinical and paraclinical examination, and epidemiological and geographic information were recorded for each patient. Parasitological, histopathological and PCR infection confirmation were performed. Glucantime IC50 and in vitro infectivity for the isolated parasites were estimated. Results Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (95.4%) and 35% of the parasites isolated showed a significant decrease in in vitro Glucanatime susceptibility associated with previous administration of the medicament. Lesion size and in vitro infectivity of the parasite are negatively correlated with decline in Glucantime susceptibility (Spearman: r = (-)0,548 and r = (-)0,726; respectively). Conclusion A negative correlation between lesion size and parasite resistance is documented. L. braziliensis was found as the main parasite species associated to lesion of patients that underwent treatment failure or relapse. The indication of a second round of treatment in therapeutic failure of ACL, produced by L. braziliensis, with pentavalent antimonial

  4. R134a的快速高效气相色谱鉴别%Rapid and Effective Identification of R134a by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文姬

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and effective qualitative and quantitative analysis method is described to analyze R134a automobile air-conditioner refrigerant by gas chromatography. With TCD detector and PLOT/Q (30 m×0.53 mm×40 μm)capillary column, and quantified by area normalization. The result showed that the method was easy to operate and practical with good accuracy and repeatability, and can be used for the analysis of R134a automobile air-conditioner refrigerant rapidly.%建立了汽车空调制冷剂R134a快速高效气相色谱定性和定最分析方法。采用PLOT/Q(30m×0.53mm×40μm)色谱柱,以热导池检测器检测,以面积归一化法定量。结果表明,该方法操作简单,实用性强,重复性好,可以用于快速分析汽车空凋制冷荆R134a。

  5. Co-leaching of brominated compounds and antimony from bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Shine, James P; Lu, Chensheng

    2012-01-01

    A fast-growing bottled water market is occasionally challenged by reports calling for contaminant leaching from water-contact materials (plastics). Our focus was on leaching of antimony (Sb) and brominated compounds expressed by total soluble bromine (Br) measurements, including those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Studies are lacking on concomitant leaching of two or more inorganic plastic constituents from the same bottle. A market-representative basket survey of bottled water was initiated in Boston, USA supermarkets. Bottled water classes sampled were: i) non-carbonated (NCR), ii) carbonated (CR), and iii) non-carbonated and enriched (NCRE). Plastic bottle materials sampled were: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), and polycarbonate (PC). Storage conditions for the 31 bottled water samples were: 23°C temperature, no-shaking and 12h/12h light/dark for 60days of equilibration. Average Br and Sb concentrations after 60-days of storage followed the order of NCR

  6. Uptake, translocation and transformation of antimony in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fei; Ren, Jinghua; Tao, Shu; Wang, Xilong

    2016-02-01

    Antimony (Sb), as a toxic metalloid, has been gaining increasing research concerns due mainly to its severe pollution in many places. Rice has been identified to be the dominant intake route of Sb by residents close to the Sb mining areas. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the difference in uptake, translocation and transformation of Sb in rice seedlings of four cultivars exposed to 0.2 or 1.0 mg/L of Sb(V). The results showed that mass concentration of iron plaque (mg/kg FW) formed at the root surfaces of cultivar N was the highest among all tested cultivars at both low and high exposure levels of Sb(V). The accumulated Sb concentration in iron plaque significantly increased with an increase in mass concentration of iron plaque formed at the rice root. The total amount of iron plaque (mg/pot) at rice root generally increased with increasing exposed Sb(V) concentration, which was closely associated with the increasing lipid peroxidation in roots. Concentration percentage of Sb in rice root significantly reduced as the corresponding value in the iron plaque increased, suggesting that iron plaque formation strongly suppressed uptake of Sb by rice root. Sb concentration in rice tissues followed an order: root > stem, leaf. The japonica rice (cultivars N and Z) exhibited a stronger translocation tendency of Sb from root to stem than indica hybrid rice (cultivars F and G). Translocation of Sb from root of cultivar F to its stem and leaf was sharply enhanced with increasing Sb exposure concentration. Sb(V) could be reduced to Sb(III) in rice tissues, especially in stems (10-26% of the total Sb). For the sake of food safety, the difference in uptake, translocation and transformation of Sb in rice species planted in Sb-contaminated soils should be taken into consideration.

  7. Records of anthropogenic antimony in the glacial snow from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Pengfei; Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Yajun; Gao, Tanguang; Guo, Junming; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a ubiquitous element in the environment that is potentially toxic at very low concentrations. In this study, surface snow/ice and snowpit samples were collected from four glaciers in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in June 2015. The concentrations of Sb and other elements were measured in these samples. The results showed that the average concentration of Sb was approximately 2.58 pg g-1 with a range of 1.64-9.20 pg g-1. The average Sb concentration in the study area was comparable to that recorded in a Mt. Everest ice core and higher than that in Arctic and Antarctic snow/ice but much lower than that in Tien Shan and Alps ice cores. Sb presented different variations with other toxic elements (Pb and Cr) and a crustal element (Al) in the three snowpits, which indicated the impact of a different source or post-deposition processes. The enrichment factor of Sb was larger than 10, suggesting that anthropogenic sources provided important contributions to Sb deposition in the glaciers. The Sb in the glacial snow was mainly loaded in the fourth component in principal component analysis, exhibiting discrepancies with crustal elements (Fe and Ca) and other toxic metals (Pb). Backward trajectories revealed that the air mass arriving at the southeastern Tibetan Plateau mostly originated from the Bay of Bengal and the South Asia in June. Thus, pollutants from the South Asia could play an important role in Sb deposition in the studied region. The released Sb from glacier meltwater in the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas might pose a risk to the livelihoods and well-being of those in downstream regions.

  8. Antimony (Sb) contaminated shooting range soil: Sb mobility and immobilization by soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Amstätter, Katja; Lassen Bue, Helga; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Henriksen, Thomas; Mulder, Jan

    2013-06-18

    Antimony (Sb) in lead bullets poses a major environmental risk in shooting range soils. Here we studied the effect of iron (Fe)-based amendments on the mobility of Sb in contaminated soil from shooting ranges in Norway. Untreated soil showed high Sb concentrations in water extracts from batch tests (0.22-1.59 mg L(-1)) and soil leachate from column tests (0.3-0.7 mg L(-1)), occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Sorption of Sb to different iron-based sorbents was well described by the Freundlich equation (Fe2(SO4)3, log KF = 6.35, n = 1.51; CFH-12 (Fe oxyhydroxide), log KF = 4.16-4.32, n = 0.75-0.76); Fe(0) grit, log KF = 3.26, n = 0.47). These sorbents mixed with soil (0.5 and 2% w/w), showed significant sorption of Sb in batch tests (46-92%). However, for Fe2(SO4)3 and CFH-12 liming was also necessary to prevent mobilization of lead, copper, and zinc. Column tests showed significant retention of Sb (89-98%) in soil amended with CFH-12 (2%) mixed with limestone (1%) compared to unamended soil. The sorption capacity of soils amended with Fe(0) (2%) increased steadily up to 72% over the duration period of the column test (64 days), most likely due to the gradual oxidation of Fe(0) to Fe oxyhydroxides. Based on the experimental results, CFH-12 and oxidized Fe(0) are effective amendments for the stabilization of Sb in shooting range soils.

  9. Studies of antimony telluride and copper telluride films electrodeposition from choline chloride containing ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catrangiu, Adriana-Simona; Sin, Ion [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Prioteasa, Paula [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Splaiul Unirii 313, Bucharest (Romania); Cotarta, Adina [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Cojocaru, Anca, E-mail: a_cojocaru@chim.upb.ro [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Anicai, Liana [Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest (Romania); Visan, Teodor [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-07-29

    Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the deposition of antimony telluride or copper telluride from ionic liquid consisting in mixture of choline chloride with oxalic acid. In addition, the cathodic process during copper telluride formation was studied in the mixture of choline chloride with ethylene glycol. The results indicate that the Pt electrode is first covered with a Te layer, and then the more negative polarisation leads to the deposition of Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} or Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} semiconductor compounds. Thin films were deposited on copper and carbon steel at 60–70 °C and were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, energy X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their stoichiometry depends on the bath composition and applied potential. EDS and XRD patterns indicate the possible synthesis of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase and Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, and Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases, respectively, by controlling the ratio of ion concentrations in ionic liquid electrolytes and deposition potential. - Highlights: • Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} and Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} films electrodeposited from choline-chloride-based ionic liquids. • The stoichiometry of film depends on the bath composition and deposition potential. • Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases were identified in X-ray diffraction patterns.

  10. Metagenomic approach reveals variation of microbes with arsenic and antimony metabolism genes from highly contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinming; Bai, Yaohui; Liang, Jinsong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have great potential for arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) bioremediation in heavily contaminated soil because they have the ability to biotransform As and Sb to species that have less toxicity or are more easily removed. In this study, we integrated a metagenomic method with physicochemical characterization to elucidate the composition of microbial community and functional genes (related to As and Sb) in a high As (range from 34.11 to 821.23 mg kg-1) and Sb (range from 226.67 to 3923.07 mg kg-1) contaminated mine field. Metagenomic analysis revealed that microbes from 18 phyla were present in the 5 samples of soil contaminated with high As and Sb. Moreover, redundancy analysis (RDA) of the relationship between the 18 phyla and the concentration of As and Sb demonstrated that 5 phyla of microbes, i.e. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Tenericutes and Gemmatimonadetes were positively correlated with As and Sb concentration. The distribution, diversity and abundance of functional genes (including arsC, arrA, aioA, arsB and ACR3) were much higher for the samples containing higher As and Sb concentrations. Based on correlation analysis, the results showed a positive relationship between arsC-like (R2 = 0.871) and aioA-like (R2 = 0.675) gene abundance and As concentration, and indicated that intracellular As(V) reduction and As(III) oxidation could be the dominant As detoxification mechanism enabling the microbes to survive in the environment. This study provides a direct and reliable reference on the diversity of microbial community and functional genes in an extremely high concentration As- and Sb-contaminated environment.

  11. TiO2 crystal facet-dependent antimony adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiaying; Yan, Li; Duan, Jinming; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-02-24

    Anatase TiO2 crystal facets are garnering increasing attention due to their unique surface property. However, no specific linear relationship had been derived between the facet exposed on TiO2 and the surface adsorption capacity as well as photocatalytic performance. This study systematically explored the facet effects on antimony (Sb) adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation using high-index {201} and low-index {101}, {001}, and {100} TiO2. The results suggest that high-index {201} TiO2 exhibits the best Sb(III) adsorption and photocatalytic activity compared to the low-index TiO2. Both the Sb(III) adsorption density and the amount of OH and O2(-) generated in solution were correlated to the magnitude of surface energy on TiO2 facets. Photocatalytically generated OH and O2(-) were responsible for Sb(III) photooxidation as evidenced by radical-trapping experiments. The great contribution of OH was observed only on {201}, not on low-index TiO2. This phenomenon was found to be attributable to the high surface energy on {201}, which enables the generation of a large amount of photogeneration OH to compensate for the fast rate of OH dissipation. Therefore, the predominant participation of OH in Sb(III) photooxidation was only possible on high-index {201} TiO2, which resulted in an enhanced photocatalytic rate. On the other hand, O2(-) dominated the Sb(III) photocatalytic oxidation on low-index TiO2. The intrinsic facet-dependent adsorption and photocatalytic mechanism obtained from this study would be useful for developing TiO2-based environmental technologies.

  12. Effect of external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics of antimony and bismuth powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikram V Dabhade; Rama Mohan R Tallapragada; Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2009-10-01

    Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy on the powders of antimony and bismuth. The characteristics of powders treated by external energy are compared with the as received powders (control). The average particle sizes, 50 and 99, the sizes below which 99% of the particles are present showed significant increase and decrease indicating that the energy had caused deformation and fracture as if the powders have been subjected to high energy milling. To be able to understand the reasons for these changes the powders are characterized by techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area determination (BET), thermal analytical techniques such as DTA–DTG, DSC–TGA and SDTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The treated powder samples exhibited remarkable changes in the powder characteristics at all structural levels starting from polycrystalline particles, through single crystal to atoms. The external energy had changed the lattice parameters of the unit cell which in turn changed the crystallite size and density. The lattice parameters are then used to compute the weight and effective nuclear charge of the atom which showed significant variation. It is speculated that the external energy is acting on the nucleus through some reversible weak interaction of larger cross section causing changes in the proton to neutron ratios. Thus the effect is felt by all the atoms, and hence the unit cell, single crystal grain and grain boundaries. The stresses generated in turn may have caused deformation or fracture of the weak interfaces such as the crystallite and grain boundaries.

  13. Deposition efficiency in the preparation of ozone-producing nickel and antimony doped tin oxide anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Sandin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of precursor salts in the synthesis of nickel and antimony doped tin oxide (NATO electrodes using thermal decomposition from dissolved chloride salts was investigated. The salts investigated were SnCl4×5H2O, SnCl2×2H2O, SbCl3 and NiCl2×6H2O. It was shown that the use of SnCl4×5H20 in the preparation process leads to a tin loss of more than 85 %. The loss of Sb can be as high as 90 % while no indications of Ni loss was observed. As a consequence, the concentration of Ni in the NATO coating will be much higher than in the precursor solution. This high and uncontrolled loss of precursors during the preparation process will lead to an unpredictable composition in the NATO coating and will have negative economic and environmental effects. It was found that using SnCl2×2H20 instead of SnCl4×5H2O can reduce the tin loss to less than 50 %. This tin loss occurs at higher temperatures than when using SnCl4×5H2O where the tin loss occurs from 56 – 147 °C causing the composition to change both during the drying (80 – 110 °C and calcination (460 -550 °C steps of the preparation process. Electrodes coated with NATO based on the two different tin salts were investigated for morphology, composition, structure, and ozone electrocatalytic properties.

  14. Behavior of 60Co and 134Cs in a Canadian Shield lake over 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, G A; Schwartz, W J; Motycka, M; Rosentreter, J

    1998-04-08

    Radionuclides were added to the anoxic hypolimnion of a Canadian Shield lake to simulate the nuclear fuel waste disposal scenario where radionuclides might enter the bottom waters of a lake. The radionuclides remained in the hypolimnion until lake mixing at autumn turnover after which 60Co was rapidly lost and 134Cs was slowly lost from the water. Only 0.4% of the 60Co and 0.6% of the 134Cs remained in the water at year 5. Highest concentrations occurred in periphyton and filter feeders, Holopedium gibberum and clams (Anodonata grandis grandis). From maximum annual concentrations in clam tissues, it was estimated that the availability of 60Co for uptake had a half-time (t1/2) of 835 days in the lake, whereas that for 134Cs was 780 days. Loss rate coefficients, k, for the radionuclides from taxa ranged from 0.0008 to 0.0043 day-1 (t1/2 = 161-866 days) for 60Co and from 0.0009 to 0.005 day-1 (t1/2 = 139-770 days) for 134Cs. Cobalt-60 concentrations in forage fish were low, whereas 134Cs concentrations increased over the first year or two, then slowly declined. On the basis of k values measured for forage fish, the biological half-time of 134Cs in forage fish ranged from 428 to 630 days. Maximum 134Cs concentrations in forage fish were higher following hypolimnetic addition than epilimnetic addition. Relatively high 134Cs concentrations in periphyton at year 5 point to the importance of benthic pathways in the recycling of contaminants to higher trophic levels. The presence of 134Cs in biota 5 years after the addition, long after concentrations were no longer detectable in surface waters, is evidence of the persistence of Cs in aquatic systems. The k values (or t1/2 values) for the loss of 60Co and 134Cs from water and their uptake and loss from biota can be used to establish parameter values for assessment models. The results demonstrate that assessment models should account for the release of radionuclides from sediment and their subsequent recycling in the food

  15. Detection of pathogenic bacteria in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer: reluctant response to antimonial treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac-Márquez Angélica Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the bacterial flora present in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer from the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico using conventional culture methods (11 patients, and an immunocolorimetric detection of pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes (15 patients. Prevalence of bacteria isolated by culture methods was 90.9% (10/11. We cultured, from chiclero's ulcers (60%, pathogenic bacterial such as Staphylococcus aureus (20%, S. pyogenes (1.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.6%, Morganella morganii (1.6%, and opportunist pathogenic bacteria such as Klebsiella spp. (20.0%, Enterobacter spp. (20%, and Enterococcus spp. (20%. We also cultured coagulase-negative staphylococci in 40% (4/10 of the remaining patients. Micrococcus spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci constituted the bacterial genuses more frequently isolated in the normal skin of patients with chiclero's ulcer and healthy individuals used as controls. We also undertook another study to find out the presence of S. pyogenes by an immunocolorimetric assay. This study indicated that 60% (9/15 of the ulcerated lesions, but not normal controls, were contaminated with S. pyogenes. Importantly, individuals with purulent secretion and holding concomitant infections with S. pyogenes, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. morganii, and E. durans took longer to heal Leishmania (L. mexicana infections treated with antimonial drugs. Our results suggest the need to eliminate bacterial purulent infections, by antibiotic treatment, before starting antimonial administration to patients with chiclero's ulcer.

  16. Treatment of air pollution control residues with iron rich waste sulfuric acid: does it work for antimony (Sb)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breedveld, Gijs D; Kirkeng, Terje; Lægreid, Marit; Mæhlum, Trond; Mulder, Jan

    2013-03-15

    Antimony (Sb) in air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration has gained increased focus due to strict Sb leaching limits set by the EU landfill directive. Here we study the chemical speciation and solubility of Sb at the APC treatment facility NOAH Langøya (Norway), where iron (Fe)-rich sulfuric acid (∼3.6M, 2.3% Fe(II)), a waste product from the industrial extraction of ilmenite, is used for neutralization. Antimony in water extracts of untreated APC residues occurred exclusively as pentavalent antimonate, even at low pH and Eh values. The Sb solubility increased substantially at pHSb in porewater, occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Concentrations of Sb decreased from 87-918μgL(-1) (day 3) to 18-69μgL(-1) (day 600). We hypothesize that an initial sorption of Sb to Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rust) and eventually precipitation of Ca- and Fe-antimonates (tripuhyite; FeSbO4) occurred. We conclude that Fe-rich, sulfuric acid waste is efficient to immobilize Sb in APC residues from waste incineration.

  17. Complement activation-related pseudoallergy in dogs following intravenous administration of a liposomal formulation of meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul R. Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of nanotechnologies in advanced therapies has allowed the observation of specific adverse reactions related to nanostructures. The toxicity of a novel liposome formulation of meglumine antimoniate in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis after single dose has been investigated. Groups of 12 animals received by the intravenous route a single dose of liposomal meglumine antimoniate (group I [GI], 6.5 mg Sb/kg, empty liposomes (GII or isotonic saline (GIII. Evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters showed no significant changes 4 days after administration. No undesired effects were registered in the GIII. However, adverse reactions were observed in 67.7% of dogs from both groups that received liposomal formulations. The side effects began moments after bolus administration and disappeared during the first 15 minutes after treatment. Prostation, sialorrhea and defecation were the most frequent clinical signs, registered in 33.3% and 41.6 % of animals from the groups GI and GII, respectively. Tachypnea, mydriasis, miosis, vomiting and cyanosis were also registered in both groups. The adverse reactions observed in this study were attributed to the activation of the complement system by lipid vesicles in a phenomenon known as Complement Activation-Related Pseudoallergy (CARPA. The influence of the physical-chemical characteristics of liposomal formulation in the triggering of CARPA is discussed.

  18. Arsenic, Antimony, Chromium, and Thallium Speciation in Water and Sediment Samples with the LC-ICP-MS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jabłońska-Czapla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation is a very important subject in the environmental protection, toxicology, and chemical analytics due to the fact that toxicity, availability, and reactivity of trace elements depend on the chemical forms in which these elements occur. Research on low analyte levels, particularly in complex matrix samples, requires more and more advanced and sophisticated analytical methods and techniques. The latest trends in this field concern the so-called hyphenated techniques. Arsenic, antimony, chromium, and (underestimated thallium attract the closest attention of toxicologists and analysts. The properties of those elements depend on the oxidation state in which they occur. The aim of the following paper is to answer the question why the speciation analytics is so important. The paper also provides numerous examples of the hyphenated technique usage (e.g., the LC-ICP-MS application in the speciation analysis of chromium, antimony, arsenic, or thallium in water and bottom sediment samples. An important issue addressed is the preparation of environmental samples for speciation analysis.

  19. Determination of Antimony (III in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Domínguez-Renedo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD, the repeatability (3.81 % and the reproducibility (5.07 % of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III was calculated at a value of 1.27×10–8 M. The linear range obtained was between 0.99 × 10–8 – 8.26 × 10–8 M. An analysis of possible effects due to the presence of foreign ions in the solution was performed and the procedure was successfully applied to the determination of antimony levels in pharmaceutical preparations and sea water samples.

  20. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzman-Rivero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  1. miR-134 regulates ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced neuronal cell death by regulating CREB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weidong; Liu, Xiaobin; Cao, Jie; Meng, Facai; Li, Min; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Jie

    2015-04-01

    microRNA-134 (miR-134) has been reported to be a brain-specific miRNA and is differently expressed in brain tissues subjected to ischemic injury. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-134 in regulating cerebral ischemic injury remains poorly understood. The current study was designed to delineate the molecular basis of miR-134 in regulating cerebral ischemic injury. Using the oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model of hippocampal neuron ischemia in vitro, we found that the overexpression of miR-134 mediated by recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector infection significantly promoted neuron death induced by OGD/reoxygenation, whereas the inhibition of miR-134 provided protective effects against OGD/reoxygenation-induced cell death. Moreover, cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) as a putative target of miR-134 was downregulated and upregulated by miR-134 overexpression or inhibition, respectively. The direct interaction between miR-134 and the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of CREB mRNA was further confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Overexpression of miR-134 also inhibited the expression of the downstream gene of CREB, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2, whereas the inhibition of miR-134 upregulated the expression of BDNF and Bcl-2 in neurons after OGD/reoxygenation. Notably, the knockdown of CREB by CREB siRNA apparently abrogated the protective effect of anti-miR-134 on OGD/reoxygenation-induced cell death. Taken together, our study suggests that downregulation of miR-134 alleviates ischemic injury through enhancing CREB expression and downstream genes, providing a promising and potential therapeutic target for cerebral ischemic injury.

  2. The EDTA Amendment in Phytoextraction of (134)Cs From Soil by Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Roosmini, Dwina

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination with radiocaesium is a significant problem at any countries when a nuclear accident occurred. Recently, phytoextraction technique is developed to remediate the contaminated environment. However, the application is limited by the availability of the contaminant for root uptake. Therefore, a green house trial experiment of soil amendment with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been conducted to examine (134)Cs availability for root uptake. Two groups of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil. The soil in the first group was treated with EDTA amendment, while the other was not. Plant growth was observed gravimetrically and the (134)Cs concentration in soil as well as plants were determined using gamma spectrometry. The plant uptake capacity was determined as transfer factor (Fv), and the Fv values of 0.22 ± 0.0786 and 0.12 ± 0.039 were obtained for the soil treated with and without EDTA amendment, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the plant cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil both with and without EDTA amendment was low. The EDTA amendment to the soil seems to enhance the (134)Cs availability for root uptake of Indian mustard and can still be considered to assist the field phytoremediation of contaminated soil.

  3. Growth, photosynthesis, and defense mechanism of antimony (Sb)-contaminated Boehmeria nivea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Li-Yuan; Mubarak, Hussani; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Yong, Wang; Tang, Chong-Jian; Mirza, Nosheen

    2016-04-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is the oldest cash fiber crop in China and is widely grown in antimony (Sb) mining areas. To evaluate the extent of Sb resistance and tolerance, the growth, tolerance index (TI), Sb content in plant parts and in Hoagland solution, bioaccumulation factor (BF), photosynthesis, and physiological changes in Sb-contaminated B. nivea (20, 40, 80, and 200 mg L(-1) Sb) grown hydroponically were investigated. The Sb tolerance and resistance of ramie were clearly revealed by growth inhibition, a TI between 13 and 99 %, non-significant changes in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem (F v /F m ), energy-harvesting efficiency (photosystem II (PSII)) and single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) value, a significant increase in Sb in plant parts, BF >1, and an increase in catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) at 200 mg L(-1) Sb. Under increasing Sb stress, nearly the same non-significant decline in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem (F v /F m ), energy-harvesting efficiency (PSII), relative quantum yield of photosystem II (φPSII), and photochemical quenching (qP), except for F v /F m at 20 mg L(-1) Sb, were recorded. SPAD values for chlorophyll under Sb stress showed an increasing trend, except for a slight decrease, i.e., Sb. With a continuous increase in MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and CAT activities were suppressed under Sb addition up to 40 mg L(-1) Sb and the addition of Sb enhanced enzyme production at 80 and 200 mg L(-1) Sb. A continuous decrease in SOD, POD, and CAT up to 40 mg L(-1) Sb and enhancements at ≥80 mg L(-1), along with the continuous enhancement of MDA activity and inhibited biomass production, clearly reveal the roles of these enzymes in detoxifying Sb stress and the defense mechanism of ramie at 80 mg L(-1) Sb. Thus, B. nivea constitutes a promising candidate for Sb phytoremediation at mining sites.

  4. Correlation models between environmental factors and bacterial resistance to antimony and copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunji Shi

    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb and copper (Cu are toxic heavy metals that are associated with a wide variety of minerals. Sb(III-oxidizing bacteria that convert the toxic Sb(III to the less toxic Sb(V are potentially useful for environmental Sb bioremediation. A total of 125 culturable Sb(III/Cu(II-resistant bacteria from 11 different types of mining soils were isolated. Four strains identified as Arthrobacter, Acinetobacter and Janibacter exhibited notably high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Sb(III (>10 mM,making them the most highly Sb(III-resistant bacteria to date. Thirty-six strains were able to oxidize Sb(III, including Pseudomonas-, Comamonas-, Acinetobacter-, Sphingopyxis-, Paracoccus- Aminobacter-, Arthrobacter-, Bacillus-, Janibacter- and Variovorax-like isolates. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that the soil concentrations of Sb and Cu were the most obvious environmental factors affecting the culturable bacterial population structures. Stepwise linear regression was used to create two predictive models for the correlation between soil characteristics and the bacterial Sb(III or Cu(II resistance. The concentrations of Sb and Cu in the soil was the significant factors affecting the bacterial Sb(III resistance, whereas the concentrations of S and P in the soil greatly affected the bacterial Cu(II resistance. The two stepwise linear regression models that we derived are as follows: MIC(Sb(III=606.605+0.14533 x C(Sb+0.4128 x C(Cu and MIC((Cu(II=58.3844+0.02119 x C(S+0.00199 x CP [where the MIC(Sb(III and MIC(Cu(II represent the average bacterial MIC for the metal of each soil (μM, and the C(Sb, C(Cu, C(S and C(P represent concentrations for Sb, Cu, S and P (mg/kg in soil, respectively, p<0.01]. The stepwise linear regression models we developed suggest that metals as well as other soil physicochemical parameters can contribute to bacterial resistance to metals.

  5. Determination of antimony in concentrates, ores and non-ferrous materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry after iron-lanthanum collection, or by the iodide method after further xanthate extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, E M

    1979-11-01

    Methods for determining trace and moderate amounts of antimony in copper, nickel, molybdenum, lead and zinc concentrates and in ores are described. Following sample decomposition, antimony is oxidized to antimony(V) with aqua regia, then reduced to antimony(III) with sodium metabisulphite in 6M hydrochloric acid medium and separated from most of the matrix elements by co-precipitation with hydrous ferric and lanthanum oxides. Antimony (>/= 100 mug/g) can subsequently be determined by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry, at 217.6 nm after dissolution of the precipitate in 3M hydrochloric acid. Alternatively, for the determination of antimony at levels of 1 mug/g or more, the precipitate is dissolved in 5M hydrochloric acid containing stannous chloride as a reluctant for iron(III) and thiourea as a complexing agent for copper. Then tin is complexed with hydrofluoric acid, and antimony is separated from iron, tin, lead and other co-precipitated elements, including lanthanum, by chloroform extraction of its xanthate. It is then determined spectrophotometrically, at 331 or 425 nm as the iodide. Interference from co-extracted bismuth is eliminated by washing the extract with hydrochloric acid of the same acid concentration as the medium used for extraction. Interference from co-extracted molybdenum, which causes high results at 331 nm, is avoided by measuring the absorbance at 425 nm. The proposed methods are also applicable to high-purity copper metal and copper- and lead-base alloys. In the spectrophotometric iodide method, the importance of the preliminary oxidation of all of the antimony to antimony(V), to avoid the formation of an unreactive species, is shown.

  6. Monitoring of copper, arsenic and antimony levels in agricultural soils impacted and non-impacted by mining activities, from three regions in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Ida; Fuentes, Edwar; Rojas, Mariela; Pinochet, Hugo; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports a comparative study of the concentration of three important environmental elements that are often found together in mineral deposits and then associated with mining activities; copper, arsenic and antimony. These elements were determined in 26 different agricultural soils from regions I, II and V in Chile, zones where the most important and biggest copper industries of this country are located. As background levels of these elements in soils have not been well established, in this study, both, impacted and non-impacted agricultural soils from different regions were considered. The relationships between the concentrations of these elements in soils were also examined. The concentration ranges for copper, arsenic and antimony were 11-530; 2.7-202 and 0.42-11 mg kg(-1) respectively. The copper concentrations in non-polluted soils from the north and central zone of Chile were similar. However, three sites from the north region have copper concentration as higher as 100 mg kg(-1), values that exceed the critical concentration for copper in soils. The concentration of arsenic and antimony in the north soils were higher than in non-impacted ones and, in the case of arsenic, greatly exceeded the world average concentration reported for this element in soils. The highest arsenic and antimony concentrations were found in Calama and Quillagua soils, two different sites in the Loa valley. The arsenic/antimony concentration ratio was higher in Quillagua soil. The high concentrations of three elements determined in impacted soils from region V (Puchuncaví and Catemu valleys) clearly shows the impact produced in this zone by the industrial and mining activities developed in their proximities. At Puchuncaví valley a clear decrease was observed in copper, arsenic and antimony concentrations in soils on the function of the distance from the industrial complex "Las Ventanas", and all concentrations exceeded the reported critical values for this matrix. Instead at

  7. MicroRNA-134 suppresses endometrial cancer stem cells by targeting POGLUT1 and Notch pathway proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongtao; Liu, Te; Huang, Yongyi

    2015-01-16

    We aimed to ascertain the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating human endometrial cancer stem cells (HuECSCs). The expression level of miRNA-134 (miR-134), a member of the DLK1-DIO3 genomic imprinted miRNA cluster, differed significantly between HuECSCs and human endometrial cancer cells (HuECCs). miR-134 inhibited HuECSCs proliferation and migration by targeting protein O-glucosyltransferase 1 (POGLUT1) expression. Exogenous miR-134 overexpression downregulated POGLUT1 and Notch pathway proteins in HuECSCs in vitro. miR-134 overexpression affected the G2/M phase of HuECSCs and suppressed the growth of xenograft tumours formed. Thus, endogenous miR-134 regulation in HuECSCs may suppress tumourigenesis in human endometrial carcinoma.

  8. Cavitation erosion resistance of 13/4 and 21-4-N steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh K Chauhan

    2013-02-01

    Nitrogen strengthened austenitic stainless steel (termed as 21-4-N steel) in as cast and hot rolled conditions has been investigated as an alternative to 13/4 steel (termed as CA6NM) to overcome the problems of cavitation erosion in hydro turbine underwater parts. The cavitation erosion of 21-4-N and 13/4 steels was investigated by means of an ultrasonic vibration processor. The cavitation erosion is highly dependent on microstructure and mechanical properties. The results show that hot rolled 21-4-N steel is more cavitation erosion resistant than the 13/4 and 21-4-N steels in as cast condition. The eroded surfaces were analysed through optical microscope and scanning electron microscope for study of erosion mechanisms.

  9. Nucleation efficiency of R134a as a sensitive liquid for superheated drop emulsion detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mala Das; R Sarkar; P K Mondal; S Saha; B K Chatterjee; S C Roy

    2010-10-01

    Superheated emulsion detector is known to detect neutrons, γ-rays and other charged particles. The present work includes the study of nucleation efficiency of super-heated drops of one of the CFC-free liquids, R134a (C2H2F4), to fast neutrons, its response to -rays from 241Am and 137Cs and compare its nucleation efficiency with that of R12. The observation indicates that because of the presence of hydrogen, the nucleation efficiency is less in R134a than in R12 in the present neutron energy range of considera-tion. R134a is one of the most environment-friendly, commercially available liquid that is suitable for superheated drop detector, specially in neutron dosimetry and one needs to investigate it in detail.

  10. Comparison of dilution effects of R134a and nitrogen on flammable hydrofluorocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenming Li; Maoqiong Gong; Jianfeng Wu; Yuan Zhou

    2009-01-01

    An experimental apparatus has been built to measure the flammability limits of combustible gases based on Chi-nese national standard GB/T 12474-90. The flammability limits of four binary mixtures of R161/R134a, Ri52a/R134a, RI61/N2 and RI52a/N2 were measured with this apparatus at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The fuel inertization points (FIP) of these mixtures can be found from the envelopes. Comparisons were made with the literature data; good agreement for most measurements was obtained. R134a was found to have a better dilution effect than nitrogen in reducing the flammability of hydrofluorocarbons.

  11. In-beam γ-ray Spectroscopy of Level Structure in 134Ba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoPeng; LiuMinliang; LiuZhong; ZhangYuhu; ZhouXiaohong; GuoYingxiang; MaYingjun; Y.Sasaki; K.Yamada; H.Ohshima; S.Yokose; M.Ishizuka; T.Komatsubara; K.Furuno

    2003-01-01

    Excited states of 134Ba, populated via the heavy-ion induced 128Te(10B, 1p3n)134Ba reaction at 46 MeV beam energy, have been studied to medium and high spins by in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy techniques. The experiment was performed at the tandem accelerator laboratory in the University of Tsukuba, Japan. The target is an isotopically enriched 128Te metallic foil of 2.3mg/cm2 thickness with a 3mg/cm2 gold backing. Nine anti-Compton HPGe detectors were employed for the measurements of γ-γ-t coincidences. The level scheme of 134Ba, deduced from this study, was shown in Fig.1.

  12. 原子荧光法测透析用水中砷硒锑汞%Atomic fluorescence measuring dialysis water arsenic selenium antimony and mercury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆胜超; 李皓

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立透析用水中砷、硒、锑、汞四种微量元素的原子荧光分析法.方法:水中砷和锑加还原剂后同时测定;硒经硝酸高氯酸氧化后,再经盐酸还原后测定;汞直接加硝酸使酸度为5%后测定.结果:汞的检出限为0.024μg/L;硒的检出限为0.044μg/L;砷的检出限为0.011 μg/L;锑的检出限为0.015μg/L.结论:本法用来测定透析用水中极其微量的砷、硒、锑、汞简便快速,且在双道原子荧光法仪中可同时进行砷和锑的检测.%Objective: To establish a method for detection of hemodialysis water arsenic, selenium,antimony and mercury.Methods: Arsenic and antimony in water were detectioned after added reductant, Selenium was detectioned by nitric acid and high chlorine acid oxidationed, Mercury was directly detectioned by adding acidity to 5%. Results:The detect limit for Mercury was 0.024 muon g/L, the detect limit for Selenium was 0. 044 muon g/L, Arsenic detect limit for 0.011 muon g/L, Antimony detect limit to. 015 muon g/L. Conclusion: This method wad simple and rapid for using to determine dialysis water in extremely trace of arsenic and selenium, antimony, mercury, and in double ways for atomic fluorescence analyzer can simultaneously arsenic and antimony detection

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of β -aroylpropionic acid based 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, two new series, 1-(4-benzylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone and 1-(4-ethylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone from β-(4-benzylbenzoylpropionic acid and β-(4-ethylbenzoylpropionic acid, respectively, were synthesized and tested for antiinflammatory, analgesic, lipid peroxidation, ulcerogenic and antibacterial actions. A fair number of compounds were found to have good antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test, while a few compounds showed significant antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized compounds showed very low ulcerogenic action.

  14. 怎样维修"HFC-134a"制冷剂冰箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐进华

    2003-01-01

    @@ 美国杜邦(DuPont)公司推出了HFC-I34a,即四氯乙烷,它仍属于卤代烃类,但不含氟和溴,所以ODP(Ozone Deplete Potentia即臭氧消耗潜值)为零.家用电冰箱发展到现在,主要采用的制冷剂有:R12(CFC-12)、R134a(HFC-134a)、HC-600a等.

  15. Aspects Regarding the Use of R-134a in Marine Refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiza Memet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In marine refrigeration and air conditioning, refrigerants like R-12, R-22 and R-502 are most commonly used. Due to environmetal challenges, marine refrigeration plants on board of the old vessels have to be updated and designed in new terms. Recently, the global warming problem has put new pressure on possible alternatives, as R-134a for R-12, and drawn attention to energy efficiency. Results and theoretical considerations concerning a retrofit project are discussed with respect to R-134a compared with R-12, a traditional refrigerant on board of old ships.

  16. Pathway for inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and 1,4-bisphosphate metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Inhorn, R C; Bansal, V S; Majerus, P W

    1987-01-01

    We prepared [3H]inositol-,3-[32P]phosphate-and 4-[32P]phosphate-labeled inositol phosphate substrates to investigate the metabolism of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and inositol 1,4-bisphosphate. In crude extracts of calf brain, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate is first converted to inositol 3,4-bisphosphate, then the inositol 3,4-bisphosphate intermediate is further converted to inositol 3-phosphate. Similarly, inositol 1,4-bisphosphate is converted to inositol 4-phosphate, and no inositol 1-phos...

  17. miR-134 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth by targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qin; Wei, Furong; Zhang, Jianbo; Wang, Xingwu; Li, Baosheng

    2016-10-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently activated in a wide range of solid tumours and represents an important therapeutic target. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been recognized as a rational and potential modality for anti-EGFR therapies. However, more EGFR-targeting miRNAs need to be explored. In this study, we identified a novel EGFR-targeting miRNA, miRNA-134 (miR-134), in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Luciferase assays confirmed that EGFR is a direct target of miR-134. In addition, the overexpression of miR-134 inhibited EGFR-related signaling and suppressed NSCLC cells proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, suggesting that miR-134 functions as a tumour suppressor in NSCLC. Further mechanistic investigation including RNAi and rescue experiments suggested that the down-regulation of EGFR by miR-134 partially contributes to the antiproliferative role of miR-134. Last, in vivo experiments demonstrated that miR-134 suppressed tumour growth of A549 xenograft in nude mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-134 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth by targeting the EGFR.

  18. Alterations in Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions by the Use of Meglumine Antimoniate in American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Bezerra, Débora Cristina; Oliveira de Barcelos, Renata; Carvalho de Castro, Ellen; Jardim Duarte, Claudia Cristina; de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes Oliveira, Raquel; Salgado de Sousa Torraca, Tania; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Pereira Bom Braga, Frederico; Ramos Ferreira Terceiro, Benivaldo; do Nascimento Brahim Paes, Lúcia Regina; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL) is a neglected, non-contagious, infectious disease, caused by different protozoa species of the Leishmania genus that affects skin and mucous membranes. Meglumine Antimoniate (MA), the first drug of choice for TL treatment in Brazil, has already been associated with cochlear toxicity, which is defined as damages of the cochlea caused by exposure to chemical substances, resulting in reversible or irreversible hearing loss. Auditory monitoring for cochlear toxicity aims at the early detection of auditory disorders, enabling, when possible, hearing to be preserved or an early auditory rehabilitation. Although otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are used in this monitoring, there is no consensus on the criteria that define cochlear toxicity by this examination. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of the OAEs in cochlear toxicity monitoring in TL patients using MA. Methods Prospective and longitudinal study of auditory monitoring of 35 patients with parasitological diagnosis of TL, with liminal tonal audiometry, high frequency audiometry, immitanciometry, distortion product evoked otoacoustic emissions (DPEOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) before treatment, at the end of treatment, one month after the end of treatment and two months after the end of treatment. Results 80% male, with median age of 44 years (IIQ: 22–59). In the pre-treatment evaluation: 11.4% complained of hearing loss and 20% of tinnitus, 48.6% presented auditory alterations in liminal tonal audiometry (LTA, 65.2% in high frequency audiometry (HFA), 26.6% in DPEOAE and 51.4% in TEOAE. No association was verified between genre and alterations in the EOAE examinations. We observed that patients that presented disorders in DPEOAE examinations were 17 years older than those without alterations and that patients that showed disorders in TEOAEO examinations were 34 years older than those without disorders. The presence

  19. Source Identification Of Airborne Antimony On The Basis Of The Field Monitoring And The Source Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, A.; Sato, K.; Fujitani, Y.; Fujimori, E.; Tanabe, K.; Ohara, T.; Shimoda, M.; Kozawa, K.; Furuta, N.

    2008-12-01

    The results of the long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (APM) in Tokyo indicated that APM have been extremely enriched with antimony (Sb) compared to crustal composition. This observation suggests that the airborne Sb is distinctly derived from human activities. According to the material flow analysis, automotive brake abrasion dust and fly ash from waste incinerator were suspected as the significant Sb sources. To clarify the emission sources of the airborne Sb, elemental composition, particle size distribution, and morphological profiles of dust particles collected from two possible emission sources were characterized and compared to the field observation data. Brake abrasion dust samples were generated by using a brake dynamometer. During the abrasion test, particle size distribution was measured by an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer. Concurrently, size- classified dust particles were collected by an Andersen type air sampler. Fly ash samples were collected from several municipal waste incinerators, and the bulk ash samples were re-dispersed into an enclosed chamber. The measurement of particle size distribution and the collection of size-classified ash particles were conducted by the same methodologies as described previously. Field observations of APM were performed at a roadside site and a residential site by using an Andersen type air sampler. Chemical analyses of metallic elements were performed by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometr. Morphological profiling of the individual particle was conducted by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. High concentration of Sb was detected from both of two possible sources. Particularly, Sb concentrations in a brake abrasion dust were extremely high compared to that in an ambient APM, suggesting that airborne Sb observed at the roadside might have been largely derived from

  20. Depression of alveolar macrophage hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion release by mineral dusts: correlation with antimony, lead, and arsenic contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyas, H; Labedzka, M; Gercken, G

    1990-04-01

    Activated rabbit alveolar macrophages were incubated with airborne dusts from four West German sites (1 to 200 micrograms/10(6) cells) and waste incinerator fly ash fractions (50 to 500 micrograms/10(6) cells). Quartz dust DQ 12 (5 to 200 micrograms/10(6) cells) and Fe2O3 (0.05 to 50 micrograms/10(6) cells) were used as control dusts. The zymosan-stimulated hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion release of the macrophages were not affected significantly by Fe2O3. All other investigated dusts decreased the two cell functions which were correlated negatively with surfaces, particle numbers, and antimony, lead, and arsenic contents of the dusts. The influence of heavy metal antagonisms and dust surfaces on dust toxicity against alveolar macrophages is discussed.

  1. Construction of spongy antimony-doped tin oxide/graphene nanocomposites using commercially available products and its excellent electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Jiwei; Gong, Chunhong; Gu, Xiufang; Ma, Zhihua; Zhou, Jingfang; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    We construct successfully a porous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)/nitrogen-doped graphene 3-dimensional (3D) frameworks (denoted as ATO/NG/TEPA; TEPA refers to tetraethylenepentamine) by a one-pot hydrothermal process, with which TEPA aqueous solution is adopted to easily re-disperse commercial ATO precursor forming a transparent hydrosol. The results show that TEPA plays a key role in the construction of ATO/NG/TEPA, not only acting as a peptization reagent to re-disperse ATO precursor nanoparticles, and as a linker to combine ATO with graphene sheets. The as-fabricated ATO/NG/TEPA hybrid as the negative electrode of lithium ion batteries exhibits excellent lithium storage capacity and cycling stability. With the advantage of easily re-dispersing commercial ATO, the present synthetic route may be put into use for the large-scale production of the titled nanocomposites as the anode material of lithium ion batteries.

  2. Comparative proteomics study on meglumine antimoniate sensitive and resistant Leishmania tropica isolated from Iranian anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaran, H; Azarian, B; Mohebali, M; Hadighi, R; Assareh, A; Vaziri, B

    2012-02-01

    In order to define the protein expressional changes related to the process of meglumine antimoniate resistance in anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), we performed a comparative proteomics analysis on sensitive and resistant strains of Leishmania tropica isolated from Iranian CL patients. Cell proteins were analysed with 2-dimensional electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Image analysis of the matched maps identified 7 proteins that were either over- or down-expressed: activated protein kinase c receptor(LACK), alpha tubulin (x2), prostaglandin f2-alpha synthase, protein disulfide isomerase, vesicular transport protein and a hypothetical protein. The study shows the usefulness of proteomics in identifying proteins that may express differences between sensitive and resistant L. tropica isolates.

  3. Antimony-doped tin oxide nanorods as a transparent conducting electrode for enhancing photoelectrochemical oxidation of water by hematite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiqing; Chemelewski, William D; Berglund, Sean P; Li, Chun; He, Huichao; Shi, Gaoquan; Mullins, C Buddie

    2014-04-23

    We report the growth of well-defined antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanorods as a conductive scaffold to improve hematite's photoelectrochemical water oxidation performance. The hematite grown on ATO exhibits greatly improved performance for photoelectrochemical water oxidation compared to hematite grown on flat fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). The optimized photocurrent density of hematite on ATO is 0.67 mA/cm(2) (0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl), which is much larger than the photocurrent density of hematite on flat FTO (0.03 mA/cm(2)). Using H2O2 as a hole scavenger, it is shown that the ATO nanorods indeed act as a useful scaffold and enhanced the bulk charge separation efficiency of hematite from 2.5% to 18% at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl.

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Omics Technologies Used to Study Antimonial, Amphotericin B, and Pentamidine Resistance in Leishmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a serious threat in developing countries due to its endemic nature and debilitating symptoms. Extensive research and investigations have been carried out to learn about the mechanism of drug resistance in Leishmania but results obtained in the laboratory are not in agreement with those obtained from the field. Also the lack of knowledge about the mode of action for a number of drugs makes the study of drug resistance more complex. A major concern in recent times has been regarding the role of parasitic virulence in drug resistance for Leishmania. Researchers have employed various techniques to unravel the facts about resistance and virulence in Leishmania. With advent of advanced and more specific means of detection, further hints about probable mechanisms of conferring resistance are expected. This review aims to provide a consolidated picture along with a comparative account of the work done so far to study the mechanism of antimony, amphotericin B, and pentamidine resistance using various techniques.

  5. Removal of antimony (Sb(V)) from Sb mine drainage: biological sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation-precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huawei; Chen, Fulong; Mu, Shuyong; Zhang, Daoyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-10-01

    Antimony (Sb(V)) in Sb mine drainage has adverse effects on the receiving water environments. This study for the first time demonstrated the feasibility of using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to convert sulfate ions in SMD into sulfides that reduce Sb(V) to Sb(III) and to form complex with Sb(III) as precipitate. The principal compound in the precipitate was stibnite (Sb2S3) at pH 7 and pH 9. The Sb(V) removal mechanism is sulfate-reduction and sulfide oxidization-precipitation, different from the conventional SRB-precipitation processes for heavy metals. The Sb(V)/sulfate ratio is noted an essential parameter affecting the Sb removal efficiency from SMD.

  6. Premature capacity loss in lead/acid batteries: a discussion of the antimony-free effect and related phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenkamp, A. F.

    Instances of severe capacity loss in apparently healthy lead/acid batteries have been reported over a period of many years, and are still common today. In most cases, these phenomena are linked to the use of antimony-free positive grids and are invoked by repetitive deep-discharge duties. This situation represents probably the greatest barrier to the expansion of markets for lead/acid batteries. To date, research has focused on several possible explanations for capacity loss; notably, degradation of the positive active mass (e.g., relaxable insufficient mass utilization) and the development of electrical barriers around the grid. Although much of the evidence gathered is circumstantial, it does point to the key issues that must be addressed in future work.

  7. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  8. Enhanced Removal of Arsenic and Antimony in the Mining Site by Calcined γ-Fe2O3/Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Choi, Heechul; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic (As) and Antimony (Sb) have been recognized as harmful contaminants in aquatic environment due to its high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Especially, the contamination of arsenic in the mining areas is considered as a serious emerging environmental issue in Korea. Due to the hazardous effect of arsenic, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulated maximum contamination level of arsenic to 10 μg/L in drinking water. The harmful effect on human health by excessive intake of antimony was also reported by previous studies, and severe contamination level (100 - 7,000 μg/L) of antimony reported in surface and groundwater of abandoned mining area in China and Slovakia. Therefore, US EPA regulated maximum contaminants level of antimony in drinking water to 6 μg/L. In order to remove anionic contaminants in drinking water, various type of nanomaterials have been developed. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is the artificial anionic clay that is based on the layered structure of positively charged brucite-like layers with interlayers of anions. The LDH is one of the promising nanomaterials for the removal of anionic contaminants because it has high selectivity for arsenic, phosphate, chromium and antimony. However, the biggest problem of LDH for wastewater treatment is that the particles cannot be easily separated after the removal of contaminants. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3) supported LDH nanocomposite (γ-Fe2O3/LDH) was investigated to enhance magnetic particle recovery and removal efficiency for arsenic and antimony. The calcined γ-Fe2O3/LDH nanocomposites synthesized by co-precipitation method, and the crystallographic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and layered structure of LDH were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The nano-sized γ-Fe2O3 (30 to 50 nm) was stably attached on the surface of LDH (100 to 150 nm) and O1s spectrum by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) explained that there are both physical and

  9. Research advances in microbial mechanism of antimony%微生物对锑的代谢机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明顺; 李洁; 王革娇

    2013-01-01

    锑(Sb)是一种自然界普遍存在的剧毒重金属,随着工业生产的日趋发展,我国部分地区土壤、水体及农产品受到严重的锑污染.作为环境污染物,锑中毒会导致人类心肌衰竭,肝坏死等疾病.自然界中的某些生物,特别是微生物却可以在极高锑浓度下生长,甚至可以利用这种元素作为能源物质,因此,微生物在锑的地球物质循环中起着重要的作用.研究生物对锑的代谢机制,对于保护环境与人体健康具有重要的现实意义.本文对锑在环境中的分布、污染状况、微生物对锑的代谢以及生物修复等方面的研究现状进行了综述.同时建议今后应加强以下三方面的研究:(1)筛选更多抗锑微生物或氧化锑的微生物;(2)发掘更多锑抗性基因或氧化基因;(3)开发锑污染土壤及水体的微生物修复技术.%Antimony (Sb) is a highly toxic heavy metal which widespreadly exists in nature.With the increasing development of industry,the soil,water and agricultural products are severely polluted by antimony in some regions of our country.As an environmental pollutant,antimony poisoning can lead to heart failure,human diseases such as liver necrosis.Some organisms in nature,especially the microorganisms can grow in the high concentration of antimony,and can even use the element as an energy material,so the microorganisms play an important role in the cycle of earth's materials.Study on metabolic mechanism of antimony has important practical significance to protect environment and human health.This study reviewed the researches of Sb distribution in the environment,the pollution status,microbial metabolism of antimony and bioremediation.At the same time it suggests that future researches should strengthen the following three aspects:(1) isolating more antimony resistance or antimony oxidizing microorganisms; (2) identifying more antimony resistant or oxidizing genes; (3) exploring microbial techniques to remediate

  10. 19 CFR 134.22 - General rules for marking of containers or holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Marking of Containers or Holders § 134.22... origin of the article whether or not the article is marked to indicate its country of origin. (b....S.C. 1202), shall be marked to indicate clearly the country of their own origin in addition to...

  11. Observed Eastward Progression of the Fukushima 134Cs Signal Across the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Jayne, S. R.; Rypina, I.; Buesseler, K.

    2015-12-01

    Radionuclide samples taken as part of hydrographic surveys at 30°N in the North Pacific reveal that the easternmost edge of Fukushima-derived 134Cs observed at 174.3°W in 2012 had progressed eastward across the basin to 160.6°W by 2013. The 2013 30°N observations indicate surface 134Cs concentrations of 3-5 Bq/m3 between 160°E and 160°W, slightly lower concentrations west of 160°E and no detectable signal east of 160.6°W. Profile samples show 134Cs penetration to 500 m west of 180° with shoaling penetration depth toward to the east. The near-uniform vertical distribution of 137Cs between 152°W and 121.3°W in the top 500 m is indicative of trace amounts of radionuclides remaining from weapons testing. The physical processes responsible for the deep 134Cs penetration in the western Pacific appear to be related to distinct water mass subduction pathways, however the timing and rapidity of deep penetration over the broad scales observed has yet to be clarified.

  12. Synthesis of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives Bearing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moiety as Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochona, Bereket; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Gangapurum, Madhavei; Mateeva, Nelly; Redda, K K

    2015-04-01

    In an effort to establish new benzimidazole related structural leads with improved anticancer activity, several new benzimidazole derivatives (5a-i) with 1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffold incorporated were synthesized and studied for their anticancer activity. The anticancer screening against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines showed that compound (5c) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity.

  13. 7 CFR 1955.134 - Loss, damage, or existing defects in inventory real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Loss, damage, or existing defects in inventory real... Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.134 Loss, damage, or existing defects in inventory real... a result of fire, vandalism, or an act of God between the time of acceptance of the bid or offer...

  14. The International Criminal Court on Presence at Trial : the (in)validity of Rule 134quater’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knottnerus, Abel

    2014-01-01

    In November 2013, the ICC’s Assembly of States Parties adopted Rule 134quater as an amendment to the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the Court. With the trials of Uhuru Kenyatta and William Ruto in mind, the States Parties agreed that the Trial Chamber should be able to excuse the accused from co

  15. 11 CFR 100.134 - Internal communications by corporations, labor organizations, and membership organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal communications by corporations, labor... COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.134 Internal communications by corporations, labor organizations, and membership organizations. (a) General provision....

  16. 17 CFR 1.34 - Monthly record, “point balance”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.34 Monthly record, “point balance”. (a) Each... statement commonly known as a “point balance,” which accrues or brings to the official closing price, or... contracts long and short in the customers' accounts are in balance with those in the carrying...

  17. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  18. 16 CFR 1500.134 - Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy on first aid labeling for saline... REGULATIONS § 1500.134 Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis. (a) This section states the Consumer... induce vomiting (saline emesis) in the event of ingestion of hazardous substances. (b) In many...

  19. 25 CFR 39.134 - How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test....

  20. 40 CFR 81.134 - Austin-Waco Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.134 Austin-Waco Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Austin-Waco Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Austin-Waco Intrastate Air...

  1. Computing Isentropic Flow Properties of Air/R-134a Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaternik, Ray

    2006-01-01

    MACHRK is a computer program that calculates isentropic flow properties of mixtures of air and refrigerant R-134a (tetrafluoroethane), which are used in transonic aerodynamic testing in a wind tunnel at Langley Research Center. Given the total temperature, total pressure, static pressure, and mole fraction of R-134a in a mixture, MACHRK calculates the Mach number and the following associated flow properties: dynamic pressure, velocity, density, static temperature, speed of sound, viscosity, ratio of specific heats, Reynolds number, and Prandtl number. Real-gas effects are taken into account by treating the gases comprising the mixture as both thermally and calorically imperfect. The Redlich-Kwong equation of state for mixtures and the constant-pressure ideal heat-capacity equation for the mixture are used in combination with the departure- function approach of thermodynamics to obtain the equations for computing the flow properties. In addition to the aforementioned calculations for air/R-134a mixtures, a research version of MACHRK can perform the corresponding calculations for mixtures of air and R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) and for air/SF6 mixtures. [R-12 was replaced by R-134a because of environmental concerns. SF6 has been considered for use in increasing the Reynolds-number range.

  2. Monitoring of intermittent PTH(1-34) treatment by serum PINP in adult ovariectomized osteopenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halleen, Jussi; Peng, ZhiQi; Fagerlund, Katja

    , allowing measurement of serum PINP in preclinical rodent osteoporosis models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of serum PINP for monitoring intermittent PTH(1-34) treatment in adult ovariectomized (OVX) osteopenic rats. Study groups included a sham-operated control group and an OVX...

  3. 12 CFR 204.134 - Linked time deposits and transaction accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.134...) establishes general reserve requirements on transaction accounts and nonpersonal time deposits. Under section... other than to allow the payment of higher interest through the avoidance of reserve requirements. As...

  4. Silencing microRNA-134 produces neuroprotective and prolonged seizure-suppressive effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M.; Engel, Tobias; Merino-Serrais, Paula; McKiernan, Ross C.; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Mouri, Genshin; Sano, Takanori; O’Tuathaigh, Colm; Waddington, John L.; Prenter, Suzanne; Delanty, Norman; Farrell, Michael A.; O’Brien, Donncha F.; Conroy, Ronán M.; Stallings, Raymond L.; deFelipe, Javier; Henshall, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common, chronic neurologic disorder characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional expression of protein-coding mRNAs, which may have important roles in the pathogenesis of neurologic disorders. In models of prolonged, injurious seizures (status epilepticus) and in experimental and human epilepsy, we found up-regulation of miR-134, a brain-specific, activity-regulated miRNA implicated in the control of dendritic spine morphology. Silencing of miR-134 expression in vivo using antagomirs reduced hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neuron dendrite spine density by 21%, and rendered mice refractory to seizures and hippocampal injury caused by status epilepticus. Depletion of miR-134 after status epilepticus reduced the later occurrence of spontaneous seizures by over 90% and mitigated attendant pathologic features of temporal lobe epilepsy. Thus, silencing miR-134 exerts prolonged seizure suppressant and neuroprotective actions; whether these represent anticonvulsant or truly antiepileptogenic effects requires additional experimentation. PMID:22683779

  5. 4-[5-(2-Methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]benzohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 4-(5-(2-Methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylbenzohydrazide (5 was synthesized by three steps. The synthesis started with 2-methoxybenzohydrazide to form hydrazone (3 which was then cyclized to oxadiazole (4 and finally, treatment of oxadiazole (4 with hydrazine hydrate afforded the final product (5.

  6. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  7. 40 CFR 63.134 - Process wastewater provisions-surface impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-surface... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.134 Process wastewater provisions—surface impoundments. (a) For each surface impoundment that receives, manages,...

  8. C18O Observations of the Dark Molecular Cloud L134 and Gas Depletion onto Dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Jie Mao; Xiao-Xia Sun

    2005-01-01

    We map the dark molecular cloud core of L134 in the C18O (J =1 -0) emission line using the PMO 13.7m telescope, and present a contour map of integrated intensity of C18O (J = 1 - 0) emission. The C18O cloud is inside the distribution of extinction AB, the visual extinction of blue light, as well as inside the 13CO cloud in the L134 region. The depletion factors in this C18O cloud are generally greater than unity, which means there is gas depletion onto dust. Since only a minimum AB = 9.7 mag is available, and our observations measure both undepleted and depleted regions along the line of sight, the depletion factors could very likely be larger in the central core than the calculated value. So we conclude that depletion does occur in the bulk of the C18O cloud through a comparison between the C18O and blue extinction maps in the L134 region. There is no direct evidence as yet for star formation in L134, and so cores on the verge of collapse will not be visible in CO and other gas molecules.

  9. Change of MicroRNA-134, CREB and p-CREB expression in epileptic rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhu; Cheng-Shan Li; Yuan-Ye Wang; Sheng-Nian Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To To investigate the changes of MicroRNA-134, CREB and p-CREB expression in epileptic rat brains in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of epilepsy, providing new ideas for clinical treatment. Methods: Sixty-four Spraque-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups randomly, including control group, six hours after seizure group, 24-hour group, three-day group, one-week group, two-week group, four-week group, and eight-week group. All groups were placed under a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model except the control group, and all rats were decapitated in different points of time. Brain specimens were taken for quantitative PCR experiments, immunohistochemistry and Western blot experiments. The results of the epilepsy model groups and the control group were compared. Results: There were no significant differences between the six hours after seizure group, the 24-hour group and the control group about the MicroRNA-134 levels. MicroRNA-134 in the hippocampus tissue of the three-day group significantly reduced compared with the control group; same result was observed with the one-week, two-week, four-week and eight-week groups. The CREB and p-CREB levels in the three-day group’s rat hippocampus significantly increased compared with the control group; and the high levels of CREB and p-CREB were constantly maintained in the one-week, two-week, four-week and eight-week groups. Conclusions: The MicroRNA-134 level of the epileptic rat hippocampus is significantly lower than normal after three days, and continues to maintain a low level; while CREB and p-CREB levels are rsignificantly increased after three days, and continue to remain at a high level. MicroRNA-134 plays a role in inhibiting synaptic plasticity by inhibiting CREB and p-CREB expressions.

  10. 19 CFR 134.46 - Marking when name of country or locality other than country of origin appears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... comparable size, the name of the country of origin preceded by “Made in,” “Product of,” or other words of... than country of origin appears. 134.46 Section 134.46 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location...

  11. Role of excited CF3CFHO radicals in the atmospheric chemistry of HFC-134a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, T.J.; Hurley, M.D.; Fracheboud, J.M.;

    1996-01-01

    CFHO* radicals limits the formation of CF3C(O)F and hence CF3COOH in the atmospheric degradation of HFC-134a. We estimate that the CF3COOH yield from atmospheric oxidation of HFC-134a is 7-20%. Vibrationally excited alkoxy radicals may play an important role in the atmospheric chemistry of other...

  12. 13 CFR 134.704 - What are the effects of the appeal on the procurement at issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appeals From Women-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the effects of the appeal on the procurement at issue? 134.704 Section 134.704 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  13. 13 CFR 134.707 - When does the D/GC transmit the protest file and to whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appeals From Women-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When does the D/GC transmit the protest file and to whom? 134.707 Section 134.707 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  14. 19 CFR 134.25 - Containers or holders for repacked J-list articles and articles incapable of being marked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements of 19 U.S.C. 1304 and 19 CFR part 134. I further certify that if the article(s) is (are) intended... given for its production in accordance with § 141.66, Customs Regulations (19 CFR 141.66). In case of..., Customs Regulations (19 CFR 134.51). (d) Notice to subsequent purchaser or repacker. If the article...

  15. 13 CFR 134.614 - What deadlines apply to my application for an award and where do I send it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... application for an award and where do I send it? 134.614 Section 134.614 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... and where do I send it? After you have prevailed in an administrative proceeding or in a discrete... award for fees and expenses may still be filed, but it will not be considered by the ALJ until a...

  16. Performance and energy saving analysis of a refrigerator using hydrocarbon mixture (HC-R134a) as working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, M. N.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The use of hydrocarbon mixture as a working fluid in a refrigerator system is rarely explored. Almost all domestic refrigerators use hydroflourocarbon R134a (HFC-R134a) as refrigerants. In this study, hydrocarbon gas (HC-R134a) is used as the alternative refrigerant to replace HFC-R134a. It has a composition of R290 (56%), R600a (54.39%) and additive (0.1%wt) blended for the trials. The experiments were conducted with 105 g and 52.5 g refrigerant mass charge, subjected to internal heat load of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 kg respectively. The study investigates the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator (COPR) and energy consumption. The results show that the use of HC-R134a as the replaceable refrigerant can save energy ranging from 2.04% to 7.09%, as compared to the conventional HFC-R134a refrigerant. Naturally, the COPR improvement and temperature distribution using HC-R134a are much better than HFC-R134a

  17. A study on antimony determination in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis: validation of the methodology and determination of the uncertainty of the measurement; Estudo sobre a determinacao de antimonio em amostras ambientais pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons: validacao da metodologia e determinacao da incerteza da medicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Tassiane Cristina Martins

    2011-07-01

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest due to the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application in industry. The determination of antimony has been a challenge for researchers since this element is found in low concentrations which make its analysis a difficult task. Therefore, although neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an appropriate method for the determination of various elements in different types of matrix, in the case of Sb its analysis presents some difficulties, mainly due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the NAA method for Sb determination in environmental samples. To establish appropriate conditions for Sb determinations, preliminary assays were carried out for further analysis of certified reference materials (CRM). The experimental procedure was to irradiate samples with a synthetic Sb standard for a period of 8 or 16 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, followed by gamma ray spectrometry. The quantification of Sb was performed by measuring the radioactive isotopes of {sup 122}Sb and '1{sup 24}Sb. The results of preliminary assays indicated the presence of Sb in Whatman no 40 filter paper used in the preparation of the synthetic standard, but at very low concentrations, which could be considered negligible. In the case of the plastic material used in bags for the sample irradiation, it should be chosen carefully, because depending on the thickness, they may contain Sb. The analyses of the stability of the diluted Sb standard solution showed no change in the Sb concentration within eight months after its preparation. Results obtained in the analysis of certified reference materials indicated the interference of {sup 76}As and also of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 152}Eu in the Sb determinations by measuring '1{sup 22}Sb, due to the proximity of the gamma ray energies. The high activity of '2{sup 4}Na

  18. MUNC13-4 protein regulates the oxidative response and is essential for phagosomal maturation and bacterial killing in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfregola, Jlenia; Johnson, Jennifer Linda; Meijler, Michael M; Napolitano, Gennaro; Catz, Sergio Daniel

    2012-12-28

    Neutrophils use diverse mechanisms to kill pathogens including phagocytosis, exocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps. These mechanisms rely on their ability to mobilize intracellular organelles and to deliver granular cargoes to specific cellular compartments or into the extracellular milieu, but the molecular mechanisms regulating vesicular trafficking in neutrophils are not well understood. MUNC13-4 is a RAB27A effector that coordinates exocytosis in hematopoietic cells, and its deficiency is associated with the human immunodeficiency familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3. In this work, we have established an essential role for MUNC13-4 in selective vesicular trafficking, phagosomal maturation, and intracellular bacterial killing in neutrophils. Using neutrophils from munc13-4 knock-out (KO) mice, we show that MUNC13-4 is necessary for the regulation of p22(phox)-expressing granule trafficking to the plasma membrane and regulates extracellular ROS production. MUNC13-4 was also essential for the regulation of intracellular ROS production induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa despite normal trafficking of p22(phox)-expressing vesicles toward the phagosome. Importantly, in the absence of MUNC13-4, phagosomal maturation was impaired as observed by the defective delivery of azurophilic granules and multivesicular bodies to the phagosome. Significantly, this mechanism was intact in RAB27A KO neutrophils. Intracellular bacterial killing was markedly impaired in MUNC13-4 KO neutrophils. MUNC13-4-deficient cells showed a significant increase in neutrophil extracellular trap formation but were unable to compensate for the impaired bacterial killing. Altogether, these findings characterize novel functions of MUNC13-4 in the innate immune response of the neutrophil and have direct implications for the understanding of immunodeficiencies in patients with MUNC13-4 deficiency.

  19. Application of antimony ethylene glycol as a polycondensation catalyst%缩聚催化剂乙二醇锑的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菘; 朱国明; 王玉龙

    2001-01-01

    The application process of antimony ethylene glycol as a polycondensation catalyst in PET plant was intro duced. The characteristic of compounding and adding of antimony ethylene glycol, its effect on polyester mannfacturing process and polyester product and the effect on spinning afterprocessing properties were discribed.%介绍了聚酯缩聚催化剂乙二醇锑在上海石化涤纶部的试用和推广应用过程,讲述了乙二醇锑的配制和添加的特点,对聚酯生产过程和对聚酯产品的影响,以及乙二醇锑的聚酯产品对纺丝后加工性能的影响。

  20. An improved method for the determination of trace levels of arsenic and antimony in geological materials by automated hydride generation-atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Lichte, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    An improved, automated method for the determination of arsenic and antimony in geological materials is described. After digestion of the material in sulfuric, nitric, hydrofluoric and perchloric acids, a hydrochloric acid solution of the sample is automatically mixed with reducing agents, acidified with additional hydrochloric acid, and treated with a sodium tetrahydroborate solution to form arsine and stibine. The hydrides are decomposed in a heated quartz tube in the optical path of an atomic absorption spectrometer. The absorbance peak height for arsenic or antimony is measured. Interferences that exist are minimized to the point where most geological materials including coals, soils, coal ashes, rocks and sediments can be analyzed directly without use of standard additions. The relative standard deviation of the digestion and the instrumental procedure is less than 2% at the 50 ??g l-1 As or Sb level. The reagent-blank detection limit is 0.2 ??g l-1 As or Sb. ?? 1982.

  1. Effectiveness of meglumine antimoniate against L. tropica in a recently emerged focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Birjand, eastern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamian, M; Bojd, M S Faroghi; Salehabadi, A; Hemmati, M; Barati, D A

    2015-06-09

    With limited options to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, constant monitoring of the rate of resistance to pentavalent antimony-based drugs is needed. This study identified the infecting Leishmania species and evaluated the results of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) therapy in a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Birjand, eastern Islamic Republic of Iran. Smears from 150 patients showed that 141 patients were infected by L. tropica and 9 by L. major. In total, 141 patients with L. tropica infection completed Glucantime® treatment and follow-up; 63.8% were treated intralesionally and 36.2% by intramuscular administration. The overall success rate after one course of therapy with Glucantime® was 96.5% (136/141), and all the failures (5/141) occurred with intramuscular injections. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the failure rates of intramuscular and intralesional injections. Children < 10 years old had a significantly higher failure rate than adults.

  2. The cytotoxicity of organobismuth compounds with certain molecular structures can be diminished by replacing the bismuth atom with an antimony atom in the molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kumiko; Yoshida, Eiko; Yasuike, Shuji; Fujie, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Chika; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid molecules, which are composed of an organic structure and metal(s), are indispensable for synthetic chemical reactions; however, their toxicity has been incompletely understood. In the present study, we discovered two cytotoxic organobismuth compounds whose cytotoxicity diminished upon replacement of the intramolecular bismuth atom with an antimony atom. The intracellular accumulation of the organobismuth compounds was much higher than that of the organoantimony compounds with the corresponding organic structures. We also showed that both the organic structure and bismuth atom are required for certain organobismuth compounds to exert their cytotoxic effect, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of such a compound is a result of an interaction between the organic structure and the bismuth atom. The present data suggest that organobismuth compounds with certain molecular structures exhibit cytotoxicity via an interaction between the molecular structure and the bismuth atom, and this cytotoxicity can be diminished by replacing the bismuth atom with an antimony atom, resulting in lower intracellular accumulation.

  3. A green analytical procedure for sensitive and selective determination of antimony in environmental and biological samples by ligandless cloud point extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Vida; Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf

    2012-09-01

    A very simple, environmental friendly and sensitive method based on the cloud point extraction (CPE) separation and spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the determination of antimony. The method is founded on the color reaction of Sb (III) with iodide in acidic medium and subsequent micelle-mediated extraction of the product using the non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-114, in the absence of any chelating agent. The Effects of reaction and extraction parameters were studied and optimum conditions were established. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.80-95 ng mL-1 of antimony in the initial solution with r = 0.9994 (n = 9). Detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3Sb) was 0.23 ng mL-1 and the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for 10 and 70 ng mL-1 of antimony were 3.32 and 1.85% (n = 8), respectively. The proposed method was compared with other methods and favorably applied to evaluate this metal in some real samples, including seawater, antileishmanial drug (glucantime) and human serum.

  4. A new cloud point extraction procedure for determination of inorganic antimony species in beverages and biological samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2015-05-15

    A new cloud-point extraction (CPE) for the determination of antimony species in biological and beverages samples has been established with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the fact that formation of the competitive ion-pairing complex of Sb(III) and Sb(V) with Victoria Pure Blue BO (VPB(+)) at pH 10. The antimony species were individually detected by FAAS. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration range for Sb(V) is 1-250 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.25 μg L(-1) and sensitive enhancement factor of 76.3 while the calibration range for Sb(III) is 10-400 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 5.15 μg L(-1) and sensitive enhancement factor of 48.3. The precision as a relative standard deviation is in range of 0.24-2.35%. The method was successfully applied to the speciative determination of antimony species in the samples. The validation was verified by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs).

  5. The use of silver nanoparticles as an effective modifier for the determination of arsenic and antimony by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, S.; Akman, S.; Baysal, A.; Kahraman, M.

    2010-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were proposed as a new chemical modifier for the elimination of interferences when determining arsenic and antimony in aqueous NaCl or Na 2SO 4 solutions and in sea-water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. For this purpose, the AgNPs were prepared simply by reducing silver nitrate with sodium citrate. The effects of pyrolysis and atomization temperatures and the amounts of interferents and modifiers on the sensitivities of these elements were investigated. In the presence of the proposed modifier, a pyrolysis temperature of at least 1100 °C for arsenic and 900 °C for antimony could be applied without the loss of analytes, and the interferences were greatly reduced to allow for interference-free determination. The detection limits ( N = 10, 3 σ) for arsenic and antimony were 0.022 ng and 0.046 ng, respectively. AgNPs are cheaper and more available compared to many other modifiers. No background was detected, and the blank values were negligible.

  6. Analysis of arsenic and antimony distribution within plants growing at an old mine site in Ouche (Cantal, France) and identification of species suitable for site revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Ulrike; Chassany, Vincent; Bertrand, Georges; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse; Aubry, Emmanuel; Boudsocq, Simon; Laffray, Daniel; Repellin, Anne

    2012-11-15

    One of the objectives of this study was to assess the contamination levels in the tailings of an old antimony mine site located in Ouche (Cantal, France). Throughout the 1.3 ha site, homogenous concentrations of antimony and arsenic, a by-product of the operation, were found along 0-0.5 m-deep profiles. Maximum concentrations for antimony and arsenic were 5780 mg kg(-1) dry tailings and 852 mg kg(-1) dry tailings, respectively. Despite the presence of the contaminants and the low pH and organic matter contents of the tailings, several patches of vegetation were found. Botanical identification determined 12 different genera/species. The largest and most abundant plants were adult pines (Pinus sylvestris), birches (Betula pendula) and the bulrush (Juncus effusus). The distribution of the metalloids within specimens of each genera/species was analysed in order to deduce their concentration and translocation capacities. This was the second goal of this work. All plant specimens were highly contaminated with both metalloids. Most were root accumulators with root to shoot translocation factors <1. Whereas contamination levels were high overall, species with both a low translocation factor and a low root accumulation coefficient were identified as suitable candidates for the complete revegetation of the site. Species combining those characteristics were the perennials P. sylvestris, B. pendula, Cytisus scoparius and the herbaceous Plantago major, and Deschampsia flexuosa.

  7. 原子荧光光谱法测定环境空气中锑%Antimony Determination by Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾志勇

    2014-01-01

    采用过氯乙烯滤膜采集环境空气中锑,盐酸-氢氟酸混酸体系微波消解滤膜,原子荧光光谱法测定锑。方法前处理操作过程简单、省时、酸用量少、环境污染小,方法的灵敏度和准确度都有很大的提高。采样体积为300L时,空气中锑的最低检出质量浓度为0.002mg/m3。%Antimony in air was sampled using perchloroethylene filter.The filter was dipped into hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid system and digested by microwave.Atomic fluorescence spectrometry was used to detect anti-mony after.This process is simple and time-saving with easy pretreatment,less amount of acid,and less negative impacts on environment.In addition,the accuracy and precision of the process is better than previous methods. The detection limit of antimony in air is 0.002mg/m3 when the volume of air sample is 300 liters when this process was applied.

  8. High frequency of skin reactions in patients with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals: a comparative approach using historical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed data from historical controls treated with meglumine antimoniate to compare the frequency of adverse events observed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with the same dose of meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals in an endemic area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Group A patients were treated in 2000 with the drug produced by Eurofarma Laboratórios Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil (lot A and group B patients were treated in 1996 with the reference drug produced by Rhodia Farma Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil (lot B. We observed an unusual higher frequency of skin reactions in group A patients. However, all type of adverse events observed in group A were also observed in group B. The physico-chemical analysis of these lots revealed that lot A had lower pH and higher concentration of total and trivalent antimony, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Our findings suggest that the skin reactions could be attributed to heavy metal contamination of lot A.

  9. High frequency of skin reactions in patients with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals: a comparative approach using historical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Flores M, Rico Marlon de Moraes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Macêdo, Vanize de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed data from historical controls treated with meglumine antimoniate to compare the frequency of adverse events observed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with the same dose of meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals in an endemic area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Group A patients were treated in 2000 with the drug produced by Eurofarma Laborat rios Ltda., S o Paulo, Brazil (lot A) and group B patients were treated in 1996 with the reference drug produced by Rhodia Farma Ltda., S o Paulo, Brazil (lot B). We observed an unusual higher frequency of skin reactions in group A patients. However, all type of adverse events observed in group A were also observed in group B. The physico-chemical analysis of these lots revealed that lot A had lower pH and higher concentration of total and trivalent antimony, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Our findings suggest that the skin reactions could be attributed to heavy metal contamination of lot A.

  10. Flame-retardancy of a Cellulosic Fabric by the Application of Synergistic Effect between Ammonium Bromide and Antimony (Ⅲ)Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOSTASHARI Seyed Morteza; MOAFI Hadi Fallah

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic effect between ammonium bromide and antimony(Ⅲ) oxide as a nondurable finish on the flammability of 100% woven plain cotton fabric(with a density of 144 g/m2,the number of yarns 21 per 10 mm),has been investigated in this study. The laundered totally-dried, weighed specimens were impregnated with suitable concentration individual aqueous ammonium bromide and/or antimony (Ⅲ)oxide suspension solutions and some sets weIle impregnated with appropriate admixed solutions of the both chemicals.A vertical flame spread test Was then carried-out to characterize the flammability of the samples.An acceptable synergistic effect was then experi.enced by using an admixed bath containing 0.1 molar ammonium bromide and O.05 unit formal antimony trioxide solutions for impartation of flame.retardancy to a cotton fabric.The optimum mass of the mixture required to lm.Dart flame-retardancy was about 3.64 g of anhydrous additives per 100 g of fabric.The results obtained are in favor 0f Wall Effect Theory.Moreover synergistic eflfect indicating dehydration of the treated substrate by using this combination via thermogravimetry could be deduced.

  11. T134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shikeeva

    2015-11-01

    We postulate that FC size in NSCLC is at least 5 cm from tumor and includes only epigenetic but not structural (LOH/MSI alterations. The evaluation of epigenetic changes in adjacent tissue (e.g., surgical margins can potentially be used for postsurgical prognosis.

  12. R134a单级制冷循环性能指标诺模图研制%Development on Single-stage Refrigeration Cycle Performance Index Nomogram for R134a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏英; 褚觉熙

    2004-01-01

    根据威尔逊(Wilson)等人拟合的Martin-Hou状态方程及辅助方程式导出了R134a的其他热力性质计算方程,用Visual Basic 6.0语言编制了采用R134a的单级制冷循环热力计算程序和绘图程序,并给出了绘图程序绘制的R134a单级制冷循环性能指标变化曲线图和诺模图.

  13. New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Based Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,4-Oxadiazole based photosensitizers with biphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, and triphenylamine as the electron-donating moiety were synthesized for solar cell applications. In these photosensitizers, cyano groups were introduced as the electron acceptor and the anchor group because of their high electron-withdrawing ability and strong bonding to the semiconductor. Oxadiazole isomers were used as the π-conjugation system, which bridges the donor-acceptor systems. The electrochemical and optical properties of the sensitizers were investigated both in their native form and upon incorporation into dye sensitized solar cells. The results of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements, and photocurrent voltage characteristics indicate that 1,3,4-oxadiazole pi-spacer with the anthracene moiety has the highest efficiency of 2.58%. Density functional theory was employed to optimize the structures of the sensitizers and the TiO2 cluster.

  14. Surface pathway of radioactive plume of TEPCO Fukushima NPP1 released 134Cs and 137Cs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aoyama

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available 134Cs and 137Cs were released to the North Pacific Ocean by two major likely pathways, direct discharge from the Fukushima NPP1 accident site and atmospheric deposition off Honshu Islands of Japan, east and northeast of the site. High density observations of 134Cs and 137Cs in the surface water were carried out by 17 cruises of cargo ships and several research vessel cruises from March 2011 till March 2012. The main body of radioactive surface plume of which activity exceeded 10 Bq m−3 travelled along 40° N and reached the International Date Line on March 2012, one year after the accident. A distinct feature of the radioactive plume was that it stayed confined along 40° N when the plume reached the International Date Line. A zonal speed of the radioactive plume was estimated to be about 8 cm s−1 which was consistent with zonal speeds derived by Argo floats at the region.

  15. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  16. Characterization of R-134A superheated droplet detector for neutron detection

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Prasanna Kumar; Chatterjee, Barun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    R-134A (C2H2F4) is a low cost, easily available and chlorine free refrigerant, which in its superheated state can be used as an efficient neutron detector. Due to its high solubility in water the R-134A based superheated droplet detectors (SDD) are usually very unstable unless the detector is fabricated using a suitable additive, which stabilizes the detector. The SDD is known to have superheated droplets distributed in a short-lived and in a relatively longer-lived metastable state. We have studied the detector response to neutrons using a 241AmBe neutron source and obtained the temperature variation of the nucleation parameters and the interstate kinetics of these droplets using a two-state model.

  17. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Herbicidal Activities of 2-Cyanoacrylates Containing 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tingting; Miao Wenke; Wu Shanshan; Bing Guifang; Zhang Xin; Qin Zhenfang; Yu Haibo; Qin Xue; Fang Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Three series of novel 2-cyanoacrylates 7a-7f, 9a-9f, 10a-10f containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring moieties were synthesized as herbicidal inhibitors of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) electron transportation. Their structures were clearly verified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis (or HRMS analysis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioassay showed that a suitable group at the 3-position of acrylates was essential for high herbicidal activ-ity. In particular, compound 7e showed the best herbicidal activities and gave 100% inhibitory activity against rape and amaranth pigweed at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha. Introduction of substituent with higher polarity such as sulfinyl or sulfonyl to the 5-position of 1,3,4-thiadiazole decreased herbicidal activities.

  18. ACCUMULATION OF CS-134 IN THE OAT DEPENDING ON SOIL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TZ BINEVA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation pot experiments with spring oats, cultivar Obrazcov Chifl ik – 4, were carried out. The plants were grown on four different soil types, typical for Bulgaria: Haplustoll, Udolls, Ustifl uvents, Albaqualf /USA. The soils were contaminated with the Cs-134. It was concluded that the radio-caesium accumulates unevenly in the different plant organs, as its highest concentration was found in the leaves and lowest in the grains of the researched culture. Substantial differences were discovered in the accumulation of caesium –134 in the plants, depending on the soil differences. According to the accumulation of the radio-caesium in the plants, the different soils can be arranged as follows: Albaqualf > Vdolls >Ustifl uvents > Haplustoll.

  19. Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; BI Wen-zhao; SHANG Yu-qing; ZHAI Zhi-wei; YI Xu

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen novel triazole compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups were synthesized from 2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)acetohydrazide and carbon disulfide by several step reactions. The target compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, MS, and X-ray crystallography. The results of preliminary biological tests show that all the compounds exhibit certain fungicidal activities.

  20. Targeted pancreatic cancer therapy with the small molecule drug conjugate SW IV-134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yassar M; Spitzer, Dirk; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Hornick, Mary C; Garg, Gunjal; Hornick, John R; Goedegebuure, Peter; Mach, Robert H; Hawkins, William G

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is highly resistant to conventional therapeutics and has been shown to evade apoptosis by deregulation of the X-linked and cellular inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (XIAP and cIAP). Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) induces and amplifies cell death by reversing the anti-apoptotic activity of IAPs. Thus, Smac-derived peptide analogues (peptidomimetics) have been developed and shown to represent promising cancer therapeutics. Sigma-2 receptors are overexpressed in many proliferating tumor cells including pancreatic cancer. Selected ligands to this receptor are rapidly internalized by cancer cells. These characteristics have made the sigma-2 receptor an attractive target for drug delivery because selective delivery to cancer cells has the potential to increase therapeutic efficacy while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues. Here, we describe the initial characterization of SW IV-134, a chemically linked drug conjugate between the sigma-2 ligand SW43 and the Smac mimetic SW IV-52 as a novel treatment option for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The tumor killing characteristics of our dual-domain therapeutic SW IV-134 was far greater than either component in isolation or in an equimolar mix and suggests enhanced cellular delivery when chemically linked to the sigma-2 ligand. One of the key findings was that SW IV-134 retained target selectivity of the Smac cargo with the involvement of the NF-κB/TNFα signaling pathway. Importantly, SW IV-134 slowed tumor growth and improved survival in murine models of pancreatic cancer. Our data support further study of this novel therapeutic and this drug delivery strategy because it may eventually benefit patients with pancreatic cancer.

  1. Preservation of Renal Blood Flow by the Antioxidant EUK-134 in LPS-Treated Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon Magder; Parthenis, Dimitrios G.; Imad Al Ghouleh

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, the precise role of ROS in the septic process remains unknown. We hypothesized that treatment with EUK-134 (manganese-3-methoxy N,N'-bis(salicyclidene)ethylene-diamine chloride), a compound with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, attenuates the vascular manifestations of sepsis in vivo. Pigs were instrumented to measure cardiac output and blood flow in renal, superior mesenteric and femoral arteries, and...

  2. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes).

  3. The complete multipartite genome sequence of Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a versatile pollutant degrader.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Lykidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cupriavidus necator JMP134 is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium able to grow on a variety of aromatic and chloroaromatic compounds as its sole carbon and energy source. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Its genome consists of four replicons (two chromosomes and two plasmids containing a total of 6631 protein coding genes. Comparative analysis identified 1910 core genes common to the four genomes compared (C. necator JMP134, C. necator H16, C. metallidurans CH34, R. solanacearum GMI1000. Although secondary chromosomes found in the Cupriavidus, Ralstonia, and Burkholderia lineages are all derived from plasmids, analyses of the plasmid partition proteins located on those chromosomes indicate that different plasmids gave rise to the secondary chromosomes in each lineage. The C. necator JMP134 genome contains 300 genes putatively involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds and encodes most of the central ring-cleavage pathways. This strain also shows additional metabolic capabilities towards alicyclic compounds and the potential for catabolism of almost all proteinogenic amino acids. This remarkable catabolic potential seems to be sustained by a high degree of genetic redundancy, most probably enabling this catabolically versatile bacterium with different levels of metabolic responses and alternative regulation necessary to cope with a challenging environment. From the comparison of Cupriavidus genomes, it is possible to state that a broad metabolic capability is a general trait for Cupriavidus genus, however certain specialization towards a nutritional niche (xenobiotics degradation, chemolithoautotrophy or symbiotic nitrogen fixation seems to be shaped mostly by the acquisition of "specialized" plasmids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The availability of the complete genome sequence for C. necator JMP134 provides the groundwork for further elucidation of the mechanisms and regulation of chloroaromatic compound biodegradation.

  4. MicroRNA-134 as a potential plasma biomarker for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pulmonary embolism (APE remains a diagnostic challenge due to a variable clinical presentation and the lack of a reliable screening tool. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression in a wide range of pathophysiologic processes. Circulating miRNAs are emerging biomarkers in heart failure, type 2 diabetes and other disease states; however, using plasma miRNAs as biomarkers for the diagnosis of APE is still unknown. Methods Thirty-two APE patients, 32 healthy controls, and 22 non-APE patients (reported dyspnea, chest pain, or cough were enrolled in this study. The TaqMan miRNA microarray was used to identify dysregulated miRNAs in the plasma of APE patients. The TaqMan-based miRNA quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions were used to validate the dysregulated miRNAs. The receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the miRNA identified as the candidate biomarker. Results Plasma miRNA-134 (miR-134 level was significantly higher in the APE patients than in the healthy controls or non-APE patients. The ROC curve showed that plasma miR-134 was a specific diagnostic predictor of APE with an area under the curve of 0.833 (95% confidence interval, 0.737 to 0.929; P Conclusions Our findings indicated that plasma miR-134 could be an important biomarker for the diagnosis of APE. Because of this finding, large-scale investigations are urgently needed to pave the way from basic research to clinical utilization.

  5. Effective moment of inertia in /sup 132/Ce, /sup 134/Nd and /sup 136/Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barci, V.; El-Samman, H.; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Nyako, B.M.; Vertse, T.; Elfstroem, S.; Jerrestam, D.; Klamra, W.

    1986-12-01

    The effective moment of inertia /sub eff//sup (2)/ of /sup 132/Ce, /sup 134/Nd and /sup 136/Nd produced in /sup 40/Ar induced reactions has been deduced from continuum ..gamma..-ray spectra measured by sum spectrometer methods. Results concerning the deformation of these nuclei are obtained by comparison of the experimental data and calculations in the frame of a cranking Nilsson-Strutinsky model.

  6. Oil Circulation Effects on Evaporation Heat Transfer in Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger using R134A

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jaekyoo; Chang, Youngsoo; Kang, Byungha

    2012-01-01

    Experimental study was performed for oil circulation effects on evaporation heat transfer in the brazed type plate heat exchangers using R134A. In this study, distribution device was installed to ensure uniform flow distribution in the refrigerant flow passage, which enhances heat transfer performance of plate type heat exchanger. Tests were conducted for three evaporation temperature; 33℃, 37℃, and 41℃ and several oil circulation conditions. The nominal conditions of refrigerant are as follo...

  7. POLYAMIDES WITH PENDANT 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE AND PYRIDINE MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yagoub Mansoori; Behzad Koohi-Zargar; Hemayat Shekaari; Mohammad Reza Zamanloo; Gholam Hassan Imanzadeh

    2012-01-01

    A novel aromatic diamine,2-(5-(3,5-diaminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl)pyridine (POBD),containing a pyridine ring and a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety,was synthcsized.It was used in a polycondensation with various aromatic and aliphatic diacid chlorides to generate a series of new aromatic polyamides with pendant 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups.The prepared polyamides were characterized by IR,elemental analysis and through the synthesis of model compounds.Thermophysical properties of the synthesized polyamides have been studied by DSC,TGA and inherent viscosity measurements.Relatively high inherent viscosity values (0.76-1.62 dL/g,in 0.125% H2SO4 at 25℃) were observed for these compounds.Number average molecular weight (Mn) of the polymers was measured by vapor phase osmometry (VPO).The introduction of bulky side chains in the structure of aromatic polyamides led to increased solubility of these polymers in common polar and aprotic solvents,such as DMF,DMSO,NMP and DMAc,which allowed thin films to be cast from polymer solutions.The highest molecular weight (Mn =51190) was observed for polymer (Ⅸ),which was prepared from pyridine-2,6-dichlorocarbonyl.

  8. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computations by density functional theory (DFT method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different substituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that –N3 and –NN– groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMO–LUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the Kamlet–Jacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that –NO2, –NF2, –NH–, –NH–NH– and –NN– groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the –CH2–, –CH2–CH2– and –CHCH– groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  9. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua ZHOU; Zhong-liang MA; Jian-long WANG; Dong WANG

    2014-01-01

    Computations by density functional theory (DFT) method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different sub-stituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF ) is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that eN3 and eN]Ne groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMOeLUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the KamleteJacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that eNO2, eNF2, eNHe, eNHeNHe and eN]Ne groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the eCH2e, eCH2eCH2e and eCH]CHe groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  10. Proton conductivity in tungsten and antimony-modified titania ceramics prepared by the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichi, Flavio Maron [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof, Lineu Prestes, 748, Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tejedor-Tejedor, Maria Isabel; Anderson, Marc A. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 660 N. Park St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2005-03-15

    Titania ceramic materials modified with 5% antimony and 5% tungsten were prepared by the sol-gel method. For the antimony-modified material, a treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was also performed, in order to obtain antimonic acid. The electric conductivity of the xerogels was measured at 25 {sup o}C in the relative humidity (RH) range 33-81%. At 25 {sup o}C, the electrical conductivity of the 'as prepared' 5% Sb ceramic varies from 2.02x10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} at 33% RH to 1.12x10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 81% R.H. For the material treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the conductivity varies from 1.56x10{sup -5} to 2.37x10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} for 33% and 81% R.H., respectively. For the tungsten-modified material, the conductivity varies from 1.02x10{sup -5} to 2.66x10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} for 33% and 81% R.H., respectively. The activation energies observed for proton conduction were 23.5 kJ mol{sup -1} for TiO{sub 2}/W 5%, 22.9 kJ mol{sup -1} for TiO{sub 2}/Sb 5% and 20.6 kJ mol{sup -1} for the material treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The highest activation energy was observed for untreated TiO{sub 2}:24.8 kJ mol{sup -1}. The conductivity values for the Sb-modified ceramics are superior to those reported previously for antimonic acid films, and approach the values reported for proton-conducting polymers, such as Nafion(R), making them a potential candidate for application as electrolytes in fuel cell systems.

  11. Pentavalent antimonial nephrotoxicity in the rat Disfunção tubular renal em ratos tratados com antimoniais pentavalentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Paulo R. Veiga

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the renal function were assessed in rats treated with the pentavalent antimonials Glucantime (Meglumine Antimoniate, Rhodia or Pentostam (Sodium Stibogluconate, Wellcome. In dose of 30 mg of Sb v (Glucantime or Pentostam by 100 mg of weight by day for 30 days, renal functional changes were observed consisting of disturbances in urine concentrating capacity. Such disturbances were expressed by significantly low values of urine osmolality as compared to the basal values previous to the drugs. The decrease in urine osmolality was associated to a significant increase in urinary flow and in negative free-water clearance. There was no alteration in osmolar clearance and in fractional excretion of sodium. These observations suggest an interference of the drugs in the action of the antidiuretic hormone. The disturbance in urine concentration was reversible after a seven days period without the drugs administration. No significant histopathological alterations were observed in the kidneys of the rats treated with the drugs. On the other hand, the rats treated with a high dose of Pentostam (200 mg/100 grams of weight/day showed the functional and the histopathological alterations of the acute tubular necrosis.Estudou-se a função renal de ratos tratados com Glucantime (Antimoniato de Meglumine, Rhodia e Pentostam (Estibogluconato de Sódio, Wellcome na dose de 30 mg de Sb v por 100 g de peso por dia, durante 30 dias. Observou-se um distúrio na concentração urinária, que foi reversível 7 dias após cessada a administração das drogas. O estudo histopatológico do rim, por meio da microscopia óptica, não evidenciou alterações significativas. Por outro lado, ratos tratados com altas doses dos antimoniais (200 mg de Sb v por 100 g de peso por dia mostraram alterações funcionais e histopatológicas renais compatíveis com necrose tubular aguda.

  12. Heat transfer characteristics of boiling R134a in forced supercooled flows; Waermeuebergang beim Sieden von R134a in erzwungener unterkuehlter Stroemung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, K.; Hahne, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    2000-07-01

    Supercooled boiling is characterized by evaporation at the heating surface although the average temperature of the fluid is still below saturation temperature. There is a superheated metastable boundary layer at the wall in which steam bubbles nucleate and grow. They recondense when they enter the turbulent supercooled flow because of volume increase or detachment from the wall. This phenomenon results in a significant improvement of heat transfer as compared with single-phase forced convection. The contribution presents experimental findings on the heat transfer characteristics of R134a in forced supercooled flow. [German] Das unterkuehlte Sieden ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass an der Heizflaeche Verdampfung auftritt, obwohl die Fluessigkeit im Mittel noch nicht die zum Druck gehoerende Saettigungstemperatur erreicht hat. In unmittelbarer Wandnaehe ist eine ueberhitzte metastabile Grenzschicht vorhanden, in der die Dampfblasen an Blasenkeimstellen entstehen und wachsen. Sobald sie wegen ihrer Volumenzunahme oder Abloesung aus der ueberhitzten Grenzschicht in die turbulente, unterkuehlte Kernstroemung gelangen, kondensieren sie wieder. Dieser Vorgang fuehrt zu einer deutlichen Verbesserung des Waermeuebergangs gegenueber der einphasigen erzwungenen Konvektion. Es werden experimentelle Ergebnisse zum Waermeuebergang beim Sieden von R134a in erzwungener unterkuehlter Stroemung vorgestellt. Die Messstrecke ist ein senkrecht angeordnetes, gezogenes Kupferrohr mit einer Laenge von 550 mm und einem Innendurchmesser von 20 mm. Die Messstrecke wird mit Miniatur-Mantelheizleitern beheizt, die in spiralfoermig aussen umlaufende Nuten eingestemmt und zusaetzlich mit Waermeleitzement fixiert sind. Die Versuchsparameter wurden in folgenden Bereichen variiert: Massenstromdichte von 1000 bis 2000 kg/(m{sup 2}s), Waermestromdichte bis 100000 W/m{sup 2}, Unterkuehlung von 2 bis 11 K, Druck zwischen 8 und 10 bar. Die Waermeuebergangskoeffizienten werden mit Nusseltkorrelationen der

  13. 渣滓溪锑钨矿区矿化富集规律%Mineralization enrichment regularities in Zhazixi antimony tungsten mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松; 卢志文; 刘大勇

    2014-01-01

    Ore-bearing strata in Zhazixi antimony tungsten mining area are all in upper Wuqiangxi ,the ore body mainly occurs in the hanging wall of the F 3 ,stibnite veins number a total of 77 ,and the common industrial ore bodies are 47;according to the distance away from F 3 ,Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲvein groups are classified .GroupⅠis the best in ore-bearing potentials,II vein group poorer and group Ⅲore veins poorest.The regularity of mineralization Zhazixi antimony tung-sten mining area is systematically summarized .The results show thatveins distribute in groups and belts ,laterally tren-ding SE on the whole;veins enrich in the intersection ,where inclination angle slows ,and in the tectonic expansions;the enrichment degree of main veins is closely related with F 3;the ore-bearing rock systemtakes on combined features of antimony and tungsten ,and the mineralization relation between antimony and tungsten are reflected by the fact that their respective orebodies occur in fractures of different sequence; the trending of antimony veins and tungsten strata cross each other nearly orthogonally ,indicating a symbiosis deposit of combined antimony and tungsten mineralization . There is symbiosis of antimony and tungsten in upper Zhazixi mining , suggesting great resource development poten-tials.%渣滓溪锑钨矿区赋矿地层均为五强溪上段,矿体主要赋存于F3的上盘,有编号的辉锑矿脉共计有77条,工业矿体47条;按与F3距离分为Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ脉组,以Ⅰ脉组含矿最佳,Ⅱ脉组次之,Ⅲ脉组含矿性较差。系统总结了渣滓溪锑钨矿区矿化富集规律,结果表明,矿脉成组成带分布,整体呈南东侧伏规律;矿脉明显交汇富集,在倾向上倾角变缓及构造膨胀部位富集,主脉富集程度与F3密切相关;赋矿岩系具有锑钨组合特征,锑钨成生关系反映在各自的矿体赋存于不同序次的断裂中;锑矿脉走向与钨矿层走向近于直交,为锑钨叠加成

  14. Correlating microbial community profiles with geochemical conditions in a watershed heavily contaminated by an antimony tailing pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Tang, Song; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Lan, Xiaolong; Sun, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    Mining activities have introduced various pollutants to surrounding aquatic and terrestrial environments, causing adverse impacts to the environment. Indigenous microbial communities are responsible for the biogeochemical cycling of pollutants in diverse environments, indicating the potential for bioremediation of such pollutants. Antimony (Sb) has been extensively mined in China and Sb contamination in mining areas has been frequently encountered. To date, however, the microbial composition and structure in response to Sb contamination has remained overlooked. Sb and As frequently co-occur in sulfide-rich ores, and co-contamination of Sb and As is observed in some mining areas. We characterized, for the first time, the microbial community profiles and their responses to Sb and As pollution from a watershed heavily contaminated by Sb tailing pond in Southwest China. The indigenous microbial communities were profiled by high-throughput sequencing from 16 sediment samples (535,390 valid reads). The comprehensive geochemical data (specifically, physical-chemical properties and different Sb and As extraction fractions) were obtained from river water and sediments at different depths as well. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) demonstrated that a suite of in situ geochemical and physical factors significantly structured the overall microbial community compositions. Further, we found significant correlations between individual phylotypes (bacterial genera) and the geochemical fractions of Sb and As by Spearman rank correlation. A number of taxonomic groups were positively correlated with the Sb and As extractable fractions and various Sb and As species in sediment, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in Sb biogeochemical cycling.

  15. Photocurrent Generation by Photosynthetic Purple Bacterial Reaction Centers Interfaced with a Porous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide (ATO) Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Zhang, HaoJie; Mieritz, Daniel; Volosin, Alex; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Yan, Hao; Seo, Dong-Kyun; Lin, Su; Woodbury, Neal W

    2016-09-28

    The ability to exchange energy and information between biological and electronic materials is critical in the development of hybrid electronic systems in biomedicine, environmental sensing, and energy applications. While sensor technology has been extensively developed to collect detailed molecular information, less work has been done on systems that can specifically modulate the chemistry of the environment with temporal and spatial control. The bacterial photosynthetic reaction center represents an ideal photonic component of such a system in that it is capable of modifying local chemistry via light-driven redox reactions with quantitative control over reaction rates and has inherent spectroscopic probes for monitoring function. Here a well-characterized model system is presented, consisting of a transparent, porous electrode (antimony-doped tin oxide) which is electrochemically coupled to the reaction center via a cytochrome c molecule. Upon illumination, the reaction center performs the 2-step, 2-electron reduction of a ubiquinone derivative which exchanges with oxidized quinone in solution. Electrons from the electrode then move through the cytochrome to reoxidize the reaction center electron donor. The result is a facile platform for performing redox chemistry that can be optically and electronically controlled in time and space.

  16. Quadrupole coupling constants and isomeric Moessbauer shifts for halogen-containing gold, platinum, niobium, tantalum and antimony compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poleshchuk, O. K., E-mail: poleshch@tspu.edu.ru [Tomsk State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Branchadell, V. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica (Spain); Ritter, R. A.; Fateev, A. V. [Tomsk State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    We have analyzed by means of Density functional theory calculations the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of a range of gold, antimony, platinum, niobium and tantalum compounds. The geometrical parameters and halogen nuclear quadrupole coupling constants obtained by these calculations substantially corresponded to the data of microwave and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy. An analysis of the quality of the calculations that employ pseudo-potentials and all-electron basis sets for the halogen compounds was carried out. The zero order regular approximation (ZORA) method is shown to be a viable alternative for the calculation of halogen coupling constants in molecules. In addition, the ZORA model, in contrast to the pseudo-potential model, leads to realistic values of all metal nuclear quadrupole coupling constants. From Klopman's approach, it follows that the relationship between the electrostatic bonding and covalent depends on the nature of the central atom. The results on Moessbauer chemical shifts are also in a good agreement with the coordination number of the central atom.

  17. Fluorescence studies of Yb{sup 3+} ions in lead antimony borate glass-Influence of crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purnachand, N. [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sri Sarathi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Nuzvid 521 201, A.P. (India); Satyanarayana, T. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University-Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid 521 201, A.P. (India); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technical University of Czesdochowa, Aleja Armii, Krajowej 17/19, PL-42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Physics Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Veeraiah, N., E-mail: nvr8@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University-Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid 521 201, A.P. (India)

    2010-03-04

    PbO-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses doped with different concentrations of Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 (in mol%) have been synthesized and subsequently crystallized. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM and DSC techniques. The optical absorption and luminescence spectra have exhibited bands due to {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} {yields} {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} and {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} {yields} {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} transitions, respectively. Partial spectral overlap between emission and absorption bands has been observed. From these spectra, the absorption and emission cross-sections and fluorescence lifetime of Yb{sup 3+} ions has been evaluated. Following the obtained data, it was established that there is a less radiative trapping and enhanced fluorescence lifetime of Yb{sup 3+} ions in the glass ceramic samples with respect to those of amorphous samples. The reasons for such variations have been discussed in the light of variations in the oxidation states of antimony ions and changes in the structural units in the vicinity of Yb{sup 3+} ions in the glass network.

  18. Therapeutic trial of sodium antimony gluconate alone and in combination with ketoconazole in post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi S

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drugs used in PKDL include parenteral sodium antimony gluconate (SAG, amphotericin-B, pentamidine, and ketoconazole (KTZ. SAG is the most effective one. Given alone, SAG has to be given for a long duration, leading to poor patient compliance and treatment failure. This study was carried out to compare the effectiness of SAG alone and a combination of SAG and KTZ for sixty days. METHODS: Ten patients of PKDL were included in the study. Five patients (Group A were given SAG intravenously, in the dose of 20 mg/kg per day and five (Group B were given SAG (intravenously 20 mg/kg per day and KTZ (200 mg twice daily orally. Both treatment regimens were given for sixty days. RESULTS: In Group A, the nodules and/or plaques showed approximate 80-85% clinical improvement, and macules showed 25-30% improvement. In group B (SAG + KTZ, there was 90-95% clinical improvement in the nodules and/or plaques and 25-30% in macules. CONCLUSION: This study suggests the therapeutic superiority of the combination treatment regimen in a shorter duration but is not conclusive as the number of patients was low. Further trials are recommended.

  19. Profiling microbial community in a watershed heavily contaminated by an active antimony (Sb) mine in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Dong, Yiran; Tang, Song; Krumins, Valdis; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-04-15

    Located in Southwest China, the Chahe watershed has been severely contaminated by upstream active antimony (Sb) mines. The extremely high concentrations of Sb make the Chahe watershed an excellent model to elucidate the response of indigenous microbial activities within a severe Sb-contaminated environment. In this study, water and surface sediments from six locations in the Chahe watershed with different levels of Sb contamination were analyzed. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed more than 40 phyla from the domain Bacteria and 2 phyla from the domain Archaea. Sequences assigned to the genera Flavobacterium, Sulfuricurvum, Halomonas, Shewanella, Lactobacillus, Acinetobacter, and Geobacter demonstrated high relative abundances in all sequencing libraries. Spearman's rank correlations indicated that a number of microbial phylotypes were positively correlated with different speciation of Sb, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in microbial Sb cycling. Canonical correspondence analysis further demonstrated that geochemical parameters, including water temperature, pH, total Fe, sulfate, aqueous Sb, and Eh, significantly structured the overall microbial community in Chahe watershed samples. Our findings offer a direct and reliable reference to the diversity of microbial communities in the presence of extremely high Sb concentrations, and may have potential implications for in situ bioremediation strategies of Sb contaminated sites.

  20. The Immunology of a Healing Response in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Treated with Localized Heat or Systemic Antimonial Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lakhal-Naouar

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of systemic antimonial (sodium stibogluconate, Pentostam, SSG treatment versus local heat therapy (Thermomed for cutaneous leishmaniasis was studied previously and showed similar healing rates. We hypothesized that different curative immune responses might develop with systemic and local treatment modalities.We studied the peripheral blood immune cells in a cohort of 54 cutaneous Leishmania major subjects treated with SSG or TM. Multiparameter flow cytometry, lymphoproliferative assays and cytokine production were analyzed in order to investigate the differences in the immune responses of subjects before, on and after treatment.Healing cutaneous leishmaniasis lead to a significant decline in circulating T cells and NKT-like cells, accompanied by an expansion in NK cells, regardless of treatment modality. Functional changes involved decreased antigen specific CD4+ T cell proliferation (hyporesponsiveness seen with CD8+ T cell depletion. Moreover, the healing (or healed state was characterized by fewer circulating regulatory T cells, reduced IFN-γ production and an overall contraction in polyfunctional CD4+ T cells.Healing from cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a dynamic process that alters circulating lymphocyte populations and subsets of T, NK and NKT-like cells. Immunology of healing, through local or systemic treatments, culminated in similar changes in frequency, quality, and antigen specific responsiveness with immunomodulation possibly via a CD8+ T cell dependent mechanism. Understanding the evolving immunologic changes during healing of human leishmaniasis informs protective immune mechanisms.

  1. Dual/multiphase MWCNT-antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticle composites: an effective covalent fabrication approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Yifat; Lellouche, Jean-Paul

    2014-08-01

    Three innovative preparation pathways for antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)-multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites have been successfully tested. The designed covalent mode of attachment of both phases, i.e., 10-20 nm-sized ATO nanoparticles (NPs) onto 10-50-μm-long oxidized-MWCNTs (Ox-MWCNTs) and onto polythiophene-MWCNTs (PolyTh-MWCNTs) enabled the preparation of biphasic and triphasic composites, respectively. Triphasic composites made use of poly(thiophene-3-yl-acetic acid) or poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene carboxylic acid polymers covalently grown/grafted onto Ox-MWCNTs, disclosing an outer polyCOOH shell available for later chemical manipulations. The whole set of resulting bi/triphasic ATO-decorated MWCNT composites have been fully analyzed for structural and morphology coherency with emphasis on both quantity and distribution of ATO NPs onto the MWCNT surface. In general, connecting polyTh polymeric phases improved ATO NP dissemination within composites. Moreover, the influence of such polyTh phases on the solid phase conductivity of resulting composites before and after heat sintering (350 °C, 3 h) has been readily investigated using an effective Powder Resistivity Measuring System. Such studies and relevant outputs clearly form a serious basis toward the development of various conductivity-relating applications and/or devices.

  2. FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO ADHERENCE TO DIFFERENT TREATMENT SCHEMES WITH MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE IN A CLINICAL TRIAL FOR CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon Novato Ribeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The favorable outcome of the treatment of a disease is influenced by the adherence to therapy. Our objective was to assess factors associated with adherence to treatment of patients included in a clinical trial of equivalence between the standard and alternative treatment schemes with meglumine antimoniate (MA in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Between 2008 and 2011, 57 patients with CL were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect socioeconomic data. The following methods were used for adherence monitoring: counting of vial surplus, monitoring card, Morisky test and modified Morisky test (without the question regarding the schedule; we observed 82.1% (vial return, 86.0% (monitoring card, 66.7% (Morisky test and 86.0% (modified Morisky test adherence. There was a strong correlation between the method of vial counting and the monitoring card and modified Morisky test. A significant association was observed between greater adherence to treatment and low dose of MA, as well as with a lower number of people sleeping in the same room. We recommend the use of the modified Morisky test to assess adherence to treatment of CL with MA, because it is a simple method and with a good performance, when compared to other methods.

  3. A novel voltammetric sensor based on carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles of antimony tin oxide for the determination of ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanoparticles of antimony tin oxide (ATO). The surface layer was characterized by scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method (EDX) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The proposed electrode was assessed in respect to the electro-oxidation of ractopamine. Compared with a bare GCE and a GCE electrode modified with CNTs, the ATONPs/CNTs/GCE exhibited a great catalytic activity towards the oxidation of ractopamine with a well-defined anodic peak at 600 mV. The current response was linear with the concentration of ractopamine over the range from 10 to 240 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 nM. The proposed electrode enabled the selective determination of ractopamine in the presence of high concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The proposed electrode was successfully applied for the determination of ractopamine in feed and urine samples. The sensitive and selective determination of ractopamine makes the developed method of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use and doping control purposes.

  4. Use of cloud-point preconcentration for spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of antimony in biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharjawy, Abdel-Azeem M; Amin, Alaa S

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a cloud-point extraction process using the micelle-mediated extraction method for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species in biological and environmental samples as a prior preconcentration step to their spectrophotometric determination. The analytical system is based on the selective reaction between Sb(III) and 3-dichloro-6-(3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)quinoxaline (DCHNAQ) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and potassium iodide at pH 4.5. Total Sb concentration was determined after reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in the presence of potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The optimal reaction conditions and extraction were studied, and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limits of detection and quantification, linear range, preconcentration, improvement factors) were obtained. Linearity for Sb(III) was obeyed in the range of 0.2-20 ng ml(-1). The detection and quantification limits for the determination of Sb(III) were 0.055 and 0.185 ng ml(-1), respectively. The method has a lower detection limit and wider linear range, inexpensive instrument, and low cost, and is more sensitive compared with most other methods. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also studied. The method was applied to the determination of Sb(III) in the presence of Sb(V) and total antimony in blood plasma, urine, biological, and water samples.

  5. Quantitative study of the effect of deposition temperature on antimony incorporation in InAs/InAsSb superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, H. J.; Mahalingam, K.; Szmulowicz, F.; Brown, G. J.

    2016-02-01

    InAs/InAsSb superlattices (SLs) are being actively explored for infrared detector applications owing to their superior carrier lifetimes. However, antimony (Sb) segregation during growth can alter the properties of the grown material. In this study, using X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry, authors quantify the compositional profile of individual layers and establish epitaxial parameters for high-quality InAs/InAsSb SL materials. Epitaxial conditions are determined for a nominal 7.7 nm InAs/3.5 nm InAs0.7Sb0.3 SL structure tailored for an approximately 6 μm response at 150 K. Since the growth of mixed anion alloys is complicated by the potential reaction of As2 with Sb surfaces, authors varied the deposition temperature (Tg) in order to control As2 surface reactions on Sb surfaces. Authors find that Sb incorporation is suppressed by 21%, with the increase of Tg from 395 to 440 °C. This incorporation likely stems from Sb surface segregation during InAsSb layer growth that is driven by the As-Sb exchange mechanism, which can lead to significant compositional and dimensional deviations from the intended design.

  6. Microbial degradation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS), an e-plastic with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Mohan, Arya J; Nair, Nimisha R; Bhaskar, Thallada; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-11-15

    Accumulation of electronic waste has increased catastrophically and out of that various plastic resins constitute one of the leading thrown out materials in the electronic machinery. Enrichment medium, containing high impact polystyrene (HIPS) with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide as sole carbon source, was used to isolate microbial cultures. The viability of these cultures in the e-plastic containing mineral medium was further confirmed by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction test. Four cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sedlakii, Alcaligenes sp. and Brevundimonas diminuta. Biodegradation experiments were carried out in flask level and gelatin supplementation (0.1% w/v) along with HIPS had increased the degradation rate to a maximum of 12.4% (w/w) within 30days. This is the first report for this kind of material. The comparison of FTIR, NMR, and TGA analysis of original and degraded e-plastic films revealed structural changes under microbial treatment. Polystyrene degradation intermediates in the culture supernatant were also detected using HPLC analysis. The gravity of biodegradation was validated by morphological changes under scanning electron microscope. All isolates displayed depolymerase activity to substantiate enzymatic degradation of e-plastic.

  7. Human cancer cell line based approach of 1,3,4-thiadiazole and its fused ring: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Vinit; Rai, Amit; Saha, Sudipta

    2016-10-13

    The chemistry of heterocyclic containing, 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been an interesting field of study from ancient years. Subsequently, 1,3,4-thiadiazole nucleus constitutes a significant class of compounds for new drug development. Recently, various 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated their biological activities including antimicrobial, antituberculosis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsants, antidepressant and anxiolytic, antihypertensive, anticancer and antifungal activity. The search for anticancer compounds with more selective activity and lower side effect continue to be an active area of argument examination in medicinal chemistry. This review is elaborately described the medicinal chemistry, their structural activity relationship and anticancer properties with respect to human cell line based approach related to synthesized 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives.

  8. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone related protein 1-34 and 1-84 and their roles in osteoporosis treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes patients to increased fracture risk. Parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP is one of the candidates for clinical osteoporosis treatment. In this study, GST Gene Fusion System was used to express recombinant human PTHrP (hPTHrP 1-34 and 1-84. To determine whether the recombinant hPTHrP1-34 and 1-84 can enhance renal calcium reabsorption and promote bone formation, we examined effects of recombinant hPTHrP1-34 and 1-84 on osteogenic lineage commitment in a primary bone marrow cell culture system and on osteoporosis treatment. Results revealed that both of recombinant hPTHrP1-34 and 1-84 increased colony formation and osteogenic cell differentiation and mineralization in vitro; however, the effect of recombinant hPTHrP1-84 is a little stronger than that of hPTHrP1-34. Next, ovariectomy was used to construct osteoporosis animal model (OVX to test activities of these two recombinants in vivo. HPTHrP1-84 administration elevated serum calcium by up-regulating the expression of renal calcium transporters, which resulted in stimulation of osteoblastic bone formation. These factors contributed to augmented bone mass in hPTHrP1-84 treated OVX mice but did not affect bone resorption. There was no obvious bone mass alteration in hPTHrP1-34 treated OVX mice, which may be, at least partly, associated with shorter half-life of hPTHrP1-34 compared to hPTHrP1-84 in vivo. This study implies that recombinant hPTHrP1-84 is more effective than hPTHrP1-34 to enhance renal calcium reabsorption and to stimulate bone formation in vivo.

  9. Syntheses of 1,3,4-Thia(oxa)diazole-substituted Pyrazole Derivatives and Their Fungicidal Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-yan; ZHAO Wei-guang; LI Zheng-ming

    2004-01-01

    A series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole or 1,3,4-thiadiazole-substituted pyrazole derivatives were synthesized from 4-pyrazole formhydrazide; their biological activities were studied. The structures of all the new compounds were confirmed by means of spectroscopic methods and mieroanalyses. The preliminary bioassay results indicate that some compounds of them have a good fungicidal activity against Phoma asparagi and Physalospora piricola Nose.

  10. Chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as highly selective FAAH inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayendra Z; Parkkari, Teija; Laitinen, Tuomo; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Saario, Susanna M; Savinainen, Juha R; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Leppänen, Jukka; Koshevoy, Igor O; Poso, Antti; Fowler, Christopher J; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Nevalainen, Tapio

    2013-11-14

    In the present study, identification of chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as potent and selective FAAH inhibitors has been described. The separated enantiomers showed clear differences in the potency and selectivity toward both FAAH and MAGL. Additionally, the importance of the chirality on the inhibitory activity and selectivity was proven by the simplification approach by removing a methyl group at the 3-position of the 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one ring. The most potent compound of the series, the S-enantiomer of 3-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one (JZP-327A, 51), inhibited human recombinant FAAH (hrFAAH) in the low nanomolar range (IC50 = 11 nM), whereas its corresponding R-enantiomer 52 showed only moderate inhibition toward hrFAAH (IC50 = 0.24 μM). In contrast to hrFAAH, R-enantiomer 52 was more potent in inhibiting the activity of hrMAGL compared to S-enantiomer 51 (IC50 = 4.0 μM and 16% inhibition at 10 μM, respectively). The FAAH selectivity of the compound 51 over the supposed main off-targets, MAGL and COX, was found to be >900-fold. In addition, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) indicated high selectivity over other serine hydrolases. Finally, the selected S-enantiomers 51, 53, and 55 were shown to be tight binding, slowly reversible inhibitors of the hrFAAH.

  11. Inventory and mitigation opportunities for HFC-134a emissions from nonprofessional automotive service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Tao; Potts, Winston; Collins, John F.; Austin, Jeff

    2014-12-01

    Many vehicle owners in the United States recharge their vehicles' air conditioning systems with small containers of hydrofluorocarbon-134a (HFC-134a, CH2FCF3), at a frequency estimated to be once every year on average. Such nonprofessional service produces immediate emissions of this potent greenhouse gas during service and from the residual heel in partially used containers. The nonprofessional operations are also associated with increased delayed refrigerant emissions that occur because owners are less likely to repair leaks than professional technicians. In California, an estimated 1.3 million nonprofessional service operations performed each year generate 0.27 ± 0.07 million metric ton CO2 equivalent (MMTCO2e) of immediate emissions and 0.54 ± 0.08 MMTCO2e of delayed emissions, using a Global Warming Potential of 1300 for HFC-134a. The immediate emissions can be largely mitigated by a regulation that requires self-sealing valves and improved labeling instructions on the containers, a deposit-return-recycling program for the containers, and a consumer education program. If 95% of the used containers were to be returned by consumers for recycling of the container heel, the annual immediate emissions would be reduced by 0.26 ± 0.07 MMTCO2e. In the United States, an estimated 24 million nonprofessional service operations are performed each year, generating 5.1 ± 1.4 MMTCO2e of immediate emissions and 10.4 ± 1.5 MMTCO2e of delayed emissions. Mitigation measures equivalent to the California regulation would reduce nationwide immediate emissions by 4.9 ± 1.4 MMTCO2e, if 95% of the used cans were returned for recycling. These business-as-usual emissions and mitigation potentials are projected to stay approximately constant until around 2022, and remain at significant levels into the 2030s.

  12. Synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization of new 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Chandrakantha; Arun M Isloor; Reji Philip; M Mohesh; Prakash Shetty; A M Vijesh

    2011-07-01

    A new series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing 2-fluoro-4-methoxy phenyl were synthesized by refluxing mixture of acid hydrazide 3 with different aromatic carboxylic acids (a–e) in phosphorous oxychloride. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR, mass spectral, and IR spectral studies, and also by C, H, N analyses. The open-aperture z-scan experiment was employed to measure the optical nonlinearity of the samples at 532 nm, using 5 ns laser pulses. The measurements indicate that compound 4a, which contains Bromine, behaves as an optical limiter at this wavelength, with potential applications in optoelectronics.

  13. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moger, Manjunath [Mangalore University, Karnataka (India). Department of Chemistry; Satam, Vijay; Paniraj, A.S.; Gopinath, Vadiraj S.; Hindupur, Rama Mohan; Pati, Hari N., E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com [Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 and 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Darshan Raj C. [Department of Bio-Medicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-15

    A series of ten novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety were synthesized using linear as well as convergent synthesis approach. All the compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among ten analogs, four compounds, namely, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8j were found to be highly active antibacterial and antifungal agents (author)

  14. Synthesis and Bioassay of a New Class of Furanyl-1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galila A. Yacout

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase enzyme is a monophenol monoxygenase enzyme, which plays an important role in human as a rate limiting step enzyme for different specific metabolic pathways, as well as its useful application in industry and agriculture. So this study was carried out to test the effect of newly prepared compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazoles with different substituted groups on tyrosinase enzyme activity, hoping to use them in the treatment of some diseases arising from tyrosinase activity disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, autism, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and cancer.

  15. Three-Photon Absorption and Upconversion Fluorescence Properties of Series 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; LU Chang-Gui; QIAN Ying; LIU Chang; WANG Zhu-Yuan; CUI Yi-Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ A newly synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been studied using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system.The series molecules present strong three-photon absorption and frequency upconversion fluorescence at wavelengths from 1205nm to 1575nm.Furthermore,there is no proportional relationship between three-photon absorption cross sections and the chemical structure transformation from monomer,dimer to trimer.Effective charge-transfer distance by π-conjugation bonds may be the contributing factor.In the experimental design,the far-field intensity distribution of femtosecond laeer beam has been taken into account.

  16. Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich $^{134-136}$Sn isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study excited states in the isotopes $^{134,136}$Sn by $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy following "safe" Coulomb excitation. The experiment aims to investigate the evolution of quadrupole collectivity beyond the magic shell closure at N = 82 by the determination of B(E2) values and electric quadrupole moments $\\mathcal{Q}_2$. Recent shell-model calculations using realistic interactions predict possible enhanced collectivity in neutron-rich regions. Evidence for this could be obtained by this experiment. Furthermore, the currently unknown excitation energies of the 2$^+_{1}$ and 4$^+_{1}$ states in $^{136}$Sn will be measured for the first time.

  17. Target characterization for the 130Ba(alpha,gamma)134Ce gamma-process experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gyürky, Gy; Farkas, J; Fülöp, Zs; Somorjai, E; Szücs, T

    2011-01-01

    In order to extend the available experimental database for the astrophysical gamma-process, the cross section measurement of the 130Ba(alpha,gamma)134Ce and 130Ba(alpha,n)133Ce reactions is in progress. The measurements are carried out using thin layers of evaporated BaCO3 as target. Since the target thickness enters directly into the calculation of the cross sections, the reliability of its determination is of crucial importance. Three different methods have been used to determine the target thickness. Details of these experiments and the obtained results are presented.

  18. 酒石酸络合掩蔽锑-氢醌容量法测定锑矿石样品中的常量金%Determination of Gold in Antimony Ores by Hydroquinone Volumetric Method with Antimony Tartrate as Complexing and Masking Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 刘凯; 陈泓; 冯瑞; 黄劲; 魏晶晶; 詹宝

    2015-01-01

    The traditional method of determining gold in antimony ores commonly includes sample digestion by aqua regia,preconcentration of gold by activated carbon,and measurement by hydroquinone volumetric technique. The traditional method suffers from the high contents of antimony,sulfur,arsenic,and mercury. Sulfur,arsenic, mercury,and carbon can be removed by stepwise heat,but antimony cannot be removed. In this study,tartaric acid is added to eliminate the interference of antimony. Adding tartaric acid to aqua regia during sample digestion can prevent proteolysis of antimony compounds as the acidity or temperature decreases. This step can ensure that the antimony quantity is less than 0. 3 mg after the ashing of activated carbon that has adsorbed gold. After being ashed,tartaric acid is again added in aqua regia to dissolve gold,eliminating the interference of antimony on gold during hydroquinone volumetric determination of gold. The proposed method suggests adding tartaric acid at the sample digestion stage is simple and rapid relative to the method of antimony elimination by hydrobromic acid and hydrochloric acid. The relative standard deviation of natural sample analysis is less than 5% and standard-addition recovery is 92 . 0% -107 . 0%.%应用王水溶样-活性炭富集金-氢醌容量法测定高品位锑矿石的金量时,通常受到较高含量的锑硫砷汞等元素的干扰,硫砷汞碳及有机质可以通过阶梯升温焙烧去除,但是对锑则无明显去除作用。本研究在相关实验环节通过加入酒石酸使锑的干扰问题得到解决,包括:王水溶矿时加入酒石酸络合锑,防止锑的化合物在酸度或温度降低时水解,保证吸附金的活性炭灰化后的锑量小于0.3 mg;活性炭灰化除碳后,用王水溶解金时再加入酒石酸,消除了氢醌容量法滴定过程中少量锑的干扰。本方法只需在溶矿时加入一定量酒石酸,与氢溴酸除锑、盐酸等除锑方

  19. MicroRNA-134 regulates lung cancer cell H69 growth and apoptosis by targeting WWOX gene and suppressing the ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tianjun [Respiratory Department, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 277, Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Gao, Fei [Ultrasound Department, Hua-shan Central Hospital of Xi' an, No. 8, Wanshou Middle Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Feng, Sifang; Yang, Tian [Respiratory Department, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 277, Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Mingwei, E-mail: mingweichenxian@163.com [Respiratory Department, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 277, Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-08-28

    MicroRNAs have been shown to act as crucial modulators during carcinogenesis. Recent studies have implied that miR-134 expression associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype and invasive potential of NSCLC cells. Our study investigated the pathogenic implications of miR-134 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Overexpression or inhibition MiR-134 expression by miR-134 mimics or miR-134 inhibitors (anti-miR-134) in SCLC cell lines was detected using qRT-PCR. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, MTT assays and flow cytometry were performed in order to clarify the growth and apoptosis of SCLC cells which had been transfected with miR-134 mimics or anti-miR-134. WWOX expression in H69 cells was detected by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The results showed that overexpression miR-134 was significantly promoting SCLC cells growth and inhibit its apoptosis. In addition, reduced miR-134 expression was significantly correlated with cell growth inhibition and apoptosis promotion. Furthermore, transfection of miR-134 mimics into the SCLC cells markedly down-regulated the level of WWOX, whereas, anti-miR-134 up-regulated WWOX expression. We also found that overexpression WWOX attenuate miR-134 induced H69 cells growth, and promote cell apoptosis. Moreover, miR-134 promoted cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis via the activation of ERK1/2 pathway. These findings suggest that miR-134 may be an ideal diagnostic and prognostic marker, and may be attributed to the molecular therapy of SCLC. - Highlights: • MiR-134 play roles in small cell lung cancer cell growth and apoptosis. • MiR-134 negative regulated the level of WWOX in H69 cells. • WWOX overexpression attenuate miR-134 induced H69 cells growth. • MiR-134 promotes cell growth via the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Arsenic and Antimony in Water by Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry%氢化物发生-原子荧光光谱法同时测定水中砷和锑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄选忠; 万忠卫; 杜宏山; 郑丽

    2013-01-01

    建立在硝酸介质中用氢化物发生-原子荧光光谱法同时测定水中砷和锑的方法。优化了仪器工作条件、酸度、硼氢化钾及还原剂浓度。砷、锑的线性范围为0~10.0µg/L;检出限分别为0.02,0.01µg/L;测定结果的相对标准偏差分别为1.77%~3.72%,2.95%~4.87%(n=6);加标回收率分别为98%~106%,96%~105%。该法操作简便,灵敏度高,快速,便于推广,适用于水中砷和锑的同时测定。%The method for simultaneous determination of arsenic and antimony in water was established by hydride-generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry in nitric acid medium. Instrument condition,acidity,concentration of potassium borohydride and thiourea-ascorbic acid were selected. The linear relationship of arsenic and antimony was 0-10.0 µg/L. The detection limit of arsenic and antimony was 0.02 µg/L and 0.01 µg/L, the relative standard deviation of arsenic and antimony determination results was 1.77%-3.72%and 2.95%-4.87%(n=6) , the recovery of standard addition of arsenic and antimony was 98%-106%and 96%-105%respectively. This method has the advantages of simple operation and high sensitivity,it is rapid and easy to spread,which is suitable for simultaneous determination of arsenic and antimony in water.

  1. Enhancement of Lumbar Fusion and Alleviation of Adjacent Segment Disc Degeneration by Intermittent PTH(1-34) in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuang; Tian, Fa-Ming; Gou, Yu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Heng; Song, Hui-Ping; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    Osteoporosis, which is prevalent in postmenopausal or aged populations, is thought to be a contributing factor to adjacent segment disc degeneration (ASDD), and the incidence and extent of ASDD may be augmented by osteopenia. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-34) has already been shown to be beneficial in osteoporosis, lumbar fusion and matrix homeostasis of intervertebral discs. However, whether PTH(1-34) has a reversing or retarding effect on ASDD in osteopenia has not been confirmed. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intermittent PTH(1-34) on ASDD in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. One hundred 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent L4 -L5 posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) with spinous-process wire fixation 4 weeks after OVX surgery. Control groups were established accordingly. PTH(1-34) was intermittently administered immediately after PLF surgery and lasted for 8 weeks using the following groups (n = 20) (V = vehicle): Sham+V, OVX+V, Sham+PLF+V, OVX+PLF+V, OVX+PLF+PTH. The fused segments showed clear evidence of eliminated motion on the fusion-segment based on manual palpation. Greater new bone formation in histology was observed in PTH-treated animals compared to the control group. The extent of ASDD was significantly increased by ovariotomy. Intermittent PTH(1-34) significantly alleviated ASDD by preserving disc height, microvessel density, relative area of vascular buds, endplate thickness and the relative area of endplate calcification. Moreover, protein expression results showed that PTH(1-34) not only inhibited matrix degradation by decreasing MMP-13, ADAMTS-4 and Col-I, but also promote matrix synthesis by increasing Col-II and Aggrecan. In conclusion, PTH(1-34), which effectively improves lumbar fusion and alleviates ASDD in ovariectomized rats, may be a potential candidate to ameliorate the prognosis of lumbar fusion in osteopenia.

  2. Role of microRNA-134 in the neuroprotective effects of propofol against oxygen-glucose deprivation and related mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zishen; Yang, Pengpeng; Qi, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effects of propofol on primary hippocampal neurons under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) condition and related mechanisms. The apoptotic process was detected with flow cytometry, and the cell viability was assessed with CCK-8 assay. The expression levels of microRNA (miRNA)-134 were detected with quantitative real-time PCR. Protein expression levels were detected by Western blot analysis. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was also performed to confirm the prediction of the target genes of miRNA-134. Our results from flow cytometry showed that the apoptosis rate was significantly increased in the primary hippocampal neurons under OGD condition. However, the treatments of propofol (25, 50, 100, and 150 µmol/L) suppressed the apoptotic process. Moreover, propofol restored the declined cell viability in the primary hippocampal neurons under OGD condition. In addition, compared with the OGD model group, the Bcl-2/Bax ratios were significantly elevated in the propofol-treated groups, indicating the protective effects of propofol against cellular apoptosis. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that propofol reduced the expression levels of miRNA-134 in the primary hippocampal neurons under OGD condition. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that BDNF might be a target of miRNA-134. The treatment of antago-miRNA-134 significantly down-regulated the expression level of BDNF. In line with this, dual-luciferase reporter assay suggested that miRNA-134 targeted BDNF in the 3'-TUR. Under OGD condition, propofol could down-regulate miRNA-134, and subsequently modulate the expression of BDNF, to exert neuroprotective effects.

  3. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of an orally available enteric-microencapsulated parathyroid hormone (1-34)-deoxycholic acid nanocomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Rim; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Byun, Youngro; Park, Jin Woo

    The N-terminal 34-amino-acid peptide fragment of human parathyroid hormone PTH (1-34), is used clinically to treat osteoporosis; however, it is currently administered by a once-daily subcutaneous injection, resulting in poor patient compliance. We have developed enteric microcapsules containing an ionic nanocomplex between PTH (1-34) and lysine-linked deoxycholic acid (LysDOCA) for the oral delivery of PTH (1-34). We measured the particle size of the PTH/LysDOCA complex and assessed its biological activity by determining the cAMP content in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also assessed its permeability across a Caco-2 cell monolayer and the bioavailability of the intrajejunally administered PTH/LysDOCA complex compared with PTH (1-34) in rats. In addition, the antiosteoporotic activity of the PTH/LysDOCA complex, encapsulated in an enteric carrier by coaxial ultrasonic atomization, was evaluated after it was orally administered to ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The formation of an ionic complex between PTH (1-34) and LysDOCA produced nanoparticles of diameter 33.0±3.36 nm, and the bioactivity of the complex was comparable with that of PTH (1-34). The Caco-2 cell permeability and AUClast value of the PTH/LysDOCA (1:10) nanocomplex increased by 2.87- and 16.3-fold, respectively, compared with PTH (1-34) alone. Furthermore, the OVX rats treated with oral PTH/LysDOCA-loaded enteric microcapsules showed an increase in bone mineral density (159%), bone volume fraction (175%), and trabecular number (174%) compared with those in the OVX control group. Therefore, the PTH/LysDOCA nanocomplex oral delivery system is a promising treatment modality for osteoporosis because it improves osteogenesis and trabecular connectivity.

  4. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Mannich Bases Containing Pyrimidine Rings%含嘧啶环的1,3,4-噁二唑 Mannich 碱的合成及生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈生强; 孙晓红; 刘源发; 陈邦; 靳如意; 马海霞

    2014-01-01

    1,3,4-Oxadiazole derivatives were reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, such as antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral and antitubercular. Mannich bases had also been reported as poten-tial biological agents, they were applicated in the fields of synthetic study and medicinal chemistry. In recent years, Mannich bases containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring had attracted a lot of attention and many Mannich ba-ses of 1,3,4-oxadiazole bearing heterocycle scaffold were reported to have special bioactivity. Nevertheless, literature revealed that there were no reports of a molecular scaffold that Mannich base of 1,3,4-oxadiazole bearing pyrimidine. Prompted by these observations, a series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing py-rimidine( E1-E15) was synthesized from 5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione ( C1-C3), formaldehyde and substituted aminopyrimidine ( D1-D5) by Mannich reaction. 5-Aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione derivatives (C1-C3) were prepared from aromatic acids as the starting material via esterification, hydrazinolysis and cy-clization. The structures of all title compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1 H NMR tech-niques. Furthermore, their biological activities to four vegetable pathogens containing Gibberll nicotiancola, Gibberlla saubinetii, Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. niveum, Pythium solani had been tested. The preliminary re-sults indicated that most of the compounds exhibit relatively good fungicidal activities, especially compounds E3 and E8 showed better biological activity than triazolone.%以芳香酸为原料,通过酯化、肼解及环化反应制得中间体5-芳基取代-1,3,4-噁二唑-2-硫酮(C1~C3),然后中间体与甲醛和取代氨基嘧啶(D1~ D5)发生 Mannich 反应得到一系列新型含有嘧啶环的1,3,4-噁二唑类衍生物(E1~ E15)。所得目标化合物的结构经元素分析、 IR 及1 H NMR 确认。初步的生物活性测定结果表明,大部分目标化合物对植物病原菌有很好

  5. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Jaiswal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic compounds possess diverse biological properties that has lead to intense study and research of these compounds. One of these compounds is oxadiazole which has been found to exhibit various pharmacological activities. Oxadiazole is a five membered heterocyclic ring which is a versatile lead compound for designing potent bioactive agents. It exists in four isomeric forms. Out of its four isomers 1, 3, 4-oxadizole exhibited a wide range of biological activities which includes antibacterial, antitubercular, anticonvulsant, hypoglycemic, antiallergic, enzyme inhibitor, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, antiinflammatory, analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer, insecticidal, ulcerogenic activities etc. The 1,3,4-Oxadiazole have shown significant antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms like fungi, Gram +ve strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus lintus and Gram –ve strains such as Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Oxadiazole derivatives and investigation of their chemical and biological behavior have gained more importance in recent decades for biological, medical and agricultural reasons. A large number of drugs used clinically have oxadiazole ring as a structural building block. The capacity of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole nucleus to undergo variety of chemical reactions including electrophillic substitution, nucleophilic substitution, thermal and photochemical which make it medicinal backbone on which a number of potential molecules can be constructed. Present review is flooded with reports of antimicrobial activity of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives published in various journals.

  6. Functional analysis of {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Qiya; Guo, Bin; Wang, Yingming; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Shenan [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Qiao, Shouyi, E-mail: syqiao@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Yanhua, E-mail: yanhuawu@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human FUT6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of FUT6 promotes G0/G1-S transition and cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 confers a growth advantage in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 suppresses p21 expression through modulating PI3K/Akt signaling. -- Abstract: The {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of {alpha}1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe{sup x} were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  7. Synthesis and antitubercular evaluation of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun M. Patel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a series of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives 5(a–j were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral technique. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain by using Alamar Blue susceptibility test as part of the TAACF TB screening program under direction of the US National Institutes of Health, the NIAID division. Among the tested compounds, 2-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl-6-(4-nitrophenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (5f has shown the highest (98% inhibitory activity with MIC of 3.14 μg/ml as compared to other tested compounds. Further, some potent compounds were also assessed for their cytotoxic activity against a mammalian Vero cell line using MTT assay. The results reveal that these compounds exhibit anti-tubercular activity at non-cytotoxic concentrations.

  8. THERMALLY STABLE POLYMERS CONTAINING 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE UNITS OBTAINED FROM HUISGEN REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Mansoori; G.Barghian; B.Koohi-Zargar; Gh.Imanzadeh; M.Zamanloo

    2012-01-01

    Thermally stable polymers containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole units have been synthesized through Huisgen reaction of thc aromatic/aliphatic bis-tetrazole compounds with the aromatic/aliphatic bis-acid chlorides in pyridine as solvent.The obtained polymers are insoluble or slightly soluble even in polar aprotic solvents such as DMSO and DMF.Relatively high inherent viscosity values (0.61-1.33 dL/g,in 0.125% H2SO4 at 25℃) were observed for these compounds.Thermal analyses of the polymers using DSC and TGA techniques showed that the polymers have improved thermal stabilities.The glass transition temperature has not been observed in the fully aromatic polymers,but the polymers obtained from 5-[6-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)hexyl]-1H-tetrazole (Ⅳ) showed very clear Tg.A model reaction was also investigated and the resulting bis-1,3,4-oxadiazole compound was characterized by conventional spectroscopy methods.

  9. New Numismatic Evidence about the Comets of Mithradates the Great of Pontus (134 and 119 BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, M. R.

    1997-12-01

    The historian, Justinus, tells us that the life of Mithradates the Great of Pontus (ca. 134 - 63 BC) was marked by two unusually large comets: one at his birth in ca. 134 BC and another at his coronation ca. 119 BC. Often these comets are cited as proof that sometimes comets heralded great, good events (such as the Star of Bethlehem.) We now have evidence that counters that notion. Mithradates struck some bronze coins that depict a foreboding hippeus (horse) comet. Pliny, the Roman naturalist, tells us that this kind of comet had plumes much like horses manes in very rapid motion and moving in a circle. The evidence is that the horses mains are synchronic bands. The visibility of these bands indicates that the hippeus comet is a class of comets that had a close encounter with the earth, perhaps on the order of a million kilometers. Hephaistion of Thebes tells us that the hippeus comet foretold the quick fall of kings and tyrants and rapid changes in the affairs of these countries. It is likely that the comet was interpreted as an omen of violent revolution, but Mithradates apparently altered the focus of the portent, namely that the comet signified his struggle to evict the Romans from Asia Minor.

  10. Bacillus sp.处理含锑废水试验研究%Bacillus sp. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Antimony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小娇; 陈平; 陈才丽; 成应向; 龚道新; 向仁军; 王强强

    2013-01-01

    Antimony ore dressing wastewater was treated by using Bacil us sp. and the influences of treatment time, temperature, inoculation size, and pH value on Sb removal effect were explored. The results showed that the best removal efficiency of Sb in mineral processing wastewater could reach 99.75% in 4 d under the optimum conditions of 30 ℃, microbial inoculated quantity 5%, and pH value at 2.0. After the treatment, the concentration of Sb in wastewater was reduced from 122.21 to 0.30 mg/L, which was lower than the local industrial wastewater discharge standard of 0.50 mg/L.%利用某芽孢杆菌属微生物( Bacillus sp.)对锑矿选矿废水进行了处理。研究微生物的接种量、作用时间、温度、体系 pH值等对废水中Sb的去除效果的影响。结果表明:作用时间4 d微生物接种量为5处理体系 pH为2最佳处理体系温度为30时,效果最佳,对废水中Sb的去除率达到99.75%,处理后废水中 Sb的浓度由122.21 mg/L降低至0.30 mg/L,出水Sb浓度低于湖南省地方标准排放限值0.50 mg/L。

  11. A novel voltammetric sensor based on carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles of antimony tin oxide for the determination of ractopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet, E-mail: maslanoglu@harran.edu.tr

    2016-02-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanoparticles of antimony tin oxide (ATO). The surface layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method (EDX) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The proposed electrode was assessed in respect to the electro-oxidation of ractopamine. Compared with a bare GCE and a GCE electrode modified with CNTs, the ATONPs/CNTs/GCE exhibited a great catalytic activity towards the oxidation of ractopamine with a well-defined anodic peak at 600 mV. The current response was linear with the concentration of ractopamine over the range from 10 to 240 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 nM. The proposed electrode enabled the selective determination of ractopamine in the presence of high concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The proposed electrode was successfully applied for the determination of ractopamine in feed and urine samples. The sensitive and selective determination of ractopamine makes the developed method of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use and doping control purposes. - Highlights: • A novel voltammetric sensor was prepared using nanoparticles of ATO and CNTs. • The ATONPs/CNTs/GCE has greatly improved the voltammetry of ractopamine. • The proposed electrode enabled a detection limit of 3.3 nM. • AA, DA and UA did not interfere with the selective detection of ractopamine. • Measurements were precise and accurate.

  12. Imipramine is an orally active drug against both antimony sensitive and resistant Leishmania donovani clinical isolates in experimental infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Mukherjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In an endeavor to find an orally active and affordable antileishmanial drug, we tested the efficacy of a cationic amphiphilic drug, imipramine, commonly used for the treatment of depression in humans. The only available orally active antileishmanial drug is miltefosine with long half life and teratogenic potential limits patient compliance. Thus there is a genuine need for an orally active antileishmanial drug. Previously it was shown that imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant alters the protonmotive force in promastigotes, but its in vivo efficacy was not reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that the drug is highly active against antimony sensitive and resistant Leishmania donovani in both promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes and in LD infected hamster model. The drug was found to decrease the mitochondrial transmembrane potential of Leishmania donovani (LD promastigotes and purified amastigotes after 8 h of treatment, whereas miltefosine effected only a marginal change even after 24 h. The drug restores defective antigen presenting ability of the parasitized macrophages. The status of the host protective factors TNF α, IFN γ and iNOS activity increased with the concomitant decrease in IL 10 and TGF β level in imipramine treated infected hamsters and evolution of matured sterile hepatic granuloma. The 10-day therapeutic window as a monotherapy, showing about 90% clearance of organ parasites in infected hamsters regardless of their SSG sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that imipramine possibly qualifies for a new use of an old drug and can be used as an effective orally active drug for the treatment of Kala-azar.

  13. Use of topical liposomes containing meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) for the treatment of L. major lesion in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, S A Moosavian; Khamesipour, A; Bavarsad, N; Fallah, M; Khashayarmanesh, Z; Feizi, E; Neghabi, K; Abbasi, A; Jaafari, M R

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a dream for the patients, health care authorities and scientists. The aim of this study was to develop a topical liposomal meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime™) (Lip-MA) formulation and evaluate the therapeutic effects of the preparation on lesion induced by Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. Liposomes containing 22.5% MA (6.4% Sb(+5)) with and without oleic acid (LMA-OA and LMA) were formulated using fusion method plus homogenization and characterized for the size and encapsulation efficiency. The penetration of MA from the LMA-OA and LMA formulations through and into the skin was checked in vitro using Franz diffusion cells fitted with mouse skin at 37°C for 8h. The in vitro permeation data showed that almost 1.5% of formulations applied in the mouse skin were penetrated and the amount retained in the skin was about 65%. The 50% effective dose of LMA and LMA-OA against amastigotes of L. major was 46.36 and 41.01 μg/ml, respectively. LMA or LMA-OA was used topically twice a day for 4 weeks to treat the lesion induced by L. major in susceptible BALB/c mice. The results showed a significantly (Pliposomes or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The spleen parasite burden was significantly (Pliposomes or PBS at the end of the treatment period. However, when the treatment was stopped, the lesion size progressed and spleen parasite burden increased in LMA and LMA-OA groups, but still was significantly less than the control groups (Pliposomes containing MA might be an appropriate choice for clinical trials for the treatment of CL.

  14. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in the equine liver and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paßlack, Nadine; Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of specific elements in the equine liver and kidneys are of practical relevance since horses are not only food-producing animals, but also partially serve as an indicator for the environmental pollution, as the basic feed includes plants like grass, grain and fruits. In this study, the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) were measured in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla of 21 horses (8 male; 13 female; aged between 5 months-28 years), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Comparable Cu and Zn concentrations were detected in the liver and renal cortex, while approximately 50% lower concentrations were measured in the renal medulla. The lowest Sr, Cd and Se, but the highest Mn, Sb and Pb concentrations were measured in the liver. The Ba concentrations were comparable in the renal cortex and medulla, but lower in the liver of the horses. Gender-related differences were observed for Cd, Mn and Cr, with higher Cd concentrations in the liver, but lower Mn concentrations in the renal cortex and lower Cr concentrations in the renal medulla of female horses. Age-related differences were detected for most measured elements, however, the animal number per age-group was only low. In conclusion, the present study provides important reference data for the storage of Sr, Ba, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Sb, Se and Pb in the liver and kidneys of horses, which are of practical relevance for an evaluation of the exposure of horses to these elements, either via feed or the environment.

  15. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lien K; Pinch, Benjamin M; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-09-01

    The enrichment of soil arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is putting increasing pressure on the environment and human health. The biogeochemical behaviour of Sb and its uptake mechanisms by plants are poorly understood and generally assumed to be similar to that of As. In this study, the lability of As and Sb under agricultural conditions in historically contaminated soils was assessed. Soils were prepared by mixing historically As and Sb-contaminated soil with an uncontaminated soil at different ratios. The lability of As and Sb in the soils was assessed using various approaches: the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were strongly correlated with their labile concentrations measured by DGT, soil solution, and SEP. These techniques are useful measures for predicting bioavailable As and Sb in the historically contaminated soil to R. sativus. This is the first study to demonstrate the suitability of DGT to measure labile Sb in soils.

  16. Improvement of antimony sulfide photo absorber performance by interface modification in Sb2S3-ZnO hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Hasanain, Syed Khurshid; Ali, Tahir; Sultan, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    Metal-oxide chalcogenide nanostructures as part of hybrid systems are very important for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. It is however known that the various interfaces within the hybrid structures play a crucial role in limiting the efficiency of these devices. Here we report on the improvement of Sb2S3 structure through modification of interface between Zn-oxide nanostructures and chalcogenides. ZnO nanorods were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM analysis confirmed the single phase wurtzite structure and c-axis orientation of the ZnO nanorod arrays. Antimony tri-sulfide (Sb2S3) was deposited on ZnO nanords by CBD and subsequently annealed at 300 °C in argon environment for 30 min. XRD and the XPS analysis of ZnO-Sb2S3 system showed the dominant presence of Sb2O3 rather than Sb2S3. Since oxidation of Sb2S3 is understood to proceed mainly from the ZnO-Sb2S3 interface, a ZnS interlayer was introduced between ZnO nanorods and Sb2S3 by chemical route. The subsequent structural and optical properties of the ZnO-ZnS-Sb2S3 system are analyzed in detail. The introduction of sulfide interlayer prevents the oxidation of Sb2S3 which is evident from reduced oxide phase in Sb2S3. Significant improvement in the structural and optical properties of Sb2S3 are reported as compared to the parent ZnO-Sb2S3 system. This gain in the optical properties of hybrid ZnO-ZnS-Sb2S3 nanostructures is explained as being related to successful prevention of Sb2O3 formation at the Sb-ZnO interface and stabilization of the desired Sb2S3.

  17. Eficácia do sulfato de aminosidine na leishmaniose visceral grave, resistente ao tratamento com antimonial pentavalente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleudson Castro

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de calazar grave resistente a dez cursos de antimonial petitavalente (glucantime à base de 20mg de Sb5/kg/dia, que respondeu favoravelmente ao sulfato de aminosidine intramuscular na dose de 20mg/kg/dia por 20 dias, repetido após 20 dias. O parasitismo esplénico passou de 50 parasitos por campo a 3 parasitos em 10 campos logo após a primeira série de sulfato de aminosidine, tornando-se negativo depois de sete meses. A melhora clínica foi imediata, com redução gradual da hepatoesplenomegalia, e desaparecimento 26 meses após. Neste período aumentou 13 kg. Após o uso de aminosidine a reação de Monténégro tornou-se positiva e as células mononucleares responderam quando estimuladas com antígenos de leishmânia.A grave kala-azar infection in a 14 years old boy is described. The leishmanial infection failed to respond to ten interrupted courses of glucantime of variable duration (14-56 days at a dose of 20mg Sb5/kg/day. However a favorable response ocurred to intramuscular aminosidine sulphate (20mg/kg/day for 20 days. This same regimen was repeated 20 days later. After the first treatment splenic puncture parasite density fell from 50 amastigotes per oil immersion field to 3 amastigotes in 10 fields. A further splenic puncture 7 months after treatment was negative. The marked hepatoesplenomegaly gradually resolved over 26 months follow up and he gained 13 kilogramas in weight. After aminosidine sulphate therapy his Montenegro reaction become positive and his lymphocytes responded to leishmania antigens.

  18. Responses and acclimation of Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis Bl.) to metal stress: the inducible antimony tolerance in oak trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiulian; Zheng, Lingyu; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun; Lei, Jingpin; Shi, Shengqing; Shi, Xiang; Li, Huiqing; Li, Qinghe; Wei, Yuan; Chang, Ermei; Jiang, Zeping; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-08-01

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has become a pressing environmental problem in recent years. Trees have been proven to have great potential for the feasible phytomanagement; however, little is known about Sb retention and tolerance in trees. The Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis Bl.) is known to be capable of growth in soils containing high concentrations of Sb. This study explored in detail the retention and acclimation of Q. variabilis under moderate and high external Sb levels. Results revealed that Q. variabilis could tolerate and accumulate high Sb (1623.39 mg kg(-1) DW) in roots. Dynamics of Sb retention in leaves, stems, and roots of Q. variabilis were different. Leaf Sb remained at a certain level for several weeks, while in roots and stems, Sb concentrations continued to increase. Sb damaged tree's PSII reaction cores but elicited defense mechanism at the donor side of PSII. It affected the electron transport flow after QA (-) more strongly than the oxygen-evolving complex and light-harvesting pigment-protein complex II. Sb also decreased leaf chlorophyll concentrations and therefore inhibited plant growth. During acclimation to Sb toxicity, Sb concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots decreased, with photosynthetic activity and pigments recovering to normal levels by the end of the experiment. These findings suggest that Sb tolerance in Q. variabilis is inducible. Acclimation seems to be related to homeostasis of Sb in plants. Results of this study can provide useful information for trees breeding and selection of Sb phytomanagement strategies, exploiting the established ability of Q. variabilis to transport, delocalize in the leaves, and tolerate Sb pollutions.

  19. Experimental induction of paromomycin resistance in antimony-resistant strains of L. donovani: outcome dependent on in vitro selection protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hendrickx

    Full Text Available Paromomycin (PMM has recently been introduced for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India. Although no clinical resistance has yet been reported, proactive vigilance should be warranted. The present in vitro study compared the outcome and stability of experimental PMM-resistance induction on promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Cloned antimony-resistant L. donovani field isolates from India and Nepal were exposed to stepwise increasing concentrations of PMM (up to 500 µM, either as promastigotes or intracellular amastigotes. One resulting resistant strain was cloned and checked for stability of resistance by drug-free in vitro passage as promastigotes for 20 weeks or a single in vivo passage in the golden hamster. Resistance selection in promastigotes took about 25 weeks to reach the maximal 97 µM inclusion level that did not affect normal growth. Comparison of the IC(50 values between the parent and the selected strains revealed a 9 to 11-fold resistance for the Indian and 3 to 5-fold for the Nepalese strains whereby the resistant phenotype was also maintained at the level of the amastigote. Applying PMM pressure to intracellular amastigotes produced resistance after just two selection cycles (IC(50 = 199 µM compared to the parent strain (IC(50 = 45 µM. In the amastigote-induced strains/clones, lower PMM susceptibilities were seen only in amastigotes and not at all in promastigotes. This resistance phenotype remained stable after serial in vitro passage as promastigote for 20 weeks and after a single in vivo passage in the hamster. This study clearly demonstrates that a different PMM-resistance phenotype is obtained whether drug selection is applied to promastigotes or intracellular amastigotes. These findings may have important relevance to resistance mechanism investigations and the likelihood of resistance development and detection in the field.

  20. New and rapid access to synthesis of novel polysubstituted imidazoles using antimony trichloride and stannous chloride dihydrate as effective and reusable catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leyla Poorali; Bahador Karami; Khalil Eskandari; Mahboobeh Azizi

    2013-05-01

    In this work, new, efficient and environmentally adapted synthesis of polysubstituted imidazoles in one-pot is repoted. The multicomponent reaction of various aldehydes, benzil, aliphatic and aromatic primary amines and ammonium acetate under solvent-free condition is explained. The highly efficient role of antimony trichloride and stannous chloride dihydrate as catalyst in this synthesis was shown and their effects on the reaction process were studied. By this advantage, several polysubstituted imidazoles as pharmaceutical important molecules can be prepared in high yield and high purity. This method is a very easy and rapid for the synthesis of imidazole derivatives.

  1. Comparative study on the corrosion behavior of the cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony in flue gas desulfurization environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. A.; Kim, J. G.; He, Y. S.; Shin, K. S.; Yoon, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between the corrosion and microstructual characteristics of cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony was established. The corrosion behavior of the specimens used in flue gas desulfurization systems was examined by electrochemical and weight loss measurements in an aggressive solution of 16.9 vol % H2SO4 + 0.35 vol % HCl at 60°C, pH 0.3. It has been shown that the corrosion rate of hot rolled steel is lower than that of cold rolled steel. The corrosion rate of cold rolled steel was increased by grain refinement, inclusion formation, and preferred grain orientation.

  2. Double blind, randomized controlled trial, to evaluate the effectiveness of a controlled nitric oxide releasing patch versus meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis [NCT00317629

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Federico A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease, endemic in 88 countries, that has shown an increasing incidence over the last two decades. So far, pentavalent antimony compounds have been considered the treatment of choice, with a percentage of cure of about 85%. However, the high efficacy of these drugs is counteracted by their many disadvantages and adverse events. Previous studies have shown nitric oxide to be a potential alternative treatment when administered topically with no serious adverse events. However, due to the unstable nitric oxide release, the topical donors needed to be applied frequently, making the adherence to the treatment difficult. The electrospinning technique has allowed the production of a multilayer transdermal patch that produces a continuous and stable nitric oxide release. The main objective of this study is to evaluate this novel nitric oxide topical donor for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods and design A double-blind, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial, including 620 patients from endemic areas for Leishmaniasis in Colombia was designed to investigate whether this patch is as effective as meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis but with less adverse events. Subjects with ulcers characteristic of cutaneous leishmaniasis will be medically evaluated and laboratory tests and parasitological confirmation performed. After checking the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the patients will be randomly assigned to one of two groups. During 20 days Group 1 will receive simultaneously meglumine antimoniate and placebo of nitric oxide patches while Group 2 will receive placebo of meglumine antimoniate and active nitric oxide patches. During the treatment visits, the medications will be daily administered and the presence of adverse events assessed. During the follow-up, the research group will visit the patients at days 21, 45, 90 and 180. The

  3. Antimony (V) Oxide Adsorbed on a Silica-Zirconia Mixed Oxide Obtained by the Sol-Gel Processing Method: Preparation and Acid Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitseva,Galina; Gushikem,Yoshitaka

    2002-01-01

    The preparation, degree of dispersion, thermal stability and Lewis and Brønsted acidity of antimony (V) oxide adsorbed on SiO2/ZrO2 mixed oxide, previously prepared by the sol-gel processing method, are described herein. The samples SiO2/ZrO2/Sb2O5, with compositions (in wt %): (a) Zr= 8.1 and Sb= 6.3; (b) Zr= 14.9 and Sb= 11.4, were prepared. Scanning electron microscopy images connected to a X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer showed that both metals, Zr and Sb, were highly dispersed ...

  4. Preparation of Highly Dispersed Antimony-doped Tin Oxide Nano-powder via Ion-exchange Hydrolysis of SnCl4 and SbCl3 and Azeotropic Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fen; ZHANG Xue-jun; TIAN Fang; WU Xu; GAN Fu-xing

    2007-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin hydroxide colloid precipitates have been synthesized by hydrolysis of SnCl4 and SbCl3 using: (1) an ion-exchange hydrolysis to remove chlorine ions, and (2) isoamyl acetate as an azeotropic solvent to obviate water. The obtained dried powder is of high dispersivity without any need for further grinding. The size and dispersivity of the final particles are investigated with the aid of TG-DTA, BET, XRD and TEM. After having calcined, the antimony-doped tin oxide nanopowder possesses a tetragonal rutile structure with high dispersivity, uniform particles and low hard agglomeration.

  5. Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 μg L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ≤2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 μg L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 μm), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (≤0.5 μg L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 μg L(-1) Sb and 20 μg L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 μg L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb

  6. All-atom simulation study of protein PTH(1-34) by using the Wang-Landau sampling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Woo-Seop [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We perform simulations of the N-terminal 34-residue protein fragment PTH(1-34), consisting of 581 atoms, of the 84-residue human parathyroid hormone by using the all-atom ECEPP/3 force field and the Wang-Landau sampling method. Through a massive high-performance computation, the density of states and the partition function Z(T), as a continuous function of T, are obtained for PTH(1-34). From the continuous partition function Z(T), the partition function zeros of PTH(1-34) are evaluated for the first time. From both the specific heat and the partition function zeros, two characteristic transition temperatures are obtained for the all-atom protein PTH(1-34). The higher transition temperature T{sub 1} and the lower transition temperature T{sub 2} of PTH(1-34) can be interpreted as the collapse temperature T{sub θ} and the folding temperature T{sub f} , respectively.

  7. 甲基异丁基甲酮萃取—氢化物发生原子荧光光谱法测定锑锭和氧化锑中汞%Determination of mercury in antimony ingot and antimony oxide by methyl isobutyl ketone extraction-hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建平; 谭芳维; 石建荣

    2012-01-01

    After the samples were dissolved in aqua regia/HBr and tartaric acid was added to mask antimony, then mercury in antimony ingot and antimony oxide was extracted into the organic phase with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and determined by organic phase injection-intermittent flow injection atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Sample dissolution methods and interferences caused by coexisting ions were investigated, and instrument working conditions, extraction conditions, acidity and other factors were optimized. The results showed that under optimal conditions, the mercury content within the range of 0. 02 to 50 μg/L was in good linear relationship, and the detection limit was 0. 013 jxg/L. This method was applied to the actual antimony ingot and antimony oxide sample analysis. It was found that the results were consistent with those obtained by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) of 0. 65%-2. 4% and recoveries of 94 %-99%.%采用王水/HBr溶解样品,酒石酸掩蔽锑,用甲基异丁基甲酮(MIBK)将汞萃取到有机相中,建立了有机相进样—断续流动注射原子荧光光谱法测定锑锭和氧化锑中汞含量的方法.研究了溶样方法和共存离子可能引起的干扰,优化了仪器工作条件、萃取条件、酸度及其他影响因素.结果表明,在最佳条件下,汞含量在0.02~50 μg/L范围内线性关系良好,方法检出限为0.013 μg/L.将方法应用于锑锭和氧化锑实际样品分析,测得结果与电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法一致,相对标准偏差(RSD,n=6)在0.65%~2.4%之间,加标回收率为94%~99%.

  8. 不同状态方程对R134a摩擦理论黏度模型的比较分析%Comparison of different state equation on friction theory viscosity model of R134a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓坡; 宋渤; 吴江涛; 刘志刚

    2011-01-01

    为了考察不同状态方程对摩擦理论黏度模型拟合结果的影响,以制冷剂R134a为例,分别采用工程上常用的PR(Peng-Robinson)方程、MBWR(modified benediet-webbrubin)方程和R134a的专用状态方程Span-Wagner方程建立了R134a的摩擦理论黏度模型.计算结果表明,用这三个方程建立的模型,在液相区精度相当,在气相区则有一定差别,其中用Span-Wagner方程建立的黏度模型最好,PR方程建立的模型较差,为摩擦理论黏度模型的进一步改进提供了思路.%In order to compare the influence of different equation of states on the friction theory viscosity model of refrigerant R134a, three different equation of states, such as PR EOS, MBWR EOS and Span-Wagner EOS, were used to establish the viscosity model of R134a based on the friction theory, which called f-PR model, f-MBWR model, and f-SW model, respectively. The results showed that, the accuracy of the three types of friction theory viscosity model for R134a was almost the same in the liquid region. But in the gaseous phase, the accuracy of the f-SW model was better than that of f-PR model and f-MBWR model.

  9. Synthesis of Chiral 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Thioether Derivatives%手性1,3,4-噁二唑硫醚衍生物的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马银剑; 朱虹; 李学强

    2007-01-01

    以5-取代-2-巯基-1,3,4-噁二唑为亲核试剂,与手性5-烷氧基-3,4-二溴-2(5H)-呋喃酮发生Michael反应,合成了6种新的手性1,3,4-噁二唑硫醚衍生物(产率55%~67%),其结构经1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR和HR-MS确证.

  10. A Theoretical investigation on HC Mixtures as Possible Alternatives to R134a in Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiza Memet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a theoretical comparison of the performance of refrigerants in use in a vapor comparison cycle. It is about the phase-out of R134a from actual refrigeration system, comparison being performed for this chemical and two more ecological mixtures: R290/R600a described as (30/70 and (40/60. Were investigated effects of condensation temperatures and evaporation temperatures on performance measures as COP (Coefficient of Performance and VCC (volumetric cooling capacity. COP is a measure of the performance of the refrigeration cycle, while VCC is an indicator of compressor size. Results of this study will reveal that R290/R600a (30/70 is a good option when it is about substitution of R134a, from energy efficiency point of view, in terms of COP. R290/R600a (40/60 has VCC values bellow the ones of R134a, but comparable.

  11. Ultra-low carrier concentration and surface-dominant transport in antimony-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seung Sae

    2012-03-27

    A topological insulator is the state of quantum matter possessing gapless spin-locking surface states across the bulk band gap, which has created new opportunities from novel electronics to energy conversion. However, the large concentration of bulk residual carriers has been a major challenge for revealing the property of the topological surface state by electron transport measurements. Here we report the surface-state-dominant transport in antimony-doped, zinc oxide-encapsulated Bi2Se3 nanoribbons with suppressed bulk electron concentration. In the nanoribbon with sub-10-nm thickness protected by a zinc oxide layer, we position the Fermi levels of the top and bottom surfaces near the Dirac point by electrostatic gating, achieving extremely low two-dimensional carrier concentration of 2×10 11cm-2. The zinc oxide-capped, antimony-doped Bi 2Se3 nanostructures provide an attractive materials platform to study fundamental physics in topological insulators, as well as future applications. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes; Oral biotillgaenglighet av arsenik, antimon och ett urval av metaller i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Jones, Celia

    2008-06-15

    In an earlier study, financed by Varmeforsk, 'Q4-238 Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications', the total content of arsenic and lead was shown to determine whether or not reuse of some of the ashes in construction work is feasible. The model used to calculate the guidelines uses the total concentration of metals to evaluate the health risks resulting from exposure to the ashes. The use of total concentration can lead to overly conservative risk assessments if a significant fraction of the total metal content is not bioavailable. Better precision in the risk assessment can be given by the use of the bioavailable fraction of arsenic and lead in the model. As a result, ashes which are rejected on the basis of total metal concentration may be acceptable for use in engineering construction when the assessment is based on the bioavailable fraction. The purpose of the study was to (i) compile information on the oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes and similar materials, and on in vitro methods for determination of oral bioavailability, and (ii) experimentally estimate oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and some metals in a selection of ashes by analysis of the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of these elements. The investigated elements were antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. In the literature study performed within the project a number of static and dynamic in vitro methods simulating gastrointestinal processes of contaminants were compiled. The methods include one or several segments, i.e. mouth, stomach and intestine. Among the compiled methods, the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor volksgesundheid en milieu) in vitro method was used in the experimental part of the project. The advantages with the method was that: the method to a high degree mimicked the human gastrointestinal processes (the method included three segments mouth, stomach, and intestine

  13. Optimization of chemical and instrumental parameters in hydride generation laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for the determination of arsenic, antimony, lead and germanium in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşiller, Semira Unal; Yalçın, Serife

    2013-04-03

    A laser induced breakdown spectrometry hyphenated with on-line continuous flow hydride generation sample introduction system, HG-LIBS, has been used for the determination of arsenic, antimony, lead and germanium in aqueous environments. Optimum chemical and instrumental parameters governing chemical hydride generation, laser plasma formation and detection were investigated for each element under argon and nitrogen atmosphere. Arsenic, antimony and germanium have presented strong enhancement in signal strength under argon atmosphere while lead has shown no sensitivity to ambient gas type. Detection limits of 1.1 mg L(-1), 1.0 mg L(-1), 1.3 mg L(-1) and 0.2 mg L(-1) were obtained for As, Sb, Pb and Ge, respectively. Up to 77 times enhancement in detection limit of Pb were obtained, compared to the result obtained from the direct analysis of liquids by LIBS. Applicability of the technique to real water samples was tested through spiking experiments and recoveries higher than 80% were obtained. Results demonstrate that, HG-LIBS approach is suitable for quantitative analysis of toxic elements and sufficiently fast for real time continuous monitoring in aqueous environments.

  14. Expression of CD134 and CXCR4 mRNA in term placentas from FIV-infected and control cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Veronica L; Burgess, Shane C; Shack, Leslie A; Lockett, Nikki N; Coats, Karen S

    2008-05-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes a natural infection of domestic cats that resembles HIV-1 in pathogenesis and disease progression. Feline AIDS is characterized by depression of the CD4+ T cell population and fatal opportunistic infections. Maternal-fetal transmission of FIV readily occurs under experimental conditions, resulting in infected viable kittens and resorbed or arrested fetal tissues. Although both FIV and HIV use the chemokine receptor CXCR4 as a co-receptor, FIV does not utilize CD4 as the primary receptor. Rather, CD134 (OX40), a T cell activation antigen and co-stimulatory molecule, is the primary receptor for FIV. We hypothesized that placental expression of CD134 and CXCR4 may render the placenta vulnerable to FIV infection, possibly facilitating efficient vertical transmission of FIV, and impact pregnancy outcome. The purpose of this project was to quantify the relative expression of CD134 and CXCR4 mRNA from the term placentas of three groups of cats: uninfected queens producing viable offspring, experimentally-infected queens producing only viable offspring, and experimentally-infected queens producing viable offspring among mostly non-viable fetuses. Total RNA was extracted from term placental tissues from all groups of cats. Real-time one-step reverse transcriptase-PCR was used to measure gene expression. The FIV receptors CD134 and CXCR4 were expressed in all late term feline placental tissues. Placentas from FIV-infected queens producing litters of only viable offspring expressed more CD134 and CXCR4 mRNA than those from uninfected queens, suggesting that infection may cause upregulation of the receptors. On the other hand, placentas from FIV-infected cats with non-successful pregnancies expressed similar levels of CD134 mRNA and slightly less CXCR4 mRNA than those from uninfected queens. Thus, it appears that cells expressing these receptors may play a role in pregnancy maintenance.

  15. Intermittent Administration of Parathyroid Hormone [1-34] Prevents Particle-Induced Periprosthetic Osteolysis in a Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanggang Bi

    Full Text Available We examined whether intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone [1-34] (PTH[1-34]; 60 μg/kg/day can prevent the negative effects of titanium (Ti particles on implant fixation and periprosthetic osteolysis in a rat model. Eighteen adult male rats (12 weeks old, bones still growing received intramedullary Ti implants in their bilateral femurs; 6 rats from the blank group received vehicle injections, and 12 rats from the control group and PTH treatment group received Ti particle injections at the time of operation and intra-articular injections 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively. Six of the rats that received Ti particles from the PTH group also received PTH[1-34] treatment. Six weeks postoperatively, all specimens were collected for assessment by X-ray, micro-CT, biomechanical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and dynamic histomorphometry. A lower BMD, BV/TV, Tb.N, maximal fixation strength, and mineral apposition rate were observed in the control group compared to the blank group, demonstrating that a periprosthetic osteolysis model had been successfully established. Administration of PTH[1-34] significantly increased the bone mineral density of the distal femur, BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp, Con.D, SMI, and maximal fixation strength in the PTH group compared to that in the control group. SEM revealed higher bone-implant contact, thicker lamellar bone, and larger trabecular bone area in the PTH group than in the control group. A higher mineral apposition rate was observed in the PTH group compared to both the blank and control groups. These findings imply that intermittent administration of PTH[1-34] prevents periprosthetic osteolysis by promoting bone formation. The effects of PTH[1-34] were evaluated at a suprapharmacological dosage to the human equivalent in rats; therefore, additional studies are required to demonstrate its therapeutic potential in periprosthetic osteolysis.

  16. Mitoprotective antioxidant EUK-134 stimulates fatty acid oxidation and prevents hypertrophy in H9C2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, Sreeja; Nair, R Renuka

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is an important contributory factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases like hypertension-induced hypertrophy. Mitochondrion is the major source of reactive oxygen species. Hence, protecting mitochondria from oxidative damage can be an effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention of hypertensive heart disease. Conventional antioxidants are not likely to be cardioprotective, as they cannot protect mitochondria from oxidative damage. EUK-134 is a salen-manganese complex with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. The possible role of EUK-134, a mitoprotective antioxidant, in the prevention of hypertrophy of H9C2 cells was examined. The cells were stimulated with phenylephrine (50 μM), and hypertrophy was assessed based on cell volume and expression of brain natriuretic peptide and calcineurin. Enhanced myocardial lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content, accompanied by nuclear factor-kappa B gene expression, confirmed the presence of oxidative stress in hypertrophic cells. Metabolic shift was evident from reduction in the expression of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was confirmed by the reduced expression of mitochondria-specific antioxidant peroxiredoxin-3 and enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production. Compromised mitochondrial function was apparent from reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment with EUK-134 (10 μM) was effective in the prevention of hypertrophic changes in H9C2 cells, reduction of oxidative stress, and prevention of metabolic shift. EUK-134 treatment improved the oxidative status of mitochondria and reversed hypertrophy-induced reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Supplementation with EUK-134 is therefore identified as a novel approach to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and lends scope for the development of EUK-134 as a therapeutic agent in the management of human cardiovascular disease.

  17. Design of benzothiazole-1,3,4-thiadiazole conjugates: synthesis and anticonvulsant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nadeem; Ahuja, Priya; Malik, Sachin; Arya, Satish K

    2013-11-01

    Various 2-[(6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)amino]-N-[5-substituted-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]acetamides were synthesized with a prospective exploration of "lead hopping", using pharmacophoric elements for in vivo anticonvulsant activity. This yielded three potent candidates (5i, 5t, and 5u) in the preliminary screening employing the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test, showing minimal neurotoxicity. Their quantitative study indicated an increase of nearly 2-10 times for the MES test and 7- to 67-fold for the scPTZ test in the protective index, the keystone in drug discovery for anticonvulsant activity.

  18. Performance studies on mechanical + adsorption hybrid compression refrigeration cycles with HFC 134a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banker, N.D.; Dutta, P.; Srinivasan, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Prasad, M. [Thermal Systems Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560 017 (India)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the efficacy of hybrid compression process for refrigerant HFC 134a in cooling applications. The conventional mechanical compression is supplemented by thermal compression using a string of adsorption compressors. Activated carbon is the adsorbent for the thermal compression segment. The alternatives of bottoming either mechanical or thermal compression stages are investigated. It is shown that almost 40% energy saving is realizable by carrying out a part of the compression in a thermal compressor compared to the case when the entire compression is carried out in a single-stage mechanical compressor. The hybrid compression is feasible even when low grade heat is available. Some performance indictors are defined and evaluated for various configurations. (author)

  19. Study of integration issues to realize OTEC market potential. First quarterly report. [134 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    The specific objective of this study is to examine the commercialization of OTEC technology in the electric utility industry in the Gulf region of the United States. To accomplish this, the project staff is identifying the major issues that will arise in the integration of OTEC units into the power delivery systems in the Gulf Region. Among these issues are problems that must be resolved and barriers to be overcome. These are being identified and alternative approaches to resolving or overcoming them will be explored. Their relative importance in the integration will be assessed as well. The alternative approaches to resolving problems and overcoming barriers will be evaluated to determine their relative effectiveness, and the problems and barriers will be conceptually resolved. This evaluation will permit the recommendation of preferred approaches to integration and the preferred approaches will be assembled into a structured strategy for OTEC commercialization. A list of 134 references relevant to OTEC electric power plant integration issues is included.

  20. Synthesis and pharmacological activities of some new 5-substituted-2-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha R Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, various 5-β-[(N-benzenesulphony/tosyl-4-(un substituted anilino]ethyl-2-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazole (4a-f, with sulphonamide moiety at the side chain have been synthesised. The structures of the newly synthesised compounds have been established on the basis of their spectral data and elemental analysis. All the compounds were screened for antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cirroflagellosus, Aspergillus niger. Colletotrichum capsici and antituberclosis activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Only two compounds 4b (73% and 4e (54%, have shown moderate antituberculosis activity. All the compounds have shown moderate antiinflamatory activity and least ulcerogenecity. Most of the compounds have shown significant analgesic activity (64.20-120.72% in comparison with the standard, Aspirin (49.39% In the MES method, however only compound 4a, exhibited a protection of 33.33%, and others failed to protect.

  1. HFC-134A and HCFC-22 supermarket refrigeration demonstration and laboratory testing. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Aspen Systems and a team of nineteen agencies and industry participants conducted a series of tests to determine the performance of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and CFC-502 for supermarket application. This effort constitutes the first phase of a larger project aimed at carrying out both laboratory and demonstration tests of the most viable HFC refrigerants and the refrigerants they replace. The results of the Phase I effort are presented in the present report. The second phase of the project has also been completed. It centered on testing all viable HFC replacement refrigerants for CFC-502. These were HFC-507, HFC-404A, and HFC-407A. The latter results are published in the Phase II report for this project. As part of Phase I, a refrigeration rack utilizing a horizontal open drive screw compressor was constructed in our laboratory. This refrigeration rack is a duplicate of one we have installed in a supermarket in Clifton Park, NY.

  2. Restoration of the N=82 Shell Gap from Direct Mass Measurements of $^{132,134}$Sn

    CERN Document Server

    Dworschak, M; Blaum, K; Delahaye, P; George, S; Hager, U; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2008-01-01

    A high-precision direct Penning trap mass measurement has revealed a 0.5-MeV deviation of the binding energy of $^{134}$Sn from the currently accepted value. The corrected mass assignment of this neutron-rich nuclide restores the neutron-shell gap at N=82, previously considered to be a case of “shell quenching.” In fact, the new shell gap value for the short-lived $^{132}$Sn is larger than that of the doubly-magic $^{48}$Ca which is stable. The N=82 shell gap has considerable impact on fission recycling during the $r$ process. More generally, the new finding has important consequences for microscopic mean-field theories which systematically deviate from the measured binding energies of closed-shell nuclides.

  3. Experimental investigation of flow and heat transfer characteristics of R-134a in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegab, Hisham E.; Bari, Abdullahel; Ameel, Timothy A.

    2001-09-01

    Fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of single-phase flows in microchannels for refrigerant R-134a were experimentally investigated. Experiments were conducted using rectangular channels micro-milled in aluminum with hydraulic diameters ranging from approximately 112-mm to 210-mm and aspect ratios that varied from 1.0 to 1.5. Using overall temperature, flow rate, and pressure drop measurements, friction factors and convective heat transfer coefficients were experimentally determined for steady flow conditions. Reynolds number, relative roughness, and channel aspect ratio were the parameters examined in predicting friction factor and Nusselt number for the experiments. Experiment results indicated transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurred between a Reynolds number of 2,000-4,000. Friction factor results were consistently lower than values predicted by macroscale correlations. Nusselt number results indicated channel size may suppress turbulent convective heat transfer. Results also indicate that surface roughness may affect heat transfer characteristics in the turbulent regime.

  4. Bent Shaped 1,3,4-Oxadiazole/Thiadiazole heterocyclic rings containing liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chinnaiyan Selvarasu; Palaninathan Kannan

    2015-10-01

    Two series of bent shaped 1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole heterocyclic ring containing liquid crystalline (LC) compounds were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H, 13C-NMR and ESI-Mass spectro-scopic techniques. Liquid crystal properties were investigated by polarized optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. All the compounds exhibited mesophases such as nematic, smectic A and smectic C phases. The liquid crystalline effects were ascertained by changing the central atom in the heterocyclic ring and by increasing the length of the terminal alkyloxy chains which bring considerable improvements on the mesomorphic properties. The absorption and emission spectral studies of all the compounds were investigated and confirmed.

  5. Oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes; Oral biotillgaenglighet av arsenik, antimon och ett urval av metaller i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Jones, Celia

    2008-06-15

    In an earlier study, financed by Varmeforsk, 'Q4-238 Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications', the total content of arsenic and lead was shown to determine whether or not reuse of some of the ashes in construction work is feasible. The model used to calculate the guidelines uses the total concentration of metals to evaluate the health risks resulting from exposure to the ashes. The use of total concentration can lead to overly conservative risk assessments if a significant fraction of the total metal content is not bioavailable. Better precision in the risk assessment can be given by the use of the bioavailable fraction of arsenic and lead in the model. As a result, ashes which are rejected on the basis of total metal concentration may be acceptable for use in engineering construction when the assessment is based on the bioavailable fraction. The purpose of the study was to (i) compile information on the oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes and similar materials, and on in vitro methods for determination of oral bioavailability, and (ii) experimentally estimate oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and some metals in a selection of ashes by analysis of the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of these elements. The investigated elements were antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. In the literature study performed within the project a number of static and dynamic in vitro methods simulating gastrointestinal processes of contaminants were compiled. The methods include one or several segments, i.e. mouth, stomach and intestine. Among the compiled methods, the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor volksgesundheid en milieu) in vitro method was used in the experimental part of the project. The advantages with the method was that: the method to a high degree mimicked the human gastrointestinal processes (the method included three segments mouth, stomach, and intestine

  6. The Complete Multipartite Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a Versatile Pollutant Degrader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Perez-Pantoja, Danilo; Ledger, Thomas; Mavromatis, Kostantinos; Anderson, Iain J.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hooper, Sean D.; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2010-02-01

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha JMP134) is a Gram-negative {beta}-proteobacterium able to degrade a variety of chloroaromatic compounds and chemically-related pollutants. It was originally isolated based on its ability to use 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a sole carbon and energy source [1]. In addition to 2,4-D, this strain can also grow on a variety of aromatic substrates, such as 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate (MCPA), 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3-CB) [2], 2,4,6-trichlorophenol [3], and 4-fluorobenzoate [4]. The genes necessary for 2,4-D utilization have been identified. They are located in two clusters on plasmid pPJ4: tfd{sub I} and tfd{sub II} [5,6,7,8]. The sequence and analysis of plasmid pJP4 was reported and a congruent model for bacterial adaptation to chloroaromatic pollutants was proposed [9]. According to this model, catabolic gene clusters assemble in a modular manner into broad-host-range plasmid backbones by means of repeated chromosomal capture events. Cupriavidus and related Burkholderia genomes are typically multipartite, composed of two large replicons (chromosomes) accompanied by classical plasmids. Previous work with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 revealed a differential gene distribution with core functions preferentially encoded by the larger chromosome and secondary functions by the smaller [10]. It has been proposed that the secondary chromosomes in many bacteria originated from ancestral plasmids which, in turn, had been the recipient of genes transferred earlier from ancestral primary chromosomes [11]. The existence of multiple Cupriavidus and Burkholderia genomes provides the opportunity for comparative studies that will lead to a better understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms for the formation of multipartite genomes and the relation with biodegradation abilities.

  7. Novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles as anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ega Durgashivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring is a versatile moiety with a wide range of pharmacological properties. The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of two novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (OSD and OPD. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was employed as an acute model of inflammation. For evaluating sub-acute anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat air pouch was employed. Complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats was used as a model of chronic inflammation. To evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used. Results: OSD (100 mg/kg reduced carrageen-induced paw edema by 60%, and OPD (100 mg/kg produced a modest 32.5% reduction. OSD also reduced leukocyte influx and myeloperoxidase in carrageenan-induced rat air pouch model. In complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model, both OSD and OPD (200 mg/kg for 14 days reduced paw edema and NO levels. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, OSD and OPD inhibited formation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, with OPD showing a better activity in comparison to OSD. Conclusions: OSD was the better of the two compounds in in vivo models of inflammation. The o-phenol substitution at position 2 of oxadiazole ring in OSD may be responsible for its better in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The ability of the compounds to inhibit LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediator release suggests an anti-inflammatory mechanism targeting LPS-TLR4-NF-κB signalling pathway, which needs to be explored in detail. The disparate efficacy in vitro and in vivo also requires in-depth evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of these novel oxadiazoles.

  8. Urological complications after 134 pediatric kidney transplants: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F; Branco, F; Cavadas, V; Ribeiro, S; Osório, L; Rocha, A; Ramos, M; Martins, L; Castro-Henriques, A; Mota, C; Reis, A; Fraga, A

    2013-04-01

    The incidence of surgical complications after kidney transplantation has been reported to range from 1% to 33%. The aim of this work was to report surgical urological complications among our cohort of 134 pediatric kidney transplantations. Epidemiological and clinical data of all patients younger than 18 years transplanted between January 1984 and May 2012 were collected from our prospective database. Urologic complications and management are reported herein. One hundred twenty-four patients, including 44% females underwent 134 renal transplants. Median age at the time of the surgery was 13 years. Mean time of end-stage renal disease was 25 months. We identified 10 subjects (7.5%) with urological complications: 5 ureterovesical stenoses, 2 lymphoceles, and 3 lower ureteral fistulas. All of the renal allografts were obtained from cadaveric donors. Mean age of these patients at the time of transplantation was 13 years. Mean cold ischemia time was 1613 minutes. All the patients required surgical management. All patients with ureterovesical stenoses underwent ureteral reimplantation using a Boari flap; those with lymphoceles underwent open marsupialization; 2 with ureteral fistulas underwent reimplantation of the ureter, and the other patient's case required placement of a nephrostomy tube and an antegrade ureteral catheter. All patients were treated successfully. Mean follow-up time of cases with urological complications was 9.5 years. Currently, 60% has nonfunctioning allografts; the mean current glomerular filtration rate of the functioning renal allografts is 55 mL/min. Despite requiring surgical management, all patients were treated successfully. Prompt identification and treatment of any complication are critical for graft and patient survival.

  9. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Pyrrole Hetarylazoles Containing Benzimidazole/Pyrazolone/1,3,4-Oxadiazole Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochona, Bereket; Jackson, Timothy; McCauley, DeCoria; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Redda, Kinfe K

    2016-11-01

    Azomethine linked pyrrole bishetarylazoles containing benzimidazole/pyrazolone/1,3,4-oxadiazole were synthesized in satisfactory yields. Their structures were confirmed by IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and elemental analysis. Evaluation for the cytotoxic activities In vitro against a panel of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-AB-231, BT-474 and Ishikawa cells) revealed that the pyrrole-benzimidazole hybrids are more potent than the pyrazolone and 1,3,4-oxadiazole hybrids in all cell lines. Compound (9) displayed promising cytotoxicity against BT-474 cell line with IC50 values, 7.7 µM.

  10. A novel series of 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles as potential anticonvulsant agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harish Rajak; Chinmay K. Behera; Rajesh S. Pawar; Pradeep K. Singour; Murli Dhar Kharya

    2010-01-01

    In pursuit for better antiepileptic drug and the importance of semicarbazones and 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles as anticonvulsant pharmacophore, a series of novel N-({5-[(6-methyl-1-benzofuran-3-yl)methyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl}carba-mothioyl)-2/3/4-substitutedbenzamide were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity. The findings of the present studies confirmed that the pharmacophore model with four binding sites is crucial for anticonvuisant activity. Structure-activity relationships among synthesized compounds were also established.

  11. Heat and mass transfer characteristics of absorption of R134a into DMAC in a horizontal tube absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, L.; Maiya, M. P.; Tiwari, S.; Wohlfeil, A.; Ziegler, F.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a horizontal tube absorber for the mixture R134a/DMAC in terms of experimentally gained heat and mass transfer coefficients are presented. The heat transfer coefficient is mainly dependent on the solution’s mass flow rate. The mass transfer coefficient is strongly related to the subcooling of the solution. The data are compared to experimental absorption characteristics of water into aqueous lithium bromide in an absorption chiller. The mass transfer coefficients are of similar size whereas the heat transfer coefficients are about one order of magnitude smaller for R134a-DMAC.

  12. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Martínez, C A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Ruiz-Ruiz, E; Maya-Treviño, L; Guzmán-Mar, J L

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75°C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28-2.30μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH7 stored at 75°C for a period of 5days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples.

  13. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail: jorge.guzmanmr@uanl.edu.mx

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  14. Experimental Research on the Mineral Processing Technology for Treating an Antimony Ore in Shangnan,Shanxi%陕西商南某锑矿选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙阳; 王红梅; 李素玮; 王建斌

    2009-01-01

    根据矿石性质进行了锑硫分离回收有价元素锑的选矿试验研究.结果表明:采用糊精抑制黄铁矿,可达到锑硫分离的目的;采用混合型捕收剂,既提高了锑精矿的品位(51.76%),又保证了锑精矿的回收率(76.08%).%According to the ore properties,an experimental research on mineral processing technology for separating antimony from sulfur and recovering valuable elements was performed. The results showed that by using dextrin as the depressant of pyrite,the purpose of separating antimony from sulfur can be satisfactorily reached. When a combined collector is adopted,this kind of reagent can not only increase the grade of antimony concentrate(51.76%),but also ensure higher recovery of antimony concentrate(76.08%).

  15. Visual colorimetry for trace antimony(V) by ion-pair solid-phase extraction with bis[2-(5-chloro-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenolato]cobalt(III) on a PTFE type membrane filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Yuki; Mori, Takehito; Uehara, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Yuta; Endo, Masatoshi; Shida, Junichi

    2008-02-01

    A new visual colorimetry for trace antimony(V) based on ion-pair solid-phase extraction to a PTFE-type membrane filter with bis[2-(5-chloro-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenolato]cobalt(III) ion ([Co(5-Cl-PADAP)(2)](+)) has been developed. Experiments showed that hexachloroantimonate(V) ion (SbCl(6)(-)) was adsorbed with [Co(5-Cl-PADAP)(2)](+) to the front surface of the PTFE filter. The adsorption of antimony(V) ion was promoted by the addition of lithium chloride as a source of chloride ion. The excess reagent of [Co(5-Cl-PADAP)(2)](+) was eluted by rinsing with a 10 wt% methanol aqueous solution. In this case, the slow rate of the hydrolysis reaction of SbCl(6)(-) and the difference of the hydrophobicity of the ion pairs were important for adsorption and separation with a PTFE-type membrane filter. The antimony(V) concentration was determined through a visual comparison with a standard series. The visual detection limit was 0.10 microg. The calibration curve assessed with the reflection spectrometric responses at 580 nm was linear in the concentration range of 0.10 - 1.2 microg (r = 0.996). The proposed method has been applied to the determination of sub-microgram levels of antimony(V) ion in water samples.

  16. Arsenic and Antimony Removal from Drinking Water by Point-of-Entry Reverse Osmosis Coupled with Dual Plumbing Distribution - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Carmel Elementary School in Carmel, ME -Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed for and the results obtained from the arsenic and antimony removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Carmel Elementary School (CES) in Carmel, ME. An innovative approach of employing point of entry (POE) reverse osmo...

  17. Condensation heat transfer of r134a for single tubes and tube bundles using standard and high performance finned tubes; Kondensatseitiger Waermeuebergang am Einzelrohr und im Rohrbuendel beim Einsatz von Standard- und Hochleistungsrippenrohren mit R134a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred; Froeba, Andreas Paul [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Gotterbarm, Achim; El Hajal, Jean; Beutler, Andreas [Wieland-Werke AG, Ulm (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    This work aims at the optimization of the heat transfer of refrigerant R134a on finned tubes in shell-and-tube condensers. The coating and optimization of the fin structure should increase the drainage of the condensate in the space between the fins and therefore the condensation heat transfer on single tubes and tube bundles. (orig.)

  18. 锡、锑对铅及铅合金中铜元素检测的干扰探究%Detection of Copper Element in Lead and Lead Alloy, the Inquiry of the Interference about Tin,Antimony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常守森

    2016-01-01

    本文对国家标准(GB/T 74.4———2000)进行了研究。对含高锑、高锡、高锑锡的铅合金中铜含量的测定进行了重点探究。在样品溶解,试样处理以及测定过程三方面加以探究,获得了满意结果。采取先加入助溶络合剂(酒石酸、柠檬酸、Na2EDTA)帮助溶解样品并防止锑、锡水解,然后再分别除去助溶络合剂以及锡、锑等元素的干扰,从而达到准确测定的目的。测定范围:0.00050%~0.60%。%The national standard (GB/T74 .4-2000)was studied . The determination of copper in lead and lead alloy , the influence of high antimony , high tin or high antimony and tin was mainly discussed . Three aspects were explored :dissolve process , operation process and determination process of sample . Satisfac‐tory results had already obtained . Adding hydrotropy complexing agent ( tartaric acid , citric acid , Na2 EDTA) into the sample at first for dissolve the sample and preventing the hydrolysis of antimony or tin , and then to remove hydrotropy complexing agent , the elements such as tin and antimony . It can elim‐inate the influence of tartaric acid , citric acid , Na2 EDTA and the elements such as tin and antimony , thus achieve the purpose of accurate determination . Measuring range is 0 .00050% ~ 0 .60% .

  19. 采用碱性加压氧化浸出从高铋铅阳极泥中脱除砷锑%Arsenic and antimony removal from bismuth-rich lead anode slime by alkaline pressure oxidation leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阔; 徐瑞东; 何世伟; 陈汉森; 朱云; 华宏全; 舒波

    2015-01-01

    在碱性溶液中釆用加压氧化浸出对高铋铅阳极泥进行脱除砷锑的研究。考察氧化剂用量、氢氧化钠浓度、液固比、碱浸温度及反应时间对铅阳极泥脱砷、锑效果的影响,优选得到较佳的工艺条件,砷、锑的浸出率分别达到95%和80%以上。碱浸液冷却过滤结晶砷酸钠和锑酸铅后,采用过氧化氢进行沉锑处理,沉锑后的溶液再补加定量的氢氧化钠后能够返回浸出工艺,实现碱浸液的循环利用,并保证砷、锑的有效脱除。%The arsenic and antimony were removed from bismuth-rich lead anode slime by alkaline pressure oxidation leaching. The effects of factors including oxidant dosage, NaOH concentration, ratio of liquid to solid, leaching temperature and leaching time on the arsenic and antimony removal were investigated, and the optimal process conditions were determined by experiments. The results show that the leaching rate of arsenic and antimony can reach over 95% and 80%, respectively. The removal of antimony can be realized by adding hydrogen peroxide after the removal of crystal sodium arsenate and lead antimonate by cooling and filtration. The alkaline leaching solution is returned to the leaching process after adding quantitative sodium hydroxide, which achieves the recycling of alkaline solution and the effective separation of arsenic and antimony from other metals.

  20. Separation of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs from {sup 125}I solution for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Ramu; Dash, Ashutosh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Isotope Production and Applications Div.; Banerjee, Dayamoy [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Process Development Div.

    2015-06-01

    While neutron irradiation of natural Xe gas followed by wet chemical dissolution of activation products constitutes a successful paradigm for the small scale production {sup 125}I, the concomitant production of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs emerged as the primary impediment which necessitates purification of {sup 125}I solution. This paper describes an ion-exchange chromatographic technique using Resorcinol Formaldehyde (RF) resin to purify {sup 125}I solution from {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs impurities. A thorough investigation of the adsorption parameters of RF resin was carried out to arrive at the experimental conditions resulting optimum retention of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs impurities. Based on the experimental findings, an optimized separation procedure was developed in which the neutron irradiated dissolved products at pH ∝ 13 was passed through a chromatography column containing RF resin where in {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs impurities gets adsorbed leaving behind {sup 125}I to appear in the effluent. The overall recovery of {sup 125}I was >90% with acceptable purity amenable for clinical applications.